WorldWideScience

Sample records for technology plasma sources

  1. Plasma ion sources and ion beam technology in microfabrications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Lili

    2007-01-01

    For over decades, focused ion beam (FIB) has been playing a very important role in microscale technology and research, among which, semiconductor microfabrication is one of its biggest application area. As the dimensions of IC devices are scaled down, it has shown the need for new ion beam tools and new approaches to the fabrication of small-scale devices. In the meanwhile, nanotechnology has also deeply involved in material science research and bioresearch in recent years. The conventional FIB systems which utilize liquid gallium ion sources to achieve nanometer scale resolution can no longer meet the various requirements raised from such a wide application area such as low contamination, high throughput and so on. The drive towards controlling materials properties at nanometer length scales relies on the availability of efficient tools. In this thesis, three novel ion beam tools have been developed and investigated as the alternatives for the conventional FIB systems in some particular applications. An integrated focused ion beam (FIB) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) system has been developed for direct doping or surface modification. This new instrument employs a mini-RF driven plasma source to generate focused ion beam with various ion species, a FEI two-lens electron (2LE) column for SEM imaging, and a five-axis manipulator system for sample positioning. An all-electrostatic two-lens column has been designed to focus the ion beam extracted from the source. Based on the Munro ion optics simulation, beam spot sizes as small as 100 nm can be achieved at beam energies between 5 to 35 keV if a 5 (micro)m-diameter extraction aperture is used. Smaller beam spot sizes can be obtained with smaller apertures at sacrifice of some beam current. The FEI 2LE column, which utilizes Schottky emission, electrostatic focusing optics, and stacked-disk column construction, can provide high-resolution (as small as 20 nm) imaging capability, with fairly long working distance

  2. Innovative ion sources for accelerators: the benefits of the plasma technology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gammino, S.; Ciavola, G.; Celona, L.; Torrisi, L.; Ando, L.; Presti, M.; Láska, Leoš; Krása, Josef; Wolowski, J.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 54, Suppl. C (2004), s. C883-C888 ISSN 0011-4626. [Symposium on Plasma Physics and Technology /21./. Praha, 14.06.2004-17.06.2004] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1010405 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010921 Keywords : plasma sources * ion sources * proton sources * ECR Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.292, year: 2004

  3. Electron cyclotron resonance plasmas and electron cyclotron resonance ion sources: Physics and technology (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, A.; Hitz, D.; Melin, G.; Serebrennikov, K.

    2004-01-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources are scientific instruments particularly useful for physics: they are extensively used in atomic, nuclear, and high energy physics, for the production of multicharged beams. Moreover, these sources are also of fundamental interest for plasma physics, because of the very particular properties of the ECR plasma. This article describes the state of the art on the physics of the ECR plasma related to multiply charged ion sources. In Sec. I, we describe the general aspects of ECR ion sources. Physics related to the electrons is presented in Sec. II: we discuss there the problems of heating and confinement. In Sec. III, the problem of ion production and confinement is presented. A numerical code is presented, and some particular and important effects, specific to ECR ion sources, are shown in Sec. IV. Eventually, in Sec. V, technological aspects of ECR are presented and different types of sources are shown

  4. Plasma technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drouet, M.G.

    1984-03-01

    IREQ was contracted by the Canadian Electrical Association to review plasma technology and assess the potential for application of this technology in Canada. A team of experts in the various aspects of this technology was assembled and each team member was asked to contribute to this report on the applications of plasma pertinent to his or her particular field of expertise. The following areas were examined in detail: iron, steel and strategic-metals production; surface treatment by spraying; welding and cutting; chemical processing; drying; and low-temperature treatment. A large market for the penetration of electricity has been identified. To build up confidence in the technology, support should be provided for selected R and D projects, plasma torch demonstrations at full power, and large-scale plasma process testing

  5. Elements of plasma technology

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Chiow San

    2016-01-01

    This book presents some fundamental aspects of plasma technology that are important for beginners interested to start research in the area of plasma technology . These include the properties of plasma, methods of plasma generation and basic plasma diagnostic techniques. It also discusses several low cost plasma devices, including pulsed plasma sources such as plasma focus, pulsed capillary discharge, vacuum spark and exploding wire; as well as low temperature plasmas such as glow discharge and dielectric barrier discharge which the authors believe may have potential applications in industry. The treatments are experimental rather than theoretical, although some theoretical background is provided where appropriate. The principles of operation of these devices are also reviewed and discussed.

  6. Technological plasma source equipped with combined system of vacuum-arc discharge initiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sysoev, Yu.O.

    2013-01-01

    The construction and the operation principle of erosion plasma source with a three-stage system of vacuum-arc discharge excitation is described. As first two step was used the modified contactless start system with plasma injector, which was widely used in standard plasma sources of the ''Bulat'' systems. The operation principle of the third stage was based on the transition of glow discharge to arc discharge. Coordinated operation of three stages during various stages of coating deposition provided significant increasing of service life and reliability of the system of vacuum-arc discharge initiation and extended the functionality of the plasma source

  7. Plasma technology directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, P.P.; Dybwad, G.L.

    1995-01-01

    The Plasma Technology Directory has two main goals: (1) promote, coordinate, and share plasma technology experience and equipment within the Department of Energy; and (2) facilitate technology transfer to the commercial sector where appropriate. Personnel are averaged first by Laboratory and next by technology area. The technology areas are accelerators, cleaning and etching deposition, diagnostics, and modeling

  8. Study of the feasibility of distributed cathodic arc as a plasma source for development of the technology for plasma separation of SNF and radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amirov, R. Kh.; Vorona, N. A.; Gavrikov, A. V.; Liziakin, G. D.; Polistchook, V. P.; Samoylov, I. S.; Smirnov, V. P.; Usmanov, R. A., E-mail: ravus46@yandex.ru; Yartsev, I. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    One of the key problems in the development of plasma separation technology is designing a plasma source which uses condensed spent nuclear fuel (SNF) or nuclear wastes as a raw material. This paper covers the experimental study of the evaporation and ionization of model materials (gadolinium, niobium oxide, and titanium oxide). For these purposes, a vacuum arc with a heated cathode on the studied material was initiated and its parameters in different regimes were studied. During the experiment, the cathode temperature, arc current, arc voltage, and plasma radiation spectra were measured, and also probe measurements were carried out. It was found that the increase in the cathode heating power leads to the decrease in the arc voltage (to 3 V). This fact makes it possible to reduce the electron energy and achieve singly ionized plasma with a high degree of ionization to fulfill one of the requirements for plasma separation of SNF. This finding is supported by the analysis of the plasma radiation spectrum and the results of the probe diagnostics.

  9. Survey of high-voltage pulse technology suitable for large-scale plasma source ion implantation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reass, W.A.

    1994-01-01

    Many new plasma processes ideas are finding their way from the research lab to the manufacturing plant floor. These require high voltage (HV) pulse power equipment, which must be optimized for application, system efficiency, and reliability. Although no single HV pulse technology is suitable for all plasma processes, various classes of high voltage pulsers may offer a greater versatility and economy to the manufacturer. Technology developed for existing radar and particle accelerator modulator power systems can be utilized to develop a modern large scale plasma source ion implantation (PSII) system. The HV pulse networks can be broadly defined by two classes of systems, those that generate the voltage directly, and those that use some type of pulse forming network and step-up transformer. This article will examine these HV pulse technologies and discuss their applicability to the specific PSII process. Typical systems that will be reviewed will include high power solid state, hard tube systems such as crossed-field ''hollow beam'' switch tubes and planar tetrodes, and ''soft'' tube systems with crossatrons and thyratrons. Results will be tabulated and suggestions provided for a particular PSII process

  10. Pulsed Plasma Electron Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasik, Yakov

    2008-11-01

    Pulsed (˜10-7 s) electron beams with high current density (>10^2 A/cm^2) are generated in diodes with electric field of E > 10^6 V/cm. The source of electrons in these diodes is explosive emission plasma, which limits pulse duration; in the case E Saveliev, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 093308 (2005). Ya. E. Krasik, A. Dunaevsky, and J. Felsteiner, Phys. Plasmas 8, 2466 (2001). D. Yarmolich, V. Vekselman, V. Tz. Gurovich, and Ya. E. Krasik, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 075004 (2008). J. Z. Gleizer, Y. Hadas and Ya. E. Krasik, Europhysics Lett. 82, 55001 (2008).

  11. Plasma source ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, J.R.; Forest, C.

    1986-01-01

    The authors' technique allows the ion implantation to be performed directly within the ion source at higher currents without ion beam extraction and transport. The potential benefits include greatly increased production rates (factors of 10-1000) and the ability to implant non-planar targets without rastering or shadowing. The technique eliminates the ion extractor grid set, beam raster equipment, drift space and target manipulator equipment. The target to be implanted is placed directly within the plasma source and is biased to a large negative potential so that plasma ions gain energy as they accelerate through the potential drop across the sheath that forms at the plasma boundary. Because the sheath surrounds the target on all sides, all surfaces of the target are implanted without the necessity to raster the beam or to rotate the target. The authors have succeeded in implanting nitrogen ions in a silicon target to the depths and concentrations required for surface treatment of materials like stainless steel and titanium alloys. They have performed ESCA measurements of the penetration depth profile of a silicon target that was biased to 30 kV in a nitrogen discharge plasma. Nitrogen ions were implanted to a depth of 700A at a peak concentration of 30% atomic. The measured profile is quite similar to a previously obtained profile in titanium targets with conventional techniques

  12. Plasma skin regeneration technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogle, M A

    2006-09-01

    Plasma skin regeneration (PSR) technology uses energy delivered from plasma rather than light or radiofrequency. Plasma is the fourth state of matter in which electrons are stripped from atoms to form an ionized gas. The plasma is emitted in a millisecond pulse to deliver energy to target tissue upon contact without reliance on skin chromophores. The technology can be used at varying energies for different depths of effect, from superficial epidermal sloughing to deeper dermal heating. With the Portrait PSR device (Rhytec, Inc.) there are three treatment guidelines termed PSR1, PSR2, and PSR3. The PSR1 protocol uses a series of low-energy treatments (1.0,1.2 Joules) spaced 3 weeks apart. The PSR2 protocol uses one high-energy pass (3.0, 4.0 Joules) performed in a single treatment, and the PSR3 protocol uses two high-energy passes (3.0 4.0 Joules) performed in a single treatment. All protocols improve fine lines, textural irregularities, and dyspigmentation; however, skin tightening is probably more pronounced with the high-energy treatments.

  13. Ion source with plasma cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yabe, E.

    1987-01-01

    A long lifetime ion source with plasma cathode has been developed for use in ion implantation. In this ion source, a plasma of a nonreactive working gas serves as a cathode in place of a thermionic tungsten filament used in the Freeman ion source. In an applied magnetic field, the plasma is convergent, i.e., filamentlike; in zero magnetic field, it turns divergent and spraylike. In the latter case, the plasma exhibits a remarkable ability when the working gas has an ionization potential larger than the feed gas. By any combination of a working gas of either argon or neon and a feed gas of AsF 5 or PF 5 , the lifetime of this ion source was found to be more than 90 h with an extraction voltage of 40 kV and the corresponding ion current density 20 mA/cm 2 . Mass spectrometry results show that this ion source has an ability of generating a considerable amount of As + and P + ions from AsF 5 and PF 5 , and hence will be useful for realizing a fully cryopumped ion implanter system. This ion source is also eminently suitable for use in oxygen ion production

  14. 21 CFR 640.60 - Source Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Source Plasma. 640.60 Section 640.60 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.60 Source Plasma. The proper name of the product shall be Source Plasma. The product is defined as the fluid portion of human blood...

  15. Application and research of special waste plasma disposal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan Wei

    2007-12-01

    The basic concept of plasma and the principle of waste hot plasma disposal technology are simply introduced. Several sides of application and research of solid waste plasma disposal technology are sumed up. Compared to the common technology, the advantages of waste hot plasma disposal technology manifest further. It becomes one of the most prospective and the most attended high tech disposal technology in particular kind of waste disposal field. The article also simply introduces some experiment results in Southwest Institute of Physics and some work on the side of importation, absorption, digestion, development of foreign plasma torch technology and researching new power sources for plasma torch. (authors)

  16. Information and consulting center in plasma technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vizireanu, S.; Aldea, E.; Mitu, B.; Dinescu, G.

    2001-01-01

    instrumentation and equipment category the most important types of devices used in plasma technologies are described, as for instance, plasma sources (RF, DC, pulsed), vacuum pumps and gauges, methods and programs for computer monitoring and control of plasma systems. In the plasma diagnostics category the most used techniques of spectral and probe investigations are presented. They are not only described, but examples and programs are given, which can be used for spectra simulation (atomic and molecular), for obtaining the rotational and vibrational temperatures, for determination of the electron temperatures and densities in plasma. The main plasma technologies described in the web page are the surface modification by cold plasma, surface cleaning and ashing, plasma polymerization, plasma etching, ion plating, deposition of thin films by sputtering and evaporation, etc. Among them, the technologies developed at the National Institute of Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics are detailed: deposition of thin films by thermionic vacuum arc; deposition of thin films by sputtering; deposition of carbon based coatings by CVD RF expanding plasma; hard coatings and wear resistant surfaces by plasma nitridation and carburization. The centre web page is under completion with a discussion list allowing easy exchange of ideas, questions and answers. An active offer and service request, accomplished via electronic mail, will be set up. The Centre facilitates a permanent contact between suppliers and customers, which establishes the basis to develop as intermediary of services and products in the plasma technology field. (authors)

  17. Microwave plasma emerging technologies for chemical processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de la Fuente, Javier F.; Kiss, Anton A.; Radoiu, Marilena T.; Stefanidis, Georgios D.

    2017-01-01

    Microwave plasma (MWP) technology is currently being used in application fields such as semiconductor and material processing, diamond film deposition and waste remediation. Specific advantages of the technology include the enablement of a high energy density source and a highly reactive medium,

  18. Burning plasmas in ITER for energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Nobuyuki

    2002-01-01

    Fusion research and development has two aspects. One is an academic research on science and technology, i.e., discovery and understanding of unexpected phenomena and, development of innovative technology, respectively. The other is energy source development to realize fusion as a viable energy future. Fusion research has been made remarkable progress in the past several decades, and ITER will soon realize burning plasma that is essential for both academic research and energy development. With ITER, scientific research on unknown phenomena such as self-organization of the plasma in burning state will become possible and it contributes to create a variety of academic outcome. Fusion researchers will have a responsibility to generate actual energy, and electricity generation immediately after the success of burning plasma control experiment in ITER is the next important step that has to be discussed seriously. (author)

  19. Burning plasmas in ITER for energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Nobuyuki [Atomic Energy Commission, Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-10-01

    Fusion research and development has two aspects. One is an academic research on science and technology, i.e., discovery and understanding of unexpected phenomena and, development of innovative technology, respectively. The other is energy source development to realize fusion as a viable energy future. Fusion research has been made remarkable progress in the past several decades, and ITER will soon realize burning plasma that is essential for both academic research and energy development. With ITER, scientific research on unknown phenomena such as self-organization of the plasma in burning state will become possible and it contributes to create a variety of academic outcome. Fusion researchers will have a responsibility to generate actual energy, and electricity generation immediately after the success of burning plasma control experiment in ITER is the next important step that has to be discussed seriously. (author)

  20. Plasma technology for waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    Improved environmental cleanup technology is needed to meet demanding goals for remediation and treatment of future waste streams. Plasma technology has unique features which could provide advantages of reduced secondary waste, lower cost, and onsite treatment for a wide variety of applications. Plasma technology can provide highly controllable processing without the need for combustion heating. It can be used to provide high temperature processing (∼10,000 degrees C). Plasma technology can also be employed for low temperature processing (down to room temperature range) through selective plasma chemistry. A graphite electrode arc plasma furnace at MIT has been used to investigate high temperature processing of simulated solid waste for Department of Energy environmental cleanup applications. Stable, non-leachable glass has been produced. To ensure reliable operation and to meet environmental objectives, new process diagnostics have been developed to measure furnace temperature and to determine metals emissions in the gaseous effluent. Selective plasma destruction of dilute concentrations of hazardous compounds in gaseous waste streams has been investigated using electron beam generated plasmas. Selective destruction makes it possible to treat the gas steam at relatively low temperatures in the 30-300 degrees C range. On-line infrared measurements have been used in feedback operation to maximize efficiency and ensure desired performance. Plasma technology and associated process diagnostics will be used in future studies of a wide range of waste streams

  1. Plasma technology in metallurgical processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haile, O.

    1995-12-31

    This literature work is mainly focusing on the mechanisms of plasma technology and telling about metallurgical processing, particularly iron and steelmaking as well as the advantage of the unique properties of plasma. The main advantages of plasma technology in metallurgical operations is to direct utilization of naturally available raw materials and fuels without costly upgrading andlor beneficiation, improved environmental impact, improve process control, significant amplification of reactor and process equipment utilization and increased efficiency of raw materials, energy and man power. This literature survey is based on the publication `plasma technology in metallurgical processing` presents a comprehensive account of the physical, electrical, and mechanical aspects of plasma production and practical processing. The applications of plasma technology in metallurgical processing are covered in depth with special emphasis on developments in promising early stages. Plasma technology of today is mature in the metallurgical process applications. A few dramatic improvements are expected in the near future this giving an impetus to the technologists for the long range planning. (18 refs.) (author)

  2. A new large-scale plasma source with plasma cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, K.; Hirokawa, K.; Suzuki, H.; Satake, T.

    1996-01-01

    A new large-scale plasma source (200 mm diameter) with a plasma cathode has been investigated. The plasma has a good spatial uniformity, operates at low electron temperature, and is highly ionized under relatively low gas pressure of about 10 -4 Torr. The plasma source consists of a plasma chamber and a plasma cathode generator. The plasma chamber has an anode which is 200 mm in diameter, 150 mm in length, is made of 304 stainless steel, and acts as a plasma expansion cup. A filament-cathode-like plasma ''plasma cathode'' is placed on the central axis of this source. To improve the plasma spatial uniformity in the plasma chamber, a disk-shaped, floating electrode is placed between the plasma chamber and the plasma cathode. The 200 mm diameter plasma is measure by using Langmuir probes. As a result, the discharge voltage is relatively low (30-120 V), the plasma space potential is almost equal to the discharge voltage and can be easily controlled, the electron temperature is several electron volts, the plasma density is about 10 10 cm -3 , and the plasma density is about 10% variance in over a 100 mm diameter. (Author)

  3. Simulating Sources of Superstorm Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fok, Mei-Ching

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the contributions to magnetospheric pressure (ring current) of the solar wind, polar wind, auroral wind, and plasmaspheric wind, with the surprising result that the main phase pressure is dominated by plasmaspheric protons. We used global simulation fields from the LFM single fluid ideal MHD model. We embedded the Comprehensive Ring Current Model within it, driven by the LFM transpolar potential, and supplied with plasmas at its boundary including solar wind protons, polar wind protons, auroral wind O+, and plasmaspheric protons. We included auroral outflows and acceleration driven by the LFM ionospheric boundary condition, including parallel ion acceleration driven by upward currents. Our plasmasphere model runs within the CRCM and is driven by it. Ionospheric sources were treated using our Global Ion Kinetics code based on full equations of motion. This treatment neglects inertial loading and pressure exerted by the ionospheric plasmas, and will be superceded by multifluid simulations that include those effects. However, these simulations provide new insights into the respective role of ionospheric sources in storm-time magnetospheric dynamics.

  4. Overview of plasma technology used in medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Thomas P.; Stalder, Kenneth R.; Woloszko, Jean

    2013-02-01

    Plasma Medicine is a growing field that is having an impact in several important areas in therapeutic patient care, combining plasma physics, biology, and clinical medicine. Historically, plasmas in medicine were used in electrosurgery for cautery and non-contact hemostasis. Presently, non-thermal plasmas have attained widespread use in medicine due to their effectiveness and compatibility with biological systems. The paper will give a general overview of how low temperature, non-equilibrium, gas plasmas operate, both from physics and biology perspectives. Plasma is commonly described as the fourth state of matter and is typically comprised of charged species, active molecules and atoms, as well as a source of UV and photons. The most active areas of plasma technology applications are in wound treatment; tissue regeneration; inactivation of pathogens, including biofilms; treating skin diseases; and sterilization. There are several means of generating plasmas for use in medical applications, including plasma jets, dielectric barrier discharges, capacitively or inductively coupled discharges, or microplasmas. These systems overcome the former constraints of high vacuum, high power requirements and bulky systems, into systems that use room air and other gases and liquids at low temperature, low power, and hand-held operation at atmospheric pressure. Systems will be discussed using a variety of energy sources: pulsed DC, AC, microwave and radiofrequency, as well as the range of frequency, pulse duration, and gas combinations in an air environment. The ionic clouds and reactive species will be covered in terms of effects on biological systems. Lastly, several commercial products will be overviewed in light of the technology utilized, health care problems being solved, and clinical trial results.

  5. Capillary plasma jet: A low volume plasma source for life science applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topala, I., E-mail: ionut.topala@uaic.ro, E-mail: tmnagat@ipc.shizuoka.ac.jp [Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Faculty of Physics, Iasi Plasma Advanced Research Center (IPARC), Bd. Carol I No. 11, Iasi 700506 (Romania); Nagatsu, M., E-mail: ionut.topala@uaic.ro, E-mail: tmnagat@ipc.shizuoka.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan)

    2015-02-02

    In this letter, we present results from multispectroscopic analysis of protein films, after exposure to a peculiar plasma source, i.e., the capillary plasma jet. This plasma source is able to generate very small pulsed plasma volumes, in kilohertz range, with characteristic dimensions smaller than 1 mm. This leads to specific microscale generation and transport of all plasma species. Plasma diagnosis was realized using general electrical and optical methods. Depending on power level and exposure duration, this miniature plasma jet can induce controllable modifications to soft matter targets. Detailed discussions on protein film oxidation and chemical etching are supported by results from absorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and microscopy techniques. Further exploitation of principles presented here may consolidate research interests involving plasmas in biotechnologies and plasma medicine, especially in patterning technologies, modified biomolecule arrays, and local chemical functionalization.

  6. Capillary plasma jet: A low volume plasma source for life science applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topala, I.; Nagatsu, M.

    2015-02-01

    In this letter, we present results from multispectroscopic analysis of protein films, after exposure to a peculiar plasma source, i.e., the capillary plasma jet. This plasma source is able to generate very small pulsed plasma volumes, in kilohertz range, with characteristic dimensions smaller than 1 mm. This leads to specific microscale generation and transport of all plasma species. Plasma diagnosis was realized using general electrical and optical methods. Depending on power level and exposure duration, this miniature plasma jet can induce controllable modifications to soft matter targets. Detailed discussions on protein film oxidation and chemical etching are supported by results from absorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and microscopy techniques. Further exploitation of principles presented here may consolidate research interests involving plasmas in biotechnologies and plasma medicine, especially in patterning technologies, modified biomolecule arrays, and local chemical functionalization.

  7. Ion acceleration in the plasma source sheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birdsall, C.K.

    1986-01-01

    This note is a calculation of the potential drop for a planar plasma source, across the source sheath, into a uniform plasma region defined by vector E = 0 and/or perhaps ∂ 2 PHI/∂ x 2 = 0. The calculation complements that of Bohm who obtained the potential drop at the other end of a plasma, at a planar collector sheath. The result is a relation between the source ion flux and the source sheath potential drop and the accompanying ion acceleration. This planar source sheath ion acceleration mechanism (or that from a distributed source) can provide the pre-collector-sheath ion acceleration as found necessary by Bohm. 3 refs

  8. Large area ion and plasma beam sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldorf, J. [IPT Ionen- und Plasmatech. GmbH, Kaiserslautern (Germany)

    1996-06-01

    In the past a number of ion beam sources utilizing different methods for plasma excitation have been developed. Nevertheless, a widespread use in industrial applications has not happened, since the sources were often not able to fulfill specific demands like: broad homogeneous ion beams, compatibility with reactive gases, low ion energies at high ion current densities or electrical neutrality of the beam. Our contribution wants to demonstrate technical capabilities of rf ion and plasma beam sources, which can overcome the above mentioned disadvantages. The physical principles and features of respective sources are presented. We report on effective low pressure plasma excitation by electron cyclotron wave resonance (ECWR) for the generation of dense homogeneous plasmas and the rf plasma beam extraction method for the generation of broad low energy plasma beams. Some applications like direct plasma beam deposition of a-C:H and ion beam assisted deposition of Al and Cu with tailored thin film properties are discussed. (orig.).

  9. Large area ion and plasma beam sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldorf, J.

    1996-01-01

    In the past a number of ion beam sources utilizing different methods for plasma excitation have been developed. Nevertheless, a widespread use in industrial applications has not happened, since the sources were often not able to fulfill specific demands like: broad homogeneous ion beams, compatibility with reactive gases, low ion energies at high ion current densities or electrical neutrality of the beam. Our contribution wants to demonstrate technical capabilities of rf ion and plasma beam sources, which can overcome the above mentioned disadvantages. The physical principles and features of respective sources are presented. We report on effective low pressure plasma excitation by electron cyclotron wave resonance (ECWR) for the generation of dense homogeneous plasmas and the rf plasma beam extraction method for the generation of broad low energy plasma beams. Some applications like direct plasma beam deposition of a-C:H and ion beam assisted deposition of Al and Cu with tailored thin film properties are discussed. (orig.)

  10. Low temperature plasma technology methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, Paul K

    2013-01-01

    Written by a team of pioneering scientists from around the world, Low Temperature Plasma Technology: Methods and Applications brings together recent technological advances and research in the rapidly growing field of low temperature plasmas. The book provides a comprehensive overview of related phenomena such as plasma bullets, plasma penetration into biofilms, discharge-mode transition of atmospheric pressure plasmas, and self-organization of microdischarges. It describes relevant technology and diagnostics, including nanosecond pulsed discharge, cavity ringdown spectroscopy, and laser-induce

  11. Plasma science and technology for emerging economies an AAAPT experience

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book highlights plasma science and technology-related research and development work at institutes and universities networked through Asian African Association for Plasma Training (AAAPT) which was established in 1988. The AAAPT, with 52 member institutes in 24 countries, promotes the initiation and intensification of plasma research and development through cooperation and technology sharing.   With 13 chapters on fusion-relevant, laboratory and industrial plasmas for wide range of applications and basic research and a chapter on AAAPT network, it demonstrates how, with collaborations, high-quality, industrially relevant academic and scientific research on fusion, industrial and laboratory plasmas and plasma diagnostics can be successfully pursued in small research labs.   These plasma sciences and technologies include pioneering breakthroughs and applications in (i) fusion relevant research in the quest for long-term, clean energy source development using high-temperature, high- density plasmas and (ii...

  12. Surface plasma source with saddle antenna radio frequency plasma generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudnikov, V; Johnson, R P; Murray, S; Pennisi, T; Piller, C; Santana, M; Stockli, M; Welton, R

    2012-02-01

    A prototype RF H(-) surface plasma source (SPS) with saddle (SA) RF antenna is developed which will provide better power efficiency for high pulsed and average current, higher brightness with longer lifetime and higher reliability. Several versions of new plasma generators with small AlN discharge chambers and different antennas and magnetic field configurations were tested in the plasma source test stand. A prototype SA SPS was installed in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) ion source test stand with a larger, normal-sized SNS AlN chamber that achieved unanalyzed peak currents of up to 67 mA with an apparent efficiency up to 1.6 mA∕kW. Control experiments with H(-) beam produced by SNS SPS with internal and external antennas were conducted. A new version of the RF triggering plasma gun has been designed. A saddle antenna SPS with water cooling is fabricated for high duty factor testing.

  13. Biomedical applications using low temperature plasma technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Xiujuan; Jiang Nan

    2006-01-01

    Low temperature plasma technology and biomedicine are two different subjects, but the combination of the two may play a critical role in modern science and technology. The 21 st century is believed to be a biotechnology century. Plasma technology is becoming a widely used platform for the fabrication of biomaterials and biomedical devices. In this paper some of the technologies used for material surface modification are briefly introduced. Some biomedical applications using plasma technology are described, followed by suggestions as to how a bridge between plasma technology and biomedicine can be built. A pulsed plasma technique that is used for surface functionalization is discussed in detail as an example of this kind of bridge or combination. Finally, it is pointed out that the combination of biomedical and plasma technology will be an important development for revolutionary 21st century technologies that requires different experts from different fields to work together. (authors)

  14. Simple microwave plasma source at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong H.; Hong, Yong C.; Kim, Hyoung S.; Uhm, Han S.

    2003-01-01

    We have developed a thermal plasma source operating without electrodes. One electrodeless torch is the microwave plasma-torch, which can produce plasmas in large quantities. We can generate plasma at an atmospheric pressure by marking use of the same magnetrons used as commercial microwave ovens. Most of the magnetrons are operated at the frequency of 2.45 GHz; the magnetron power microwave is about 1kW. Electromagnetic waves from the magnetrons propagate through a shorted waveguide. Plasma was generated under a resonant condition, by an auxiliary ignition system. The plasma is stabilized by vortex stabilization. Also, a high-power and high-efficiency microwave plasma-torch has been operated in air by combining two microwave plasma sources with 1kW, 2.45 GHz. They are arranged in series to generate a high-power plasma flame. The second torch adds all its power to the plasma flame of the first torch. Basically, electromagnetic waves in the waveguide were studied by a High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS) code and preliminary experiments were conducted

  15. Plasma sources for EUV lithography exposure tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banine, Vadim; Moors, Roel

    2004-01-01

    The source is an integral part of an extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) tool. Such a source, as well as the EUVL tool, has to fulfil extremely high demands both technical and cost oriented. The EUVL tool operates at a wavelength in the range 13-14 nm, which requires a major re-thinking of state-of-the-art lithography systems operating in the DUV range. The light production mechanism changes from conventional lamps and lasers to relatively high temperature emitting plasmas. The light transport, mainly refractive for DUV, should become reflective for EUV. The source specifications are derived from the customer requirements for the complete tool, which are: throughput, cost of ownership (CoO) and imaging quality. The EUVL system is considered as a follow up of the existing DUV based lithography technology and, while improving the feature resolution, it has to maintain high wafer throughput performance, which is driven by the overall CoO picture. This in turn puts quite high requirements on the collectable in-band power produced by an EUV source. Increased, due to improved feature resolution, critical dimension (CD) control requirements, together with reflective optics restrictions, necessitate pulse-to-pulse repeatability, spatial stability control and repetition rates, which are substantially better than those of current optical systems. All together the following aspects of the source specification will be addressed: the operating wavelength, the EUV power, the hot spot size, the collectable angle, the repetition rate, the pulse-to-pulse repeatability and the debris induced lifetime of components

  16. Technological challenges in thermal plasma production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramakrishnan, S.

    1995-01-01

    Thermal plasmas, generated by electric arc discharges, are used in a variety of industrial applications. The electric arc is a constricted electrical discharge with a high temperature in the range 6000-25,000 K. These characteristics are useful in plasma cutting, spraying, welding and specific areas of material processing. The thermal plasma technology is an enabling process technology and its status in the market depends upon its advantages over competing technologies. A few technological challenges to enhance the status of plasma technology are to improve the utilisation of the unique characteristics of the electric arc and to provide enhanced control of the process. In particular, new solutions are required for increasing the plasma-material interaction, controlling the electrode roots and controlling the thermal power generated by the arcing process. In this paper, the advantages of plasma technology, its constraints and future challenges for technology developments are highlighted. 36 refs., 14 figs

  17. Plasma x-ray radiation source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkov, N F; Kargin, V I; Ryaslov, E A; Pikar', A S

    1995-01-01

    This paper gives the results of studies on a plasma x-ray source, which enables one to obtain a 2.5-krad radiation dose per pulse over an area of 100 cm2 in the quantum energy range from 20 to 500 keV. Pulse duration is 100 ns. Spectral radiation distributions from a diode under various operation conditions of a plasma are obtained. A Marx generator served as an initial energy source of 120 kJ with a discharge time of T/4 = 10-6 s. A short electromagnetic pulse (10-7 s) was shaped using plasma erosion opening switches.

  18. On plasma ion beam formation in the Advanced Plasma Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harhausen, J; Foest, R; Hannemann, M; Ohl, A; Brinkmann, R P; Schröder, B

    2012-01-01

    The Advanced Plasma Source (APS) is employed for plasma ion-assisted deposition (PIAD) of optical coatings. The APS is a hot cathode dc glow discharge which emits a plasma ion beam to the deposition chamber at high vacuum (p ≲ 2 × 10 −4 mbar). It is established as an industrial tool but to date no detailed information is available on plasma parameters in the process chamber. As a consequence, the details of the generation of the plasma ion beam and the reasons for variations of the properties of the deposited films are barely understood. In this paper the results obtained from Langmuir probe and retarding field energy analyzer diagnostics operated in the plasma plume of the APS are presented, where the source was operated with argon. With increasing distance to the source exit the electron density (n e ) is found to drop by two orders of magnitude and the effective electron temperature (T e,eff ) drops by a factor of five. The parameters close to the source region read n e ≳ 10 11 cm −3 and T e,eff ≳ 10 eV. The electron distribution function exhibits a concave shape and can be described in the framework of the non-local approximation. It is revealed that an energetic ion population leaves the source region and a cold ion population in the plume is build up by charge exchange collisions with the background neutral gas. Based on the experimental data a scaling law for ion beam power is deduced, which links the control parameters of the source to the plasma parameters in the process chamber. (paper)

  19. Industrial ion source technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, H. R.; Robinson, R. S.

    1978-01-01

    An analytical model was developed to describe the development of a coned surface texture with ion bombardment and simultaneous deposition of an impurity. A mathematical model of sputter deposition rate from a beveled target was developed in conjuction with the texturing models to provide an important input to that model. The establishment of a general procedure that will allow the treatment of manay different sputtering configurations is outlined. Calculation of cross sections for energetic binary collisions was extened to Ar, Kr.. and Xe with total cross sections for viscosity and diffusion calculated for the interaction energy range from leV to 1000eV. Physical sputtering and reactive ion etching experiments provided experimental data on the operating limits of a broad beam ion source using CF4 as a working gas to produce reactive species in a sputtering beam. Magnetic clustering effects are observed when Al is seeded with Fe and sputtered with Ar(?) ions. Silicon was textured at a micron scale by using a substrate temperature of 600 C.

  20. Vacuum Technology for Ion Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiggiato, P

    2013-01-01

    The basic notions of vacuum technology for ion sources are presented, with emphasis on pressure profile calculation and choice of pumping technique. A Monte Carlo code (Molflow+) for the evaluation of conductances and the vacuum-electrical analogy for the calculation of time-dependent pressure variations are introduced. The specific case of the Linac4 H - source is reviewed. (author)

  1. Measuring the Plasma Density of a Ferroelectric Plasma Source in an Expanding Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunaevsky, A.; Fisch, N.J.

    2003-01-01

    The initial density and electron temperature at the surface of a ferroelectric plasma source were deduced from floating probe measurements in an expanding plasma. The method exploits negative charging of the floating probe capacitance by fast flows before the expanding plasma reaches the probe. The temporal profiles of the plasma density can be obtained from the voltage traces of the discharge of the charged probe capacitance by the ion current from the expanding plasma. The temporal profiles of the plasma density, at two different distances from the surface of the ferroelectric plasma source, could be further fitted by using the density profiles for the expanding plasma. This gives the initial values of the plasma density and electron temperature at the surface. The method could be useful for any pulsed discharge, which is accompanied by considerable electromagnetic noise, if the initial plasma parameters might be deduced from measurements in expanding plasma

  2. Plasma technology for treatment of waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohn, D [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Fusion Center

    1997-12-31

    Meeting goals for waste cleanup will require new technology with improved environmental attractiveness and reduced cost. Plasma technology appears promising because of the high degree of controllability; capability to process waste without the adverse effects of combustion; and a very wide temperature range of operation. At the Plasma Fusion Center at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, a range of plasma technologies are being investigated. `Hot` thermal plasmas produced by DC arc technology are being examined for treatment of solid waste. In conjunction with this activity, new diagnostics are being developed for monitoring arc furnace operating parameters and gaseous emissions. Electron-beam generated plasma technology is being investigated as a means of producing non-thermal `cold` plasmas for selective processing of dilute concentrations of gaseous waste. (author). 4 figs., 5 refs.

  3. Construction of a high beta plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naraghi, M.; Torabi-Fard, A.

    1976-02-01

    A high beta plasma source has been designed and constructed. This source will serve as a means of developing and exercising different diagnostic techniques as required for ALVAND I, linear theta pinch experiment. Also, it will serve to acquaint the technicians with some of the techniques and safety rules of high voltage and capacitor discharge experiments. The operating parameters of the theta pinch and Z-pinch preionization is presented and the program of diagnostic measurements on the high beta plasma source is discussed

  4. Consideration of beam plasma ion-source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, Fumimichi; Kusano, Norimasa; Ishida, Yoshihiro; Ishikawa, Junzo; Takagi, Toshinori

    1976-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental analyses and their comparison were made on the plasma generation and on the beam extraction for the beam plasma ion-source. The operational principle and the structure of the ion-source are explained in the first part. Considerations are given on the electron beam-plasma interaction and the resulting generation of high frequency or microwaves which in turn increases the plasma density. The flow of energy in this system is also explained in the second part. The relation between plasma density and the imaginary part of frequency is given by taking the magnetic flux density, the electron beam energy, and the electron beam current as parameters. The relations between the potential difference between collector and drift tube and the plasma density or the ion-current are also given. Considerations are also given to the change of the plasma density due to the change of the magnetic flux density at drift tube, the change of the electron beam energy, and the change of the electron beam current. The third part deals with the extraction characteristics of the ion beam. The structure of the multiple-aperture electrode and the relation between plasma density and the extracted ion current are explained. (Aoki, K.)

  5. Plasma processing: Technologies and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naddaf, M.; Saloum, S.

    2005-01-01

    This study aims to present the fundamentals of physics of plasmas, methods of generation, diagnostics, and applications for processing of materials. The first chapter defines plasma in general as well as its main parameters, the most important differential equations in plasma physics, and classifies the types of plasmas. the various methods and techniques to create and sustain plasma are presented in the second chapter. Chapter 3 focuses on plasma diagnostic methods and tools. While chapter 4 deals with applications of plasma processing such as; surface modification of materials, plasma ashing and etching, plasma cutting, and the environmental applications of plasma. Plasma polymerization and its various applications have been presented in more details in the last chapter. (Author)

  6. Department of Plasma Physics and Technology: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadowski, M.

    1998-01-01

    order to modernize experimental facilities the IONOTRON-SW device was equipped with new electrodes made of pure aluminum, which were used to perform expositions of samples made of different materials. In the field of new plasma-ion technologies a team from Dept. P-V and Dept. P-IX performed numerous experiments on the doping of aluminium plates with molybdenum ions and on the treatment of ceramic targets with pulsed streams of titanium-nitrogen or hydrogen plasmas. Results of those experiments are presented in another chapter prepared together with Dept. P-IX. A separate task, realized only by Dept. P-V, concerned the construction and laboratory tests of a high-current source of nitrogen ions. From other efforts of Dept. P-V, one should mention the design, assembling, and testing of a special plasma injector (ISEX), designed especially for active experiments in space. A substantial result was also the mastering of a new technological method for the deposition of Ti or TiN layers by the means of a modified plasma gun. The most important achievements of Dept. P-V can be formulated as follows: 1.Experimental confirmation of the polarization of X-rays from PF discharges (discovered in 1966) and the demonstration that there is a distinct correlation between this effect and the generation of pulsed electron beams. 2.Detailed elaboration of the calibration measurements performed for different nuclear track detectors (NTDs) exposed to protons, deuterons, helium-, nitrogen- and oxygen-ions (several papers), as well as the performance of new calibration measurements of NTDs exposed to fast (14.9 MeV) neutrons. 3.Design and construction of new HV-pulse generators as well as the elaboration of an extended documentation of systems for the simulation of electromagnetic interferences. 4.Investigation of new plasma-ion technologies applicable to material engineering

  7. Moderate pressure plasma source of nonthermal electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershman, S.; Raitses, Y.

    2018-06-01

    Plasma sources of electrons offer control of gas and surface chemistry without the need for complex vacuum systems. The plasma electron source presented here is based on a cold cathode glow discharge (GD) operating in a dc steady state mode in a moderate pressure range of 2–10 torr. Ion-induced secondary electron emission is the source of electrons accelerated to high energies in the cathode sheath potential. The source geometry is a key to the availability and the extraction of the nonthermal portion of the electron population. The source consists of a flat and a cylindrical electrode, 1 mm apart. Our estimates show that the length of the cathode sheath in the plasma source is commensurate (~0.5–1 mm) with the inter-electrode distance so the GD operates in an obstructed regime without a positive column. Estimations of the electron energy relaxation confirm the non-local nature of this GD, hence the nonthermal portion of the electron population is available for extraction outside of the source. The use of a cylindrical anode presents a simple and promising method of extracting the high energy portion of the electron population. Langmuir probe measurements and optical emission spectroscopy confirm the presence of electrons with energies ~15 eV outside of the source. These electrons become available for surface modification and radical production outside of the source. The extraction of the electrons of specific energies by varying the anode geometry opens exciting opportunities for future exploration.

  8. Tailoring of materials by atomic oxygen from ECR plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naddaf, Munzer; Bhoraskar, S.V.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: An intense source of oxygen finds important applications in many areas of science, technology and industry. It has been successfully used for surface activation and cleaning in the electronic, chemical and automotive industries. Atomic oxygen and interaction with materials have also a significant importance in space science and technology. This paper describes the detailed studies related to the surface modification and processing of different materials, which include metals and polymers by atomic oxygen produced in microwave assisted electron cyclotron resonance plasma. The energy distribution of ions was measured as a function of plasma parameters and density measurements were supplemented by catalytic probe using nickel and oxidation of silver surface

  9. Resonant power absorption in helicon plasma sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Guangye; Arefiev, Alexey V.; Bengtson, Roger D.; Breizman, Boris N.; Lee, Charles A.; Raja, Laxminarayan L.

    2006-01-01

    Helicon discharges produce plasmas with a density gradient across the confining magnetic field. Such plasmas can create a radial potential well for nonaxisymmetric whistlers, allowing radially localized helicon (RLH) waves. This work presents new evidence that RLH waves play a significant role in helicon plasma sources. An experimentally measured plasma density profile in an argon helicon discharge is used to calculate the rf field structure. The calculations are performed using a two-dimensional field solver under the assumption that the density profile is axisymmetric. It is found that RLH waves with an azimuthal wave number m=1 form a standing wave structure in the axial direction and that the frequency of the RLH eigenmode is close to the driving frequency of the rf antenna. The calculated resonant power absorption, associated with the RLH eigenmode, accounts for most of the rf power deposited into the plasma in the experiment

  10. Plasma-based EUV light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumlak, Uri; Golingo, Raymond; Nelson, Brian A.

    2010-11-02

    Various mechanisms are provided relating to plasma-based light source that may be used for lithography as well as other applications. For example, a device is disclosed for producing extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light based on a sheared plasma flow. The device can produce a plasma pinch that can last several orders of magnitude longer than what is typically sustained in a Z-pinch, thus enabling the device to provide more power output than what has been hitherto predicted in theory or attained in practice. Such power output may be used in a lithography system for manufacturing integrated circuits, enabling the use of EUV wavelengths on the order of about 13.5 nm. Lastly, the process of manufacturing such a plasma pinch is discussed, where the process includes providing a sheared flow of plasma in order to stabilize it for long periods of time.

  11. Plasma source ion implantation research at southwestern institute of physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang Zhenkui; Geng Man; Tong Honghui

    1997-10-01

    The PSII-EX device and PSII-IM device for research and development of plasma source ion implantation (PSII) technology are described briefly. The functions, main technical specifications and properties of the devices are also discussed. After ion implantation by PSII, the improvements of the surface-mechanical properties (such as microhardness, wear-resistance, friction factor, biological compatibility, etc) for some materials, microanalysis and numerical simulation of modified layers of materials, the technical developments for the practical workpiece treatments and the preliminary experiments for plasma source ion implantation-enhanced deposition are introduced too. As last, the future work about PSII have been proposed

  12. Volatile organic compounds emission control in industrial pollution source using plasma technology coupled with F-TiO2/γ-Al2O3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tao; Chen, Rui; Xia, Ni; Li, Xiaoyang; He, Xianxian; Zhao, Wenjuan; Carr, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds' (VOCs) effluents, which come from many industries, are triggering serious environmental problems. As an emerging technology, non-thermal plasma (NTP) technology is a potential technology for VOCs emission control. NTP coupled with F-TiO2/γ-Al2O3 is used for toluene removal from a gaseous influent at normal temperature and atmospheric pressure. NTP is generated by dielectric barrier discharge, and F-TiO2/γ-Al2O3 can be prepared by sol-gel method in the laboratory. In the experiment, the different packed materials were packed into the plasma reactor, including γ-Al2O3, TiO2/γ-Al2O3 and F-TiO2/γ-Al2O3. Through a series of characterization methods such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electronic microscopy and Brunner-Emmet-Teller measurements, the results show that the particle size distribution of F-TiO2 is relatively smaller than that of TiO2, and the pore distribution of F-TiO2 is more uniformly distributed than that of TiO2. The relationships among toluene removal efficiency, reactor input energy density, and the equivalent capacitances of air gap and dielectric barrier layer were investigated. The results show that the synergistic technology NTP with F-TiO2/γ-Al2O3 resulted in greater enhancement of toluene removal efficiency and energy efficiency. Especially, when packing with F-TiO2/γ-Al2O3 in NTP reactor, toluene removal efficiency reaches 99% and higher. Based on the data analysis of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, the experimental results showed that NTP reactor packed with F-TiO2/γ-Al2O3 resulted in a better inhibition for by-products formation effectively in the gas exhaust.

  13. Volumetric plasma source development and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crain, Marlon D.; Maron, Yitzhak; Oliver, Bryan Velten; Starbird, Robert L.; Johnston, Mark D.; Hahn, Kelly Denise; Mehlhorn, Thomas Alan; Droemer, Darryl W.

    2008-01-01

    The development of plasma sources with densities and temperatures in the 10 15 -10 17 cm -3 and 1-10eV ranges which are slowly varying over several hundreds of nanoseconds within several cubic centimeter volumes is of interest for applications such as intense electron beam focusing as part of the x-ray radiography program. In particular, theoretical work (1,2) suggests that replacing neutral gas in electron beam focusing cells with highly conductive, pre-ionized plasma increases the time-averaged e-beam intensity on target, resulting in brighter x-ray sources. This LDRD project was an attempt to generate such a plasma source from fine metal wires. A high voltage (20-60kV), high current (12-45kA) capacitive discharge was sent through a 100 (micro)m diameter aluminum wire forming a plasma. The plasma's expansion was measured in time and space using spectroscopic techniques. Lineshapes and intensities from various plasma species were used to determine electron and ion densities and temperatures. Electron densities from the mid-10 15 to mid-10 16 cm -3 were generated with corresponding electron temperatures of between 1 and 10eV. These parameters were measured at distances of up to 1.85 cm from the wire surface at times in excess of 1 (micro)s from the initial wire breakdown event. In addition, a hydrocarbon plasma from surface contaminants on the wire was also measured. Control of these contaminants by judicious choice of wire material, size, and/or surface coating allows for the ability to generate plasmas with similar density and temperature to those given above, but with lower atomic masses

  14. Microwave interferometry of PEOS plasma sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, B.V.; Commisso, R.J.; Goodrich, P.J.; Hinshelwood, D.D.; Neri, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    A 70 GHz microwave interferometer is used to measure the electron density for various configurations of sources used in plasma erosion opening switch (PEOS) experiments. The interferometer is a phase quadrature system, so the density can be measured as a function of time without ambiguity. Measurements have been made for carbon guns and flashboards driven by a .6 μF. 25 kV capacitor. The plasma density from a gun rises to its peak value in about 10 μs. Then decays in the next 40 μs. A metal screen placed between the gun and the microwave beam attenuates the plasma density by a factor greater than the geometrical transparency of the screen. Density measurements as a function of distance from the gun are analyzed to give the plasma spatial dependence, and the particle flux density and flow velocity are calculated from the continuity equation. Density values used to model previous PEOS experiments are comparable to the values measured here. The flashboard sources produce a denser, faster plasma that is more difficult to diagnose with the interferometer than the gun plasma because of refractive bending of the microwave beam. Reducing the plasma length reduces the refractive bending enough that some measurements are possible. Direct comparison with Gamble II PEOS experiments that used these flashboard sources may not be possible at this frequency because of refraction, but estimates based on measurements at larger distances give reasonable agreement with values used to model these experiments. Other measurements that will be presented include the effects of plasma flow against metal walls, effects of changing the driving current waveform, measurements made in actual experimental configurations and comparisons with Faraday cup and electric probe measurements

  15. Adaptation of metal arc plasma source to plasma source ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamim, M.M.; Fetherston, R.P.; Conrad, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    In Plasma Source Ion Implantation (PSII) a target is immersed in a plasma and a train of high negative voltage pulses is applied to accelerate ions into the target and to modify the properties in the near surface region. In PSII, until now the authors have been using gaseous species to generate plasmas. However metal ion plasma may be used to modify the surface properties of material for industrial applications. Conventionally the ion implantation of metal ions is performed using beam line accelerators which have complex engineering and high cost. The employment of a metal arc source to PSII has tremendous potential due to its ability to process the conformal surfaces, simple engineering and cost effectiveness. They have installed metal arc source for generation of titanium plasma. Currently, they are investigating the properties of titanium plasma and material behavior of titanium implanted aluminum and 52100 steel. The recent results of this investigation are presented

  16. Plasma Wave Electronic Terahertz Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shur, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Plasma waves are oscillations of electron density in time and space. In deep submicron field effect transistors plasma wave frequencies lie in the terahertz range and can be tuned by applied gate bias...

  17. High-Current Plasma Electron Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gushenets, J.Z.; Krokhmal, V.A.; Krasik, Ya. E.; Felsteiner, J.; Gushenets, V.

    2002-01-01

    In this report we present the design, electrical schemes and preliminary results of a test of 4 different electron plasma cathodes operating under Kg h-voltage pulses in a vacuum diode. The first plasma cathode consists of 6 azimuthally symmetrically distributed arc guns and a hollow anode having an output window covered by a metal grid. Plasma formation is initiated by a surface discharge over a ceramic washer placed between a W-made cathode and an intermediate electrode. Further plasma expansion leads to a redistribution of the discharge between the W-cathode and the hollow anode. An accelerating pulse applied between the output anode grid and the collector extracts electrons from this plasma. The operation of another plasma cathode design is based on Penning discharge for preliminary plasma formation. The main glow discharge occurs between an intermediate electrode of the Penning gun and the hollow anode. To keep the background pressure in the accelerating gap at P S 2.5x10 4 Torr either differential pumping or a pulsed gas puff valve were used. The operation of the latter electron plasma source is based on a hollow cathode discharge. To achieve a sharp pressure gradient between the cathode cavity and the accelerating gap a pulsed gas puff valve was used. A specially designed ferroelectric plasma cathode initiated plasma formation inside the hollow cathode. This type of the hollow cathode discharge ignition allowed to achieve a discharge current of 1.2 kA at a background pressure of 2x10 4 Torr. All these cathodes were developed and initially tested inside a planar diode with a background pressure S 2x10 4 Torr under the same conditions: accelerating voltage 180 - 300 kV, pulse duration 200 - 400 ns, electron beam current - 1 - 1.5 kA, and cross-sectional area of the extracted electron beam 113 cm 2

  18. Characterization of the pulse plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milosavljevic, V; Karkari, S K; Ellingboe, A R

    2007-01-01

    Characterization of the pulse plasma source through the determination of the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) threshold is described. The maximum electron density measured at the peak in discharge current is determined by the width of the He II Paschen alpha spectral line, and the electron temperature is determined from the ratios of the relative intensities of spectral lines emitted from successive ionized stages of atoms. The electron density and temperature maximum values are measured to be 1.3 x 10 17 cm -3 and 19 000 K, respectively. These are typical characteristics for low-pressure, pulsed plasma sources for input energy of 15.8 J at 130 Pa pressure in helium-argon mixture. The use of LTE-based analysis of the emission spectra is justified by measurement of the local plasma electron density at four positions in the discharge tube using a floating hairpin resonance probe. The hairpin resonance probe data are collected during the creation and decay phases of the pulse. From the spatio-temporal profile of the plasma density a 60 μs time-window during which LTE exists throughout the entire plasma source is determined

  19. Development of very large helicon plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohara, Shunjiro; Tanikawa, Takao

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a very large volume, high-density helicon plasma source, 75 cm in diameter and 486 cm in axial length; full width at half maximum of the plasma density is up to ∼42 cm with good plasma uniformity along the z axis. By the use of a spiral antenna located just outside the end of the vacuum chamber through a quartz-glass window, plasma can be initiated with a very low value of radio frequency (rf) power ( 12 cm -3 is successfully produced with less than several hundred Watt; achieving excellent discharge efficiency. It is possible to control the radial density profile in this device by changing the magnetic field configurations near the antenna and/or the antenna radiation-field patterns

  20. Very high plasma switches. Basic plasma physics and switch technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doucet, H.J.; Roche, M.; Buzzi, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    A review of some high power switches recently developed for very high power technology is made with a special attention to the aspects of plasma physics involved in the mechanisms, which determine the limits of the possible switching parameters

  1. Atmospheric-pressure plasma technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogelschatz, U

    2004-01-01

    Major industrial plasma processes operating close to atmospheric pressure are discussed. Applications of thermal plasmas include electric arc furnaces and plasma torches for generation of powders, for spraying refractory materials, for cutting and welding and for destruction of hazardous waste. Other applications include miniature circuit breakers and electrical discharge machining. Non-equilibrium cold plasmas at atmospheric pressure are obtained in corona discharges used in electrostatic precipitators and in dielectric-barrier discharges used for generation of ozone, for pollution control and for surface treatment. More recent applications include UV excimer lamps, mercury-free fluorescent lamps and flat plasma displays

  2. Plasma sources of solar system magnetospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Blanc, Michel; Chappell, Charles; Krupp, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    This volume reviews what we know of the corresponding plasma source for each intrinsically magnetized planet. Plasma sources fall essentially in three categories: the solar wind, the ionosphere (both prevalent on Earth), and the satellite-related sources. Throughout the text, the case of each planet is described, including the characteristics, chemical composition and intensity of each source. The authors also describe how the plasma generated at the source regions is transported to populate the magnetosphere, and how it is later lost. To summarize, the dominant sources are found to be the solar wind and sputtered surface ions at Mercury, the solar wind and ionosphere at Earth (the relative importance of the two being discussed in a specific introductory chapter), Io at Jupiter and – a big surprise of the Cassini findings – Enceladus at Saturn. The situation for Uranus and Neptune, which were investigated by only one fly-by each, is still open and requires further studies and exploration. In the final cha...

  3. Application of fusion plasma technology. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabri, Z.A.

    1976-06-01

    This report presents principal findings of studies conducted at Iowa State on Applications of Fusion Plasma Technology. Two tasks were considered. The first was to identify and investigate plasma processes for near term industrial applications of already developed plasma technology. The second was to explore the potential of reprocessing the fuel for fusion test facilities in a closed-cycle system. For the first task, two applications were considered. One was alumina reduction in magnetically confined plasmas, and the other was uranium enrichment using plasma centrifuges. For the second task, in-core and ex-core plasma purification were considered. Separation techniques that are compatible with the plasma state were identified and preliminary analysis of their effectiveness were carried out. The effects of differential ionization of impurities on the separation effectiveness are considered. Possible technical difficulties in both tasks are identified and recommendations for future work are given

  4. Double plasma system with inductively coupled source plasma and quasi-quiescent target plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massi, M.; Maciel, H.S.

    1995-01-01

    Cold plasmas have successfully been used in the plasma-assisted material processing industry. An understanding of the physicochemical mechanisms involved in the plasma-surface interaction is needed for a proper description of deposition and etching processes at material surfaces. Since these mechanisms are dependent on the plasma properties, the development of diagnostic techniques is strongly desirable for determination of the plasma parameters as well as the characterization of the electromagnetic behaviour of the discharge. In this work a dual discharge chamber, was specially designed to study the deposition of thin films via plasma polymerization process. In the Pyrex chamber an inductively coupled plasma can be excited either in the diffuse low density E-mode or in the high density H-mode. This plasma diffuses into the cylindrical stainless steel chamber which is covered with permanent magnets to produce a multidipole magnetic field configuration at the surface. By that means a double plasma is established consisting of a RF source plasma coupled to a quasi-quiescent target plasma. The preliminary results presented here refer to measurements of the profiles of plasma parameters along the central axis of the double plasma apparatus. Additionally a spectrum analysis performed by means of a Rogowski coil probe immersed into the source plasma is also presented. The discharge is made in argon with pressure varying from 10 -2 to 1 torr, and the rf from 10 to 150 W

  5. The 2017 Plasma Roadmap: Low temperature plasma science and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamovich, I.; Baalrud, S. D.; Bogaerts, A.; Bruggeman, P. J.; Cappelli, M.; Colombo, V.; Czarnetzki, U.; Ebert, U.; Eden, J. G.; Favia, P.; Graves, D. B.; Hamaguchi, S.; Hieftje, G.; Hori, M.; Kaganovich, I. D.; Kortshagen, U.; Kushner, M. J.; Mason, N. J.; Mazouffre, S.; Mededovic Thagard, S.; Metelmann, H.-R.; Mizuno, A.; Moreau, E.; Murphy, A. B.; Niemira, B. A.; Oehrlein, G. S.; Petrovic, Z. Lj; Pitchford, L. C.; Pu, Y.-K.; Rauf, S.; Sakai, O.; Samukawa, S.; Starikovskaia, S.; Tennyson, J.; Terashima, K.; Turner, M. M.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.; Vardelle, A.

    2017-08-01

    Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics published the first Plasma Roadmap in 2012 consisting of the individual perspectives of 16 leading experts in the various sub-fields of low temperature plasma science and technology. The 2017 Plasma Roadmap is the first update of a planned series of periodic updates of the Plasma Roadmap. The continuously growing interdisciplinary nature of the low temperature plasma field and its equally broad range of applications are making it increasingly difficult to identify major challenges that encompass all of the many sub-fields and applications. This intellectual diversity is ultimately a strength of the field. The current state of the art for the 19 sub-fields addressed in this roadmap demonstrates the enviable track record of the low temperature plasma field in the development of plasmas as an enabling technology for a vast range of technologies that underpin our modern society. At the same time, the many important scientific and technological challenges shared in this roadmap show that the path forward is not only scientifically rich but has the potential to make wide and far reaching contributions to many societal challenges.

