WorldWideScience

Sample records for technology peer support

  1. Peer production & peer support at the Free Technology Academy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potters, Hanneke; Berlanga, Adriana; Bijlsma, Lex

    2012-01-01

    Potters, H., Berlanga, A. J., & Lex, B. (2011). Peer Production & Peer Support at the Free Technology Academy. In G. van de Veer, P. B. Sloep, & M. van Eekelen (Eds.), Proceedings Computer Science Education Research Conference (CSERC '11) (pp. 49-58). April, 7-8, 2011, Heerlen, The Netherlands: ACM.

  2. A Survey of Online and Mobile Technology Use at Peer Support Agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschbrenner, Kelly A; Naslund, John A; Grinley, Thomas; Bienvenida, John Carlo M; Bartels, Stephen J; Brunette, Mary

    2018-01-04

    Understanding how individuals with mental illness who receive services at peer support agencies use technology can inform the development of online and mobile health interventions tailored for users in these non-traditional mental health settings. The purpose of this study was to assess the use of technology among individuals with mental illness at peer support agencies. A survey delivered within peer support agencies (PSAs) in one state assessed technology use among individuals ages 18 and over with a self-identified mental illness receiving services at these agencies. In total, 195 individuals from 10 PSAs completed the survey. Eighty-two percent of respondents used the internet, with 63% of respondents connected to the internet at the PSAs. Eighty one percent of respondents owned a cell phone, 70% used text messaging, 58% owned smartphones, 61% used mobile applications, and 72% used social media. PSA users under age 55 were significantly more likely to own a smartphone than PSA users age 55 and older. Among internet users, 71% had searched for health information online and 57% had searched for mental health information online. Many individuals who receive services at PSAs have access to online and mobile technologies. These technologies may be leveraged to expand the reach of evidence-based health and mental health programs to individuals in these non-traditional mental health settings. Future research should explore the feasibility of intervention strategies that involve PSAs as a resource for linking people with mental illness to online and mobile support for their health and wellness goals.

  3. Technology enhanced peer learning and peer assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Christian Bugge; Bregnhøj, Henrik; Rosthøj, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the application of learning designs featuring formalised and structured technology enhanced peer learning. These include student produced learning elements, peer review discussions and peer assessment in the BSc/MSc level summer course Restoration of European Ecosystems and Fr...... be a huge benefit from developing learning design patterns that facilitate informal peer learning and reinforce knowledge sharing practices.......This paper explores the application of learning designs featuring formalised and structured technology enhanced peer learning. These include student produced learning elements, peer review discussions and peer assessment in the BSc/MSc level summer course Restoration of European Ecosystems...... and Freshwaters (REEF), the Master thesis preparation seminars for the Master of Public Health (MPH) and the MOOC course Global Environmental Management (GEM). The application of student produced learning elements and peer review discussions is investigated by analyzing quotes from course evaluations...

  4. Technology enhanced peer learning and peer assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Christian Bugge; Bregnhøj, Henrik; Rosthøj, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the application of learning designs featuring formalised and structured technology enhanced peer learning. These include student produced learning elements, peer review discussions and peer assessment in the BSc/MSc level summer course Restoration of European Ecosystems...... and Freshwaters (REEF), the Master thesis preparation seminars for the Master of Public Health (MPH) and the MOOC course Global Environmental Management (GEM). The application of student produced learning elements and peer review discussions is investigated by analyzing quotes from course evaluations...... and performing focus group interviews. The application of peer assessment is investigated by analyzing the agreement of peer assessment between students assessing the same assignment. Our analyses confirm previous research on the value of peer learning and peer assessment and we argue that there could also...

  5. Online mentoring and peer support: using learning technologies to facilitate entry into a community of practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori Lockyer

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A vital aspect of any professional education is the opportunity for students to engage in meaningful practical experiences. In pre-service teacher education in Australia, this vital teaching practice component has undergone challenges in recent years due to increasing student numbers (linked to the increasing demand for new teachers and limited resources in university and school sectors. As such, initiatives to enhance the practical component of this professional degree have been sought. This paper details the methodology and outcomes associated with a pilot project that utilized asynchronous Web-based communication tools to facilitate mentoring and peer support through the teaching practice experience. Analysis of the online discussions and interviews with participants provides an indication of the nature of the interactions and the perceived value of the intervention, and informs the potential for larger-scale implementation.

  6. Peer Learning and Support of Technology in an Undergraduate Biology Course to Enhance Deep Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaushu, Masha; Tal, Tali; Sagy, Ornit; Kali, Yael; Gepstein, Shimon; Zilberstein, Dan

    2012-01-01

    This study offers an innovative and sustainable instructional model for an introductory undergraduate course. The model was gradually implemented during 3 yr in a research university in a large-lecture biology course that enrolled biology majors and nonmajors. It gives priority to sources not used enough to enhance active learning in higher education: technology and the students themselves. Most of the lectures were replaced with continuous individual learning and 1-mo group learning of one topic, both supported by an interactive online tutorial. Assessment included open-ended complex questions requiring higher-order thinking skills that were added to the traditional multiple-choice (MC) exam. Analysis of students’ outcomes indicates no significant difference among the three intervention versions in the MC questions of the exam, while students who took part in active-learning groups at the advanced version of the model had significantly higher scores in the more demanding open-ended questions compared with their counterparts. We believe that social-constructivist learning of one topic during 1 mo has significantly contributed to student deep learning across topics. It developed a biological discourse, which is more typical to advanced stages of learning biology, and changed the image of instructors from “knowledge transmitters” to “role model scientists.” PMID:23222836

  7. Peer learning and support of technology in an undergraduate biology course to enhance deep learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaushu, Masha; Tal, Tali; Sagy, Ornit; Kali, Yael; Gepstein, Shimon; Zilberstein, Dan

    2012-01-01

    This study offers an innovative and sustainable instructional model for an introductory undergraduate course. The model was gradually implemented during 3 yr in a research university in a large-lecture biology course that enrolled biology majors and nonmajors. It gives priority to sources not used enough to enhance active learning in higher education: technology and the students themselves. Most of the lectures were replaced with continuous individual learning and 1-mo group learning of one topic, both supported by an interactive online tutorial. Assessment included open-ended complex questions requiring higher-order thinking skills that were added to the traditional multiple-choice (MC) exam. Analysis of students' outcomes indicates no significant difference among the three intervention versions in the MC questions of the exam, while students who took part in active-learning groups at the advanced version of the model had significantly higher scores in the more demanding open-ended questions compared with their counterparts. We believe that social-constructivist learning of one topic during 1 mo has significantly contributed to student deep learning across topics. It developed a biological discourse, which is more typical to advanced stages of learning biology, and changed the image of instructors from "knowledge transmitters" to "role model scientists."

  8. Peer social support training in UK prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Warren; Lovely, Rachel

    2017-10-11

    To undertake a service evaluation to assess the effect of peer social support training using two separate learning programmes, which were designed to assist prisoners to support older prisoners and prisoners with disabilities. The service evaluation used an action research approach to support planning, delivery and data collection. Eleven interviews with nine prisoners who had undertaken the peer social support training programmes and two members of prison staff (one nurse manager and one prison officer) were recorded and transcribed by the researchers. This data was coded and thematically analysed to evaluate the findings. Recommendations were made regarding the format and content of the training. The training was well received by the peer social support worker trainees and had several positive outcomes, including increased peer social support, improved relationships between peer social support workers and older prisoners and prisoners with disabilities, increased self-esteem, measured as 'social capital', among peer social support workers, and effective teamworking. The peer social support training programmes were considered to be a positive intervention and were effective in supporting peer social support roles. Recommendations for future training of prisoner peer support workers include involving existing peer social support workers in training and recruitment, and enhancing the role of peer social support workers in prisons by providing them with job descriptions. ©2012 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.

  9. Breastfeeding peer support: are there additional benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Deborah; Haining, Shona; Day, Ann

    2009-12-01

    Anecdotal discussion among breastfeeding peer supporters and the infant-feeding co-ordinator suggested that breastfeeding peer support provided by breastfeeding peer supporters may offer benefits to breastfeeding women and their families other than increasing breastfeeding initiation and sustainability. The aim of this research was to determine whether there was evidence to support this. The research team used focus groups to obtain information from 16 local women who had received breastfeeding peer support from breastfeeding peer supporters. The key themes that emerged were--improved mental health, increased self-esteem or confidence, parenting skills, improved family diet, breastfeeding sustainability and poor hospital experience.The findings suggest that breastfeeding peer supporters supporting mothers to breastfeed, with the intention of increasing both breastfeeding rates and sustainability, may have additional benefits in several aspects of families' lives. Breastfeeding peer support may play an important role in helping to attain targets such as reducing obesity and postnatal depression.

  10. Peer support: helping to influence cultural change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Mary

    2015-02-01

    Breastfeeding peer support schemes in Blackpool and Lancashire work closely with midwifery and other partners to offer additional support and encouragement to breastfeeding mothers. Employed and volunteer peer supporters deliver a systematic service in target areas delivering workshops to pregnant mothers, supporting new mothers in hospital, including in the neonatal units, in mothers' homes and in groups at children's centres. Working with health, children's centres, public health and councils, the peer supporters were instrumental in Fleetwood town agreeing to always welcome breastfeeding. They worked with teachers, public health and infant feeding coordinators to deliver a month-long breastfeeding campaign at a local college and, working with health visitors, have engaged with grandmothers to find out how they feel they can help support new mothers. Skilled supervision is essential to ensuring peer supporters work safely and continue to develop their skills and knowledge. Volunteer coordinators play a key role in valuing and organising volunteers.

  11. Cooptation of Peer Support Staff: Quantitative Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J. Alberta

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective In 2007, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS sent a letter to state Medicaid directors outlining requirements for implementing peer-based recovery support services (P-BRSS as a Medicaid-funded service. Since then, 30 states have implemented these services. Although the literature describing implementation of P-BRSS has identified the cooptation of peer support staff (PSS as a barrier to the effective provision of P-BRSS, the evidence for it remains anecdotal. This study attempts to determine if the context of employment in either a treatment organization or peer organization affected cooptation. Methods We conducted a survey of PSS in the fall of 2013. In all, 92 of the 181 respondents were working as PSS at the time, 53 in treatment organizations. Chi-square analysis was used to determine if the context of employment had an effect on the cooptation of peer staff. Results Peer staff working in treatment organizations reported that they were supervised by treatment staff and participated in employment-related training to improve their skills at providing treatment services more frequently than their counterparts in peer organizations. Peer staff working in treatment organizations also participated in training and education to prepare for employment as treatment professionals more frequently than peer staff working in peer organizations. Conclusions and Implications for Practice Peer staff members working in treatment organizations are subject to processes of acculturation into professional cultures that peer staff working in peer organizations are not. Effective implementation of P-BRSS should include specific efforts to minimize the cooptation of peer staff.

  12. 2017 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-11-01

    The 2017 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Report summarizes the feedback submitted by reviewers for the 109 Building Technologies Office (BTO) projects presented at the 2017 BTO Peer Review. The report presents an overview of the goals and activities under each technology program area, a summary of project scores for each program, and a brief analysis of general evaluation trends within each program area or its constituent subprograms.

  13. 2013 Bioenergy Technologies Office Peer Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2014-02-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the 2013 U.S. Department of Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office's Peer Review meeting.

  14. Geothermal Technologies Program Overview - Peer Review Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milliken, JoAnn [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-06-06

    This Geothermal Technologies Program presentation was delivered on June 6, 2011 at a Program Peer Review meeting. It contains annual budget, Recovery Act, funding opportunities, upcoming program activities, and more.

  15. 2016 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Building Technologies Office

    2016-12-01

    The 2016 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Report summarizes the feedback submitted by reviewers of the 67 BTO projects presented at the 2016 BTO Peer Review. The report presents an overview of the goals and activities under each technology program area, a summary of project scores for each program, and a brief analysis of general evaluation trends within each program area or its constituent subprograms.

  16. Simulating Peer Support for Victims of Cyberbullying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Zwaan, J.M.; Dignum, M.V.; Jonker, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a design for an Embodied Conversational Agent (ECA) that empowers victims of cyberbullying by simulating peer support. The anti-cyberbullying buddy helps a child to cope with negative emotions due to a cyberbullying incident and it shows the child how to deal with future

  17. Creating a Supportive Environment : Peer Support Groups for Psychotic Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castelein, Stynke; Bruggeman, Richard; Davidson, Larry; van der Gaag, Mark

    People with psychotic disorders frequently experience significant mental and social limitations that may result in persisting social isolation. Research has shown that a supportive social environment is crucial for the process of personal recovery. Peer support groups can provide an opportunity to

  18. Creating a Supportive Environment: Peer Support Groups for Psychotic Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castelein, S.; Bruggeman, R.; Davidson, L.; van der Gaag, M.

    2015-01-01

    People with psychotic disorders frequently experience significant mental and social limitations that may result in persisting social isolation. Research has shown that a supportive social environment is crucial for the process of personal recovery. Peer support groups can provide an opportunity to

  19. Online Peer-to-Peer Support for Young People With Mental Health Problems: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Kathina; Farrer, Louise; Gulliver, Amelia; Griffiths, Kathleen M

    2015-01-01

    Background Adolescence and early adulthood are critical periods for the development of mental disorders. Online peer-to-peer communication is popular among young people and may improve mental health by providing social support. Previous systematic reviews have targeted Internet support groups for adults with mental health problems, including depression. However, there have been no systematic reviews examining the effectiveness of online peer-to-peer support in improving the mental health of a...

  20. 2013 Geothermal Technologies Office Peer Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geothermal Technologies Office

    2014-01-01

    Geothermal Technologies Office conducted its annual program peer review in April of 2013. The review provided an independent, expert evaluation of the technical progress and merit of GTO-funded projects. Further, the review was a forum for feedback and recommendations on future GTO strategic planning. During the course of the peer review, DOE-funded projects were evaluated for 1) their contribution to the mission and goals of the GTO and 2) their progress against stated project objectives. Principal Investigators (PIs) came together in sessions organized by topic “tracks” to disseminate information, progress, and results to a panel of independent experts as well as attendees.

  1. Geothermal Technologies Program 2011 Peer Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollett, Douglas [Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Stillman, Greg [Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-06-01

    On June 6-10, 2011, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Geothermal Technologies Program (GTP or the Program) conducted its annual program peer review in Bethesda, Maryland. In accordance with the EERE Peer Review Guide, the review provides an independent, expert evaluation of the strategic goals and direction of the program and is a forum for feedback and recommendations on future program planning. The purpose of the review was to evaluate DOE-funded projects for their contribution to the mission and goals of the Program and to assess progress made against stated objectives.

  2. Domain Specificity between Peer Support and Self-Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Kim Chau; Marsh, Herbert W.; Craven, Rhonda G.; Yeung, Alexander S.; Abduljabbar, Adel S.

    2013-01-01

    Peer support interventions have mostly neglected the domain specificity of intervention effects. In two studies, the present investigation examined the domain specificity of peer support interventions targeting specific domains of self-concept. In Study 1, participants ("n" = 50) who had received an academically oriented peer support…

  3. The growth of peer support: an international charter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratford, Anthony C; Halpin, Matt; Phillips, Keely; Skerritt, Frances; Beales, Anne; Cheng, Vincent; Hammond, Magdel; O'Hagan, Mary; Loreto, Catherine; Tiengtom, Kim; Kobe, Benon; Harrington, Steve; Fisher, Dan; Davidson, Larry

    2017-07-06

    While mental health peer support originated in its contemporary form in English-speaking countries, it is now spreading rapidly across the globe. This rapid growth presents two major challenges. The first pertains to "role integrity" and the second to the possible culture-bound nature of peer support; a concern which has attended the emergence of peer support in countries that have significantly different worldviews. Recognizing the growth of peer support and the resulting challenges, this report results from the convening of an international consortium of peer leaders from six continents (all but Antarctica). Following an environmental scan of the state of peer support globally, this group moved to develop consensus on a common, core set of guiding principles and values to ensure a robust future for the development of effective, culturally responsive forms of peer support. Key principles, values and practices considered essential to peer support are presented. Assuming that sufficient political and community support are generated, there can be considerable enthusiasm for the expansion of peer support around the globe. Peer leaders are encouraged, however, to develop and deliver peer support both with integrity to its founding values in a civil rights and social justice framework and with responsiveness to local cultural worldviews.

  4. Implementing peer support in secondary schools: facing the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    high-risk behaviour related to HIV/AIDS, substance abuse, and various forms of crime. Peer supporters .... nator from the Gauteng Department of Education to implement the project in ..... and aggression, and being idealised by their peers.

  5. Peer support and peer-led family support for persons living with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, Kenneth; Halpern, Lisa

    2014-05-01

    Peer support and peer-led family psychoeducation represent two distinct and complementary recovery-oriented models to support individuals who live with schizophrenia and their families, respectively. The goals of these models focus on improving knowledge, coping, self-care, social support, and self-management strategies. These models represent important capacity-building strategies for people who live with the illness and the people who love them. This brief article is intended to provide the practicing clinician, person living with schizophrenia, and policy maker with a working knowledge of the current state of the literature in these two related fields. Practitioners should consider these resources and integrate them into their care. A person living with schizophrenia could use this review to advocate for appropriate resources and to identify career opportunities. Policy makers could benefit from an understanding of the literature to mitigate financial and cultural barriers to adopting these practices. The last 5 years have seen a dramatic expansion of the application of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to give evidence to match the experience of people in these programs. The field has seen Wellness Recovery Action Plan (WRAP) named as evidence-based practice by the National Registry of Evidence-Based Practices. A RCT was also conducted for another peer-developed and led program called Building Recovery of Individual Dreams & Goals through Education & Support. Family to Family, the largest peer-led family psychoeducation course, was also found to have significant impact after the study and also 6 months later in RCT. Family to Family has also been named as an evidence-based practice. The field of people who are living well with schizophrenia working as resources and supports to others living with the illness is an idea that is growing momentum. This momentum has been matched by the RCT evidence. Peer support as a professional role has an emerging literature

  6. Personalised Peer-Supported Learning: The Peer-to-Peer Learning Environment (P2PLE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corneli, Joseph; Mikroyannidis, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The Peer-to-Peer Learning Environment (P2PLE) is a proposed approach to helping learners co-construct their learning environment using recommendations about people, content, and tools. The work draws on current research on PLEs, and participant observation at the Peer-to-Peer University (P2PU). We are particularly interested in ways of eliciting…

  7. Geothermal Technologies Office 2012 Peer Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-04-01

    On May 7-10, 2012, the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Geothermal Technologies Office conducted its annual program peer review in Westminster, CO. In accordance with the EERE Peer Review Guide, the review provides an independent, expert evaluation of the strategic goals and direction of the office and is a forum for feedback and recommendations on future office planning. The purpose of the review was to evaluate DOE-funded projects for their contribution to the mission and goals of the office and to assess progress made against stated objectives. Project scoring results, expert reviewer comments, and key findings and recommendations are included in this report.

  8. Online Peer-to-Peer Support for Young People With Mental Health Problems: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Kathina; Farrer, Louise; Gulliver, Amelia; Griffiths, Kathleen M

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence and early adulthood are critical periods for the development of mental disorders. Online peer-to-peer communication is popular among young people and may improve mental health by providing social support. Previous systematic reviews have targeted Internet support groups for adults with mental health problems, including depression. However, there have been no systematic reviews examining the effectiveness of online peer-to-peer support in improving the mental health of adolescents and young adults. The aim of this review was to systematically identify available evidence for the effectiveness of online peer-to peer support for young people with mental health problems. The PubMed, PsycInfo, and Cochrane databases were searched using keywords and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms. Retrieved abstracts (n=3934) were double screened and coded. Studies were included if they (1) investigated an online peer-to-peer interaction, (2) the interaction discussed topics related to mental health, (3) the age range of the sample was between 12 to 25 years, and (4) the study evaluated the effectiveness of the peer-to-peer interaction. Six studies satisfied the inclusion criteria for the current review. The studies targeted a range of mental health problems including depression and anxiety (n=2), general psychological problems (n=1), eating disorders (n=1), and substance use (tobacco) (n=2). The majority of studies investigated Internet support groups (n=4), and the remaining studies focused on virtual reality chat sessions (n=2). In almost all studies (n=5), the peer support intervention was moderated by health professionals, researchers or consumers. Studies employed a range of study designs including randomized controlled trials (n=3), pre-post studies (n=2) and one randomized trial. Overall, two of the randomized controlled trials were associated with a significant positive outcome in comparison to the control group at post-intervention. In the remaining four

  9. Factors Supporting the Employment of Young Adult Peer Providers: Perspectives of Peers and Supervisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delman, Jonathan; Klodnick, Vanessa V

    2017-10-01

    Peer providers are a promising practice for transition-age youth community mental health treatment engagement and support, yet little is known about the experience of being a young adult peer provider or what helps to make an individual in this role successful. Utilizing a capital theory lens, this study uses data from focus groups (two with young adult peer providers and two with their supervisors) to examine facilitators of young adult peer provider success in community mental health treatment settings. Eight factors were identified as critical to young adult peer provider on-the-job success: persistence, job confidence, resilience, job training, skilled communications with colleagues, regular and individualized supervision, support from colleagues, and family support. Findings suggest that young adult peer providers may benefit immensely from an agency level focus on fostering social organizational capital as well as more individualized efforts to increase cultural, social, and psychological capital through training and supervision.

  10. Peer support in anesthesia: turning war stories into wellness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, Amy E; Randel, Gail

    2018-06-01

    Peer support, a method of providing for the well being of healthcare providers following adverse or stressful events, is garnering increased attention in light of the increased prevalence and awareness of burnout, depression and suicidality in physicians. In this review, we will summarize the evolution of the 'second victim,' explore methods of support and examine how new regulatory requirements are changing the peer support landscape. As peer support and the second victim are investigated more, themes are emerging regarding the natural history of recovery. As these are delineated, more targeted peer support models are being developed. One major change in 2017 is the institution of new Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's Common Program Requirements, now including topics targeted on well being. Effective and accessible peer support is developing in many departments nationwide and can only be expected to continue, given new regulatory requirements. As these programs develop, and research on their effect continues, best practices will likely emerge.

  11. The mechanisms underpinning peer support: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Emma

    2017-12-20

    The employment of Peer Support Workers, who themselves have experience of significant emotional distress, can promote recovery at an individual and organisational level. While research examining the benefits of peer support within mental health services continues to grow, an understanding of how, and through what processes, these benefits are reached remains under-developed. To review the published research literature relating to the process of peer support and its underpinning mechanisms to better understand how and why it works. A scoping review of published literature identified studies relating to peer support mechanisms, processes and relationships. Studies were summarised and findings analysed. Five mechanisms were found to underpin peer support relationships (lived experience, love labour, the liminal position of the peer worker, strengths-focussed social and practical support, and the helper role). The identified mechanisms can underpin both the success and difficulties associated with peer support relationships. Further research should review a broader range of literature and clarify how these mechanisms contribute to peer support in different contexts.

  12. Economic aspects of peer support groups for psychosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stant, A.D.; Castelein, S.; Bruggeman, R.; Busschbach, J.T.; van der Gaag, M.; Knegtering, H.; Wiersma, D.

    2011-01-01

    Peer support groups are rarely available for patients with psychosis, despite potential clinical and economic advantages of such groups. In this study, 106 patients with psychosis were randomly allocated to minimally guided peer support in addition to care as usual (CAU), or CAU only. No relevant

  13. Positive Peer Support or Negative Peer Influence? the Role of Peers among Adolescents in Recovery High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakos, Holly L.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence from previous research suggests that peers at times exert negative influence and at other times exert positive influence on drug and alcohol use among adolescents in recovery. This study explores recovery high school staff members' perceptions of peer support among students in recovery high schools using qualitative interview data. Themes…

  14. Promoting recovery through peer support: possibilities for social work practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loumpa, Vasiliki

    2012-01-01

    The Recovery Approach has been adopted by mental health services worldwide and peer support constitutes one of the main elements of recovery-based services. This article discusses the relevancy of recovery and peer support to mental health social work practice through an exploration of social work ethics and values. Furthermore, it provides an exploration of how peer support can be maximized in groupwork to assist the social work clinician to promote recovery and well-being. More specifically, this article discusses how the narrative therapy concepts of "retelling" and "witnessing" can be used in the context of peer support to promote recovery, and also how social constructionist, dialogical, and systemic therapy approaches can assist the social work practitioner to enhance peer support in recovery oriented groupwork. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  15. Learning about technology: Family vs. peer pairings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Patricia; Padilla, Michael; Hertel, Barbara; Olstad, Roger

    Recently a number of institutions have begun sponsoring nondeficit science and/or technology learning experiences for parents and their middle school-aged children which are intended to be enriching rather than remedial or compensatory in purpose. Very little research documenting the effects of parental involvement in the education of older children has been reported, however.The intent of this article was to present two studies designed to determine whether middle school-aged children's attitudes and content achievement are different when they take a technology course with their parents (parent-child treatment) or with their peers (child-child treatment). The first study focused on learning about communications technology (primarily telegraphs, telephones and radios); the second study focused on microcomputers.Results indicate that parents have little affect in helping their children learn the subject matter of technology courses. Likewise, parents do not affect children's attitudes toward computers. Both results were attenuated by the fact that the students in the studies were high achievers who were interested in and motivated to learn the subject matter, regardless of treatment. Significant differences were noted for computer literacy favoring the parent-child group, however. Parents also seemed to effect children's attitudes toward the subject matter of the courses.Further research needs to be done with less appealing course content or with less motivated students to fully determine the effect of parent-child and child groupings in science and technology courses.

  16. Paternal/Maternal Attachment, Peer Support, Social Expectations of Peer Interaction, and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yih-Lan

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how paternal and maternal attachment might relate to adolescents' peer support, social expectations of peer interaction, and depressive symptoms; 1,144 8th graders in Taiwan participated in the study. The relationships were examined through a structural equating modeling. Consistent with theoretical…

  17. DOLCLAN – Middleware Support for Peer-to-Peer Distributed Shared Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob; Mogensen, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Contemporary object-oriented programming seeks to enable distributed computing by accessing remote objects using blocking remote procedure calls. This technique, however, suffers from several drawbacks because it relies on the assumption of stable network connections and synchronous method...... invocations. In this paper we present an approach to support distributed programming, which rely on local object replicas keeping themselves synchronized using an underlying peer-to-peer infrastructure. We have termed our approach Peer-to-peer Distributed Shared Objects (PDSO). This PDSO approach has been...

  18. The future of mental health care: peer-to-peer support and social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naslund, J A; Aschbrenner, K A; Marsch, L A; Bartels, S J

    2016-04-01

    People with serious mental illness are increasingly turning to popular social media, including Facebook, Twitter or YouTube, to share their illness experiences or seek advice from others with similar health conditions. This emerging form of unsolicited communication among self-forming online communities of patients and individuals with diverse health concerns is referred to as peer-to-peer support. We offer a perspective on how online peer-to-peer connections among people with serious mental illness could advance efforts to promote mental and physical wellbeing in this group. In this commentary, we take the perspective that when an individual with serious mental illness decides to connect with similar others online it represents a critical point in their illness experience. We propose a conceptual model to illustrate how online peer-to-peer connections may afford opportunities for individuals with serious mental illness to challenge stigma, increase consumer activation and access online interventions for mental and physical wellbeing. People with serious mental illness report benefits from interacting with peers online from greater social connectedness, feelings of group belonging and by sharing personal stories and strategies for coping with day-to-day challenges of living with a mental illness. Within online communities, individuals with serious mental illness could challenge stigma through personal empowerment and providing hope. By learning from peers online, these individuals may gain insight about important health care decisions, which could promote mental health care seeking behaviours. These individuals could also access interventions for mental and physical wellbeing delivered through social media that could incorporate mutual support between peers, help promote treatment engagement and reach a wider demographic. Unforeseen risks may include exposure to misleading information, facing hostile or derogatory comments from others, or feeling more uncertain

  19. Supporting Peer Assessment of Individual Contributions in Groupwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raban, Richard; Litchfield, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    The ability to assess the work of others is a core attribute for most professionals. To develop this graduate attribute in our students requires the learning of self and peer evaluation, feedback, and review skills. This paper discusses the changing design of peer assessment and the impact of a new groupwork support tool within a capstone…

  20. Strengthening Grief Support for Adolescents Coping with a Peer's Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balk, David E.; Zaengle, Donna; Corr, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    This article offers suggestions for strengthening school-based grief support following an adolescent's death. Such interventions must be considered within the context of: (a) development during adolescence; (b) the role of peers in adolescent development; and (c) the fact that an adolescent peer's death is a non-normative life crisis in developed…

  1. What do peer support workers do? A job description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Nora; Trojanowski, Lucy; Dewa, Carolyn S

    2012-07-19

    The extant literature suggests that poorly defined job roles make it difficult for peer support workers to be successful, and hinder their integration into multi-disciplinary workplace teams. This article uses data gathered as part of a participatory evaluation of a peer support program at a psychiatric tertiary care facility to specify the work that peers do. Data were gathered through interviews, focus groups, and activity logs and were analyzed using a modified grounded theory approach. Peers engage in direct work with clients and in indirect work that supports their work with clients. The main types of direct work are advocacy, connecting to resources, experiential sharing, building community, relationship building, group facilitation, skill building/mentoring/goal setting, and socialization/self-esteem building. The main types of indirect work are group planning and development, administration, team communication, supervision/training, receiving support, education/awareness building, and information gathering and verification. In addition, peers also do work aimed at building relationships with staff and work aimed at legitimizing the peer role. Experience, approach, presence, role modeling, collaboration, challenge, and compromise can be seen as the tangible enactments of peers' philosophy of work. Candidates for positions as peer support workers require more than experience with mental health and/or addiction problems. The job description provided in this article may not be appropriate for all settings, but it will contribute to a better understanding of the peer support worker position, the skills required, and the types of expectations that could define successful fulfillment of the role.

  2. The Impact of Medicaid Peer Support Utilization on Cost

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to findings reported in The Impact of Medicaid Peer Support Utilization on Cost, published in Volume 4, Issue 1 of the Medicare and Medicaid Research...

  3. Male Peer Support to Hostile Sexist Attitudes Influences Rape Proclivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Mercedes; Megías, Jesús L; Moya, Miguel

    2018-07-01

    Sexual assault affects a large proportion of women in the world. Although most rapes are committed by one man, the act itself may be influenced by many (e.g., the peer group). Hostile sexism (HS) has repeatedly been associated with men's rape proclivity, but the influence exerted by the HS of the peer group on rape proclivity has not been investigated. In this study, we explored the impact of perceived male peer support to HS on participants' rape proclivity. A sample of Spanish undergraduate students from a university in the south of Spain ( N = 134) completed the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory. Immediately afterwards, they received feedback on the supposed sexist responses of a peer group (high vs. low in HS); we kept the benevolent sexism (BS) of the peer group at medium levels. Next, we assessed participants' rape proclivity using acquaintance rape scenarios. Results showed an interaction between participants' own levels of HS and information about the HS of the peer group. Men high in HS reported higher rape proclivity in the high-HS peer-group condition than in the low-HS peer-group condition. By contrast, information on the peer group did not affect self-reported rape proclivity of men low in HS. Results also corroborated the relationship between participants' levels of HS and rape proclivity, and expanded the literature by revealing an unexpected influence of participants' BS on rape proclivity.

  4. Mobile Augmented Reality in Supporting Peer Assessment: An Implementation in a Fundamental Design Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Chung-Hsien; Chao, Stefan; Kinshuk; Chao, Kuo-Hung

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a conceptual framework for supporting mobile peer assessment by incorporating augmented reality technology to eliminate limitation of reviewing and assessing. According to the characteristics of mobile technology and augmented reality, students' work can be shown in various ways by considering the locations and situations. This…

  5. What do peer support workers do? A job description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobson Nora

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The extant literature suggests that poorly defined job roles make it difficult for peer support workers to be successful, and hinder their integration into multi-disciplinary workplace teams. This article uses data gathered as part of a participatory evaluation of a peer support program at a psychiatric tertiary care facility to specify the work that peers do. Methods Data were gathered through interviews, focus groups, and activity logs and were analyzed using a modified grounded theory approach. Results Peers engage in direct work with clients and in indirect work that supports their work with clients. The main types of direct work are advocacy, connecting to resources, experiential sharing, building community, relationship building, group facilitation, skill building/mentoring/goal setting, and socialization/self-esteem building. The main types of indirect work are group planning and development, administration, team communication, supervision/training, receiving support, education/awareness building, and information gathering and verification. In addition, peers also do work aimed at building relationships with staff and work aimed at legitimizing the peer role. Experience, approach, presence, role modeling, collaboration, challenge, and compromise can be seen as the tangible enactments of peers’ philosophy of work. Conclusions Candidates for positions as peer support workers require more than experience with mental health and/or addiction problems. The job description provided in this article may not be appropriate for all settings, but it will contribute to a better understanding of the peer support worker position, the skills required, and the types of expectations that could define successful fulfillment of the role.

  6. Implementing mental health peer support: a South Australian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Carmen C D; Paton, Barbara C; Gassner, Lee-Anne J

    2010-01-01

    Mental illness is among the greatest causes of disability, diminished quality of life and reduced productivity. Mental health policy aims to reform services to meet consumers' needs and one of the strategies is to increase the number of consumers working in the mental health service system. In South Australia, the Peer Work Project was established to provide a program for the training of consumers to work alongside mental health services. The project developed a flexible training pathway that consisted of an information session, the Introduction to Peer Work (IPW) course and further training pathways for peer workers. External evaluation indicated that the IPW course was a good preparation for peer workers, but a crucial factor in the implementation process of employing peer workers was commitment and leadership within the organisation in both preparing the organisation and supporting peer workers in their role. To assist organisations wanting to employ peer workers, a three step model was developed: prepare, train and support. The project has been successful in establishing employment outcomes for IPW graduates. The outcomes increased with time after graduation and there was a shift from voluntary to paid employment.

  7. Peer Support for the Hardly Reached: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokol, Rebeccah; Fisher, Edwin

    2016-07-01

    Health disparities are aggravated when prevention and care initiatives fail to reach those they are intended to help. Groups can be classified as hardly reached according to a variety of circumstances that fall into 3 domains: individual (e.g., psychological factors), demographic (e.g., socioeconomic status), and cultural-environmental (e.g., social network). Several reports have indicated that peer support is an effective means of reaching hardly reached individuals. However, no review has explored peer support effectiveness in relation to the circumstances associated with being hardly reached or across diverse health problems. To conduct a systematic review assessing the reach and effectiveness of peer support among hardly reached individuals, as well as peer support strategies used. Three systematic searches conducted in PubMed identified studies that evaluated peer support programs among hardly reached individuals. In aggregate, the searches covered articles published from 2000 to 2015. Eligible interventions provided ongoing support for complex health behaviors, including prioritization of hardly reached populations, assistance in applying behavior change plans, and social-emotional support directed toward disease management or quality of life. Studies were excluded if they addressed temporally isolated behaviors, were limited to protocol group classes, included peer support as the dependent variable, did not include statistical tests of significance, or incorporated comparison conditions that provided appreciable social support. We abstracted data regarding the primary health topic, categorizations of hardly reached groups, program reach, outcomes, and strategies employed. We conducted a 2-sample t test to determine whether reported strategies were related to reach. Forty-seven studies met our inclusion criteria, and these studies represented each of the 3 domains of circumstances assessed (individual, demographic, and cultural-environmental). Interventions

  8. Science and Technology Peer Review: GPRA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kostoff, Ronald

    2003-01-01

    This report describes practical issues for federal agencies to consider if they choose program peer review for internal purposes and/ or to contribute to satisfying the requirements of the Government...