  6. The 2017 Plasma Roadmap: Low temperature plasma science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamovich, I; Baalrud, S D; Bogaerts, A; Bruggeman, P J; Cappelli, M; Colombo, V; Czarnetzki, U; Ebert, U; Eden, J G; Favia, P; Graves, D B; Hamaguchi, S; Hieftje, G; Hori, M

    2017-01-01

    Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics published the first Plasma Roadmap in 2012 consisting of the individual perspectives of 16 leading experts in the various sub-fields of low temperature plasma science and technology. The 2017 Plasma Roadmap is the first update of a planned series of periodic updates of the Plasma Roadmap. The continuously growing interdisciplinary nature of the low temperature plasma field and its equally broad range of applications are making it increasingly difficult to identify major challenges that encompass all of the many sub-fields and applications. This intellectual diversity is ultimately a strength of the field. The current state of the art for the 19 sub-fields addressed in this roadmap demonstrates the enviable track record of the low temperature plasma field in the development of plasmas as an enabling technology for a vast range of technologies that underpin our modern society. At the same time, the many important scientific and technological challenges shared in this roadmap show that the path forward is not only scientifically rich but has the potential to make wide and far reaching contributions to many societal challenges. (topical review)

  7. Department of Plasma Physics and Technology: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadowski, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    investigations were carried out in the PF-360 facility equipped with nuclear targets made of D 2 O-ice. The use of a high-speed framing camera enabled legible VR pictures and X-ray images to be obtained. These demonstrated some details of filamentary and spiral microstructures. Particular attention was paid to temporal changes in anisotropy of the fusion neutron emission. Another experimental aim concerned the development of plasma diagnostics. In the collaboration with Dept. P-I at IPJ and the Laboratory of Heavy Ions at Warsaw University, the calibration of selected solid-state nuclear track detectors (PM-355) was performed for energetic sulphur- and argon-ions. Also investigated was the influence of intense X-rays and electron beams on responses of the PM-355 detectors. Another task was an analysis of optical spectra recorded within the wavelength range from 200 nm to 1100 nm. Detailed optical measurements within the RPI-IBIS facility made it possible to investigate a dependence of intensities of the selected spectral lines and their FWHM values on the initial gas conditions. Particular attention was also paid to spectroscopic studies of early stages of a decay of pulsed plasma streams within the RPI-type devices. As for technological studies, there was continued research on plasma technology of different materials. In particular the erosion of some reversible getters was investigated in collaboration with the IPP KIPT in Kharkov (Ukraine). The use of vacuum arc discharges to the deposition of super-conductor (Nb) layers upon surfaces of RF accelerator cavities was investigated within the collaboration with the Tor-Vergata University in Rome (Italy) and DESY in Hamburg (Germany). A new UHV set-up with two planar arc sources was investigated in Rome, and a new UHV experimental stand was designed and constructed in Swierk. Other studies of plasma-ion techniques for the material engineering were carried out in collaboration with Dept. P-IX (another chapter of this report). The

  8. Plasma technology for powder particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kranz, E. (Technische Hochschule, Ilmenau (German Democratic Republic))

    1983-03-01

    A survey is given of principles and applications of plasma spraying and of powder transformation and generation in plasma considering spheroidization, grain size transformation, powder particle formation, powder reduction, and melting within the power range of 10/sup 3/ to 10/sup 7/ W. The products are applied in many industrial fields such as nuclear engineering, hard metal production, metallurgy, catalysis, and semiconductor techniques.

  9. Mathematical Model of Plasma Space for Electronic Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    N.N. Chernyshov; K.T. Umyarov; D.V. Pisarenko

    2014-01-01

    The paper is devoted to studying the plasma used in technologies of the electronic industry. It gives the characteristic of plasma space on the basis of a system of Maxwell-Boltzmann equa-tions. Solving these equations is represented in the form of Fourier transformation and Green functions. Fluctuation-dissipative theorem and method of Longevin sources for calculating electric filed fluctua-tions are used.

  10. Microwave Plasma Sources for Gas Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizeraczyk, J.; Jasinski, M.; Dors, M.; Zakrzewski, Z.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper atmospheric pressure microwave discharge methods and devices used for producing the non-thermal plasmas for processing of gases are presented. The main part of the paper concerns the microwave plasma sources (MPSs) for environmental protection applications. A few types of the MPSs, i.e. waveguide-based surface wave sustained MPS, coaxial-line-based and waveguide-based nozzle-type MPSs, waveguide-based nozzleless cylinder-type MPS and MPS for microdischarges are presented. Also, results of the laboratory experiments on the plasma processing of several highly-concentrated (up to several tens percent) volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including Freon-type refrigerants, in the moderate (200-400 W) waveguide-based nozzle-type MPS (2.45 GHz) are presented. The results showed that the microwave discharge plasma fully decomposed the VOCs at relatively low energy cost. The energy efficiency of VOCs decomposition reached 1000 g/kWh. This suggests that the microwave discharge plasma can be a useful tool for environmental protection applications. In this paper also results of the use of the waveguide-based nozzleless cylinder-type MPS to methane reforming into hydrogen are presented

  11. Complex plasmas scientific challenges and technological opportunities

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez, Jose; Becker, Kurt; Thomsen, Hauke

    2014-01-01

    This book provides the reader with an introduction to the physics of complex plasmas, a discussion of the specific scientific and technical challenges they present, and an overview of their potential technological applications. Complex plasmas differ from conventional high-temperature plasmas in several ways: they may contain additional species, including nanometer- to micrometer-sized particles, negative ions, molecules and radicals, and they may exhibit strong correlations or quantum effects. This book introduces the classical and quantum mechanical approaches used to describe and simulate complex plasmas. It also covers some key experimental techniques used in the analysis of these plasmas, including calorimetric probe methods, IR absorption techniques and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The final part of the book reviews the emerging applications of microcavity and microchannel plasmas, the synthesis and assembly of nanomaterials through plasma electrochemistry, the large-scale generation of ozone using mi...

  12. Ion Source Physics and Technology (1/2)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    This series of lectures starts with an introduction in some aspects of atomic and plasma physics as base for the ion source physics. The main part covers aspects of ion source physics, technology and operation. Several source types are presented. Some information on infrastructure and supporting services (as high voltage, cooling, microwaves etc) are given to better understand the source environment. The last part on engineering aims to show that, in the field of ion sources, many different technologies are combined in a quite small environment, which is challenging and interesting at the same time.

  13. Ion Source Physics and Technology (2/2)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    This series of lectures starts with an introduction in some aspects of atomic and plasma physics as base for the ion source physics. The main part covers aspects of ion source physics, technology and operation. Several source types are presented. Some information on infrastructure and supporting services (as high voltage, cooling, microwaves etc) are given to better understand the source environment. The last part on engineering aims to show that, in the field of ion sources, many different technologies are combined in a quite small environment, which is challenging and interesting at the same time.

  14. Department of Plasma Physics and Technology - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadowski, M.

    1997-01-01

    In 1996 the main activities of Department P-5 (until December 1996 known as the Department of Thermonuclear Research) were concentrated on 5 topics: 1. Selected problems of plasma theory, 2. Studies of phenomena within high-current plasma concentrators, 3. Development of plasma diagnostic methods, 4. Studies in the field of fusion technology, 5. Research on new plasma-ion technologies. Theoretical studies mainly concerned elementary processes occurring within a plasma, and particularly those within near-electrode regions of microwave discharges as well as those within near-wall layers (SOL) of tokamaks. We also developed computational packages for parameter identification and modelling of physical phenomena in pulse plasma coaxial accelerators. Experimental studies were concentrated on the generation of a dense magnetized plasma in different high-current PF (Plasma Focus) facilities and small Z-Pinch devices. We carried out investigations of X-rays, relativistic electron beams (REBs), accelerated primary ions, and fast products of fusion reactions for deuterium discharges. Research on plasma diagnostics comprised the development of methods and equipment for studies of X-ray emission, pulsed electron beams, and fast ions, using special Cherenkov-type detectors of electrons and solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) of ions. New diagnostic techniques were developed. Studies in the field of fusion technology concerned the design, construction, and testing of different high-voltage pulse generators. We also developed special opto-electronic systems for control and data transmission. Research on plasma-ion technology concentrated on the generation of pulsed high-power plasma-ion streams and their applications for the surface modification of semiconductors, pure metals and alloys. The material engineering studies were carried out in close collaboration with our P-9 Department and other domestic and foreign research centers

  15. Department of Plasma Physics and Technology - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadowski, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    collaboration with the P-IX Department (see chapter IX of this report). The most important achievements of our Department in 2005 were as follows: 1. New data about dynamics and parameters of pulsed plasma streams were collected by means of optical spectroscopy during their free propagation and interaction with different targets; 2. Detailed images of sources emitting fusion-produced protons were obtained in different PF systems; 3. The technology of the deposition of superconducting layers by means of UHV arc-discharges was improved, test coating of an RF cavity was performed and three different magnetic-filters (for the elimination of micro-droplets) were tested. (author)

  16. RF-Plasma Source Commissioning in Indian Negative Ion Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, M. J.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Yadava, Ratnakar; Chakraborty, A. K.; Bansal, G.; Gahlaut, A.; Soni, J.; Kumar, Sunil; Pandya, K.; Parmar, K. G.; Sonara, J.; Kraus, W.; Heinemann, B.; Riedl, R.; Obermayer, S.; Martens, C.; Franzen, P.; Fantz, U.

    2011-01-01

    The Indian program of the RF based negative ion source has started off with the commissioning of ROBIN, the inductively coupled RF based negative ion source facility under establishment at Institute for Plasma research (IPR), India. The facility is being developed under a technology transfer agreement with IPP Garching. It consists of a single RF driver based beam source (BATMAN replica) coupled to a 100 kW, 1 MHz RF generator with a self excited oscillator, through a matching network, for plasma production and ion extraction and acceleration. The delivery of the RF generator and the RF plasma source without the accelerator, has enabled initiation of plasma production experiments. The recent experimental campaign has established the matching circuit parameters that result in plasma production with density in the range of 0.5-1x10 18 /m 3 , at operational gas pressures ranging between 0.4-1 Pa. Various configurations of the matching network have been experimented upon to obtain a stable operation of the set up for RF powers ranging between 25-85 kW and pulse lengths ranging between 4-20 s. It has been observed that the range of the parameters of the matching circuit, over which the frequency of the power supply is stable, is narrow and further experiments with increased number of turns in the coil are in the pipeline to see if the range can be widened. In this paper, the description of the experimental system and the commissioning data related to the optimisation of the various parameters of the matching network, to obtain stable plasma of required density, are presented and discussed.

  17. RF-Plasma Source Commissioning in Indian Negative Ion Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M. J.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Bansal, G.; Gahlaut, A.; Soni, J.; Kumar, Sunil; Pandya, K.; Parmar, K. G.; Sonara, J.; Yadava, Ratnakar; Chakraborty, A. K.; Kraus, W.; Heinemann, B.; Riedl, R.; Obermayer, S.; Martens, C.; Franzen, P.; Fantz, U.

    2011-09-01

    The Indian program of the RF based negative ion source has started off with the commissioning of ROBIN, the inductively coupled RF based negative ion source facility under establishment at Institute for Plasma research (IPR), India. The facility is being developed under a technology transfer agreement with IPP Garching. It consists of a single RF driver based beam source (BATMAN replica) coupled to a 100 kW, 1 MHz RF generator with a self excited oscillator, through a matching network, for plasma production and ion extraction and acceleration. The delivery of the RF generator and the RF plasma source without the accelerator, has enabled initiation of plasma production experiments. The recent experimental campaign has established the matching circuit parameters that result in plasma production with density in the range of 0.5-1×1018/m3, at operational gas pressures ranging between 0.4-1 Pa. Various configurations of the matching network have been experimented upon to obtain a stable operation of the set up for RF powers ranging between 25-85 kW and pulse lengths ranging between 4-20 s. It has been observed that the range of the parameters of the matching circuit, over which the frequency of the power supply is stable, is narrow and further experiments with increased number of turns in the coil are in the pipeline to see if the range can be widened. In this paper, the description of the experimental system and the commissioning data related to the optimisation of the various parameters of the matching network, to obtain stable plasma of required density, are presented and discussed.

  18. Development and application of helicon plasma sources. Evolution of extensive plasma science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohara, Shunjiro

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in plasma science are remarkable, and are deeply indebted to the development of sophisticated plasma sources. While numerous methods have been proposed for producing the plasma, helicon plasma sources, capable of generating high density (>10 13 cm -3 ) plasma with high ionization degree (>several ten percent) over a wide range of external control parameters, have been utilized in such broad areas as fundamental and processing plasmas, nuclear fusion, gas laser, modeling of space plasma, plasma acceleration/propulsion, among others. On the other hand, a number of important issues are left unsolved, in particular, those relevant to the wave phenomena and efficient plasma production. Solution to these issues are expected to play key roles in taking full advantage of the helicon plasma sources in the next generation. In this article, we overview our current understanding of the helicon plasma production and recent development of characteristic helicon plasma sources, and discuss possible future advancement of extensive plasma science utilizing them. (author)

  19. 21 CFR 640.74 - Modification of Source Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Modification of Source Plasma. 640.74 Section 640...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.74 Modification of Source Plasma. (a) Upon approval by the Director, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and...

  20. Magnetic plasma confinement for laser ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, M.; Adeyemi, A.; Kanesue, T.; Tamura, J.; Kondo, K.; Dabrowski, R.

    2010-01-01

    A laser ion source (LIS) can easily provide a high current beam. However, it has been difficult to obtain a longer beam pulse while keeping a high current. On occasion, longer beam pulses are required by certain applications. For example, more than 10 μs of beam pulse is required for injecting highly charged beams to a large sized synchrotron. To extend beam pulse width, a solenoid field was applied at the drift space of the LIS at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The solenoid field suppressed the diverging angle of the expanding plasma and the beam pulse was widened. Also, it was observed that the plasma state was conserved after passing through a few hundred gauss of the 480 mm length solenoid field.

  1. Magnetic plasma confinement for laser ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, M; Adeyemi, A; Kanesue, T; Tamura, J; Kondo, K; Dabrowski, R

    2010-02-01

    A laser ion source (LIS) can easily provide a high current beam. However, it has been difficult to obtain a longer beam pulse while keeping a high current. On occasion, longer beam pulses are required by certain applications. For example, more than 10 micros of beam pulse is required for injecting highly charged beams to a large sized synchrotron. To extend beam pulse width, a solenoid field was applied at the drift space of the LIS at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The solenoid field suppressed the diverging angle of the expanding plasma and the beam pulse was widened. Also, it was observed that the plasma state was conserved after passing through a few hundred gauss of the 480 mm length solenoid field.

  2. Department of Plasma Physics and Technology - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabinski, M.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The activities of the Department in 2007 continued previous studies in the following fields of plasma physics, controlled nuclear fusion and plasma technology of surface engineering: · Studies of physical phenomena in pulsed discharges in the Plasma-Focus (PF) and RPI-IBIS facilities; · Development of selected methods for high-temperature plasma diagnostics; · Research on plasma technologies; · Selected problems of plasma theory and computational modelling. As for the experimental studies particular attention was paid to the analysis of the correlation of X-ray pulses with pulsed electron beams and other corpuscular emissions from different Plasma-Focus (PF) facilities. A collisional-radiative model, taking into account the Stark effect and strong electric fields in the so called '' hot- spot '' regions of a pinch, was applied in those analyses. The main aim of these studies was to identify the physical phenomena responsible for the emission during the PF-type discharges. The emitted protons were also measured with nuclear track detectors. The measurements made it possible to obtain images of the regions, where the D-D fusion reactions occurred, as well as to determine the angular distribution of the emitted protons. Pulsed plasma streams were also investigated by means of time-resolved optical spectroscopy and corpuscular diagnostics. In a frame of the EURATOM program, efforts were devoted to the development of diagnostic methods for tokamak-type facilities. Such studies include the design and construction of the 4-channel Cherenkov-type detection system for the TORE-SUPRA tokamak at CEA-Cadarache. In the meantime in order to collect some experience a new measuring head was especially prepared for experiments within small facilities. Other fusion- oriented efforts are connected with the application of the solid-state nuclear track detectors for investigation of protons from tokamak plasma and high-energy beams emitted from laser produced plasmas

  3. Technological uses of low temperature plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawton, J.

    1975-01-01

    Types of low temperature plasma sources considered include; arc discharge, high pressure discharge, low pressure discharge and flame. The problems of uniform heating of a gas are discussed and it is considered that the most reliable technique is the magnetically rotated arc, but expanded discharges of one kind or another are likely to be serious competitors in the future. The uses of low temperature plasma in chemistry and combustion are considered. The potential for plasma chemistry lies with processes in which the reactions occur in the plasma itself or its neighbouring gas phase, including those which require the vaporization of liquefaction of a refractory material and also highly endothermic reactions. The production of thixotropic silica and acetylene are discussed as examples of such reactions. The field of plasma and combustion including; ignition, flame ionization and soot formation, and the MHD generator, is considered. (U.K.)

  4. Technology of a small plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews plasma focus technology, including the underlying dynamic and energy balance theory, scaling of the neutron yield, cost effectiveness of the design, as well as the main subsystems, e.g., capacitor bank, spark-gap switch and triggering electronics, the plasma focus tube, some simple diagnostics, and a high-voltage charger. It discusses the range of densities and temperatures available with a small plasma focus, and the type of experiments and applications that can be carried out with it. 61 refs, 21 figs

  5. Inertial electro-magnetostatic plasma neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, D.C.; Nebel, R.A.; Schauer, M.M.; Pickrel, M.M.

    1997-01-01

    Two types of systems are being studied experimentally as D-T plasma neutron sources. In both concepts, spherical convergence of either electrons or ions or both is used to produce a dense central focus within which D-T fusion reactions produce 14 MeV neutrons. One concept uses nonneutral plasma confinement principles in a Penning type trap. In this approach, combined electrostatic and magnetic fields provide a vacuum potential well within which electrons are confined and focused. A small (6 mm radius) spherical machine has demonstrated a focus of 30 microm radius, with a central density of up to 35 times the Brillouin density limit of a static trap. The resulting electron plasma of up to several 10 13 cm -3 provides a multi-kV electrostatic well for confining thermonuclear ions as a neutron source. The second concept (Inertial Electrostatic Confinement, or IEC) uses a high-transparence grid to form a global well for acceleration and confinement of ions. Such a system has demonstrated steady neutron output of 2 x 10 10 s -1 . The present experiment will scale this to >10 11 s -1 . Advanced designs based on each concept have been developed recently. In these proposed approaches, a uniform-density electron sphere forms an electrostatic well for ions. Ions so trapped may be focused by spherical convergence to produce a dense core. An alternative approach produces large amplitude spherical oscillations of a confined ion cloud by a small, resonant modulation of the background electrons. In both the advanced Penning trap approach and the advanced IEC approach, the electrons are magnetically insulated from a large (up to 100 kV) applied electrostatic field. The physics of these devices is discussed, experimental design details are given, present observations are analyzed theoretically, and the performance of future advanced systems are predicted

  6. Plasma Processing of Metallic and Semiconductor Thin Films in the Fisk Plasma Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampkin, Gregory; Thomas, Edward, Jr.; Watson, Michael; Wallace, Kent; Chen, Henry; Burger, Arnold

    1998-01-01

    The use of plasmas to process materials has become widespread throughout the semiconductor industry. Plasmas are used to modify the morphology and chemistry of surfaces. We report on initial plasma processing experiments using the Fisk Plasma Source. Metallic and semiconductor thin films deposited on a silicon substrate have been exposed to argon plasmas. Results of microscopy and chemical analyses of processed materials are presented.

  7. Injection of auxiliary electrons for increasing the plasma density in highly charged and high intensity ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odorici, F., E-mail: fabrizio.odorici@bo.infn.it; Malferrari, L.; Montanari, A. [INFN—Bologna, Viale B. Pichat, 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Rizzoli, R. [INFN—Bologna, Viale B. Pichat, 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); CNR–Istituto per la Microelettronica ed i Microsistemi, Via Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Mascali, D.; Castro, G.; Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Neri, L. [INFN–Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    Different electron guns based on cold- or hot-cathode technologies have been developed since 2009 at INFN for operating within ECR plasma chambers as sources of auxiliary electrons, with the aim of boosting the source performances by means of a higher plasma lifetime and density. Their application to microwave discharge ion sources, where plasma is not confined, has required an improvement of the gun design, in order to “screen” the cathode from the plasma particles. Experimental tests carried out on a plasma reactor show a boost of the plasma density, ranging from 10% to 90% when the electron guns are used, as explained by plasma diffusion models.

  8. Injection of auxiliary electrons for increasing the plasma density in highly charged and high intensity ion sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odorici, F; Malferrari, L; Montanari, A; Rizzoli, R; Mascali, D; Castro, G; Celona, L; Gammino, S; Neri, L

    2016-02-01

    Different electron guns based on cold- or hot-cathode technologies have been developed since 2009 at INFN for operating within ECR plasma chambers as sources of auxiliary electrons, with the aim of boosting the source performances by means of a higher plasma lifetime and density. Their application to microwave discharge ion sources, where plasma is not confined, has required an improvement of the gun design, in order to "screen" the cathode from the plasma particles. Experimental tests carried out on a plasma reactor show a boost of the plasma density, ranging from 10% to 90% when the electron guns are used, as explained by plasma diffusion models.

  9. Dense Plasma Focus - From Alternative Fusion Source to Versatile High Energy Density Plasma Source for Plasma Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, R. S.

    2015-03-01

    The dense plasma focus (DPF), a coaxial plasma gun, utilizes pulsed high current electrical discharge to heat and compress the plasma to very high density and temperature with energy densities in the range of 1-10 × 1010 J/m3. The DPF device has always been in the company of several alternative magnetic fusion devices as it produces intense fusion neutrons. Several experiments conducted on many different DPF devices ranging over several order of storage energy have demonstrated that at higher storage energy the neutron production does not follow I4 scaling laws and deteriorate significantly raising concern about the device's capability and relevance for fusion energy. On the other hand, the high energy density pinch plasma in DPF device makes it a multiple radiation source of ions, electron, soft and hard x-rays, and neutrons, making it useful for several applications in many different fields such as lithography, radiography, imaging, activation analysis, radioisotopes production etc. Being a source of hot dense plasma, strong shockwave, intense energetic beams and radiation, etc, the DPF device, additionally, shows tremendous potential for applications in plasma nanoscience and plasma nanotechnology. In the present paper, the key features of plasma focus device are critically discussed to understand the novelties and opportunities that this device offers in processing and synthesis of nanophase materials using, both, the top-down and bottom-up approach. The results of recent key experimental investigations performed on (i) the processing and modification of bulk target substrates for phase change, surface reconstruction and nanostructurization, (ii) the nanostructurization of PLD grown magnetic thin films, and (iii) direct synthesis of nanostructured (nanowire, nanosheets and nanoflowers) materials using anode target material ablation, ablated plasma and background reactive gas based synthesis and purely gas phase synthesis of various different types of

  10. Dense Plasma Focus - From Alternative Fusion Source to Versatile High Energy Density Plasma Source for Plasma Nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawat, R S

    2015-01-01

    The dense plasma focus (DPF), a coaxial plasma gun, utilizes pulsed high current electrical discharge to heat and compress the plasma to very high density and temperature with energy densities in the range of 1-10 × 10 10 J/m 3 . The DPF device has always been in the company of several alternative magnetic fusion devices as it produces intense fusion neutrons. Several experiments conducted on many different DPF devices ranging over several order of storage energy have demonstrated that at higher storage energy the neutron production does not follow I 4 scaling laws and deteriorate significantly raising concern about the device's capability and relevance for fusion energy. On the other hand, the high energy density pinch plasma in DPF device makes it a multiple radiation source of ions, electron, soft and hard x-rays, and neutrons, making it useful for several applications in many different fields such as lithography, radiography, imaging, activation analysis, radioisotopes production etc. Being a source of hot dense plasma, strong shockwave, intense energetic beams and radiation, etc, the DPF device, additionally, shows tremendous potential for applications in plasma nanoscience and plasma nanotechnology. In the present paper, the key features of plasma focus device are critically discussed to understand the novelties and opportunities that this device offers in processing and synthesis of nanophase materials using, both, the top-down and bottom-up approach. The results of recent key experimental investigations performed on (i) the processing and modification of bulk target substrates for phase change, surface reconstruction and nanostructurization, (ii) the nanostructurization of PLD grown magnetic thin films, and (iii) direct synthesis of nanostructured (nanowire, nanosheets and nanoflowers) materials using anode target material ablation, ablated plasma and background reactive gas based synthesis and purely gas phase synthesis of various different types of

  11. Plasma Technologies of Solid Fuels Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpenko, E.I.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.

    2003-01-01

    Use of fuel processing plasma technologies improves ecological and economical indexes of low-grade coal utilization at thermal power plants. This paper presents experimental plasma plant 70 k W of power and 11 kg per hour of coal productivity. On the base of material and heat balances integral indexes of the process of plasma gasification of Podmoskovny brown coal 48% of ash content were found. Synthesis gas with concentration 85.2% was got. Hydrogen concentration in the synthesis gas was higher than carbon monoxide one. Ratio H 2 :CO in synthesis gas was 1.4-1.5. It was shown that steam consumption and temperature of the process increase causes H 2 concentration and coal gasification degree increase. Fulfilled experiments and comparison of their result with theoretical investigations allowed creating pilot experimental plant for plasma processing of low-grade coals. The power of the pilot plant is 1000 k W and coal productivity is 300 kg/h. (author)

  12. Plasma focus - a pulsed radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blagoev, Alexandar; Zapryanov, Stanislav; Gol'tsev, Vasilii; Gemishev, Orlin

    2014-01-01

    The article is devoted to the applications of plasma focus (PF) in radiobiology. Briefly describes the principle of operation of the device and the parameters of the PF type 'Mader' at the Physics Department of the University. Phase pinch discharge zones appear hot and dense plasma, which is a source of X-ray and neutron pulse when the working gas is deuterium. These radiations are essential for biological applications. Besides these bundles are obtained from accelerated charged particles and shock wave of ionized gas. Described are some of the contributions of other authors using PF in radiobiology. Given the results in the exposure of living organisms with soft X-ray emission of PF. We examined the viability of the cells of the two types of yeasts, after irradiation with X-rays at a dose of 65 mSv, where no change was found on the performance. It is shown that soft X-ray radiation doses on the order of tens of mSv, cause a significant change in the productivity of the electronic transport in the photosynthetic apparatus of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Trichoderma reesei M7 shows remarkable vitality irradiation with substantial doses of hard X-ray radiation (tens Sv). Appear endoglyukonazata changes in the protein component and the residual mass

  13. Inductively coupled plasma source mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price Russ, G. III

    1993-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma source mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is a relatively new (5 y commercial availability) technique for simultaneously determining the concentration and isotopic composition of a large number of elements at trace levels. The principle advantages of ICP-MS are the ability to measure essentially all the metallic elements at concentrations as low as 1 part in 10 12 by weight, to analyse aqueous samples directly, to determine the isotopic composition of essentially all the metallic elements, and to analyse samples rapidly (minutes). The history of the development of ICP-MS and discussions of a variety of applications have been discussed in detail in Date and Gray (1988). Koppenaal (1988, 1990) has reviewed the ICP-MS literature. In that ICP-MS is a relatively new and still evolving technique, this chapter will discuss potential capability more than proven performance. (author). 24 refs

  14. The gridless plasma ion source (GIS) for plasma ion assisted optical coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You Dawei; Li Xiaoqian; Wang Yu; Lin Yongchang

    2004-01-01

    High-quality optical coating is a key technology for modern optics. Ion-assisted deposition technology was used to improve the vaporized coating in 1980's. The GIS (gridless ion source), which is an advanced plasma source for producing a high-quality optical coating in large area, can produce a large area uniformity>1000 mm (diameter), a high ion current density ∼0.5 mA/cm 2 , 20 eV-200 eV energetic plasma ions and can activate reactive gas and film atoms. Now we have developed a GIS system. The GIS and the plasma ion-assisted deposition technology are investigated to achieve a high-quality optical coating. The GIS is a high power and high current source with a power of 1 kW-7.5 kW, a current of 10 A- 70 A and an ion density of 200 μA/cm 2 -500 μA/cm 2 . Because of the special magnetic structure, the plasma-ion extraction efficiency has been improved to obtain a maximum ion density of 500 μA/cm 2 in the medium power (∼4 kW) level. The GIS applied is of a special cathode structure, so that the GIS operation can be maintained under a rather low power and the lifetime of cathode will be extended. The GIS has been installed in the LPSX-1200 type box coating system. The coated TiO 2 , SiO 2 films such as antireflective films with the system have the same performance reported by Leybold Co, 1992, along with a controllable refractive index and film structure. (authors)

  15. Implosive Thermal Plasma Source for Energy Conversion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šonský, Jiří; Tesař, Václav; Gruber, Jan; Mašláni, Alan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 1 (2017), s. 87-90 ISSN 2336-2626 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 ; RVO:61389021 Keywords : implosion * thermal plasma * detonation wave Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics; BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics (UFP-V) OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics); Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) (UFP-V) https://ppt.fel.cvut.cz/ppt2017.html#number1

  16. Proceedings of the 21st symposium on plasma physics and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulhanek, P.; Rezac, K.; Smetana, M.

    2004-01-01

    The supplement contains 159 papers out of the 229 papers presented at the conference; these papers were selected through the review process of the Czechoslovak Journal of Physics. The papers are divided into 5 categories corresponding to the main topics of the symposium, which covered all kinds of plasma research and associated applications: tokamaks and other magnetic confinement devices; short lived plasmas (plasma focus, z-pinch, X-ray sources); laser plasma; low temperature plasma; and plasma technology. All 22 papers dealing with tokamaks and other magnetic confinement devices were submitted to INIS as well as all 31 papers discussing short lived plasmas. (A.K.)

  17. Plasma technologies: applications to waste processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauchais, P.

    2007-01-01

    Since the 1990's, plasma technologies have found applications in the processing of toxic wastes of military and industrial origin, like the treatment of contaminated solids and low level radioactive wastes, the decontamination of soils etc.. Since the years 2000, this development is becoming exponential, in particular for the processing of municipal wastes and the recovery of their synthesis gas. The advantage of thermal plasmas with respect to conventional combustion techniques are: a high temperature (more than 6000 K), a pyrolysis capability (CO formation instead of CO 2 ), about 90% of available energy above 1500 K (with respect to 23% with flames), a greater energy density, lower gas flow rates, and plasma start-up and shut-down times of only few tenth of seconds. This article presents: 1 - the present day situation of thermal plasmas development; 2 - some general considerations about plasma waste processing; 3 - the plasma processes: liquid toxic wastes, solid wastes (contaminated soils and low level radioactive wastes, military wastes, vitrification of incinerators fly ash, municipal wastes processing, treatment of asbestos fibers, treatment of chlorinated industrial wastes), metallurgy wastes (dusts, aluminium slags), medical and ship wastes, perspectives; 4 -conclusion. (J.S.)

  18. Measurement of performance parameters of plasma source for plasma opening switch on Qiangguang-Ⅰ generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Weixi; Zeng Zhengzhong; Lei Tianshi; Wang Liangping; Hu Yixiang; Sun Tieping; Huang Tao

    2012-01-01

    The plasma source (cable guns) of the plasma opening switch (POS) on Qiangguang Ⅰ generator was chosen as the study object. The plasma source performance was investigated by using charge collectors. Experimental results show that the plasma ejection density is positively correlated with the structural parameter, the distance between gun core tip and muzzle plane, and the plasma ejection velocity is negatively correlated with the parameter. The increasing rate of plasma ejection density is less than that of drive current. As far as a plasma source with tens of cable plasma guns is concerned, the influence of single cable gun's discharge dispersancy on plasma uniformity is little. Analysis of uncertainty shows that the uncertainty of measurement can be reduced by increasing the number of experiments and averaging the results. The combined standard uncertainty of plasma ejection density is less than 10%. (authors)

  19. Nonthermal plasma technology for organic destruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, W.O.; Birmingham, J.G.

    1995-01-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is investigating the use of nonthermal, electrically driven plasmas for destroying organic contaminants near ambient temperatures and pressures. Three different plasma systems have been developed to treat organics in air, water, and soil. These systems are the gas-phase corona reactor (GPCR) for treating air, the liquid phase corona reactor for treating water, and the in-situ corona for treating soils. This paper focuses on the GPCR as an alternative to other air purification technologies for treating off-gasses from remedial action efforts and industrial emissions

  20. Rf probe technology for the next generation of technological plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, V.J.; Kenyon, A.J.; Thornhill, N.F.; Seeds, A.J.; Batty, I.

    2001-01-01

    We describe radio frequency (rf) analysis of technological plasmas at the 13.56 MHz fundamental drive frequency and integer narrow-band harmonics up to n = 9. In particular, we demonstrate the use of harmonic amplitude information as a process end-point diagnostic. Using very high frequency (vhf) techniques, we construct non-invasive ex situ remote-coupled probes: a diplexer, an equal-ratio-arm bridge, and a dual directional coupler used as a single directional device. These probes bolt into the plasma-tool 50 Ω transmission-line between the rf generator and matching network, and hence do not require modification of the plasma tool. The 50 Ω probe environment produces repeatable measurements of the chamber capacitance and narrow-band harmonic amplitude with an end-point detection sensitivity corresponding to a 2 dB change in the harmonic amplitude with the removal of 1 cm 2 of photoresist. The methodology and design of an instrument for the measurement of the plasma-tool frequency response, and the plasma harmonic amplitude and phase response are examined. The instrument allows the monitoring of the plasma phase delay, plasma-tool short- and long-term ageing, and process end-point prediction. (author)

  1. Plasma spray technology process parameters and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreekumar, K.P.; Karthikeyan, J.; Ananthapadmanabhan, P.V.; Venkatramani, N.; Chatterjee, U.K.

    1991-01-01

    The current trend in the structural design philosophy is based on the use of substrate with the necessary mechanical properties and a thin coating to exhibit surface properties. Plasma spray process is a versatile surface coating technique which finds extensive application in meeting advance technologies. This report describes the plasma spray technique and its use in developing coatings for various applications. The spray system is desribed in detail including the different variables such as power input to the torch, gas flow rate, powder properties, powder injection, etc. and their interrelation in deciding the quality of the coating. A brief write-up on the various plasma spray coatings developed for different applications is also included. (author). 15 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Carbon fiber manufacturing via plasma technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulauskas, Felix L.; Yarborough, Kenneth D.; Meek, Thomas T.

    2002-01-01

    The disclosed invention introduces a novel method of manufacturing carbon and/or graphite fibers that avoids the high costs associated with conventional carbonization processes. The method of the present invention avoids these costs by utilizing plasma technology in connection with electromagnetic radiation to produce carbon and/or graphite fibers from fully or partially stabilized carbon fiber precursors. In general, the stabilized or partially stabilized carbon fiber precursors are placed under slight tension, in an oxygen-free atmosphere, and carbonized using a plasma and electromagnetic radiation having a power input which is increased as the fibers become more carbonized and progress towards a final carbon or graphite product. In an additional step, the final carbon or graphite product may be surface treated with an oxygen-plasma treatment to enhance adhesion to matrix materials.

  3. Experimental facility for determining plasma characteristics in ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abroyan, M.A.; Kagan, Yu.M.; Kolokolov, N.B.; Lavrov, B.P.

    A facility for optical and electrical measurements of the plasma parameters in the arc plasma ion sources is described. The potentialities of the system are demonstrated on the basis of the electron concentration, the electron energy distribution function, and the radial population distribution of the excited states of hydrogen atoms in the arc plasma of the duoplasmatron. (U.S.)

  4. Analysis of the tuning characteristics of microwave plasma source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miotk, Robert, E-mail: rmiotk@imp.gda.pl; Jasiński, Mariusz [Centre for Plasma and Laser Engineering, The Szewalski Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery, Polish Academy of Sciences, Fiszera 14, 80-231 Gdańsk (Poland); Mizeraczyk, Jerzy [Department of Marine Electronics, Gdynia Maritime University, Morska 81-87, 81-225 Gdynia (Poland)

    2016-04-15

    In this paper, we present an analysis of the tuning characteristics of waveguide-supplied metal-cylinder-based nozzleless microwave plasma source. This analysis has enabled to estimate the electron concentration n{sub e} and electron frequency collisions ν in the plasma generated in nitrogen and in a mixture of nitrogen and ethanol vapour. The parameters n{sub e} and ν are the basic quantities that characterize the plasma. The presented new plasma diagnostic method is particularly useful, when spectroscopic methods are useless. The presented plasma source is currently used in research of a hydrogen production from liquids.

  5. Analysis of the tuning characteristics of microwave plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miotk, Robert; Jasiński, Mariusz; Mizeraczyk, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present an analysis of the tuning characteristics of waveguide-supplied metal-cylinder-based nozzleless microwave plasma source. This analysis has enabled to estimate the electron concentration n_e and electron frequency collisions ν in the plasma generated in nitrogen and in a mixture of nitrogen and ethanol vapour. The parameters n_e and ν are the basic quantities that characterize the plasma. The presented new plasma diagnostic method is particularly useful, when spectroscopic methods are useless. The presented plasma source is currently used in research of a hydrogen production from liquids.

  6. Plasma stream transport method (2) Use of charge exchange plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchimoto, T.

    1978-01-01

    The plasma stream transport method using a single plasma source has limitations for practical film deposition. Using a charge exchange phenomenon, a new plasma source is devised and tested by the plasma stream transport machine. Metals, silicon dioxide, and nitride films are deposited by this system. The mechanism of deposition under relatively high vacuum surrounding a silicon wafer is discussed as is the effect of radical atoms

  7. Technological regimes and sources of entrepreneurship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsili, O.

    2002-01-01

    This paper concerns the technological determinants of entrepreneurial behaviour. By applying a typology of technological regimes, which describes the nature of the technological environment in which firms operate, this paper examines the sources and obstacles to entrepreneurial entry related to the

  8. Technological regimes and sources of entrepreneurship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsili, O.

    2000-01-01

    This paper concerns the technological detenninants of entrepreneurial behaviour. By applying a typology of technological regimes, which describes the nature of the technological environment in which finns operate, this paper examines the sources and obstacle to entrepreneurial entry related to the

  9. The plasma focus - numerical experiments leading technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saw, S.H.; Lee, S.

    2013-01-01

    Numerical experiments on the plasma focus are now used routinely to assist design and provide reference points for diagnostics. More importantly guidance has been given regarding the implementation of technology for new generations of plasma focus devices. For example intensive series of experiments have shown that it is of no use to reduce static bank inductance L0 below certain values because of the consistent loading effects of the plasma focus dynamics on the capacitor bank. Thus whilst it was thought that the PF1000 could receive major benefits by reducing its bank inductance L 0 , numerical experiments have shown to the contrary that its present L 0 of 30 nH is already optimum and that reducing L 0 would be a very expensive fruitless exercise. This knowledge gained from numerical experiments now acts as a general valuable guideline to all high performance (ie low inductance) plasma focus devices not to unnecessarily attempt to further lower the static inductance L 0 . The numerical experiments also show that the deterioration of the yield scaling law (e.g. the fusion neutron yield scaling with storage energy) is inevitable again due to the consistent loading effect of the plasma focus, which becomes more and more dominant as capacitor bank impedance reduces with increasing capacitance C 0 as storage energy is increased. This line of thinking has led to the suggestion of using higher voltages (as an alternative to increasing C 0 ) and to seeding of Deuterium with noble gases in order to enhance compression through thermodynamic mechanisms and through radiation cooling effects of strong line radiation. Circuit manipulation e.g. to enhance focus pinch compression by current-stepping is also being numerically experimented upon. Ultimately however systems have to be built, guided by numerical experiments, so that the predicted technology may be proven and realized. (author)

  10. Department of Plasma Physics and Technology: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadowski, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: In 2003, research activities in Dept. P-V embraced the continuation of previous studies in the field of high - temperature plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion. Some new investigations were developed, particularly in the field of plasma technology. The main topics of the research activities were as follows: 1. Selected problems of plasma theory; 2. Investigation of plasma phenomena in pulse discharges of the Plasma-Focus (PF) and Z-Pinch type; 3. Development of selected methods of plasma diagnostics; 4. Research on experimental facilities for basic studies and industrial applications; 5. Modification of material surfaces by means of pulsed plasma-ion streams. Theoretical studies concerned the numerical modeling of discharges in a coaxial plasma accelerator of the IPD type. The modification of a 2-D model concerned mainly a plasma flow along the current sheath surface, taking into consideration the development of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. Several series of computations were performed and different parameters of the system were determined. As for experimental studies, we studied plasma phenomena which occur in high-current discharges of PF and Z-Pinch type. Measurements of pulsed electron beams, and their correlation with other plasma phenomena, were performed within the MAJA-PF device in Swierk and PF-1000 facility at IPPLM in Warsaw. Use was made of Cerenkov-type detectors and magnetic analyzers. It was confirmed that separate e-beams are generated in different hot-spots, and the electron energy spectrum ranges up to several hundreds keV (i.e. above the interelectrode voltage during the radial collapse phase). We also presented papers presenting results of previous research on polarization of X-ray lines emitted from the pinch column. Experimental studies of high-temperature plasma were also carried out within the PF-360 facility in Swierk. Several papers, describing the most important characteristics of this device and results of research

  11. Department of Plasma Physics and Technology: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadowski, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: In 2000 the research activity in the Dept. P-V was concentrated upon studies in the field of high-temperature plasma physics, nuclear fusion, and plasma technology. The main topics were as follows: l. Analysis of selected problems of plasma theory, 2. Investigation of phenomena in high-current pulse discharges of the Plasma-Focus (PF) and Z-Pinch type, 3. Development of the selected methods and equipment for plasma diagnostics, 4. Research on technology of experimental facilities for basic studies and applications, 5. Studies of the modification of material surfaces by means of pulse plasma-ion streams. In a frame of theoretical studies the numerical modeling was continued for discharges in coaxial plasma accelerators. The second theoretical aim was the description of some elementary atomic processes in the quasi- classical approach. A paper on the electron scattering on the atoms and molecules was published. In the quasi- classical model, the electron spin was taken into account and trajectories of 2 electrons in the helium atom were analyzed. In the frame of experimental studies, various phenomena were investigated in PF and Z-Pinch systems. The emission of pulse electron beams and ions as well as polarized X-rays were investigated in the MAFA-PF facility. New data about polarization of selected X-ray lines were obtained (2 papers at conferences and 2 publications). Ion emission measurements performed in small-scale PF-devices at INFIP and IFAS (Argentina), and in the Micro-Capillary device at Ecole Politechnique (France), were elaborated (5 papers at conferences and 2 publications). New measurements were also performed in the Capillary Z-Pinch device at IPP in Prague. With partial support of a US research contract, studies of the optimization of a neutron yield were performed in the PF-360 facility with special cryogenic targets (made of h eavy ice'' layers) or deuterium-gas targets (10 presentations at conferences, 2 reports for EOARD, and 7 papers

  12. Plasma-surface interaction in negative hydrogen ion sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Motoi

    2018-05-01

    A negative hydrogen ion source delivers more beam current when Cs is introduced to the discharge, but a continuous operation of the source reduces the beam current until more Cs is added to the source. This behavior can be explained by adsorption and ion induced desorption of Cs atoms on the plasma grid surface of the ion source. The interaction between the ion source plasma and the plasma grid surface of a negative hydrogen ion source is discussed in correlation to the Cs consumption of the ion source. The results show that operation with deuterium instead of hydrogen should require more Cs consumption and the presence of medium mass impurities as well as ions of the source wall materials in the arc discharge enlarges the Cs removal rate during an ion source discharge.

  13. MATURING ECRF TECHNOLOGY FOR PLASMA CONTROL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CALLIS, R.W.; CARY, W.P.; CHU, S.; LOANE, J.L.; ELLIS, R.A.; FELCH, K.; GORELOV, Y.A.; GRUNLOH, H.J.; HOSEA, J.; KAJIWARA, K.; LOHR, J.; LUCE, T.C.; PEAVY, J.J.; PINSKER, R.I.; PONCE, D.; PRATER, R.; SHAPIRO, M.; TEMKIN, R.J.; TOOKER, J.F.

    2002-01-01

    OAK A271 MUTURING ECRF TECHNOLOGY FOR PLASMA CONTROL. Understanding of the physics of internal transport barriers (ITBs) is being furthered by analysis and comparisons of experimental data from many different tokamaks worldwide. An international database consisting of scalar and 2-D profile data for ITB plasmas is being developed to determine the requirements for the formation and sustainment of ITBs and to perform tests of theory-based transport models in an effort to improve the predictive capability of the models. Analysis using the database indicates that: (a) the power required to form ITBs decreases with increased negative magnetic shear of the target plasma, and: (b) the E x B flow shear rate is close to the linear growth rate of the ITG modes at the time of barrier formation when compared for several fusion devices. Tests of several transport models (JETTO, Weiland model) using the 2-D profile data indicate that there is only limited agreement between the model predictions and the experimental results for the range of plasma conditions examined for the different devices (DIII-D, JET, JT-60U). Gyrokinetic stability analysis (using the GKS code) of the ITB discharges from these devices indicates that the ITG/TEM growth rates decrease with increased negative magnetic shear and that the E x B shear rate is comparable to the linear growth rates at the location of the ITB

  14. The physics and technology of ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, I.G.

    1989-01-01

    New applications call for ion beams of unprecedented energy, current, species, focus, uniformity, size, and charge states. This comprehensive, up-to-date review and reference for the rapidly evolving field of ion source technology relates improvements to traditional ion sources and describes the development of the new kinds of ion sources. Also provides background material on the physics of ion sources. Chapters are self-contained, making for easy reference

  15. Materials science issues of plasma source ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nastasi, M.; Faehl, R.J.; Elmoursi, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    Ion beam processing, including ion implantation and ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD), are established surface modification techniques which have been used successfully to synthesize materials for a wide variety of tribological applications. In spite of the flexibility and promise of the technique, ion beam processing has been considered too expensive for mass production applications. However, an emerging technology, Plasma Source Ion Implantation (PSII), has the potential of overcoming these limitations to become an economically viable tool for mass industrial applications. In PSII, targets are placed directly in a plasma and then pulsed-biased to produce a non-line-of-sight process for intricate target geometries without complicated fixturing. If the bias is a relatively high negative potential (20--100 kV) ion implantation will result. At lower voltages (50--1,200 V), deposition occurs. Potential applications for PSII are in low-value-added products such as tools used in manufacturing, orthopedic devices, and the production of wear coatings for hard disk media. This paper will focus on the technology and materials science associated with PSII

  16. Nonthermal plasma technology for organic destruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, W.O.; Birmingham, J.G.

    1995-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is investigating the use of nonthermal, electrically driven plasmas for destroying organic contaminants near ambient temperatures and pressures. Three different plasma systems have been developed to treat organics in air, water, and soil. These systems are the Gas-Phase Corona Reactor (GPCR)III for treating air, the Liquid-Phase Corona Reactor for treating water, and In Situ Corona for treating soils. This presentation focuses on recent technical developments, commercial status, and project costs of OPCR as a cost-effective alternative to other air-purification technologies that are now in use to treat off-gases from site-remediation efforts as well as industrial emissions

  17. Light Sources Technologies and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kitsinelis, Spyridon

    2010-01-01

    From the dialogues of the ancient Greek philosophers right up through the physical laws of Newton, the experiments of Thomas Young and the quantum physics pioneers, the study of light was all about observing its characteristics and defining its behavior. At the end of the 19th century, wicks, wax, and oil gave way to electricity, filaments, and gases, and scientific minds began to focus on the technological creation of light, as well as its control and diverse uses. Yet, despite more than a century of profound research and development, until now, the most complete resources on lighting technol

  18. Department of Plasma Physics and Technology - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadowski, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    In 2006 research activity of the P-V Department was concentrated on the continuation of previous studies in the field of plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion (CNF), but several new topics concerning plasma technology were also investigated. The main tasks of the research activities were as follows: 1. Studies of physical phenomena in pulsed discharges producing dense magnetized plasma; 2. Development of methods and tools for high-temperature plasma diagnostics; 3. Research in the field of plasma technologies. In a frame of the first task particular attention was paid to studies of X-ray pulses and fast electron beams emitted from different Plasma-Focus (PF) facilities. The correlation of X-ray pulses with pulsed electron beams and other corpuscular emissions (i.e. accelerated primary ions and fusion reaction products) was investigated in the PF-360 device in Swierk. The X-ray and corpuscular emission was also studied in a PF-1000 facility at IPPLM in Warsaw. Separate efforts were devoted to the investigation of fast electrons escaping from Tokamak-type facilities. Such studies were carried out in a frame of the EURATOM program, using special Cerenkov-type detectors within the CASTOR tokamak, operated at IPP in Prague. Signals from the Cerenkov detector were recorded and interpreted. Other studies concerned the design and construction of a new 4-channel Cerenkov detection system for a TORE-SUPRA facility at CEA-Cadarache. Since thermal loads upon the Cerenkov probe within the TORE SUPRA facility can amount to 1 MW/cm 2 , it was necessary to perform detailed computations of heat transfer in various materials (i.e. diamond-radiators and the probe body). Some efforts were devoted to the calibration of new nuclear track detectors (NTD) and their application for measurements of fusion-produced protons emitted from PF-360 and PF-1000 facilities. In frame of the EURATOM program the calibrated NTD were also applied for measurements of fusion-protons in a TEXTOR

  19. Shunting arc plasma source for pure carbon ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koguchi, H.; Sakakita, H.; Kiyama, S.; Shimada, T.; Sato, Y.; Hirano, Y. [Energy Technology Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)

    2012-02-15

    A plasma source is developed using a coaxial shunting arc plasma gun to extract a pure carbon ion beam. The pure carbon ion beam is a new type of deposition system for diamond and other carbon materials. Our plasma device generates pure carbon plasma from solid-state carbon material without using a hydrocarbon gas such as methane gas, and the plasma does not contain any hydrogen. The ion saturation current of the discharge measured by a double probe is about 0.2 mA/mm{sup 2} at the peak of the pulse.

  20. Shunting arc plasma source for pure carbon ion beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koguchi, H; Sakakita, H; Kiyama, S; Shimada, T; Sato, Y; Hirano, Y

    2012-02-01

    A plasma source is developed using a coaxial shunting arc plasma gun to extract a pure carbon ion beam. The pure carbon ion beam is a new type of deposition system for diamond and other carbon materials. Our plasma device generates pure carbon plasma from solid-state carbon material without using a hydrocarbon gas such as methane gas, and the plasma does not contain any hydrogen. The ion saturation current of the discharge measured by a double probe is about 0.2 mA∕mm(2) at the peak of the pulse.

  1. Plasma control for efficient extreme ultra-violet source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Kensaku; Nakajima, Mitsuo; Kawamura, Tohru; Shiho, Makoto; Hotta, Eiki; Horioka, Kazuhiko

    2008-01-01

    To generate a high efficiency extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) source, effects of plasma shape for controlling radiative plasmas based on xenon capillary discharge are experimentally investigated. The radiation characteristics observed via tapered capillary discharge are compared with those of straight one. From the comparison, the long emission period and different plasma behaviors of tapered capillary discharge are confirmed. This means that control of the plasma geometry is effective for prolonging the EUV emission period. This result also indicates that the plasma shape control seems to have a potential for enhancing the conversion efficiency. (author)

  2. Ferroelectric plasma source for heavy ion beam space charge neutralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efthimion, Philip C.; Gilson, Erik P.; Davidson, Ronald C.; Grisham, Larry; Grant Logan, B.; Seidl, Peter A.; Waldron, William; Yu, Simon S.

    2007-01-01

    Plasmas are a source of unbound electrons for charge neutralizing intense heavy ion beams to allow them to focus to a small spot size and compress their axial pulse length. The plasma source should be able to operate at low neutral pressures and without strong externally applied electric or magnetic fields. To produce 1 m-long plasma columns, sources based upon ferroelectric ceramics with large dielectric coefficients are being developed. The sources utilize the ferroelectric ceramic BaTiO 3 to form metal plasma. The drift tube inner surface of the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) will be covered with ceramic material, and high voltage (∼7 kV) will be applied between the drift tube and the front surface of the ceramics. A prototype ferroelectric source, 20 cm in length, has produced plasma densities of 5x10 11 cm -3 . It was integrated into the Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX), and successfully charge neutralized the K + ion beam. A 1 m-long source comprised of five 20-cm-long sources has been tested. Simply connecting the five sources in parallel to a single pulse forming network power supply yielded non-uniform performance due to the time-dependent nature of the load that each of the five plasma sources experiences. Other circuit combinations have been considered, including powering each source by its own supply. The 1-m-long source has now been successfully characterized, producing relatively uniform plasma over the 1 m length of the source in the mid-10 10 cm -3 density range. This source will be integrated into the NDCX device for charge neutralization and beam compression experiments

  3. Counter-facing plasma guns for efficient extreme ultra-violet plasma light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Akiko; Kuwabara, Hajime; Nakajima, Mitsuo; Kawamura, Tohru; Horioka, Kazuhiko

    2013-11-01

    A plasma focus system composed of a pair of counter-facing coaxial guns was proposed as a long-pulse and/or repetitive high energy density plasma source. We applied Li as the source of plasma for improvement of the conversion efficiency, the spectral purity, and the repetition capability. For operation of the system with ideal counter-facing plasma focus mode, we changed the system from simple coaxial geometry to a multi-channel configuration. We applied a laser trigger to make synchronous multi-channel discharges with low jitter. The results indicated that the configuration is promising to make a high energy density plasma with high spectral efficiency.

  4. RF plasma source for heavy ion beam charge neutralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efthimion, Philip C.; Gilson, Erik; Grisham, Larry; Davidson, Ronald C.; Yu, Simon S.; Logan, B. Grant

    2003-01-01

    Highly ionized plasmas are being used as a medium for charge neutralizing heavy ion beams in order to focus the ion beam to a small spot size. A radio frequency (RF) plasma source has been built at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) in support of the joint Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to study ion beam neutralization with plasma. The goal is to operate the source at pressures ∼ 10 -5 Torr at full ionization. The initial operation of the source has been at pressures of 10 -4 -10 -1 Torr and electron densities in the range of 10 8 -10 11 cm -3 . Recently, pulsed operation of the source has enabled operation at pressures in the 10 -6 Torr range with densities of 10 11 cm -3 . Near 100% ionization has been achieved. The source has been integrated with the NTX facility and experiments have begun

  5. Ferroelectric Plasma Source for Heavy Ion Beam Charge Neutralization

    CERN Document Server

    Efthimion, Philip; Gilson, Erik P; Grisham, Larry; Logan, B G; Waldron, William; Yu, Simon

    2005-01-01

    Plasmas are employed as a medium for charge neutralizing heavy ion beams to allow them to focus to a small spot size. Calculations suggest that plasma at a density of 1-100 times the ion beam density and at a length ~ 0.1-1 m would be suitable. To produce 1 meter plasma, large-volume plasma sources based upon ferroelectric ceramics are being considered. These sources have the advantage of being able to increase the length of the plasma and operate at low neutral pressures. The source will utilize the ferroelectric ceramic BaTiO3 to form metal plasma. The drift tube inner surface of the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) will be covered with ceramic. High voltage (~ 1-5 kV) is applied between the drift tube and the front surface of the ceramic by placing a wire grid on the front surface. A prototype ferroelectric source 20 cm long produced plasma densities ~ 5x1011 cm-3. The source was integrated into the experiment and successfully charge neutralized the K ion beam. Presently, the 1 meter source ...

  6. Modeling of low pressure plasma sources for microelectronics fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Ankur; Bera, Kallol; Kenney, Jason; Rauf, Shahid; Likhanskii, Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    Chemically reactive plasmas operating in the 1 mTorr–10 Torr pressure range are widely used for thin film processing in the semiconductor industry. Plasma modeling has come to play an important role in the design of these plasma processing systems. A number of 3-dimensional (3D) fluid and hybrid plasma modeling examples are used to illustrate the role of computational investigations in design of plasma processing hardware for applications such as ion implantation, deposition, and etching. A model for a rectangular inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source is described, which is employed as an ion source for ion implantation. It is shown that gas pressure strongly influences ion flux uniformity, which is determined by the balance between the location of plasma production and diffusion. The effect of chamber dimensions on plasma uniformity in a rectangular capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) is examined using an electromagnetic plasma model. Due to high pressure and small gap in this system, plasma uniformity is found to be primarily determined by the electric field profile in the sheath/pre-sheath region. A 3D model is utilized to investigate the confinement properties of a mesh in a cylindrical CCP. Results highlight the role of hole topology and size on the formation of localized hot-spots. A 3D electromagnetic plasma model for a cylindrical ICP is used to study inductive versus capacitive power coupling and how placement of ground return wires influences it. Finally, a 3D hybrid plasma model for an electron beam generated magnetized plasma is used to understand the role of reactor geometry on plasma uniformity in the presence of E  ×  B drift. (paper)

  7. Modeling of low pressure plasma sources for microelectronics fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ankur; Bera, Kallol; Kenney, Jason; Likhanskii, Alexandre; Rauf, Shahid

    2017-10-01

    Chemically reactive plasmas operating in the 1 mTorr-10 Torr pressure range are widely used for thin film processing in the semiconductor industry. Plasma modeling has come to play an important role in the design of these plasma processing systems. A number of 3-dimensional (3D) fluid and hybrid plasma modeling examples are used to illustrate the role of computational investigations in design of plasma processing hardware for applications such as ion implantation, deposition, and etching. A model for a rectangular inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source is described, which is employed as an ion source for ion implantation. It is shown that gas pressure strongly influences ion flux uniformity, which is determined by the balance between the location of plasma production and diffusion. The effect of chamber dimensions on plasma uniformity in a rectangular capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) is examined using an electromagnetic plasma model. Due to high pressure and small gap in this system, plasma uniformity is found to be primarily determined by the electric field profile in the sheath/pre-sheath region. A 3D model is utilized to investigate the confinement properties of a mesh in a cylindrical CCP. Results highlight the role of hole topology and size on the formation of localized hot-spots. A 3D electromagnetic plasma model for a cylindrical ICP is used to study inductive versus capacitive power coupling and how placement of ground return wires influences it. Finally, a 3D hybrid plasma model for an electron beam generated magnetized plasma is used to understand the role of reactor geometry on plasma uniformity in the presence of E  ×  B drift.

  8. The Plasma Hearth Process Technology Development Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geimer, R.; Batdorf, J.; Wolfe, P.

    1993-01-01

    The US DOE Office of Technology Development (OTD) is currently evaluating the Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) for potential treatment of several DOE waste types. The PHP is a high-temperature vitrification process that has potential application for a wide range of mixed waste types in both the low-level and transuranic mixed waste categories. The PHP is being tested under both the OTD Mixed Waste Integrated Program and the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration. Initial testing has been completed on several different surrogate waste forms that are representative of some of the DOE mixed waste streams. Destruction of organic material exceeds that of conventional incineration technologies. The vitrified residual has leaching characteristics comparable to glass formulations produced in the high-level waste program. The first phase of the PHP demonstration project has been successfully completed, and the project is currently beginning a comprehensive second phase of development and testing

  9. Technological issues of ion cyclotron heating of fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, D.Q.; Fortgang, C.M.

    1985-01-01

    With the recent promising results of plasma heating using electromagnetic waves (EM waves) in the ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) on the Princeton Large Torus (PLT) tokamak the feasibility of employing ICRF heating to a reactor-like magnetic confinement device is increasing. The high power ICRF experiments funded on JET (Joint European Torus in England) and JT-60 (in Japan) will have rf source power in the range of 10-30 MW. The time scale for the duration of the RF pulse will range from seconds up to steady-state. The development of new RF components that can transmit and launch such high power, long pulse length, EM waves in a plasma environment is a major technological task. In general, the technology issues may be divided into two categories. The first category concerns the region where the plasma comes in contact with the wave launchers. The problems here are dominated by plasmamaterial interaction, heat deposition by the plasma onto the wave launcher, and erosion of the launcher material. It is necessary to minimize the heat deposition from the plasma, the losses of the RF wave energy in the structure, and to prevent sputtering of the antenna components. A solution involves a combined design using special materials and optimal shaping of the Faraday shield (the electrostatic shields which can be used both for an EM wave polarization adjustment and as a particle shield for the launcher). Recent studies by PPPL and McDonnell Douglas Corp. on the Faraday shield designs will be discussed. The second important area where technology development will be necessary is the transmission of high power RF waves through a gas/vacuum interface region. In the past, the vacuum feedthrough has been the bottle neck which prevented high power operation of the PLT antenna

  10. Characteristics of the Plasma Source for Ground Ionosphere Simulation Surveyed by Disk-Type Langmuir Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Kwangsun; Lee, Junchan; Kim, Songoo; Chung, Taejin; Shin, Goo-Hwan; Cha, Wonho; Min, Kyoungwook; Kim, Vitaly P.

    2017-12-01

    A space plasma facility has been operated with a back-diffusion-type plasma source installed in a mid-sized vacuum chamber with a diameter of 1.5 m located in Satellite Technology Research Center (SaTReC), Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST). To generate plasma with a temperature and density similar to the ionospheric plasma, nickel wires coated with carbonate solution were used as filaments that emit thermal electrons, and the accelerated thermal electrons emitted from the heated wires collide with the neutral gas to form plasma inside the chamber. By using a disk-type Langmuir probe installed inside the vacuum chamber, the generation of plasma similar to the space environment was validated. The characteristics of the plasma according to the grid and plate anode voltages were investigated. The grid voltage of the plasma source is realized as a suitable parameter for manipulating the electron density, while the plate voltage is suitable for adjusting the electron temperature. A simple physical model based on the collision cross-section of electron impact on nitrogen molecule was established to explain the plasma generation mechanism.

  11. Plasma focus as a pulsed power source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahlin, H.; McFarland, G.; Barlett, R.; Gullickson, R.

    1975-01-01

    The plasma focus is a remarkable natural phenomena that achieves significant space-time compression of both particle and field energy. Depending on the mode of operation, about 20 percent of the bank energy can be concentrated into the kinetic energy of a thin, dense, cylindrically convergent gas shell, or into a small-diameter, high-ν/γ relativistic electron burst and oppositely directed ion burst. The kinetic energy of the fast ions and electrons can exceed the applied voltage by a factor of greater than 100. The different modes of energy concentration by the plasma focus are presented and discussed both in terms of their role in the direct yield of the focus and for the case of a plasma focus supplemented by various fusionable targets

  12. Spectroscopic measurements of anode plasma with cryogenic pulsed ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneda, H.; Urata, T.; Ohbayashi, K.; Kim, Y.; Horioka, K.; Kasuya, K.

    1987-01-01

    In ion beam diodes, electromagnetic wave is coupled to ion beam. Ion is extracted from anode plasma, which is produced early in the power pulse. However, exact mechanism of anode plasma production, expansion and ion extraction process is unknown. In particularly, anode plasma expansion is seemed to be one of the reasons of rapid impedance collapse of the diode, which is serious problem in high power experiments. Some experimental results showed that anode plasma expansion velocity was about 5 times larger than that inferred from simple thermal velocity. Several explanations for these results were proposed; for example, electron collisionarity in anode plasma, fast neutral gas particle, diamagnetism. To solve this question, it is necessary to measure the characteristic of anode plasma with space and time resolution. The authors made spectroscopic measurements to investigate variety of electron temperature, electron density, expansion velocity of anode plasma with various ion sources

  13. Studies of electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarvainen, O.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis consists of an introduction to the plasma physics of electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS) and a review of the results obtained by the author and co-workers including discussion of related work by others. The thesis begins with a theoretical discussion dealing with plasma physics relevant for the production of highly charged ions in ECR ion source plasmas. This is followed by an overview of different techniques, such as gas mixing and double frequency heating, that can be used to improve the performance of this type of ion source. The experimental part of the work consists of studies related to ECRIS plasma physics. The effect of the gas mixing technique on the production efficiency of different ion beams was studied with both gaseous and solid materials. It was observed that gas mixing improves the confinement of the heavier element while the confinement of the lighter element is reduced. When the effect of gas mixing on MIVOC-plasmas was studied with several mixing gases it was observed that applying this technique can reduce the inevitable carbon contamination by a significant factor. In order to understand the different plasma processes taking place in ECRIS plasmas, a series of plasma potential and emittance measurements was carried out. An instrument, which can be used to measure the plasma potential in a single measurement without disturbing the plasma, was developed for this work. Studying the plasma potential of ECR ion sources is important not only because it helps to understand different plasma processes, but also because the information can be used as an input parameter for beam transport simulations and ion source extraction design. The experiments performed have revealed clear dependencies of the plasma potential on certain source parameters such as the amount of carbon contamination accumulated on the walls of the plasma chamber during a MIVOC-run. It was also observed that gas mixing affects not only the production efficiency

  14. Plasma formulary for physics, astronomy, and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Diver, Declan

    2013-01-01

    This collection of fundamental formulae, up-to-date references and definitions in plasma physics is vital to anyone with an interest in plasmas or ionized gases, whether in physics, astronomy or engineering. Both theorists and experimentalists will find this book useful, as it incorporates the latest results and findings, with extended coverage of fusion plasma, plasma in stellar winds, reaction rates, engineering plasma and many other topics. The text is also unique in treating astrophysical plasmas, fusion plasmas, industrial plasmas and low temperature plasmas as aspects of the same discipline.

  15. Atomic processes and equation of state of high Z plasmas for EUV sources and their effects on the spatial and temporal evolution of the plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Akira; Sunahara, Atushi; Furukawa, Hiroyuki; Nishihara, Katsunobu; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Koike, Fumihiro

    2016-03-01

    Laser-produced plasma (LPP) extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light sources have been intensively investigated due to potential application to next-generation semiconductor technology. Current studies focus on the atomic processes and hydrodynamics of plasmas to develop shorter wavelength sources at λ = 6.x nm as well as to improve the conversion efficiency (CE) of λ = 13.5 nm sources. This paper examines the atomic processes of mid-z elements, which are potential candidates for λ = 6.x nm source using n=3-3 transitions. Furthermore, a method to calculate the hydrodynamics of the plasmas in terms of the initial interaction between a relatively weak prepulse laser is presented.

  16. Long plasma source for heavy ion beam charge neutralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efthimion, Philip C.; Gilson, Erik P.; Grisham, Larry; Davidson, Ronald C.; Grant Logan, Larry B.; Seidl, Peter A.; Waldron, William

    2009-01-01

    Plasmas are a source of unbound electrons for charge neutralizing intense heavy ion beams to focus them to a small spot size and compress their axial length. The plasma source should operate at low neutral pressures and without strong externally applied fields. To produce long plasma columns, sources based upon ferroelectric ceramics with large dielectric coefficients have been developed. The source utilizes the ferroelectric ceramic BaTiO 3 to form metal plasma. The drift tube inner surface of the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) is covered with ceramic material. High voltage (∼8 kV) is applied between the drift tube and the front surface of the ceramics. A BaTiO 3 source comprised of five 20-cm-long sources has been tested and characterized, producing relatively uniform plasma in the 5x10 10 cm -3 density range. The source was integrated into the NDCX device for charge neutralization and beam compression experiments, and yielded current compression ratios ∼120. Present research is developing multi-meter-long and higher density sources to support beam compression experiments for high-energy-density physics applications.

  17. Design and optimization of components and processes for plasma sources in advanced material treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Rotundo, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    The research activities described in the present thesis have been oriented to the design and development of components and technological processes aimed at optimizing the performance of plasma sources in advanced in material treatments. Consumables components for high definition plasma arc cutting (PAC) torches were studied and developed. Experimental activities have in particular focussed on the modifications of the emissive insert with respect to the standard electrode configuration, whi...

  18. Electron Beam Diagnosis and Dynamics using DIADYN Plasma Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toader, D.; Craciun, G.; Manaila, E.; Oproiu, C.; Marghitu, S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is presenting results obtained with the DIADYN installation after replacing its vacuum electron source (VES L V) with a plasma electron source (PES L V). DIADYN is a low energy laboratory equipment operating with 10 to 50 keV electron beams and designed to help realize non-destructive diagnosis and dynamics for low energy electron beams but also to be used in future material irradiations. The results presented here regard the beam diagnosis and dynamics made with beams obtained from the newly replaced plasma source. We discuss both results obtained in experimental dynamics and dynamics calculation results for electron beams extracted from the SEP L V source.

  19. Negative ion surface plasma source development for plasma trap injectors in Novosibirsk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bel'chenko, Yu.I.; Dimov, G.I.; Dudnikov, V.G.; Kupriyanov, A.S.

    1989-01-01

    Work on high-current ion sources carried out at the Novosibirsk Institute of Nuclear Physics (INP) is presented. The INP investigations on ''pure plasma'' planotron and ''pure surface'' secondary emission systems of H - generation, which preceded the surface-plasma concept developed in Novosibirsk, are described. The physical basis of the surface-plasma method of negative-ion production is considered. The versions and operating characteristics of different surface-plasma sources including the multi-ampere (approx-gt 10A) source are discussed. Research on efficient large-area (∼10 2 cm 2 ) negative ion surface-plasma emitters is described. The INP long-pulse multiaperture surface- plasma generators, with a current of about 1A, are described. 38 refs., 17 figs

  20. Discharge plasmas as EUV Sources for Future Micro Lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruecken, Thomas

    2007-08-01

    Future extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography will require very high radiation intensities in a narrow wavelength range around 13.5 nm, which is most efficiently emitted as line radiation by highly ionized heavy particles. Currently the most intense EUV sources are based on xenon or tin gas discharges. After having investigated the limits of a hollow cathode triggered xenon pinch discharge Philips Extreme UV favors a laser triggered tin vacuum spark discharge. Plasma and radiation properties of these highly transient discharges will be compared. Besides simple MHD-models the ADAS software package has been used to generate important atomic and spectral data of the relevant ion stages. To compute excitation and radiation properties, collisional radiative equilibria of individual ion stages are computed. For many lines opacity effects cannot be neglected. In the xenon discharges the optical depths allow for a treatment based on escape factors. Due to the rapid change of plasma parameters the abundancies of the different ionization stages must be computed dynamically. This requires effective ionization and recombination rates, which can also be supplied by ADAS. Due to very steep gradients (up to a couple orders of magnitude per mm) the plasma of tin vacuum spark discharges is very complicated. Therefore we shall describe here only some technological aspects of our tin EUV lamp: The electrode system consists of two rotating which are pulled through baths of molten tin such that a tin film remains on their surfaces. With a laser pulse some tin is ablated from one of the wheels and travels rapidly through vacuum towards the other rotating wheel. When the tin plasma reaches the other electrodes it ignites and the high current phase starts, i.e. the capacitor bank is unloaded, the plasma is pinched and EUV is radiated. Besides the good spectral properties of tin this concept has some other advantages: Erosion of electrodes is no severe problem as the tin film is

  1. Characterization of an electrothermal plasma source for fusion transient simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhart, T. E.; Baylor, L. R.; Rapp, J.; Winfrey, A. L.

    2018-01-01

    The realization of fusion energy requires materials that can withstand high heat and particle fluxes at the plasma material interface. In this work, an electrothermal (ET) plasma source has been designed as a transient heat flux source for a linear plasma material interaction device. An ET plasma source operates in the ablative arc regime driven by a DC capacitive discharge. The current channel width is defined by the 4 mm bore of a boron nitride liner. At large plasma currents, the arc impacts the liner wall, leading to high particle and heat fluxes to the liner material, which subsequently ablates and ionizes. This results in a high density plasma with a large unidirectional bulk flow out of the source exit. The pulse length for the ET source has been optimized using a pulse forming network to have durations of 1 and 2 ms. The peak currents and maximum source energies seen in this system are 1.9 kA and 1.2 kJ for the 2 ms pulse and 3.2 kA and 2.1 kJ for the 1 ms pulse, respectively. This work is a proof of the principal project to show that an ET source produces electron densities and heat fluxes comparable to those anticipated in transient events in large future magnetic confinement fusion devices. Heat flux, plasma temperature, and plasma density were determined for each shot using infrared imaging and optical spectroscopy techniques. This paper will discuss the assumptions, methods, and results of the experiments.

  2. A Penning-assisted subkilovolt coaxial plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhehui; Beinke, Paul D.; Barnes, Cris W.; Martin, Michael W.; Mignardot, Edward; Wurden, Glen A.; Hsu, Scott C.; Intrator, Thomas P.; Munson, Carter P.

    2005-01-01

    A Penning-assisted 20 MW coaxial plasma source (plasma gun), which can achieve breakdown at sub-kV voltages, is described. The minimum breakdown voltage is about 400 V, significantly lower than previously reported values of 1-5 kV. The Penning region for electrons is created using a permanent magnet assembly, which is mounted to the inside of the cathode of the coaxial plasma source. A theoretical model for the breakdown is given. A 900 V 0.5 F capacitor bank supplies energy for gas breakdown and plasma sustainment from 4 to 6 ms duration. Typical peak gun current is about 100 kA and gun voltage between anode and cathode after breakdown is about 200 V. A circuit model is used to understand the current-voltage characteristics of the coaxial gun plasma. Energy deposited into the plasma accounts for about 60% of the total capacitor bank energy. This plasma source is uniquely suitable for studying multi-MW multi-ms plasmas with sub-MJ capacitor bank energy

  3. LLNL large-area inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source: Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, R.A.; Egan, P.O.; Benjamin, R.D.

    1995-05-01

    We describe initial experiments with a large (76-cm diameter) plasma source chamber to explore the problems associated with large-area inductively coupled plasma (ICP) sources to produce high density plasmas useful for processing 400-mm semiconductor wafers. Our experiments typically use a 640-nun diameter planar ICP coil driven at 13.56 MHz. Plasma and system data are taken in Ar and N 2 over the pressure range 3-50 mtorr. RF inductive power was run up to 2000W, but typically data were taken over the range 100-1000W. Diagnostics include optical emission spectroscopy, Langmuir probes, and B probes as well as electrical circuit measurements. The B and E-M measurements are compared with models based on commercial E-M codes. Initial indications are that uniform plasmas suitable for 400-mm processing are attainable

  4. Pulsed, atmospheric pressure plasma source for emission spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yixiang; Jin, Zhe; Su, Yongxuan

    2004-05-11

    A low-power, plasma source-based, portable molecular light emission generator/detector employing an atmospheric pressure pulsed-plasma for molecular fragmentation and excitation is described. The average power required for the operation of the plasma is between 0.02 W and 5 W. The features of the optical emission spectra obtained with the pulsed plasma source are significantly different from those obtained with direct current (dc) discharge higher power; for example, strong CH emission at 431.2 nm which is only weakly observed with dc plasma sources was observed, and the intense CN emission observed at 383-388 nm using dc plasma sources was weak in most cases. Strong CN emission was only observed using the present apparatus when compounds containing nitrogen, such as aniline were employed as samples. The present apparatus detects dimethylsulfoxide at 200 ppb using helium as the plasma gas by observing the emission band of the CH radical. When coupled with a gas chromatograph for separating components present in a sample to be analyzed, the present invention provides an apparatus for detecting the arrival of a particular component in the sample at the end of the chromatographic column and the identity thereof.

  5. RF Plasma Source for Heavy Ion Beam Charge Neutralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efthimion, P. C.; Gilson, E.; Grisham, L.; Davidson, R. C.

    2003-10-01

    Highly ionized plasmas are being employed as a medium for charge neutralizing heavy ion beams in order to focus to a small spot size. Calculations suggest that plasma at a density of 1 - 100 times the ion beam density and at a length 0.1-0.5 m would be suitable for achieving a high level of charge neutralization. An ECR source has been built at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) in support of the joint Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to study ion beam neutralization with plasma. The ECR source operates at 13.6 MHz and with solenoid magnetic fields of 0-10 gauss. The goal is to operate the source at pressures 10-5 Torr at full ionization. The initial operation of the source has been at pressures of 10-4 - 10-1 Torr. Electron densities in the range of 10^8 - 10^11 cm-3 have been achieved. Recently, pulsed operation of the source has enabled operation at pressures in the 10-6 Torr range with densities of 10^11 cm-3. Near 100% ionization has been achieved. The source has been integrated with NTX and is being used in the experiments. The plasma is approximately 10 cm in length in the direction of the beam propagation. Modifications to the source will be presented that increase its length in the direction of beam propagation.

  6. Development of a long-slot microwave plasma source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwata, Y., E-mail: euo1304@mail4.doshisha.ac.jp; Kasuya, T.; Miyamoto, N.; Wada, M. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    A 20 cm long 10 cm wide microwave plasma source was realized by inserting two 20 cm long 1.5 mm diameter rod antennas into the plasma. Plasma luminous distributions around the antennas were changed by magnetic field arrangement created by permanent magnets attached to the source. The distributions appeared homogeneous in one direction along the antenna when the spacing between the antenna and the source wall was 7.5 mm for the input microwave frequency of 2.45 GHz. Plasma density and temperature at a plane 20 cm downstream from the microwave shield were measured by a Langmuir probe array at 150 W microwave power input. The measured electron density and temperature varied over space from 3.0 × 10{sup 9} cm{sup −3} to 5.8 × 10{sup 9} cm{sup −3}, and from 1.1 eV to 2.1 eV, respectively.

  7. Study on underwater plasma arc cutting technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yada, Toshio; Nakamura, Uhachiro; Tomidokoro, Sakae; Fukuzawa, Mitsuo

    1980-01-01

    The zirconium alloy tube of the impile creep test facility had been subjected to inner pressure in the Japan Material Testing Reactor (JMTR) environment. In the near future, it will be necessary to dismantle the facility and to take out the tube for such examinations as irradiation effects on material properties. In order to establish the dismantling technology for the radioactive facility, a study on underwater plasma arc cutting has been carried out since 1977. Primarily, optimum underwater cutting sequence and conditions were studied in details for developing the remote control handling and the cutting system. Further, the amounts of particles suspended in water as well as those contained in bubbled gas were quantitatively analyzed for developing a safe removal system for contaminants which were produced by cutting the radioactive material. As a result of this study, it has been concluded that the underwater plasma arc cutting method is generally suitable and effective for dismantling such radioactive material as the impile creep test facility of the JMTR. (author)

  8. 77 FR 6463 - Revisions to Labeling Requirements for Blood and Blood Components, Including Source Plasma...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... Blood Components, Including Source Plasma; Correction AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION..., Including Source Plasma,'' which provided incorrect publication information regarding a 60-day notice that...

  9. Sources of capabilities, integration and technology commercialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahra, Shaker A.; Nielsen, Anders

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, companies have increased their use of internal and external sources in pursuit of a competitive advantage through the effective and timely commercialization of new technology. Grounded in the resource-based view of the firm, this study examines the effect of a company's use...... of internal and external sources on multiple dimensions of successful technology commercialization (TC). The study also explores the moderating role of formal vs. informal integration mechanisms on these relationships. Applying a longitudinal design and data from 119 companies, the results show that internal...

  10. Plasma Ion Source with an Internal Evaporator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turek, M.; Drozdziel, A.; Pyszniak, K.; Prucnal, S.; Maczka, D.

    2011-01-01

    A new construction of a hollow cathode ion source equipped with an internal evaporator heated by a spiral cathode filament and arc discharge is presented. The source is especially suitable for production of ions from solids. The proximity of arc discharge region and extraction opening enables production of intense ion beams even for very low discharge current (I a = 1.2 A). The currents of 50 μA (Al + ) and 70 μA (Bi + ) were obtained using the extraction voltage of 25 kV. The source is able to work for several tens of hours without maintenance breaks, giving possibility of high dose implantations. The paper presents the detailed description of the ion source as well as its experimental characteristics like dependences of extracted currents and anode voltage on anode and cathode currents. (author)

  11. Plasma source by microwaves: design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camps, E.; Olea, O.; Andrade, R.; Anguiano, G.

    1992-03-01

    The design of a device for the formation of a plasma with densities of the order of 10 12 cm - 3 and low temperatures (T e ∼ 40 eV) is described. For such purpose it was carried out in the device a microwave discharge (f o = 2.45 GHz) in a resonator of high Q factor, immersed in a static external magnetic field. The device worked in the regime ω ce ≤ ω o /2 (ω ce - cyclotron frequency of the electrons, (ω o = 2 π f o ) where is possible the excitement of non lineal phenomena of waves transformation. (Author)

  12. Impurities, temperature, and density in a miniature electrostatic plasma and current source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Den Hartog, D.J.; Craig, D.J.; Fiksel, G.; Sarff, J.S.

    1996-10-01

    We have spectroscopically investigated the Sterling Scientific miniature electrostatic plasma source-a plasma gun. This gun is a clean source of high density (10 19 - 10 20 m -3 ), low temperature (5 - 15 eV) plasma. A key result of our investigation is that molybdenum from the gun electrodes is largely trapped in the internal gun discharge; only a small amount escapes in the plasma flowing out of the gun. In addition, the gun plasma parameters actually improve (even lower impurity contamination and higher ion temperature) when up to 1 kA of electron current is extracted from the gun via the application of an external bias. This improvement occurs because the internal gun anode no longer acts as the current return for the internal gun discharge. The gun plasma is a virtual plasma electrode capable of sourcing an electron emission current density of 1 kA/cm 2 . The high emission current, small size (3 - 4 cm diameter), and low impurity generation make this gun attractive for a variety of fusion and plasma technology applications

  13. Honeycomblike large area LaB6 plasma source for Multi-Purpose Plasma facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Hyun-Jong; Chung, Kyu-Sun; You, Hyun-Jong; Lee, Myoung-Jae; Lho, Taihyeop; Choh, Kwon Kook; Yoon, Jung-Sik; Jung, Yong Ho; Lee, Bongju; Yoo, Suk Jae; Kwon, Myeon

    2007-01-01

    A Multi-Purpose Plasma (MP 2 ) facility has been renovated from Hanbit mirror device [Kwon et al., Nucl. Fusion 43, 686 (2003)] by adopting the same philosophy of diversified plasma simulator (DiPS) [Chung et al., Contrib. Plasma Phys. 46, 354 (2006)] by installing two plasma sources: LaB 6 (dc) and helicon (rf) plasma sources; and making three distinct simulators: divertor plasma simulator, space propulsion simulator, and astrophysics simulator. During the first renovation stage, a honeycomblike large area LaB 6 (HLA-LaB 6 ) cathode was developed for the divertor plasma simulator to improve the resistance against the thermal shock fragility for large and high density plasma generation. A HLA-LaB 6 cathode is composed of the one inner cathode with 4 in. diameter and the six outer cathodes with 2 in. diameter along with separate graphite heaters. The first plasma is generated with Ar gas and its properties are measured by the electric probes with various discharge currents and magnetic field configurations. Plasma density at the middle of central cell reaches up to 2.6x10 12 cm -3 , while the electron temperature remains around 3-3.5 eV at the low discharge current of less than 45 A, and the magnetic field intensity of 870 G. Unique features of electric property of heaters, plasma density profiles, is explained comparing with those of single LaB 6 cathode with 4 in. diameter in DiPS

  14. Energy technology sources, systems and frontier conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Ohta, Tokio

    1994-01-01

    This book provides a concise and technical overview of energy technology: the sources of energy, energy systems and frontier conversion. As well as serving as a basic reference book for professional scientists and students of energy, it is intended for scientists and policy makers in other disciplines (including practising engineers, biologists, physicists, economists and managers in energy related industries) who need an up-to-date and authoritative guide to the field of energy technology.Energy systems and their elemental technologies are introduced and evaluated from the view point

  15. Department of Plasma Physics and Technology: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadowski, M.

    1999-01-01

    beams of protons, alphas, deuterons, nitrogen- and carbon-ions. We also performed tests of NTDs for ion measurements in the TEXTOR facility in Juelich (in cooperation with the ERM group from Brussels). We also continued the elaboration of improved crystal spectrometers for measurements of X-ray polarization (the collaboration with the Kurchatov Institute in Moscow). In addition, we constructed miniature magnetic spectrometers for studies of electron beams, and a nitrogen laser for interferometry (the collaboration with the MFTI in Moscow). Technological studies concerned modelling of HV pulse generators, and particularly systems with pulse transformers were used for pulse shaping. The PSPICE program was applied for computations of one-stage pulsed generators, multi-stage Marx-type systems, HV supply systems, and triggering units. Also designed was a high-energy simulator for studies of electromagnetic compatibility. Studies in the field of plasma-ion techniques used for material engineering were carried out in collaboration with Dept. P-IX in Swierk, and other research centers.In addition we realized a contract with the Ecole Politechnique in Palaiseau (France) connected with an INCO-COPERNICUS grant. It concerned measurements of overvoltages generated within plasma devices of the PF- and RPI-type. We also realized several contracts with industrial laboratories, concerning the design, manufacturing, and tests of special pulse generators. (author)

  16. 20. AINSE plasma science and technology conference. Conference handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The 20th AINSE plasma science and technology conference was held at Flinders University of South Australia on 13-14 February 1995. Topics under discussion included plasma physics studies, current status of rotamak devices, plasma processing and material studies. The handbook contains the conference program, 54 abstracts and a list of participants.

  17. 20. AINSE plasma science and technology conference. Conference handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The 20th AINSE plasma science and technology conference was held at Flinders University of South Australia on 13-14 February 1995. Topics under discussion included plasma physics studies, current status of rotamak devices, plasma processing and material studies. The handbook contains the conference program, 54 abstracts and a list of participants

  18. Fullerene-rare gas mixed plasmas in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asaji, T., E-mail: asaji@oshima-k.ac.jp; Ohba, T. [Oshima National College of Maritime Technology, 1091-1 Komatsu, Suo-oshima, Oshima, Yamaguchi 742-2193 (Japan); Uchida, T.; Yoshida, Y. [Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo University, 2100 Kujirai, Kawagoe, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan); Minezaki, H.; Ishihara, S. [Graduate School of Engineering, Toyo University, 2100 Kujirai, Kawagoe, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan); Racz, R.; Biri, S. [Institute of Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), H-4026 Debrecen, Bem Tér 18/c (Hungary); Muramatsu, M.; Kitagawa, A. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Kato, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    A synthesis technology of endohedral fullerenes such as Fe@C{sub 60} has developed with an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source. The production of N@C{sub 60} was reported. However, the yield was quite low, since most fullerene molecules were broken in the ECR plasma. We have adopted gas-mixing techniques in order to cool the plasma and then reduce fullerene dissociation. Mass spectra of ion beams extracted from fullerene-He, Ar or Xe mixed plasmas were observed with a Faraday cup. From the results, the He gas mixing technique is effective against fullerene destruction.

  19. Lithium technologies for edge plasma control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergeev, Vladimir Yu.; Kuteev, Boris V.; Bykov, Aleksey S.; Krylov, Sergey V.; Skokov, Viacheslav G.; Timokhin, Vladimir M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We have investigated two new modes of operation been in T-10 limiter tokamak experiments with a novel rotary feeder of lithium dust. ► The observed decreases of bolometer and D β signals, with increase of the electron density during the lithium dust injection, reveal the effects of the first wall conditioning. ► The lithium technology may provide inherent safety mission for major disruption mitigation in a tokamak reactor, which requires demonstration in contemporary tokamak experiments. - Abstract: We have investigated two new modes of operation been in T-10 limiter tokamak experiments with a novel rotary feeder of lithium dust. Quasi steady-state mode I and pulse mode II of dust delivery were realized in both OH and OH + ECRH disruption free plasmas at the lithium flow rate up to 2 × 10 21 atoms/s. A higher flow rate in mode II with injection rate of ∼5 × 10 21 atoms/s caused a series of minor disruptions, which was completed by discharge termination after the major disruption. The observed decreases of bolometer and D β signals, with increase of the electron density during the lithium dust injection, reveal the effects of the first wall conditioning. The lithium technology may provide inherent safety pathway for major disruption mitigation in a tokamak reactor, which requires demonstration in contemporary tokamak experiments.

  20. Industrial application of electron sources with plasma emitters

    CERN Document Server

    Belyuk, S I; Rempe, N G

    2001-01-01

    Paper contains a description, operation, design and parameters of electron sources with plasma emitters. One presents examples of application of these sources as part of automated electron-beam welding lines. Paper describes application of such sources for electron-beam deposition of composite powders. Electron-beam deposition is used to rebuild worn out part and to increase strength of new parts of machines and tools. Paper presents some examples of rebuilding part and the advantages gained in this case

  1. Introduction to Plasma Technology Science, Engineering and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Harry, John Ernest

    2011-01-01

    Written by a university lecturer with more than forty years experience in plasma technology, this book adopts a didactic approach in its coverage of the theory, engineering and applications of technological plasmas. The theory is developed in a unified way to enable brevity and clarity, providing readers with the necessary background to assess the factors that affect the behavior of plasmas under different operating conditions. The major part of the book is devoted to the applications of plasma technology and their accompanying engineering aspects, classified by the various pressure and densit

  2. Beam-plasma discharge in a Kyoto beam-plasma-ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, J.; Takagi, T.

    1983-01-01

    A beam-plasma type ion source employing an original operating principle has been developed by the present authors. The ion source consists of an ion extraction region with an electron gun, a thin long drift tube as the plasma production chamber, and a primary electron beam collector. An electron beam is effectively utilized for the dual purpose of high density plasma production as a result of beam-plasma discharge, and high current ion beam extraction with ion space-charge compensation. A high density plasma of the order of 10 11 --10 13 cm -3 was produced by virtue of the beam-plasma discharge which was caused by the interaction between a space-charge wave on the electron beam and a high frequency plasma wave. The plasma density then produced was 10 2 --10 3 times the density produced only by collisional ionization by the electron beam. In order to obtain a stable beam-plasma discharge, a secondary electron beam emitted from the electron collector should be utilized. The mechanism of the beam-plasma discharge was analyzed by use of a linear theory in the case of the small thermal energy of the electron beam, and by use of a quasilinear theory in the case of the large thermal energy. High current ion beams of more than 0.1 A were extracted even at a low extraction voltage of 1--5 kV

  3. Technical and experimental investigations of a plasma focus neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapp, H.K.

    The results obtained from two plasma-focus devices of different size allow to report on the technical and physical properties of such neutron flash sources. The results of some diagnostic methods used for the control of the gas discharge and for the measurement of the neutron production are included. The planning of plasma focus devices is illustrated with the aid of snow-plow calculations

  4. Performance evaluation of a permanent ring magnet based helicon plasma source for negative ion source research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Arun; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Sudhir, Dass; Chakraborty, A.

    2017-10-01

    Helicon wave heated plasmas are much more efficient in terms of ionization per unit power consumed. A permanent magnet based compact helicon wave heated plasma source is developed in the Institute for Plasma Research, after carefully optimizing the geometry, the frequency of the RF power, and the magnetic field conditions. The HELicon Experiment for Negative ion-I source is the single driver helicon plasma source that is being studied for the development of a large sized, multi-driver negative hydrogen ion source. In this paper, the details about the single driver machine and the results from the characterization of the device are presented. A parametric study at different pressures and magnetic field values using a 13.56 MHz RF source has been carried out in argon plasma, as an initial step towards source characterization. A theoretical model is also presented for the particle and power balance in the plasma. The ambipolar diffusion process taking place in a magnetized helicon plasma is also discussed.

  5. Investigation of radiofrequency plasma sources for space travel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, C; Boswell, R W; Takahashi, K

    2012-01-01

    Optimization of radiofrequency (RF) plasma sources for the development of space thrusters differs from other applications such as plasma processing of materials since power efficiency, propellant usage, particle acceleration or heating become driving parameters. The development of two RF (13.56 MHz) plasma sources, the high-pressure (∼1 Torr) capacitively coupled ‘pocket rocket’ plasma micro-thruster and the low-pressure (∼1 mTorr) inductively coupled helicon double layer thruster (HDLT), is discussed within the context of mature and emerging electric propulsion devices. The density gradient in low-pressure expanding RF plasmas creates an electric field that accelerates positive ions out of the plasma. Generally, the total potential drop is similar to that of a wall sheath allowing the plasma electrons to neutralize the ion beam. A high-pressure expansion with no applied magnetic field can result in large dissociation rates and/or a collimated beam of ions of small area and a flowing heated neutral beam (‘pocket rocket’). A low-pressure expansion dominated by a magnetic field can result in the formation of electric double layers which produce a very directed neutralized beam of ions of large area (HDLT). (paper)

  6. Investigation of radiofrequency plasma sources for space travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, C.; Boswell, R. W.; Takahashi, K.

    2012-12-01

    Optimization of radiofrequency (RF) plasma sources for the development of space thrusters differs from other applications such as plasma processing of materials since power efficiency, propellant usage, particle acceleration or heating become driving parameters. The development of two RF (13.56 MHz) plasma sources, the high-pressure (˜1 Torr) capacitively coupled ‘pocket rocket’ plasma micro-thruster and the low-pressure (˜1 mTorr) inductively coupled helicon double layer thruster (HDLT), is discussed within the context of mature and emerging electric propulsion devices. The density gradient in low-pressure expanding RF plasmas creates an electric field that accelerates positive ions out of the plasma. Generally, the total potential drop is similar to that of a wall sheath allowing the plasma electrons to neutralize the ion beam. A high-pressure expansion with no applied magnetic field can result in large dissociation rates and/or a collimated beam of ions of small area and a flowing heated neutral beam (‘pocket rocket’). A low-pressure expansion dominated by a magnetic field can result in the formation of electric double layers which produce a very directed neutralized beam of ions of large area (HDLT).

  7. Characterization of DBD plasma source for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuchenbecker, M; Vioel, W [University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Technology, Von-Ossietzky-Str. 99, 37085 Goettingen (Germany); Bibinov, N; Awakowicz, P [Institute for Electrical Engineering and Plasma Technology, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Universitaetstr. 150, 44780 Bochum (Germany); Kaemlimg, A; Wandke, D, E-mail: m.kuchenbecker@web.d, E-mail: Nikita.Bibinov@rub.d, E-mail: awakowicz@aept-ruhr-uni-bochum.d, E-mail: vioel@hawk-hhg.d [CINOGY GmbH, Max-Naeder-Str. 15, 37114 Duderstadt (Germany)

    2009-02-21

    The dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma source for biomedical application is characterized using optical emission spectroscopy, plasma-chemical simulation and voltage-current measurements. This plasma source possesses only one electrode covered by ceramic. Human body or some other object with enough high electric capacitance or connected to ground can serve as the opposite electrode. DBD consists of a number of microdischarge channels distributed in the gas gap between the electrodes and on the surface of the dielectric. To characterize the plasma conditions in the DBD source, an aluminium plate is used as an opposite electrode. Electric parameters, the diameter of microdischarge channel and plasma parameters (electron distribution function and electron density) are determined. The gas temperature is measured in the microdischarge channel and calculated in afterglow phase. The heating of the opposite electrode is studied using probe measurement. The gas and plasma parameters in the microdischarge channel are studied at varied distances between electrodes. According to an energy balance study, the input microdischarge electric energy dissipates mainly in heating of electrodes (about 90%) and partially (about 10%) in the production of chemical active species (atoms and metastable molecules).

  8. Particle flux at the outlet of an Ecr plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez T, C.; Gonzalez D, J.

    1999-01-01

    The necessity of processing big material areas this has resulted in the development of plasma sources with the important property to be uniform in these areas. Also the continuous diminution in the size of substrates to be processed have stimulated the study of models which allow to predict the control of energy and the density of the ions and neutral particles toward the substrate. On the other hand, there are other applications of the plasma sources where it is very necessary to understand the effects generated by the energetic fluxes of ions and neutrals. These fluxes as well as another beneficial effects can improve the activation energy for the formation and improvement of the diffusion processes in the different materials. In this work, using the drift kinetic approximation is described a model to calculate the azimuthal and radial fluxes in the zone of materials processing of an Ecr plasma source type. The results obtained are compared with experimental results. (Author)

  9. Developing electron beam bunching technology for improving light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsten, B.E.; Chan, K.C.D.; Feldman, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The goal of this project was to develop a new electron bunch compression technology, experimentally demonstrate subpicosecond compression of bunches with charges on the order of 1 nC, and to theoretically investigate fundamental limitations to electron bunch compression. All of these goals were achieved, and in addition, the compression system built for this project was used to generate 22 nm light in a plasma-radiator light source

  10. Microwave plasma source having improved switching operation from plasma ignition phase to normal ion extraction phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakudo, N.; Abe, K.; Koike, H.; Okada, O.; Tokiguchi, K.

    1985-01-01

    In a microwave plasma source, a discharge space supplied with a microwave electric field is supplied with a DC magnetic field. A material to be ionized is introduced into the discharge space to produce plasma, whereby ions are extracted through an ion extracting system. A switch is provided for effecting through switching operation the change-over of the magnetic field applied to the discharge space from the intensity for the ignition of plasma to the intensity for ion extraction in succession to completion of the plasma ignition

  11. Counter-facing plasma guns for efficient extreme ultra-violet plasma light source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuroda Yusuke

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A plasma focus system composed of a pair of counter-facing coaxial guns was proposed as a long-pulse and/or repetitive high energy density plasma source. We applied Li as the source of plasma for improvement of the conversion efficiency, the spectral purity, and the repetition capability. For operation of the system with ideal counter-facing plasma focus mode, we changed the system from simple coaxial geometry to a multi-channel configuration. We applied a laser trigger to make synchronous multi-channel discharges with low jitter. The results indicated that the configuration is promising to make a high energy density plasma with high spectral efficiency.

  12. Proceedings of the 20th symposium on plasma physics and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The supplement contains 133 papers from those presented at the conference; these papers were selected through the review process of the Czechoslovak Journal of Physics. The papers are divided into 5 categories corresponding to the main topics of the symposium, which covered all kinds of plasma research and associated applications: tokamaks and other magnetic confinement devices; short lived plasmas (plasma focus, z-pinch, particle beamplasma interaction, Xray sources); laser plasma and research at the Prague Asterix Laser System (PALS); low temperature plasma; and plasma technology. All 10 papers dealing with tokamaks and other magnetic confinement devices were submitted to INIS, as were 17 papers out of the 28 papers discussing short lived plasmas. (A.K.)

  13. 21 CFR 640.64 - Collection of blood for Source Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Collection of blood for Source Plasma. 640.64... (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.64 Collection of blood for Source Plasma. (a) Supervision. All blood for the collection of Source Plasma shall...

  14. Development of negative heavy ion sources for plasma potential measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasao, M.; Okabe, Y.; Fujisawa, A.; Iguchi, H.; Fujita, J.; Yamaoka, H.; Wada, M.

    1991-10-01

    A plasma sputter negative ion source was studied for its applicability to the potential measurement of a fusion plasma. Both the beam current density and the beam energy spread are key issues. Energy spectra of a self extracted Au - beam from the source were measured under the condition of a constant work function of the production surface. The full width of half maximum (FWHM) increases from 3 eV to 9 eV monotonically as the target voltage increases from 50 V to 300 V, independently from the target surface work function of 2.2 - 3 eV. (author)

  15. Application of plasma technology to nuclear engineering fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Masaaki; Akatsuka, Hiroshi

    1996-01-01

    In order to discuss about the application of the plasma technology to nuclear engineering fields, we mention two subjects, the oxygenation of metal chloride waste by oxygen plasma and the characterization of fine particles generated in the plasma process. Through the experimental results of two subjects, both of the advantage and the disadvantage of the plasma technology and their characteristics are shown and discussed. The following conclusions are obtained. The reactive plasma is effective to oxygenate the chloride wastes. The particle generation which is one of the disadvantages must not be specialized and its characteristics can be estimated. Consequently, the plasma technology should be applicable to nuclear engineering fields adopting its advantage and overcoming its disadvantage. (author)

  16. The ionization length in plasmas with finite temperature ion sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelić, N.; Kos, L.; Tskhakaya, D. D.; Duhovnik, J.

    2009-12-01

    The ionization length is an important quantity which up to now has been precisely determined only in plasmas which assume that the ions are born at rest, i.e., in discharges known as "cold ion-source" plasmas. Presented here are the results of our calculations of the ionization lengths in plasmas with an arbitrary ion source temperature. Harrison and Thompson (H&T) [Proc. Phys. Soc. 74, 145 (1959)] found the values of this quantity for the cases of several ion strength potential profiles in the well-known Tonks-Langmuir [Phys. Rev. 34, 876 (1929)] discharge, which is characterized by "cold" ion temperature. This scenario is also known as the "singular" ion-source discharge. The H&T analytic result covers cases of ion sources proportional to exp(βΦ) with Φ the normalized plasma potential and β =0,1,2 values, which correspond to particular physical scenarios. Many years following H&T's work, Bissell and Johnson (B&J) [Phys. Fluids 30, 779 (1987)] developed a model with the so-called "warm" ion-source temperature, i.e., "regular" ion source, under B&J's particular assumption that the ionization strength is proportional to the local electron density. However, it appears that B&J were not interested in determining the ionization length at all. The importance of this quantity to theoretical modeling was recognized by Riemann, who recently answered all the questions of the most advanced up-to-date plasma-sheath boundary theory with cold ions [K.-U. Riemann, Phys. Plasmas 13, 063508 (2006)] but still without the stiff warm ion-source case solution, which is highly resistant to solution via any available analytic method. The present article is an extension of H&T's results obtained for a single point only with ion source temperature Tn=0 to arbitrary finite ion source temperatures. The approach applied in this work is based on the method recently developed by Kos et al. [Phys. Plasmas 16, 093503 (2009)].

  17. Plasma properties of a modified beam-plasma type ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Junzo; Sano, Fumimichi; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Ektessabi, A.M.; Takagi, Toshinori

    1978-01-01

    The properties of the plasma produced by beam-plasma discharge were experimentally investigated. The ion source used for this work consists of three parts, that is, the ion-extracting region with an electron gun, the drift space and the collector region. Primary and secondary electron beams are injected in to the drift tube. The interaction between plasma and these electron beams causes production of high density plasma by virtue of the beam-plasma discharge. The gas inlet is located in the middle of the drift tube, so that the gas conductance is high. The energy of the primary and secondary electron beams is transferred to that microwaves through beam-plasma interaction. The microwaves heat the plasma electrons by the cyclotron resonance or other mechanism. The amount of the energetic plasma electrons is much larger than that of the beam electrons, so that neutral gas is ionized. The density of the produced plasma is 10 2 or 10 3 times as large as the plasma produced by impact ionization. With a probe located in the middle of the drift tube, the plasma density and the electron temperature can be measured, and the power and spectra of the microwaves can be detected. The microwave oscillation, the primary electron beam characteristics, and the gas pressure characteristics were studied. Larger current of the high energy primary of secondary electron beam is required for the effective discharge. The ion source has to be operated at the minimum gas pressure. The length of beam-plasma interaction and the magnetic field intensity in the drift tube are also important parameters. (Kato, T.)

  18. Investigation of rf plasma light sources for dye laser excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendall, J.S.; Jaminet, J.F.

    1975-06-01

    Analytical and experimental studies were performed to assess the applicability of radio frequency (rf) induction heated plasma light sources for potential excitation of continuous dye lasers. Experimental efforts were directed toward development of a continuous light source having spectral flux and emission characteristics approaching that required for pumping organic dye lasers. Analytical studies were performed to investigate (1) methods of pulsing the light source to obtain higher radiant intensity and (2) methods of integrating the source with a reflective cavity for pumping a dye cell. (TFD)

  19. Discharge regimes and density jumps in a helicon plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohara, S.; Yonekura, K.

    1999-01-01

    A high density plasma source using a helicon wave is becoming very attractive in plasma processing and confinement devices. In the previous work, the characteristics of this wave and plasma performance with diameters of 5 and 45 cm have been studied, and the helicon wave was only observed after the density jump. Recently, density jumps from the low to high electron densities with a level of 10 13 cm -3 were investigated by changing the antenna wavenumber spectrum, and the obtained results were compared with the inductively coupled plasma (ICP). However, the mechanisms of density jumps and plasma production are still open questions to be answered. Here, the authors try to investigate the discharge regimes and density jumps in a helicon plasma source, by changing the antenna wavenumber spectrum. For he case of the parallel current directions in the antenna, where the low wavenumber spectrum part is large, the density jump was observed with the low RF input power of P in < 300 W regardless of the magnetic field. On the other hand, for the case of the opposite directions, where the low wavenumber spectrum part is small, the threshold power to obtain the jump became high with the increase in the magnetic field. This can be understood from the dispersion relation of the helicon wave. The wave structures and the dispersion relations in the discharge modes will be also shown

  20. Plasmas in compact traps: From ion sources to multidisciplinary research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascali, D.; Musumarra, A.; Leone, F.; Galatà, A.; Romano, F. P.; Gammino, S.

    2017-09-01

    In linear (minimum-B) magneto-static traps dense and hot plasmas are heated by electromagnetic radiation in the GHz domain via the Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR). The values of plasma density, temperature and confinement times ( n_eτ_i>10^{13} cm ^{-3} s; T_e>10 keV) are similar to the ones of thermonuclear plasmas. The research in this field -devoted to heating and confinement optimization- has been supported by numerical modeling and advanced diagnostics, for probing the plasma especially in a non-invasive way. ECR-based systems are nowadays able to produce extremely intense (tens or hundreds of mA) beams of light ions (p, d, He), and relevant currents of heavier elements (C, O, N) up to heavy ions like Xe, Pb, U. Such beams can be extracted from the trap by a proper electrostatic system. The above-mentioned properties make these plasmas very attractive for interdisciplinary researches also, such as i) nuclear decays rates measurements in stellar-like conditions, ii) energy conversion studies, being exceptional sources of short-wavelength electromagnetic radiation (EUV, X-rays, hard X-rays and gammas, useful in material science and archaeometry), iii) environments allowing precise spectroscopical measurements as benchmarks for magnetized astrophysical plasmas. The talk will give an overview about the state-of-the-art in the field of intense ion sources, and some new perspectives for interdisciplinary research, with a special attention to the developments based at INFN-LNS.

  1. Characterization of atomic oxygen from an ECR plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naddaf, M; Bhoraskar, V N; Mandale, A B; Sainkar, S R; Bhoraskar, S V

    2002-01-01

    A low-power microwave-assisted electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma system is shown to be a powerful and effective source of atomic oxygen (AO) useful in material processing. A 2.45 GHz microwave source with maximum power of 600 W was launched into the cavity to generate the ECR plasma. A catalytic nickel probe was used to determine the density of AO. The density of AO is studied as a function of pressure and axial position of the probe in the plasma chamber. It was found to vary from ∼1x10 20 to ∼10x10 20 atom m -3 as the plasma pressure was varied from 0.8 to 10 mTorr. The effect of AO in oxidation of silver is investigated by gravimetric analysis. The stoichiometric properties of the oxide are studied using the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy as well as energy dispersive x-ray analysis. The degradation of the silver surface due to sputtering effect was viewed by scanning electron spectroscopy. The sputtering yield of oxygen ions in the plasma is calculated using the TRIM code. The effects of plasma pressure and the distance from the ECR zone on the AO density were also investigated. The density of AO measured by oxidation of silver is in good agreement with results obtained from the catalytic nickel probe

  2. Characterization of atomic oxygen from an ECR plasma source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddaf, M.; Bhoraskar, V. N.; Mandale, A. B.; Sainkar, S. R.; Bhoraskar, S. V.

    2002-11-01

    A low-power microwave-assisted electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma system is shown to be a powerful and effective source of atomic oxygen (AO) useful in material processing. A 2.45 GHz microwave source with maximum power of 600 W was launched into the cavity to generate the ECR plasma. A catalytic nickel probe was used to determine the density of AO. The density of AO is studied as a function of pressure and axial position of the probe in the plasma chamber. It was found to vary from ~1×1020 to ~10×1020 atom m-3 as the plasma pressure was varied from 0.8 to 10 mTorr. The effect of AO in oxidation of silver is investigated by gravimetric analysis. The stoichiometric properties of the oxide are studied using the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy as well as energy dispersive x-ray analysis. The degradation of the silver surface due to sputtering effect was viewed by scanning electron spectroscopy. The sputtering yield of oxygen ions in the plasma is calculated using the TRIM code. The effects of plasma pressure and the distance from the ECR zone on the AO density were also investigated. The density of AO measured by oxidation of silver is in good agreement with results obtained from the catalytic nickel probe.

  3. Characterization of atomic oxygen from an ECR plasma source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naddaf, M [Center for Advanced Studies in Material Science and Solid State Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India); Bhoraskar, V N [Center for Advanced Studies in Material Science and Solid State Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India); Mandale, A B [National Chemical Laboratory, Pashan, Pune 411008 (India); Sainkar, S R [National Chemical Laboratory, Pashan, Pune 411008 (India); Bhoraskar, S V [Center for Advanced Studies in Material Science and Solid State Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India)

    2002-11-01

    A low-power microwave-assisted electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma system is shown to be a powerful and effective source of atomic oxygen (AO) useful in material processing. A 2.45 GHz microwave source with maximum power of 600 W was launched into the cavity to generate the ECR plasma. A catalytic nickel probe was used to determine the density of AO. The density of AO is studied as a function of pressure and axial position of the probe in the plasma chamber. It was found to vary from {approx}1x10{sup 20} to {approx}10x10{sup 20} atom m{sup -3} as the plasma pressure was varied from 0.8 to 10 mTorr. The effect of AO in oxidation of silver is investigated by gravimetric analysis. The stoichiometric properties of the oxide are studied using the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy as well as energy dispersive x-ray analysis. The degradation of the silver surface due to sputtering effect was viewed by scanning electron spectroscopy. The sputtering yield of oxygen ions in the plasma is calculated using the TRIM code. The effects of plasma pressure and the distance from the ECR zone on the AO density were also investigated. The density of AO measured by oxidation of silver is in good agreement with results obtained from the catalytic nickel probe.

  4. Plasma technology - a novel solution for CO2 conversion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoeckx, Ramses; Bogaerts, Annemie

    2017-10-02

    CO 2 conversion into value-added chemicals and fuels is considered as one of the great challenges of the 21st century. Due to the limitations of the traditional thermal approaches, several novel technologies are being developed. One promising approach in this field, which has received little attention to date, is plasma technology. Its advantages include mild operating conditions, easy upscaling, and gas activation by energetic electrons instead of heat. This allows thermodynamically difficult reactions, such as CO 2 splitting and the dry reformation of methane, to occur with reasonable energy cost. In this review, after exploring the traditional thermal approaches, we have provided a brief overview of the fierce competition between various novel approaches in a quest to find the most effective and efficient CO 2 conversion technology. This is needed to critically assess whether plasma technology can be successful in an already crowded arena. The following questions need to be answered in this regard: are there key advantages to using plasma technology over other novel approaches, and if so, what is the flip side to the use of this technology? Can plasma technology be successful on its own, or can synergies be achieved by combining it with other technologies? To answer these specific questions and to evaluate the potentials and limitations of plasma technology in general, this review presents the current state-of-the-art and a critical assessment of plasma-based CO 2 conversion, as well as the future challenges for its practical implementation.

  5. Electron Beam Diagnosis and Dynamics using DIADYN Plasma Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toader, D; Craciun, G; Manaila, E; Oproiu, C [National Institute of Research for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics Bucuresti (Romania); Marghitu, S [ICPE Electrostatica S.A - Bucuresti (Romania)

    2009-11-15

    This paper is presenting results obtained with the DIADYN installation after replacing its vacuum electron source (VES{sub L}V) with a plasma electron source (PES{sub L}V). DIADYN is a low energy laboratory equipment operating with 10 to 50 keV electron beams and designed to help realize non-destructive diagnosis and dynamics for low energy electron beams but also to be used in future material irradiations. The results presented here regard the beam diagnosis and dynamics made with beams obtained from the newly replaced plasma source. We discuss both results obtained in experimental dynamics and dynamics calculation results for electron beams extracted from the SEP{sub L}V source.

  6. Operation of Ferroelectric Plasma Sources in a Gas Discharge Mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunaevsky, A.; Fisch, N.J.

    2004-01-01

    Ferroelectric plasma sources in vacuum are known as sources of ablative plasma, formed due to surface discharge. In this paper, observations of a gas discharge mode of operation of the ferroelectric plasma sources (FPS) are reported. The gas discharge appears at pressures between approximately 20 and approximately 80 Torr. At pressures of 1-20 Torr, there is a transition from vacuum surface discharge to the gas discharge, when both modes coexist and the surface discharges sustain the gas discharge. At pressures between 20 and 80 Torr, the surface discharges are suppressed, and FPS operate in pure gas discharge mode, with the formation of almost uniform plasma along the entire surface of the ceramics between strips. The density of the expanding plasma is estimated to be about 1013 cm-3 at a distance of 5.5 mm from the surface. The power consumption of the discharge is comparatively low, making it useful for various applications. This paper also presents direct measurements of the yield of secondary electron emission from ferroelectric ceramics, which, at low energies of primary electrons, is high and dependent on the polarization of the ferroelectric material

  7. Plasma source ion implantation of ammonia into electroplated chromium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheuer, J.T.; Walter, K.C.; Rej, D.J.; Nastasi, M.; Blanchard, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    Ammonia gas (NH 3 ) has been used as a nitrogen source for plasma source ion implantation processing of electroplated chromium. No evidence was found of increased hydrogen concentrations in the bulk material, implying that ammonia can be used without risking hydrogen embrittlement. The retained nitrogen dose of 2.1 x 10 17 N-at/cm 2 is sufficient to increase the surface hardness of electroplated Cr by 24% and decrease the wear rate by a factor of 4

  8. RF Plasma modeling of the Linac4 H− ion source

    CERN Document Server

    Mattei, S; Hatayama, A; Lettry, J; Kawamura, Y; Yasumoto, M; Schmitzer, C

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on the modelling of the ICP RF-plasma in the Linac4 H− ion source currently being constructed at CERN. A self-consistent model of the plasma dynamics with the RF electromagnetic field has been developed by a PIC-MCC method. In this paper, the model is applied to the analysis of a low density plasma discharge initiation, with particular interest on the effect of the external magnetic field on the plasma properties, such as wall loss, electron density and electron energy. The use of a multi-cusp magnetic field effectively limits the wall losses, particularly in the radial direction. Preliminary results however indicate that a reduced heating efficiency results in such a configuration. The effect is possibly due to trapping of electrons in the multi-cusp magnetic field, preventing their continuous acceleration in the azimuthal direction.

  9. Enhanced confinement in electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachter, L; Stiebing, K E; Dobrescu, S

    2010-02-01

    Power loss by plasma-wall interactions may become a limitation for the performance of ECR and fusion plasma devices. Based on our research to optimize the performance of electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) devices by the use of metal-dielectric (MD) structures, the development of the method presented here, allows to significantly improve the confinement of plasma electrons and hence to reduce losses. Dedicated measurements were performed at the Frankfurt 14 GHz ECRIS using argon and helium as working gas and high temperature resistive material for the MD structures. The analyzed charge state distributions and bremsstrahlung radiation spectra (corrected for background) also clearly verify the anticipated increase in the plasma-electron density and hence demonstrate the advantage by the MD-method.

  10. Operation of the ORNL High Particle Flux Helicon Plasma Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulding, Richard Howell; Biewer, Theodore M.; Caughman, John B.; Chen, Guangye; Owen, Larry W.; Sparks, Dennis O.

    2011-01-01

    A high power, high particle flux rf-based helicon plasma source has been constructed at ORNL and operated at power levels up to 30 kW. High-density hydrogen and helium plasmas have been produced. The source has been designed as the basis for a linear plasma materials interaction (PMI) test facility that will generate particle fluxes Gamma(p) > 10(23) M-3 s(-1), and utilize additional ion and electron cyclotron heating to produce high parallel (to the magnetic field) heat fluxes of similar to 10 MW/m(2). An rf-based source for PMI research is of interest because high plasma densities are generated with no internal electrodes, allowing true steady state operation with minimal impurity generation. The ORNL helicon source has a diameter of 15 cm and to-date has operated at a frequency f = 13.56 MHz, with magnetic field strength vertical bar B vertical bar in the antenna region up to similar to 0.15 T. Maximum densities of 3 x 10(19) M-3 in He and 2.5 x 10(19) m(-3) in H have been achieved. Radial density profiles have been seen to be dependent on the axial vertical bar B vertical bar profile.