  9. Peer support relationships: an unexplored interpersonal process in mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coatsworth-Puspoky, R; Forchuk, C; Ward-Griffin, C

    2006-10-01

    Consumer-survivors (C/Ss) identify peer support as a resource that facilitates their recovery. However, little is known about the factors that influence or how the peer support relationship (PSR) develops/deteriorates. The purpose of the study was to explore and describe the PSR within the subculture of mental health. Using an ethnonursing method, the study focused on informants from two C/S organizations who received peer support (n = 14). Findings revealed that the PSRs may develop or deteriorate through three, overlapping phases. Contextual factors that influenced the development/deterioration of the PSR are discussed. Understanding the processes and factors that contribute to the development/deterioration of PSRs will enable clinicians and C/Ss to assess and promote the development of healthy, supportive PSRs in mental health.

  10. Peer supporters' experiences on an Australian perinatal mental health helpline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Laura J; McLachlan, Helen L; Shafiei, Touran; Small, Rhonda; Forster, Della A

    2018-01-16

    Perinatal mental health is an important public health issue, and peer support is a potentially important strategy for emotional well-being in the perinatal period. PANDA Perinatal Anxiety & Depression Australia provides support to individuals impacted by perinatal mental health issues via the National Perinatal Anxiety & Depression Helpline. Callers receive peer support from volunteers and counselling from paid professional staff. The views and experiences of PANDA peer support volunteers have not previously been studied. We conducted two focus groups and an online survey to explore the experiences of women providing volunteer peer support on the Helpline. Data collection took place in October and November 2013. Two social theories were used in framing and addressing the study aims and in interpreting our findings: the Empathy-Altruism Hypothesis, and the Helper Therapy Principle. All PANDA volunteers were invited to participate (n = 40). Eight volunteers attended a focus group, and 11 survey responses were received. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse quantitative data. All survey respondents 'strongly agreed' that they felt positive about being part of PANDA. Thematic analysis of data from focus groups and open-ended survey responses identified the following themes: motivated to help others, supported to support callers, helping to make a difference and emotional impacts for volunteers. Respondents described a strong desire to support others experiencing emotional distress as a motivator to volunteer. Although perinatal peer support services are designed to benefit those who receive support, this study suggests volunteers may also experience personal benefits from the role. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Peer-supported review of teaching: an evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thampy, Harish; Bourke, Michael; Naran, Prasheena

    2015-09-01

    Peer-supported review (also called peer observation) of teaching is a commonly implemented method of ascertaining teaching quality that supplements student feedback. A large variety of scheme formats with rather differing purposes are described in the literature. They range from purely formative, developmental formats that facilitate a tutor's reflection of their own teaching to reaffirm strengths and identify potential areas for development through to faculty- or institution-driven summative quality assurance-based schemes. Much of the current literature in this field focuses within general higher education and on the development of rating scales, checklists or observation tools to help guide the process. This study reports findings from a qualitative evaluation of a purely formative peer-supported review of teaching scheme that was implemented for general practice clinical tutors at our medical school and describes tutors' attitudes and perceived benefits and challenges when undergoing observation.

  12. Peer characteristics associated with improved glycemic control in a randomized controlled trial of a reciprocal peer support program for diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaselitz, Elizabeth; Shah, Megha; Choi, Hwajung; Heisler, Michele

    2018-01-01

    Objective In a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial of diabetes reciprocal peer support, we examined characteristics of peers associated with improvements in their partner's glycemic control. Methods A total of 102 adults with diabetes were randomized to the reciprocal peer support arm (vs. a nurse care management arm). The primary outcome was change in A1c over six months. Intermediate outcomes were insulin initiation and peer engagement. A number of baseline characteristics of peers were hypothesized to influence outcomes for their peer, and concordant characteristics of peer dyads were hypothesized that would influence outcomes for both peer partners. Results Improvement in A1c was associated with having a peer older than oneself ( P peers who reported poorer health at baseline had worse glycemic control at follow-up ( P peers had a more controlled self-regulation style were more likely to initiate insulin ( P peers whose partners were older and reported more diabetes distress at baseline supports the need for further research into the peer characteristics that lead to improved outcomes. This could allow for better matching and more effective partnerships.

  13. A mixed methods study of peer-to-peer support in a group-based lifestyle intervention for adults with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschbrenner, Kelly A; Naslund, John A; Bartels, Stephen J

    2016-12-01

    There is potential for peer support to enhance healthy lifestyle interventions targeting changes in body weight and fitness for adults with serious mental illness. The purpose of this study was to explore peer-to-peer support among individuals participating in a group lifestyle intervention that included social media to enhance in-person weight management sessions. A mixed methods study design was used to explore participants' perceptions and experiences of support from other group members during a 6-month group lifestyle intervention. Twenty-five individuals with serious mental illness reported their perceptions of the peer group environment and social support during the intervention. Seventeen of these individuals also participated in focus group interviews further exploring their experiences with group members. More than 80% of participants agreed that other group members were trustworthy and dependable, and 92% reported a high level of shared purpose and active participation in the group. Participants described how shared learning and group problem-solving activities fostered friendships and provided essential support for health behavior change. Sharing information, personal successes and challenges, and "being in the same boat" as other group members were key features of peer-to-peer support. Findings from this exploratory study suggest that participants enrolled in a group-based lifestyle intervention for people with serious mental illness experience peer-to-peer support in various ways that promote health behavior change. These findings highlight opportunities to enhance future lifestyle interventions with collaborative learning and social network technologies that foster peer support among participants. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Peer tutoring – assisted instruction, parent supportiveness and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the effect of peer tutoring-assisted instruction, parent supportiveness and students locus of control on achievement in Senior Secondary Mathematics. It adopted a non-randomized pretest posttest control group design in a quasi experimental setting. It involves 300 senior secondary II students from six ...

  15. Workplace Climate and Peer Support as Determinants of Training Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Harry J.

    2010-01-01

    Although billions of dollars are spent annually on training and development, much about the transfer processes is not well understood. This study investigated the interaction of workplace climate and peer support on the transfer of learning in a corporate field setting. Supervisor ratings of performance on several skill dimensions were obtained…

  16. The intersection of antiretroviral therapy, peer support programmes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evidence suggests that interventions for people living with HIV infection that include, in combination, antiretroviral therapy (ART), peer support and economic empowerment are likely to be more effective than if used alone. We report a qualitative study in West Nile Uganda that explored perceptions of HIV stigma among ...

  17. Online peer support for patients with somatic diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraan, C.F.

    2008-01-01

    With the availability of the Internet, so rose the opportunity to share concerns and experiences with peers online. In this thesis the meaning of online support groups for patients with rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia and breast cancer was examined from different perspectives. To this aim, six

  18. Benefits of peer support groups in the treatment of addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy K

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Kathlene Tracy,1,2 Samantha P Wallace3 1Community Research and Recovery Program (CRRP, Department of Psychiatry, New York University School of Medicine, 2New York Harbor Healthcare System (NYHHS, New York, 3Department of Community Health Sciences, State University of New York Downstate School of Public Health, Brooklyn, NY, USA Objective: Peer support can be defined as the process of giving and receiving nonprofessional, nonclinical assistance from individuals with similar conditions or circumstances to achieve long-term recovery from psychiatric, alcohol, and/or other drug-related problems. Recently, there has been a dramatic rise in the adoption of alternative forms of peer support services to assist recovery from substance use disorders; however, often peer support has not been separated out as a formalized intervention component and rigorously empirically tested, making it difficult to determine its effects. This article reports the results of a literature review that was undertaken to assess the effects of peer support groups, one aspect of peer support services, in the treatment of addiction.Methods: The authors of this article searched electronic databases of relevant peer-reviewed research literature including PubMed and MedLINE.Results: Ten studies met our minimum inclusion criteria, including randomized controlled trials or pre-/post-data studies, adult participants, inclusion of group format, substance use-related, and US-conducted studies published in 1999 or later. Studies demonstrated associated benefits in the following areas: 1 substance use, 2 treatment engagement, 3 human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis C virus risk behaviors, and 4 secondary substance-related behaviors such as craving and self-efficacy. Limitations were noted on the relative lack of rigorously tested empirical studies within the literature and inability to disentangle the effects of the group treatment that is often included as a component of other services

  19. 2013 Building Technologies Office Program Peer Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-11-01

    The 2013 Building Technologies Office Program Peer Review Report summarizes the results of the 2013 Building Technologies Office (BTO) peer review, which was held in Washington, D.C., on April 2–4, 2013. The review was attended by over 300 participants and included presentations on 59 BTO-funded projects: 29 from BTO’s Emerging Technologies Program, 20 from the Commercial Buildings Integration Program, 6 from the Residential Buildings Integration Program, and 4 from the Building Energy Codes Program. This report summarizes the scores and comments provided by the independent reviewers for each project.

  20. The Effects of Autonomy Support on Student Engagement in Peer Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jiangmei; Kim, ChanMin

    2018-01-01

    Although peer assessment is widely implemented in higher education, not all students are highly engaged in it. To enhance student engagement in peer assessment, we designed and developed a web-based tool, autonomy-supportive peer assessment (ASPA), to support students' need for autonomy when they conducted peer assessment. Students' sense of…

  1. Integrating Technology into Peer Leader Responsibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Melissa L.

    2012-01-01

    Technology has become an integral part of landscape of higher education. Students are coming to college with an arsenal of technological tools at their disposal. These tools are being used for informal, everyday communication as well as for formal learning in the classroom. At the same time, higher education is experiencing an increase in peer…

  2. Considering Peer Support for Self-Access Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Manning

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper briefly examines if and how peer support can be implemented as an appropriate means to improve self-access learning. The potential for further alignment with the higher aims common among self-access learning centers will be examined. Opportunities for increasing interdependence, purpose, and level of challenge to foster student engagement will also be explored. Finally, future directions in self-access learning will be discussed.

  3. PEER GROUP SUPPORT CHANGE PERCEPTION OF HOMELESS AND BEGGAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purwaningsih Purwaningsih

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Homeless and beggar are social problem in our society. The reason of people who becomes homeless and beggar can be influenced by internal factors such as lazy to work, mental and physical illness. Meanwhile, it also can be influenced by external factors, such as economy, geography, social, education, pshycology, culture and religion. The aimed of this study was to analyze the effect of peer group support to perception about the homeless and beggar. Method: A quasy experimental two group pre-post test purposive sampling design was used in this study. The subjects were homeless and beggar which stay at Lingkungan Pondok Sosial (Liponsos Keputih-Surabaya for at least three day. There were 16 respondent who met to the inclusion criteria which divided into two group (controlled and treatment. Data were analyzed by using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test and Mann Whitney U Test with significance level α≤0.05. Result: The result showed that controlled group has significance level p=0.109 and treatment group has significance level p=0.017, statistically by using Mann Whitney U Test showed p=0.021. Discussion: It can be concluded that peer group support can change the perception about the homeless and beggar who stayed at Liponsos Surabaya. Peer group support can used continuously as social activity at Liponsos.

  4. Parental and Peer Support as Predictors of Depression and Self-Esteem among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Susan Tinsley; Albert, Arielle Berman; Dwelle, Deborah G.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between parent support and peer support as predictors of depression and self-esteem in college students. Several competing models of parental and peer influence were compared including a mediational model in which peer support was hypothesized to mediate the effects of parental support on adjustment. The results…

  5. A Technology-Based Peer Education Intervention: Results from a Sexual Health Textline Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Teagen L.; Horowitz, Katie Rose; Garth, José; Mair, Christina; Burke, Jessica G.

    2017-01-01

    Sexuality health education is moving beyond the classroom, with technology expanding youth access to sexual health information. While text message services are increasingly being used to provide information, a peer education approach has yet to be incorporated. Results from this feasibility study support a sexual health textline (IOTAS),…

  6. Examining the Support Peer Supporters Provide Using Structural Equation Modeling: Nondirective and Directive Support in Diabetes Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowitt, Sarah D; Ayala, Guadalupe X; Cherrington, Andrea L; Horton, Lucy A; Safford, Monika M; Soto, Sandra; Tang, Tricia S; Fisher, Edwin B

    2017-12-01

    Little research has examined the characteristics of peer support. Pertinent to such examination may be characteristics such as the distinction between nondirective support (accepting recipients' feelings and cooperative with their plans) and directive (prescribing "correct" choices and feelings). In a peer support program for individuals with diabetes, this study examined (a) whether the distinction between nondirective and directive support was reflected in participants' ratings of support provided by peer supporters and (b) how nondirective and directive support were related to depressive symptoms, diabetes distress, and Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Three hundred fourteen participants with type 2 diabetes provided data on depressive symptoms, diabetes distress, and HbA1c before and after a diabetes management intervention delivered by peer supporters. At post-intervention, participants reported how the support provided by peer supporters was nondirective or directive. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), correlation analyses, and structural equation modeling examined the relationships among reports of nondirective and directive support, depressive symptoms, diabetes distress, and measured HbA1c. CFA confirmed the factor structure distinguishing between nondirective and directive support in participants' reports of support delivered by peer supporters. Controlling for demographic factors, baseline clinical values, and site, structural equation models indicated that at post-intervention, participants' reports of nondirective support were significantly associated with lower, while reports of directive support were significantly associated with greater depressive symptoms, altogether (with control variables) accounting for 51% of the variance in depressive symptoms. Peer supporters' nondirective support was associated with lower, but directive support was associated with greater depressive symptoms.

  7. Peer Observation and Evaluation Tool (POET: A Formative Peer Review Supporting Scholarly Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey L. Crabtree

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Peer Observation and Evaluation Tool (POET is a valid and reliable measure developed for formative peer evaluation of pharmacy faculty. The authors replicated a study conducted on the POET in pharmacy in order to report the instrument’s validity and reliability in occupational therapy and to explore its potential as a formative teaching evaluation for occupational therapy educators. To verify item importance, seven participants from the faculty in an occupational therapy department rated each item. To establish inter-rater reliability, the participants evaluated one videotaped 55 min lecture. The POET was reliable with ICC at 0.93. There were high levels of agreement with the importance ratings among the participants with all scales. The POET appears to be a valid and reliable formative measure of teaching. At a time of significant change in the level of occupational therapy education, this measure may be an important support for scholarly teaching in two ways: First, this measure offers several opportunities to document the instructor’s strengths and, second, it offers the instructor suggestions about ways to improve teaching quality. Finally, the POET may facilitate faculty professional growth and development through systematic, strategic, and constructive peer review feedback.

  8. A Social Network Perspective on Peer Supported Learning in MOOCs for Educators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Kellogg

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A recent phenomenon in the MOOC space has been the development of courses tailored to educators serving in K-12 settings. MOOCs, particularly as a form of educator professional development, face a number of challenges. Academics, as well as pundits from traditional and new media, have raised a number of concerns about MOOCs, including the lack of instructional and social supports. It is an assumption of this study that challenges arising form this problem of scale can be addressed by leveraging these massive numbers to develop robust online learning communities. This mixed-methods case study addresses critical gaps in the literature and issues of peer support in MOOCs through an examination of the characteristics, mechanisms, and outcomes of peer networks. Findings from this study demonstrate that even with technology as basic as a discussion forum, MOOCs can be leveraged to foster these networks and facilitate peer-supported learning. Although this study was limited to two unique cases along the wide spectrum of MOOCs, the methods applied provide other researchers with an approach for better understanding the dynamic process of peer supported learning in MOOCs.

  9. [Peer support workers : a novel profession in psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sticher, Liliane; Bonsack, Charles

    2017-09-20

    The possibility to recover from a psychiatric disorder for example schizophrenia materializes today by the emergence of new professionals : peer support workers. These persons have lived the experience of a mental health disorder and underwent training in order to contribute to the recovery of others. This brief article provides an update while they begin to be active in French-speaking Switzerland. The data indicate that their involvement in care decreases the use of emergency, enhances the capability of persons to manage their own health and the satisfaction towards psychiatric services. They promote a culture of hope and recovery in other professionals. Studies are necessary to evaluate more precisely these complex interventions.

  10. Peer support groups boost use of female condom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    Preliminary research findings from Brazil and Kenya indicate that, when women are provided with female condoms and peer group support, traditional obstacles to safe sex practices can be overcome. In these countries, as well as many others, women face cultural barriers to negotiating condom use with male partners. The study, conducted by the Women's Health Initiative of Family Health International's AIDS Control and Prevention Project, involved 106 Kenyan and 103 Brazilian women. A female focus group was held at the beginning of the study, followed by two peer support group meetings, with another focus group at the end of the study. Group support was an essential element in the acceptance process. Women who were afraid or unsuccessful with initial use were encouraged by other group members to try different, non-threatening approaches to the negotiation of female condom use and given suggestions for overcoming difficulties with insertion and lubrication. Some of these strategies included laying the female condom on the bed so the male partner raises the subject of its use and telling the partner the doctor had recommended the method to avoid the negative side effects associated with the pill. When female condom use is presented as a form of pregnancy prevention, the association of condoms with infidelity is overcome.

  11. Peer-supported review of teaching: making the grade in midwifery and nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy Tighe, Sylvia; Bradshaw, Carmel

    2013-11-01

    This paper outlines the value of peer-supported review of teaching for nurse and midwifery educators in an academic environment. Reflection and continuing professional development are important tenets of an educators' practice and can be addressed via peer observation. Definitions and models of peer observation are presented. The strengths and challenges associated with peer-supported review of teaching are discussed. The reasons why peer observation is underutilised are explored with some suggestions on how to overcome these challenges. Recent developments in relation to peer observation and peer-supported review are outlined. The need for tangible evidence of development and enhancement of existing teaching expertise is very pronounced in the current economic climate, it is concluded that peer-supported review of teaching can provide such evidence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Peer Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avital, Michel

    2018-01-01

    that the community’s hunger for publication accompanies only a modest appetite for providing the necessary support to sustain the consequent increase in peer-review load. The advent of blockchain technologies and the proliferation of cryptocurrencies presents an opportunity to develop a token-based peer...