  11. Operation of the ORNL High Particle Flux Helicon Plasma Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulding, R. H.; Biewer, T. M.; Caughman, J. B. O.; Chen, G. C.; Owen, L. W.; Sparks, D. O.

    2011-01-01

    A high power, high particle flux rf-based helicon plasma source has been constructed at ORNL and operated at power levels up to 30 kW. High-density hydrogen and helium plasmas have been produced. The source has been designed as the basis for a linear plasma materials interaction (PMI) test facility that will generate particle fluxes Γ p 10 23 m -3 s -1 , and utilize additional ion and electron cyclotron heating to produce high parallel (to the magnetic field) heat fluxes of ∼10 MW/m 2 . An rf-based source for PMI research is of interest because high plasma densities are generated with no internal electrodes, allowing true steady state operation with minimal impurity generation. The ORNL helicon source has a diameter of 15 cm and to-date has operated at a frequency f = 13.56 MHz, with magnetic field strength |B| in the antenna region up to ∼0.15 T. Maximum densities of 3x10 19 m -3 in He and 2.5x10 19 m -3 in H have been achieved. Radial density profiles have been seen to be dependent on the axial |B| profile.

  12. Commercialization of Plasma-Assisted Technologies: The Indian Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, P. I.

    The paper describes an initiative by the Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), India in establishing links with the Indian industry for developing and commercialising advanced plasma-based industrial technologies. This has culminated in the creation of a self-financing technology development, incubation, demonstration and delivery facility. A business plan for converting the knowledge base to commercially viable technologies conceived technology as a product and the industry as the market and addressed issues like resistance to new technologies, the key role of entrepreneur, thrust areas and the necessity of technology incubation and delivery. Success of this strategy is discussed in a few case studies. We conclude by identifying the cost, environmental, strategic and techno-economic aspects, which would be the prime drivers for plasma-assisted manufacturing technology in India.

  13. Characteristics of an elongated plasma column produced by magnetically coupled hollow cathode plasma source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuva, M. P.; Karkari, S. K.; Kumar, Sunil

    2018-03-01

    An elongated plasma column in the presence of an axial magnetic field has been formed using a cylindrical hollow cathode (HC) and a constricted anode (CA). The plasma characteristics of the central line have been found to vary with the magnetic field strength and the axial distance from the source. It is believed that the primary electrons constituting the discharge current are steered by the axial magnetic field to undertake ionizing collisions along the plasma column. The current carrying electrons from the HC reach the anode by cross-field diffusion towards the central line. The above observation has been substantiated using a phenomenological model which links the observed characteristics of the source with the plasma column. The experimental results are found to be in qualitative agreement with the model.

  14. Conditioning technology of spent radium sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Il Sik; Kim, K. J.; Jang, K. D.

    2001-03-01

    In order to avoid accidents that could be resulted from improper storage of spent radium sources, it is necessary to condition and store them safely. The program for safe conditioning of spent radium sources by IAEA has been established to assist the developing countries. The main object of this report is to understand well and apply the technology that was applied in conditioning the national inventory of Ra-226 sources in Myanmar, as a part of IAEA's project by the Korean expert team. The report is the result that the Korean expert team carried out in Myanmar under the project title 'Radium Conditioning Service in Myanmar(INT4131-06646C)'. As a result of the mission, a whole inventory, 1,429.5 mCi of spent radium sources was safely conditioned by the Korean expert team according to the manual under the supervision of IAEA's technical officer, Mr. Al-Mughrabi, and under the control of DAE authority. These sources were encapsuled in 27 small capsules and 3 large capsules, and conditioned in 3 lead shields, producing 3 packages. The inventories were distributed into 3 shielding devices, holding 500, 459.5, and 470 mCi

  15. Optical emission spectra of a copper plasma produced by a metal vapour vacuum arc plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yotsombat, B.; Poolcharuansin, P.; Vilaithong, T.; Davydov, S.; Brown, I.G.

    2001-01-01

    Optical emission spectroscopy in the range 200-800 nm was applied for investigation of the copper plasma produced by a metal vapour vacuum arc plasma source. The experiments were conducted for the cases when the plasma was guided by straight and Ω-shaped curved solenoids as well as without solenoids, and also for different vacuum conditions. It was found that, besides singly- and doubly-charged ions, a relatively high concentration of excited neutral copper atoms was present in the plasma. The relative fraction of excited atoms was much higher in the region close to the cathode surface than in the plasma column inside the solenoid. The concentration of excited neutral, singly- and doubly-ionized atoms increased proportionally when the arc current was increased to 400 A. Some weak lines were attributed to more highly ionized copper species and impurities in the cathode material. (author)

  16. Plasma phenomenology in astrophysical systems: Radio-sources and jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montani, Giovanni; Petitta, Jacopo

    2014-01-01

    We review the plasma phenomenology in the astrophysical sources which show appreciable radio emissions, namely Radio-Jets from Pulsars, Microquasars, Quasars, and Radio-Active Galaxies. A description of their basic features is presented, then we discuss in some details the links between their morphology and the mechanisms that lead to the different radio-emissions, investigating especially the role played by the plasma configurations surrounding compact objects (Neutron Stars, Black Holes). For the sake of completeness, we briefly mention observational techniques and detectors, whose structure set them apart from other astrophysical instruments. The fundamental ideas concerning angular momentum transport across plasma accretion disks—together with the disk-source-jet coupling problem—are discussed, by stressing their successes and their shortcomings. An alternative scenario is then inferred, based on a parallelism between astrophysical and laboratory plasma configurations, where small-scale structures can be found. We will focus our attention on the morphology of the radio-jets, on their coupling with the accretion disks and on the possible triggering phenomena, viewed as profiles of plasma instabilities

  17. Plasma and Ion Sources in Large Area Coatings: A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, Andre

    2005-02-28

    Efficient deposition of high-quality coatings often requires controlled application of excited or ionized particles. These particles are either condensing (film-forming) or assisting by providing energy and momentum to the film growth process, resulting in densification, sputtering/etching, modification of stress, roughness, texture, etc. In this review, the technical means are surveyed enabling large area application of ions and plasmas, with ion energies ranging from a few eV to a few keV. Both semiconductortype large area (single wafer or batch processing with {approx} 1000 cm{sup 2}) and in-line web and glass-coating-type large area (> 10{sup 7} m{sup 2} annually) are considered. Characteristics and differences between plasma and ion sources are explained. The latter include gridded and gridless sources. Many examples are given, including sources based on DC, RF, and microwave discharges, some with special geometries like hollow cathodes and E x B configurations.

  18. ECR plasma source for heavy ion beam charge neutralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efthimion, Philip C.; Gilson, Erik; Grisham, Larry; Kolchin, Pavel; Davidson, Ronald C.; Yu, Simon; Logan, B. Grant

    2003-01-01

    Highly ionized plasmas are being considered as a medium for charge neutralizing heavy ion beams in order to focus beyond the space-charge limit. Calculations suggest that plasma at a density of 1 100 times the ion beam density and at a length [similar]0.1 2 m would be suitable for achieving a high level of charge neutralization. An Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) source has been built at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) to support a joint Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to study ion beam neutralization with plasma. The ECR source operates at 13.6 MHz and with solenoid magnetic fields of 1 10 gauss. The goal is to operate the source at pressures [similar]10[minus sign]6 Torr at full ionization. The initial operation of the source has been at pressures of 10[minus sign]4 10[minus sign]1 Torr. Electron densities in the range of 108 to 1011 cm[minus sign]3 have been achieved. Low-pressure operation is important to reduce ion beam ionization. A cusp magnetic field has been installed to improve radial confinement and reduce the field strength on the beam axis. In addition, axial confinement is believed to be important to achieve lower-pressure operation. To further improve breakdown at low pressure, a weak electron source will be placed near the end of the ECR source. This article also describes the wave damping mechanisms. At moderate pressures (> 1 mTorr), the wave damping is collisional, and at low pressures (< 1 mTorr) there is a distinct electron cyclotron resonance.

  19. Grid system design on the plasma cathode electron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agus Purwadi

    2014-01-01

    It has been designed the grid system on the Plasma Cathode Electron Source (PCES). Grid system with the electron emission hole of (15 x 60) cm 2 , the single aperture grid size of (0,5 x O,5) mm 2 and the grid wire diameter of 0,25 mm, will be used on the plasma generator chamber. If the sum of grid holes known and the value of electron emission current through every the grid hole known too then the total value of electron emission Current which emits from the plasma generator chamber can be determined It has been calculated the value of electron emission current I e as function of the grid radius r e =(0.28, 0.40, 0.49, 0.56, 0.63, 0.69) mm on the electron temperature of T e = 5 eV for varying of the value plasma electron densities n e = (10 15 , 10 16 , 10 17 , 10 18 ) m -3 . Also for the value of electron emission current fe as function of the grid radius r e = (0.28, 0.40, 0.49. 0.56, 0.63,0.69) mm on the electron density n e = 10 17 m -3 for varying of the value of plasma electron temperatures T e = (1, 2, 3, 4, 5) eV. electron emission current will be increase by increasing grid radius, electron temperature as well as plasma electron density. (author)

  20. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Plasma Fusion Center, Technical Research Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-08-01

    A review is given of the technical programs carried out by the Plasma Fusion Center. The major divisions of work areas are applied plasma research, confinement experiments, fusion technology and engineering, and fusion systems. Some objectives and results of each program are described

  1. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Plasma Fusion Center, Technical Research Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, Ronald C.

    1980-08-01

    A review is given of the technical programs carried out by the Plasma Fusion Center. The major divisions of work areas are applied plasma research, confinement experiments, fusion technology and engineering, and fusion systems. Some objectives and results of each program are described. (MOW)

  2. New developments of plasma science with pulsed power technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamada, Keiichi; Ozaki, Tetsuo

    2010-03-01

    In this proceedings, the papers presented at the symposium on “New developments of Plasma Science with Pulsed Power Technology” held at National Institute for Fusion Science on March 5-6, 2009 are collected. The papers reflect the present status and recent progress in the experimental and theoretical works on plasma science using pulsed power technology. (author)

  3. First plasma of the A-PHOENIX electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuillier, T.; Lamy, T.; Latrasse, L.; Angot, J.

    2008-01-01

    A-PHOENIX is a new compact hybrid electron cyclotron resonance ion source using a large permanent magnet hexapole (1.92 T at the magnet surface) and high temperature superconducting Solenoids (3 T) to make min-vertical bar B vertical bar structure suitable for 28 GHz cw operation. The final assembly of the source was achieved at the end of June 2007. The first plasma of A-PHOENIX at 18 GHz was done on the 16th of August, 2007. The technological specificities of A-PHOENIX are presented. The large hexapole built is presented and experimental magnetic measurements show that it is nominal with respect to simulation. A fake plasma chamber prototype including thin iron inserts showed that the predicted radial magnetic confinement can be fulfilled up to 2.15 T at the plasma chamber wall. Scheduled planning of experiments until the end of 2008 is presented

  4. Impurity radiation from a beam-plasma neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molvik, A.W.

    1995-01-01

    Impurity radiation, in a worst case evaluation for a beam-plasma neutron source (BPNS), does not limit performance. Impurities originate from four sources: (a) sputtering from walls by charge exchange or alpha particle bombardment, (b) sputtering from limiters, (c) plasma desorption of gas from walls and (d) injection with neutral beams. Sources (c) and (d) are negligible; adsorbed gas on the walls of the confinement chamber and the neutral beam sources is removed by the steady state discharge. Source (b) is negligible for impinging ion energies below the sputtering threshold (T i ≤ 0.025 keV on tungsten) and for power densities to the limiter within the capabilities of water cooling (30-40 MW/m 2 ); both conditions can be satisfied in the BPNS. Source (a) radiates 0.025 MW/m 2 to the neutron irradiation samples, compared with 5 to 10 MW/m 2 of neutrons; and radiates a total of 0.08 MW from the plasma column, compared with 60 MW of injected power. The particle bombardment that yields source (a) deposits an average of 2.7 MW/m 2 on the samples, within the capabilities of helium gas cooling (10 MW/m 2 ). An additional worst case for source (d) is evaluated for present day 2 to 5 s pulsed neutral beams with 0.1% impurity density and is benchmarked against 2XIIB. The total radiation would increase a factor of 1.5 to ≤ 0.12 MW, supporting the conclusion that impurities will not have a significant impact on a BPN. (author). 61 refs, 7 figs, 2 tabs

  5. 137Cs - Brachytherapy sources : a technology scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varma, R.N.

    2001-01-01

    Cancer has emerged as one of the major cause of morbidity and mortality all over the world. India houses world's second largest population and registers 4-5 lakhs new cancer cases every year. Cancer of cervix is most common form of malignancy among Indian women. Radiation therapy, especially intracavity brachytherapy in conjunction with other modalities like surgery, chemotherapy has been found to be highly effective for the management and control of cervical carcinoma at all stages. A technology has been developed indigenously for the fabrication of 137 Cs sources for brachytherapy applications

  6. Spallation sources in support of technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pynn, R [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-05-01

    In this contribution I summarize a number of recent experiments at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) that have contributed to strategic and applied research. A number of new tools have been developed to address these problems, including software that allows materials texture to be obtained during Rietveld refinement, Bragg-edge diffraction, resonant-neutron and proton radiography. These tools have the potential to impact basic as well as applied research. It is clear that a new, more powerful neutron source such as the planned Japanese Hadron Project will be able to use these and other techniques to contribute in a direct way to important industrial technologies. (author)

  7. Physics and application of plasmas based on pulsed power technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotta, Eiki; Ozaki, Tetsuo

    2012-04-01

    The papers presented at the symposium on 'Physics and Application of Plasmas Based on Pulsed Power Technology' held on December 21-22, 2010 at National Institute of Fusion Science are collected. The papers in this proceeding reflect the current status and progress in the experimental and theoretical researches on high power particle beams and high energy density plasmas produced by pulsed power technology. (author)

  8. Overview and future prospects of laser plasma propulsion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Zhiyuan; Lu Xin; Zhang Jie

    2003-01-01

    Due to its high cost, low efficiency, complex operation and unsatisfactory recycling, traditional rocket propulsion by chemical fuels has hindered the exploration of outer space to further limits. With the rapid development of laser and space technology, the new technology of laser propulsion exhibits unique advantages and prospects. The mechanism and current development of laser plasma propulsion are reviewed, with mention of the technical problems and focus issues of laser plasma in micro-flight propulsion

  9. Design of a helicon plasma source for ion–ion plasma production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, N., E-mail: narayan.sharma@cppipr.res.in; Chakraborty, M.; Neog, N.K.; Bandyopadhyay, M.

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Development of a helicon plasma system to carry out ion–ion plasma studies in electronegative gases such as Hydrogen, Oxygen and Chlorine. • Determination of initial parameters of helicon plasma source for ion–ion plasma by using dispersion relation of bounded helicon waves. • Design and development of solenoid with magnetic field strength production capability of ∼ 600 G along the axis of the chamber. • Optimization of the chamber parameters using Helic codes and estimation of optimum attainable density. • Estimation of RF power requirements for various gases. - Abstract: A helicon plasma system is being designed and developed at CPP-IPR. The design parameters of the system are deduced from the dispersion relation of bounded helicon waves and the required magnetic fields are simulated by using Poisson Superfish code. The Helic code is used to simulate the power deposition profile for various conditions and to investigate the optimum values of chamber parameters for effective coupling of radio frequency (RF) power to plasma. The helicon source system is aimed at carrying out ion–ion plasma studies in electronegative gases such as Hydrogen, Oxygen and Chlorine. The system mainly consists of a source chamber in which helicon plasma will be produced by injecting RF power at a frequency of 13.56 MHz through a right helical antenna in presence of a DC magnetic field followed by an expansion chamber in which it is expected to produce negative ions along with the positive ions. Installation of the various parts of the system is in progress. The details of the design and development of the system is presented in this article.

  10. Development of deep silicon plasma etching for 3D integration technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golishnikov А. А.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Plasma etch process for thought-silicon via (TSV formation is one of the most important technological operations in the field of metal connections creation between stacked circuits in 3D assemble technology. TSV formation strongly depends on parameters such as Si-wafer thickness, aspect ratio, type of metallization material, etc. The authors investigate deep silicon plasma etch process for formation of TSV with controllable profile. The influence of process parameters on plasma etch rate, silicon etch selectivity to photoresist and the structure profile are researched in this paper. Technology with etch and passivation steps alternation was used as a method of deep silicon plasma etching. Experimental tool «Platrane-100» with high-density plasma reactor based on high-frequency ion source with transformer coupled plasma was used for deep silicon plasma etching. As actuation gases for deep silicon etching were chosen the following gases: SF6 was used for the etch stage and CHF3 was applied on the polymerization stage. As a result of research, the deep plasma etch process has been developed with the following parameters: silicon etch rate 6 µm/min, selectivity to photoresist 60 and structure profile 90±2°. This process provides formation of TSV 370 µm deep and about 120 µm in diameter.

  11. Plasma shape control by pulsed solenoid on laser ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekine, M.; Ikeda, S.; Romanelli, M.; Kumaki, M.; Fuwa, Y.; Kanesue, T.; Hayashizaki, N.; Lambiase, R.; Okamura, M.

    2015-01-01

    A Laser ion source (LIS) provides high current heavy ion beams with a very simple mechanical structure. Plasma is produced by a pulsed laser ablation of a solid state target and ions are extracted by an electric field. However, it was difficult to manipulate the beam parameters of a LIS, since the plasma condition could only be adjusted by the laser irradiation condition. To enhance flexibility of LIS operation, we employed a pulsed solenoid in the plasma drift section and investigated the effect of the solenoid field on singly charged iron beams. The experimentally obtained current profile was satisfactorily controlled by the pulsed magnetic field. This approach may also be useful to reduce beam emittance of a LIS

  12. Plasma shape control by pulsed solenoid on laser ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, M.; Ikeda, S.; Romanelli, M.; Kumaki, M.; Fuwa, Y.; Kanesue, T.; Hayashizaki, N.; Lambiase, R.; Okamura, M.

    2015-09-01

    A Laser ion source (LIS) provides high current heavy ion beams with a very simple mechanical structure. Plasma is produced by a pulsed laser ablation of a solid state target and ions are extracted by an electric field. However, it was difficult to manipulate the beam parameters of a LIS, since the plasma condition could only be adjusted by the laser irradiation condition. To enhance flexibility of LIS operation, we employed a pulsed solenoid in the plasma drift section and investigated the effect of the solenoid field on singly charged iron beams. The experimentally obtained current profile was satisfactorily controlled by the pulsed magnetic field. This approach may also be useful to reduce beam emittance of a LIS.

  13. Plasma shape control by pulsed solenoid on laser ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekine, M. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 2-12-1 (Japan); RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Ikeda, S. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8502 (Japan); RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Romanelli, M. [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14850 (United States); Kumaki, M. [RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Waseda University, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-0072 (Japan); Fuwa, Y. [RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Kanesue, T. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Hayashizaki, N. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 2-12-1 (Japan); Lambiase, R. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Okamura, M. [RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2015-09-21

    A Laser ion source (LIS) provides high current heavy ion beams with a very simple mechanical structure. Plasma is produced by a pulsed laser ablation of a solid state target and ions are extracted by an electric field. However, it was difficult to manipulate the beam parameters of a LIS, since the plasma condition could only be adjusted by the laser irradiation condition. To enhance flexibility of LIS operation, we employed a pulsed solenoid in the plasma drift section and investigated the effect of the solenoid field on singly charged iron beams. The experimentally obtained current profile was satisfactorily controlled by the pulsed magnetic field. This approach may also be useful to reduce beam emittance of a LIS.

  14. Plasma diagnostic tools for optimizing negative hydrogen ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fantz, U.; Falter, H.D.; Franzen, P.; Speth, E.; Hemsworth, R.; Boilson, D.; Krylov, A.

    2006-01-01

    The powerful diagnostic tool of optical emission spectroscopy is used to measure the plasma parameters in negative hydrogen ion sources based on the surface mechanism. Results for electron temperature, electron density, atomic-to-molecular hydrogen density ratio, and gas temperature are presented for two types of sources, a rf source and an arc source, which are currently under development for a neutral beam heating system of ITER. The amount of cesium in the plasma volume is obtained from cesium radiation: the Cs neutral density is five to ten orders of magnitude lower than the hydrogen density and the Cs ion density is two to three orders of magnitude lower than the electron density in front of the grid. It is shown that monitoring of cesium lines is very useful for monitoring the cesium balance in the source. From a line-ratio method negative ion densities are determined. In a well-conditioned source the negative ion density is of the same order of magnitude as the electron density and correlates with extracted current densities

  15. Technology and plasma-materials interaction processes of tokamak disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrath, R.T.; Kellman, A.G.

    1992-01-01

    A workshop on the technology and plasma-materials interaction processes of tokamak disruptions was held April 3, 1992 in Monterey, California, as a satellite meeting of the 10th International Conference on Plasma-Surface Interactions. The objective was to bring together researchers working on disruption measurements in operating tokamaks, those performing disruption simulation experiments using pulsed plasma gun, electron beam and laser systems, and computational physicists attempting to model the evolution and plasma-materials interaction processes of tokamak disruptions. This is a brief report on the workshop. 4 refs

  16. Adaptation of the perfect linear model for ion beam formation to the case of plasma sources with electron electrostatic containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coste, Ph.; Aubert, J.; Lejeune, C.

    1991-01-01

    The extensive development of ion beam technologies in the last years, in particular for thin film deposition and etching, poses the problem of predicting the behaviour of the ion beam from convenient models. One of the existing models, the 'perfect linear model', is easy to use and provides information about the geometrical parameters of the ion beam envelope. In this model, however, the plasma potential must be close to the plasma electrode potential. Now, ion sources with electrostatic containment of the ionizing electrons -very attractive because of their improved ionization efficiency - have a plasma potential higher than the plasma electrode potential. Thus, a space-charge sheath with a non-negligible thickness exists, which modifies the equilibrium conditions of the plasma meniscus and, therefore, the initial divergence of the ion beam. In this paper an adaptation of the perfect linear model for ion beam formation to the case of plasma sources with electron electrostatic containment is presented. (author)

  17. Degradation of sulfur dioxide using plasma technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada M, N.; Garcia E, R.; Pacheco P, M.; Valdivia B, R.; Pacheco S, J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the electro-chemical study performed for sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) treatment using non thermal plasma coupled to a nano structured fluid bed enhancing the toxic gas removal and the adsorption of acids formed during plasma treatment, more of 80% of removal was obtained. Non thermal plasma was ignited by dielectric barrier discharge (Dbd). The research was developed through an analysis of the chemical kinetics of the process and experimental study of degradation; in each experiment the electrical parameters and the influence of carbon nano structures were monitored to establish the optimal conditions of degradation. We compared the theoretical and experimental results to conclude whether the proposed model is correct for degradation. (Author)

  18. A novel plasma source for sterilization of living tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martines, E; Zuin, M; Cavazzana, R; Gazza, E; Serianni, G; Spagnolo, S; Spolaore, M; Leonardi, A; Deligianni, V; Brun, P; Aragona, M; Castagliuolo, I; Brun, P

    2009-01-01

    A source for the production of low-power plasmas at atmospheric pressure, to be used for the nondamaging sterilization of living tissues, is presented. The source, powered by radiofrequency and working with a helium flow, has a specific configuration, studied to prevent the formation of electric arcs dangerous to living matter. It is capable of killing different types of bacteria with a decimal reduction time of 1-2 min; on the contrary, human cells such as conjunctival fibroblasts were found to be almost unharmed by the plasma. A high concentration of OH radicals, likely to be the origin of the sterilizing effect, is detected through their UV emission lines. The effect of the UV and the OH radicals on the fibroblasts was analysed and no significant effects were detected.

  19. Dynamics of ion beam charge neutralization by ferroelectric plasma sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepanov, Anton D.; Gilson, Erik P.; Grisham, Larry R.; Kaganovich, Igor D.; Davidson, Ronald C. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2016-04-15

    Ferroelectric Plasma Sources (FEPSs) can generate plasma that provides effective space-charge neutralization of intense high-perveance ion beams, as has been demonstrated on the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment NDCX-I and NDCX-II. This article presents experimental results on charge neutralization of a high-perveance 38 keV Ar{sup +} beam by a plasma produced in a FEPS discharge. By comparing the measured beam radius with the envelope model for space-charge expansion, it is shown that a charge neutralization fraction of 98% is attainable with sufficiently dense FEPS plasma. The transverse electrostatic potential of the ion beam is reduced from 15 V before neutralization to 0.3 V, implying that the energy of the neutralizing electrons is below 0.3 eV. Measurements of the time-evolution of beam radius show that near-complete charge neutralization is established ∼5 μs after the driving pulse is applied to the FEPS and can last for 35 μs. It is argued that the duration of neutralization is much longer than a reasonable lifetime of the plasma produced in the sub-μs surface discharge. Measurements of current flow in the driving circuit of the FEPS show the existence of electron emission into vacuum, which lasts for tens of μs after the high voltage pulse is applied. It is argued that the beam is neutralized by the plasma produced by this process and not by a surface discharge plasma that is produced at the instant the high-voltage pulse is applied.

  20. Laboratory Plasma Source as an MHD Model for Astrophysical Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Robert M.

    1997-01-01

    The significance of the work described herein lies in the demonstration of Magnetized Coaxial Plasma Gun (MCG) devices like CPS-1 to produce energetic laboratory magneto-flows with embedded magnetic fields that can be used as a simulation tool to study flow interaction dynamic of jet flows, to demonstrate the magnetic acceleration and collimation of flows with primarily toroidal fields, and study cross field transport in turbulent accreting flows. Since plasma produced in MCG devices have magnetic topology and MHD flow regime similarity to stellar and extragalactic jets, we expect that careful investigation of these flows in the laboratory will reveal fundamental physical mechanisms influencing astrophysical flows. Discussion in the next section (sec.2) focuses on recent results describing collimation, leading flow surface interaction layers, and turbulent accretion. The primary objectives for a new three year effort would involve the development and deployment of novel electrostatic, magnetic, and visible plasma diagnostic techniques to measure plasma and flow parameters of the CPS-1 device in the flow chamber downstream of the plasma source to study, (1) mass ejection, morphology, and collimation and stability of energetic outflows, (2) the effects of external magnetization on collimation and stability, (3) the interaction of such flows with background neutral gas, the generation of visible emission in such interaction, and effect of neutral clouds on jet flow dynamics, and (4) the cross magnetic field transport of turbulent accreting flows. The applicability of existing laboratory plasma facilities to the study of stellar and extragalactic plasma should be exploited to elucidate underlying physical mechanisms that cannot be ascertained though astrophysical observation, and provide baseline to a wide variety of proposed models, MHD and otherwise. The work proposed herin represents a continued effort on a novel approach in relating laboratory experiments to

  1. Magnetosphere of Uranus: plasma sources, convection, and field configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigt, G.; Hill, T.W.; Dessler, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    At the time of the Voyager 2 flyby of Uranus, the planetary rotational axis will be roughly antiparallel to the solar wind flow. If Uranus has a magnetic dipole moment that is approximately aligned with its spin axis, and if the heliospheric shock has not been encountered, we will have the rare opportunity to observe a ''pole-on'' magnetosphere as discussed qualitatively by Siscoe. Qualitative arguments based on analogy with Earth, Jupiter, and Saturn suggest that the magnetosphere of Uranus may lack a source of plasma adequate to produce significant internal currents, internal convection, and associated effects. In order to provide a test of this hypothesis with the forthcoming Voyager measurements, we have constructed a class of approximately self-consistent quantitative magnetohydrostatic equilibrium configurations for a pole-on magnetosphere with variable plasma pressure parameters. Given a few simplifying assumptions, the geometries of the magnetic field and of the tail current sheet can be computed for a given distribution of trapped plasma pressure. The configurations have a single funnel-shaped polar cusp that points directly into the solar wind and a cylindrical tail plasma sheet whose currents close within the tail rather than on the tail magnetopause, and whose length depends on the rate of decrease of thermal plasma pressure down the tail. Interconnection between magnetospheric and interplanetary fields results in a highly asymmetric tail-field configuration. These features were predicted qualtitatively by Siscoe; the quantitative models presented here may be useful in the interpretation of Voyager encounter results

  2. High Current, High Density Arc Plasma as a New Source for WiPAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waleffe, Roger; Endrizzi, Doug; Myers, Rachel; Wallace, John; Clark, Mike; Forest, Cary; WiPAL Team

    2016-10-01

    The Wisconsin Plasma Astrophysics Lab (WiPAL) has installed a new array of nineteen plasma sources (plasma guns) on its 3 m diameter, spherical vacuum vessel. Each gun is a cylindrical, molybdenum, washer-stabilized, arc plasma source. During discharge, the guns are maintained at 1.2 kA across 100 V for 10 ms by the gun power supply establishing a high density plasma. Each plasma source is fired independently allowing for adjustable plasma parameters, with densities varying between 1018 -1019 m-3 and electron temperatures of 5-15 eV. Measurements were characterized using a 16 tip Langmuir probe. The plasma source will be used as a background plasma for the magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG), the Terrestrial Reconnection Experiment (TREX), and as the plasma source for a magnetic mirror experiment. Temperature, density, and confinement results will be presented. This work is supported by the DoE and the NSF.

  3. Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Annual Reports 1996 and 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatramani, N.

    1999-04-01

    This report describes the activity of the Laser and Plasma Technology Division of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre during the two year period 1996- 1997. This division is engaged in the research and development of high power beams mainly laser, plasma and electron beams. Laser and Plasma Technology Division has strived to establish indigenous capability to cater to the requirements of Department of Atomic Energy. This involves development and technology readiness study of laser, plasma and electron beam devices. In addition, studies are also carried out on related physical phenomenon with a view to gain better understanding of the devices. This report has been compiled from individual reports of various groups/sections working in the division. A list of publications by the several members of the division is also included. (author)

  4. Laser-produced plasma-extreme ultraviolet light source for next generation lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishihara, Katsunobu; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Gamada, Kouhei; Murakami, Masakatsu; Mochizuki, Takayasu; Sasaki, Akira; Sunahara, Atsushi

    2005-01-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography is the most promising candidate for the next generation lithography for the 45 nm technology node and below. EUV light sources under consideration use 13.5 nm radiations from multicharged xenon, tin and lithium ions, because Mo/Si multiplayer mirrors have high reflectivity at this wavelength. A review of laser-produced plasma (LPP) EUV light sources is presented with a focus on theoretical and experimental studies under the auspices of the Leading Project promoted by MEXT. We discuss three theoretical topics: atomic processes in the LPP-EUV light source, conversion efficiency from laser light to EUV light at 13.5 nm wave-length with 2% bound width, and fast ion spectra. The properties of EUV emission from tin and xenon plasmas are also shown based on experimental results. (author)

  5. Source Taxation of Technological Services in Finnish Tax Treaties

    OpenAIRE

    Kiviranta, Tuomas

    2016-01-01

    In this study, I analyze the various means of source taxation of technological and other services permitted by Finnish double taxation conventions and the future of source taxation of technological and other services. I attempt to shed light on the various means of source taxation of technological services permitted by Finnish tax treaties and by tax treaties also more generally. I analyze 1) the taxation of technological services in the source country as the profits of a permanent establishm...

  6. Mass analyzer ``MASHA'' high temperature target and plasma ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semchenkov, A. G.; Rassadov, D. N.; Bekhterev, V. V.; Bystrov, V. A.; Chizov, A. Yu.; Dmitriev, S. N.; Efremov, A. A.; Guljaev, A. V.; Kozulin, E. M.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Starodub, G. Ya.; Voskresensky, V. M.; Bogomolov, S. L.; Paschenko, S. V.; Zelenak, A.; Tikhonov, V. I.

    2004-05-01

    A new separator and mass analyzer of super heavy atoms (MASHA) has been created at the FLNR JINR Dubna to separate and measure masses of nuclei and molecules with precision better than 10-3. First experiments with the FEBIAD plasma ion source have been done and give an efficiency of ionization of up to 20% for Kr with a low flow test leak (6 particle μA). We suppose a magnetic field optimization, using the additional electrode (einzel lens type) in the extracting system, and an improving of the vacuum conditions in order to increase the ion source efficiency.

  7. Mass analyzer 'MASHA' high temperature target and plasma ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semchenkov, A.G.; Rassadov, D.N.; Bekhterev, V.V.; Bystrov, V.A.; Chizov, A.Yu.; Dmitriev, S.N.; Efremov, A.A.; Guljaev, A.V.; Kozulin, E.M.; Oganessian, Yu.Ts.; Starodub, G.Ya.; Voskresensky, V.M.; Bogomolov, S.L.; Paschenko, S.V.; Zelenak, A.; Tikhonov, V.I.

    2004-01-01

    A new separator and mass analyzer of super heavy atoms (MASHA) has been created at the FLNR JINR Dubna to separate and measure masses of nuclei and molecules with precision better than 10 -3 . First experiments with the FEBIAD plasma ion source have been done and give an efficiency of ionization of up to 20% for Kr with a low flow test leak (6 particle μA). We suppose a magnetic field optimization, using the additional electrode (einzel lens type) in the extracting system, and an improving of the vacuum conditions in order to increase the ion source efficiency

  8. Efficient cesiation in RF driven surface plasma negative ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belchenko, Yu.; Ivanov, A.; Konstantinov, S.; Sanin, A., E-mail: sanin@inp.nsk.su; Sotnikov, O. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-15

    Experiments on hydrogen negative ions production in the large radio-frequency negative ion source with cesium seed are described. The system of directed cesium deposition to the plasma grid periphery was used. The small cesium seed (∼0.5 G) provides an enhanced H{sup −} production during a 2 month long experimental cycle. The gradual increase of negative ion yield during the long-term source runs was observed after cesium addition to the source. The degraded H{sup −} production was recorded after air filling to the source or after the cesium washing away from the driver and plasma chamber walls. The following source conditioning by beam shots produces the gradual recovery of H{sup −} yield to the high value. The effect of H{sup −} yield recovery after cesium coverage passivation by air fill was studied. The concept of cesium coverage replenishment and of H{sup −} yield recovery due to sputtering of cesium from the deteriorated layers is discussed.

  9. Low pressure plasmas and microstructuring technology

    CERN Document Server

    Franz, Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    A monograph that presents a perspective of gas discharge physics and its applications to various industries. It presents an overview of the different types to generate plasmas by DC discharges, capacitive and inductive radiofrequency coupling, helicon waves including electron cyclotron resonance, and ion beams.

  10. Elaboration in the area of plasma technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsaidov, U.M.

    2002-01-01

    In the Institute of Chemistry the plasma chemical method of forming of fine-dispersed semi-conductors, magnetic and amorphous powders of boron and aluminium nitride was elaborated, the method of aluminium hydride conversion for the receiving of fine-grained magnetic powders and alloys was elaborated

  11. Technological yields of sources for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagorski, Z.P.

    1990-01-01

    The present report is prepared for planners of radiation processing of any material. Sources with cobalt-60 are treated marginally, because most probably, there will be no installation of technically meaningful activity in Poland before the year 2000. Calculations are focused on accelerators of electrons, divided into two groups: versatile linacs of energy up to 13 MeV and accelerators of lower energy, below 2 MeV, of better energetical yield but of limited applications. The calculations are connected with the confrontation of the author's technological expectations during the preparation of the linac project in the late '60s, with the results of twenty years of exploitation of the machine. One has to realize that from the 150 kV input power from the mains, only 5 kV of bent and scanned beam is recovered on the conveyor. That power is only partially used for radiation induced phenomena, sometimes only a few percent, because of the demanded homogeneity of the dose, of the mode of packing of the object and its shape, of losses at the edges of the scanned area and in the spaces between boxes, and of losses during the dead time due to the tuning of the machine and dosimetric operations. The use of lower energy accelerators may be more economical in case of objects of optimum type. At the first stage, that is of the conversion of electrical power into that of the low energy electron beam, the yield is 2-3 times better than in the case of linacs. Attention has been paid to the technological aspects of electron beam conversion into the more penetrating bremsstrahlung similar to gamma radiation. The advantages of these technologies, which make it possible to control the shape of the processed object are stressed. Ten parameters necessary for a proper calculation of technological yields of radiation processing are listed. Additional conditions which must be taken into account in the comparison of the cost of radiation processing with the cost of other technologies are also

  12. Modeling of thermal plasma arc technology FY 1994 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkes, G.L.; Nguyen, H.D.; Paik, S.; McKellar, M.G.

    1995-03-01

    The thermal plasma arc process is under consideration to thermally treat hazardous and radioactive waste. A computer model for the thermal plasma arc technology was designed as a tool to aid in the development and use of the plasma arc-Joule beating process. The value of this computer model is to: (a) aid in understanding the plasma arc-Joule beating process as applied to buried waste or exhumed buried waste, (b) help design melter geometry and electrode configuration, (c) calculate the process capability of vitrifying waste (i.e., tons/hour), (d) develop efficient plasma and melter operating conditions to optimize the process and/or reduce safety hazards, (e) calculate chemical reactions during treatment of waste to track chemical composition of off-gas products, and composition of final vitrified waste form and (f) help compare the designs of different plasma-arc facilities. A steady-state model of a two-dimensional axisymmetric transferred plasma arc has been developed and validated. A parametric analysis was performed that studied the effects of arc length, plasma gas composition, and input power on the temperatures and velocity profiles of the slag and plasma gas. A two-dimensional transient thermo-fluid model of the US Bureau of Mines plasma arc melter has been developed. This model includes the growth of a slag pool. The thermo-fluid model is used to predict the temperature and pressure fields within a plasma arc furnace. An analysis was performed to determine the effects of a molten metal pool on the temperature, velocity, and voltage fields within the slag. A robust and accurate model for the chemical equilibrium calculations has been selected to determine chemical composition of final waste form and off-gas based on the temperatures and pressures within the plasma-arc furnace. A chemical database has been selected. The database is based on the materials to be processed in the plasma arc furnaces

  13. Plasma technology of the surface polymer activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutra, Jorge C.N.; Mello, Sandra C.; Massi, Marcos; Otani, Choyu; Maciel, Homero S.; Bittencourt, Edison

    2005-01-01

    A number of polymers, especially rubbers, require surface treatment to achieve a satisfactory level of adhesion. The surface of EPDM rubber vulcanized is high hydrophobicity and is not suited for a number of potential applications, in particular, for adhering to the polyurethane liner of solid rocket propellants. In this case, plasma treatment can be a very attractive process because it can efficiently increase the surface energy attributed to surface oxidation with the introduction of polar groups 1, 2. In order to investigate the influence of the parameters on the modifications of the treated surface samples of EPDM rubber by plasma generated by gas oxygen and argon, the water and methylene iodide contact angles were measured at room temperature with an image analyzing using the sessile drop technique 3 - 6 . (author)

  14. Science and Technology of Future Light Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dierker, S.; Bergmann, U.; Corlett, J.; Dierker, S.; Falcone, R.; Galayda, J.; Gibson, M.; Hastings, J.; Hettel, B.; Hill, J.; Hussain, Z.; Kao, C.-C.; Kirx, J.; Long, G.; McCurdy, B.; Raubenheimer, T.; Sannibale, F.; Seeman, J.; Shen, Z.-X.; Shenoy, G.; Schoenlein, B.; Shen, Q.; Stephenson, B.; Stohr, J.; Zholents, A.

    2008-01-01

    Many of the important challenges facing humanity, including developing alternative sources of energy and improving health, are being addressed by advances that demand the improved understanding and control of matter. While the visualization, exploration, and manipulation of macroscopic matter have long been technological goals, scientific developments in the twentieth century have focused attention on understanding matter on the atomic scale through the underlying framework of quantum mechanics. Of special interest is matter that consists of natural or artificial nanoscale building blocks defined either by atomic structural arrangements or by electron or spin formations created by collective correlation effects. The essence of the challenge to the scientific community has been expressed in five grand challenges for directing matter and energy recently formulated by the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (1). These challenges focus on increasing our understanding of, and ultimately control of, matter at the level of atoms, electrons. and spins, as illustrated in Figure 1.1, and serve the entire range of science from advanced materials to life sciences. Meeting these challenges will require new tools that extend our reach into regions of higher spatial, temporal, and energy resolution. X-rays with energies above 10 keV offer capabilities extending beyond the nanoworld shown in Figure 1.1 due to their ability to penetrate into optically opaque or thick objects. This opens the door to combining atomic level information from scattering studies with 3D information on longer length scales from real space imaging with a resolution approaching 1 nm. The investigation of multiple length scales is important in hierarchical structures, providing knowledge about function of living organisms, the atomistic origin of materials failure, the optimization of industrial synthesis, or the working of devices. Since the fundamental interaction that holds matter together is of

  15. Science and Technology of Future Light Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmann, Uwe; Corlett, John; Dierker, Steve; Falcone, Roger; Galayda, John; Gibson, Murray; Hastings, Jerry; Hettel, Bob; Hill, John; Hussain, Zahid; Kao, Chi-Chang; Kirz, Janos; Long, Danielle; McCurdy, Bill; Raubenheimer, Tor; Sannibale, Fernando; Seeman, John; Shen, Z. -X.; Schenoy, Gopal; Schoenlein, Bob; Shen, Qun; Stephenson, Brian; Stohr, Joachim; Zholents, Alexander

    2009-01-28

    Many of the important challenges facing humanity, including developing alternative sources of energy and improving health, are being addressed by advances that demand the improved understanding and control of matter. While the visualization, exploration, and manipulation of macroscopic matter have long been technological goals, scientific developments in the twentieth century have focused attention on understanding matter on the atomic scale through the underlying framework of quantum mechanics. Of special interest is matter that consists of natural or artificial nanoscale building blocks defined either by atomic structural arrangements or by electron or spin formations created by collective correlation effects The essence of the challenge to the scientific community has been expressed in five grand challenges for directing matter and energy recently formulated by the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee. These challenges focus on increasing our understanding of, and ultimately control of, matter at the level of atoms, electrons. and spins, as illustrated in Figure 1.1, and serve the entire range of science from advanced materials to life sciences. Meeting these challenges will require new tools that extend our reach into regions of higher spatial, temporal, and energy resolution. X-rays with energies above 10 keV offer capabilities extending beyond the nanoworld shown in Figure 1.1 due to their ability to penetrate into optically opaque or thick objects. This opens the door to combining atomic level information from scattering studies with 3D information on longer length scales from real space imaging with a resolution approaching 1 nm. The investigation of multiple length scales is important in hierarchical structures, providing knowledge about function of living organisms, the atomistic origin of materials failure, the optimization of industrial synthesis, or the working of devices. Since the fundamental interaction that holds matter together is of

  16. Science and Technology of Future Light Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierker,S.; Bergmann, U.; Corlett, J.; Dierker, S.; Falcone, R.; Galayda, J.; Gibson, M.; Hastings, J.; Hettel, B.; Hill, J.; Hussain, Z.; Kao, C.-C.; Kirx, J.; Long, G.; McCurdy, B.; Raubenheimer, T.; Sannibale, F.; Seeman, J.; Shen, Z.-X.; Shenoy, g.; Schoenlein, B.; Shen, Q.; Stephenson, B.; Stohr, J.; Zholents, A.

    2008-12-01

    Many of the important challenges facing humanity, including developing alternative sources of energy and improving health, are being addressed by advances that demand the improved understanding and control of matter. While the visualization, exploration, and manipulation of macroscopic matter have long been technological goals, scientific developments in the twentieth century have focused attention on understanding matter on the atomic scale through the underlying framework of quantum mechanics. Of special interest is matter that consists of natural or artificial nanoscale building blocks defined either by atomic structural arrangements or by electron or spin formations created by collective correlation effects. The essence of the challenge to the scientific community has been expressed in five grand challenges for directing matter and energy recently formulated by the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee [1]. These challenges focus on increasing our understanding of, and ultimately control of, matter at the level of atoms, electrons. and spins, as illustrated in Figure 1.1, and serve the entire range of science from advanced materials to life sciences. Meeting these challenges will require new tools that extend our reach into regions of higher spatial, temporal, and energy resolution. X-rays with energies above 10 keV offer capabilities extending beyond the nanoworld shown in Figure 1.1 due to their ability to penetrate into optically opaque or thick objects. This opens the door to combining atomic level information from scattering studies with 3D information on longer length scales from real space imaging with a resolution approaching 1 nm. The investigation of multiple length scales is important in hierarchical structures, providing knowledge about function of living organisms, the atomistic origin of materials failure, the optimization of industrial synthesis, or the working of devices. Since the fundamental interaction that holds matter together is of

  17. PWFA plasma source - interferometric diagnostics for Li vapor density measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivakumaran, V.; Mohandas, K.K.; Singh, Sneha; Ravi Kumar, A.V.

    2015-01-01

    A prototype (40 cm long) plasma source based on Li heat pipe oven has been developed for the Plasma Wakefield Acceleration (PWFA) experiments at IPR (IPR), Gujarat as a part of the ongoing Accelerator Programme. Li vapor in the oven is produced by heating solid Li in helium buffer gas. A uniform column of Li plasma is generated by UV photo ionization (193 nm) of the Li vapor in the heat pipe oven. In these experiments, an accurate measurement of Li vapor density is important as it has got a direct consequence on the plasma electron density. In the present experiment, the vapor density is measured optically by using Hook method (spectrally resolved white light interferometry). The hook like structure formed near the vicinity of the Li 670.8 nm resonance line was recorded with a white light Mach Zehnder interferometer crossed with an imaging spectrograph to estimate the Li vapor density. The vapor density measurements have been carried out as a function of external oven temperature and the He buffer gas pressure. This technique has the advantage of being insensitive to line broadening and line shape, and its high dynamic range even with optically thick absorption line. Here, we present the line integrated Lithium vapor density measurement using Hook method and also compare the same with other optical diagnostic techniques (White light absorption and UV absorption) for Li vapor density measurements. (author)

  18. Preliminary Calculation for Plasma Chamber Design of Pulsed Electron Source Based on Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widdi Usada

    2009-01-01

    This paper described the characteristics of pulsed electron sources with anode-cathode distance of 5 cm, electrode diameter of 10 cm, driven by capacitor energy of 25 J. The preliminary results showed that if the system is operated with diode resistance is 1.6 Ω, plasma resistance is 0.14 Ω, and β is 0.94, the achieved of plasma voltage is 640 V, its current is 4.395 kA with its pulse width of 0.8 μsecond. According to breakdown voltage based on Paschen empirical formula, with this achieved voltage, this system could be operated for operation pressure of 1 torr. (author)

  19. Modeling of magnetically enhanced capacitively coupled plasma sources: Ar discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushner, Mark J.

    2003-01-01

    Magnetically enhanced capacitively coupled plasma sources use transverse static magnetic fields to modify the performance of low pressure radio frequency discharges. Magnetically enhanced reactive ion etching (MERIE) sources typically use magnetic fields of tens to hundreds of Gauss parallel to the substrate to increase the plasma density at a given pressure or to lower the operating pressure. In this article results from a two-dimensional hybrid-fluid computational investigation of MERIE reactors with plasmas sustained in argon are discussed for an industrially relevant geometry. The reduction in electron cross field mobility as the magnetic field increases produces a systematic decrease in the dc bias (becoming more positive). This decrease is accompanied by a decrease in the energy and increase in angular spread of the ion flux to the substrate. Similar trends are observed when decreasing pressure for a constant magnetic field. Although for constant power the magnitudes of ion fluxes to the substrate increase with moderate magnetic fields, the fluxes decreased at larger magnetic fields. These trends are due, in part, to a reduction in the contributions of more efficient multistep ionization

  20. Biological stimulation of the Human skin applying health promoting light and plasma sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awakowicz, P.; Bibinov, N. [Center for Plasma Science and Technology, Ruhr-University, Bochum (Germany); Born, M.; Niemann, U. [Philips Research, Aachen (Germany); Busse, B. [Zell-Kontakt GmbH, Noerten-Hardenberg (Germany); Gesche, R.; Kuehn, S.; Porteanu, H.E. [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut fuer Hoechstfrequenztechnik, Berlin (Germany); Helmke, A. [University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Goettingen (Germany); Kaemling, A.; Wandke, D. [CINOGY GmbH, Duderstadt (Germany); Kolb-Bachofen, V.; Liebmann, J. [Institute for Immunobiology, Heinrich-Heine University, Duesseldorf (Germany); Kovacs, R.; Mertens, N.; Scherer, J. [Aurion Anlagentechnik GmbH, Seligenstadt (Germany); Oplaender, C.; Suschek, C. [Clinic for Plastic Surgery, University Clinic, Aachen (Germany); Vioel, W. [Laser-Laboratorium, Goettingen (Germany); University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Goettingen (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    In the frame of BMBF project ''BioLiP'', new physical treatment techniques aiming at medical treatment of the human skin have been developed. The acronym BioLiP stands for ''Desinfektion, Entkeimung und biologische Stimulation der Haut durch gesundheitsfoerdernde Licht- und Plasmaquellen'' (Disinfection, germ reduction and biological stimulation of the human skin by health promoting light and plasma sources). A source applying a low-temperature dielectric barrier discharge plasma (DBD) has been investigated on its effectiveness for skin disinfection and stimulation of biological material. Alternatively an atmospheric plasma source consisting of a microwave resonator combined with a solid state power oscillator has been examined. This concept which allows for a compact and efficient design avoiding external microwave power supply and matching units has been optimized with respect to nitrogen monoxide (NO) production in high yields. In both cases various application possibilities in the medical and biological domain are opened up. Light sources in the visible spectral range have been investigated with respect to the proliferation of human cell types. Intensive highly selective blue light sources based on LED technology can slow down proliferation rates without inducing toxic effects which offers new opportunities for treatments of so-called hyperproliferative skin conditions (e.g. with psoriasis or in wound healing) using UV-free light. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. Broadband frequency ECR ion source concepts with large resonant plasma volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.

    1995-01-01

    New techniques are proposed for enhancing the performances of ECR ion sources. The techniques are based on the use of high-power, variable-frequency, multiple-discrete-frequency, or broadband microwave radiation, derived from standard TWT technology, to effect large resonant ''volume'' ECR sources. The creation of a large ECR plasma ''volume'' permits coupling of more power into the plasma, resulting in the heating of a much larger electron population to higher energies, the effect of which is to produce higher charge state distributions and much higher intensities within a particular charge state than possible in present forms of the ECR ion source. If successful, these developments could significantly impact future accelerator designs and accelerator-based, heavy-ion-research programs by providing multiply-charged ion beams with the energies and intensities required for nuclear physics research from existing ECR ion sources. The methods described in this article can be used to retrofit any ECR ion source predicated on B-minimum plasma confinement techniques

  2. The effect of the novel internal-type linear inductive antenna for large area magnetized inductive plasma source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. H.; Shulika, Olga.; Kim, K. N.; Yeom, G. Y.; Lee, J. K.

    2004-09-01

    As the technology of plasma processing progresses, there is a continuing demand for higher plasma density, uniformity over large areas and greater control over plasma parameters to optimize the processes of etching, deposition and surface treatment. Traditionally, the external planar ICP sources with low pressure high density plasma have limited scale-up capabilities due to its high impedance accompanied by the large antenna size. Also due to the cost and thickness of their dielectric material in order to generate uniform plasma. In this study the novel internal-type linear inductive antenna system (1,020mm¡¿830mm¡¿437mm) with permanent magnet arrays are investigated to improve both the plasma density and the uniformity of LAPS (Large Area Plasma Source) for FPD processing. Generally plasma discharges are enhanced because the inductance of the novel antenna (termed as the double comb antenna) is lower than that of the serpentine-type antenna and also the magnetic confinement of electron increases the power absorption efficiency. The uniformity is improved by reducing the standing wave effect. The total length of antenna is comparable to the driving rf wavelength to cause the plasma nonuniformity. To describe the discharge phenomenon we have developed a magnetized two-dimensional fluid simulation. This work was supported by National Research Laboratory (NRL) Program of the Korea Ministry of Science and Technology. [References] 1. J.K.Lee, Lin Meng, Y.K.Shin, H,J,Lee and T.H.Chung, ¡°Modeling and Simulation of a Large-Area Plasma Source¡±, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Vol.36(1997) pp. 5714-5723 2. S.E.Park, B.U.Cho, Y.J.Lee*, and G.Y.Yeom*, and J.K.Lee, ¡°The Characteristics of Large Area Processing Plasmas¡±, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., Vol.31 ,No.4(2003) pp. 628-637

  3. Physics and chemistry of plasma pollution control technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, J S

    2008-01-01

    Gaseous pollution control technologies for acid gases (NO x , SO x , etc), volatile organic compounds, greenhouse gases, ozone layer depleting substances, etc have been commercialized based on catalysis, incineration and adsorption methods. However, non-thermal plasma techniques based on electron beams and corona discharges are becoming significant due to advantages such as lower costs, higher removal efficiency and smaller space volume. In order to commercialize this new technology, the pollution gas removal rate, energy efficiency of removal, pressure drop of reactors and useable by-product production rates must be improved and identification of major fundamental processes and optimizations of reactor and power supply for an integrated system must be investigated. In this work, the chemistry and physics of plasma pollution control are discussed and the limitation of this type of plasma is outlined based on the plasma parameters.

  4. Laser and Plasma Technology Division : annual report (1990-91)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    A brief account of the research and development (R and D) activities carried out by Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay during the period 1990-91 is presented. The R and D activities are reported under the headings: 1) Laser Activities, 2) Thermal Plasma Activities, and 3) Electron Beam Activities. List of publications including journal articles, papers published in symposia, conferences etc. is given at the end. (original). figs

  5. Laser and Plasma Technology Division annual report 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatramani, N.; Verma, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    A brief account of the research and development (R and D) activities carried out by Laser and Plasma Technology Division of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay during the period 1994 is presented. The activities are reported under the headings: 1) laser activities, 2) thermal plasma activities, 3) electron beam activity. At the end of each section, a list of publications by the staff members in the field indicated by the title of the section is given. (author). refs., tabs., figs

  6. Laser and Plasma Technology Division : annual report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    A brief account of the research and development (R and D) activities carried out by Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay during 1991 is presented. The R and D activities are reported under the headings (1) Laser Activities, (2) Thermal Plasma Activities, (3) Electron Beam Activities and (4) Divisional Workshop Activities. List of publications is given at the end of each activity heading

  7. Plasma technology: a technical economical and political challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abreu, V.A. de; Vicente, L.C.; Bender, O.W.; Sanches Junior, O.

    1987-01-01

    To survey the State of the Art and Technic in Material, Process and Products by Plasma, it was needed to assemble economic, political and managerial variables that will affect the absortion and implantation of this technology in Brazil. Through a survey in industries, universities, research centers, energy agencies and financial and forster institutions it was possible to build a frame that gave us conditions to forecasting and suggest some mesures to Plasma sector. (author) [pt

  8. Laser and Plasma Technology Division annual report 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatramani, N; Verma, R L [eds.; Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Laser and Plasma Technology Div.

    1996-12-31

    A brief account of the research and development (R and D) activities carried out by Laser and Plasma Technology Division of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay during the period 1994 is presented. The activities are reported under the headings: (1) laser activities, (2) thermal plasma activities, (3) electron beam activity. At the end of each section, a list of publications by the staff members in the field indicated by the title of the section is given. (author). refs., tabs., figs.

  9. A compact and continuously driven supersonic plasma and neutral source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asai, T.; Itagaki, H.; Numasawa, H.; Terashima, Y.; Hirano, Y. [Department of Physics, College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan); Hirose, A. [Plasma Physics Laboratory, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5E2 (Canada)

    2010-10-15

    A compact and repetitively driven plasma source has been developed by utilizing a magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG) for diagnostics requiring deep penetration of a large amount of neutral flux. The system consists of a MCPG 95mm in length with a DN16 ConFlat connection port and an insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) inverter power unit. The power supply consists of an array of eight IGBT units and is able to switch the discharge on and off at up to 10 kV and 600 A with a maximum repetitive frequency of 10 kHz. Multiple short duration discharge pulses maximize acceleration efficiency of the plasmoid. In the case of a 10 kHz operating frequency, helium-plasmoids in the velocity range of 20 km/s can be achieved.

  10. A compact and continuously driven supersonic plasma and neutral source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, T; Itagaki, H; Numasawa, H; Terashima, Y; Hirano, Y; Hirose, A

    2010-10-01

    A compact and repetitively driven plasma source has been developed by utilizing a magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG) for diagnostics requiring deep penetration of a large amount of neutral flux. The system consists of a MCPG 95mm in length with a DN16 ConFlat connection port and an insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) inverter power unit. The power supply consists of an array of eight IGBT units and is able to switch the discharge on and off at up to 10 kV and 600 A with a maximum repetitive frequency of 10 kHz. Multiple short duration discharge pulses maximize acceleration efficiency of the plasmoid. In the case of a 10 kHz operating frequency, helium-plasmoids in the velocity range of 20 km/s can be achieved.

  11. A Planar Source of Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdanova, O. S.; Kuznetsov, V. S.; Panarin, V. A.; Skakun, V. S.; Sosnin, E. A.; Tarasenko, V. F.

    2018-01-01

    In a single-barrier discharge with voltage sharpening and low gas consumption (up to 1 L/min), plane atmospheric pressure plasma jets with a width of up to 3 cm and length of up to 4 cm in air are formed in the slit geometry of the discharge zone. The energy, temperature, and spectral characteristics of the obtained jets have been measured. The radiation spectrum contains intense maxima corresponding to vibrational transitions of the second positive system of molecular nitrogen N2 ( C 3Π u → B 3Π g ) and comparatively weak transition lines of the first positive system of the N 2 + ion ( B 2Σ u + → X 2Σ g ). By an example of inactivation of the Staphylococcus aureus culture (strain ATCC 209), it is shown that plasma is a source of chemically active particles providing the inactivation of microorganisms.

  12. Soft x-ray source by laser produced Xe plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Sho; Masuda, Kazuya; Miyamoto, Shuji; Mochizuki, Takayasu

    2010-01-01

    The laser plasma soft X-ray source in the wavelength rage of 5-17 nm was developed, which consisted of the rotating drum system supplying cryogenic Xe target and the high repetition rate pulse Nd:YAG slab laser. We found the maximum conversion efficiency of 30% and it demonstrated the soft X-ray generation with the high repetition rate pulse of 320 pps and the high average power of 20 W. The soft X-ray cylindrical mirror was developed and successfully focused the soft X-ray with an energy intensity of 1.3 mJ/cm 2 . We also succeeded in the plasma debris mitigation with Ar gas. This will allow a long lifetime of the mirror and a focusing power intensity of 400 mW/cm 2 with 320 pps. The high power soft X-ray is useful for various applications. (author)

  13. Modelling RF-plasma interaction in ECR ion sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mascali David

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes three-dimensional self-consistent numerical simulations of wave propagation in magnetoplasmas of Electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS. Numerical results can give useful information on the distribution of the absorbed RF power and/or efficiency of RF heating, especially in the case of alternative schemes such as mode-conversion based heating scenarios. Ray-tracing approximation is allowed only for small wavelength compared to the system scale lengths: as a consequence, full-wave solutions of Maxwell-Vlasov equation must be taken into account in compact and strongly inhomogeneous ECRIS plasmas. This contribution presents a multi-scale temporal domains approach for simultaneously including RF dynamics and plasma kinetics in a “cold-plasma”, and some perspectives for “hot-plasma” implementation. The presented results rely with the attempt to establish a modal-conversion scenario of OXB-type in double frequency heating inside an ECRIS testbench.

  14. Plasma Technology as a New Preservation Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón, R.; Calzada, M. D.

    The preliminary results of using the surface wave discharge at the atmospheric pressure on groups of lentils and sherry Fino wine samples are presented. In this research, the capability of active species and UV radiation from the plasma, has been assessed on preservation of food. Besides, the generation and emission of both excited molecules in a metastable state N2}(B3Π {g-> A3}Σ u{+) and the de-excitation of species NO(A2}Σ {+) producing UV radiation have been also studied.

  15. A New Technology for Treating Pulp Waste with Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Xiaozhen; Tian Zhongyu

    2009-01-01

    New methods for both the treatment of pulp waste liquor called black liquor (BL) and the recovery of chemicals by using plasma, and the concentration of BL with the freezing technique were developed. The new methods aiming at the pilot plant scale are described and the experiments in a small-scale research facility for demonstration and test are presented. The energy consumption for treating waste liquid is 1 kg/kWh. Plasma processing can reduce the costs for treatment and eliminate pollution. (plasma technology)

  16. What is the Plasma Focus Thermonuclear Pulsors Technology?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, R.; Gonzalez, J.; Moreno, C.; Clausse, A.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we describe a type of neutron generators, called Plasma Focus, which is suitable to several applications, where traditional generators are non-applicable.The main characteristics are its transportability and to be non-contaminating, which would allow in-situ tests.The Plasma Focus, produces neutron pulses by thermonuclear fusion reactions, satisfy these requirements and it is comparatively non expensive.This last feature would assure competitivity in the neutron sources market

  17. The 22nd AINSE plasma science and technology conference. Conference handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    These proceedings contain the extended abstracts of the papers and posters presented at the 22nd AINSE plasma science and technology conference hosted by the Australian National University in Canberra. Topics under discussion included: fusion devices and experiments; plasma production; plasma confinement; plasma heating and current drive; plasma waves; plasma diagnostics; basic collisionless plasma physics; laser produced plasmas and inertial confinement; low-temperature plasmas and interferometry. The individual papers were indexed separately

  18. Cold Atmospheric Plasma Technology for Decontamination of Space Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Hubertus; Rettberg, Petra; Shimizu, Tetsuji; Thoma, Markus; Morfill, Gregor; Zimmermann, Julia; Müller, Meike; Semenov, Igor

    2016-07-01

    Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) technology is very fast and effective in inactivation of all kinds of pathogens. It is used in hygiene and especially in medicine, since the plasma treatment can be applied to sensitive surfaces, like skin, too. In a first study to use CAP for the decontamination of space equipment we could show its potential as a quite promising alternative to the standard "dry heat" and H2O2 methods [Shimizu et al. Planetary and Space Science, 90, 60-71. (2014)]. In a follow-on study we continue the investigations to reach high application level of the technology. First, we redesign the actual setup to a plasma-gas circulation system, increasing the effectivity of inactivation and the sustainability. Additionally, we want to learn more about the plasma chemistry processes involved in the inactivation. Therefore, we perform detailed plasma and gas measurements and compare them to numerical simulations. The latter will finally be used to scale the decontamination system to sizes useful also for larger space equipment. Typical materials relevant for space equipment will be tested and investigated on surface material changes due to the plasma treatment. Additionally, it is planned to use electronic boards and compare their functionality before and after the CAP expose. We will give an overview on the status of the plasma decontamination project funded by the Bavarian Ministry of Economics.

  19. Performance of a plasma opening switch in positive polarity on Gamble I using flashboard plasma sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renk, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    The successful development of the Plasma Opening Switch (POS) for inductive storage applications has been largely confined to negative polarity operation. Some models of POS behavior suggest that this is because in a positive polarity coaxial configuration, the weaker magnetic field at the cathode position retards the switch opening process. This article describes experiments in which both conductor radii in the POS region were significantly reduced. Anode- and cathode-side current monitors indicate that voltages greater than open-circuit are generated at the POS position, but there is a significant amount of electron flow out of the POS, depending upon load impedance. Flow impedance analysis indicates that a relatively small gap appears in the POS plasma after switch opening. Switch performance is also compared between flashboard and carbon gun plasma sources, with the latter operated both in positive and negative polarity

  20. Improvement of a microwave ECR plasma source for the plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Hongchen; Zhang Huafang; Peng Liping; Jiang Yanli; Ma Guojia

    2004-01-01

    The Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation and Deposition (PIII and D) process has many advantages over the pure plasma immersion ion implantation or deposition. It can compensate for or eliminate the disadvantages of the shallow modification layer (for PIII) and increase the bond strength of the coating (of deposition). For this purpose, a new type of microwave plasma source used in the PIII and D process was developed, composed of a vacuum bend wave guide and a special magnetic circuit, so that the coupling window was protected from being deposited with a coating and bombarded by high-energy particles. So the life of the window is increased. To enhance the bonding between the coating and substrate a new biasing voltage is applied to the work piece so that the implantation and deposition (or hybrid process) can be completed in one vacuum cycle

  1. Laser and Plasma Technology Division annual report 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatramani, N.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the activity of the Laser and Plasma Technology Division of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai during the period 1995. This division is engaged in the research and development of high power beams namely lasers, plasma and electron beams which are characterized by high power density. This division has strived to establish indigenous capability to cater to the requirements of the Department of Atomic Energy. The broad program objectives of the division are (1) development and technology readiness studies of laser, plasma and electron beam devices; (2) studies on related physical phenomena with a view to gain better understanding of the devices and (3) improvements in technology and exploration of new areas. This report has been compiled from individual reports of various groups/sections with marginal editing. At the end of each section; a list of publications by the staff members in the field indicated by the title of the section is given. refs., figs., tabs

  2. Production of accelerated electrons near an electron source in the plasma resonance region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorov, V.A.

    1989-01-01

    Conditions of generation of plasma electrons accelerated and their characteristics in the vicinity of an electron source are determined. The electron source isolated electrically with infinitely conducting surface, being in unrestricted collisionless plasma ω 0 >>ν, where ω 0 - plasma frequency of nonperturbated plasma, ν - frequency of plasma electron collisions with other plasma particles, is considered. Spherically symmetric injection of electrons, which rates are simulated by ω frequency, occurs from the source surface. When describing phenomena in the vicinity of the electron source, one proceeds from the quasihydrodynamic equation set

  3. Plasma Science Committee (PLSC) and study on new opportunities in plasma science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Plasma Science Committee (PLSC) of the National Research Council (NRC) is charged with monitoring the health of the field of plasma science in the United States. Accordingly, the Committee identifies and examines both broad and specific issues affecting the field. Regular meetings, teleconferences, briefings from agencies and the scientific community, the formation of study panels to prepare reports, and special symposia are among the mechanisms used by the PLSC to meet its charge. This progress report presents a review of PLSC activities from July 15, 1991 to May 31, 1992. The details of prior activities are discussed in earlier reports. This report also includes the status of activities associated with the PLSC study on opportunities in plasma science and technology. During the above period, the PLSC has continued to track and participate in, when requested, discussions on the health of the field. Much of the perspective of the PLSC has been presented in the recently-published report Research Briefing on Contemporary Problems in Plasma Science. That report has served as the basis for briefings to representatives of the federal government as well as the community-at-large. In keeping with its charge to identify and highlight specific areas for scientific and technological opportunities, the PLSC completed publication of the report Plasma Processing of Materials: Scientific and Technological Opportunities and launched a study on new opportunities in plasma science and technology

  4. Physics and applications of plasmas produced by pulsed power technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, Tetsuo; Katsuki, Sunao

    2013-10-01

    The papers presented at the symposium on 'Physics and Applications of Plasmas Produced by Pulsed Power Technology' held on March 27-28, 2012 at the National Institute for Fusion Science are collected in these proceedings. The papers in these proceedings reflect the current status and progress in the experimental and theoretical research on high power particle beams and high energy density plasmas produced by pulsed power technology. This issue is the collection of 22 papers presented at the entitled meeting. Ten of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  5. Magnetic insulation of secondary electrons in plasma source ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rej, D.J.; Wood, B.P.; Faehl, R.J.; Fleischmann, H.H.

    1993-01-01

    The uncontrolled loss of accelerated secondary electrons in plasma source ion implantation (PSII) can significantly reduce system efficiency and poses a potential x-ray hazard. This loss might be reduced by a magnetic field applied near the workpiece. The concept of magnetically-insulated PSII is proposed, in which secondary electrons are trapped to form a virtual cathode layer near the workpiece surface where the local electric field is essentially eliminated. Subsequent electrons that are emitted can then be reabsorbed by the workpiece. Estimates of anomalous electron transport from microinstabilities are made. Insight into the process is gained with multi-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations

  6. DC plasma arc melter technology for waste vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, R.A.; Wittle, J.K.; Trescot, J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the features and benefits of a breakthrough DC Arc Melter for the permanent treatment of all types of solid wastes including nonhazardous, hazardous and radioactive. This DC Arc Furnace system, now commercially available, is the low cost permanent solution for solid waste pollution prevention and remediation. Concern over the effective disposal of wastes generated by the industrial society, worldwide, has prompted development of technologies to address the problem. For the most part these technologies have resulted in niche solutions with limited application. The only solution that has the ability to process almost all wastes, and to recover/recycle metallic and inorganic matter, is the group of technologies known as melters. Melters have distinct advantages over traditional technologies such as incineration because melters operate at higher temperatures, are relatively unaffected by changes in the waste stream, produce a vitrified stable product, and have the capability to recover/recycle slag, metals and gas. The system, DC Plasma Arc Melter, has the lowest capital, maintenance and operating cost of any melter technology because of its patented DC Plasma Arc with graphite electrode. DC Plasma Arc Melter systems are commercially available in sizes from 50 kg/batch or 250--3,000 kg/hr on a continuous feed basis. This paper examines the design and operating benefits of a DC Plasma Arc Melter System

  7. Industrial ion sources broadbeam gridless ion source technology

    CERN Document Server

    Zhurin, Viacheslav V

    2012-01-01

    Due to the large number of uses of ion sources in academia and industry, those who utilize these sources need up to date and coherent information to keep themselves abreast of developments and options, and to chose ideal solutions for quality and cost-effectiveness. This book, written by an author with a strong industrial background and excellent standing, is the comprehensive guide users and developers of ion sources have been waiting for. Providing a thorough refresher on the physics involved, this resource systematically covers the source types, components, and the operational parameters.

  8. Energy efficiency of the CTX magnetized coaxial plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.C.; Barnes, C.W.; Jarboe, T.R.; Knox, S.O.; Platts, D.A.; McKenna, K.F.

    1985-01-01

    The energy efficiency of the CTX coaxial plasma source in creating spheromaks is determined experimentally to be in agreement with the theoretical prediction of lambda/sub sp//lambda/sub g/, where del x B = lambda/sub sp/ B in the spheromak, and lambda/sub g/ identical with μ 0 I/sub g//phi/sub g/ with I/sub g/ the source current and phi/sub g/ the magnetic flux through either source electrode. This is shown to be equivalent to magnetic helicity conservation. The spheromak impurity radiation was measured using an absolutely calibrated single chord bolometer system. The theoretical efficiency is within the experimental uncertainty of the ratio of spheromak radiated energy to source input energy in a group of ''dirty'' discharges. But the radiation measurement uncertainty is too large to determine whether a substantial part of the excess source energy not used in the production of spheromak magnetic energy is radiated from the spheromak volume

  9. Bright X-ray source from a laser-driven micro-plasma-waveguide

    CERN Document Server

    Yi, Longqing

    2016-01-01

    Bright tunable x-ray sources have a number of applications in basic science, medicine and industry. The most powerful sources are synchrotrons, where relativistic electrons are circling in giant storage rings. In parallel, compact laser-plasma x-ray sources are being developed. Owing to the rapid progress in laser technology, very high-contrast femtosecond laser pulses of relativistic intensities become available. These pulses allow for interaction with micro-structured solid-density plasma without destroying the structure by parasitic pre-pulses. The high-contrast laser pulses as well as the manufacturing of materials at micro- and nano-scales open a new realm of possibilities for laser interaction with photonic materials at the relativistic intensities. Here we demonstrate, via numerical simulations, that when coupling with a readily available 1.8 Joule laser, a micro-plasma-waveguide (MPW) may serve as a novel compact x-ray source. Electrons are extracted from the walls by the laser field and form a dense ...

  10. Optimal pulse modulator design criteria for plasma source ion implanters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reass, W.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes what are believed to be the required characteristics of a high-voltage modulator for efficient and optimal ion deposition from the ''Plasma Source Ion Implantation'' (PSII) process. The PSII process is a method to chemically or physically alter and enhance surface properties of objects by placing them in a weakly ionized plasma and pulsing the object with a high negative voltage. The attracted ions implant themselves and form chemical bonds or are interstitially mixed with the base material. Present industrial uses of implanted objects tends to be for limited-production, high-value-added items. Traditional implanting hardware uses the typical low-current (ma) semiconductor ''raster scan'' implanters. The targets must also be manipulated to maintain a surface normal to the ion beam. The PSII method can provide ''bulk'' equipment processing on a large industrial scale. For the first generation equipment, currents are scaled from milliamps to hundreds of amps, voltages to -175kV, at kilohertz rep-rates, and high plasma ion densities

  11. III International Conference on Laser and Plasma Researches and Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    A.P. Kuznetsov and S.V. Genisaretskaya III Conference on Plasma and Laser Research and Technologies took place on January 24th until January 27th, 2017 at the National Research Nuclear University "MEPhI" (NRNU MEPhI). The Conference was organized by the Institute for Laser and Plasma Technologies and was supported by the Competitiveness Program of NRNU MEPhI. The conference program consisted of nine sections: • Laser physics and its application • Plasma physics and its application • Laser, plasma and radiation technologies in industry • Physics of extreme light fields • Controlled thermonuclear fusion • Modern problems of theoretical physics • Challenges in physics of solid state, functional materials and nanosystems • Particle accelerators and radiation technologies • Modern trends of quantum metrology. The conference is based on scientific fields as follows: • Laser, plasma and radiation technologies in industry, energetic, medicine; • Photonics, quantum metrology, optical information processing; • New functional materials, metamaterials, “smart” alloys and quantum systems; • Ultrahigh optical fields, high-power lasers, Mega Science facilities; • High-temperature plasma physics, environmentally-friendly energetic based on controlled thermonuclear fusion; • Spectroscopic synchrotron, neutron, laser research methods, quantum mechanical calculation and computer modelling of condensed media and nanostructures. More than 250 specialists took part in the Conference. They represented leading Russian scientific research centers and universities (National Research Centre "Kurchatov Institute", A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow Institute of Physics and Tecnology and others) and leading scientific centers and universities from Germany, France, USA, Canada, Japan. We would like to thank heartily all of

  12. Honeycomb surface-plasma negative-ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bel'chenko, Yu.I.

    1983-01-01

    A honeycomb surface-plasma source (SPS) of negative hydrogen ions the cathode of which consists of a great number of cells with spherical-concave surfaces, is described. Negative ions, knocked off the cathode by cesium-hydrogen discharge fast particles are accelerated in the near-cathode potential drop layer and focused geometrically on small emission apertures in the anode. Due to this, the gas and energy efficiency of the source is increased and the power density on the cathode is decreased. The H - yield is proportional to the number of celts. A pulse beam of negative ions with current up to 4 A is obtained and accelerated to 25 kV from the cathode effective area of 10.6 cm 2 through emission ports of 0.5 cm 2 total area. The honeycomb SPSs with a greater number of cells are promising as regards obtaining negative ion-beams with the current of scores of amperes

  13. Development of neutral beam source using electron beam excited plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Yasuhiro; Hamagaki, Manabu; Mise, Takaya; Hara, Tamio

    2011-01-01

    A low-energy neutral beam (NB) source, which consists of an electron-beam-excited plasma (EBEP) source and two carbon electrodes, has been developed for damageless etching of ultra-large-scale integrated (ULSI) devices. It has been confirmed that the Ar ion beam energy was controlled by the acceleration voltage and the beam profile had good uniformity over the diameter of 80 mm. Dry etching of a Si wafer at the floating potential has been carried out by Ar NB. Si sputtering yield by an Ar NB clearly depends on the acceleration voltage. This result shows that the NB has been generated through the charge exchange reaction from the ion beam in the process chamber. (author)

  14. Simulation of a dense plasma focus x-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stark, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    The authors are performing simulations of the magnetohydrodynamics of a Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) x-ray source located at Science Research Laboratory (SRL), Alameda, CA, in order to optimize its performance. The SRL DPF, which was developed as a compact source for x-ray lithography, operates at 20 Hz, giving x-ray power (9--14 Angstroms) of 500 W using neon gas. The simulations are performed with the two dimensional MHD code MACH2, developed by Mission Research Corporation, with a steady state corona model as the equation of state. The results of studies of the sensitivity of x-ray output to charging voltage and current, and to initial gas density will be presented. These studies should indicate ways to optimize x-ray production efficiency. Simulations of various inner electrode configurations will also be presented

  15. Electron backstream to the source plasma region in an ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Y.; Akiba, M.; Arakawa, Y.; Okumura, Y.; Sakuraba, J.

    1980-01-01

    The flux of backstream electrons to the source plasma region increases significantly with the acceleration voltage of an ion beam, so that the back plate in the arc chamber should be broken for quasi-dc operation. The flux of backstream electrons is estimated at the acceleration voltage of 50--100 kV for a proton beam with the aid of ion beam simulation code. The power flux of backstream electrons is up to about 7% of the total beam output at the acceleration voltage of 75 kV. It is pointed out that the conventional ion sources such as the duoPIGatron or the bucket source which use a magnetic field for source plasma production are not suitable for quasi-dc and high-energy ion sources, because the surface heat flux of the back plate is increased by the focusing of backstream electrons and the removal of it is quite difficult. A new ion source which has an electron beam dump in the arc chamber is proposed

  16. A high-current pulsed cathodic vacuum arc plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oates, T.W.H.; Pigott, J.; Mckenzie, D.R.; Bilek, M.M.M.

    2003-01-01

    Cathodic vacuum arcs (CVAs) are well established as a method for producing metal plasmas for thin film deposition and as a source of metal ions. Fundamental differences exist between direct current (dc) and pulsed CVAs. We present here results of our investigations into the design and construction of a high-current center-triggered pulsed CVA. Power supply design based on electrolytic capacitors is discussed and optimized based on obtaining the most effective utilization of the cathode material. Anode configuration is also discussed with respect to the optimization of the electron collection capability. Type I and II cathode spots are observed and discussed with respect to cathode surface contamination. An unfiltered deposition rate of 1.7 nm per pulse, at a distance of 100 mm from the source, has been demonstrated. Instantaneous plasma densities in excess of 1x10 19 m -3 are observed after magnetic filtering. Time averaged densities an order of magnitude greater than common dc arc densities have been demonstrated, limited by pulse repetition rate and filter efficiency

  17. Studies on fundamental technologies for producing tokamak-plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzaki, Yoshimi

    1987-10-01

    The report describes studies on fundamental technologies to produce tokamak-plasma of the JFT-2 and JFT-2M tokamaks. (1) In order to measure the particle number of residual gases, calibration methods of vacuum gauges have been developed. (2) Devices for a Taylor-type discharge cleaning (TDC), a glow discharge cleaning (GDC) and ECR discharge cleaning (ECR-DC) have been made and the cleaning effects have been investigated. In TDC the most effective plasma for cleaning is obtained in the plasma with 5 eV of electron temperature. GDC is effective in removing carbon impurities, but is less effective for removing oxygen impurities. ECR-DC has nearly the similar effect as TDC. The cleaning effect of these three types were studied by comparing the properties of resulting tokamak plasmas in the JFT-2M tokamak. (3) Experimental studies of pre-ionization showed as following results; A simple pre-ionization equipment as a hot-electron-gun and a J x B gun was effective in reducing breakdown voltage. An ordinary mode wave of the electron cyclotron frequency was very effective for pre-ionization. The RF power whose density is 3.6 x 10 -2 W/cm 3 produced plasma of an electron density of 5 x 10 11 cm -3 . In this case, it is possible to start up with negligible consumption of the magnetic flux caused by the plasma resistance. (4) Concerning to studies on plasma control, the following results were obtained; In order to obtain constant plasma current, a pulse forming network was constructed and sufficient constant plasma current was achieved. In applying an iso-flux method for measuring the plasma position, it is no problem practically to use only one loop-coil and one magnetic probe. (author)

  18. Initial evaluation and comparison of plasma damage to atomic layer carbon materials using conventional and low T{sub e} plasma sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagtiani, Ashish V.; Miyazoe, Hiroyuki; Chang, Josephine; Farmer, Damon B.; Engel, Michael; Neumayer, Deborah; Han, Shu-Jen; Engelmann, Sebastian U., E-mail: suengelm@us.ibm.com; Joseph, Eric A. [IBM, T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States); Boris, David R.; Hernández, Sandra C.; Walton, Scott G. [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Lock, Evgeniya H. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    The ability to achieve atomic layer precision is the utmost goal in the implementation of atomic layer etch technology. Carbon-based materials such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene are single atomic layers of carbon with unique properties and, as such, represent the ultimate candidates to study the ability to process with atomic layer precision and assess impact of plasma damage to atomic layer materials. In this work, the authors use these materials to evaluate the atomic layer processing capabilities of electron beam generated plasmas. First, the authors evaluate damage to semiconducting CNTs when exposed to beam-generated plasmas and compare these results against the results using typical plasma used in semiconductor processing. The authors find that the beam generated plasma resulted in significantly lower current degradation in comparison to typical plasmas. Next, the authors evaluated the use of electron beam generated plasmas to process graphene-based devices by functionalizing graphene with fluorine, nitrogen, or oxygen to facilitate atomic layer deposition (ALD). The authors found that all adsorbed species resulted in successful ALD with varying impact on the transconductance of the graphene. Furthermore, the authors compare the ability of both beam generated plasma as well as a conventional low ion energy inductively coupled plasma (ICP) to remove silicon nitride (SiN) deposited on top of the graphene films. Our results indicate that, while both systems can remove SiN, an increase in the D/G ratio from 0.08 for unprocessed graphene to 0.22 to 0.26 for the beam generated plasma, while the ICP yielded values from 0.52 to 1.78. Generally, while some plasma-induced damage was seen for both plasma sources, a much wider process window as well as far less damage to CNTs and graphene was observed when using electron beam generated plasmas.

  19. Radiant-and-plasma technology for coal processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Messerle

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Radiant-and-plasma technology for coal processing is presented in the article. Thermodynamic computation and experiments on plasma processing of bituminous coal preliminary electron-beam activated were fulfilled in comparison with plasma processing of the coal. Positive influence of the preliminary electron-beam activation of coal on synthesis gas yield was found. Experiments were carried out in the plasma gasifier of 100 kW power. As a result of the measurements of material and heat balance of the process gave the following integral indicators: weight-average temperature of 2200-2300 K, and carbon gasification degree of 82,4-83,2%. Synthesis gas yield at thermochemical preparation of raw coal dust for burning was 24,5% and in the case of electron-beam activation of coal synthesis gas yield reached 36,4%, which is 48% higher.

  20. Development of Plasma Technologies at IPP NSC KIPT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tereshin, V.I.; Chebotarev, V.V.; Garkusha, I.E.; Lapshin, V.I.; Shvets, O.M.; Taran, V.S.

    2001-01-01

    Plasma Technologies in Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT are recently developed in the following directions. Material surfaces modification under their irradiation with pulsed plasma streams of different working gases. Besides traditional analysis of improvements of tribological characteristics and structural-phase changes of the modified layers recently we started investigations of material corrosions characteristic improvement under influence of pulsed plasma on the material surfaces. As to the surface coatings in arc discharges of Bulat type devices, new trends are related with multi-layers coatings, using Ti-AI-N coatings in cutting tools, using high frequency discharges or combined HF- and arc discharges for increasing the nomenclature of goods to be coated. Development of ozonators is respectively new area for IPP NSC KIPT. On the base of barrier high-frequency discharge there were developed a number of high efficiency ozonators with ozone production up to 100 G/hour. (author)

  1. Laser and Plasma Technology Division annual report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatramani, N.; Verma, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the activities of the Laser and Plasma Technology Division during the year 1993. This Division is engaged in the research and development of high power beams namely laser, plasma and electron beams, which are characterized by high power density, normally in excess of 1 kW/mm 2 . Laser and Plasma Technology Division has strived to establish indigenous capability to cater to the requirements of the Department of Atomic Energy. The broad programme objectives of the Division are : (1) Development and technology readiness studies of laser, plasma and electron beam devices, (2) Studies on related physical phenomena with a view to gain better understanding of the devices, and (3) Improvements in technology and exploration of new areas. This report covers the activities of the Division during 1993 and describes how successfully the objectives have been met. The activities described in the report are diverse in nature. The report has been compiled from individual reports of various groups/sections with marginal editing. (author). refs., tabs., figs

  2. Laser and Plasma Technology Division annual report 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatramani, N; Verma, R L [eds.; Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Laser and Plasma Technology Div.

    1994-12-31

    This report describes the activities of the Laser and Plasma Technology Division during the year 1993. This Division is engaged in the research and development of high power beams namely laser, plasma and electron beams, which are characterized by high power density, normally in excess of 1 kW/mm{sup 2}. Laser and Plasma Technology Division has strived to establish indigenous capability to cater to the requirements of the Department of Atomic Energy. The broad programme objectives of the Division are : (1) Development and technology readiness studies of laser, plasma and electron beam devices, (2) Studies on related physical phenomena with a view to gain better understanding of the devices, and (3) Improvements in technology and exploration of new areas. This report covers the activities of the Division during 1993 and describes how successfully the objectives have been met. The activities described in the report are diverse in nature. The report has been compiled from individual reports of various groups/sections with marginal editing. (author). refs., tabs., figs.

  3. Plasma Doping - Enabling Technology for High Dose Logic and Memory Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, T.; Godet, L.; Papasouliotis, G. D.; Singh, V.

    2008-01-01

    As logic and memory device dimensions shrink with each generation, there are more high dose implants at lower energies. Examples include dual poly gate (also referred to as counter-doped poly), elevated source drain and contact plug implants. Plasma Doping technology throughput and dopant profile benefits at these ultra high dose and lower energy conditions have been well established [1,2,3]. For the first time a production-worthy plasma doping implanter, the VIISta PLAD tool, has been developed with unique architecture suited for precise and repeatable dopant placement. Critical elements of the architecture include pulsed DC wafer bias, closed-loop dosimetry and a uniform low energy, high density plasma source. In this paper key performance metrics such as dose uniformity, dose repeatability and dopant profile control will be presented that demonstrate the production-worthiness of the VIISta PLAD tool for several high dose applications.

  4. Theory for beam-plasma millimeter-wave radiation source experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, M.; Krall, N.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on theoretical studies for millimeter-wave plasma source experiments. In the device, millimeter-wave radiation is generated in a plasma-filled waveguide driven by counter-streaming electron beams. The beams excite electron plasma waves which couple to produce radiation at twice the plasma frequency. Physics topics relevant to the high electron beam current regime are discussed

  5. Plasma ion implantation technology for broad industrial application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deb, D.; Siambis, J.; Symons, R.

    1994-01-01

    The recently invented Plasma Ion Implantation (PII) process (1987) [J. R. Conrad, U.S. Patent No. 764394 (August 16, 1988)] is currently under intense industrial engineering investigation and development. A critical component of PII for broad industrial utilization is the availability of an efficient modulator system that applies the high voltage pulse to the workpiece. A modulator technology assessment and selection is carried out. The requirements of the PII process favor the selection of a hard-tube modulator. The PII process favors the application of beam switch tube technology such as the Litton L-5012 and L-5097. These Litton tubes have already been selected by LANL and utilized in their pilot engineering demonstration experiment with GM and the University of Wisconsin. The performance, physical operation, and potential enhancements of the Litton beam switch tubes L-5012 and L-5097 will be discussed in connection with the requirements of the emerging plasma ion implantation industrial modulator technology

  6. Manufacturing technology development for vacuum vessel and plasma facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laitinen, Arttu; Liimatainen, Jari; Hallila, Pentti

    2005-01-01

    Vacuum vessel and plasma facing components of the ITER construction including shield modules and primary first wall panels have great impact on the production costs and reliability of the installation. From the manufacturing technology point of view, accuracy of shape, properties of the various austenitic stainless steel/austenitic stainless steel interfaces or CuCrZr/austenitic stainless steel interfaces as well as those of the base materials are crucial for technical reliability of the construction. The current approach in plasma facing components has been utilisation of solid-HIP technology and solid-powder-HIP technology. Due to the large size of especially shield modules shape, control of the internal cavities and cooling channels is extremely demanding. This requires strict control of the raw materials and manufacturing parameters

  7. FOREWORD: 23rd National Symposium on Plasma Science & Technology (PLASMA-2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, A. K.

    2010-01-01

    The Twentieth Century has been a defining period for Plasma Science and Technology. The state of ionized matter, so named by Irving Langmuir in the early part of twentieth century, has now evolved in to a multidisciplinary area with scientists and engineers from various specializations working together to exploit the unique properties of the plasma medium. There have been great improvements in the basic understanding of plasmas as a many body system bound by complex collective Coulomb interactions of charges, atoms, molecules, free radicals and photons. Simultaneously, many advanced plasma based technologies are increasingly being implemented for industrial and societal use. The emergence of the multination collaborative project International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project has provided the much needed boost to the researchers working on thermonuclear fusion plasmas. In addition, the other plasma applications like MHD converters, hydrogen generation, advanced materials (synthesis, processing and surface modification), environment (waste beneficiation, air and water pollution management), nanotechnology (synthesis, deposition and etching), light production, heating etc are actively being pursued in governmental and industrial sectors. For India, plasma science and technology has traditionally remained an important area of research. It was nearly a century earlier that the Saha ionization relation pioneered the way to interpret experimental data from a vast range of near equilibrium plasmas. Today, Indian research contributions and technology demonstration capabilities encompass thermonuclear fusion devices, nonlinear plasma phenomena, plasma accelerators, beam plasma interactions, dusty and nonneutral plasmas, industrial plasmas and plasma processing of materials, nano synthesis and structuring, astrophysical and space plasmas etc. India's participation in the ITER programme is now reflected in increased interest in the research and development

  8. Dynamic sheath studies in plasma source ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schever, J.T.; Shamim, M.; Conrad, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    Plasma Source Ion Implantation (PSII) is a non-line-of-sight method for materials processing in which a target is immersed in a plasma and pulse biased to a high negative voltage (∼ 50 kV). A model of the dynamic sheath which forms under these conditions has been developed and applied to planar, cylindrical and spherical geometries. This model assumes that the transient sheath obeys the Child-Langmuir law for space charge limited emission at each instant during the propagation. Ions uncovered by the propagating sheath edge supply the space charge limited current. This yields an equation relating sheath edge velocity to position, which can be integrated to obtain the sheath edge position as a function of time. The same procedure used in cylindrical and spherical geometry results in a similar equation which must be integrated numerically. Comparison of results of experimental measurements, our model and simulation will be presented for the dynamic sheath edge position and target current waveform. Measurements of implanted dose uniformity of wedge shaped targets are also presented

  9. II International Conference on Plasma and Laser Research and Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurnaev, V A; Dodulad, E I

    2016-01-01

    II Conference on Plasma and Laser Research and Technologies took place on January 25 th until January 27 th , 2016 at National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI” (NRNU MEPhI). It was organized by the Institute of Laser and Plasma Technologies and was supported by the Competitiveness Program of NRNU MEPhI. The Conference consisted of four sections: Plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion, Laser physics, Modern aspects of solid state matter physics and Charged particle accelerators. The Conference provided participants an opportunity to present their research results for the consideration of a wide audience from the sidelines of science. The main topics of the Conference were: • Controlled nuclear fusion with magnetic and inertial confinement; • Low-temperature plasma and its application in modern technology; • Laser physics and technologies for industry, environmental control and precise measurements; • Optical information control, holography, spintronics and photonics; • Modern aspects of solid state matter physics and nanophysics; • Charged particle accelerators. More than 200 specialists on plasma, laser and solid state physics took part in the II Conference. They represented leading Russian scientific research centres and universities (such as Troitsk Institute of Innovative and Thermonuclear Research, Institute of Crystallography, National Research Centre 'Kurchatov Institute', Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry and others) and universities from Belarus, Ukraine, Germany, USA, Canada, Belgium, and Sweden. All report presentations were broadcasted online on the NRNU MEPhI official site. The translation was watched by viewers from Moscow, Prague, St. Petersburgh and other cities, who could not attend the Conference. We would like to thank heartily all of the speakers, participants and organizing committee members for their contribution to the conference. (paper)

  10. Note: Triggering behavior of a vacuum arc plasma source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lan, C. H., E-mail: lanchaohui@163.com; Long, J. D.; Zheng, L.; Dong, P.; Yang, Z.; Li, J.; Wang, T.; He, J. L. [Institute of Fluid Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Axial symmetry of discharge is very important for application of vacuum arc plasma. It is discovered that the triggering method is a significant factor that would influence the symmetry of arc discharge at the final stable stage. Using high-speed multiframe photography, the transition processes from cathode-trigger discharge to cathode-anode discharge were observed. It is shown that the performances of the two triggering methods investigated are quite different. Arc discharge triggered by independent electric source can be stabilized at the center of anode grid, but it is difficult to achieve such good symmetry through resistance triggering. It is also found that the triggering process is highly correlated to the behavior of emitted electrons.

  11. An improved barium plasma source for q-machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paris, P.J.; Gorgerat, P.; Simik, A.; Rynn, N.; Roe, S.; Schleipen, M.

    1988-06-01

    We have developed a stable q-machine with well determined parameters for long term times, of constant plasma density and temperature. The plasma characteristics and gun behaviour allow research in fundamental plasma physics, especially with the use of non perturbing powerful optical (LIF) diagnostics in the determination of many of the plasma parameters. (author) 17 figs., 2 tabs., 7 refs

  12. Hall Current Plasma Source Having a Center-Mounted or a Surface-Mounted Cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Rafael A. (Inventor); Williams, John D. (Inventor); Moritz, Jr., Joel A. (Inventor); Farnell, Casey C. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    A miniature Hall current plasma source apparatus having magnetic shielding of the walls from ionized plasma, an integrated discharge channel and gas distributor, an instant-start hollow cathode mounted to the plasma source, and an externally mounted keeper, is described. The apparatus offers advantages over other Hall current plasma sources having similar power levels, including: lower mass, longer lifetime, lower part count including fewer power supplies, and the ability to be continuously adjustable to lower average power levels using pulsed operation and adjustment of the pulse duty cycle. The Hall current plasma source can provide propulsion for small spacecraft that either do not have sufficient power to accommodate a propulsion system or do not have available volume to incorporate the larger propulsion systems currently available. The present low-power Hall current plasma source can be used to provide energetic ions to assist the deposition of thin films in plasma processing applications.

  13. Study on surface modification of polymer films by using atmospheric plasma jet source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takemura, Yuichiro; Hara, Tamio; Yamaguchi, Naohiro

    2008-01-01

    Reactive gas plasma treatments of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and polyimide (Kapton) have been performed using an atmospheric plasmas jet source. Characteristics of surface modification have been examined by changing the distance between the plasma jet source and the treated sample, and by changing the working gas spaces. Simultaneously, each plasma jet source has been investigated by space-resolving spectroscopy in the UV/visible region. Polymer surfaces have been analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). A marked improvement in the hydrophilicity of the polymer surfaces has been made by using N 2 or O 2 plasma jet source with a very short exposure time of about 0.01 s, whereas the less improvement has been obtained using on air plasma jet source because of NO x compound production. Changes in the chemical states of C of the polymer surfaces have been observed in XPS spectra after N 2 plasma jet spraying. (author)

  14. Plasma focus as an heavy ion source in the problem of heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gribkov, V.A.; Dubrovskij, A.V.; Kalachev, N.V.; Krokhin, O.N.; Silin, P.V.; Nikulin, V.Ya.; Cheblukov, Yu.N.

    1984-01-01

    Results of experiments on the ion flux formation in a plasma focus (PF) to develop a multicharged ion source for thermonuclear facility driver are presented. In plasma focus accelerating section copper ions were injected. Advantages of the suggested method of ion beam formation are demonstrated. Beam emittance equalling < 0.1 cmxmrad is obtained. Plasma focus ion energy exceeds 1 MeV. Plasma focus in combination with a neodymium laser is thought to be a perspective ion source for heavy ion fusion

  15. DC graphite plasma arc melter technology for waste vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, R.A.; Wittle, J.K.; Trescot, J.; Wilver, P.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the features and benefits of a DC Arc Melter for the permanent treatment of all types of solid wastes including nonhazardous, hazardous and radioactive. This DC Arc Melter system is the low cost permanent solution for solid waste pollution prevention and remediation. Concern over the effective disposal of wastes generated by our industrial society, worldwide, has prompted development of technologies to address the problem. The only solution that has the ability to process almost all wastes, and to recover/recycle metallic and inorganic matter, is the group of technologies known as melters. Melters have distinct advantages over traditional technologies such as incineration because melters; operate at higher temperatures, are relatively unaffected by changes in the waste stream, produce a vitrified stable product, reduce gaseous emissions, and have the capability to recover/recycle slag, metals and gas. The system, DC Plasma Arc Melter, has the lowest capital, maintenance and operating cost of any melter technology because of its patented DC Plasma Arc with graphite electrode. DC Plasma Arc Melter systems are available in sizes from 50 kg/batch or 250-3,000 kg/hr on a continuous basis

  16. Design of a novel high efficiency antenna for helicon plasma sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazelpour, S.; Chakhmachi, A.; Iraji, D.

    2018-06-01

    A new configuration for an antenna, which increases the absorption power and plasma density, is proposed for helicon plasma sources. The influence of the electromagnetic wave pattern symmetry on the plasma density and absorption power in a helicon plasma source with a common antenna (Nagoya) is analysed by using the standard COMSOL Multiphysics 5.3 software. In contrast to the theoretical model prediction, the electromagnetic wave does not represent a symmetric pattern for the common Nagoya antenna. In this work, a new configuration for an antenna is proposed which refines the asymmetries of the wave pattern in helicon plasma sources. The plasma parameters such as plasma density and absorption rate for a common Nagoya antenna and our proposed antenna under the same conditions are studied using simulations. In addition, the plasma density of seven operational helicon plasma source devices, having a common Nagoya antenna, is compared with the simulation results of our proposed antenna and the common Nagoya antenna. The simulation results show that the density of the plasma, which is produced by using our proposed antenna, is approximately twice in comparison to the plasma density produced by using the common Nagoya antenna. In fact, the simulation results indicate that the electric and magnetic fields symmetry of the helicon wave plays a vital role in increasing wave-particle coupling. As a result, wave-particle energy exchange and the plasma density of helicon plasma sources will be increased.

  17. On the possibility of the multiple inductively coupled plasma and helicon plasma sources for large-area processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jin-Won; Lee, Yun-Seong, E-mail: leeeeys@kaist.ac.kr; Chang, Hong-Young [Low-temperature Plasma Laboratory, Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); An, Sang-Hyuk [Agency of Defense Development, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-151 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    In this study, we attempted to determine the possibility of multiple inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and helicon plasma sources for large-area processes. Experiments were performed with the one and two coils to measure plasma and electrical parameters, and a circuit simulation was performed to measure the current at each coil in the 2-coil experiment. Based on the result, we could determine the possibility of multiple ICP sources due to a direct change of impedance due to current and saturation of impedance due to the skin-depth effect. However, a helicon plasma source is difficult to adapt to the multiple sources due to the consistent change of real impedance due to mode transition and the low uniformity of the B-field confinement. As a result, it is expected that ICP can be adapted to multiple sources for large-area processes.

  18. Open Source Radiation Hardened by Design Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuler, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The proposed technology allows use of the latest microcircuit technology with lowest power and fastest speed, with minimal delay and engineering costs, through new Radiation Hardened by Design (RHBD) techniques that do not require extensive process characterization, technique evaluation and re-design at each Moore's Law generation. The separation of critical node groups is explicitly parameterized so it can be increased as microcircuit technologies shrink. The technology will be open access to radiation tolerant circuit vendors. INNOVATION: This technology would enhance computation intensive applications such as autonomy, robotics, advanced sensor and tracking processes, as well as low power applications such as wireless sensor networks. OUTCOME / RESULTS: 1) Simulation analysis indicates feasibility. 2)Compact voting latch 65 nanometer test chip designed and submitted for fabrication -7/2016. INFUSION FOR SPACE / EARTH: This technology may be used in any digital integrated circuit in which a high level of resistance to Single Event Upsets is desired, and has the greatest benefit outside low earth orbit where cosmic rays are numerous.

  19. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Plasma Fusion Center, technical research programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-02-01

    Research programs have produced significant results on four fronts: (1) the basic physics of high-temperature fusion plasmas (plasma theory, RF heating, development of advanced diagnostics and small-scale experiments on the Versator tokamak and Constance mirror devices); (2) major confinement results on the Alcator A and C tokamaks, including pioneering investigations of the equilibrium, stability, transport and radiation properties of fusion plasmas at high densities, temperatures and magnetic fields; (3) development of a new and innovative design for axisymmetric tandem mirrors with inboard thermal barriers, with initial operation of the TARA tandem mirror experimental facility scheduled for 1983; and (4) a broadly based program of fusion technology and engineering development that addresses problems in several critical subsystem areas

  20. Plasma assisted surface coating/modification processes: An emerging technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalvins, T.

    1986-01-01

    A broad understanding of the numerous ion or plasma assisted surface coating/modification processes is sought. An awareness of the principles of these processes is needed before discussing in detail the ion nitriding technology. On the basis of surface modifications arising from ion or plasma energizing and interactions, it can be broadly classified as deposition of distinct overlay coatings (sputtering-dc, radio frequency, magnetron, reactive; ion plating-diode, triode) and surface property modification without forming a discrete coating (ion implantation, ion beam mixing, laser beam irradiation, ion nitriding, ion carburizing, plasma oxidation). These techniques offer a great flexibility and are capable in tailoring desirable chemical and structural surface properties independent of the bulk properties.

  1. Plasma assisted surface coating/modification processes - An emerging technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalvins, T.

    1987-01-01

    A broad understanding of the numerous ion or plasma assisted surface coating/modification processes is sought. An awareness of the principles of these processes is needed before discussing in detail the ion nitriding technology. On the basis of surface modifications arising from ion or plasma energizing and interactions, it can be broadly classified as deposition of distinct overlay coatings (sputtering-dc, radio frequency, magnetron, reactive; ion plating-diode, triode) and surface property modification without forming a discrete coating (ion implantation, ion beam mixing, laser beam irradiation, ion nitriding, ion carburizing, plasma oxidation. These techniques offer a great flexibility and are capable in tailoring desirable chemical and structural surface properties independent of the bulk properties.

  2. Asymptotically approaching the past: historiography and critical use of sources in art technological source research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clarke, M.; Kroustallis, S.; Townsend, J.H.; Cenalmor Bruquetas, E.; Stijnman, A.; San Andres Moya, M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes that historiographic methods should be applied during art technological source research. Sources cannot always be used uncritically as being simply reliable records of contemporary workshop practice. The accuracy, date and origin of the technical information embedded within

  3. Compact tunable Compton x-ray source from laser-plasma accelerator and plasma mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Hai-En; Wang, Xiaoming; Shaw, Joseph M.; Li, Zhengyan; Zgadzaj, Rafal; Henderson, Watson; Downer, M. C.; Arefiev, Alexey V.; Zhang, Xi; Khudik, V.; Shvets, G.

    2015-01-01

    We present an in-depth experimental-computational study of the parameters necessary to optimize a tunable, quasi-monoenergetic, efficient, low-background Compton backscattering (CBS) x-ray source that is based on the self-aligned combination of a laser-plasma accelerator (LPA) and a plasma mirror (PM). The main findings are (1) an LPA driven in the blowout regime by 30 TW, 30 fs laser pulses produce not only a high-quality, tunable, quasi-monoenergetic electron beam, but also a high-quality, relativistically intense (a 0 ∼ 1) spent drive pulse that remains stable in profile and intensity over the LPA tuning range. (2) A thin plastic film near the gas jet exit retro-reflects the spent drive pulse efficiently into oncoming electrons to produce CBS x-rays without detectable bremsstrahlung background. Meanwhile, anomalous far-field divergence of the retro-reflected light demonstrates relativistic “denting” of the PM. Exploiting these optimized LPA and PM conditions, we demonstrate quasi-monoenergetic (50% FWHM energy spread), tunable (75–200 KeV) CBS x-rays, characteristics previously achieved only on more powerful laser systems by CBS of a split-off, counter-propagating pulse. Moreover, laser-to-x-ray photon conversion efficiency (∼6 × 10 −12 ) exceeds that of any previous LPA-based quasi-monoenergetic Compton source. Particle-in-cell simulations agree well with the measurements

  4. Quasi-steady carbon plasma source for neutral beam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koguchi, H.; Sakakita, H.; Kiyama, S.; Shimada, T.; Sato, Y.; Hirano, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Carbon plasma is successfully sustained during 1000 s without any carrier gas in the bucket type ionization chamber with cusp magnetic field. Every several seconds, seed plasmas having ∼3 ms duration time are injected into the ionization chamber by a shunting arch plasma gun. The weakly ionized carbon plasma ejected from the shunting arch is also ionized by 2.45 GHz microwave at the electron cyclotron resonance surface and the plasma can be sustained even in the interval of gun discharges. Control of the gun discharge interval allows to keep high pressure and to sustain the plasma for long duration

  5. Quasi-steady carbon plasma source for neutral beam injector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koguchi, H; Sakakita, H; Kiyama, S; Shimada, T; Sato, Y; Hirano, Y

    2014-02-01

    Carbon plasma is successfully sustained during 1000 s without any carrier gas in the bucket type ionization chamber with cusp magnetic field. Every several seconds, seed plasmas having ∼3 ms duration time are injected into the ionization chamber by a shunting arch plasma gun. The weakly ionized carbon plasma ejected from the shunting arch is also ionized by 2.45 GHz microwave at the electron cyclotron resonance surface and the plasma can be sustained even in the interval of gun discharges. Control of the gun discharge interval allows to keep high pressure and to sustain the plasma for long duration.

  6. Perspective: The physics, diagnostics, and applications of atmospheric pressure low temperature plasma sources used in plasma medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroussi, M.; Lu, X.; Keidar, M.

    2017-07-01

    Low temperature plasmas have been used in various plasma processing applications for several decades. But it is only in the last thirty years or so that sources generating such plasmas at atmospheric pressure in reliable and stable ways have become more prevalent. First, in the late 1980s, the dielectric barrier discharge was used to generate relatively large volume diffuse plasmas at atmospheric pressure. Then, in the early 2000s, plasma jets that can launch cold plasma plumes in ambient air were developed. Extensive experimental and modeling work was carried out on both methods and much of the physics governing such sources was elucidated. Starting in the mid-1990s, low temperature plasma discharges have been used as sources of chemically reactive species that can be transported to interact with biological media, cells, and tissues and induce impactful biological effects. However, many of the biochemical pathways whereby plasma affects cells remain not well understood. This situation is changing rather quickly because the field, known today as "plasma medicine," has experienced exponential growth in the last few years thanks to a global research community that engaged in fundamental and applied research involving the use of cold plasma for the inactivation of bacteria, dental applications, wound healing, and the destruction of cancer cells/tumors. In this perspective, the authors first review the physics as well as the diagnostics of the principal plasma sources used in plasma medicine. Then, brief descriptions of their biomedical applications are presented. To conclude, the authors' personal assessment of the present status and future outlook of the field is given.

  7. New developments in metal ion implantation by vacuum arc ion sources and metal plasma immersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, I.G.; Anders, A.; Anders, S.

    1996-01-01

    Ion implantation by intense beams of metal ions can be accomplished using the dense metal plasma formed in a vacuum arc discharge embodied either in a vacuum arc ion source or in a metal plasma immersion configuration. In the former case high energy metal ion beams are formed and implantation is done in a more-or-less conventional way, and in the latter case the substrate is immersed in the plasma and repetitively pulse-biased so as to accelerate the ions at the high voltage plasma sheath formed at the substrate. A number of advances have been made in the last few years, both in plasma technology and in the surface modification procedures, that enhance the effectiveness and versatility of the methods, including for example: controlled increase of the in charge states produced; operation in a dual metal-gaseous ion species mode; very large area beam formation; macroparticle filtering; and the development of processing regimes for optimizing adhesion, morphology and structure. These complementary ion processing techniques provide the plasma tools for doing ion surface modification over a very wide parameter regime, from pure ion implantation at energies approaching the MeV level, through ion mixing at energies in the ∼1 to ∼100 keV range, to IBAD-like processing at energies from a few tens of eV to a few keV. Here the authors review the methods, describe a number of recent developments, and outline some of the surface modification applications to which the methods have been put. 54 refs., 9 figs

  8. Double-layer ion acceleration triggered by ion magnetization in expanding radiofrequency plasma sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Kazunori; Charles, Christine; Boswell, Rod W.; Fujiwara, Tamiya

    2010-01-01

    Ion energy distribution functions downstream of the source exit in magnetically expanding low-pressure plasmas are experimentally investigated for four source tube diameters ranging from about 5 to 15 cm. The magnetic-field threshold corresponding to a transition from a simple expanding plasma to a double layer-containing plasma is observed to increase with a decrease in the source tube diameter. The results demonstrate that for the four geometries, the double layer and the accelerated ion beam form when the ion Larmour radius in the source becomes smaller than the source tube radius, i.e., when the ions become magnetized in the source tube.

  9. Plasma Science Committee (PLSC) and the Panel on Opportunities in Plasma Science and Technology (OPST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Plasma Science Committee (PLSC) of the National Research Council (NRC) is charged with monitoring the health of the field of plasma science in the United States and identifies and examines both broad and specific issues affecting the field. Regular meetings, teleconferences, briefings from agencies and the scientific community, the formation of study panels to prepare reports, and special symposia are among the mechanisms used by the PLSC to meet its charge. During July 1992, the PLSC sponsored a workshop on nonneutral plasmas in traps. Although no written report on the workshop results, was prepared for public distribution, a summary of highlights was provided to the OPST Subpanel on Nonneutral Plasmas. The PLSC also continued its follow-up briefings and discussions on the results of the results of the report Plasma Processing of materials. Scientific and Technological Opportunities. As a result of these activities, the Committee is now working with the NRC Committee on Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Sciences (CAMOS) to organize a symposium on database needs in plasma processing of materials

  10. The dual role of external technology sourcing in technological exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhaverbeke, Wim; Li-Ying, Jason; van de Vrande, Vareska

    2013-01-01

    from non-partners, partners may play a role because of whom they know. That is, they inform the firm about technological opportunities beyond its corporate venturing network. The empirical analysis supports the dual role of venturing partners in facilitating the two types of explorative learning.......We refine the concept of boundary-spanning exploration, by making a distinction between explorative learning from partners and from non-partners (Partners are organizations with whom a focal firm has some kind of external venturing relations, i.e. technological alliances, corporate venturing...... capital, or M&As). These partners play a dual role: in explorative learning from partners, a firm teams up with external venturing partners to co-develop or transfer technology. Partners’ technology base (what they know) is driving explorative learning from partners. In contrast, in explorative learning...

  11. Open Source Interoperability: It's More than Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Sartorio

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Open Solutions Alliance is a consortium of leading commercial open source vendors, integrators and end users dedicated to the growth of open source based solutions in the enterprise. We believe Linux and other infrastructure software, such as Apache, has become mainstream, and packaged solutions represent the next great growth opportunity. However some unique challenges can temper that opportunity. These challenges include getting the word out about the maturity and enterprise-readiness of those solutions, ensuring interoperability both with each other and with other proprietary and legacy solutions, and ensuring healthy collaboration between vendors and their respective customer and developer communities.

  12. Laser and Plasma Technology Division annual report 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatramani, N.; Verma, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    The report describes the research and development (R and D) activities of Laser and Plasma technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay during 1992. The broad programme objectives of the Division are: (1) development and technology readiness studies of laser, plasma and electron beam devices, (2) studies on related physical phenomena with a view to gain better understanding of the devices, and (3) improvements in technology and exploration of new areas. The R and D activities are reported under the sections entitled: (1) Laser Activities, (2) Thermal Plasma Activities, and (3) Electron Beam Activities. At the end of each section, a list of publications by the staff members in the field indicated by the title of the section is given. Some of the highlights of R and D work during 1992 are:(1) fabrication of an electron beam sustained CO 2 laser, (2) commissioning of a 6.5 m high LMMHD (Liquid Metal Magneto-hydrodynamic) generator loaded with 1.5 tons of mercury, (3) fabrication of electron beam processing equipment, and (4) study of the magnetic properties of vanadium nitride films produced by reactive sputtering in an indigenously developed DC magnetron sputtering equipment. (author). 56 figs., 6 tabs

  13. Physics-electrical hybrid model for real time impedance matching and remote plasma characterization in RF plasma sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhir, Dass; Bandyopadhyay, M; Chakraborty, A

    2016-02-01

    Plasma characterization and impedance matching are an integral part of any radio frequency (RF) based plasma source. In long pulse operation, particularly in high power operation where plasma load may vary due to different reasons (e.g. pressure and power), online tuning of impedance matching circuit and remote plasma density estimation are very useful. In some cases, due to remote interfaces, radio activation and, due to maintenance issues, power probes are not allowed to be incorporated in the ion source design for plasma characterization. Therefore, for characterization and impedance matching, more remote schemes are envisaged. Two such schemes by the same authors are suggested in these regards, which are based on air core transformer model of inductive coupled plasma (ICP) [M. Bandyopadhyay et al., Nucl. Fusion 55, 033017 (2015); D. Sudhir et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 013510 (2014)]. However, the influence of the RF field interaction with the plasma to determine its impedance, a physics code HELIC [D. Arnush, Phys. Plasmas 7, 3042 (2000)] is coupled with the transformer model. This model can be useful for both types of RF sources, i.e., ICP and helicon sources.

  14. Sources of Ambiguity in Teaching Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thies, Susan

    2017-01-01

    The public school system is charged with the endeavor of preparing students for college and/or careers. Currently there is a shortage of qualified individuals to fill jobs in the technology field. These job opportunities will continue to grow while the amount of potential employees dwindles. There is an issue with supply and demand, what are…

  15. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Plasma Fusion Center 1987--1988 report to the President

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    During the past year, technical progress has been made in all Plasma Fusion Center (PFC) research programs. The Plasma Fusion Center is recognized as one of the leading university research laboratories in the physics and engineering aspects of magnetic confinement fusion. Its research programs have produced significant results on several fronts: the basic physics of high-temperature plasmas (plasmas theory, RF heating, free electron lasers, development of advanced diagnostics, and intermediate-scale experiments on the Versator tokamak and Constance mirror devices), major confinement results on the Alcator C tokamak, including pioneering investigations of the stability, heating, and confinement properties of plasmas at high densities, temperatures and magnetic fields, experiments on the medium-scale TARA tandem mirror, including the development of novel MHD stabilization techniques in axisymmetric geometry, and a broad program of fusion technology and engineering development that addresses problems in several critical subsystem areas (e.g., magnet systems, superconducting materials development, environmental and safety studies, advanced millimeter-wave source development, and system studies of fusion reactor design, operation, and technology requirements

  16. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Plasma Fusion Center, 1984-1985. Report to the President

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-07-01

    During the past year, technical progress has been made in all Plasma Fusion Center (PFC) research programs. The Plasma Fusion Center is recognized as one of the leading university research laboratories in the physics and engineering aspects of magnetic confinement fusion. Its research programs have produced significant results on four fronts: (1) the basic physics of high-temperature plasmas (plasma theory, rf heating, free electron lasers, development of advanced diagnostics and small-scale experiments on the Versator tokamak and Constance mirror devices); (2) major confinement results on the Alcator C tokamak, including pioneering investigations of the stability, heating, and confinement properties of plasmas at high densities, temperatures and magnetic fields; (3) development of an innovative design for axisymmetric tandem mirrors with inboard thermal barriers, with initial operation of the TARA tandem mirror experiment beginning in 1984; and (4) a broad program of fusion technology and engineering development that addresses problems in several critical subsystem areas (e.g., magnet systems, superconducting materials development, environmental and safety studies, advanced millimeter wave source development, and system studies of fusion reactor design, operation, and technology requirements). A review of these programs is given

  17. Ferroelectric plasma sources for NDCX-II and heavy ion drivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilson, E.P., E-mail: egilson@pppl.gov [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey, 08543 (United States); Davidson, R.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Kaganovich, I.D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey, 08543 (United States); Kwan, J.W.; Lidia, S.M.; Ni, P.A.; Roy, P.K.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California, 94720 (United States); Barnard, J.J.; Friedman, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California, 94550 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    A barium titanate ferroelectric cylindrical plasma source has been developed, tested and delivered for the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment NDCX-II at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The plasma source design is based on the successful design of the NDCX-I plasma source. A 7 kV pulse applied across the 3.8 mm-thick ceramic cylinder wall produces a large polarization surface charge density that leads to breakdown and plasma formation. The plasma that fills the NDCX-II drift section upstream of the final-focusing solenoid has a plasma number density exceeding 10{sup 10} cm{sup −3} and an electron temperature of several eV. The operating principle of the ferroelectric plasma source are reviewed and a detailed description of the installation plans is presented. The criteria for plasma sources with larger number density will be given, and concepts will be presented for plasma sources for driver applications. Plasma sources for drivers will need to be highly reliable, and operate at several Hz for millions of shots.