  13. A Novel Multimedia Streaming System for Urban Rail Environments Using Wi-Fi Peer-to-Peer Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poderys, Justas; Farooq, Jahanzeb; Soler, José

    2018-01-01

    to passenger devices using Wi-Fi Peer-to-Peer (P2P) technology. Such a multimedia distribution system can be deployed incrementally, as it can function concurrently with Wi-Fi connections already available in a number of trains. This paper presents the results obtained by emulating multimedia streaming...

  14. Use of computers and Internet among people with severe mental illnesses at peer support centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunette, Mary F; Aschbrenner, Kelly A; Ferron, Joelle C; Ustinich, Lee; Kelly, Michael; Grinley, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    Peer support centers are an ideal setting where people with severe mental illnesses can access the Internet via computers for online health education, peer support, and behavioral treatments. The purpose of this study was to assess computer use and Internet access in peer support agencies. A peer-assisted survey assessed the frequency with which consumers in all 13 New Hampshire peer support centers (n = 702) used computers to access Internet resources. During the 30-day survey period, 200 of the 702 peer support consumers (28%) responded to the survey. More than 3 quarters (78.5%) of respondents had gone online to seek information in the past year. About half (49%) of respondents were interested in learning about online forums that would provide information and peer support for mental health issues. Peer support centers may be a useful venue for Web-based approaches to education, peer support, and intervention. Future research should assess facilitators and barriers to use of Web-based resources among people with severe mental illness in peer support centers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Disease Profiling for Computerized Peer Support of Ménière's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasku, Jyrki; Pyykkö, Ilmari; Levo, Hilla; Kentala, Erna; Manchaiah, Vinaya

    2015-09-03

    Peer support is an emerging form of person-driven active health care. Chronic conditions such as Ménière's disease (a disorder of the inner ear) need continuing rehabilitation and support that is beyond the scope of routine clinical medical practice. Hence, peer-support programs can be helpful in supplementing some of the rehabilitation aspects. The aim of this study was to design a computerized data collection system for the peer support of Menière's disease that is capable in profiling the subject for diagnosis and in assisting with problem solving. The expert program comprises several data entries focusing on symptoms, activity limitations, participation restrictions, quality of life, attitude and personality trait, and an evaluation of disease-specific impact. Data was collected from 740 members of the Finnish Ménière's Federation and utilized in the construction and evaluation of the program. The program verifies the diagnosis of a person by using an expert system, and the inference engine selects 50 cases with matched symptom severity by using a nearest neighbor algorithm. These cases are then used as a reference group to compare with the person's attitude, sense of coherence, and anxiety. The program provides feedback for the person and uses this information to guide the person through the problem-solving process. This computer-based peer-support program is the first example of an advanced computer-oriented approach using artificial intelligence, both in the profiling of the disease and in profiling the person's complaints for hearing loss, tinnitus, and vertigo. ©Jyrki Rasku, Ilmari Pyykkö, Hilla Levo, Erna Kentala, Vinaya Manchaiah. Originally published in JMIR Rehabilitation and Assistive Technology (http://rehab.jmir.org), 03.09.2015.

  16. Parent Support of Preschool Peer Relationships in Younger Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Annette; Munson, Jeffrey; St. John, Tanya; Dager, Stephen R.; Rodda, Amy; Botteron, Kelly; Hazlett, Heather; Schultz, Robert T.; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Piven, Joseph; Guralnick, Michael J.; Chappell, J. C.; Dager, S.; Shaw, D; McKinstry, R.; Constantino, J.; Pruett, J.; Schultz, R.; Paterson, S.; Evans, A. C.; Collins, D. L.; Pike, G. B.; Kostopolous, P.; Das, S.; Gerig, G.; Styner, M.; Gu, H.; Sullivan, P.; Wright, G.

    2018-01-01

    Preschool-aged siblings of children with ASD are at high-risk (HR) for ASD and related challenges, but little is known about their emerging peer competence and friendships. Parents are the main providers of peer-relationship opportunities during preschool. Understanding parental challenges supporting early peer relationships is needed for optimal…

  17. Author's rights in the digital age: how Internet and peer-to-peer file sharing technology shape the perception of copyrights and copywrongs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milijana Micunovic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Author's rights and copyright law have gone through quite a few changes in the 'post-print' culture of binary systems, digital formations and techno-practices. Technological development supports new concept of author's rights by promoting free internet and digital market, as well as new contemporary experience of culture that is being rooted in digital technology, mass communication and the world of multimedia and virtuality. Though computer and digital technology have served both authors and users in various ways, they have also served as a very fertile ground for sharing copyrighted content thus leading to numerous copyright infringements and conflicts with the copyright law. The aim of this paper is to identify and analyze the ways in which computer and digital technology have given rise to new trends in the production (e.g. remix culture and consumption (e.g. peer-to-peer file sharing technology of culture, but also to determine how new forms of distribution, use and sharing of digital content changed and shaped the perception of authorship in the 21st century. In order to analyze the dynamic, nature and structure by which new digital and networking technologies are affecting the concept of authorship and author's rights and to test the consistency of previously established hypotheses, we conducted a survey amongst general public. Altogether 535 questionnaires were completed. Data was analyzed using SPSS tool and quantitative method of analysis. In the analysis special attention was given to both, the concept of authorship in the digital environment and the concept of peer-to-peer file sharing technology as not so new, but still very popular networked architecture for distributing, using and sharing digital content. Results have shown that most of the respondents use peer-to-peer file sharing technology to access, consume and/or share different cultural content (e.g. movies, music, books, etc. while violating the rights of copyright holders

  18. Technology to Support Motivational Interviewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gance-Cleveland, Bonnie; Ford, Loretta C; Aldrich, Heather; Oetzel, Keri Bolton; Cook, Paul; Schmiege, Sarah; Wold, Mary

    This paper reports the findings of motivational interviewing (MI) training with and without technology support on school-based health center (SBHC) providers' satisfaction with MI training, providers' self-report of behavioral counseling related to childhood overweight/obesity, and parents' perception of care after training. The effects of training and technology on MI is part of a larger comparative effectiveness, cluster randomized trial. Twenty-four SBHCs in six states received virtual training on MI. Half the sites received HeartSmartKids™, a bilingual (English/Spanish), decision-support technology. The technology generated tailored patient education materials. Standard growth charts were plotted and health risks were highlighted to support MI counseling. The results of the MI training included provider satisfaction with MI training and parent assessment of the components of MI in their child's care. Providers and parents were surveyed at baseline, after training, and six months after training. Providers were satisfied with training and reported improvements in counseling proficiency (ptechnology group reported significant improvement in provider support for healthy eating (p=0.04). Virtual training has the potential of preparing providers to use MI to address childhood obesity. Technology improved parent support for healthy eating. Future research should evaluate the impact of technology to support MI on patient outcomes. Childhood obesity guidelines emphasize that MI should be used to promote healthy weight in children. Training providers on MI may help more providers incorporate obesity guidelines in their practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Associations between the peer support relationship, service satisfaction and recovery-oriented outcomes: a correlational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Elizabeth C; Salzer, Mark S

    2017-12-18

    The working alliance between non-peer providers and mental health consumers is associated with positive outcomes. It is hypothesized that this factor, in addition to other active support elements, is also positively related to peer support service outcomes. This study evaluates correlates of the peer-to-peer relationship and its unique association with service satisfaction and recovery-oriented outcomes. Participants were 46 adults with serious mental illnesses taking part in a peer-brokered self-directed care intervention. Pearson correlation analyses examined associations among peer relationship factors, services-related variables and recovery-oriented outcomes (i.e. empowerment, recovery and quality of life). Hierarchical multiple regression analyses evaluated associations between relationship factors and outcomes over time, controlling for other possible intervention effects. The peer relationship was not related to number of contacts. There were robust associations between the peer relationship and service satisfaction and some recovery-oriented outcomes at 24-months, but not at 12-months. These associations were not explained by other possible intervention effects. This study contributes to a better understanding of the positive, unique association between the peer-to-peer relationship and outcomes, similar to what is found in non-peer-delivered interventions. Implications for program administrators and policymakers seeking to integrate peer specialists into mental health service systems are discussed.

  20. A Reciprocal Peer Review System to Support College Students' Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Fen

    2011-01-01

    As students' problem-solving processes in writing are rarely observed in face-to-face instruction, they have few opportunities to participate collaboratively in peer review to improve their texts. This study reports the design of a reciprocal peer review system for students to observe and learn from each other when writing. A sample of 95…

  1. Young Adults' Support Strategies when Peers Disclose Suicidal Intent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Katherine

    2004-01-01

    In response to the growing suicide rate among adolescents and young adults, researchers have noted the importance of peer responses to suicidal disclosures in this population. The most adaptive response is to inform a responsible adult about the suicidal peer, but existing data indicate that most adolescents and young adults choose to talk to the…

  2. Subjective evaluation of a peer support program by women with breast cancer: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Miho; Tsuyumu, Yuko; Ota, Hiroko; Okamoto, Reiko

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the subjective evaluation of a breast cancer peer support program based on a survey of the participants who completed the program. Semistructured interviews were held with 10 women with breast cancer. The responses were subject to a qualitative inductive analysis. Women with breast cancer who participated in the breast cancer peer support program evaluated the features of the program and cited benefits, such as "Receiving individual peer support tailored to your needs," "Easily consulted trained peer supporters," and "Excellent coordination." Also indicated were benefits of the peer support that was received, such as "Receiving peer-specific emotional support," "Obtaining specific experimental information," "Re-examining yourself," and "Making preparations to move forward." The women also spoke of disadvantages, such as "Strict management of personal information" and "Matching limitations." In this study, the subjective evaluation of a peer support program by women with breast cancer was clarified . The women with breast cancer felt that the program had many benefits and some disadvantages. These results suggest that there is potential for peer support-based patient-support programs in medical services that are complementary to the current support that is provided by professionals. © 2016 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  3. Experiences of peer support in self-management interventions among people with ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enggaard, Helle; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth

    2016-01-01

    Review question/objective: The objective of this review is to identify, appraise and synthesize the best available evidence regarding people with ischemic heart disease and their experiences with peer support in self-management interventions. More specifically, the review question is: How do people...... with ischemic heart disease experience peer support in structured self-management interventions led or co-led by peers?...

  4. Peer Mentoring--Is a Virtual Form of Support a Viable Alternative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smailes, Joanne; Gannon-Leary, Pat

    2011-01-01

    Support systems are vital for university entrants and one established means of support is peer mentoring, which has the potential to improve student engagement and retention. Peer mentoring models are generally based on face-to-face contact. However, given the increasing number of higher education institutions using social media, might online…

  5. Peers' Perceived Support, Student Engagement in Academic Activities and Life Satisfaction: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakimzadeh, Rezvan; Besharat, Mohammad-Ali; Khaleghinezhad, Seyed Ali; Ghorban Jahromi, Reza

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships among peers' perceived support, life satisfaction, and student engagement in academic activities. Three hundred and fifteen Iranian students (172 boys and 143 girls) who were studying in one suburb of Tehran participated in this study. All participants were asked to complete Peers' Perceived Support scale…

  6. Technology-Enhanced Peer Review: Benefits and Implications of Providing Multiple Reviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadopoulos, Pantelis M.; Lagkas, Thomas D.; Demetriadis, Stavros N.

    2017-01-01

    This study analyses the impact of self and peer feedback in technology-enhanced peer review settings. The impact of receiving peer comments (“receiver” perspective) is compared to that of reaching own insights by reviewing others’ work (“giver” perspective). In this study, 38 sophomore students...... were randomly assigned in two conditions and engaged in peer review activity facilitated by a web-based learning environment asking them to provide multiple reviews. In the Peer Reviewed (PR) condition students both reviewed peer work and received peer comments for their own work. By contrast......, in the Self Reviewed (SR) condition students provided peer reviews, but did not receive any. Instead, they were asked to perform self reviewing, before proceeding to any revisions of their work. Result showed that the two groups were comparable in all aspects, suggesting that the lack of getting peer reviews...

  7. Peer Tutoring – Assisted Instruction, Parent Supportiveness and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kofimereku

    effect of treatment (peer tutoring) on mathematics achievement, it also revealed a ..... academic achievement of college students have demonstrated that the ... basic for suggesting the use of the treatment in classrooms irrespective of students' ...

  8. An Exploration of Factors that Effect the Implementation of Peer Support Services in Community Mental Health Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Michael A

    2018-02-01

    This study explored the integration of peer services into community mental health settings through qualitative interviews with peer-providers and non-peer mental health workers. Results show peer job satisfaction was contingent upon role clarity, autonomy, and acceptance by non-peer coworkers. Mental health workers reported the need for organizational support for peer services and guidance about how to utilize peers, negotiate their professional boundaries and accommodate their mental health needs. Effective peer integration requires organizational readiness, staff preparation and clear policies and procedures. Consultation from consumer-based organizations, enhanced professional competencies, and professional development and career advancement opportunities for peers represent important resources.

  9. Technology support for participatory budgeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jeremy; Rios, Jesus; Lippa, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Participatory budgeting is a reasonably well-established governance practice, particularly in South America. It is information and communication rich - making it well suited for modern technology support; in addition, the widespread participation of many citizens is difficult to achieve without...

  10. The impact of peer support in the context of perinatal mental illness: a meta-ethnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Catriona C G; Jomeen, Julie; Hayter, Mark

    2014-05-01

    this paper is a report of a systematic review and meta-ethnography to explore the impact of peer support in the context of perinatal mental illness (PMI). systematic review methods identified five qualitative studies about women's experiences of PMI, and the impact peer support has on their journey towards emotional well-being. Findings from the identified studies were synthesised into themes, using meta-ethnography. the meta-ethnography produced four themes; 'Isolation: the role of peer support', 'Seeking validation through peer support', 'The importance of social norms of motherhood', and 'Finding affirmation/a way forward; the impact of peer support'. These themes represent women's experiences of PMI, their encounters with peer support groups within that context, and the impact of such encounters on their mental health status. recognising the risk of isolation and having pathways of referral to peer support networks is important, as are practitioners roles in nurturing peer support networks in perinatal care. More research is required to establish the most successful formats/structures of peer support. Practitioners should also recognise their individual and collective professional duty to challenge stereotypical depictions of motherhood wherever they arise, as this 'gold standard' benchmark of good mothering engenders guilt about not being good enough, often leaving women feeling inadequate. isolation is a key factor in PMI. Practitioners should be instrumental in their acceptance and development of peer support for PMI, ensuring these networks are valued, nurtured and encouraged. This study illustrates the powerful effect of professional and social forces on how new mothers feel about themselves. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cluster randomized controlled trial of a peer support program for people with diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riddell, Michaela A; Renwick, Carla; Wolfe, Rory

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Well managed diabetes requires active self-management in order to ensure optimal glycaemic control and appropriate use of available clinical services and other supports. Peer supporters can assist people with their daily diabetes self-management activities, provide emotional...... and social support, assist and encourage clinical care and be available when needed. METHODS: A national database of Australians diagnosed with type 2 diabetes is being used to invite people in pre-determined locations to participate in community-based peer support groups. Peer supporters are self......-identified from these communities. All consenting participants receive diabetes self-management education and education manual prior to randomization by community to a peer support intervention or usual care. This multi-faceted intervention comprises four interconnected components for delivering support...

  12. Information and Communication Technologies, Genes, and Peer-Production of Knowledge to Empower Citizens' Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggeri, Annibale; Tallacchini, Mariachiara

    2018-06-01

    The different and seemingly unrelated practices of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) used to collect and share personal and scientific data within networked communities, and the organized storage of human genetic samples and information-namely biobanking-have merged with another recent epistemic and social phenomenon, namely scientists and citizens collaborating as "peers" in creating knowledge (or peer-production of knowledge). These different dimensions can be found in joint initiatives where scientists-and-citizens use genetic information and ICT as powerful ways to gain more control over their health and the environment. While this kind of initiative usually takes place only after rights have been infringed (or are put at risk)-as the two cases presented in the paper show-collaborative scientists-and-citizens' knowledge should be institutionally allowed to complement and corroborate official knowledge-supporting policies.

  13. Family, Teachers, and Peers: Keys for Supporting Victims of Bullying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Jesús Cava

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to analyse the differences in psychological adjustment in victims of bullying as a function of the quality of their relationships with parents, teachers, and peers. More specifically, it was compared four psychological adjustment indicators (self-esteem, depressive mood, loneliness, and stress perception in victims with good or bad communication with his/her mother, good or bad communication with his/her father, high or low perception of teacher´s help, and high or low identification with their peer group. The initial sample was composed of 1795 adolescents aged from 11 to 18 years old (M = 14.2, SD = 1.68. Results indicated better psychological adjustment in victims with better relationships with their parents, teachers, and peers than in victims with worse quality relationships. These results are discussed, and their implications in the development of intervention programmes on school violence are pointed out.

  14. Postpartum depression peer support: maternal perceptions from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Cindy-Lee

    2010-05-01

    Peer support in the early postpartum period is effective in the prevention of postpartum depression among women identified as high-risk. To describe maternal perceptions of peer support received while participating in a trial. Cross-sectional survey of women participating in a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of peer support in the prevention of postpartum depression. Seven health regions across Ontario Canada. 701 women were recruited between November 2004 and September 2006. Women eligible for the study were all mothers with an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score >9 who were within 2 weeks postpartum, at least 18 years of age, able to speak English, had a live birth, and had been discharged home from the hospital. Exclusion criteria included an infant not discharged home with the mother and current use of antidepressant or antipsychotic medication. Two hundred and twenty-one mothers completed the mailed questionnaire. Women were randomly allocated to receive usual postpartum care (control group) or usual postpartum care plus telephone-based peer support (intervention group). Maternal perceptions of peer support were evaluated at 12 weeks postpartum using the validated Peer Support Evaluation Inventory. Interactions provided by the peer volunteer included the provision of emotional (92.7%), informational (72.4%), and appraisal (72.0%) support. Mothers reported high levels of positive relationship qualities such as trust (83.6%) and perceived acceptance (79.1%). Most (80.5%) mothers indicated they were very satisfied with their peer support experience. Maternal satisfaction was associated with the number and duration of peer volunteer contacts. The majority of mothers perceived their peer volunteer experience positively lending further support to telephone-based peer support as a preventative strategy for postpartum depression. The following program modifications were suggested: (a) adapt training to enhance the provision of appraisal

  15. Learning from peer support schemes--can prison listeners support offenders who self-injure in custody?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Louise; Bailey, Di

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to critically evaluate the current evidence for peer support in prisons, in particular its contribution to working with prisoners who self-injure and the extent to which the success of peer support schemes such as the prison listeners, hinges upon staff's willingness to engage with the initiative. The review was constructed by using primary and secondary terms to search the literature. The studies focused on peer support in custody with reference to mental health and self-injury. Searches identified papers on the prison listener scheme and staff perspectives on prison peer support, as these formed a central focus of the review. Studies were excluded from the review if the participants' behaviours was explicitly linked to suicidal intent, as the review focused on self-injury as a coping strategy. A total of 24 studies were selected according to specific inclusion criteria (six were grey literature, 18 academic literature). Of the 24 studies ten studies focused on peer support and self-injury. Of the 24 studies the listener scheme was the focus of 16 studies, of these 16 studies self-injury and the listener scheme was a focus of eight studies. Evidence from the review suggests that prison peer support could be considered on a continuum depending on the different degrees of peer involvement.

  16. A systematic review of peer-supported interventions for health promotion and disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramchand, Rajeev; Ahluwalia, Sangeeta C; Xenakis, Lea; Apaydin, Eric; Raaen, Laura; Grimm, Geoffrey

    2017-08-01

    Prior research has examined peer programs with respect to specific peer roles (e.g.; peer support) or specific health/wellness domains (e.g.; exercise/diet), or have aggregated effects across roles and domains. We sought to conduct a systematic review that categorizes and assesses the effects of peer interventions to promote health and wellness by peer role, intervention type, and outcomes. We use evidence mapping to visually catalog and synthesize the existing research. We searched PubMed and WorldCat databases (2005 to 2015) and New York Academy of Medicine Grey Literature Report (1999 to 2016) for English-language randomized control trials. We extracted study design, study participants, type of intervention(s), peer role(s), outcomes assessed and measures used, and effects from 116 randomized controlled trials. Maps were created to provide a visual display of the evidence by intervention type, peer role, outcome type, and significant vs null or negative effects. There are more null than positive effects across peer interventions, with notable exceptions: group-based interventions that use peers as educators or group facilitators commonly improve knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and perceptions; peer educators also commonly improved social health/connectedness and engagement. Dyadic peer support influenced behavior change and peer counseling shows promising effects on physical health outcomes. Programs seeking to use peers in public health campaigns can use evidence maps to identify interventions that have previously demonstrated beneficial effects. Those seeking to produce health outcomes may benefit from identifying the mechanisms by which they expect their program to produce these effects and associated proximal outcomes for future evaluations. Although we attempted to register our protocol with PROSPERO, we did not meet eligibility criteria because we were past the data collection phase. The full PROSPERO-aligned protocol is available from the authors

  17. Evaluation of a pilot 'peer support' training programme for volunteers in a hospital-based cancer information and support centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnane, Nicole Anne; Waters, Trish; Aranda, Sanchia

    2011-01-01

    Volunteers from Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre (Peter Mac) Patient Information and Support Centre (PISC) assist the Cancer Support Nurse by helping patients and families/carers find information and provide face-to-face peer support. Benefits of shared personal experiences between volunteer and patient are clearly different from professional support. Volunteers require specific skill sets and detailed preparation for this role. Volunteers completed a 3-day training programme adapted from the Cancer Council Victoria's 'Cancer Connect Telephone Peer Support Volunteer' training programme. The focus was role expectations and boundaries for peer support volunteers, debriefing, communication skills training, support services, complementary and alternative therapies and internet information. Assessment included a quiz and observation for a range of competencies. Role-play with simulated patients developed appropriate support skills. Eight volunteers participated. Pre-training questionnaires revealed all volunteers highly self-rated existing skills supporting people affected by cancer. During training, volunteers recognised these skills were inadequate. All agreed that role-play using an actor as a 'simulated patient' helped develop communication skills; however, the experience proved challenging. Post-training all reported increased knowledge of role definition and boundaries, supportive communication skills, supports available for patients and families/carers and importance of self-care. Facilitators recommended seven of the eight participants be accredited PISC Peer Support Volunteers. One volunteer was assessed unsuitable for consistently overstepping the boundaries of the peer support role and withdrew from training. Success of the programme resulted in a trained 'face-to-face peer support volunteer' group better equipped for their role. Sixteen months following training, all who completed the programme remain active volunteers in the PISC. Planned educational updates

  18. In-vivo job development training among peer providers of homeless veterans supported employment programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ni; Dolce, Joni; Rio, John; Heitzmann, Carma; Loving, Samantha

    2016-06-01

    This column describes a goal-oriented, time-limited in vivo coaching/training approach for skills building among peer veterans vocational rehabilitation specialists of the Homeless Veteran Supported Employment Program (HVSEP). Planning, implementing, and evaluating the training approach for peer providers was intended, ultimately, to support veterans in their goal of returning to community competitive employment. The description draws from the training experience that aimed to improve the ability of peer providers to increase both rates of employment and wages of the homeless veterans using their services. Training peers using an in vivo training approach provided a unique opportunity for the veterans to improve their job development skills with a focus to support employment outcomes for the service users. Peers who received training also expressed that learning skills through an in vivo training approach was more engaging than typical classroom trainings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Life Imitates Pokemon: The Virtues and Necessities of Technology-Based Peer Education in Today's Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, David

    1999-01-01

    As the Pokemon game craze illustrates, the combination of peer education and technology makes for powerful educational experiences. Educators need to accept technology-based peer education as a help rather than a hindrance to improve educational outcomes for students. (SLD)

  20. Computer-Based Methods for Collecting Peer Nomination Data: Utility, Practice, and Empirical Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Yvonne H M; Gommans, Rob

    2017-09-01

    New technologies have led to several major advances in psychological research over the past few decades. Peer nomination research is no exception. Thanks to these technological innovations, computerized data collection is becoming more common in peer nomination research. However, computer-based assessment is more than simply programming the questionnaire and asking respondents to fill it in on computers. In this chapter the advantages and challenges of computer-based assessments are discussed. In addition, a list of practical recommendations and considerations is provided to inform researchers on how computer-based methods can be applied to their own research. Although the focus is on the collection of peer nomination data in particular, many of the requirements, considerations, and implications are also relevant for those who consider the use of other sociometric assessment methods (e.g., paired comparisons, peer ratings, peer rankings) or computer-based assessments in general. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Peer Review of Assessment Network: Supporting Comparability of Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Sara; Beckett, Jeff; Saunders, Cassandra

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to test the need in the Australian higher education (HE) sector for a national network for the peer review of assessment in response to the proposed HE standards framework and propose a sector-wide framework for calibrating and assuring achievement standards, both within and across disciplines, through the establishment of…

  2. Evidence to Support Peer Tutoring Programs at the Undergraduate Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colver, Mitchell; Fry, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined undergraduate peer tutoring in three phases. Phase I qualitatively surveyed students' perceptions about the effectiveness of tutoring. Phase II examined the usefulness of promoting regular use of services through a tutoring contract. Phase III utilized an archival, quasi-experimental approach to estimate the effect of…

  3. Impact of HIV Information and Peer Support on Psychiatric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Young people are most vulnerable to acquiring HIV Infection in Zambia and they are at increased risk of developing psychiatric disorders which if left unchecked can have behavioural and health consequences. It's from this background that this study aimed at evaluating the impact of HIV information and peer ...

  4. Shared Journaling as Peer Support in Teaching Qualitative Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humble, Aine M.; Sharp, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Teaching qualitative research methods (QRM), particularly early on in one's academic career, can be challenging. This paper describes shared peer journaling as one way in which to cope with challenges such as complex debates in the field and student resistance to interpretive paradigms. Literature on teaching QRM and the pedagogical value of…

  5. Bringing Boys and Girls Together: Supporting Preschoolers' Positive Peer Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaster, Hillary; Jobe, Maureen

    2012-01-01

    Children thrive in inclusive settings where each child is an important part of the community. When differences are celebrated and similarities discovered, children learn to value themselves, appreciate their peers, and develop meaningful and significant relationships with one another. A sizable body of research indicates that promoting positive…

  6. Social Support Seeking in Relation to Parental Attachment and Peer Relationships among Victims of Cyberbullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ševcíková, Anna; Machácková, Hana; Wright, Michelle F.; Dedková, Lenka; Cerná, Alena

    2015-01-01

    Victims use social support seeking (SSS) to buffer the negative effects of cyberbullying. It is unknown whether cybervictims' perceptions of harm and having poor peer and parental relationships influence SSS. Using a sample of 451 cyberbullying-victims, aged 12-18, 68% girls, this study examined relationships of gender, harm, peer rejection,…

  7. An Online, Moderated Peer-to-Peer Support Bulletin Board for Depression: User-Perceived Advantages and Disadvantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Kathleen Margaret; Reynolds, Julia; Vassallo, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Online, peer-to-peer support groups for depression are common on the World Wide Web and there is some evidence of their effectiveness. However, little is known about the mechanisms by which Internet support groups (ISGs) might work. This study aimed to investigate consumer perceptions of the benefits and disadvantages of online peer-to-peer support by undertaking a content analysis of the spontaneous posts on BlueBoard, a well-established, moderated, online depression bulletin board. The research set comprised all posts on the board (n=3645) for each of 3 months selected at 4 monthly intervals over 2011. The data were analyzed using content analysis and multiple coders. A total of 586 relevant posts were identified, 453 (77.3%) reporting advantages and 133 (22.7%) reporting disadvantages. Positive personal change (335/453, 74.0%) and valued social interactions and support (296/453, 65.3%) emerged as perceived advantages. Other identified benefits were valued opportunities to disclose/express feelings or views (29/453, 6.4%) and advantages of the BlueBoard environment (45/453, 9.9%). Disadvantages were negative personal change (50/133, 37.6%), perceived disadvantages of board rules/moderation (42/133, 31.6%), unhelpful social interactions/contact with other members (40/133, 30.1%), and technical obstacles to using the board (14/133, 10.5%). Consumers value the opportunity to participate in an online mutual support group for mental health concerns. Further research is required to better understand how and if these perceived advantages translate into positive outcomes for consumers, and whether the perceived disadvantages of such boards can be addressed without compromising the safety and positive outcomes of the board.

  8. Peer counselling for doctors in Norway: A qualitative study of the relationship between support and surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson Rø, Karin; Veggeland, Frode; Aasland, Olaf G

    2016-08-01

    Peer support can entail collegial responsibility for counselling and support as well as reactions to academic or ethical failure. These considerations can be complementary, but also conflicting. This article focuses on how the peer support programme in Norway addresses these considerations. Focus group interviews held with Norwegian peer counsellors from August 2011 to June 2012 were analysed by a stepwise deductive-inductive method. Based on organisational theory, two "ideal types" of counsellors were identified from the data, and these were then used to reanalyse the text. We found that the organisational framework is associated with the peer counsellors' role conception and thereby the relationship between the counsellor and the help-seeking doctor. The relationship between informal frameworks like collegiality, confidence and discretion, and more formalized incentive-driven frameworks, appear to influence the accessibility to peer support, the mandate to provide relevant help and the understanding of what peer support represents. The study showed the need for a continuous awareness of a balance between the informal and the more formalized elements in the framework for peer support. This is of importance for how the service can contribute to better health among doctors and to secure quality and safety in the treatment of patients. The analysis can also be used to demonstrate the consequences of how the peer support program is designed - such as the degree of formalisation and the balance between "hard" and "soft" ways to regulate the interaction between peer counsellors and doctors - for the ability to achieve the stated objectives of the service. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Teacher Support, Peer Acceptance, and Engagement in the Classroom: A Three-Wave Longitudinal Study in Late Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyns, Tessa; Colpin, Hilde; De Laet, Steven; Engels, Maaike; Verschueren, Karine

    2018-06-01

    Although research has examined the bivariate effects of teacher support, peer acceptance, and engagement, it remains unclear how these key classroom experiences evolve together, especially in late childhood. This study aims to provide a detailed picture of their transactional relations in late childhood. A sample of 586 children (M age  = 9.26 years, 47.1% boys) was followed from fourth to sixth grade. Teacher support and engagement were student-reported and peer acceptance was peer-reported. Autoregressive cross-lagged models revealed unique longitudinal effects of both peer acceptance and teacher support on engagement, and of peer acceptance on teacher support. No reverse effects of engagement on peer acceptance or teacher support were found. The study underscores the importance of examining the relative contribution of several social actors in the classroom. Regarding interventions, improving both peer acceptance and teacher support can increase children's engagement, and augmenting peer acceptance can help to increase teacher support.

  10. CSPMS supported by information technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hudan; Wu, Heng

    This paper will propose a whole new viewpoint about building a CSPMS(Coal-mine Safety Production Management System) by means of information technology. This system whose core part is a four-grade automatic triggered warning system achieves the goal that information transmission will be smooth, nondestructive and in time. At the same time, the system provides a comprehensive and collective technology platform for various Public Management Organizations and coal-mine production units to deal with safety management, advance warning, unexpected incidents, preplan implementation, and resource deployment at different levels. The database of this system will support national related industry's resource control, plan, statistics, tax and the construction of laws and regulations effectively.

  11. Peer counselors' role in supporting patients' adherence to ART in Ethiopia and Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusdal, Annelie K; Obua, Celestino; Andualem, Tenaw; Wahlstrom, Rolf; Chalker, John; Fochsen, Grethe

    2011-06-01

    Our aim was to explore peer counselors' work and their role in supporting patients' adherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART) in resource-limited settings in Ethiopia and Uganda. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 79 patients, 17 peer counselors, and 22 providers in ART facilities in urban and rural areas of Ethiopia and Uganda. Two main categories with related subcategories emerged from the analysis. The first main category, peer counselors as facilitators of adherence, describes how peer counselors played an important role by acting as role models, raising awareness, and being visible in the community. They were also recognized for being close to the patients while acting as a bridge to the health system. They provided patients with an opportunity to individually talk to someone who was also living with HIV, who had a positive and life-affirming attitude about their situation, and were willing to share personal stories of hope when educating and counseling their patients. The second main category, benefits and challenges of peer counseling, deals with how peer counselors found reward in helping others while at the same time acknowledging their limitations and need of support and remuneration. Their role and function were not clearly defined within the health system and they received negligible financial and organizational support. While peer counseling is acknowledged as an essential vehicle for treatment success in ART support in sub-Saharan Africa, a formal recognition and regulation of their role should be defined. The issue of strategies for disclosure to support adherence, while avoiding or reducing stigma, also requires specific attention. We argue that the development and implementation of support to peer counselors are crucial in existing and future ART programs, but more research is needed to further explore factors that are important to sustain and strengthen the work of peer counselors.

  12. Collaborative learning: A next step in the training of peer support providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronise, Rita

    2016-09-01

    This column explores how peer support provider training is enhanced through collaborative learning. Collaborative learning is an approach that draws upon the "real life" experiences of individual learners and encompasses opportunities to explore varying perspectives and collectively construct solutions that enrich the practice of all participants. This description draws upon published articles and examples of collaborative learning in training and communities of practice of peer support providers. Similar to person-centered practices that enhance the recovery experience of individuals receiving services, collaborative learning enhances the experience of peer support providers as they explore relevant "real world" issues, offer unique contributions, and work together toward improving practice. Three examples of collaborative learning approaches are provided that have resulted in successful collaborative learning opportunities for peer support providers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Technology and peer review: the open and participatory dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedeli Laura

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Peer review is a consolidated procedure in the academic context and its process affects various range of research outputs from project funding applications to manuscript publication. Peer review can be developed through modalities that imply a different level of transparency in the relationship between anonymity of the author and the reviewer/s.