  18. The difference between the metal ion extracted from the R.F. ion source by applying plasma chemistry reaction and by non-plasma range chemistry reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Gui Bin

    1987-01-01

    The paper introduced the difference between using plasma chemistry reaction draw metal ion and non-plasma range chemistry reaction in the R.F. ion source. By using of the plasma chemistry reaction draw metal ion higher percentage than non-plasma range chemistry reaction in the R.F. ion source. The authors plasma chemistry reaction to R.F. ion source and implanter successfully. The effect is very well, it has its own characteristic

  19. Silicon micromachining using a high-density plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAuley, S.A.; Ashraf, H.; Atabo, L.; Chambers, A.; Hall, S.; Hopkins, J.; Nicholls, G.

    2001-01-01

    Dry etching of Si is critical in satisfying the demands of the micromachining industry. The micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) community requires etches capable of high aspect ratios, vertical profiles, good feature size control and etch uniformity along with high throughput to satisfy production requirements. Surface technology systems' (STS's) high-density inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etch tool enables a wide range of applications to be realized whilst optimizing the above parameters. Components manufactured from Si using an STS ICP include accelerometers and gyroscopes for military, automotive and domestic applications. STS's advanced silicon etch (ASE TM ) has also allowed the first generation of MEMS-based optical switches and attenuators to reach the marketplace. In addition, a specialized application for fabricating the next generation photolithography exposure masks has been optimized for 200 mm diameter wafers, to depths of ∼750 μm. Where the profile is not critical, etch rates of greater than 8 μm min -1 have been realized to replace previous methods such as wet etching. This is also the case for printer applications. Specialized applications that require etching down to pyrex or oxide often result in the loss of feature size control at the interface; this is an industry wide problem. STS have developed a technique to address this. The rapid progression of the industry has led to development of the STS ICP etch tool, as well as the process. (author)

  20. Technological yields of sources for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagorski, Z.P.

    1993-01-01

    The present report is prepared for planners of radiation processing of any material. Calculations are focused on accelerators of electrons, divided into two groups: versatile linacs of energy up to 13 MeV, and accelerators of lower energy, below 2 MeV, of better energy yield but of limited applications. The calculations are connected with the confrontation of the author's technological expectations during the preparation of the linac project in the late '60s, with the results of 25 years of exploitation of the machine. One has to realize that from the 200 kW input power from the mains, only 5 kW of bent and scanned beam is recovered on the conveyor. That power is only partially used for radiation induced phenomena, because of the demanded homogeneity of the dose, of the mode of packing of the object and its shape, of edges of the scanned area and in the spaces between boxes, and of loses during the idle time due to the tuning of the machine and dosimetric operations. The use of lower energy accelerators may be more economical than that of linacs in case of objects of specific type. At the first stage already, that is of the conversion of electrical power into that of low energy electron beam, the yield is 2-3 times better than in the case of linacs. Attention has been paid to the technological aspects of electron beam conversion into the more penetrating Bremsstrahlung similar to gamma radiation. The advantages of technologies, which make possible a control of the shape of the processed object are stressed. Special attention is focused to the relation between the yield of processing and the ratio between the maximum to the minimum dose in the object under the irradiation. (author). 14 refs, 14 figs

  1. Operations manual for the plasma source ion implantation economics program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibeault, M.L.; Thayer, G.R.

    1995-10-01

    Plasma Source Ion Implantation (PSII) is a surface modification technique for metal. PSIICOSTMODEL95 is an EXCEL-based program that estimates the cost for implementing a PSII system in a manufacturing setting where the number of parts to be processed is over 5,000 parts per day and the shape of each part does not change from day to day. Overall, the manufacturing process must be very well defined and should not change. This document is a self-contained manual for PSIICOSTMODEL95. It assumes the reader has some general knowledge of the technical requirements for PSII. Configuration of the PSII process versus design is used as the methodology in PSIICOSTMODEL95. The reason behind this is twofold. First, the design process cannot be programmed into a computer when the relationships between design variables are not understood. Second, the configuration methodology reduces the number of assumptions that must be programmed into our software. Misuse of results are less likely to occur if the user has fewer assumptions to understand

  2. Plasma particle sources due to interactions with neutrals in a turbulent scrape-off layer of a toroidally confined plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrysøe, Alexander Simon; Løiten, M.; Madsen, J.

    2018-01-01

    The conditions in the edge and scrape-off layer (SOL) of magnetically confined plasmas determine the overall performance of the device, and it is of great importance to study and understand the mechanics that drive transport in those regions. If a significant amount of neutral molecules and atoms...... is present in the edge and SOL regions, those will influence the plasma parameters and thus the plasma confinement. In this paper, it is displayed how neutrals, described by a fluid model, introduce source terms in a plasma drift-fluid model due to inelastic collisions. The resulting source terms...... are included in a four-field drift fluid model, and it is shown how an increasing neutral particle density in the edge and SOL regions influences the plasma particle transport across the lastclosed-flux-surface. It is found that an appropriate gas puffing rate allows for the edge density in the simulation...

  3. Technology and Plasma Physics Developments needed for DEMO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lackner, K.

    2006-01-01

    Although no universally agreed definition of the next step after ITER exists at present it is commonly accepted that significant progress beyond the ITER base-line operating physics modes and the technologies employed in it are needed. We first review the role of DEMO in the different proposed fusion road maps and derive from them the corresponding performance requirements. A fast track to commercial fusion implies that DEMO is already close to a first of a kind power plant in all aspects except average availability. Existing power plant studies give therefore also a good approximation to the needs of DEMO. We outline the options for achieving the needed physics progress in the different characteristic parameters, and the implications for the experimental programme of ITER and accompanying satellite devices. On the time scale of the operation of ITER and of the planning DEMO, ab-initio modelling of fusion plasmas is also expected to assume a qualitatively new role. Besides the mapping of the reactor regime of plasma physics and the integration of a burning plasma with the principal reactor technologies on ITER, the development of functional and structural materials capable of handling the high power fluxes and neutron fluences, respectively is also on the critical path to DEMO. Finally we discuss the potential contributions of other confinement concepts (stellarators and spherical tokamaks) to the design of DEMO. (author)

  4. Spallation Neutron Sources For Science And Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comsan, M.N.H.

    2011-01-01

    Spallation Neutron Facilities Increasing interest has been noticed in spallation neutron sources (SNS) during the past 20 years. The system includes high current proton accelerator in the GeV region and spallation heavy metal target in the Hg-Bi region. Among high flux currently operating SNSs are: ISIS in UK (1985), SINQ in Switzerland (1996), JSNS in Japan (2008), and SNS in USA (2010). Under construction is the European spallation source (ESS) in Sweden (to be operational in 2020). The intense neutron beams provided by SNSs have the advantage of being of non-reactor origin, are of continuous (SINQ) or pulsed nature. Combined with state-of-the-art neutron instrumentation, they have a diverse potential for both scientific research and diverse applications. Why Neutrons? Neutrons have wavelengths comparable to interatomic spacings (1-5 A) Neutrons have energies comparable to structural and magnetic excitations (1-100 meV) Neutrons are deeply penetrating (bulk samples can be studied) Neutrons are scattered with a strength that varies from element to element (and isotope to isotope) Neutrons have a magnetic moment (study of magnetic materials) Neutrons interact only weakly with matter (theory is easy) Neutron scattering is therefore an ideal probe of magnetic and atomic structures and excitations Neutron Producing Reactions Several nuclear reactions are capable of producing neutrons. However the use of protons minimises the energetic cost of the neutrons produced solid state physics and astrophysics Inelastic neutron scattering

  5. Use of regenerative energy sources and hydrogen technology 2006. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, J.; Luschtinetz, T.

    2006-01-01

    This volume contains 25 contributions, which were held on the 13th symposium ''Use of regenerative energy sources and hydrogen technology'' in Stralsund (Germany). Separate documentation items analysing 16 of the contributions have been prepared for the ENERGY database

  6. The technology and science of steady-state operation in magnetically confined plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becoulet, A; Hoang, G T

    2008-01-01

    The steady-state operation of magnetically confined fusion plasmas is considered as one of the 'grand challenges' of future decades, if not the ultimate goal of the research and development activities towards a new source of energy. Reaching such a goal requires the high-level integration of both science and technology aspects of magnetic fusion into self-consistent plasma regimes in fusion-grade devices. On the physics side, the first constraint addresses the magnetic confinement itself which must be made persistent. This means to either rely on intrinsically steady-state configurations, like the stellarator one, or turn the inductively driven tokamak configuration into a fully non-inductive one, through a mix of additional current sources. The low efficiency of the external current drive methods and the necessity to minimize the re-circulating power claim for a current mix strongly weighted by the internal 'pressure driven' bootstrap current, itself strongly sensitive to the heat and particle transport properties of the plasma. A virtuous circle may form as the heat and particle transport properties are themselves sensitive to the current profile conditions. Note that several other factors, e.g. plasma rotation profile, magneto-hydro-dynamics activity, also influence the equilibrium state. In the present tokamak devices, several examples of such 'advanced tokamak' physics research demonstrate the feasibility of steady-state regimes, though with a number of open questions still under investigation. The modelling activity also progresses quite fast in this domain and supports understanding and extrapolation. This high level of physics sophistication of the plasma scenario however needs to be combined with steady-state technological constraints. The technology constraints for steady-state operation are basically twofold: the specific technologies required to reach the steady-state plasma conditions and the generic technologies linked to the long pulse operation of a

  7. Dependence of the source performance on plasma parameters at the BATMAN test facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, C.; Fantz, U.

    2015-04-01

    The investigation of the dependence of the source performance (high jH-, low je) for optimum Cs conditions on the plasma parameters at the BATMAN (Bavarian Test MAchine for Negative hydrogen ions) test facility is desirable in order to find key parameters for the operation of the source as well as to deepen the physical understanding. The most relevant source physics takes place in the extended boundary layer, which is the plasma layer with a thickness of several cm in front of the plasma grid: the production of H-, its transport through the plasma and its extraction, inevitably accompanied by the co-extraction of electrons. Hence, a link of the source performance with the plasma parameters in the extended boundary layer is expected. In order to characterize electron and negative hydrogen ion fluxes in the extended boundary layer, Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy and Langmuir probes have been applied for the measurement of the H- density and the determination of the plasma density, the plasma potential and the electron temperature, respectively. The plasma potential is of particular importance as it determines the sheath potential profile at the plasma grid: depending on the plasma grid bias relative to the plasma potential, a transition in the plasma sheath from an electron repelling to an electron attracting sheath takes place, influencing strongly the electron fraction of the bias current and thus the amount of co-extracted electrons. Dependencies of the source performance on the determined plasma parameters are presented for the comparison of two source pressures (0.6 Pa, 0.45 Pa) in hydrogen operation. The higher source pressure of 0.6 Pa is a standard point of operation at BATMAN with external magnets, whereas the lower pressure of 0.45 Pa is closer to the ITER requirements (p ≤ 0.3 Pa).

  8. Dependence of the source performance on plasma parameters at the BATMAN test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wimmer, C.; Fantz, U.

    2015-01-01

    The investigation of the dependence of the source performance (high j H − , low j e ) for optimum Cs conditions on the plasma parameters at the BATMAN (Bavarian Test MAchine for Negative hydrogen ions) test facility is desirable in order to find key parameters for the operation of the source as well as to deepen the physical understanding. The most relevant source physics takes place in the extended boundary layer, which is the plasma layer with a thickness of several cm in front of the plasma grid: the production of H − , its transport through the plasma and its extraction, inevitably accompanied by the co-extraction of electrons. Hence, a link of the source performance with the plasma parameters in the extended boundary layer is expected. In order to characterize electron and negative hydrogen ion fluxes in the extended boundary layer, Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy and Langmuir probes have been applied for the measurement of the H − density and the determination of the plasma density, the plasma potential and the electron temperature, respectively. The plasma potential is of particular importance as it determines the sheath potential profile at the plasma grid: depending on the plasma grid bias relative to the plasma potential, a transition in the plasma sheath from an electron repelling to an electron attracting sheath takes place, influencing strongly the electron fraction of the bias current and thus the amount of co-extracted electrons. Dependencies of the source performance on the determined plasma parameters are presented for the comparison of two source pressures (0.6 Pa, 0.45 Pa) in hydrogen operation. The higher source pressure of 0.6 Pa is a standard point of operation at BATMAN with external magnets, whereas the lower pressure of 0.45 Pa is closer to the ITER requirements (p ≤ 0.3 Pa)

  9. [Automatic adjustment control system for DC glow discharge plasma source].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Zhen-zhen; Wang, Yong-qing; Li, Xiao-jia; Wang, Hai-zhou; Shi, Ning

    2011-03-01

    There are three important parameters in the DC glow discharge process, the discharge current, discharge voltage and argon pressure in discharge source. These parameters influence each other during glow discharge process. This paper presents an automatic control system for DC glow discharge plasma source. This system collects and controls discharge voltage automatically by adjusting discharge source pressure while the discharge current is constant in the glow discharge process. The design concept, circuit principle and control program of this automatic control system are described. The accuracy is improved by this automatic control system with the method of reducing the complex operations and manual control errors. This system enhances the control accuracy of glow discharge voltage, and reduces the time to reach discharge voltage stability. The glow discharge voltage stability test results with automatic control system are provided as well, the accuracy with automatic control system is better than 1% FS which is improved from 4% FS by manual control. Time to reach discharge voltage stability has been shortened to within 30 s by automatic control from more than 90 s by manual control. Standard samples like middle-low alloy steel and tin bronze have been tested by this automatic control system. The concentration analysis precision has been significantly improved. The RSDs of all the test result are better than 3.5%. In middle-low alloy steel standard sample, the RSD range of concentration test result of Ti, Co and Mn elements is reduced from 3.0%-4.3% by manual control to 1.7%-2.4% by automatic control, and that for S and Mo is also reduced from 5.2%-5.9% to 3.3%-3.5%. In tin bronze standard sample, the RSD range of Sn, Zn and Al elements is reduced from 2.6%-4.4% to 1.0%-2.4%, and that for Si, Ni and Fe is reduced from 6.6%-13.9% to 2.6%-3.5%. The test data is also shown in this paper.

  10. Development of Langmuir probe diagnostic system for 13.56 MHz plasma sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranjini, K.; Nabhiraj, P.Y.; Mallik, C.; Bhandari, R.K.

    2006-01-01

    A work on development of high brightness ion source has been started recently. Plasma parameters are strongly linked to the brightness of the ion beams produced from the ion sources. A self compensated Langmuir probe and related automation system for the measurement of plasma parameters is developed. This paper describes design of the probe, software, hardware and the results. (author)

  11. Sources of innovation in agricultural technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biggs, S D; Clay, E J

    1981-04-01

    This paper focuses attention on environmental and biological characteristics of agriculture which shape the process of technical innovation. The interaction of natural selection and human purposive selection and experimentation is shown to result in a continuous process of innovation placing farmers in the informal R and D systems as well as scientists in formal R and D systems in an innovative treadmill. The importance and limitations of informal R and D are reviewed. A discussion of the characteristics and potential of formal R and D systems leads to the identification of some major problems of policy inherent in, and specific to, the organization and management of agricultural research resources. These include: genetic vulnerability, choices between environmentally specific or widely adapted technologies, the location of research activity, the linkages between agricultural producers and scientists, and methods for maintaining and strengthening informal R and D systems. 58 references, 2 figures.

  12. PIII Plasma Density Enhancement by a New DC Power Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Callejas, R.; Godoy-Cabrera, O. G.; Granda-Gutierrez, E. E.; Piedad-Beneitez, A. de la; Munoz-Castro, A. E.; Valencia A, R.; Barocio, S. R.; Mercado-Cabrera, A.; Pena-Eguiluz, R.

    2006-01-01

    In practical terms, those plasmas produced by a DC voltage power supply do not attain densities above the 108 to 109 cm-3 band. Here we present a power supply, controlled in current and voltage, which has been successfully designed and constructed delivering plasma densities in the orders of 109 - 1010 cm-3. Its experimental performance test was conducted within one toroidal and one cylindrical chambers capable of 29 and 35 litres, respectively, using nitrogen gas. The DC plasma was characterized by a double electric probe. Several physical phenomena present in the PIII process have been keenly investigated including plasma sheath dynamics, interaction of plasma and surface, etc. In this paper we analyze the effect of the implantation voltage, plasma density and pulse time in the PIII average heating power and fluence density

  13. Application of plasma deposition technology for nuclear fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, I. H.; Moon, J. S.; Park, H. S.; Song, K. C.; Lee, C. Y.; Kang, K. H.; Ryu, H. J.; Kim, H. S.; Yang, M. S.

    2001-01-01

    Yttria-stabilized-zirconia (m.p. 2670.deg. C), was deposited by induction plasma spraying system with a view to develop a new nuclear fuel fabrication technology. To fabricate the dense pellets, the spraying condition was optimized through the process parameters such as, chamber pressure, plasma plate power, powder spraying distance, sheath gas composition, probe position particle size and its morphology. The results with a 5mm thick deposit on rectangular planar graphite substrates showed 97.11% theoretical density, when the sheath gas flow rate was Ar/H 2 120/20 L/min, probe position 8cm, particle size-75 μm and spraying distance 22cm. The microstructure of YSZ deposit by ICP was lamellae and columnar perpendicular to the spraying direction. In the bottom part near the substrate, small equiaxed grains bounded in a layer. In the middle part, relatively regular size of columnar grains with excellent bonding each other were distinctive

  14. Curious exceptions? : open source software and "open" technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuvolari, A.; Rullani, F.; St. Amant, Kirk; Still, Brian

    2007-01-01

    The aim of thts chapter is to explore the differences and commonalities between open source software and other cases of open technology. The concept of open technology is used here to indicate various models of innovation based on the participation of a wide range of different actors who freely

  15. Advanced plasma flow simulations of cathodic-arc and ferroelectric plasma sources for neutralized drift compression experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam B. Sefkow

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Large-space-scale and long-time-scale plasma flow simulations are executed in order to study the spatial and temporal evolution of plasma parameters for two types of plasma sources used in the neutralized drift compression experiment (NDCX. The results help assess the charge neutralization conditions for ion beam compression experiments and can be employed in more sophisticated simulations, which previously neglected the dynamical evolution of the plasma. Three-dimensional simulations of a filtered cathodic-arc plasma source show the coupling efficiency of the plasma flow from the source to the drift region depends on geometrical factors. The nonuniform magnetic topology complicates the well-known general analytical considerations for evaluating guiding-center drifts, and particle-in-cell simulations provide a self-consistent evaluation of the physics in an otherwise challenging scenario. Plasma flow profiles of a ferroelectric plasma source demonstrate that the densities required for longitudinal compression experiments involving ion beams are provided over the drift length, and are in good agreement with measurements. Simulations involving azimuthally asymmetric plasma creation conditions show that symmetric profiles are nevertheless achieved at the time of peak on-axis plasma density. Also, the ferroelectric plasma expands upstream on the thermal expansion time scale, and therefore avoids the possibility of penetration into the acceleration gap and transport sections, where partial neutralization would increase the beam emittance. Future experiments on NDCX will investigate the transverse focusing of an axially compressing intense charge bunch to a sub-mm spot size with coincident focal planes using a strong final-focus solenoid. In order to fill a multi-tesla solenoid with the necessary high-density plasma for beam charge neutralization, the simulations predict that supersonically injected plasma from the low-field region will penetrate and

  16. Physics and technology of spallation neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, G.S.

    1998-08-01

    Next to fission and fusion, spallation is an efficient process for releasing neutrons from nuclei. Unlike the other two reactions, it is an endothermal process and can, therefore, not be used per se in energy generation. In order to sustain a spallation reaction, an energetic beam of particles, most commonly protons, must be supplied onto a heavy target. Spallation can, however, play an important role as a source of neutrons whose flux can be easily controlled via the driving beam. Up to a few GeV of energy, the neutron production is roughly proportional to the beam power. Although sophisticated Monte Carlo codes exist to compute all aspects of a spallation facility, many features can be understood on the basis of simple physics arguments. Technically a spallation facility is very demanding, not only because a reliable and economic accelerator of high power is needed to drive the reaction, but also, and in particular, because high levels of radiation and heat are generated in the target which are difficult to cope with. Radiation effects in a spallation environment are different from those commonly encountered in a reactor and are probably even more temperature dependent than the latter because of the high gas production rate. A commonly favored solution is the use of molten heavy metal targets. While radiation damage is not a problem in this case, except for the container, a number of other issues are discussed. (author)

  17. Progress in the Development of a High Power Helicon Plasma Source for the Materials Plasma Exposure Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goulding, Richard Howell [ORNL; Caughman, John B. [ORNL; Rapp, Juergen [ORNL; Biewer, Theodore M. [ORNL; Bigelow, Tim S. [ORNL; Campbell, Ian H. [ORNL; Caneses Marin, Juan F. [ORNL; Donovan, David C. [ORNL; Kafle, Nischal [ORNL; Martin, Elijah H. [ORNL; Ray, Holly B. [ORNL; Shaw, Guinevere C. [ORNL; Showers, Melissa A. [ORNL

    2017-09-01

    Proto-MPEX is a linear plasma device being used to study a novel RF source concept for the planned Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment (MPEX), which will address plasma-materials interaction (PMI) for nuclear fusion reactors. Plasmas are produced using a large diameter helicon source operating at a frequency of 13.56 MHz at power levels up to 120 kW. In recent experiments the helicon source has produced deuterium plasmas with densities up to ~6 × 1019 m–3 measured at a location 2 m downstream from the antenna and 0.4 m from the target. Previous plasma production experiments on Proto-MPEX have generated lower density plasmas with hollow electron temperature profiles and target power deposition peaked far off axis. The latest experiments have produced flat Te profiles with a large portion of the power deposited on the target near the axis. This and other evidence points to the excitation of a helicon mode in this case.

  18. Radiation sources based on laser-plasma interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaroszynski, D.A.; Bingham, R.; Brunetti, E.; Ersfeld, B.; Gallacher, J.G.; Geer, van der S.B.; Issac, R.; Jamison, S.P.; Jones, D.; Loos, de M.J.; Lyachev, A.; Pavlov, V.M.; Reitsma, A.J.W.; Saveliev, Y.M.; Vieux, G.; Wiggins, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    Plasma waves excited by intense laser beams can be harnessed to produce femtosecond duration bunches of electrons with relativistic energies. The very large electrostatic forces of plasma density wakes trailing behind an intense laser pulse provide field potentials capable of accelerating charged

  19. Flux compression generators as plasma compression power sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, C.M.; Caird, R.S.; Erickson, D.J.; Freeman, B.L.; Thomson, D.B.; Garn, W.B.

    1979-01-01

    A survey is made of applications where explosive-driven magnetic flux compression generators have been or can be used to directly power devices that produce dense plasmas. Representative examples are discussed that are specific to the theta pinch, the plasma gun, the dense plasma focus and the Z pinch. These examples are used to illustrate the high energy and power capabilities of explosive generators. An application employing a rocket-borne, generator-powered plasma gun emphasizes the size and weight potential of flux compression power supplies. Recent results from a local effort to drive a dense plasma focus are provided. Imploding liners ae discussed in the context of both the theta and Z pinches

  20. The fourth (plasma) state of matter - a materials technology for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.T.

    1990-01-01

    Recent developments in the science of cool plasmas suggest that process technology based on non-equilibrium phenomena may become of considerable importance in the near future, indeed several significant steps taking scientific curiosity towards commercial process are already emerging. The realization that many industrial processes could be faster, cheaper and produce less pollution if accomplished in the plasma state, has led to increasing interest in both academic and industrial research laboratories, into plasma chemistry whilst a number of industrial processes of significant scale have started to emerge. The potential for controlled synthesis and modification of ultra thin films by plasma, and related techniques involving ion and electron beams offers new opportunities for the cost effective engineering of special effects (chemical, physical, electrical, mechanical, etc.) and the talk outlines some of the challenges to be faced in this exciting field for the future which fits into a generic theme of spatial control of processes to materials which also encompasses the high rate, high temperature processes involving the plasma state generated by directed high energy sources such as lasers

  1. Plasma potentials and performance of the advanced electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Z.Q.; Lyneis, C.M.

    1994-01-01

    The mean plasma potential was measured on the LBL advanced electron cyclotron resonance (AECR) ion source for a variety of conditions. The mean potentials for plasmas of oxygen, argon, and argon mixed with oxygen in the AECR were determined. These plasma potentials are positive with respect to the plasma chamber wall and are on the order of tens of volts. Electrons injected into the plasma by an electron gun or from an aluminum oxide wall coating with a very high secondary electron emission reduce the plasma potential as does gas mixing. A lower plasma potential in the AECR source coincides with enhanced production of high charged state ions indicating longer ion confinement times. The effect of the extra electrons from external injection or wall coatings is to lower the average plasma potential and to increase the n e τ i of the ECR plasma. With sufficient extra electrons, the need for gas mixing can be eliminated or reduced to a lower level, so the source can operate at lower neutral pressures. A reduction of the neutral pressure decreases charge exchange between ions and neutrals and enhances the production of high charge state ions. An aluminum oxide coating results in the lowest plasma potential among the three methods discussed and the best source performance

  2. Plasma jet source parameter optimisation and experiments on injection into Globus-M spherical tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusev, V.K.; Petrov, Yu.V.; Sakharov, N.V.; Semenov, A.A.; Voronin, A.V.

    2005-01-01

    Results of theoretical and experimental research on the plasma sources and injection of plasma and gas jet produced by the modified source into tokamak Globus-M are presented. An experimental test stand was developed for investigation of intense plasma jet generation. Optimisation of pulsed coaxial accelerator parameters by means of analytical calculations is performed with the aim of achieving the highest flow velocity at limited coaxial electrode length and discharge current. The optimal parameters of power supply to generate a plasma jet with minimal impurity contamination and maximum flow velocity were determined. A comparison of experimental and calculation results is made. Plasma jet parameters are measured, such as: impurity species content, pressure distribution across the jet, flow velocity, plasma density, etc. Experiments on the interaction of a higher kinetic energy plasma jet with the magnetic field and plasma of the Globus-M tokamak were performed. Experimental results on plasma and gas jet injection into different Globus-M discharge phases are presented and discussed. Results are presented on the investigation of plasma jet injection as the source for discharge breakdown, plasma current startup and initial density rise. (author)

  3. Field distribution of a source and energy absorption in an inhomogeneous magneto-active plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galushko, N.P.; Erokhin, N.S.; Moiseev, S.S.

    1975-01-01

    In the present paper the distribution of source fields in in a magnetoactive plasma is studied from the standpoint of the possibility of an effective SHF heating of an inhomogeneous plasma in both high (ωapproximatelyωsub(pe) and low (ωapproximatelyωsub(pi) frequency ranges, where ωsub(pe) and ωsub(pi) are the electron and ion plasma frequencies. The localization of the HF energy absorption regions in cold and hot plasma and the effect of plasma inhomogeneity and source dimensions on the absorption efficiency are investigated. The linear wave transformation in an inhomogeneous hot plasma is taken into consideration. Attention is paid to the difference between the region localization for collisional and non-collisional absorption. It has been shown that the HF energy dissipation in plasma particle collisions is localized in the region of thin jets going from the source; the radiation field has a sharp peak in this region. At the same time, non-collisional HF energy dissipation is spread over the plasma volume as a result of Cherenkov and cyclotron wave attenuation. The essential contribution to the source field from resonances due to standing wave excitation in an inhomogeneous plasma shell near the source is pointed out

  4. 12th Czechoslovak seminar on plasma physics and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-03-01

    The 12th Czechoslovak seminar on plasma physics and technology was oriented mainly to the problems of high-temperature plasmas and controlled thermonuclear fusion. The proceedings contain 27 invited papers and communications presented in three sections: 1) Inertial controlled fusion, 2) Tokamaks, 3) Theory and miscellaneous topics. The first group of papers deals with various problems of electron-beam, ion-beam, and laser fusion, including physical processes in fusion targets. The tokamak section discusses the latest experimental results achieved in the Russian tokamaks FT-2, Tuman 2-a, T-7 and T-10, in the Czechoslovak tokamak TM-1-MH, and in the Hungarian tokamak MT-1. A detailed survey is presented of work on neutral atom injectors in Novosibirsk. In the third section several papers on theoretical studies of nonlinear and turbulent processes in a hot plasma are presented together with a simulation study of a hybrid tokamak reactor. Several contributions on special diagnostic methods are presented. (J.U.)

  5. Review of hydrogen pellet injection technology for plasma fueling applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milora, S.L.

    1989-01-01

    In the past several years, steady progress has been made worldwide in the development of high-speed hydrogen pellet injectors for fueling magnetically confined plasmas. Several fueling systems based on the conventional pneumatic and centrifuge acceleration concepts have been put into practice on a wide variety of toroidal plasma confinement devices. Long-pulse fueling has been demonstrated in the parameter range 0.8--1.3 km/s, for pellets up to 6 mm in diameter, and at delivery rates up to 40 Hz. Conventional systems have demonstrated the technology to speeds approaching 2 km/s, and several more exotic accelerator concepts are under development to meet the more demanding requirements of the next generation of reactor-grade plasmas. These include a gas gun that can operate in tritium, the two-stage light gas gun, electrothermal guns, electromagnetic rail guns, and an electron-beam-driven thruster. Although these devices are in various stages of development, velocities of 3.8 km/s have already been achieved with two-stage light gas guns, and the prospects for attaining 5 km/s in the near future appear good

  6. Source formulation for electron-impact ionization for fluid plasma simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, S.H.; Holland, C.; Tynan, G.R.

    2009-01-01

    The derivation of the correct functional form of source terms in plasma fluid theory is revisited. The relation between the fluid source terms and atomic physics differential cross sections is established for particle-impact ionization. It is shown that the interface between atomic and plasma phy...... electron temperature regimes in a wide variety of basic plasma physics experiments, including the trends across different gases.......The derivation of the correct functional form of source terms in plasma fluid theory is revisited. The relation between the fluid source terms and atomic physics differential cross sections is established for particle-impact ionization. It is shown that the interface between atomic and plasma...... physics is completely described by three scalar functions of the incident particle energy. These are the total cross section and the newly introduced forward momentum and energy functions, which are properties of the differential cross sections only. For electron-impact ionization, the binary...

  7. Material impacts and heat flux characterization of an electrothermal plasma source with an applied magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhart, T. E.; Martinez-Rodriguez, R. A.; Baylor, L. R.; Rapp, J.; Winfrey, A. L.

    2017-08-01

    To produce a realistic tokamak-like plasma environment in linear plasma device, a transient source is needed to deliver heat and particle fluxes similar to those seen in an edge localized mode (ELM). ELMs in future large tokamaks will deliver heat fluxes of ˜1 GW/m2 to the divertor plasma facing components at a few Hz. An electrothermal plasma source can deliver heat fluxes of this magnitude. These sources operate in an ablative arc regime which is driven by a DC capacitive discharge. An electrothermal source was configured with two pulse lengths and tested under a solenoidal magnetic field to determine the resulting impact on liner ablation, plasma parameters, and delivered heat flux. The arc travels through and ablates a boron nitride liner and strikes a tungsten plate. The tungsten target plate is analyzed for surface damage using a scanning electron microscope.

  8. Ultrashort pulse laser technology laser sources and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Schrempel, Frank; Dausinger, Friedrich

    2016-01-01

    Ultrashort laser pulses with durations in the femtosecond range up to a few picoseconds provide a unique method for precise materials processing or medical applications. Paired with the recent developments in ultrashort pulse lasers, this technology is finding its way into various application fields. The book gives a comprehensive overview of the principles and applications of ultrashort pulse lasers, especially applied to medicine and production technology. Recent advances in laser technology are discussed in detail. This covers the development of reliable and cheap low power laser sources as well as high average power ultrashort pulse lasers for large scale manufacturing. The fundamentals of laser-matter-interaction as well as processing strategies and the required system technology are discussed for these laser sources with respect to precise materials processing. Finally, different applications within medicine, measurement technology or materials processing are highlighted.

  9. Compact laser-produced plasma EUV sources for processing polymers and nanoimaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiedorowicz, H.; Bartnik, A.; Jarocki, R.; Kostecki, J.; Szczurek, M.; Wachulak, P.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) can be produced form a high-temperature plasma generated by interaction of high power laser pulses with matter. Laser plasma EUV sources are considered to be used in various applications in physics, material science, biomedicine, and technology. In the paper new compact laser plasma EUV sources developed for processing polymers and imaging are presented. The sources are based on a gas puff target formed by pulsed injection of a small amount of gas under high-pressure into a laser focus region. The use of the gas puff target instead of a solid target allows for efficient generation of EUV radiation without debris production. The compact laser plasma EUV source based on a gas puff target was developed for metrology applications. The EUV source developed for processing polymers is equipped with a grazing incidence axisymmetrical ellipsoidal mirror to focus EUV radiation in the relatively broad spectral range with the strong maximum near 10 nm. The size of the focal spot is about 1.3 mm in diameter with the maximum fluence up to 70 mJ/cm 2 . EUV radiation in the wavelength range of about 5 to 50 nm is produced by irradiation of xenon or krypton gas puff target with a Nd:YAG laser operating at 10 Hz and delivering 4 ns pulses of energy up to 0.8 J per pulse. The experiments on EUV irradiation of various polymers have been performed. Modification of polymer surfaces was achieved, primarily due to direct photo-etching with EUV photons and formation of micro- and nanostructures onto the surface. The mechanism of the interaction is similar to the UV laser ablation where energetic photons cause chemical bonds of the polymer chain to be broken. However, because of very low penetration depth of EUV radiation, the interaction region is limited to a very thin surface layer (<100 nm). This makes it possible to avoid degradation of bulk material caused by deeply penetrating UV radiation. The results of the studies

  10. Plasma ignition and steady state simulations of the Linac4 H$^{-}$ ion source

    CERN Document Server

    Mattei, S; Yasumoto, M; Hatayama, A; Lettry, J; Grudiev, A

    2014-01-01

    The RF heating of the plasma in the Linac4 H- ion source has been simulated using an Particle-in-Cell Monte Carlo Collision method (PIC-MCC). This model is applied to investigate the plasma formation starting from an initial low electron density of 1012 m-3 and its stabilization at 1018 m-3. The plasma discharge at low electron density is driven by the capacitive coupling with the electric field generated by the antenna, and as the electron density increases the capacitive electric field is shielded by the plasma and induction drives the plasma heating process. Plasma properties such as e-/ion densities and energies, sheath formation and shielding effect are presented and provide insight to the plasma properties of the hydrogen plasma.

  11. Synchrotron light sources: A powerful tool for science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlachter, F.; Robinson, A.

    1996-01-01

    A new generation of synchrotron light sources is producing extremely bright beams of vacuum-ultraviolet and x-ray radiation, poweful new tools for research in a wide variety of basic and applied sciences. Spectromicroscopy using high spectral and spatial resolution is a new way of seeing, offering many opportunities in the study of matter. Development of a new light source provides the country or region of the world in which the light source is located many new opportunities: a focal point for research in many scientific and technological areas, a means of upgrading the technology infrastructure of the country, a means of training students, and a potential service to industry. A light source for Southeast Asia would thus be a major resource for many years. Scientists and engineers from light sources around the world look forward to providing assistance to make this a reality in Southeast Asia

  12. Synchrotron light sources: A powerful tool for science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlachter, F.; Robinson, A.

    1996-01-01

    A new generation of synchrotron light sources is producing extremely bright beams of vacuum-ultraviolet and x-ray radiation, powerful new tools for research in a wide variety of basic and applied sciences. Spectromicroscopy using high spectral and spatial resolution is a new way of seeing, offering many opportunities in the study of matter. Development of a new light source provides the country or region of the world in which the light source is located many new opportunities: a focal point for research in many scientific and technological areas, a means of upgrading the technology infrastructure of the country, a means of training students, and a potential service to industry. A light source for Southeast Asia would thus be a major resource for many years. Scientists and engineers from light sources around the world look forward to providing assistance to make this a reality in Southeast Asia

  13. Studies on the Application of Plasma Arc Technology to Destruction of Shipboard Waste

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sartwell, Bruce

    1999-01-01

    ..., and how plasma arc technology is applied to waste treatment. It provides a description of the development of the plasma arc research facility at NRL and the experimental and theoretical modeling that was conducted at NRL from 1995 to 1998...

  14. Development of a 1-m plasma source for heavy ion beam charge neutralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efthimion, Philip C.; Gilson, Erik P.; Grisham, Larry; Davidson, Ronald C.; Yu, Simon; Waldron, William; Grant Logan, B.

    2005-05-01

    Highly ionized plasmas are being employed as a medium for charge neutralizing heavy ion beams in order to focus to a small spot size. Calculations suggest that plasma at a density of 1-100 times the ion beam density and at a length ˜0.1-1 m would be suitable for achieving a high level of charge neutralization. A radio frequency (RF) source was constructed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) in support of the joint Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to study ion beam neutralization. Pulsing the source enabled operation at pressures ˜10 -6 Torr with plasma densities of 10 11 cm -3. Near 100% ionization was achieved. The plasma was 10 cm in length, but future experiments require a source 1 m long. The RF source does not easily scale to the length. Consequently, large-volume plasma sources based upon ferroelectric ceramics are being considered. These sources have the advantage of being able to increase the length of the plasma and operate at low neutral pressures. The source will utilize the ferroelectric ceramic BaTiO 3 to form metal plasma. A 1 m long section of the drift tube inner surface of NTX will be covered with ceramic. A high voltage (˜1-5 kV) is applied between the drift tube and the front surface of the ceramic by placing a wire grid on the front surface. Plasma densities of 10 12 cm -3 and neutral pressures ˜10 -6 Torr are expected. A test stand to produce 20 cm long plasma is being constructed and will be tested before a 1 m long source is developed.

  15. Development of a 1-m plasma source for heavy ion beam charge neutralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efthimion, Philip C.; Gilson, Erik P.; Grisham, Larry; Davidson, Ronald C.; Yu, Simon; Waldron, William; Grant Logan, B.

    2005-01-01

    Highly ionized plasmas are being employed as a medium for charge neutralizing heavy ion beams in order to focus to a small spot size. Calculations suggest that plasma at a density of 1-100 times the ion beam density and at a length ∼0.1-1 m would be suitable for achieving a high level of charge neutralization. A radio frequency (RF) source was constructed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) in support of the joint Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to study ion beam neutralization. Pulsing the source enabled operation at pressures ∼10 -6 Torr with plasma densities of 10 11 cm -3 . Near 100% ionization was achieved. The plasma was 10 cm in length, but future experiments require a source 1 m long. The RF source does not easily scale to the length. Consequently, large-volume plasma sources based upon ferroelectric ceramics are being considered. These sources have the advantage of being able to increase the length of the plasma and operate at low neutral pressures. The source will utilize the ferroelectric ceramic BaTiO 3 to form metal plasma. A 1 m long section of the drift tube inner surface of NTX will be covered with ceramic. A high voltage (∼1-5 kV) is applied between the drift tube and the front surface of the ceramic by placing a wire grid on the front surface. Plasma densities of 10 12 cm -3 and neutral pressures ∼10 -6 Torr are expected. A test stand to produce 20 cm long plasma is being constructed and will be tested before a 1 m long source is developed

  16. Plasma Instability Based Compact Coherent Terahertz Radiation Sources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bakshi, P

    2004-01-01

    .... These are in good agreement with experiments carried out at TU Vienna. A sharp emission line was obtained in the most recent structure, suggesting that we are close to the onset of plasma instability...

  17. QSARs for Plasma Protein Binding: Source Data and Predictions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The dataset has all of the information used to create and evaluate 3 independent QSAR models for the fraction of a chemical unbound by plasma protein (Fub) for...

  18. Plasma X-ray sources powered by megajoule magnetocumulative generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popkov, N F; Averchenkov, V Ya; Pikar` , A S; Ryaslov, E A; Kargin, V I; Lazarev, S A; Borodkov, V V; Nazarenko, S T; Makartsev, G F [All-Russian Research Inst. of Experimental Physics, Sarov (Russian Federation). Russian Federal Nuclear Center

    1997-12-31

    Experiments using magnetocumulative generators (MCGs) were performed to power three different types of high-energy-density plasma discharges suitable for intense x-ray generation. These included the H-pressed discharge, the capillary z-pinch, and the {theta}-pinch. The MCGs were operated both with and without plasma opening switches. The characteristic currents were approximately 10 MA and characteristic time scales approximately 1 {mu}s. (author). 7 figs., 3 refs.

  19. Technological challenges at ITER plasma facing components production in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazul, I.V., E-mail: mazuliv@niiefa.spb.su [Efremov Institute, 196641 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Belyakov, V.A.; Gervash, A.A.; Giniyatulin, R.N.; Guryeva, T.M.; Kuznetsov, V.E.; Makhankov, A.N.; Okunev, A.A. [Efremov Institute, 196641 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Sevryukov, O.N. [MEPhI, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Technological aspects of ITER PFC manufacturing in Russia are presented. • Range of technologies to be used during manufacturing of ITER PFC at Efremov Institute has been, in general, defined and their complexity, originality and difficulty are described. • Some features and challenges of welding, brazing and various tests are discussed. - Abstract: Major part of ITER plasma facing components will be manufactured in the Russian Federation (RF). Operational conditions and other requirements to these components, as well as the scale of production, are quite unique. These unique features and related technological solutions found in the frame of the project are discussed. Procedure breakdown and results of qualification for the proposed technologies and potential producers are presented, based on mockups production and testing. Design of qualification mockups and prototypes, testing programs and results are described. Basic quantitative and qualitative parameters of manufactured components and methods of quality control are presented. Critical manufacturing issues and prospects for unique production for future fusion needs are discussed.

  20. Magneto-plasma separating technologies and their possible application for conversion spent fuel and radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovtun, Yu.V.; Skyibenko, Je.Yi.; Yuferov, V.B.

    2007-01-01

    A problem of spent fuel (SF) and radioactive waste (RAW) processing is considered in the views of using magneto-plasma technologies. Basing on this analysis, the block-diagram of RAW processing by the technology using a magneto-plasma separator is offered. The paper describes the device for material element separation, where the main physical mechanism of plasma formation and heating are collective processes involved by the plasma-beam interaction. The dimensions of a pilot-separating device are determined

  1. A 14-MeV beam-plasma neutron source for materials testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futch, A.H.; Coensgen, F.H.; Damm, C.C.; Molvik, A.W.

    1989-01-01

    The design and performance of 14-MeV beam-plasma neutron sources for accelerated testing of fusion reactor materials are described. Continuous production of 14-MeV neutron fluxes in the range of 5 to 10 MW/m 2 at the plasma surface are produced by D-T reactions in a two-component plasma. In the present designs, 14-MeV neutrons result from collisions of energetic deuterium ions created by transverse injection of 150-keV deuterium atoms on a fully ionized tritium target plasma. The beam energy, which deposited at the center of the tritium column, is transferred to the warm plasma by electron drag, which flows axially to the end regions. Neutral gas at high pressure absorbs the energy in the tritium plasma and transfers the heat to the walls of the vacuum vessel. The plasma parameters of the neutron source, in dimensionless units, have been achieved in the 2XIIB high-β plasma. The larger magnetic field of the present design permits scaling to the higher energy and density of the neutron source design. In the extrapolation, care has been taken to preserve the scaling and plasma attributes that contributed to equilibrium, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability, and microstability in 2XIIB. The performance and scaling characteristics are described for several designs chosen to enhance the thermal isolation of the two-component plasmas. 11 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Radiation from a pulsed dipole source in a moving magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilenko, V. G.; Petrov, E. Yu.; Pikulin, V. D.; Sutyagina, D. A.

    2006-01-01

    The problem of radiation from a pulsed dipole source in a moving magnetized plasma described by a diagonal permittivity tensor is considered. An exact solution describing the spatiotemporal behavior of the excited electromagnetic field is obtained. The shape of an electromagnetic pulse that is generated by the source and propagates at different angles to both the direction of the external magnetic field and the direction of plasma motion is investigated. It is found that even nonrelativistic motion of the plasma medium can substantially influence the parameters of radiation from prescribed unsteady sources

  3. Determination of plasma spot current and arc discharge plasma current on the system of plasma cathode electron sources using Rogowski coil technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirjoadi; Bambang Siswanto; Lely Susita RM; Agus Purwadi; Sudjatmoko

    2015-01-01

    It has been done the function test experiments of ignitor electrode system and the plasma generator electrode system to determine the current spot plasma and arc discharge plasma current with Rogowski coil technique. Ignitor electrode system that gets power supply from IDPS system can generate the plasma spot current of 11.68 ampere to the pulse width of about 33 μs, this value is greater than the design probably because of electronic components used in the IDPS system was not as planned. For the plasma generator electrode system that gets power from ADPS system capable of producing an arc discharge plasma current around 103.15 amperes with a pulse width of about 96 μs, and this value as planned. Based on the value of the arc discharge plasma current can be determined plasma electron density, which is about 10.12 10"1"9 electrons/m"3, and with this electron density value, an ignitor electrode system and a plasma generator system is quite good if used as a plasma cathode electron source system. (author)

  4. The PERC trademark process: Existing and potential applications for induction coupled plasma technology in hazardous and radioactive waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blutke, A.S.; Vavruska, J.S.; Serino, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    Plasma Technology, Inc. (PTI), a Santa Fe, New Mexico corporation has developed the Plasma Energy Recycle and Conversion (PERC)trademark treatment process as a safe and environmentally clean alternative to conventional thermal destruction technologies. The PERC trademark treatment process uses as its heat source an advanced Induction Coupled Plasma (ICP) torch connected to a reaction chamber system with an additional emission control system. For example, organic-based gas, liquid, slurry, and/or solid waste streams can be converted into usable or even salable products while residual emissions are reduced to an absolute minimum. In applications for treatment of hazardous and radioactive waste streams, the PERC system could be used for destruction of the hazardous organic constituents and/or significant waste volume reduction while capturing the radioactive fraction in a non-leachable form. Like Direct Current (DC) and Alternating Current (AC) arc plasma systems, ICP torches offer sufficient energy to decompose, melt and/or vitrify any waste stream. The decision for an arc plasma or an IC plasma system has to be made on a case by case evaluation and is highly dependent on the specific waste stream's form and composition. Induction coupled plasma technology offers one simple, but significant difference compared to DC or AC arc plasma systems: the ICP torch is electrodeless. To date, enormous research effort has been spent to improve the lifetime of electrodes and the effectiveness of related cooling systems. Arc plasma systems are established in research laboratories worldwide and are approaching a broad use in commercial applications. ICP technology has been improved relatively recently, but nowadays offers complete new and beneficial approaches in the field of waste conversion and treatment

  5. Source zone remediation by zero valent iron technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjordbøge, Annika Sidelmann

    at a fifth of these contaminated sites. These source zones pose a serious threat to soil and groundwater quality. Remediation of the heterogeneous source zones is challenging due to irregular downwards migration patterns in the subsurface, low aqueous solubility and matrix diffusion. To protect the soil...... and groundwater resources from long-term deterioration, the development of in situ technologies suitable for remediation of DNAPL is warranted. Currently, an array of aggressive in situ remediation technologies remediation exists. These technologies may be suitable under various site specific conditions; however......, most of them are limited by subsurface heterogeneities and/or the risk of inadvertent DNAPL displacement during field application. This thesis presents the results of an investigation of the potential for remediation of chlorinated solvent source zones by emerging zero valent iron (ZVI) based...

  6. Development of zeolite ion source for beam probe measurements of high temperature plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohshima, Shinsuke; Fujisawa, Akihide; Shimizu, Akihiro; Nakano, Haruhisa

    2005-10-01

    A zeolite ion source has been developed for plasma diagnostics. Extracted beam current is increased by a factor of ∼10 after redesigning the ion source structure and improving the method to make emitter material (zeolite). The paper introduces an experiment on making desirable ion emitter, together with properties of the newly developed ion source. (author)

  7. Combustion flame-plasma hybrid reactor systems, and chemical reactant sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Peter C

    2013-11-26

    Combustion flame-plasma hybrid reactor systems, chemical reactant sources, and related methods are disclosed. In one embodiment, a combustion flame-plasma hybrid reactor system comprising a reaction chamber, a combustion torch positioned to direct a flame into the reaction chamber, and one or more reactant feed assemblies configured to electrically energize at least one electrically conductive solid reactant structure to form a plasma and feed each electrically conductive solid reactant structure into the plasma to form at least one product is disclosed. In an additional embodiment, a chemical reactant source for a combustion flame-plasma hybrid reactor comprising an elongated electrically conductive reactant structure consisting essentially of at least one chemical reactant is disclosed. In further embodiments, methods of forming a chemical reactant source and methods of chemically converting at least one reactant into at least one product are disclosed.

  8. Permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance plasma source with remote window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, L.A.; Gorbatkin, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma has been used in conjunction with a solid metal sputter target for Cu deposition over 200 mm diameters. The goal is to develop a deposition system and process suitable for filling submicron, high-aspect ratio ULSI features. The system uses a permanent magnet for creation of the magnetic field necessary for ECR, and is significantly more compact than systems equipped with electromagnets. A custom launcher design allows remote microwave injection with the microwave entrance window shielded from the copper flux. When microwaves are introduced at an angle with respect to the plasma, high electron densities can be produced with a plasma frequency significantly greater than the electron cyclotron frequency. Copper deposition rates of 1000 A/min have been achieved

  9. Shaping the electron beams with submicrosecond pulse duration in sources and electron accelerators with plasma emitters

    CERN Document Server

    Gushenets, V I

    2001-01-01

    One studies the techniques in use to shape submicrosecond electron beams and the physical processes associated with extraction of electrons from plasma in plasma emitters. Plasma emitter base sources and accelerators enable to generate pulse beams with currents varying from tens of amperes up to 10 sup 3 A, with current densities up to several amperes per a square centimeter, with pulse duration constituting hundreds of nanoseconds and with high frequencies of repetition

  10. Abnormally large energy spread of electron beams extracted from plasma sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, H [Technische Univ., Vienna (Austria). Inst. fuer Allgemeine Physik

    1976-07-01

    Intense electron beams extracted from DUOPLASMATRON-plasma cathodes show a high degree of modulation in intensity and an abnormally large energy spread; these facts cannot be explained simply by the temperature of the plasma electrons and the discharge structure. However, an analysis of the discharge stability behaviour and the interaction of source- and extracted beam-plasma leads to an explanation for the observed effects.

  11. Formation of Nitrogen Oxides in an Apokamp-Type Plasma Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnin, É. A.; Goltsova, P. A.; Panarin, V. A.; Skakun, V. S.; Tarasenko, V. F.; Didenko, M. V.

    2017-08-01

    Using optical and chemical processes, the composition of the products of decay of the atmospheric-pressure non-equilibrium plasma is determined in a pulsed, high-voltage discharge in the modes of apokampic and corona discharges. It is shown that the products of decay primarily contain nitrogen oxides NO x, and in the mode of the corona discharge - ozone. Potential applications of this source of plasma are discussed with respect to plasma processing of the seeds of agricultural crops.

  12. Characterization of an atmospheric pressure air plasma source for polymer surface modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shujun; Tang, Jiansheng

    2013-10-01

    An atmospheric pressure air plasma source was generated through dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). It was used to modify polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) surfaces with very high throughput. An equivalent circuit model was used to calculate the peak average electron density. The emission spectrum from the plasma was taken and the main peaks in the spectrum were identified. The ozone density in the down plasma region was estimated by Absorption Spectroscopy. NSF and ARC-ODU

  13. An Open Source Computational Framework for Uncertainty Quantification of Plasma Chemistry Models

    OpenAIRE

    Zaheri Sarabi, Shadi

    2017-01-01

    The current thesis deals with the development of a computational framework for performing plasma chemistry simulations and their uncertainty quantification analysis by suitably combining and extending existing open source computational tools. A plasma chemistry solver is implemented in the OpenFOAM C++ solver suite. The OpenFOAM plasma chemistry application solves the species conservation equations and the electron energy equation by accounting suitably for various production and loss terms b...

  14. Pulsed Electron Source with Grid Plasma Cathode and Longitudinal Magnetic Field for Modification of Material and Product Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devyatkov, V. N.; Koval, N. N.

    2018-01-01

    The description and the main characteristics of the pulsed electron source "SOLO" developed on the basis of the plasma cathode with grid stabilization of the emission plasma boundary are presented. The emission plasma is generated by a low-pressure arc discharge, and that allows to form the dense low-energy electron beam with a wide range of independently adjustable parameters of beam current pulses (pulse duration of 20-250 μs, pulse repetition rate of 1-10 s-1, amplitude of beam current pulses of 20-300 A, and energy of beam electrons of 5-25 keV). The special features of generation of emission plasma by constricted low-pressure arc discharge in the grid plasma cathode partially dipped into a non-uniform magnetic field and of formation and transportation of the electron beam in a longitudinal magnetic field are considered. The application area of the electron source and technologies realized with its help are specified.

  15. Introduction to plasma dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Morozov, A I

    2013-01-01

    As the twenty-first century progresses, plasma technology will play an increasing role in our lives, providing new sources of energy, ion-plasma processing of materials, wave electromagnetic radiation sources, space plasma thrusters, and more. Studies of the plasma state of matter not only accelerate technological developments but also improve the understanding of natural phenomena. Beginning with an introduction to the characteristics and types of plasmas, Introduction to Plasma Dynamics covers the basic models of classical diffuse plasmas used to describe such phenomena as linear and shock w

  16. Plasma-based ion implantation and deposition: A review of physics,technology, and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelletier, Jacques; Anders, Andre

    2005-05-16

    After pioneering work in the 1980s, plasma-based ion implantation (PBII) and plasma-based ion implantation and deposition (PBIID) can now be considered mature technologies for surface modification and thin film deposition. This review starts by looking at the historical development and recalling the basic ideas of PBII. Advantages and disadvantages are compared to conventional ion beam implantation and physical vapor deposition for PBII and PBIID, respectively, followed by a summary of the physics of sheath dynamics, plasma and pulse specifications, plasma diagnostics, and process modeling. The review moves on to technology considerations for plasma sources and process reactors. PBII surface modification and PBIID coatings are applied in a wide range of situations. They include the by-now traditional tribological applications of reducing wear and corrosion through the formation of hard, tough, smooth, low-friction and chemically inert phases and coatings, e.g. for engine components. PBII has become viable for the formation of shallow junctions and other applications in microelectronics. More recently, the rapidly growing field of biomaterial synthesis makes used of PBII&D to produce surgical implants, bio- and blood-compatible surfaces and coatings, etc. With limitations, also non-conducting materials such as plastic sheets can be treated. The major interest in PBII processing originates from its flexibility in ion energy (from a few eV up to about 100 keV), and the capability to efficiently treat, or deposit on, large areas, and (within limits) to process non-flat, three-dimensional workpieces, including forming and modifying metastable phases and nanostructures. We use the acronym PBII&D when referring to both implantation and deposition, while PBIID implies that deposition is part of the process.

  17. Ion acoustic double layers in the presence of plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuda, H.; Ashour-Abdalla, M.

    1982-01-01

    Steady-state plasma turbulence and the formation of negative potential spikes and double layers in the presence of ion acoustic instabilities have been studied by means of one-dimensional particle simulations in which the velocities of a small fraction of electrons are replaced by the initial drifting Maxwellian at a constant rate. A steady state is found where negative potential spikes appear randomly in space and time giving rise to an anomalous resistivity much greater than previously found. Comparisons of the simulation results with laboratory and space plasmas are discussed

  18. Science and technology of plasma activated direct wafer bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberds, Brian Edward

    This dissertation studied the kinetics of silicon direct wafer bonding with emphasis on low temperature bonding mechanisms. The project goals were to understand the topological requirements for initial bonding, develop a tensile test to measure the bond strength as a function of time and temperature and, using the kinetic information obtained, develop lower temperature methods of bonding. A reproducible surface metrology metric for bonding was best described by power spectral density derived from atomic force microscopy measurements. From the tensile strength kinetics study it was found that low annealing temperatures could be used to obtain strong bonds, but at the expense of longer annealing times. Three models were developed to describe the kinetics. A diffusion controlled model and a reaction rate controlled model were developed for the higher temperature regimes (T > 600sp°C), and an electric field assisted oxidation model was proposed for the low temperature range. An in situ oxygen plasma treatment was used to further enhance the field-controlled mechanism which resulted in dramatic increases in the low temperature bonding kinetics. Multiple internal transmission Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (MIT-FTIR) was used to monitor species evolution at the bonded interface and a capacitance-voltage (CV) study was undertaken to investigate charge distribution and surface states resulting from plasma activation. A short, less than a minute, plasma exposure prior to contacting the wafers was found to obtain very strong bonds for hydrophobic silicon wafers at very low temperatures (100sp°C). This novel bonding method may enable new technologies involving heterogeneous material systems or bonding partially fabricated devices to become realities.

  19. Energy recovery of the H2S and CO2 elimination with technology by hybrid plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar T, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    This document is a research focused on energy recovery from acid gas removal contained in natural gas as hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), by obtaining highly energetic gas such as syngas (mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, in particular) using plasma technology in its hybrid form, namely, gliding arc plasma, that has the property to behave like a thermal plasma and cold plasma, besides possessing among other virtues the ability to treat large flows continuously at atmospheric pressure without the need of using noble gases, with a power consumption of no more than 1000 W. Furthermore, this type of plasma has demonstrated to be a clean and efficient not only by high conversion rates of H 2 S (86%) and CO 2 (56%) and high percentages of selectivity in the production of hydrogen (H 2 ) and carbon monoxide carbon (CO) obtained in this work, but because it can even be seriously considered to replace other technologies currently used in the process of sweetening natural gas as adsorption, absorption and sequestering membranes. The results shown are based on a series of analysis, simulations, experiments and calculations, from the design of the plasma generating source based on an impulse-phase circuit, to the electrical characterization results and simulation by acquiring electrical signals, without forgetting the characterization of the resulting chemical components using various analytical techniques such as mass spectrometry, gas chromatography (GC), optical emission spectroscopy (OES), optical spectroscopy Fourier inverse transformed (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (Sem), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and multi-gas detectors (iBrid MX6). Additionally, performed chemical kinetics and reaction mechanism of the compounds involved in the degradation of H 2 S and CO 2 similar to those experienced as well as the study of energy efficiency (Ece), specific energy (Se), all this to meet a projects needs 127499, entitled -Development of alternative

  20. Stationary plasma source of heavy ions for imitating research at the separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuferov, V.B.; Sharyj, S.V.; Seroshtanov, V.A.