  14. Peer Support Among Adults With Serious Mental Illness: A Report From the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Larry; Chinman, Matthew; Sells, David; Rowe, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Peer support is based on the belief that people who have faced, endured, and overcome adversity can offer useful support, encouragement, hope, and perhaps mentorship to others facing similar situations. While this belief is well accepted for many conditions, such as addiction, trauma, or cancer, stigma and stereotypes about mental illness have impeded attempts on the part of people in recovery to offer such supports within the mental health system. Beginning in the early 1990s with programs that deployed people with mental illness to provide conventional services such as case management, opportunities for the provision and receipt of peer support within the mental health system have proliferated rapidly across the country as part of the emerging recovery movement. This article defines peer support as a form of mental health care and reviews data from 4 randomized controlled trials, which demonstrated few differences between the outcomes of conventional care when provided by peers versus non-peers. We then consider what, if any, unique contributions can be made by virtue of a person's history of serious mental illness and recovery and review beginning efforts to identify and evaluate these potential valued-added components of care. We conclude by suggesting that peer support is still early in its development as a form of mental health service provision and encourage further exploration and evaluation of this promising, if yet unproven, practice. PMID:16461576

  15. Peer Support and Adolescents' Physical Activity: The Mediating Roles of Self-Efficacy and Enjoyment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Han; Sun, Haichun; Dai, Jun

    2017-06-01

    The present study aimed to contrast the mediating magnitude of self-efficacy and enjoyment connecting peer support and adolescents' physical activity (PA). Participants were 9th-12th grade students ( N  = 409; 56.5% boys) who were randomly chosen from six public schools located in Fuzhou city in southeast China. The bootstrapping method in structural equation modeling was conducted to examine the direct and indirect effects of peer support on adolescents' PA. Peer support did not directly impact PA. Rather, peer support indirectly influenced PA through either self-efficacy or enjoyment, with self-efficacy demonstrating a stronger mediating effect. Additionally, we found a significant serial mediating effect with enjoyment, and self-efficacy sequentially mediated the relationship between peer support and PA. The findings highlight the role of self-efficacy and enjoyment as mediators connecting peer support and PA. Self-efficacy seems to be more important, as it demonstrated a significantly greater mediating effect. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  16. "She would sit with me": mothers' experiences of individual peer support for exclusive breastfeeding in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nankabirwa Victoria

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Different strategies have been used to improve the initiation and duration of breastfeeding. Peer counsellors are reported to improve exclusive breastfeeding levels, but few studies have assessed the satisfaction of women with the support given, especially in Africa. In this paper we describe women's experiences of peer counselling for exclusive breastfeeding in an East African setting. Methods In the Ugandan site of PROMISE-EBF, a multi-centre community randomised trial to evaluate the effect of peer counselling for exclusive breastfeeding on infant health, 370 women in the intervention arm participated in a study exit interview. Individual peer counselling was offered to women in 12 of the 24 study clusters, scheduled as five visits: before childbirth and during weeks 1, 4, 7 and 10 after childbirth. During the visits, the women were given information and skills to help them breastfeed exclusively. After the 10-week visit, they were interviewed about their feelings and experiences related to the peer counselling. Results Overall, more than 95% of the women expressed satisfaction with the various aspects of peer counselling offered. Those who had received five or more visits were more likely to give positive responses about their experience with peer counselling than those who had received fewer visits. They explained their satisfaction with time spent with the peer counsellor in terms of how much she discussed with them. Most women felt their knowledge needs about breastfeeding were covered by the peer counsellors, while others expressed a desire to learn about complementary feeding and family planning. Attributes of the peer counsellors included their friendliness, being women and giving support in a familiar and relaxed way. Women were positive about the acquisition of knowledge and the benefit to their babies from the peer counselling. They preferred a peer counsellor to a health worker for support of exclusive

  17. Opportunities and Design Considerations for Peer Support in a Hospital Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, Shefali; Mishra, Sonali R; Khelifi, Maher; Pollack, Ari H; Pratt, Wanda

    2017-05-01

    Although research has demonstrated improved outcomes for outpatients who receive peer support-such as through online health communities, support groups, and mentoring systems-hospitalized patients have few mechanisms to receive such valuable support. To explore the opportunities for a hospital-based peer support system, we administered a survey to 146 pediatric patients and caregivers, and conducted semi-structured interviews with twelve patients and three caregivers in a children's hospital. Our analysis revealed that hospitalized individuals need peer support for five key purposes: (1) to ask about medical details-such as procedures, treatments, and medications; (2) to learn about healthcare providers; (3) to report and prevent medical errors; (4) to exchange emotional support; and (5) to manage their time in the hospital. In this paper, we examine these themes and describe potential barriers to using a hospital-based peer support system. We then discuss the unique opportunities and challenges that the hospital environment presents when designing for peer support in this setting.

  18. Exploring Peer Support Needs of Caregivers for Youth with Mental Illness or Addictions Concerns in Family Navigation Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markoulakis, R; Turner, M; Wicik, K; Weingust, S; Dobbin, K; Levitt, A

    2017-11-16

    Roles for peer support workers are increasingly recognized as a valuable component of mental health and addictions (MHA) services. In youth MHA care, caregivers are often closely involved in finding and accessing services and may also require support for themselves, yet caregiver peer support is not readily available in existing service delivery models. In order to understand the potential role and value of a caregiver peer support worker in a Family Navigation service, a descriptive qualitative study was conducted to explore the needs and potential value of a peer worker from caregiver client perspectives. Study findings indicate that a caregiver peer support worker can provide support for engaging in the caregiving role, utilize lived experience as a skill, and complement navigation support through lived experience. The discussion highlights implications for the implementation of a caregiver peer role at a family-focused service as well as implications for peer work within the MHA system.

  19. A Peer-Support and Mindfulness Program to Improve the Mental Health of Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moir, Fiona; Henning, Marcus; Hassed, Craig; Moyes, Simon A; Elley, C Raina

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that peer-support programs can improve mental health indices and help-seeking behavior among students in some secondary school and university settings and that mindfulness can improve mental health in medical students. Peer-led programs have not been formally assessed in a medical student population, where psychological issues exist and where it has been shown that students approach peers for help in preference to staff members or professional services. Medical students elected peer leaders who underwent training and then provided the intervention. The peer leaders provided support to students in the intervention group, as well as offering teaching in mindfulness meditation. An exploratory study was conducted with 2nd- and 3rd-year medical students at 1 medical school in New Zealand randomized into 2 groups. In addition to existing mental health resources, intervention participants received a program including peer support and peer-taught mindfulness practice. Study participants not offered the intervention participants could use existing mental health resources. Primary measures included depression (PHQ-9) and anxiety (GAD-7) scores. Secondary measures were quality of life, resilience (15-item resilience scale), academic self-concept, and motivation to learn, assessed at baseline and 6 months. Of the 402 students eligible, 275 (68%) participated and 232 (58%) completed the study. At baseline, 53% were female and mean age was 21 years (SD = 3)-PHQ-9 score (M = 5.2, SD = 3.7) and GAD-7 score (M = 4.5, SD = 3.4). Twelve peer leaders were elected. There was good participation in the intervention. One fourth of intervention students used the face-to-face peer support and more than 50% attended a peer social event and/or participated in the mindfulness program. Although improvements in mental health were seen in the intervention group, the difference between the intervention and nonintervention groups did not reach statistical significance. Although

  20. Internet peer support for individuals with psychiatric disabilities: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Katy; Salzer, Mark S; Solomon, Phyllis; Brusilovskiy, Eugene; Cousounis, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of Internet support groups for individuals with mental illnesses little is known about the potential benefits, or harm, of participating in such groups. Therefore, this randomized controlled trial sought to determine the impact of unmoderated, unstructured Internet peer support, similar to what is naturally occurring on the Internet, on the well-being of individuals with psychiatric disabilities. Three hundred individuals resident in the USA diagnosed with a Schizophrenia Spectrum or an Affective Disorder were randomized into one of three conditions: experimental Internet peer support via a listserv, experimental Internet peer support via a bulletin board, or a control condition. Three measurement time points, baseline, 4- and 12 months post-baseline, assessed well-being by examining measures of recovery, quality of life, empowerment, social support, and distress. Time × group interactions in the repeated measures ANOVA showed no differences between conditions on the main outcomes. Post-hoc repeated measures ANOVAs found that those individuals who participated more in Internet peer support reported higher levels of distress than those with less or no participation (p = 0.03). Those who reported more positive experiences with the Internet peer support group also reported higher levels of psychological distress than those reporting less positive experiences (p = 0.01). Study results therefore do not support the hypothesis that participation in an unmoderated, unstructured Internet listserv or bulletin board peer support group for individuals with psychiatric disabilities enhances well-being. Counterintuitive findings demonstrating those who report more positive experiences also experienced higher levels of distress are discussed but we also point to the need for additional research. Future research should explore the various structures, formats, and interventions of Internet support, as well as the content and quality of interactions

  1. Jupiter: Peer-to-Peer Networking Platform over Heterogeneous Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norihiro Ishikawa

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Peer-to-peer has entered the public limelight over the last few years. Several research projects are underway on peer-to-peer technologies, but no definitive conclusion is currently available. Compared with traditional Internet technologies, peer-to-peer has the potential to realize highly scalable, extensible, and efficient distributed applications. This is because its basic functions realize resource discovery, resource sharing, and load balancing in a highly distributed manner. An easy prediction is the emergence of an environment in which many sensors, people, and many different kinds of objects exist, move, and communicate with one another. Peer-to-peer is one of the most important and suitable technologies for such networking since it supports discovery mechanisms, simple one-to-one communication between devices, free and extensible distribution of resources, and distributed search to handle the enormous number of resources. The purpose of this study is to explore a universal peer-to-peer network architecture that will allow various devices to communicate with one another across various networks. We have been designing architecture and protocols for realizing peer-to-peer networking among various devices. We are currently designing APIs that are available for various peer-to-peer applications and are implementing a prototype called "Jupiter" as a peer-to-peer networking platform over heterogeneous networks.

  2. Pilot Mental Health, Negative Life Events, and Improving Safety with Peer Support and a Just Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Sanne; de Rooy, Diederik

    2018-01-01

    In the last 35 yr, 17 commercial aviation accidents and incidents, with 576 fatalities, could likely have been attributed to mental disease of a pilot. Screening tools for mental health risks in airline pilots are needed. There is growing interest in pilot peer-support programs and how to incorporate them in a just culture, meaning that pilots can report mental health complaints without a risk of job or income loss. We combined findings from aviation accidents and incidents with a search of scientific literature to provide data-based recommendations for screening, peer-support, and a just culture approach to mental health problems. Commercial aviation accidents and incidents in which a mental disorder of a pilot was thought to play a role were reviewed. Subsequently, PubMed and PsychInfo literature searches were performed on peer-support programs, just culture human resource management, and the risk of negative life events on developing suicidal ideation and behavior in comparable professional groups. Lethal accidents were mostly related to impaired coping with negative life events. Negative life events are clearly related to suicidal thoughts, attempts, and completed suicide. A protective effect of peer-support programs on mental health problems has not been established, although peer-support programs are generally appreciated by those involved. We did not find relevant literature on just culture. Negative life events are likely a useful screening tool for mental health risks. There is still a lack of evidence on how peer-support groups should be designed and how management of mental health risks can be implemented in a just culture.Mulder S, de Rooy D. Pilot mental health, negative life events, and improving safety with peer support and a just culture. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2018; 89(1):41-51.

  3. Benefits of Peer Support in Online Japanese Breast Cancer Communities: Differences Between Lurkers and Posters

    OpenAIRE

    Setoyama, Yoko; Yamazaki, Yoshihiko; Namayama, Kazuhiro

    2011-01-01

    Background Web 2.0 has improved interactions among peers on the Internet, especially for the many online patient communities that have emerged over the past decades. Online communities are said to be particularly beneficial peer support resources for patients with breast cancer. However, most studies of online patient communities have focused on those members who post actively (posters), even though there are many members who participate without posting (lurkers). In addition, little attentio...

  4. Supporting near-peer teaching in general practice: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Mortel, Thea F; Silberberg, Peter L; Ahern, Christine M; Pit, Sabrina W

    2016-05-12

    Training bodies see teaching by junior doctors and vocational trainees in general practice (family medicine) as integral to a doctor's role. While there is a body of literature on teacher training programs, and on peer and near-peer teaching in hospitals and universities, there has been little examination of near-peer teaching in general practice. Near-peer teaching is teaching to those close to oneself but not at the same level in the training continuum. This study investigated the perceptions of key stakeholders on near-peer teaching in general practice, their current near-peer teaching activities, and methods of recruitment and support. A national anonymous online survey was used to obtain data on Australian stakeholders' perceptions of, and processes related to, near-peer teaching in general practice. Recruitment occurred via electronic invitations sent by training providers and stakeholder associations. Separate questionnaires, which were validated via several cycles of review and piloting, were developed for supervisors and learners. The survey included both fixed response and open response questions. Responses (n = 1,122) were obtained from 269 general practitioner supervisors, 221 general practice registrars, 319 prevocational trainees, and 313 medical students. All stakeholder groups agreed that registrars should teach learners in general practice, and 72% of registrars, 68% of prevocational trainees, and 33% of medical students reported having done some teaching in this setting. Three-quarters of supervisors allowed learners to teach. Having another learner observe their consultations was the most common form of teaching for registrars and prevocational trainees. Eight percent of registrars received some remuneration for teaching. The approach used to determine teaching readiness and quality varied greatly between supervisors. Near-peer teaching was supported by the majority of stakeholders, but is underutilised and has poor structural support

  5. Augmenting Everyday Artefacts to Support Social Interaction Among Senior Peers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazzi, Elena; Sokoler, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    Novel technological possibilities emerge when tangible and social computing come together. This paper explores the potential of such technology when designing for seniors and their social interaction. Our research is guided by the concept of twitterIDo, which is to make seniors’ everyday activities...... and displays designed to start a dialogue with the seniors on how twitterIDo-technology may fit into their everyday situations. Our findings point out how augmented everyday artefacts can make a positive difference when designing technology in a domain such the one of seniors’ and their social interaction...... more visible by augmenting everyday artefacts to communicate the ongoing activity they are used for. We engaged a local community of seniors in a living lab to explore the possibilities of twitterIDo in real life situations. This paper presents a series of interactive prototypes of everyday artefacts...

  6. The Effectiveness of Immersive Multimedia Learning with Peer Support on English Speaking and Reading Aloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asnawi Muslem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the impacts of the immersive multimedia learning strategy with peer support on production skills in reading and speaking. Moreover, the effects of it on performance were investigated by student achievement. The quasiexperimental design with post-test was employed for the study. 80 first-year university students enrolled in English as a foreign language course were selected for this study. Data were analysed using one-way ANOVA. The findings showed that the immersive multimedia learning with peer support group reported significantly better performance in all measures of oral production for reading and speaking. Analyses obtained by achievement showed that the high achievement students in the immersive multimedia learning with peer support group reported significantly better performance in all measures of oral production only for speaking while the low achievement students in the immersive multimedia learning with peer supported group reported significantly better performance in all measures of oral production for reading and speaking. These findings showed that the immersive multimedia technique with peer support reduced the use of codeswitching strategies among the students and enabled them to develop oral production skills in English approaching the patterns of native speakers especially among low achievement students.

  7. College Students' Beliefs about Supporting a Grieving Peer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedrick Parikh, Sara J.; Servaty-Seib, Heather L.

    2013-01-01

    The present study used I. Ajzen's (1991) Theory of Planned Behavior (TBP) to explore college students' beliefs about listening supportively to a grieving friend. Responses to open-ended questions suggested that students ("N" = 23) perceived both benefits and risks, connected with listening supportively, for the grieving friend and for…

  8. The effectiveness of peer support groups in psychosis : a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castelein, S.; Bruggeman, R.; van Busschbach, J. T.; van der Gaag, M.; Stant, A. D.; Knegtering, H.; Wiersma, D.

    Objective: To investigate the effect of a (minimally) guided peer support group (GPSG) for people with psychosis on social network, social support, self-efficacy, self-esteem, and quality of life, and to evaluate the intervention and its economic consequences. Method: In a multi-center randomized

  9. Teacher and Peer Support for Young Adolescents' Motivation, Engagement, and School Belonging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Sarah M.; Alley, Kathleen M.; Ellerbrock, Cheryl R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this sequential explanatory mixed methods study was to investigate teacher and peer support for young adolescents' academic motivation, classroom engagement, and school belonging within one large, urban, ethnically diverse middle school. In the initial quantitative phase, associations among aspects of teacher support (autonomy,…

  10. Suicidal Adolescents' Social Support from Family and Peers: Gender-Specific Associations with Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, David C. R.; Preuss, Lesli J.; King, Cheryl A.

    2006-01-01

    Perceptions of social support from family, non-family adults, and peers were examined in relation to the psychopathology reported by 220 suicidal adolescents (152 females) during a psychiatric hospitalization. Results of regression analyses showed that, among females, family support was negatively related to hopelessness, depressive symptoms, and…

  11. Efficacy and Social Validity of Peer Support Arrangements for Adolescents with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Erik W.; Moss, Colleen K.; Hoffman, Alicia; Chung, Yun-Ching; Sisco, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Current research and policy emphasize providing students with severe disabilities with the supports needed to participate socially and academically within inclusive classrooms. The authors examined the efficacy and acceptability of peer support arrangements as an avenue for promoting the participation of 3 students with severe disabilities in high…

  12. Emotional contrast or compensation? How support reminders influence the pain of acute peer disapproval in preadolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomaes, Sander; Sedikides, Constantine; Reijntjes, Albert; Brummelman, Eddie; Bushman, Brad J

    2015-10-01

    When children experience habitual peer difficulties, adults often remind them that many people care about them. How do such reminders of support impact children's emotional responses to acute experiences of peer disapproval? Intuitively, support reminders would exert compensatory effects attenuating the emotional impact of acute disapproval. Theory suggests, however, that support reminders might also lead to contrast effects magnifying the emotional impact of acute disapproval, especially among socially vulnerable children. These opposing perspectives were pitted against each other. In 2 experiments, children (aged 9-13, M(age) = 11.5) were randomly assigned to reflect on their relationships with either supportive others (support condition) or mere acquaintances (control condition). Children experienced acute peer disapproval immediately after (Experiment 1) or before (Experiment 2) the manipulated support reminder. Among children who experienced higher levels of peer difficulties in their daily life, the support reminder increased externalized emotional reactivity and decreased internalized emotional recovery following disapproval. Thus, consistent with emotional contrast theory, support reminders magnified the disapproval-based emotional responses of socially vulnerable children. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Social dynamics in the classroom : Teacher support and conflict and the peer ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrickx, Marloes M H G; Mainhard, M. Tim; Boor-Klip, Henrike J.; Cillessen, Antonius H M; Brekelmans, Mieke

    2016-01-01

    By showing support and conflict, teachers may function as a model for students regarding how to interact and how to evaluate each other, thereby shaping the classroom peer ecology. Associations of general and student-specific levels and differential provision of teacher support and conflict with the

  14. Exploring Adult Learners Usage of Information Communication Technology during a Virtual Peer Coaching Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladyshewsky, Richard; Pettapiece, Ronald G.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how post-graduate students in a fully online business course used information communication technology during a virtual peer coaching experience. In this exploration of technology use it was found students required additional guidance in the use of technologies such as email, telephone calling, and more…

  15. Peer-to-Peer Support for Science Journalism in the Developing ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC has a long history of supporting the advancement of science journalism in the Third World. Since 2000, IDRC helped establish the London-based Science and Development Network (SciDev.Net) with regional nodes in developing countries and played a pivotal role in the Fourth Conference on Science Journalism ...

  16. Analytical support for coal technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valášek Václav

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of success in the selection negotiation The Brown Coal Research Institute j.s.c. Most was authorized to process the project Phare D5/93 with the title "Analytical support to clean coal technologies". The elaboration of the task run in 1997 in a close cooperation with the Mining University - TU Ostrava; DBI - AUA GmbH, Freiberg, Germany; DMT mbH, Essen, Germany and Cerchar, Mazingarbe, France. In the work the available reserves of brown and hard coal and from them following possible levels of annual minings in relation to prognosed needs of the electro-energetics and heating-industry were evaluated. The knowledge about the contents of selected trace elements (As, Be, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, F, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Te, Tl, V, Zn in Czech (CZ coal were also evaluated it was investigated. Further, the distribution of trace elements during the burning process in four types of boilers in CZ. was investigated. The CZ and EU legislation related to trace elements in coal and combustion products was finally comparred. It was stated that the CZ legal standards are not at variant with EU the standards.

  17. Mobilizing for the Lilongwe Diabetes Peer Support Programme in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acceptance as a solution for improving diabetes self-management. In this programme ... in Chichewa, 5) motivation and a willingness to accept the roles and ... support programme will hopefully lead to expansion of this model to other regions ...

  18. Online peer support interventions for chronic conditions: a scoping review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munce, Sarah Elizabeth Patricia; Shepherd, John; Perrier, Laure; Allin, Sonya; Sweet, Shane N; Tomasone, Jennifer R; Nelson, Michelle L A; Guilcher, Sara J T; Hossain, Saima; Jaglal, Susan

    2017-09-24

    Peer support is receiving increasing attention as both an effective and cost-effective intervention method to support the self-management of chronic health conditions. Given that an increasing proportion of Canadians have internet access and the increasing implementation of web-based interventions, online peer support interventions are a promising option to address the burden of chronic diseases. Thus, the specific research question of this scoping review is the following: What is known from the existing literature about the key characteristics of online peer support interventions for adults with chronic conditions? METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will use the methodological frameworks used by Arksey and O'Malley as well as Levac and colleagues for the current scoping review. To be eligible for inclusion, studies must report on adults (≥18 years of age) with one of the Public Health Agency of Canada chronic conditions or HIV/AIDS. We will limit our review to peer support interventions delivered through online formats. All study designs will be included. Only studies published from 2012 onwards will be included to ensure relevance to the current healthcare context and feasibility. Furthermore, only English language studies will be included. Studies will be identified by searching a variety of databases. Two reviewers will independently screen the titles and abstracts identified by the literature search for inclusion (ie, level 1 screening), the full text articles (ie, level 2 screening) and then perform data abstraction. Abstracted data will include study characteristics, participant population, key characteristics of the intervention and outcomes collected. This review will identify the key features of online peer support interventions and could assist in the future development of other online peer support programmes so that effective and sustainable programmes can be developed. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the

  19. Peer support in the community: initial findings of a mentoring program for individuals with traumatic brain injury and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbard, Mary R; Cantor, Joshua; Charatz, Heather; Rosenthal, Robin; Ashman, Teresa; Gundersen, Nancy; Ireland-Knight, Lynne; Gordon, Wayne; Avner, Judith; Gartner, Audrey

    2002-04-01

    To evaluate the impact of a community-based peer support program for individuals and their family members following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Community-based sample of family members and individuals with traumatic brain injury. Twenty individuals who had participated in the peer support program (11 individuals with TBI and 9 family members). Quantitative and qualitative approaches were used: a retrospective structured interview assessing self-reported impacts of peer support on empowerment, quality of life, mood, skills and knowledge, and social supports; an in-depth qualitative interview with a subgroup of family members focused on the specific benefits/limitations of the peer support program. Participants in the peer support program reported positive impacts of peer support on increasing their knowledge of TBI, enhancing their overall quality of life, improving their general outlook, and enhancing their ability to cope with depression post TBI. The peer support program was reported to have had a minimal impact on enhancing social support from families, friends, and the community, with varying impacts noted on levels of happiness, coping with anger and anxiety, communication with professionals, and control over one's life. Qualitative analysis suggests the merits of this type of community-based support and areas of improvement for the peer support program itself. Preliminary data suggest that peer support is a promising approach to enhancing coping for both individuals and their family members after TBI.

  20. Trust, technology affordances and feedback in peer assessments in MOOCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringtved, Ulla Lunde; Milligan, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    The preliminary findings in the automated peer assessments in the assessment framework in a MOOC are discussed here. We discuss whether,the assessment frame work underpins pedagogical approaches including feedback and collaboration between the participants. The empirical foundation is research...... on data from a recent MOOC from Melbourne University titled “Teaching and assessing 21st century skills”....

  1. Examining Masculine Norms and Peer Support within a Sample of Incarcerated African American Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Derrick M; Hawes, Samuel W; Perez-Cabello, M Arturo; Brabham-Hollis, Tamika; Lanza, A Stephen; Dyson, William J

    2013-01-01

    The adherence to masculine norms has been suggested to be influenced by social settings and context. Prisons have been described as a context where survival is dependent on adhering to strict masculine norms that may undermine reintegration back into the larger society. This study attempted to examine the relationship between masculine norms, peer support, and an individual's length of incarceration on a sample of 139 African American men taking part in a pre-release community re-entry program. Results indicate that peer support was associated with length of incarceration and the interaction between the endorsement of masculine norms and peer support significantly predicted the length of incarceration for African American men in this sample. Implications for incarcerated African American men and future research directions are discussed.

  2. Peer Support and Psychosocial Pain Management Strategies for Children with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Nabors

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews information on Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE in children. Children with this chronic illness often experience pain related to their condition. They also can experience social isolation. This paper reviews psychosocial information on peer support and cognitive behavioral pain management strategies. The information presented in this paper provides new insights for health professionals assisting children and families in coping with psychological facets of this disease. Research focusing on ways by which peers and friends can support the child’s use of psychological pain management strategies will provide new information for the literature.

  3. Determinants of hospitalization in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes receiving a peer support intervention and JADE integrated care: the PEARL randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Roseanne O; Cai, Jing-Heng; Zhang, Yuying; Luk, Andrea O; Pan, Jun-Hao; Yin, Junmei; Ozaki, Risa; Kong, Alice P S; Ma, Ronald; So, Wing-Yee; Tsang, Chiu Chi; Lau, K P; Fisher, Edwin; Goggins, Williams; Oldenburg, Brian; Chan, Julianna

    2018-01-01

    In a randomized controlled trial of 628 Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes receiving multidisciplinary care in the Joint Asia Diabetes Evaluation (JADE) Progam, 372 were randomized to receive additional telephone-based peer support (Peer Empowerment And Remote communication Linked by information technology, PEARL) intervention. After 12 months, all-cause hospitalization was reduced by half in the PEARL group especially in those with high Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) scores. We used stratified analyses, negative binomial regression, and structural equation modelling (SEM) to examine the inter-relationships between emotions, self-management, cardiometabolic risk factors, and hospitalization. Hospitalized patients were older, more likely to have heart or kidney disease, and negative emotions than those without hospitalization. Patients with high DASS score who did not receive peer support had the highest hospitalization rates. After adjustment for confounders, peer support reduced the frequency of hospitalizations by 48% with a relative risk of 0.52 (95% CI 0·35-0·79; p  = 0·0018). Using SEM, improvement of negative emotions reduced treatment nonadherence (Est = 0.240, p  = 0.034) and hospitalizations (Est=-0.218, p  = 0.001). The latter was also reduced by an interactive term of peer support and chronic kidney disease (Est = 0.833, p  = diabetes, improvement of negative emotions and peer support reduced hospitalizations, especially in those with comorbidities, in part mediated through improving treatment nonadherence. Integrating peer support is feasible and adds value to multidisciplinary care, augmented by information technology, especially in patients with comorbidities. NCT00950716 Registered July 31, 2009.

  4. Peer Support for Diabetes Management in Primary Care and Community Settings in Anhui Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xuefeng; Wang, Zhimin; Fisher, Edwin B; Tanasugarn, Chanuantong

    2015-08-01

    We evaluated a peer leader-support program (PLSP) for diabetes self-management in China in terms of acceptability and feasibility; implementation; perceived advantages; disadvantages and barriers; reach and recruitment; effectiveness in terms of diabetes knowledge and clinical impacts; adoption; and sustainability. Within each of 3 cities in Anhui Province, 2 subcommunities were randomly assigned to usual care or PLSP. Peer leaders and staff of Community Health Service Centers (CHSCs) co-led biweekly educational meetings. Peer leaders also led biweekly discussion meetings, promoted regular care through the CHSCs, organized informal health promotion activities (eg, walking and tai chi groups), and provided informal individual support to participants through casual contact. Qualitative evaluations indicated acceptance of and positive responses to the program among patients, peer leaders, and CHSC staff. Implementation was successful in 2 of 3 subcommunities, the third failing for lack of staff resources. Reported advantages included peer support as a bridge between CHSCs and their patients. In 2 sites where the PLSP was implemented, analyses controlling for baseline differences and site showed significant benefits for PLSP relative to controls (P management. The PLSP was well accepted, feasible given sufficient administrative and staff resources, effective for those who participated, and generalizable to other sites and health problems. © 2015 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  5. Training Veterans to Provide Peer Support in a Weight-Management Program: MOVE!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes-Maslow, Lindsey; Carr, Carol; Orr, Melinda; Kahwati, Leila C.; Weiner, Bryan J.; Kinsinger, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) has implemented MOVE!, a weight-management program for veterans designed to address the increasing proportion of overweight and obese veterans. The objective of our study was to determine whether peer support employing motivational interviewing (MI) could positively influence lifestyle changes, thus expanding the reach of the MOVE! program. We describe the initial evaluation of the peer training program. Methods We developed an MI peer counselor training program for volunteer veterans, the “Buddies” program, to provide one-on-one telephone support for veterans enrolled in MOVE!. Buddies were recruited at 5 VHA sites and trained to provide peer support for the 6-month MOVE! intervention. We used a DVD to teach MI skills and followed with 2 to 3 booster sessions. We observed training, conducted pre- and posttraining surveys, and debriefed focus groups to assess training feasibility. Results Fifty-six Buddies were trained. Results indicate positive receipt of the program (89% reported learning about peer counseling and 87% reported learning communication skills). Buddies showed a small improvement in MI self-efficacy on posttraining surveys. We also identified key challenges to learning MI and training implementation. Conclusions MI training is feasible to implement and acceptable to volunteer Buddies. Trainers must assess how effectively volunteers learn MI skills in order to enhance its effective use in health promotion. PMID:24199738

  6. Lunar Surface Systems Supportability Technology Development Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Struk, Peter M.; Green, Jennifer L.; Chau, Savio N.; Curell, Philip C.; Dempsey, Cathy A.; Patterson, Linda P.; Robbins, William; Steele, Michael A.; DAnnunzio, Anthony; hide

    2011-01-01

    The Lunar Surface Systems Supportability Technology Development Roadmap is a guide for developing the technologies needed to enable the supportable, sustainable, and affordable exploration of the Moon and other destinations beyond Earth. Supportability is defined in terms of space maintenance, repair, and related logistics. This report considers the supportability lessons learned from NASA and the Department of Defense. Lunar Outpost supportability needs are summarized, and a supportability technology strategy is established to make the transition from high logistics dependence to logistics independence. This strategy will enable flight crews to act effectively to respond to problems and exploit opportunities in an environment of extreme resource scarcity and isolation. The supportability roadmap defines the general technology selection criteria. Technologies are organized into three categories: diagnostics, test, and verification; maintenance and repair; and scavenge and recycle. Furthermore, "embedded technologies" and "process technologies" are used to designate distinct technology types with different development cycles. The roadmap examines the current technology readiness level and lays out a four-phase incremental development schedule with selection decision gates. The supportability technology roadmap is intended to develop technologies with the widest possible capability and utility while minimizing the impact on crew time and training and remaining within the time and cost constraints of the program.

  7. Measures of Patient Activation and Social Support in a Peer-Led Support Network for Women With Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Dawn; Benson, Gretchen; Campbell, Susan; Sillah, Arthur; Berra, Kathy

    Social support has been associated with beneficial effects on many disease states and overall health and well-being. However, there is limited research exploring the impact of peer-led support models among women living with coronary heart disease. This study describes the structure of peer-led support groups offered by WomenHeart (WH): The National Coalition for Women Living with Heart Disease, and assesses WH participants' quality of life and social, emotional, and physical health. Participants were recruited from 50 WH groups. A 70-item online survey was administered, and the main analytic sample included 157 women. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the association between patient activation levels (lower activation levels: 1, 2 vs higher activation levels: 3, 4) and social support scores (range: lowest 8 to highest 34), adjusting for age. High levels of social support, patient activation, physical activity, and low levels of stress, anxiety, and depression were reported. Those who were at or above the median for the social support measures (indicating high levels of social support) had greater odds of high levels of patient activation (level 3 or 4) than individuals reporting low levels of social support (OR = 2.23; 95% CI, 1.04-4.76; P = .012). Women who regularly attended a support group by a trained peer leader were highly engaged in their health care and had low levels of stress, anxiety, and depression. These findings lend credibility to the value of the peer support model and could potentially be replicated in other disease states to enhance patient care.

  8. How Teacher Emotional Support Motivates Students: The Mediating Roles of Perceived Peer Relatedness, Autonomy Support, and Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzek, Erik A.; Hafen, Christopher A.; Allen, Joseph P.; Gregory, Anne; Mikami, Amori Yee; Pianta, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    Multilevel mediation analyses test whether students' mid-year reports of classroom experiences of autonomy, relatedness with peers, and competence mediate associations between early in the school year emotionally-supportive teacher-student interactions (independently observed) and student-reported academic year changes in mastery motivation and…

  9. Randomized Evaluation of Peer Support Arrangements to Support the Inclusion of High School Students with Severe Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Erik W.; Asmus, Jennifer; Moss, Colleen K.; Biggs, Elizabeth E.; Bolt, Dan M.; Born, Tiffany L.; Brock, Matthew E.; Cattey, Gillian N.; Chen, Rui; Cooney, Molly; Fesperman, Ethan; Hochman, Julia M.; Huber, Heartley B.; Lequia, Jenna L.; Lyons, Gregory; Moyseenko, Kerrie A.; Riesch, Lindsay M.; Shalev, Rebecca A.; Vincent, Lori B.; Weir, Katie

    2016-01-01

    Enhancing the social and learning experiences of students with severe disabilities in inclusive classrooms has been a long-standing focus of research, legislative, and advocacy efforts. The authors used a randomized controlled experimental design to examine the efficacy of peer support arrangements to improve academic and social outcomes for 51…

  10. NIH-Supported Technologies of the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Technologies of the Future Follow us NIH-Supported Technologies of the Future Silk Screws Silk has been ... This new solution could eliminate some of the disadvantages of metal stents. Developer: Joachim Kohn, Rutgers University. ...

  11. Hybrid Life Support System Technology Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, R. C.; Wetzel, J. P.; Richter, R. C.

    2018-02-01

    Demonstration of plant-based hybrid life support technologies in deep space will validate the function of these technologies for long duration missions, such as Mars transit, while providing dietary variety to improve habitability.

  12. Supervising undergraduate research: a collective approach utilising groupwork and peer support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Mary-Jane; Cluett, Elizabeth; Ireland, Lorraine; Reading, Sheila; Rourke, Susan

    2014-04-01

    Nursing education now requires graduate entry for professional registration. The challenge is to ensure that students develop independence and team working in a resource effective manner. The dissertation is one opportunity for this. To evaluate changing from individual dissertation supervision to group peer supervision. Group supervision was implemented for one cohort. Dissertation outcomes were compared with two previous cohorts. Student evaluative data was assessed. Group supervision did not adversely affect dissertation outcomes (p=0.85). 88% of students reported peer supervision to be helpful, with themes being 'support and sharing', and 'progress and moving forward'. Peer group support provided consistent supervision harnessing the energy and resources of the students and Faculty, without adversely affecting outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Developing an Embedded Peer Tutor Program in Design Studio to Support First Year Design Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamberlan, Lisa; Wilson, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    An improved first year student experience is a strategic focus for higher education in an increasingly competitive marketplace. A successful peer tutoring program creates a visible community of practice, supports the student learning experience, elevates senior students as ambassadors of the program, and reinforces an emphasis on learning through…

  14. Aggregation Bias and Woman Abuse: Variations by Male Peer Support, Region, Language, and School Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Martin D.; DeKeseredy, Walter S.