    2008-01-01

    The imitation gas mix choice for experimenting on the demonstration imitation separator have been grounded. The construction of plasma source is changed. The research of operating conditions and contrastive analysis of received characteristics have been carry out

  1. Facility Effects on a Helicon Plasma Source with a Magnetic Nozzle

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Proposed here is an analysis of facility effects on a small helicon plasma source with a magnetic nozzle. Backpressure effects will first be recorded and analyzed....

  2. Progress of plasma experiments and superconducting technology in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motojima, O.; Sakakibara, S.; Imagawa, S.; Sagara, A.; Seki, T.; Mutoh, T.; Morisaki, T.; Komori, A.; Ohyabu, N.; Yamada, H.

    2006-01-01

    The large helical device is a heliotron device with L = 2 and M = 10 continuous helical coils and three pairs of poloidal coils, and all of coils are superconductive. Since the experiments started in 1998, the development of engineering technologies and the demonstration of large-superconducting-machine operations have greatly contributed to an understanding of physics in currentless plasmas and a verification of the capability of fully steady-state operation. In recent plasma experiments, the steady state and high-beta experiments, which are the most important subjects for the realization of attractive fusion reactors, have progressed remarkably and produced two world-record parameters, i.e. the highest average beta of 4.5% in helical devices and the highest total input energy of 1.6 GJ in all magnetic confinement devices. No degradation has been observed in the coil performance, and stable cryogenic operational schemes at 4.4 K have been established. The physics and engineering results from the LHD experiment directly contribute to the design study for a D-T fusion demo reactor FFHR with a LHD-type heliotron configuration

  3. Microplasmas, a platform technology for a plethora of plasma applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Kurt

    2017-08-01

    Publications describing microplasmas, which are commonly defined as plasmas with at least one dimension in the submillimeter range, began to appear to the scientific literature about 20 years ago. As discussed in a recent review by Schoenbach and Becker [1], interest and activities in basic microplasma research as well as in the use of microplasma for a variety of application has increased significatly over the past 20 years. The number of papers devoted to basic microplasma science increased by an order of magnitude between 1995 and 2015, a count that excludes publications dealing exclusively with technological applications of microplasmas, where the microplasma is used solely as a tool. In reference [1], the authors limited the topical coverage largely to the status of microplasma science and our understanding of the physics principles that enable microplasma operation and further stated that the rapid proliferation of microplasma applications made it impossible to cover both basic microplasma science and their application in a single review article.

  4. ECR plasma source in a flaring magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meis, C.; Compant La Fontaine, A.; Louvet, P.

    1992-01-01

    The propagation and absorption of an electromagnetic wave, near the electron cyclotron zone, of a cold plasma (T e ∼ 1-5 eV) confined in a flaring magnetic field is studied. The case of both extraordinary and ordinary modes has been considered. Temperature effects and electron-neutral collisions have been taken account in the dielectric tensor

  5. Air spark-like plasma source for antimicrobial NOx generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlovich, M J; Galleher, C; Curtis, B; Clark, D S; Graves, D B; Ono, T; Machala, Z

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate and analyse the generation of nitrogen oxides and their antimicrobial efficacy using atmospheric air spark-like plasmas. Spark-like discharges in air in a 1 L confined volume are shown to generate NO x at an initial rate of about 1.5  ×  10 16 NO x molecules/J dissipated in the plasma. Such a discharge operating in this confined volume generates on the order of 6000 ppm NO x in 10 min. Around 90% of the NO x is in the form of NO 2 after several minutes of operation in the confined volume, suggesting that NO 2 is the dominant antimicrobial component. The strong antimicrobial action of the NO x mixture after several minutes of plasma operation is demonstrated by measuring rates of E. coli disinfection on surfaces and in water exposed to the NO x mixture. Some possible applications of plasma generation of NO x (perhaps followed by dissolution in water) include disinfection of surfaces, skin or wound antisepsis, and sterilization of medical instruments at or near room temperature. (paper)

  6. Global Sourcing, Technology, and Factor Intensity: Firm-level Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    TOMIURA Eiichi

    2007-01-01

    This paper empirically examines how technology and capital intensity are related with the firm's global sourcing decision. Firm-level data are derived from a survey covering all manufacturing industries in Japan without any firm-size threshold. Firms are disaggregated by their make-or-buy decision (in-house or outsourcing) and by their choice of sourcing location (offshore or domestic). Capital-intensive or R&D-intensive firms tend to source in-house from their FDI affiliates rather than outs...

  7. Small compact pulsed electron source for radiation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, Sergey

    2002-01-01

    The small compact pulsed electron source for radiation technologies is considered in the report. The electron source consists of pulsed high voltage Marx generator and vacuum diode with explosive emission cathode. The main parameters of electron source are next: kinetic energy is 100-150 keV, beam current is 5-200 A and pulse duration is 100-400 nsec. The distribution of absorbed doses in irradiated materials is considered. The physical feasibility of pulsed low energy electron beam for applications is considered

  8. Nuclear Malaysia Plasma Focus Device as a X-ray Source For Radiography Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rokiah Mohd Sabri; Abdul Halim Baijan; Siti Aiasah Hashim; Mohd Rizal Mohd Chulan; Wah, L.K.; Mukhlis Mokhtar; Azaman Ahmad; Rosli Che Ros

    2013-01-01

    A 3.375 kJ plasma focus is designed to operate at 13.5 kV for the purpose of studying x-ray source for radiography in Argon discharge. X-rays is detected by using x-ray film from the mammography radiographic plate. The feasibility of the plasma focus as a high intensity flash x-ray source for good contrast in radiography image is presented. (author)

  9. Using FLUKA to Study Concrete Square Shield Performance in Attenuation of Neutron Radiation Produced by APF Plasma Focus Neutron Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemati, M. J.; Habibi, M.; Amrollahi, R.

    2013-04-01

    In 2010, representatives from the Nuclear Engineering and physics Department of Amirkabir University of Technology (AUT) requested development of a project with the objective of determining the performance of a concrete shield for their Plasma Focus as neutron source. The project team in Laboratory of Nuclear Engineering and physics department of Amirkabir University of Technology choose some shape of shield to study on their performance with Monte Carlo code. In the present work, the capability of Monte Carlo code FLUKA will be explored to model the APF Plasma Focus, and investigating the neutron fluence on the square concrete shield in each region of problem. The physical models embedded in FLUKA are mentioned, as well as examples of benchmarking against future experimental data. As a result of this study suitable thickness of concrete for shielding APF will be considered.

  10. kHz femtosecond laser-plasma hard X-ray and fast ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoss, A.; Korn, G.; Stiel, H.; Voigt, U.; Elsaesser, T.; Richardson, M.C.; Siders, C.W.; Faubel, M.

    2002-01-01

    We describe the first demonstration of a new stable, kHz femtosecond laser-plasma source of hard x-ray continuum and K α emission using a thin liquid metallic jet target. kHz femtosecond x-ray sources will find many applications in time-resolved x-ray diffraction and microscopy studies. As high intensity lasers become more compact and operate at increasingly high repetition-rates, they require a target configuration that is both repeatable from shot-to-shot and is debris-free. We have solved this requirement with the use of a fine (10-30 μm diameter) liquid metal jet target that provides a pristine, unperturbed filament surface at rates >100 kHz. A number of liquid metal targets are considered. We will show hard x-ray spectra recorded from liquid Ga targets that show the generation of the 9.3 keV and 10.3 keV, K α and K β lines superimposed on a multi-keV Bremsstrahlung continuum. This source was generated by a 50fs duration, 1 kHz, 2W, high intensity Ti:Sapphire laser. We will discuss the extension of this source to higher powers and higher repetition rates, providing harder x-ray emission, with the incorporation of pulse-shaping and other techniques to enhance the x-ray conversion efficiency. Using the same liquid target technology, we have also demonstrated the generation of forward-going sub-MeV protons from a 10 μm liquid water target at 1 kHz repetition rates. kHz sources of high energy ions will find many applications in time-resolved particle interaction studies, as well as lead to the efficient generation of short-lived isotopes for use in nuclear medicine and other applications. The protons were detected with CR-39 track detectors both in the forward and backward directions up to energies of ∼500 keV. As the intensity of compact high repetition-rate lasers sources increase, we can expect improvements in the energy, conversion efficiency and directionality to occur. The impact of these developments on a number of fields will be discussed. As compact

  11. A plasma formulary for physics, technology, and astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Diver, Declan

    2011-01-01

    Plasma physics has matured rapidly as a discipline, and now touches on many different research areas, including manufacturing processes. This collection of fundamental formulae and definitions in plasma physics is vital to anyone with an interest in plasmas or ionized gases, whether in physics, astronomy or engineering.Both theorists and experimentalists will find this book useful, as it incorporates the latest results and findings.The text treats astrophysical plasmas, fusion plasmas, industrial plasmas and low temperature plasmas as aspects of the same discipline - a unique approach made pos

  12. Enabling instrumentation and technology for 21st century light sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrd, J.M.; Shea, T.J.; Denes, P.; Siddons, P.; Attwood, D.; Kaertner, F.; Moog, L.; Li, Y.; Sakdinawat, A.; Schlueter, R.

    2010-06-01

    We present the summary from the Accelerator Instrumentation and Technology working group, one of the five working groups that participated in the BES-sponsored Workshop on Accelerator Physics of Future Light Sources held in Gaithersburg, MD September 15-17, 2009. We describe progress and potential in three areas: attosecond instrumentation, photon detectors for user experiments, and insertion devices.

  13. BIOSENSOR TECHNOLOGY EVALUATIONS FOR REAL-TIME/SOURCE WATER PROTECTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent advances in electronics and computer technology have made great strides in the field of remote sensing and biomonitoring. The quality of drinking water sources has come under closer scrutiny in recent years. Issues ranging from ecological to public health and national se...

  14. Two new planar coil designs for a high pressure radio frequency plasma source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsat, T.; Hooke, W. M.; Bozeman, S. P.; Washburn, S.

    1995-04-01

    Two planar coil designs for a high pressure rf plasma source are investigated using spectroscopic techniques and circuit analysis. In an Ar plasma a truncated version of the commonly used ``spiral'' coil is found to produce improvements in peak electron density of 20% over the full version. A coil with figure-8 geometry is found to move plasma inhomogeneities off of center and produce electron densities comparable to the spiral coils. Both of these characteristics are advantageous in industrial applications. Coil design characteristics for favorable power coupling are also determined, including the necessity of closed hydrodynamic plasma loops and the drawback of closely situated antiparallel coil currents.

  15. Performance of the CERN plasma lens in laboratory and beam tests at the Antiproton Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalewicz, R.; Lubrano di Scampamorte, M.; Milner, S.; Pedersen, F.; Riege, H.; Christiansen, J.; Frank, K.; Stetter, M.; Tkotz, R.; Boggasch, E.

    1991-01-01

    The CERN plasma lens is based on a dynamic z-pinch which creates during 500 ns a cylindrical plasma current conductor of 290 mm length and 38 to 45 mm diameter. The lens is designed for pulsed pinched currents of 400 kA and magnetic field gradients of 200 T/m produced with stored energies of 56 kJ. Life tests of different lens components were carried through at a repetition rate of 4.8 s/pulse. The results of the first beam tests of the plasma lens at the CERN antiproton source are very encouraging in view of other potential plasma lens applications

  16. Ion source plasma parameters measurement based on Langmuir probe with commercial frequency sweep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Y.H.; Hu, C.D.; Liu, S.; Shong, S.H.; Jiang, C.C.; Liu, Z.M.

    2010-01-01

    Langmuir probe is one of the main diagnostic tools to measure the plasma parameters in the ion source. In this article, the commercial frequency power, which is sine wave of 50 Hz, was supplied on the Langmuir probe to measure the plasma parameters. The best feature of this probe sweep voltage is that it does not need extra design. The probe I-V characteristic curve can be got in less than 5 ms and the plasma parameters, the electron temperature and the electron density, varying with the time can be got in one plasma discharge of 400 ms.

  17. X-ray radiation source based on a plasma filled diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popkov, N F; Kargin, V I; Ryaslov, E A; Pikar, A S [All-Russian Research Inst. of Experimental Physics, Sarov (Russian Federation). Russian Federal Nuclear Center

    1997-12-31

    The results are given of studies on a plasma X-ray source providing 2.5 krad of radiation dose per pulse over an area of 100 cm{sup 2} in the quantum energy range between 20 and 500 keV. The pulse duration was 100 ns. The spectral radiation distribution was obtained under various operating conditions of plasma and diode. A Marx generator served as the starting power source of 120 kJ with a discharge time of T/4=10{sup -6} s. A short electromagnetic pulse (10{sup -7} s) was shaped using plasma erosion opening switches. (author). 5 figs., 4 refs.

  18. Microwave plasma source for neutral-beam injection systems. Quarterly technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The overall program is described and the technical and programmatic reasons for the decision to pursue both the RFI and ECH sources into the current hydrogen test stage is discussed. We consider the general characteristics of plasma sources in the parameter regime of interest for neutral beam applications. The operatonal characteristics, advantages and potential problems of RFI and ECH sources are discussed. In these latter two sections we rely heavily on experience derived from developing RFI and ECH ion engine sources for NASA

  19. Uses of dense magnetized plasmas as neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Jose Hector

    2004-01-01

    In this work, a lumped parameter model for Plasma Focus is presented.A fast running computer code was developed, specially focused to the calculation of the neutron production in Deuterium-filled devices.This code is suitable to parameters optimization at the conceptual engineering stage.The kinematics of the current sheet is represented by a plane, 2D snowplow model.It is complemented with sensible estimations for the current sheet characteristics (density n and temperature T).After the radial collapse, a one fluid MHD model with velocity profiles for the particles trapped inside the pinch is proposed.Then, assuming thermal equilibrium in the plasma, the neutron production by termofusion can be estimated.The dynamics equations are coupled with the electrical circuit. A computer code in FORTRAN language was programmed to solve this set of equations.A powerful numerical integrator for first order differential equations is used, and the code can perform an estimation of the neutron production very quickly.The resulting neutron yield and dynamics predictions have been compared against experimental results of Plasma Focus devices from all around the world, for different geometric and energetic conditions.The effective parameters of the model were validated using those experimental measurements. The presented model ultimately calculates the neutron production given the geometric and energetic parameters, and the filling pressure

  20. High electronegativity multi-dipolar electron cyclotron resonance plasma source for etching by negative ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamate, Eugen; Draghici, M.

    2012-01-01

    A large area plasma source based on 12 multi-dipolar ECR plasma cells arranged in a 3 x 4 matrix configuration was built and optimized for silicon etching by negative ions. The density ratio of negative ions to electrons has exceeded 300 in Ar/SF6 gas mixture when a magnetic filter was used...... to reduce the electron temperature to about 1.2 eV. Mass spectrometry and electrostatic probe were used for plasma diagnostics. The new source is free of density jumps and instabilities and shows a very good stability for plasma potential, and the dominant negative ion species is F-. The magnetic field...... in plasma volume is negligible and there is no contamination by filaments. The etching rate by negative ions measured in Ar/SF6/O-2 mixtures was almost similar with that by positive ions reaching 700 nm/min. (C) 2012 American Institute of Physics...

  1. Ion beam extraction from a matrix ECR plasma source by discrete ion-focusing effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamate, Eugen; Draghici, Mihai

    2010-01-01

    -ECR plasma source [3] with transversal magnetic filter for electron temperature control. 12 ECR plasma cells are placed 7.5 cm apart on the top of a cubic chamber 40x40x40 cm3. Each cell can be controlled independently by tuning the injected microwave power. The discharge is operated at pressures below 1 m......Positive or negative ion beams extracted from plasma are used in a large variety of surface functionalization techniques such as implantation, etching, surface activation, passivation or oxidation. Of particular importance is the surface treatment of materials sensitive to direct plasma exposure...... due to high heath fluxes, the controllability of the ion incidence angle, and charge accumulation when treating insulating materials. Despite of a large variety of plasma sources available for ion beam extraction, there is a clear need for new extraction mechanisms that can make available ion beams...

  2. Plasma particle sources due to interactions with neutrals in a turbulent scrape-off layer of a toroidally confined plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrysøe, A. S.; Løiten, M.; Madsen, J.; Naulin, V.; Nielsen, A. H.; Rasmussen, J. Juul

    2018-03-01

    The conditions in the edge and scrape-off layer (SOL) of magnetically confined plasmas determine the overall performance of the device, and it is of great importance to study and understand the mechanics that drive transport in those regions. If a significant amount of neutral molecules and atoms is present in the edge and SOL regions, those will influence the plasma parameters and thus the plasma confinement. In this paper, it is displayed how neutrals, described by a fluid model, introduce source terms in a plasma drift-fluid model due to inelastic collisions. The resulting source terms are included in a four-field drift-fluid model, and it is shown how an increasing neutral particle density in the edge and SOL regions influences the plasma particle transport across the last-closed-flux-surface. It is found that an appropriate gas puffing rate allows for the edge density in the simulation to be self-consistently maintained due to ionization of neutrals in the confined region.

  3. Spectral lines and characteristic of temporal variations in photoionized plasmas induced with laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber, I.; Bartnik, A.; Wachulak, P.; Skrzeczanowski, W.; Jarocki, R.; Fiedorowicz, H.

    2017-11-01

    Spectral lines for Kr/Ne/H2 photoionized plasma in the ultraviolet and visible (UV/Vis) wavelength ranges have been created using a laser-produced plasma (LPP) EUV source. The source is based on a double-stream gas puff target irradiated with a commercial Nd:YAG laser. The laser pulses were focused onto a gas stream, injected into a vacuum chamber synchronously with the EUV pulses. Spectral lines from photoionization in neutral Kr/Ne/H2 and up to few charged states were observed. The intense emission lines were associated with the Kr transition lines. Experimental and theoretical investigations on intensity variations for some ionic lines are presented. A decrease in the intensity with the delay time between the laser pulse and the spectrum acquisition was revealed. Electron temperature and electron density in the photoionized plasma have been estimated from the characteristic emission lines. Temperature was obtained using Boltzmann plot method, assuming that the population density of atoms and ions are considered in a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). Electron density was calculated from the Stark broadening profile. The temporal evaluation of the plasma and the way of optimizing the radiation intensity of LPP EUV sources is discussed.

  4. The requirements for low-temperature plasma ionization support miniaturization of the ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiontke, Andreas; Holzer, Frank; Belder, Detlev; Birkemeyer, Claudia

    2018-06-01

    Ambient ionization mass spectrometry (AI-MS), the ionization of samples under ambient conditions, enables fast and simple analysis of samples without or with little sample preparation. Due to their simple construction and low resource consumption, plasma-based ionization methods in particular are considered ideal for use in mobile analytical devices. However, systematic investigations that have attempted to identify the optimal configuration of a plasma source to achieve the sensitive detection of target molecules are still rare. We therefore used a low-temperature plasma ionization (LTPI) source based on dielectric barrier discharge with helium employed as the process gas to identify the factors that most strongly influence the signal intensity in the mass spectrometry of species formed by plasma ionization. In this study, we investigated several construction-related parameters of the plasma source and found that a low wall thickness of the dielectric, a small outlet spacing, and a short distance between the plasma source and the MS inlet are needed to achieve optimal signal intensity with a process-gas flow rate of as little as 10 mL/min. In conclusion, this type of ion source is especially well suited for downscaling, which is usually required in mobile devices. Our results provide valuable insights into the LTPI mechanism; they reveal the potential to further improve its implementation and standardization for mobile mass spectrometry as well as our understanding of the requirements and selectivity of this technique. Graphical abstract Optimized parameters of a dielectric barrier discharge plasma for ionization in mass spectrometry. The electrode size, shape, and arrangement, the thickness of the dielectric, and distances between the plasma source, sample, and MS inlet are marked in red. The process gas (helium) flow is shown in black.

  5. Integration Of Data From Heterogeneous Sources Using Etl Technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Macura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Data integration is a crucial issue in environments of heterogeneous data sources. At present mentioned heterogeneity is becoming widespread. Whenever, based on various data sources, we want to gain useful information and knowledge we must solve data integration problem in order to apply appropriate analytical methods on comprehensive and uniform data. Such activity is known as knowledge discovery from data process. Therefore approaches to data integration problem are very interesting and bring us closer to the "age of information". The paper presents an architecture, which implements knowledge discovery from data process. The solution combines ETL technology and wrapper layer known from mediated systems. It also provides semantic integration through connections mechanism between data elements. The solution allows for integration of any data sources and implementation of analytical methods in one environment. The proposed environment is verified by applying it to data sources on the foundry industry.

  6. The plasma focus as a large fluence neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucker, O.; Bostick, W.; Long, J.; Luce, J.; Sahlin, H.

    1977-01-01

    A continuously operated, 1 pps, dense-plasma-focus device capable of delivering a minimum of 10 15 neutrons per pulse for material testing purposes is described. With I 5 scaling, predicted from analysis of existing machines, yields of 10 16 -10 17 neutrons per pulse are postulated. The average power consumption, which has become a major issue as a result of the energy crisis is shown to be highly favorable. A novel approach to the capacitor bank and switch design allowing repetitive operation is discussed. (Auth.)

  7. Proceedings of the thirty second national symposium on plasma science and technology: plasma for societal benefits: book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dave, Sandhya; Shravan Kumar, S.; Vijayakumaran; Singh, Raj; Awasthi, L.M.

    2017-01-01

    This symposium covers topics on: basic plasma, computer modelling for plasma, exotic plasma, industrial plasma, laser plasma theory, nuclear fusion, plasma diagnostics, laser plasma, plasma processing, pulsed power, space and astrophysical plasma. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  8. Redefining Requirements of Ancillary Services for Technology Agnostic Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondy, Daniel Esteban Morales; MacDonald, Jason; Kara, Emre Can

    2018-01-01

    New sources for ancillary services are needed, yet the requirements for service provision in most countries are explicitly formulated for traditional generators. This leads to waste of the potential for new technologies to deliver ancillary services. In order to harness this potential, we propose...... to parameterize the requirements of ancillary services so that reserves can be built by combining the advantageous properties of different technologies. The proposal is exemplified through a laboratory test where it shown that the system needs can be covered through cheaper and smaller reserves....

  9. Characterization of the plasma-switch interaction in the LBL HIF ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewett, D.W.; Rutkowski, H.L.

    1990-01-01

    A new way to characterize the performance of the LBL HIF ion source has been found. In the LBL source, ions are drawn from an arc-generated plasma reservoir in which the electrons are confined by a negative-biased ''switch'' mesh. Stagnation of the plasma is prevented by absorption of the excess ion flow on this mesh. The ion beam is generated by an external negative voltage that provides Child-Langmuir extraction of the ions through the switch mesh. We elucidate the physics requirements of the source and deduce switch mesh parameters needed for successful operation. 2 refs., 2 figs

  10. Prospective application of laser plasma propulsion in rocket technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xin; Zhang Jie; Li Yingjun

    2002-01-01

    Interest in laser plasma propulsion is growing intensively. The interaction of high intensity short laser pulses with materials can produce plasma expansion with a velocity of hundreds of km/s. The specific impulse of ablative laser propulsion can be many tens of times greater than that of chemical rockets. The development and potential application of laser plasma propulsion are discussed

  11. Proceedings of the 16th symposium on plasma physics and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Among 53 papers collected in the proceedings, 28 papers deal with the theory and modelling (8 papers), experimental research (11 papers) and diagnostics of high-temperature plasmas. These include lower hybrid current drive in tokamaks, plasma heating by electron beams, laser plasma interaction and z-pinch experiments. In the diagnostic papers, attention is mostly paid to X-ray and optical plasma spectroscopy and to advanced Langmuir probe diagnostics. The remaining papers discuss low-temperature plasmas and their applications. In this group, 8 papers deal with low-pressure electric discharges, 5 papers with high-pressure arcs, glidarcs and plasma torches, and 12 papers with various plasma technology topics, such as thin film deposition, plasma spraying and plasma chemistry. (J.U.)

  12. Environmental application research and future plans in plasma arc technology at the georgia institute of technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemeth, J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper summarizes the facilities and past, current, and future research efforts at the georgia institute of technology plasma Arc research facility established in 1992. This research facility was established specifically to develop and test applications related to waste management and various remediation concepts. The results of research programs in the vitrification of asbestos materials, municipal incinerator ash, and in situ testing programs, including soil remediation, waste to energy research, landfill remediation and capacity management. The presentation will also include conference and symposium announcements and invitations. 9 tabs

  13. High power light gas helicon plasma source for VASIMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squire, Jared P.; Chang-Diaz, Franklin R.; Glover, Timothy W.; Jacobson, Verlin T.; McCaskill, Greg E.; Winter, D. Scott; Baity, F. Wally; Carter, Mark D.; Goulding, Richard H.

    2006-01-01

    In the Advanced Space Propulsion Laboratory (ASPL) helicon experiment (VX-10) we have measured a plasma flux to input gas rate ratio near 100% for both helium and deuterium at power levels up to 10 kW. Recent results at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) show enhanced efficiency operation with a high power density, over 5 kW in a 5 cm diameter tube. Our helicon is presently 9 cm in diameter and operates up to 10 kW of input power. The data here uses a Boswell double-saddle antenna design with a magnetic cusp just upstream of the antenna. Similar to ORNL, for deuterium at near 10 kW, we find an enhanced performance of operation at magnetic fields above the lower hybrid matching condition

  14. Environmental friendly high efficient light source plasma lamp - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courret, G.; Calame, L. [Haute Ecole d' ingenierie et de gestion du canton de Vaud, Institut de micro et nano techniques, Yverdon-les-Bains (Switzerland); Meyer, A. [Solaronix SA, Aubonne (Switzerland)

    2007-07-01

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at work done on the development of a sulphur-based plasma lamp. In 2007, the capability of a new modulator has been explored. The most important results are discussed. With the production of a 1.2 cm{sup 3} bulb, the way towards the production of a 100 W lamp has been opened. The authors comment that modulation by impulses increases the luminous efficiency in comparison to modulation using a continuous sinusoidal wave. The report deals with the history of the project, the development of the new modulator, the use of rotational effects and the optimisation of the amount of active substances - tellurium and selenium - in the bulb. The electromagnetic coupling system used is described and discussed.

  15. Confined discharge plasma sources for Z-pinch experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinshelwood, D.D.; Goodrich, P.J.; Mehlman, G.; Scherrer, V.E.; Stephanakis, S.J.; Young, F.C.

    1989-01-01

    The authors report their investigation Z-pinch implosions on the NRL Gamble II generator using metallic sources of sodium and aluminum, and non-metallic source of sodium (NaF), magnesium (MgF 2 ), and aluminum (Al 2 0 3 ). For 1 MA driving currents, peak Κ-shell radiated powers of about 100 GW and energies of about 1.5 kj have been obtained with both pure aluminum and NaF implosions. The aluminum results are comparable to those in previous Gamble II experiments with aluminum wire arrays. Confined discharge sources have been used to generate tens of GW in the Na Heα pump line and flourescence of the neon has been observed. The effects of nozzle shape and size, chamber diameter, amount of fuse material, and confined discharge current have been investigated in Gamble II implosion experiments. These studies indicate that confined discharge sources are capable of supplying significantly more material than required for implosions at the 1 MA level, so that this technique could be extended to higher current generators

  16. Texturation and superhydrophobicity of polyethylene terephthalate thanks to plasma technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarrade, Jeanne; Darmanin, Thierry; Taffin de Givenchy, Elisabeth; Guittard, Frédéric; Debarnot, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Anti-bioadhesive surfaces were designed from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) by three steps plasma-treatment. First, the nano-pattern is created by oxygen plasma-treatment with controlled dimensions. Then, the plasma-treated polymeric surface was hydrophobized with a tetrafluorocarbon plasma, allowing to obtain a water contact angle of 145 ± 4°. However, the SEM pictures give evidence to show the degradation of the structuration caused by the CF 4 -plasma and consequently, the superhydrophobicity was not reached. Thus, a plasma-polypyrrole layer was deposited before the plasma-fluorination, which has a protective role against the degradation generated by fluorinated species, preserving the structuration and improving the fluorination rate. Therefore, the obtained surfaces are superhydrophobic with water contact angle of 157 ± 2° and a hysteresis of 65 ± 3°. The ability of these surfaces to reduce bioadhesion will be performed in further work.

  17. The Sandia laser plasma extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray (XUV) light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tooman, T.P.

    1986-01-01

    Laser produced plasmas have been shown to be extremely bright sources of extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray (XUV) radiation; however, certain practical difficulties have hindered the development of this source as a routinely usable laboratory device. To explore solutions to these difficulties, Sandia has constructed an XUV laser plasma source (LASPS) with the intention of developing an instrument that can be used for experiments requiring intense XUV radiation from 50-300 eV. The driving laser for this source is a KrF excimer with a wavelength of 248 nm, divergence of 200 μrad, pulse width of 23 ns at 20 Hz and typical pulse energy of 500 mJ which allows for good energy coupling to the plasma at moderate (10/sup 12/ W cm/sup 2/) power densities. This source has been pulsed approximately 2 x 10/sup 5/ times, demonstrating good tolerance to plasma debris. The source radiates from the visible to well above 1000 eV, however, to date attention has been concentrated on the 50-300 eV region. In this paper, spectral data and plasma images for both stainless steel and gold targets are presented with the gold target yielding a 200 μm plasma and reradiating 3.9% of the pump energy into 15-73 eV band, a flux of 1.22 x 10/sup 13/ photons/pulse/eV into 2π sr. Further efforts will expand these measurements to rare earth targets and to higher spectral energies. A special high throughput wide angle XUV (50-300 eV) monochromator and associated optics is being concurrently developed to collect the plasma radiation, perform energy dispersion and focus the radiation onto the experimental area

  18. Planned upgrade to the coaxial plasma source facility for high heat flux plasma flows relevant to tokamak disruption simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caress, R.W.; Mayo, R.M.; Carter, T.A.

    1995-01-01

    Plasma disruptions in tokamaks remain serious obstacles to the demonstration of economical fusion power. In disruption simulation experiments, some important effects have not been taken into account. Present disruption simulation experimental data do not include effects of the high magnetic fields expected near the PFCs in a tokamak major disruption. In addition, temporal and spatial scales are much too short in present simulation devices to be of direct relevance to tokamak disruptions. To address some of these inadequacies, an experimental program is planned at North Carolina State University employing an upgrade to the Coaxial Plasma Source (CPS-1) magnetized coaxial plasma gun facility. The advantages of the CPS-1 plasma source over present disruption simulation devices include the ability to irradiate large material samples at extremely high areal energy densities, and the ability to perform these material studies in the presence of a high magnetic field. Other tokamak disruption relevant features of CPS-1U include a high ion temperature, high electron temperature, and long pulse length

  19. Simulation of crack propagation in rock in plasma blasting technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikkurthi, V. R.; Tahiliani, K.; Chaturvedi, S.

    Plasma Blasting Technology (PBT) involves the production of a pulsed electrical discharge by inserting a blasting probe in a water-filled cavity drilled in a rock, which produces shocks or pressure waves in the water. These pulses then propagate into the rock, leading to fracture. In this paper, we present the results of two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations using the SHALE code to study crack propagation in rock. Three separate issues have been examined. Firstly, assuming that a constant pressure P is maintained in the cavity for a time τ , we have determined the P- τ curve that just cracks a given rock into at least two large-sized parts. This study shows that there exists an optimal pressure level for cracking a given rock-type and geometry. Secondly, we have varied the volume of water in which the initial energy E is deposited, which corresponds to different initial peak pressures Ppeak. We have determined the E- Ppeak curve that just breaks the rock into four large-sized parts. It is found that there must be an optimal Ppeak that lowers the energy consumption, but with acceptable probe damage. Thirdly, we have attempted to identify the dominant mechanism of rock fracture. We also highlight some numerical errors that must be kept in mind in such simulations.

  20. Model of a source-driven plasma interacting with a wall in an oblique magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahedo, E.; Carralero, D.

    2009-01-01

    A fluid model of a magnetized source-driven plasma is discussed for regimes with (Debye length)<<(ion Larmor radius)<<(plasma size and collisional mean-free path). Plasma collection by the wall is determined in terms of angle of incidence, magnetic strength, and plasma collisionality. For nonparallel incidence, a three-scale asymptotic analysis reveals a three-region matched structure consisting of a magnetically aligned bulk region, the Chodura layer, and the Debye sheath. Sonic Chodura and Bohm conditions define the singular region transitions. For near-parallel incidence, a separate analysis demonstrates the presence of a diffusive-collisional bulk region followed by a thin collisionless layer, which differs partially from the Chodura layer. A parametric analysis unveils the presence of four regimes depending on plasma collisionality: (1) a collisionless regime, with the magnetically channeled bulk region governed by plasma production; (2) a resistive semicollisional regime, where collisions retard the plasma transport in the bulk region; (3) a diffusive semicollisional regime, where the ExB drift dominates the ion flux in the bulk region; and (4) a collisional regime, where collisions cancel out magnetic effects. At grazing incidence, plasma collection is found to vary nonmonotonically with plasma collisionality. Nonzero Debye-length effects are discussed briefly.

  1. Transfer of technology: Management of disused radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, V.

    2001-01-01

    The number of sealed radioactive sources worldwide is estimated to be in the millions, although the existing registries indicate a much smaller number. If a source is no longer needed or has become unfit for the intended application, it is classified as spent or disused source. The activity of a disused source may still be in the order of GBq or TBq. Recognizing the risk associated with disused radioactive sources and the number of incidents and accidents with a wide range of consequences including widespread contamination and deterministic health effects, the IAEA has embarked on various activities dealing with the safe management of disused radioactive sources. These activities include publication of up-to-date technical information and guidance, development and distribution of management tools, transfer of technology and know-how through training and technical co-operation projects and direct assistance to solve specific safety and technical problems. This paper briefly describes these activities with reference to publications and projects carried out in various Member States. (author)

  2. Natural and technologically enhanced sources of radon-222

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, C.C.; Watson, A.P.; McDowell-Boyer, L.M.; Cotter, S.J.; Randolph, M.L.; Fields, D.E.

    1979-01-01

    An assessment of 222 Rn releases (curies/year) from major natural and technologically enhanced sources in the United States is presented. The resulting inhalation population dose commitments to the bronchial epithelium of the lung (lung-rem) are also estimated. The sources of radon considered are natural soil, evapotranspiration, potable water supplies, building materials, natural gas, uranium mining and milling, coal and phosphate mining, phosphate fertilizer, liquefied petroleum gas, geothermal power facilities, coal-fired power plants, and gas and oil wells. The most important natural source of 222 Rn is decay of 226 Ra in the soil and rocks of the earth's crust. This source results in approximately 40% of the total population dose from all sources of radon. The largest technoligcally enhanced contributor to population dose is airborne 222 Rn in building interiors, which is estimated to contribute 55% to the total population exposure to 222 Rn. Each of the other sources is estimated to contribute less than 3% to the total

  3. Impact of plasma tube wall thickness on power coupling in ICP sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawaz, Anuscheh; Herdrich, Georg

    2009-01-01

    The inductively heated plasma source at the Institute of Space Systems was investigated with respect to the wall thickness of the plasma tube using an air plasma. For this, the wall thickness of the quartz tube was reduced in steps from 2.5 to 1.25 mm. The significance of reducing the wall thickness was analyzed with respect to both the maximum allowable tube cooling power and the coupling efficiency. While the former results from thermal stresses in the tube's wall, the latter results from a minimization of magnetic field losses near the coil turns of the inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source. Analysis of the thermal stress could be validated by experimental data, i.e. the measurement of the tube cooling power when the respective tube structure failed. The coupling efficiency could be assessed qualitatively by simplified models, and the experimental data recorded show that coupling was improved far more than predicted.

  4. Diagnostics of microwave assisted electron cyclotron resonance plasma source for surface modification of nylon 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Supriya E.; Das, Partha Sarathi; Bansode, Avinash; Dhamale, Gayatri; Ghorui, S.; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Sahasrabudhe, S. N.; Mathe, Vikas L.

    2018-01-01

    Looking at the increasing scope of plasma processing of materials surface, here we present the development and diagnostics of a microwave assisted Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) plasma system suitable for surface modification of polymers. Prior to the surface-treatment, a detailed diagnostic mapping of the plasma parameters throughout the reactor chamber was carried out by using single and double Langmuir probe measurements in Ar plasma. Conventional analysis of I-V curves as well as the elucidation form of the Electron Energy Distribution Function (EEDF) has become the source of calibration of plasma parameters in the reaction chamber. The high energy tail in the EEDF of electron temperature is seen to extend beyond 60 eV, at much larger distances from the ECR zone. This proves the suitability of the rector for plasma processing, since the electron energy is much beyond the threshold energy of bond breaking in most of the polymers. Nylon 6 is used as a representative candidate for surface processing in the presence of Ar, H2 + N2, and O2 plasma, treated at different locations inside the plasma chamber. In a typical case, the work of adhesion is seen to almost get doubled when treated with oxygen plasma. Morphology of the plasma treated surface and its hydrophilicity are discussed in view of the variation in electron density and electron temperature at these locations. Nano-protrusions arising from plasma treatment are set to be responsible for the hydrophobicity. Chemical sputtering and physical sputtering are seen to influence the surface morphology on account of sufficient electron energies and increased plasma potential.

  5. Study of electron current extraction from a radio frequency plasma cathode designed as a neutralizer for ion source applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahanbakhsh, Sina, E-mail: sinajahanbakhsh@gmail.com; Satir, Mert; Celik, Murat [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bogazici University, Istanbul 34342 (Turkey)

    2016-02-15

    Plasma cathodes are insert free devices that are developed to be employed as electron sources in electric propulsion and ion source applications as practical alternatives to more commonly used hollow cathodes. Inductively coupled plasma cathodes, or Radio Frequency (RF) plasma cathodes, are introduced in recent years. Because of its compact geometry, and simple and efficient plasma generation, RF plasma source is considered to be suitable for plasma cathode applications. In this study, numerous RF plasma cathodes have been designed and manufactured. Experimental measurements have been conducted to study the effects of geometric and operational parameters. Experimental results of this study show that the plasma generation and electron extraction characteristics of the RF plasma cathode device strongly depend on the geometric parameters such as chamber diameter, chamber length, orifice diameter, orifice length, as well as the operational parameters such as RF power and gas mass flow rate.

  6. Behavior of moving plasma in solenoidal magnetic field in a laser ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, S.; Takahashi, K.; Okamura, M.; Horioka, K.

    2016-01-01

    In a laser ion source, a solenoidal magnetic field is useful to guide the plasma and to control the extracted beam current. However, the behavior of the plasma drifting in the magnetic field has not been well understood. Therefore, to investigate the behavior, we measured the plasma ion current and the total charge within a single pulse in the solenoid by changing the distance from the entrance of the solenoid to a detector. We observed that the decrease of the total charge along the distance became smaller as the magnetic field became larger and then the charge became almost constant with a certain magnetic flux density. The results indicate that the transverse spreading speed of the plasma decreased with increasing the field and the plasma was confined transversely with the magnetic flux density. We found that the reason of the confinement was not magnetization of ions but an influence induced by electrons

  7. Behavior of moving plasma in solenoidal magnetic field in a laser ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, S., E-mail: ikeda.s.ae@m.titech.ac.jp [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8502 (Japan); Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0108 (Japan); Takahashi, K. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2137 (Japan); Okamura, M. [Collider-Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973-5000 (United States); Horioka, K. [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8502 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    In a laser ion source, a solenoidal magnetic field is useful to guide the plasma and to control the extracted beam current. However, the behavior of the plasma drifting in the magnetic field has not been well understood. Therefore, to investigate the behavior, we measured the plasma ion current and the total charge within a single pulse in the solenoid by changing the distance from the entrance of the solenoid to a detector. We observed that the decrease of the total charge along the distance became smaller as the magnetic field became larger and then the charge became almost constant with a certain magnetic flux density. The results indicate that the transverse spreading speed of the plasma decreased with increasing the field and the plasma was confined transversely with the magnetic flux density. We found that the reason of the confinement was not magnetization of ions but an influence induced by electrons.

  8. Behavior of moving plasma in solenoidal magnetic field in a laser ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, S.; Takahashi, K.; Okamura, M.; Horioka, K.

    2016-02-01

    In a laser ion source, a solenoidal magnetic field is useful to guide the plasma and to control the extracted beam current. However, the behavior of the plasma drifting in the magnetic field has not been well understood. Therefore, to investigate the behavior, we measured the plasma ion current and the total charge within a single pulse in the solenoid by changing the distance from the entrance of the solenoid to a detector. We observed that the decrease of the total charge along the distance became smaller as the magnetic field became larger and then the charge became almost constant with a certain magnetic flux density. The results indicate that the transverse spreading speed of the plasma decreased with increasing the field and the plasma was confined transversely with the magnetic flux density. We found that the reason of the confinement was not magnetization of ions but an influence induced by electrons.

  9. Confinement of laser plasma by solenoidal field for laser ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, M.; Kanesue, T.; Kondo, K.; Dabrowski, R.

    2010-01-01

    A laser ion source can provide high current, highly charged ions with a simple structure. However, it was not easy to control the ion pulse width. To provide a longer ion beam pulse, the plasma drift length, which is the distance between laser target and extraction point, has to be extended and as a result the plasma is diluted severely. Previously, we applied a solenoid field to prevent reduction of ion density at the extraction point. Although a current enhancement by a solenoid field was observed, plasma behavior after a solenoid magnet was unclear because plasma behavior can be different from usual ion beam dynamics. We measured a transverse ion distribution along the beam axis to understand plasma motion in the presence of a solenoid field.

  10. Plasma physics: innovation in energy and industrial technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, J.H.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Plasmas-ionised gases-are truly ubiquitous. More than 99% of the matter in the universe is in the plasma state. All of the matter that comprises the Earth, and all of the energy that powers it, has been processed through plasma fusion reactions in stars. Plasmas also play a crucial role in the Earth's atmosphere, which screens out harmful radiation, and make long distance radio propagation possible. While the study of plasma physics was originally motivated by astrophysics, the discipline has grown to address terrestrial concerns. These include lighting, welding, the switching of large electrical currents, the processing of materials such as semiconductors, and the quest to build fusion power reactors artificial stars for low-emissions generation of electricity from hydrogen isotopes. Plasma physics is fundamentally multi-disciplinary. It requires understanding not only of the complex collective behaviour of ionised gases in unusual conditions, but also knowledge of the atomic and nuclear physics that determines how plasmas are formed and maintained, and the specialised engineering and instrumentation of the mechanical and electromagnetic containers needed to confine plasmas on Earth. These characteristics make plasma physics a fertile breeding ground for imagination and innovation. This paper draws together examples of innovation stimulated by plasma physics research in the areas of energy, materials, communications, and computation

  11. A new high-temperature plasma ion source for the TRISTAN ISOL facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piotrowski, A.; Gill, R.L.; McDonald, D.C.

    1987-01-01

    A vigorous program of ion-source development at TRISTAN has led to several types of ion sources that are especially suited to extended operation at a reactor-based ISOL facility. The latest of these is a high-temperature plasma ion source in which a 5-g /sup 235/U target is located in the cathode and can be heated to 2500 0 C. The ion source has a lifetime of > 1000 h and produces a wide array of elements, including palladium. Off-line investigations indicate that the source functions primarily in an electron impact mode of ionization and exhibits typical ionization efficiencies of > 30% for xenon

  12. A new high-temperature plasma ion source for the TRISTAN ISOL facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piotrowski, A.; Gill, R.L.; McDonald, D.C.

    1987-01-01

    A vigorous program of ion-source development at TRISTAN has led to several types of ion sources that are especially suited to extended operation at a reactor-based ISOL facility. The latest of these is a high-temperature plasma ion source in which a 5-g 235 U target is located in the cathode and can be heated to 2500 0 C. The ion source has a lifetime of >1000 h and produces a wide array of elements, including palladium. Off-line investigations indicate that the source functions primarily in an electron impact mode of ionization and exhibits typical ionization efficiencies of >30% for xenon. (orig.)

  13. New high temperature plasma ion source for the TRISTAN ISOL facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piotrowski, A.; Gill, R.L.; McDonald, D.C.

    1986-08-01

    A vigorous program of ion source development at TRISTAN has led to several types of ion sources that are especially suited to extended operation at a reactor-based ISOL facility. The latest of these is a high temperature plasma ion source in which a 5 gm 235 U target is located in the cathode and can be heated to 2500 0 C. The ion source has a lifetime of >1000 hours and produces a wide array of elements, including Pd. Off-line investigations indicate that the source functions primarily in an electron impact mode of ionization and exhibits typical ionzation efficiencies of >30% for Xe

  14. Inductively coupled plasma and ion sources: History and state-of-the-art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopwood, J.

    1994-01-01

    Over 100 years ago Hittorf first generated an electrodeless ''ring'' discharge by electromagnetic induction and began a 40 year controversy as to the true physical origin of such a discharge. Even Tesla advocated that these plasmas were merely the result of large electrostatic potential differences rather than electric fields induced by high frequency currents. Through clever experiments using crude spark gaps and leyden jars, the inductive nature of the discharge was confirmed in the late 1920's by MacKinnon, thus supporting the theories and experiments of Sir J.J. Thomson, perhaps the most staunch advocate of the induction mechanism. Today the authors routinely exploit the intense plasmas which are generated by induction. In this talk, the characteristics of inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and ion sources will be reviewed and future applications of intense plasma sources will be discussed. The inductively coupled plasma is Joule heated at moderate gas pressures, but the electromagnetic field penetration of these dense plasmas is limited by the plasma skin depth, typically a few millimeters to a few centimeters. The induction plasma is thus edge heated, a fact that constrains uniformity over large areas if helical induction coils are used. Flat, spiral coils may be used to improve uniformity by driving the plasma using a planar geometry. Issues of dimensional and frequency scaling will be discussed as they apply to large diameter sources. Ion beams extracted from ICPs are used for many applications including space propulsion, high power neutral beams, and materials processing. Broad ion beam (∼10 cm) current densities in excess of 100 mA-cm 2 at 100 keV are obtained in pulsed mode operation. Recently, however, more consumer-oriented applications of less intense ICPs are emerging

  15. Sources plasma RF magnétisées : applications à la propulsion spatiale

    OpenAIRE

    Gerst , Jan Dennis

    2013-01-01

    The PEGASES thruster (Plasma Propulsion with Electronegative Gases) is a novel type of electric thruster for space propulsion. It uses negative and positive ions produced by an inductively coupled radio frequency discharge to create the thrust by electrostatically accelerating the ions through a set of grids. A magnetic filter is used to increase the amount of negative ions in the cavity of the thruster. The PEGASES thruster is not only a source to create a strongly negative ion plasma or eve...

  16. Glovebox enclosed dc plasma source for the determination of metals in plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, W.F.

    1986-01-01

    The direct current plasma source of a Beckman Spectraspan IIIB emission spectrometer was enclosed in a glovebox at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in December 1982. Since that time, the system has been used for the routine determination of alloy and impurity metals in plutonium. This paper presents the systematic steps involved in developing the glovebox and gives information regarding performance of the plasma in the glovebox and the effectiveness of containment of plutonium. 8 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Sheath physics and materials science results from recent plasma source ion implantation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, J.R.; Radtke, J.L.; Dodd, R.A.; Worzala, F.J.

    1987-01-01

    Plasma Source Ion Implantation (PSII) is a surface modification technique which has been optimized for ion-beam processing of materials. PSII departs radically from conventional implantation by circumventing the line of sight restriction inherent in conventional ion implantation. The authors used PSII to implant cutting tools and dies and have demonstrated substantial improvements in lifetime. Recent results on plasma physics scaling laws, microstructural, mechanical, and tribological properties of PSII-implanted materials are presented

  18. Neutral Beam Source and Target Plasma for Development of a Local Electric Field Fluctuation Diagnostic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakken, M. R.; Burke, M. G.; Fonck, R. J.; Lewicki, B. T.; Rhodes, A. T.; Winz, G. R.

    2016-10-01

    A new diagnostic measuring local E-> (r , t) fluctuations is being developed for plasma turbulence studies in tokamaks. This is accomplished by measuring fluctuations in the separation of the π components in the Hα motional Stark spectrum. Fluctuations in this separation are expected to be Ẽ / ẼEMSE 10-3EMSE 10-3 . In addition to a high throughput, high speed spectrometer, the project requires a low divergence (Ω 0 .5°) , 80 keV, 2.5 A H0 beam and a target plasma test stand. The beam employs a washer-stack arc ion source to achieve a high species fraction at full energy. Laboratory tests of the ion source demonstrate repeatable plasmas with Te 10 eV and ne 1.6 ×1017 m-3, sufficient for the beam ion optics requirements. Te and ne scalings of the ion source plasma are presented with respect to operational parameters. A novel three-phase resonant converter power supply will provide 6 mA/cm2 of 80 keV H0 at the focal plane for pulse lengths up to 15 ms, with low ripple δV / 80 keV 0.05 % at 280 kHz. Diagnostic development and validation tests will be performed on a magnetized plasma test stand with 0.5 T field. The test chamber will utilize a washer-stack arc source to produce a target plasma comparable to edge tokamak plasmas. A bias-plate with programmable power supply will be used to impose Ẽ within the target plasma. Work supported by US DOE Grant DE-FG02-89ER53296.

  19. US-Japan IEC Workshop on Small Plasma and Accelerator Neutron Sources. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, George H.

    2008-01-01

    The history of IEC development will be briefly described, and some speculation about future directions will be offered. The origin of IEC is due to the brilliance of Phil Farnsworth, inventor of electronic TV in the US. Early experiments were pioneered in the late 1960s by Robert Hirsch who later became head of the DOE fusion program. At that time studies of IEC physics quickly followed at the University of Illinois and at Penn State University. However, despite many successes in this early work, IEC research died as DOE funding stopped in the mid 1980s. In the early 90's, R. W. Bussard of EMC revived work with a new major project based on a magnetic assisted IEC. While doing supportive studies for that project, G. Miley proposed a grided 'STAR mode' IEC as a neutron source for NAA. This concept was later used commercially by Daimler-Benz in Germany to analysis impurities in incoming ores. This represented a first practical application of the IEC. During this period other research groups at LANL, U of Wisconsin and Kyoto University entered IEC research with innovative new concepts and approaches to IEC physics and applications. Much of this work is documented in the present and in past US-Japan Workshops. At present we stand on the threshold of a new area of IEC applications as neutron source, for isotope production, and as a plasma source. These applications provide a way to continue IEC understanding and technology development with the ultimate goal being a fusion power plant. Indeed, a distinguishing feature of the IEC vs. other fusion confinement approaches is the unique opportunity for 'spin off' applications along the way to a power producing plant.

  20. Optical emission spectroscopy of carbon laser plasma ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balki, Oguzhan; Rahman, Md. Mahmudur; Elsayed-Ali, Hani E.

    2018-04-01

    Carbon laser plasma generated by an Nd:YAG laser (wavelength 1064 nm, pulse width 7 ns, fluence 4-52 J cm-2) is studied by optical emission spectroscopy and ion time-of-flight. Up to C4+ ions are detected with the ion flux strongly dependent on the laser fluence. The increase in ion charge with the laser fluence is accompanied by observation of multicharged ion lines in the optical spectra. The time-integrated electron temperature Te is calculated from the Boltzmann plot using the C II lines at 392.0, 426.7, and 588.9 nm. Te is found to increase from ∼0.83 eV for a laser fluence of 22 J cm-2 to ∼0.90 eV for 40 J cm-2. The electron density ne is obtained from the Stark broadened profiles of the C II line at 392 nm and is found to increase from ∼ 2 . 1 × 1017cm-3 for 4 J cm-2 to ∼ 3 . 5 × 1017cm-3 for 40 J cm-2. Applying an external electric field parallel to the expanding plume shows no effect on the line emission intensities. Deconvolution of ion time-of-flight signal with a shifted Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution for each charge state results in an ion temperature Ti ∼4.7 and ∼6.0 eV for 20 and 36 J cm-2, respectively.

  1. Hard X-ray sources from miniature plasma focus devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raspa, V.; Silva, P.; Moreno, J.; Zambra, M.; Soto, L.

    2004-01-01

    As first stage of a program to design a repetitive pulsed radiation generator for industrial applications, two miniature plasma foci have been designed and constructed at the Chilean commission of nuclear energy. The devices operate at an energy level of the order of tens of joules (PF-50 J, 160 nF capacitor bank, 20-35 kV, 32-100 J, ∼ 150 ns time to peak current) and hundred of joules (PF-400 J, 880 nF, 20-35 kV, 176-539 J, ∼ 300 ns time to peak current). Hard X-rays are being studied in these devices operating with hydrogen. Images of metallic plates with different thickness were obtained on commercial radiographic film, Agfa Curix ST-G2, in order to characterize the energy of the hard X-ray outside of the discharge chamber of PF-400 J. An effective energy of the order of 90 keV was measured under those conditions. X ray images of different metallic objects also have been obtained. (authors)

  2. Hard X-ray sources from miniature plasma focus devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raspa, V. [Buenos Aires Univ., PLADEMA, CONICET and INFIP (Argentina); Silva, P.; Moreno, J.; Zambra, M.; Soto, L. [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago (Chile)

    2004-07-01

    As first stage of a program to design a repetitive pulsed radiation generator for industrial applications, two miniature plasma foci have been designed and constructed at the Chilean commission of nuclear energy. The devices operate at an energy level of the order of tens of joules (PF-50 J, 160 nF capacitor bank, 20-35 kV, 32-100 J, {approx} 150 ns time to peak current) and hundred of joules (PF-400 J, 880 nF, 20-35 kV, 176-539 J, {approx} 300 ns time to peak current). Hard X-rays are being studied in these devices operating with hydrogen. Images of metallic plates with different thickness were obtained on commercial radiographic film, Agfa Curix ST-G2, in order to characterize the energy of the hard X-ray outside of the discharge chamber of PF-400 J. An effective energy of the order of 90 keV was measured under those conditions. X ray images of different metallic objects also have been obtained. (authors)

  3. Deposition of dielectric films on silicon using a fore-vacuum plasma electron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zolotukhin, D. B.; Tyunkov, A. V.; Yushkov, Yu. G., E-mail: yuyushkov@gmail.com [Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics, 40 Lenin Ave., Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Oks, E. M. [Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics, 40 Lenin Ave., Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Institute of High Current Electronics SB RAS, 2/3, Akademichesky Ave., Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-15

    We describe an experiment on the use of a fore-vacuum-pressure, plasma-cathode, electron beam source with current up to 100 mA and beam energy up to 15 keV for deposition of Mg and Al oxide films on Si substrates in an oxygen atmosphere at a pressure of 10 Pa. The metals (Al and Mg) were evaporated and ionized using the electron beam with the formation of a gas-metal beam-plasma. The plasma was deposited on the surface of Si substrates. The elemental composition of the deposited films was analyzed.

  4. Development of long lifetime-high current plasma cathode ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yabe, Eiji; Takayama, Kazuo; Fukui, Ryota.

    1987-01-01

    A long lifetime ion source with plasma cathode has been developed for use in ion implantation. In this ion source, a plasma of a nonreactive working gas serves as a cathode in place of a thermionic tungsten filament used in the Freeman ion source. In an applied magnetic field, the plasma cathode is convergent, i.e. filament-like; in zero magnetic field, it turns divergent and spray-like. In the latter case, the plasma exhibits a remarkable ability when the working gas has an ionization potential larger than the feed gas. By any combination of a working gas of either argon or neon and a feed gas of AsF 5 or PF 5 , the lifetime of this ion source was found to be more than 90 hours with an extraction voltage of 40 kV and the corresponding ion current density 20 mA/cm 2 . Mass spectrometry results show that this ion source has an ability of generating a considerable amount of As + and P + ions from AsF 5 and PF 5 , and hence will be useful for realizing a fully cryopumped ion implanter system. This ion source is eminently suitable for use in oxygen ion production. (author)

  5. Tungsten transport and sources control in JET ITER-like wall H-mode plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorczak, N., E-mail: nicolas.fedorczak@cea.fr [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Monier-Garbet, P. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Pütterich, T. [MPI für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Brezinsek, S. [Institute of Energy and Climate Research, Forschungszentrum Jlich, Assoc EURATOM-FZJ, Jlich (Germany); Devynck, P.; Dumont, R.; Goniche, M.; Joffrin, E. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Lerche, E. [Association EURATOM-Belgian State, LPP-ERM-KMS, TEC partner, Brussels (Belgium); Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Lipschultz, B. [York Plasma Institute, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Luna, E. de la [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusin, Asociacin EURATOM/CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Maddison, G. [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, EURATOM-CCFE Association, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Maggi, C. [MPI für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Matthews, G. [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, EURATOM-CCFE Association, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Nunes, I. [Istituto de plasmas e fusao nuclear, Lisboa (Portugal); Rimini, F. [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, EURATOM-CCFE Association, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Solano, E.R. [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusin, Asociacin EURATOM/CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Tamain, P. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Tsalas, M. [Association EURATOM-Hellenic Republic, NCSR Demokritos 153 10, Attica (Greece); Vries, P. de [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2015-08-15

    A set of discharges performed with the JET ITER-like wall is investigated with respect to control capabilities on tungsten sources and transport. In attached divertor regimes, increasing fueling by gas puff results in higher divertor recycling ion flux, lower divertor tungsten source, higher ELM frequency and lower core plasma radiation, dominated by tungsten ions. Both pedestal flushing by ELMs and divertor screening (including redeposition) are possibly responsible. For specific scenarios, kicks in plasma vertical position can be employed to increase the ELM frequency, which results in slightly lower core radiation. The application of ion cyclotron radio frequency heating at the very center of the plasma is efficient to increase the core electron temperature gradient and flatten electron density profile, resulting in a significantly lower central tungsten peaking. Beryllium evaporation in the main chamber did not reduce the local divertor tungsten source whereas core radiation was reduced by approximately 50%.

  6. Study of Multi-Function Micro-Plasma Spraying Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Liuying; Wang Hangong; Hua Shaochun; Cao Xiaoping

    2007-01-01

    A multi-functional micro-arc plasma spraying system was developed according to aerodynamics and plasma spray theory. The soft switch IGBT (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor) invert technique, micro-computer control technique, convergent-divergent nozzle structure and axial powder feeding techniques have been adopted in the design of the micro-arc plasma spraying system. It is not only characterized by a small volume, a light weight, highly accurate control, high deposition efficiency and high reliability, but also has multi-functions in plasma spraying, welding and quenching. The experimental results showed that the system can produce a supersonic flame at a low power, spray Al 2 O 3 particles at an average speed up to 430 m/s, and make nanostructured AT13 coatings with an average bonding strength of 42.7 MPa. Compared to conventional 9M plasma spraying with a higher power, the coatings with almost the same properties as those by conventional plasma spray can be deposited by multi-functional micro-arc plasma spraying with a lower power plasma arc due to an improved power supply design, spray gun structure and powder feeding method. Moreover, this system is suitable for working with thin parts and undertaking on site repairs, and as a result, the application of plasma spraying will be greatly extended

  7. Laser plasma as a source of intense attosecond pulses via high-order harmonic generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, T.

    2013-01-01

    The incredible progress in ultrafast laser technology and Ti:sapphire lasers have lead to many important applications, one of them being high-order harmonic generation (HHG). HHG is a source of coherent extreme ultraviolet (XUV) radiation, which has opened new frontiers in science by extending nonlinear optics and time-resolved spectroscopy to the XUV region, and pushing ultrafast science to the attosecond domain. Progress in attosecond science has revealed many new phenomena that have not been seen with femtosecond pulses. Clearly, the next frontier is to study nonlinear effects at the attosecond timescale and in the XUV. However, a problem with present-day attosecond pulses is that they are just too weak to induce measurable nonlinearities, which severely limits the application of this source. While HHG from solid targets has shown promise for higher conversion efficiency, there is no experiment so far that demonstrates isolated attosecond pulse generation. The generation of isolated, several 100-as pulses with few-µJ energy will enable us to enter a completely new phase in attoscience. In past works, we have demonstrated that high-order harmonics from lowly ionized plasma is a highly efficient method to generate coherent XUV pulses. For example, indium plasma has been shown to generate intense 13th harmonic of the Ti:sapphire laser, with conversion efficiency of 10-4. However, the quasi-monochromatic nature of indium harmonics would make it difficult to generate attosecond pulses. We have also demonstrated that one could increase the harmonic yield by using nanoparticle targets. Specifically, we showed that by using indium oxide nanoparticles or C60 film, we could obtain intense harmonics between wavelengths of 50 to 90 nm. The energy in each of these harmonic orders was measured to be a few µJ, which is sufficient for many applications. However, the problem of using nanoparticle or film targets is the rapid decrease in the harmonic intensity, due to the rapid

  8. Technology collaboration by means of an open source government

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berardi, Steven M.

    2009-05-01

    The idea of open source software originally began in the early 1980s, but it never gained widespread support until recently, largely due to the explosive growth of the Internet. Only the Internet has made this kind of concept possible, bringing together millions of software developers from around the world to pool their knowledge. The tremendous success of open source software has prompted many corporations to adopt the culture of open source and thus share information they previously held secret. The government, and specifically the Department of Defense (DoD), could also benefit from adopting an open source culture. In acquiring satellite systems, the DoD often builds walls between program offices, but installing doors between programs can promote collaboration and information sharing. This paper addresses the challenges and consequences of adopting an open source culture to facilitate technology collaboration for DoD space acquisitions. DISCLAIMER: The views presented here are the views of the author, and do not represent the views of the United States Government, United States Air Force, or the Missile Defense Agency.

  9. Open Source Cloud-Based Technologies for Bim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logothetis, S.; Karachaliou, E.; Valari, E.; Stylianidis, E.

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a Cloud-based open source system for storing and processing data from a 3D survey approach. More specifically, we provide an online service for viewing, storing and analysing BIM. Cloud technologies were used to develop a web interface as a BIM data centre, which can handle large BIM data using a server. The server can be accessed by many users through various electronic devices anytime and anywhere so they can view online 3D models using browsers. Nowadays, the Cloud computing is engaged progressively in facilitating BIM-based collaboration between the multiple stakeholders and disciplinary groups for complicated Architectural, Engineering and Construction (AEC) projects. Besides, the development of Open Source Software (OSS) has been rapidly growing and their use tends to be united. Although BIM and Cloud technologies are extensively known and used, there is a lack of integrated open source Cloud-based platforms able to support all stages of BIM processes. The present research aims to create an open source Cloud-based BIM system that is able to handle geospatial data. In this effort, only open source tools will be used; from the starting point of creating the 3D model with FreeCAD to its online presentation through BIMserver. Python plug-ins will be developed to link the two software which will be distributed and freely available to a large community of professional for their use. The research work will be completed by benchmarking four Cloud-based BIM systems: Autodesk BIM 360, BIMserver, Graphisoft BIMcloud and Onuma System, which present remarkable results.

  10. OPEN SOURCE CLOUD-BASED TECHNOLOGIES FOR BIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Logothetis

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a Cloud-based open source system for storing and processing data from a 3D survey approach. More specifically, we provide an online service for viewing, storing and analysing BIM. Cloud technologies were used to develop a web interface as a BIM data centre, which can handle large BIM data using a server. The server can be accessed by many users through various electronic devices anytime and anywhere so they can view online 3D models using browsers. Nowadays, the Cloud computing is engaged progressively in facilitating BIM-based collaboration between the multiple stakeholders and disciplinary groups for complicated Architectural, Engineering and Construction (AEC projects. Besides, the development of Open Source Software (OSS has been rapidly growing and their use tends to be united. Although BIM and Cloud technologies are extensively known and used, there is a lack of integrated open source Cloud-based platforms able to support all stages of BIM processes. The present research aims to create an open source Cloud-based BIM system that is able to handle geospatial data. In this effort, only open source tools will be used; from the starting point of creating the 3D model with FreeCAD to its online presentation through BIMserver. Python plug-ins will be developed to link the two software which will be distributed and freely available to a large community of professional for their use. The research work will be completed by benchmarking four Cloud-based BIM systems: Autodesk BIM 360, BIMserver, Graphisoft BIMcloud and Onuma System, which present remarkable results.

  11. Characteristics of cold atmospheric plasma source based on low-current pulsed discharge with coaxial electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureyev, O. A.; Surkov, Yu S.; Spirina, A. V.

    2017-05-01

    This work investigates the characteristics of the gas discharge system used to create an atmospheric pressure plasma flow. The plasma jet design with a cylindrical graphite cathode and an anode rod located on the axis of the system allows to realize regularly reproducible spark breakdowns mode with a frequency ∼ 5 kHz and a duration ∼ 40 μs. The device generates a cold atmospheric plasma flame with 1 cm in diameter in the flow of various plasma forming gases including nitrogen and air at about 100 mA average discharge current. In the described construction the cathode spots of individual spark channels randomly move along the inner surface of the graphite electrode creating the secondary plasma stream time-average distributed throughout the whole exit aperture area after the decay of numerous filamentary discharge channels. The results of the spectral diagnostics of plasma in the discharge gap and in the stream coming out of the source are presented. Despite the low temperature of atoms and molecules in plasma stream the cathode spots operation with temperature of ∼ 4000 °C at a graphite electrode inside a discharge system enables to saturate the plasma by CN-radicals and atomic carbon in the case of using nitrogen as the working gas.

  12. Non-thermal atmospheric pressure HF plasma source: generation of nitric oxide and ozone for bio-medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, S.; Bibinov, N.; Gesche, R.; Awakowicz, P.

    2010-01-01

    A new miniature high-frequency (HF) plasma source intended for bio-medical applications is studied using nitrogen/oxygen mixture at atmospheric pressure. This plasma source can be used as an element of a plasma source array for applications in dermatology and surgery. Nitric oxide and ozone which are produced in this plasma source are well-known agents for proliferation of the cells, inhalation therapy for newborn infants, disinfection of wounds and blood ozonation. Using optical emission spectroscopy, microphotography and numerical simulation, the gas temperature in the active plasma region and plasma parameters (electron density and electron distribution function) are determined for varied nitrogen/oxygen flows. The influence of the gas flows on the plasma conditions is studied. Ozone and nitric oxide concentrations in the effluent of the plasma source are measured using absorption spectroscopy and electro-chemical NO-detector at variable gas flows. Correlations between plasma parameters and concentrations of the particles in the effluent of the plasma source are discussed. By varying the gas flows, the HF plasma source can be optimized for nitric oxide or ozone production. Maximum concentrations of 2750 ppm and 400 ppm of NO and O3, correspondingly, are generated.

  13. Efficient 'water window' soft x-ray high-Z plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashiguchi, T; Otsuka, T; Jiang, W; Endo, A; Li, B; Dunne, P; O'Sullivan, G

    2013-01-01

    Unresolved transition array (UTA) is scalable to shorter wavelengths, and we demonstrate a table-top broadband emission 'water window' soft x-ray source based on laser-produced plasmas. Resonance emission from multiply charged ions merges to produce intense UTAs in the 2 to 4 nm region, extending below the carbon K edge (4.37 nm). An outline of a microscope design for single-shot live cell imaging is proposed based on a bismuth (Bi) plasma UTA source, coupled to multilayer mirror optics

  14. Compact radio sources as a plasma turbulent reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atoyan, A.M.; Nagapetyan, A.

    1987-01-01

    The electromagnetic raiation spectra of a homogeneous cosmic radio source (CRS) wherein the relativistic electron acceleration on the langmuir waves leads to the formation of Maxwell-like spectra with characteristic value of the Lorentz-factor γ 0 ∼ 10 3 are considered. It has been shown that due to synchrotron radiation of relativistic electrons, usually observed from CRSs flat radiosepctra, gradually steepening at submillimeter wavelengths are naturally formed in the optically thin range of frequencies. The electromagnetic radiation at the scattering of the electron on the turbulence produces significant nonthermal infrared radiation. Inverse compton scattering of the relativistic electrons on the radio-infrared photons leads the production of X-rays. The characteristic of the electromagnetic radiation spectra obtained in the model are compared with the observational ones

  15. Compact quasi-monoenergetic photon sources from laser-plasma accelerators for nuclear detection and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geddes, Cameron G.R., E-mail: cgrgeddes@lbl.gov; Rykovanov, Sergey; Matlis, Nicholas H.; Steinke, Sven; Vay, Jean-Luc; Esarey, Eric H.; Ludewigt, Bernhard; Nakamura, Kei; Quiter, Brian J.; Schroeder, Carl B.; Toth, Csaba; Leemans, Wim P.

    2015-05-01

    Near-monoenergetic photon sources at MeV energies offer improved sensitivity at greatly reduced dose for active interrogation, and new capabilities in treaty verification, nondestructive assay of spent nuclear fuel and emergency response. Thomson (also referred to as Compton) scattering sources are an established method to produce appropriate photon beams. Applications are however restricted by the size of the required high-energy electron linac, scattering (photon production) system, and shielding for disposal of the high energy electron beam. Laser-plasma accelerators (LPAs) produce GeV electron beams in centimeters, using the plasma wave driven by the radiation pressure of an intense laser. Recent LPA experiments are presented which have greatly improved beam quality and efficiency, rendering them appropriate for compact high-quality photon sources based on Thomson scattering. Designs for MeV photon sources utilizing the unique properties of LPAs are presented. It is shown that control of the scattering laser, including plasma guiding, can increase photon production efficiency. This reduces scattering laser size and/or electron beam current requirements to scale compatible with the LPA. Lastly, the plasma structure can decelerate the electron beam after photon production, reducing the size of shielding required for beam disposal. Together, these techniques provide a path to a compact photon source system.

  16. Characterization of a Distributed Plasma Ionization Source (DPIS) for Ion Mobility Spectrometry and Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waltman, Melanie J.; Dwivedi, Prabha; Hill, Herbert; Blanchard, William C.; Ewing, Robert G.

    2008-01-01

    A recently developed atmospheric pressure ionization source, a distributed plasma ionization source (DPIS), was characterized and compared to commonly used atmospheric pressure ionization sources with both mass spectrometry and ion mobility spectrometry. The source consisted of two electrodes of different sizes separated by a thin dielectric. Application of a high RF voltage across the electrodes generated plasma in air yielding both positive and negative ions depending on the polarity of the applied potential. These reactant ions subsequently ionized the analyte vapors. The reactant ions generated were similar to those created in a conventional point-to-plane corona discharge ion source. The positive reactant ions generated by the source were mass identified as being solvated protons of general formula (H2O)nH+ with (H2O)2H+ as the most abundant reactant ion. The negative reactant ions produced were mass identified primarily as CO3-, NO3-, NO2-, O3- and O2- of various relative intensities. The predominant ion and relative ion ratios varied depending upon source construction and supporting gas flow rates. A few compounds including drugs, explosives and environmental pollutants were selected to evaluate the new ionization source. The source was operated continuously for several months and although deterioration was observed visually, the source continued to produce ions at a rate similar that of the initial conditions. The results indicated that the DPIS may have a longer operating life than a conventional corona discharge.

  17. Research progress of laser welding process dynamic monitoring technology based on plasma characteristics signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng WANG

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available During the high-power laser welding process, plasmas are induced by the evaporation of metal under laser radiation, which can affect the coupling of laser energy and the workpiece, and ultimately impact on the reliability of laser welding quality and process directly. The research of laser-induced plasma is a focus in high-power deep penetration welding field, which provides a promising research area for realizing the automation of welding process quality inspection. In recent years, the research of laser welding process dynamic monitoring technology based on plasma characteristics is mainly in two aspects, namely the research of plasma signal detection and the research of laser welding process modeling. The laser-induced plasma in the laser welding is introduced, and the related research of laser welding process dynamic monitoring technology based on plasma characteristics at home and abroad is analyzed. The current problems in the field are summarized, and the future development trend is put forward.

  18. Energy Sources Management and Future Automotive Technologies: Environmental Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Mariasiu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the environmental impact created through the introduction of introducing new technologies in transportation domain. New electric vehicles are considered zero-emission vehicles (ZEV. However, electricity produced in power plants is still predominantly based on fossil fuel usage (required for recharge electric vehicle batteries and thus directly affects the quantity of pollutant emissions and greenhouse gases (CO2, NOx and SOx. Given the structure of EU-wide energy sources used for electricity generation, the potential pollutant emissions stemming from these energy sources, related to energy consumption of an electric vehicle, was determined under the projected environmental impact of specific market penetration of electric vehicles. In addition to the overall impact at the EU level, were identified the countries for which the use of electric vehicles is (or not feasible in terms of reaching the lower values ​​of future emissions compared to the present and future European standards.

  19. Plasma technology in support of a growing nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camacho, J.; Camacho, S. L.; Park, J. H.

    2005-01-01

    Plasma pyrolysis / vitrification, otherwise known as PPV, is a thermal waste treatment process that offers a wide variety of advantages to owner/operators of modern waste disposal and WTE facilities. Operating cost, or perceived operating cost has so far been a major issue preventing plasma from gaining wide-spread acceptance in world markets of waste disposal. The interesting thing about plasma is the paradox of its current state in its development as a strong industry. On one hand, plasma has proven itself to be the most adaptable, easiest controlled thermal process, with the least emissions, and the safest solid by-product (slag). Plasma offers the ideal characteristics for process control of any waste, yet awaits real investment . How can this be happening? Several factors have created the current situation. First, governments and citizens have not demanded that nuclear facilities have complete and self-contained, on-site waste treatment systems in place to reduce the need for regional facilities and trucking. Second, organizations with a real need like nuclear power plant operators have found it difficult to make contact with reliable vendors, capable of providing high quality plasma recycling systems. Third, inferior equipment vendors have successfully sold equipment not designed for production waste treatment, but rather lab-scale systems with too few features to demonstrate reliable waste treatment with confidence. Many stories of poorly working equipment that was expensive has left big business with bad taste regarding plasma, except the steel industry, and the Japanese ash vitrification industry, where plasma does the difficult work every day. During the 1990s through today in 2005, the few plasma vendors have experienced almost no market demand for their products. In contrast, ever larger ash vitrification plants have been built recently in Japan and plasma torches are being applied routinely in the 1-3 mw range to production-scale facilities. Based on

  20. Essentials of energy technology sources, transport, storage, conservation

    CERN Document Server

    Fricke, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    An in-depth understanding of energy technology, sources, conversion, storage, transport and conservation is crucial for developing a sustainable and economically viable energy infrastructure. This need, for example, is addressed in university courses with a special focus on the energy mix of renewable and depletable energy resources. Energy makes our lives comfortable, and the existence of amenities such as heaters, cars, warm water, household appliances and electrical light is characteristic for a developed economy. Supplying the industrial or individual energy consumer with energy 24 hours

  1. Enhancement of H{sup -}/D{sup -} volume production in a double plasma type negative ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumasa, Osamu; Nishimura, Hideki; Sakiyama, Satoshi [Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-02-01

    H{sup -}/D{sup -} production in a pure volume source has been studied. In our double plasma type negative ion source, both energy and density of fast electrons are well controlled. With the use of this source, the enhancement of H{sup -}/D{sup -} production has been observed. Namely, under the same discharge power, the extracted H{sup -}/D{sup -} current in the double plasma operation is higher than that in the single plasma operation. At the same time, measurements of plasma parameters have been made in the source and the extractor regions for these two cases. (author)

  2. Application of atmospheric plasma sources in growth and differentiation of plant and mammalian stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puac, Nevena

    2014-10-01

    The expansion of the plasma medicine and its demand for in-vivo treatments resulted in fast development of various plasma devices that operate at atmospheric pressure. These sources have to fulfill all demands for application on biological samples. One of the sources that meet all the requirements needed for treatment of biological material is plasma needle. Previously, we have used this device for sterilization of planctonic samples of bacteria, MRSA biofilm, for improved differentiation of human periodontal stem cells into osteogenic line and for treatment of plant meristematic cells. It is well known that plasma generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) that strongly affect metabolism of living cells. One of the open issues is to correlate external plasma products (electrons, ions, RNS, ROS, photons, strong fields etc.) with the immediate internal response which triggers or induces effects in the living cell. For that purpose we have studied the kinetics of enzymes which are typical indicators of the identity of reactive species from the plasma created environment that can trigger signal transduction in the cell and ensue cell activity. In collaboration with Suzana Zivkovicm, Institute for Biological Research ``Sinisa Stankovic,'' University of Belgrade; Nenad Selakovic, Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade; Milica Milutinovic, Jelena Boljevic, Institute for Biological Research ``Sinisa Stankovic,'' University of Belgrade; and Gordana Malovic, Zoran Lj. Petrovic, Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade. Grants III41011, ON171037 and ON173024, MESTD, Serbia.

  3. Production and transport chemistry of atomic fluorine in remote plasma source and cylindrical reaction chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangoli, S P; Johnson, A D; Fridman, A A; Pearce, R V; Gutsol, A F; Dolgopolsky, A

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, NF 3 -based plasmas are being used in semiconductor manufacturing to clean chemical vapour deposition (CVD) chambers. With advantages such as faster clean times, substantially lower emissions of gases having high global warming potentials, and reduced chamber damage, NF 3 plasmas are now favoured over fluorocarbon-based processes. Typically, a remote plasma source (RPS) is used to dissociate the NF 3 gas and produce atomic fluorine that etches the CVD residues from the chamber surfaces. However, it is important to efficiently transport F atoms from the plasma source into the process chamber. The current work is aimed at understanding and improving the key processes involved in the production and transport of atomic fluorine atoms. A zero-dimensional model of NF 3 dissociation and F production chemistry in the RPS is developed based on various known and derived plasma parameters. Additionally, a model describing the transport of atomic fluorine is proposed that includes both physical (diffusion, adsorption and desorption) and chemical processes (surface and three-body volume recombination). The kinetic model provides an understanding of the impact of chamber geometry, gas flow rates, pressure and temperature on fluorine recombination. The plasma-kinetic model is validated by comparing model predictions (percentage F atom density) with experimental results (etch rates)

  4. Simulation Study of an Extended Density DC Glow Toroidal Plasma Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granda-Gutierrez, E. E.; Piedad-Beneitez, A. de la; Lopez-Callejas, R.; Godoy-Cabrera, O. G.; Benitez-Read, J. S.; Pacheco-Sotelo, J. O.; Pena-Eguiluz, R.; Mercado-Cabrera, A.; Valencia A, R.; Barocio, S. R.

    2006-01-01

    Conventional wisdom assigns the DC glow discharge regime to plasma currents below ∼500 mA values, beyond which the discharge falls into the anomalous glow and the turbulent arc regimes. However, we have found evidence that, during toroidal discharges, this barrier can be ostensibly extended up to 800 mA. Thus, a computer simulation has been applied to the evolution of the main electrical characteristics of such a glow discharge plasma in a toroidal vessel in order to design and construct a respective voltage/current controlled source. This should be able to generate a DC plasma in the glow regime with which currents in the range 10-3-100 A can be experimented and 109-1010 cm-3 plasma densities can be achieved to PIII optimization purposes. The plasma is modelled as a voltage-controlled current source able to be turned on whenever the breakdown voltage is reached across the gap between the anode and the vessel wall. The simulation outcome fits well our experimental measurements showing that the plasma current obeys power laws that are dependent on the power current and other control variables such as the gas pressure

  5. Health Technology Assessment of pathogen reduction technologies applied to plasma for clinical use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchetti, Americo; Berrino, Alexandra; Casini, Marina; Codella, Paola; Facco, Giuseppina; Fiore, Alessandra; Marano, Giuseppe; Marchetti, Marco; Midolo, Emanuela; Minacori, Roberta; Refolo, Pietro; Romano, Federica; Ruggeri, Matteo; Sacchini, Dario; Spagnolo, Antonio G.; Urbina, Irene; Vaglio, Stefania; Grazzini, Giuliano; Liumbruno, Giancarlo M.

    2016-01-01

    Although existing clinical evidence shows that the transfusion of blood components is becoming increasingly safe, the risk of transmission of known and unknown pathogens, new pathogens or re-emerging pathogens still persists. Pathogen reduction technologies may offer a new approach to increase blood safety. The study is the output of collaboration between the Italian National Blood Centre and the Post-Graduate School of Health Economics and Management, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome, Italy. A large, multidisciplinary team was created and divided into six groups, each of which addressed one or more HTA domains. Plasma treated with amotosalen + UV light, riboflavin + UV light, methylene blue or a solvent/detergent process was compared to fresh-frozen plasma with regards to current use, technical features, effectiveness, safety, economic and organisational impact, and ethical, social and legal implications. The available evidence is not sufficient to state which of the techniques compared is superior in terms of efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness. Evidence on efficacy is only available for the solvent/detergent method, which proved to be non-inferior to untreated fresh-frozen plasma in the treatment of a wide range of congenital and acquired bleeding disorders. With regards to safety, the solvent/detergent technique apparently has the most favourable risk-benefit profile. Further research is needed to provide a comprehensive overview of the cost-effectiveness profile of the different pathogen-reduction techniques. The wide heterogeneity of results and the lack of comparative evidence are reasons why more comparative studies need to be performed. PMID:27403740

  6. Beam plasma 14 MeV neutron source for fusion materials development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravenscroft, D.; Bulmer, D.; Coensgen, F.; Doggett, J.; Molvik, A.; Souza, P.; Summers, L.; Williamson, V.

    1991-09-01

    The conceptual engineering design and expected performance for a 14 MeV DT neutron source is detailed. The source would provide an intense neutron flux for accelerated testing of fusion reactor materials. The 150-keV neutral beams inject energetic deuterium atoms, that ionize, are trapped, then react with a warm (200 eV), dense tritium target plasma. This produces a neutron source strength of 3.6 x 10 17 n/sec for a neutron power density at the plasma edge of 5--10 MW/m 2 . This is several times the ∼2 MW/m 2 anticipated at the first wall of fusion reactors. This high flux provides accelerated end-of-life tests of 1- to 2-year duration, thus making materials development possible. The modular design of the source and the facilities are described

  7. Studies of plasma breakdown and electron heating on a 14 GHz ECR ion source through measurement of plasma bremsstrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ropponen, T; Machicoane, G; Leitner, D [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, MSU, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Tarvainen, O; Toivanen, V; Koivisto, H; Kalvas, T; Peura, P; Jones, P [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, PO Box 35 (YFL), 40500 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Izotov, I; Skalyga, V; Zorin, V [Institute of Applied Physics, RAS, 46 Ulyanov St., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Noland, J, E-mail: tommi.ropponen@gmail.com, E-mail: olli.tarvainen@jyu.fi [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Temporal evolution of plasma bremsstrahlung emitted by a 14 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) operated in pulsed mode is presented in the energy range 1.5-400 keV with 100 {mu}s resolution. Such a high temporal resolution together with this energy range has never been measured before with an ECRIS. Data are presented as a function of microwave power, neutral gas pressure, magnetic field configuration and seed electron density. The saturation time of the bremsstrahlung count rate is almost independent of the photon energy up to 100 keV and exhibits similar characteristics with the neutral gas balance. The average photon energy during the plasma breakdown is significantly higher than that during the steady state and depends strongly on the density of seed electrons. The results are consistent with a theoretical model describing the evolution of the electron energy distribution function during the preglow transient.

  8. Experimental benchmark of the NINJA code for application to the Linac4 H- ion source plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briefi, S.; Mattei, S.; Rauner, D.; Lettry, J.; Tran, M. Q.; Fantz, U.

    2017-10-01

    For a dedicated performance optimization of negative hydrogen ion sources applied at particle accelerators, a detailed assessment of the plasma processes is required. Due to the compact design of these sources, diagnostic access is typically limited to optical emission spectroscopy yielding only line-of-sight integrated results. In order to allow for a spatially resolved investigation, the electromagnetic particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collision code NINJA has been developed for the Linac4 ion source at CERN. This code considers the RF field generated by the ICP coil as well as the external static magnetic fields and calculates self-consistently the resulting discharge properties. NINJA is benchmarked at the diagnostically well accessible lab experiment CHARLIE (Concept studies for Helicon Assisted RF Low pressure Ion sourcEs) at varying RF power and gas pressure. A good general agreement is observed between experiment and simulation although the simulated electron density trends for varying pressure and power as well as the absolute electron temperature values deviate slightly from the measured ones. This can be explained by the assumption of strong inductive coupling in NINJA, whereas the CHARLIE discharges show the characteristics of loosely coupled plasmas. For the Linac4 plasma, this assumption is valid. Accordingly, both the absolute values of the accessible plasma parameters and their trends for varying RF power agree well in measurement and simulation. At varying RF power, the H- current extracted from the Linac4 source peaks at 40 kW. For volume operation, this is perfectly reflected by assessing the processes in front of the extraction aperture based on the simulation results where the highest H- density is obtained for the same power level. In surface operation, the production of negative hydrogen ions at the converter surface can only be considered by specialized beam formation codes, which require plasma parameters as input. It has been demonstrated that

  9. Railguns and plasma accelerators: arc armatures, pulse power sources and US patents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, O.M. Jr.

    1980-11-01

    Railguns and plasma accelerators have the potential for use in many basic and applied research projects, such as in creating high-pressures for equation-of-state studies and in impact fusion. A brief review of railguns and plasma accelerators with references is presented. Railgun performance is critically dependent on armature operation. Plasma arc railgun armatures are addressed. Pulsed power supplies for multi-stage railguns are considered. This includes brief comments on the compensated pulsed alternator, or compulsator, rotating machinery, and distributed energy sources for railguns. References are given at the end of each section. Appendix A contains a brief review of the US Patents on multi-staging techniques for electromagnetic accelerators, plasma propulsion devices, and electric guns.

  10. Railguns and plasma accelerators: arc armatures, pulse power sources and US patents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, O.M. Jr.

    1980-11-01

    Railguns and plasma accelerators have the potential for use in many basic and applied research projects, such as in creating high-pressures for equation-of-state studies and in impact fusion. A brief review of railguns and plasma accelerators with references is presented. Railgun performance is critically dependent on armature operation. Plasma arc railgun armatures are addressed. Pulsed power supplies for multi-stage railguns are considered. This includes brief comments on the compensated pulsed alternator, or compulsator, rotating machinery, and distributed energy sources for railguns. References are given at the end of each section. Appendix A contains a brief review of the US Patents on multi-staging techniques for electromagnetic accelerators, plasma propulsion devices, and electric guns

  11. First results from the Los Alamos plasma source ion implantation experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rej, D.J.; Faehl, R.J.; Gribble, R.J.; Henins, I.; Kodali, P.; Nastasi, M.; Reass, W.A.; Tesmer, J.; Walter, K.C.; Wood, B.P.; Conrad, J.R.; Horswill, N.; Shamim, M.; Sridharan, K.

    1993-01-01

    A new facility is operational at Los Alamos to examine plasma source ion implantation on a large scale. Large workpieces can be treated in a 1.5-m-diameter, 4.6-m-long plasma vacuum chamber. Primary emphasis is directed towards improving tribological properties of metal surfaces. First experiments have been performed at 40 kV with nitrogen plasmas. Both coupons and manufactured components, with surface areas up to 4 m 2 , have been processed. Composition and surface hardness of implanted materials are evaluated. Implant conformality and dose uniformity into practical geometries are estimated with multidimensional particle-in-cell computations of plasma electron and ion dynamics, and Monte Carlo simulations of ion transport in solids

  12. On electromagnetic wave propagation through a plasma sheath produced by a moving ionization source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenova, V.I.

    1977-01-01

    Features of the interaction of electromagnetic waves are considered with a nonstationary plasma layer of a finite thickness, produced in an immovable gas by a movable ionization source. It is shown that a static magnetic field excited on the ionization front in build-up of electrons produced in the incident wave field reemits the energy to the electromagnetic wave during the plasma relaxation caused by recombination processes. As a result the electromagnetic wave of a finite amplitude may propagate behind the nonstationary layer of an ''opaque'' (ωsub(p)sup(2)>>ωsub(urc)sup((0))sup(2)) plasma as distinct from the layer of a movable stationary plasma with the same parameters

  13. Microwave frequency sweep interferometer for plasma density measurements in ECR ion sources: Design and preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrisi, Giuseppe [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); University Mediterranea of Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria (Italy); Mascali, David; Neri, Lorenzo; Leonardi, Ornella; Celona, Luigi; Castro, Giuseppe; Agnello, Riccardo; Caruso, Antonio; Passarello, Santi; Longhitano, Alberto; Gammino, Santo [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); Sorbello, Gino [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); University of Catania, Catania, Italy and INFN-LNS, Catania (Italy); Isernia, Tommaso [University Mediterranea of Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    The Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources (ECRISs) development is strictly related to the availability of new diagnostic tools, as the existing ones are not adequate to such compact machines and to their plasma characteristics. Microwave interferometry is a non-invasive method for plasma diagnostics and represents the best candidate for plasma density measurement in hostile environment. Interferometry in ECRISs is a challenging task mainly due to their compact size. The typical density of ECR plasmas is in the range 10{sup 11}–10{sup 13} cm{sup −3} and it needs a probing beam wavelength of the order of few centimetres, comparable to the chamber radius. The paper describes the design of a microwave interferometer developed at the LNS-INFN laboratories based on the so-called “frequency sweep” method to filter out the multipath contribution in the detected signals. The measurement technique and the preliminary results (calibration) obtained during the experimental tests will be presented.

  14. Proceedings of the international symposium on environmental technologies: Plasma systems and applications. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayne, P.W.; Mulholland, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Plasma technology is an extremely versatile and powerful means of obtaining very high temperatures that can be used in a variety of environmental situations. Since most types of waste products and contaminants can be treated effectively and efficiently, plasma systems have been developed to address the disposal and annihilation domestic of medical, hazardous, radioactive, military, and miscellaneous wastes. Plasma technologies can also be implemented to recycle and recover usable materials from metallic wastes. The International Symposium on Environmental Technologies: Plasma Systems and Applications was held at the Omni Hotel in Atlanta, Georgia on October 8--12, 1995 to bring together a large group of technical experts working on the use of plasma for solving environmental problems. The Symposium is a sequel to the 1994 Metatechnies Conference on Stabilization and Volarization of Ultimate Waste by Plasma Processes that was held in September of 1994 at Bordeaux Lac, France. The proceedings to this second international conference contain the written contributions from eleven sessions and are published in two volumes. A total of 65 papers address the use of plasma systems for environmental applications and include topics concerning the development and use of innovative technologies for waste treatment, environmental remediation, recycling, characterization of the plasma and solid residue, off-gas analyses, as well as case studies and regulatory policies

  15. Boundary layer plasmas as a source for high-latitude, early afternoon, auroral arcs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundin, R.; Evans, D.S.

    1985-02-01

    Simultaneous measurements of hot boundary layer plasma from PROGNOZ-7 and particle precipitation from the TIROS/NOAA satellite in nearly magnetically conjugate regions have been used to study the dynamo process responsible for the formation of high latitude, early afternoon, auroral arcs. Characteristic for the PROGNOZ-7 observations in the dayside boundary layer at high latitudes is the frequent occurrence of regions with injected magnetosheath plasma embedded in a 'halo' of antisunward flowing magnetosphere plasma. The injected magnetosheath plasma have several features which indicate that it also acts as a local source of EMF in the boundary layer. The process resembles that of a local MHD dynamo driven by the excess drift velocity of the injected magnetosheath plasma relative to the background magnetospheric plasma. The dynamo region is capable of driving fielc-aligned currents that couple to the ionosphere, where the upward current is associated with the high latitude auroral arcs. We demonstrate that the large-scale morphology as well as the detailed data intercomparison between PROGNOZ-7 and TIROS-N both agree well with a local injection of magnetosheath plasma into the dayside boundary layer as the main dynamo process powering the high-latitude, early afternoon auroral arcs. (Author)

  16. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Plasma Fusion Center, 1988--1989 report to the President

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    This report discusses the following topics on fusion energy: cold fusion; alcator confinement experiments; applied plasma physics research; fusion systems; coherent electromagnetic wave generation; and fusion technology and engineering

  17. Facilities for technology testing of ITER divertor concepts, models, and prototypes in a plasma environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, S.A.

    1991-12-01

    The exhaust of power and fusion-reaction products from ITER plasma are critical physics and technology issues from performance, safety, and reliability perspectives. Because of inadequate pulse length, fluence, flux, scrape-off layer plasma temperature and density, and other parameters, the present generation of tokamaks, linear plasma devices, or energetic beam facilities are unable to perform adequate technology testing of divertor components, though they are essential contributors to many physics issues such as edge-plasma transport and disruption effects and control. This Technical Requirements Documents presents a description of the capabilities and parameters divertor test facilities should have to perform accelerated life testing on predominantly technological divertor issues such as basic divertor concepts, heat load limits, thermal fatigue, tritium inventory and erosion/redeposition. The cost effectiveness of such divertor technology testing is also discussed

  18. The inductively coupled plasma as a source for the measurement of fundamental spectroscopic constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnsworth, P.B.

    1993-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasmas (ICPs) are stable, robust sources for the generation of spectra from neutral and singly ionized atoms. They are used extensively for analytical spectrometry, but have seen limited use for the measurement of fundamental spectroscopic constants. Several properties of the ICP affect its suitability for such fundamental measurements. They include: spatial structure, spectral background, noise characteristics, electron densities and temperatures, and the state of equilibrium in the plasma. These properties are particularly sensitive to the means by which foreign atoms are introduced into the plasma. With some departures from the operating procedures normally used in analytical measurements, the ICP promise to be a useful source for the measurement of fundamental atomic constants. (orig.)

  19. Quasi-steady state, low current behaviour of a magnetized coaxial plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, Travis K; Mayo, Robert M; Bourham, Mohamed A

    2005-01-01

    The Coaxial Plasma Source-1 facility (Mayo R M et al 1995 Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 4 47) was modified from a short pulse, high current (SPHC) pulse forming network (PFN) with very low inductance (∼200 nH) to a large inductance ladder circuit. This modification allows for a longer, flat top gun current pulse that eliminates the under-damped, sinusoidal behaviour of the gun current with consequent interruptions in plasma parameters. The new PFN was designed to produce a current waveform for a much longer period (∼1 ms). As a consequence of increasing the pulse length, the magnitude of the gun current was reduced as no additional energy storage was added to the PFN. The characterization of the electrical and plasma behaviour of the experiment operated with the long pulse, low current (LPLC) PFN is presented. The gun currents produced by the LPLC PFN are approximately one-fifth in magnitude of the gun currents produced by the SPHC PFN. Axial plasma parameters were measured near the muzzle of the plasma source, and electron densities were found to range from 1 x 10 19 m -3 to 7 x 10 19 m -3 depending upon the axial location. These values are approximately 1-2 orders of magnitude less than the electron densities produced by the SPHC PFN at the same locations. Electron temperatures range from 30 to 60 eV at these locations and are very similar to those produced by the SPHC PFN. A resistive MHD model was applied as an order estimate of the plasma resistivity and demonstrates reasonable agreement with measured values of the magnetized coaxial gun resistance

  20. Quasi-steady state, low current behaviour of a magnetized coaxial plasma source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Travis K; Mayo, Robert M; Bourham, Mohamed A [Department of Nuclear Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7909 (United States)

    2005-11-15

    The Coaxial Plasma Source-1 facility (Mayo R M et al 1995 Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 4 47) was modified from a short pulse, high current (SPHC) pulse forming network (PFN) with very low inductance ({approx}200 nH) to a large inductance ladder circuit. This modification allows for a longer, flat top gun current pulse that eliminates the under-damped, sinusoidal behaviour of the gun current with consequent interruptions in plasma parameters. The new PFN was designed to produce a current waveform for a much longer period ({approx}1 ms). As a consequence of increasing the pulse length, the magnitude of the gun current was reduced as no additional energy storage was added to the PFN. The characterization of the electrical and plasma behaviour of the experiment operated with the long pulse, low current (LPLC) PFN is presented. The gun currents produced by the LPLC PFN are approximately one-fifth in magnitude of the gun currents produced by the SPHC PFN. Axial plasma parameters were measured near the muzzle of the plasma source, and electron densities were found to range from 1 x 10{sup 19} m{sup -3} to 7 x 10{sup 19} m{sup -3} depending upon the axial location. These values are approximately 1-2 orders of magnitude less than the electron densities produced by the SPHC PFN at the same locations. Electron temperatures range from 30 to 60 eV at these locations and are very similar to those produced by the SPHC PFN. A resistive MHD model was applied as an order estimate of the plasma resistivity and demonstrates reasonable agreement with measured values of the magnetized coaxial gun resistance.

  1. [Experimental investigation of laser plasma soft X-ray source with gas target].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Qi-liang; Gong, Yan; Lin, Jing-quan; Chen, Bo; Cao, Jian-lin

    2003-02-01

    This paper describes a debris-free laser plasma soft X-ray source with a gas target, which has high operating frequency and can produce strong soft X-ray radiation. The valve of this light source is drived by a piezoelectrical ceramic whose operating frequency is up to 400 Hz. In comparison with laser plasma soft X-ray sources using metal target, the light source is debris-free. And it has higher operating frequency than gas target soft X-ray sources whose nozzle is controlled by a solenoid valve. A channel electron multiplier (CEM) operating in analog mode is used to detect the soft X-ray generated by the laser plasma source, and the CEM's output is fed to to a charge-sensitive preamplifier for further amplification purpose. Output charges from the CEM are proportional to the amplitude of the preamplifier's output voltage. Spectra of CO2, Xe and Kr at 8-14 nm wavelength which can be used for soft X-ray projection lithography are measured. The spectrum for CO2 consists of separate spectral lines originate mainly from the transitions in Li-like and Be-like ions. The Xe spectrum originating mainly from 4d-5f, 4d-4f, 4d-6p and 4d-5p transitions in multiply charged xenon ions. The spectrum for Kr consists of separate spectral lines and continuous broad spectra originating mainly from the transitions in Cu-, Ni-, Co- and Fe-like ions.

  2. Physics and technology of large plasma focus devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herold, H.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the plasma focus (PF) which produces a high temperature (0,5 to 1 keV), high density (5 · 10 18 cm -3 ), short living (up to 500 ns) fusion plasma in a very simple and cheap device. In the focus plasma, fusion processes take place with an energy efficiency which is not surpassed even by large Tokamak or Inertial Confinement Fusion devices. But this fusion efficiency and the high fusion neutron yield are not the only impetus to PF research. Due to the high energy density in the focus plasma (j ≥ 10 6 A/cm 2 exclamation point), many very interesting, mostly nonlinear phenomena take place which led to high intensity electron, ion and radiation emission. Micro- and macro instabilities, turbulence and selforganization processes develop. Most of these phenomena are not or only poorly understood

  3. Energization of the Ring Current through Convection of Substorm Enhancements of the Plasma Sheet Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menz, A.; Kistler, L. M.; Mouikis, C.; Spence, H. E.; Henderson, M. G.; Matsui, H.

    2017-12-01

    It has been shown that electric field strength and night-side plasma sheet density are the two best predictors of the adiabatic energy gain of the ring current during geomagnetic storms (Liemohn and Khazanov, 2005). While H+ dominates the ring current during quiet times, O+ can contribute substantially during geomagnetic storms. Substorm activity provides a mechanism to enhance the energy density of O+ in the plasma sheet during geomagnetic storms, which is then convected adiabatically into the inner-magnetosphere. Using the Van Allen Probes data in the the plasma sheet source region (defined as L>5.5 during storms) and the inner magnetosphere, along with LANL-GEO data to identify substorm injection times, we show that adiabatic convection of O+ enhancements in the source region can explain the observed enhancements in the inner magnetosphere. We use the UNH-IMEF electric field model to calculate drift times from the source region to the inner magnetosphere to test whether enhancements in the inner-magnetosphere can be explained by dipolarization driven enhancements in the plasma sheet source hours before.

  4. Study of the general plasma characteristics of a high power multifilament ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenberg, K.F.

    1979-09-01

    A general assessment of the steady state and time dependent plasma properties which characterize a high power multifilament ion source is presented. Steady state measurements, obtained via a pulsed electrostatic probe data acquisition system, are described. Fluctuation measurements, obtained via a broadband digital spectral analysis system, are also given

  5. Increase of plasma ion source efficiency utilizing collisions of the second kind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, H.

    1979-01-01

    It is experimentally found that the efficiency of a plasma ion source for use in an electromagnetic separator can be increased under appropriate operating conditions utilizing collisions of the second kind, of a proper gas is additionally introduced into the arc chamber containing atoms with metastable excited levels. (author)

  6. An accelerated beam-plasma neutron/proton source and early application of a fusion plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, M.; Yoshikawa, K.; Yamamoto, Y.; Hoshino, C.; Masuda, K.; Miley, G.; Jurczyk, B.; Stubbers, R.; Gu, Y.

    1999-01-01

    We measured the number of the neutrons and protons produced by D-D reactions in an accelerated beam-plasma fusion and curried out the numerical simulations. The linear dependence of the neutron yield on a discharge current indicates that the fusion reactions occur between the background gas and the fast particles. i.e. charge exchanged neutrals and accelerated ions. The neutron yield divided by (fusion cross section x ion current x neutral gas pressure) still possesses the dependence of the 1.2 power of discharge voltage. which shows the fusion reactions are affected by the electrostatic potential built-up in the center. The measured proton birth profiles suggest the existence of a double potential well, which is supported by the numerical simulations. (author)

  7. Plasma source by microwaves: design description; Fuente de plasma por microondas: descripcion de diseno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camps, E; Olea, O; Andrade, R; Anguiano, G

    1992-03-15

    The design of a device for the formation of a plasma with densities of the order of 10{sup 12} cm{sup -} {sup 3} and low temperatures (T{sub e} {approx} 40 eV) is described. For such purpose it was carried out in the device a microwave discharge (f{sub o} = 2.45 GHz) in a resonator of high Q factor, immersed in a static external magnetic field. The device worked in the regime {omega}{sub ce} {<=} {omega}{sub o}/2 ({omega}{sub ce}- cyclotron frequency of the electrons, ({omega}{sub o} = 2 {pi} f{sub o}) where is possible the excitement of non lineal phenomena of waves transformation. (Author)

  8. Cryogenic technology review of cold neutron source facility for localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hun Cheol; Park, D. S.; Moon, H. M.; Soon, Y. P. [Daesung Cryogenic Research Institute, Ansan (Korea); Kim, J. H. [United Pacific Technology, Inc., Ansan (Korea)

    1998-02-01

    This Research is performed to localize the cold neutron source(CNS) facility in HANARO and the report consists of two parts. In PART I, the local and foreign technology for CNS facility is investigated and examined. In PART II, safety and licensing are investigated. CNS facility consists of cryogenic and warm part. Cryogenic part includes a helium refrigerator, vacuum insulated pipes, condenser, cryogenic fluid tube and moderator cell. Warm part includes moderator gas control, vacuum equipment, process monitoring system. Warm part is at high level as a result of the development of semiconductor industries and can be localized. However, even though cryogenic technology is expected to play a important role in developing the 21st century's cutting technology, it lacks of specialists and the research facility since the domestic market is small and the research institutes and government do not recognize the importance. Therefore, it takes a long research time in order to localize the facility. The safety standard of reactor for hydrogen gas in domestic nuclear power regulations is compared with that of the foreign countries, and the licensing method for installation of CNS facility is examined. The system failure and its influence are also analyzed. 23 refs., 59 figs., 26 tabs. (Author)

  9. Design and fabrication of a large rectangular magnetic cusp plasma source for high intensity neutral beam injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biagi, L.A.; Berkner, K.H.; Ehlers, K.W.; Paterson, J.A.; Porter, J.R.

    1979-11-01

    The design and fabrication techniques for a large, rectangular magnetic bucket plasma source are described. This source is compatible with the accelerator structures for the TFTR and DIII neutral-beam systems

  10. X-Pinch Plasma Generation Testing for Neutron Source Development and Nuclear Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam A.Gabbar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear fusion is a sought-out technology in which two light elements are fused together to create a heavier element and releases energy. Two primary nuclear fusion technologies are being researched today: magnetic and inertial confinement. However, a new type of nuclear fusion technology is currently being research: multi-pinch plasma beams. At the University of Ontario Institute of Technology, there is research on multi-pinch plasma beam technology as an alternative to nuclear fusion. The objective is to intersect two plasma arcs at the center of the chamber. This is a precursor of nuclear fusion using multi-pinch. The innovation portion of the students’ work is the miniaturization of this concept using high energy electrical DC pulses. The experiment achieved the temperature of 2300 K at the intersection. In comparison to the simulation data, the temperature from the simulation is 7000 K at the intersection. Additionally, energy harvesting devices, both photovoltaics and a thermoelectric generator, were placed in the chamber to observe the viable energy extraction.

  11. Plasma injection from the independent SHF-source in the open configuration 2. Magnetic fields of magnetic mirror configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beriya, Z.R.; Gogashvili, G.E.; Nanobashvili, S.I.

    1992-01-01

    The investigation was aimed at studying the characteristics and properties of plasma injected from independent stationary SHF source into an open magnetic trap of mirror geometry within a wide range of change in the experimental conditions. The investigations were primarily based on measurements of the distribution of charged particles in a plasma along the trap and on the dependence of the concentration on plasma production conditions in a SHF source. It is shown that the aggregate of the experimental data enables a conclusion that independent of SHF plasma can be succesfully used for filling on open magnetic trap of mirror configuration with plasma

  12. Suppression of the e- coextracted from a Penning surface-plasma H-source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, V.H.; Allison, P.

    1992-01-01

    The ratio of electrons to negative ions extracted from Penning surface-plasma sources (SPS) such as the 8X source is low even before any steps are taken to suppress the electrons. For the 8X source the e - /H - ratio is typically four or five to one for H - operation and nine to one for D - operation. Because the coextracted e - present a power-loading problem to the 8X-source extraction system, methods to dissipate and/or reduce the power in the e - beam must be developed before extracting a dc H - or D - beam. Thus, we conducted this study to determine whether a collar installed in the near-extraction region of the 8X source suppresses the electrons extracted from that source. (Author) 8 refs., 6 figs

  13. High average power, highly brilliant laser-produced plasma source for soft X-ray spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantouvalou, Ioanna; Witte, Katharina; Grötzsch, Daniel; Neitzel, Michael; Günther, Sabrina; Baumann, Jonas; Jung, Robert; Stiel, Holger; Kanngiesser, Birgit; Sandner, Wolfgang

    2015-03-01

    In this work, a novel laser-produced plasma source is presented which delivers pulsed broadband soft X-radiation in the range between 100 and 1200 eV. The source was designed in view of long operating hours, high stability, and cost effectiveness. It relies on a rotating and translating metal target and achieves high stability through an on-line monitoring device using a four quadrant extreme ultraviolet diode in a pinhole camera arrangement. The source can be operated with three different laser pulse durations and various target materials and is equipped with two beamlines for simultaneous experiments. Characterization measurements are presented with special emphasis on the source position and emission stability of the source. As a first application, a near edge X-ray absorption fine structure measurement on a thin polyimide foil shows the potential of the source for soft X-ray spectroscopy.

  14. Plasma studies of the permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source at Peking University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, H T; Peng, S X; Xu, Y; Zhao, J; Lu, P N; Chen, J; Zhang, A L; Zhang, T; Guo, Z Y; Chen, J E

    2014-02-01

    At Peking University (PKU) we have developed several 2.45 GHz Permanent Magnet Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion sources for PKUNIFTY, SFRFQ, Coupled RFQ&SFRFQ, and Dielectric-Wall Accelerator (DWA) projects (respectively, 50 mA of D(+), 10 mA of O(+), 10 mA of He(+), and 50 mA of H(+)). In order to improve performance of these ion sources, it is necessary to better understand the principal factors that influence the plasma density and the atomic ion fraction. Theoretical analysis about microwave transmission and cut-off inside the discharge chamber were carried out to study the influence of the discharge chamber diameters. As a consequence, experimental studies on plasma density and ion fraction with different discharge chamber sizes have been carried out. Due to the difficulties in measuring plasma density inside the discharge chamber, the output beam current was measured to reflect the plasma density. Experimental results show that the plasma density increases to the maximum and then decreases significantly as the diameter changed from 64 mm to 30 mm, and the atomic ion fraction has the same tendency. The maximum beam intensity was obtained with the diameter of 35 mm, but the maximum atomic ion fraction with a diameter of 40 mm. The experimental results are basically accordant with the theoretical calculation. Details are presented in this paper.

  15. Plasma studies of the permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source at Peking University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, H. T.; Peng, S. X., E-mail: sxpeng@pku.edu.cn; Xu, Y.; Zhao, J.; Lu, P. N.; Chen, J.; Zhang, A. L.; Zhang, T.; Guo, Z. Y.; Chen, J. E. [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-02-15

    At Peking University (PKU) we have developed several 2.45 GHz Permanent Magnet Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion sources for PKUNIFTY, SFRFQ, Coupled RFQ and SFRFQ, and Dielectric-Wall Accelerator (DWA) projects (respectively, 50 mA of D{sup +}, 10 mA of O{sup +}, 10 mA of He{sup +}, and 50 mA of H{sup +}). In order to improve performance of these ion sources, it is necessary to better understand the principal factors that influence the plasma density and the atomic ion fraction. Theoretical analysis about microwave transmission and cut-off inside the discharge chamber were carried out to study the influence of the discharge chamber diameters. As a consequence, experimental studies on plasma density and ion fraction with different discharge chamber sizes have been carried out. Due to the difficulties in measuring plasma density inside the discharge chamber, the output beam current was measured to reflect the plasma density. Experimental results show that the plasma density increases to the maximum and then decreases significantly as the diameter changed from 64 mm to 30 mm, and the atomic ion fraction has the same tendency. The maximum beam intensity was obtained with the diameter of 35 mm, but the maximum atomic ion fraction with a diameter of 40 mm. The experimental results are basically accordant with the theoretical calculation. Details are presented in this paper.

  16. The diagnostic neutral beam injector with arc-discharge plasma source on the TCV Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpushov, Alexander N. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Association Euratom-Confederation Suisse, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)], E-mail: alexander.karpushov@epfl.ch; Andrebe, Yanis; Duval, Basil P.; Bortolon, Alessandro [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Association Euratom-Confederation Suisse, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2009-06-15

    The diagnostic neutral beam injector (DNBI) together with a charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) system has been used on the TCV Tokamak as a diagnostic tool for local measurements of plasma ion temperature, velocity and carbon impurity density based on analysis of the beam induced impurity radiation emission since 2000. To improve the performance of the CXRS diagnostic, several upgrades of both the optical system and the neutral beam were performed. An increase of the plasma source size together with beam optimization in 2003 resulted in a twofold increase the beam current. The RF plasma generator was replaced by an arc-discharge plasma source together with a new ion optical system (IOS) in 2006 and subsequent beam optimization is presented herein. This was designed to increase the line brightness of the beam in the CXRS observation region without increasing of the injected power (to avoid plasma perturbation by the beam). The beam characteristics are measured by a multi-chord scanning of Doppler-shifted H{sub {alpha}} emission, thermal measurements on a movable calorimeter and visible optical measurements inside the Tokamak vessel.

  17. Yosemite conference on ionospheric plasma in the magnetosphere: sources, mechanisms and consequences, meeting report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, D.L.; Burch, J.L.; Klumpar, D.M.; Moore, T.E.; Waite, J.H. Jr.

    1987-02-01

    The sixth biennial Yosemite topical conference and the first as a Chapman Conference was held on February 3 to 6, 1986. Although the solar wind was once thought to dominate the supply of plasma in the Earth's magnetosphere, it is now thought that the Earth's ionosphere is a significant contributor. Polar wind and other large volume outflows of plasma have been seen at relatively high altitudes over the polar cap and are now being correlated with outflows found in the magnetotail. The auroral ion fountain and cleft ion fountain are examples of ionospheric sources of plasma in the magnetosphere, observed by the Dynamics Explorer 1 (DE 1) spacecraft. The conference was organized into six sessions: four consisting of prepared oral presentations, one poster session, and one session for open forum discussion. The first three oral sessions dealt separately with the three major topics of the conference, i.e., the sources, mechanisms, and consequences of ionospheric plasma in the magnetosphere. A special session of invited oral presentations was held to discuss extraterrestrial ionospheric/magnetospheric plasma processes. The poster session was extended over two evenings during which presenters discussed their papers on a one-on-one basis. The last session of the conferences was reserved for open discussions of those topics or ideas considered most interesting or controversial

  18. Green technology for conversion of renewable hydrocarbon based on plasma-catalytic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedirchyk, Igor; Nedybaliuk, Oleg; Chernyak, Valeriy; Demchina, Valentina

    2016-09-01

    The ability to convert renewable biomass into fuels and chemicals is one of the most important steps on our path to green technology and sustainable development. However, the complex composition of biomass poses a major problem for established conversion technologies. The high temperature of thermochemical biomass conversion often leads to the appearance of undesirable byproducts and waste. The catalytic conversion has reduced yield and feedstock range. Plasma-catalytic reforming technology opens a new path for biomass conversion by replacing feedstock-specific catalysts with free radicals generated in the plasma. We studied the plasma-catalytic conversion of several renewable hydrocarbons using the air plasma created by rotating gliding discharge. We found that plasma-catalytic hydrocarbon conversion can be conducted at significantly lower temperatures (500 K) than during the thermochemical ( 1000 K) and catalytic (800 K) conversion. By using gas chromatography, we determined conversion products and found that conversion efficiency of plasma-catalytic conversion reaches over 85%. We used obtained data to determine the energy yield of hydrogen in case of plasma-catalytic reforming of ethanol and compared it with other plasma-based hydrogen-generating systems.

  19. Plasma focus sources: Supplement to the neutron resonance radiography workshop proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nardi, V.; Brzosko, J.

    1989-01-01

    Since their discovery, plasma focus discharges have been recognized as very intense pulsed sources of deuterium-deuterium (D-D) or deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion-reaction neutrons, with outstanding capabilities. Specifically, the total neutron emission/shot, YN, and the rate of neutron emission, Y/sub n/, of an optimized plasma focus (PF) are higher than the corresponding quantities observed in any other type of pinched discharge at the same level of powering energy W 0 . Recent developments have led to the concept and experimental demonstration of an Advanced Plasma Focus System (APF) that consists of a Mather-geometry plasma focus in which field distortion elements (FDEs) are inserted in the inter-electrode gap for increasing the neutron yield/shot, Y/sub n/. The FDE-induced redistribution of the plasma current increases Y/sub n/ by a factor ≅5-10 above the value obtained without FDEs under otherwise identical conditions of operation of the plasma focus. For example, an APF that is fed by a fast capacitor bank with an energy, W 0 = 6kJ, and voltage, V 0 = 16.5 kV provides Y/sub n/ /congruent/ 4 /times/ 10 9 D-D neutrons/shot (pure D 2 filling) and Y/sub n/ = 4 /times/ 10 11 D-T neutrons/shot (filling is 50% deuterium and 50% tritium). The FDE-induced increase of Y/sub n/ for fixed values of (W 0 , V 0 ), the observed scaling law Y/sub n/ /proportional to/ W 0 2 for optimized plasma focus systems, and our experience with neutron scattering in bulk objects lead us to the conclusion that we can use an APF as a source of high-intensity neutron pulses (10 14 n/pulse) in the field off neutron radiography (surface and bulk) with a nanosecond or millisecond time resolution

  20. Development and studies on a compact electron cyclotron resonance plasma source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguli, A.; Tarey, R. D.; Arora, N.; Narayanan, R.

    2016-04-01

    It is well known that electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) produced plasmas are efficient, high-density plasma sources and have many industrial applications. The concept of a portable compact ECR plasma source (CEPS) would thus become important from an application point of view. This paper gives details of such a CEPS that is both portable and easily mountable on a chamber of any size. It uses a fully integrated microwave line operating at 2.45 GHz, up to 800 W, cw. The required magnetic field is produced by a set of suitably designed NdFeB ring magnets; the device has an overall length of  ≈60 cm and weighs  ≈14 kg including the permanent magnets. The CEPS was attached to a small experimental chamber to judge its efficacy for plasma production. In the pressure range of 0.5-10 mTorr and microwave power of  ≈400-500 W the experiments indicate that the CEPS is capable of producing high-density plasma (≈9  ×  1011-1012 cm-3) with bulk electron temperature in the range  ≈2-3 eV. In addition, a warm electron population with density and temperature in the range ≈7  ×  108-109 cm-3 and  ≈45-80 eV, respectively has been detected. This warm population plays an important role at high pressures in maintaining the high-density plasma, when plasma flow from the CEPS into the test chamber is strongly affected.