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes the Canadian National Survey data on woman abuse to compare results for geographic regions, types of schools, and whether the students took the survey in French or English. None of these factors influenced the results. Male peer support measures did strongly affect male behavior in both physical and sexual abuse. (Author/JDM)

  15. Peer Mentoring: A Way forward for Supporting Preservice EFL Teachers Psychosocially during the Practicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoa Thi Mai

    2013-01-01

    During the past several years, the importance of practicum as a vital proportion of the preservice teacher education program has been increasingly emphasized. There have been a number of initiatives for supporting preservice teachers. Among these, peer based relationship is increasingly emerged as an innovative strategy to provide additional…

  16. The Associations among Sibling and Peer-Bullying, Social Support and Internalizing Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Samantha; Demaray, Michelle K.; Malecki, Christine K.; Tennant, Jaclyn E.; Klossing, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    Background: Peer bullying is associated with internalizing problems for children and adolescents. However, less is known about how these same behaviors are related to student well-being when they occur within the context of the sibling relationship and how supportive behavior may benefit those experiencing bullying. Objective: The purpose of this…

  17. How Do Supports from Parents, Teachers, and Peers Influence Academic Achievement of Twice-Exceptional Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Clare Wen; Neihart, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated how perceived external factors such as supports from parents and teachers, and influences from peers contributed to the academic successes and failures of Singaporean twice-exceptional (2e) students. A total of six 2e participants from one secondary school in Singapore voluntarily participated in the study. This study used…

  18. Work-Integrated Learning and the Importance of Peer Support and Sense of Belonging

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBeath, Margaret; Drysdale, Maureen T. B.; Bohn, Nicholas

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between peer support and sense of belonging on the mental health and overall well-being, with a specific focus on comparing the perceptions of students in a work-integrated learning (WIL) program to those in a traditional non-WIL program. Design/methodology/approach: Semi-structured…

  19. Academic Achievement and Perceived Peer Support among Turkish Students: Gender and Preschool Education Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursal, Murat

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the academic achievement and perceived peer support levels of 4th-8th grade Turkish elementary and middle school students at low socio-economic status. Factorial design analyses were used to test the statistical effects of gender and preschool education variables on the dependent variables. The findings…

  20. The Effect of Peer Support on University Level Students' English Language Achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Irfan; Çeliköz, Nadir; Ünal, Süleyman

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of peer support on university level students' English language achievements. An experimental model with pretest-posttest experimental and control group was used with 800 students who were studying at a university in Istanbul vicinity. As experiment group, 400 students (200 of whom…

  1. The Effectiveness of Immersive Multimedia Learning with Peer Support on English Speaking and Reading Aloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muslem, Asnawi; Abbas, Merza

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the impacts of the immersive multimedia learning strategy with peer support on production skills in reading and speaking. Moreover, the effects of it on performance were investigated by student achievement. The quasi-experimental design with post-test was employed for the study. 80 first-year university students enrolled in…

  2. Care, Empowerment and Self-Determination in the Practice of Peer Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Anne; Doughty, Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    The concept of "care" has been fraught with negative connotations within the disability movement; the concepts of empowerment, choice and control have been developed as alternatives. The peer-support movement in the mental health sector draws from this tradition, and is uncomfortable with the provision of care. Drawing on the feminist ethic of…

  3. Experience of the United States in Hosting and Supporting IAEA Peer Review Missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamish, N.

    2016-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) provides a number of peer review services to its Member States. The United States has strongly supported these peer reviews since their inception. In 2010, the United States hosted an Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) mission, with a follow-up mission completed in 2014. The missions provided valuable recommendations and suggestions, identified a number of best practices, and acknowledged the prompt and effective actions taken by the NRC following the Fukushima Daiichi accident. Through hosting an International Physical Protection Advisory Service (IPPAS) mission in 2013, the United States benefited both from the insights provided by the team, as well as the U.S. Government’s gap analyses and preparatory efforts in advance of the mission. The United States strongly supports the IAEA’s Operational Safety Review Team (OSART) program, inviting a peer review mission to a U.S. nuclear power plant every 3 years. Although OSART is an operational, not regulatory, peer review, the NRC provides funding for the mission and gives inspection credit to operators that host them. The United States also contributes significant technical expertise to IAEA peer review missions hosted by other Member States. With the IRRS and IPPAS reaching their 10th and 20th anniversaries respectively, these programs have improved as they have matured. However, it remains critical for Member States to continue to support these programs, and provide feedback to the IAEA Secretariat on their effectiveness and areas where IAEA might enhance them. Doing so will ensure peer reviews remain an effective tool for strengthening nuclear safety and security worldwide. (author)

  4. The Alternative Peer Group: A Developmentally Appropriate Recovery Support Model for Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Angela; Collier, Crystal

    2016-01-01

    Recovery as the goal for substance use disorder treatment has been a key component of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's mission for the past decade. Consistent with their mission, there is a call for research and development of recovery-oriented systems of care to support affected individuals through all stages of the recovery process. Evidence is emerging to support recovery practice and research for adults, but recovery-oriented models for adolescents are scant. The Alternative Peer Group (APG) is a comprehensive adolescent recovery support model that integrates recovering peers and prosocial activities into evidence-based clinical practice. Employing APG participants' own words, this article will describe the essential elements and three theoretical frameworks underlying the APG model to illustrate how the APG serves as a developmentally appropriate recovery support service for adolescents with substance use disorder.

  5. Effect of peer nominations of teacher-student support at individual and classroom levels on social and academic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Jan N; Im, Myung Hee; Wehrly, Sarah E

    2014-06-01

    This longitudinal study examined the prospective relations between 713 elementary students' individual peer teacher support reputation (PTSR) and a measure of the classroom-wide dispersion of peer nominations of teacher support (Centralization of Teacher Support) on students' peer relatedness (i.e., peer acceptance and peer academic reputation) and academic motivation (i.e., academic self-efficacy and teacher-rated behavioral engagement). PTSR was measured as the proportion of classmates who nominated a given student on a descriptor of teacher-student support. Centralization of Teacher Support was assessed using social network analysis to identify the degree to which peer nominations of teacher support in a classroom centered on a few students. PTSR predicted changes in all student outcomes, above academic achievement and relevant covariates. Centralization of Teacher Support predicted changes in students' peer academic reputation, net the effect of PTSR and covariates. Students' academic achievement moderated effects of PTSR and Centralization of Teacher Support on some outcomes. Findings highlight the importance of peers' perceptions of teacher support and of the structure of those perceptions for children's social and academic outcomes. Implications for practice are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Peer-led Aboriginal parent support: Program development for vulnerable populations with participatory action research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munns, Ailsa; Toye, Christine; Hegney, Desley; Kickett, Marion; Marriott, Rhonda; Walker, Roz

    2017-10-01

    Participatory action research (PAR) is a credible, culturally appropriate methodology that can be used to effect collaborative change within vulnerable populations. This PAR study was undertaken in a Western Australian metropolitan setting to develop and evaluate the suitability, feasibility and effectiveness of an Aboriginal peer-led home visiting programme. A secondary aim, addressed in this paper, was to explore and describe research methodology used for the study and provide recommendations for its implementation in other similar situations. PAR using action learning sets was employed to develop the parent support programme and data addressing the secondary, methodological aim were collected through focus groups using semi-structured and unstructured interview schedules. Findings were addressed throughout the action research process to enhance the research process. The themes that emerged from the data and addressed the methodological aim were the need for safe communication processes; supportive engagement processes and supportive organisational processes. Aboriginal peer support workers (PSWs) and community support agencies identified three important elements central to their capacity to engage and work within the PAR methodology. This research has provided innovative data, highlighting processes and recommendations for child health nurses to engage with the PSWs, parents and community agencies to explore culturally acceptable elements for an empowering methodology for peer-led home visiting support. There is potential for this nursing research to credibly inform policy development for Aboriginal child and family health service delivery, in addition to other vulnerable population groups. Child health nurses/researchers can use these new understandings to work in partnership with Aboriginal communities and families to develop empowering and culturally acceptable strategies for developing Aboriginal parent support for the early years. Impact Statement Child

  7. [Peer support programs in mental health in France: Status report and challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villani, M; Kovess-Masféty, V

    2018-03-23

    Recovery is a process through which people experiencing mental illness learn to live with their disorder and reach social insertion and citizenship. This positive approach focuses on a person's competencies and strengths rather than on the symptoms. Within this philosophy, peer support has been unevenly developing in mental health services worldwide with roots in the South-American social programs for homeless people and in the American recovery circles in the field of addiction. Therapeutic efficiency of peer support has been proven by several studies including a control group, as being at least as good as traditional services and even better in some specific areas such as reduction of need for emergency services and ability to reach "difficult" patients. The integration of former psychiatric services users in mental health services can take several forms, from the participation to scientific research studies to the direct involvement in a professional team at mental health facilities. In this context, our research aims to sum up the situation in France in comparison with other countries. We conducted a worldwide literature review in English and in French on peer support experiences and policies in mental health services, using medical and psychological databases (PsycInfo, PsycArticles, SantéPsy, Cairn, Medline, Wiley Interscience and PubPsych) on a recent period: 2005-2016. In total, 32 relevant scientific papers have been included in our research. In some cases, we have also used official reports, blogs, Internet sites, and mass media articles when they were relevant. Our results show that this movement has been long to develop in France, with controversies having been raised since the beginning on the role that peers should play and confusion with existing social integration programs in the associative sector. Drawing inspiration from the Canadian model, a recent "peer mentor" initiative has been analyzed after 2 years of existence: many benefits for services

  8. Web-based Survey Data Collection With Peer Support and Advocacy Organizations: Implications of Participatory Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrow, Laysha; Penney, Darby; Stuart, Elizabeth; Leaf, Phillip J

    2017-01-01

    The 2012 National Survey of Peer-Run Organizations is one of the first to survey a nationally representative sample of mental health peer-run organizations, nonprofit venues for support and advocacy which are defined by people with psychiatric histories being in positions of authority and control. This paper describes data collection methods and demonstrates how participatory strategies to involve people with psychiatric histories intersected with Internet research to achieve study aims. People with psychiatric histories were involved in designing and implementing a web-based survey to collect data on peer-run organizations' operations and views on national policy. Participatory approaches were used throughout design, data collection analysis, and dissemination. The extensive involvement of people with psychiatric histories in project design and implementation were important strategies that contributed to this study's success.

  9. Information Literacy Advocates: developing student skills through a peer support approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Ruth

    2016-12-01

    Since 2013/2014, an Information Literacy Advocates (ILA) scheme has been running at the University of Nottingham as an extracurricular module on the Nottingham Advantage Award programme. The Information Literacy Advocates scheme, which recruits medicine and health sciences students in their second year or above, aims to facilitate development of information literacy skills and confidence, as well as communication, organisation and teamwork, through the provision of peer support. Previous research indicates peer assistance effectively enhances such skills and is valued by fellow students who welcome the opportunity to approach more experienced students for help. This article, written by guest writer Ruth Curtis from the University of Nottingham, provides an overview of administering the ILA scheme and explores its impact on the Information Literacy Advocates, peers and librarians, and discusses future developments for taking the scheme forward. H. S. © 2016 Health Libraries Group.

  10. Moms Supporting Moms: Digital Storytelling With Peer Mentors in Recovery From Substance Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterno, Mary T; Fiddian-Green, Alice; Gubrium, Aline

    2018-01-01

    Substance use disorder (SUD) is a growing issue nationally, and SUD in pregnancy has significant consequences for mothers and their children. This article describes findings from a pilot project that used digital storytelling as a mechanism for understanding substance use and recovery from the perspective of women in recovery from SUD in pregnancy who worked as peer mentors with pregnant women currently experiencing SUD. Research on peer mentorship has primarily focused on outcomes for mentees but not the experience of the peer mentors themselves. In this qualitative study, a 3-day digital storytelling workshop was conducted with five women in recovery serving as peer mentors in their community. Each mentor also participated in an individual, in-depth interview. The digital storytelling workshop process helped peer mentors make linkages between their past substance use experiences to their present work of recovery, and fostered deep social connections between mentors through the shared experience. The workshop process also elicited a sense of hope among participants, which served as groundwork for developing advocacy-based efforts. Digital storytelling may be therapeutic for women in recovery and has the potential to be integrated into recovery programs to bolster hope and social support among participants.

  11. Benefits of peer support in online Japanese breast cancer communities: differences between lurkers and posters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setoyama, Yoko; Yamazaki, Yoshihiko; Namayama, Kazuhiro

    2011-12-29

    Web 2.0 has improved interactions among peers on the Internet, especially for the many online patient communities that have emerged over the past decades. Online communities are said to be particularly beneficial peer support resources for patients with breast cancer. However, most studies of online patient communities have focused on those members who post actively (posters), even though there are many members who participate without posting (lurkers). In addition, little attention has been paid to the usage of online communities among non-English-speaking patients. The present study explored the differences in peer support received by lurkers and posters in online breast cancer communities. It also examined the effects of such support on both groups' mental health. We conducted an exploratory, descriptive, cross-sectional, Web-based survey among members of four Japanese online breast cancer communities. In an online questionnaire, we asked questions regarding sociodemographics, disease-related characteristics, mental health, participation in online communities, and peer support received from those communities. Of the 465 people who accessed the questionnaire, 253 completed it. Of the respondents, 113/220 (51.4%) were lurkers. There was no significant difference between lurkers and posters with regard to sociodemographic variables. About half of the posters had been given a diagnosis of breast cancer less than a year previously, which was a significantly shorter period than that of the lurkers (P = .02). The 5 support functions extracted by factor analysis were the same for both posters and lurkers. These were emotional support/helper therapy, emotional expression, conflict, advice, and insight/universality. When the support scores were calculated, insight/universality scored highest for both posters and lurkers, with scores that were not significantly different between the two groups. Among the 5 support scores, emotional support/helper therapy and emotional

  12. How teacher emotional support motivates students: The mediating roles of perceived peer relatedness, autonomy support, and competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzek, Erik A.; Hafen, Christopher A.; Allen, Joseph P.; Gregory, Anne; Mikami, Amori Yee; Pianta, Robert C.

    2017-01-01

    Multilevel mediation analyses test whether students' mid-year reports of classroom experiences of autonomy, relatedness with peers, and competence mediate associations between early in the school year emotionally-supportive teacher-student interactions (independently observed) and student-reported academic year changes in mastery motivation and behavioral engagement. When teachers were observed to be more emotionally-supportive in the beginning of the school year, adolescents reported academic year increases in their behavioral engagement and mastery motivation. Mid-year student reports indicated that in emotionally-supportive classrooms, adolescents experienced more developmentally-appropriate opportunities to exercise autonomy in their day-to-day activities and had more positive relationships with their peers. Analyses of the indirect effects of teacher emotional support on students' engagement and motivation indicated significant mediating effects of autonomy and peer relatedness experiences, but not competence beliefs, in this sample of 960 students (ages 11–17) in the classrooms of 68 middle and high school teachers in 12 U.S. schools. PMID:28190936

  13. How teacher emotional support motivates students: The mediating roles of perceived peer relatedness, autonomy support, and competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzek, Erik A; Hafen, Christopher A; Allen, Joseph P; Gregory, Anne; Mikami, Amori Yee; Pianta, Robert C

    2016-04-01

    Multilevel mediation analyses test whether students' mid-year reports of classroom experiences of autonomy, relatedness with peers, and competence mediate associations between early in the school year emotionally-supportive teacher-student interactions (independently observed) and student-reported academic year changes in mastery motivation and behavioral engagement. When teachers were observed to be more emotionally-supportive in the beginning of the school year, adolescents reported academic year increases in their behavioral engagement and mastery motivation. Mid-year student reports indicated that in emotionally-supportive classrooms, adolescents experienced more developmentally-appropriate opportunities to exercise autonomy in their day-to-day activities and had more positive relationships with their peers. Analyses of the indirect effects of teacher emotional support on students' engagement and motivation indicated significant mediating effects of autonomy and peer relatedness experiences, but not competence beliefs, in this sample of 960 students (ages 11-17) in the classrooms of 68 middle and high school teachers in 12 U.S. schools.

  14. Technologies to support industrial processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palazzi, G.; Savelli, D.

    1989-05-01

    Control and measuring techniques applied to industry have the common aim of increasing safety, reliability and plant availability. The industrial monitoring system needs a lot of sensors, whose signals, elaborated and interpreted, allow one to define the best working condition; moreover control instruments perform a diagnosis related to damages and breakages. The Experimental Engineering Division of ENEA's Thermal Reactor Department has developed sensors and measuring apparatus and has acquired advanced control techniques. All these systems, containing an original software, have been applied to industrial process problems and/or to experimental facilities both to increase reliability and to understand better process physics. Division activities are grouped in four sectors: non-destructive examinations (ultrasonic, eddy current, thermography, holographic interpherometry, penetrant liquids and magnetoscopy); innovative sensors (heated thermocouples, optical fiber sensors); advanced measuring systems (laser technology for fluidodynamic measures, nuclear radiation techniques, infrared measuring, mass spectrometer, hot-film anemometer, chromatographic apparatus); advanced technologies for diagnosis and signal analysis (digital image processing, statistical analysis). (author)

  15. Peer supporter experiences of home visits for people with HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee HJ

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Han Ju Lee,1 Linda Moneyham,2 Hee Sun Kang,3 Kyung Sun Kim41Department of Nursing, Sangmyung University, Cheonan-si, Chungcheongnam-do, South Korea; 2School of Nursing, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA; 3Red Cross College of Nursing, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, South Korea; 4Gyeonggi Branch, Korean Alliance to Defeat AIDS, Anyang, Gyeonggi-do, South KoreaPurpose: This study's purpose was to explore the experiences of peer supporters regarding their work in a home visit program for people with HIV infection.Patients and methods: A qualitative descriptive study was conducted using focus groups. Participants were 12 HIV-positive peer supporters conducting home visits with people living with HIV/AIDS in South Korea. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data.Results: Six major themes emerged: feeling a sense of belonging; concern about financial support; facing HIV-related stigma and fear of disclosure; reaching out and acting as a bridge of hope; feeling burnout; and need for quality education. The study findings indicate that although peer supporters experience several positive aspects in the role, such as feelings of belonging, they also experience issues that make it difficult to be successful in the role, including the position's instability, work-related stress, and concerns about the quality of their continuing education.Conclusion: The findings suggest that to maintain a stable and effective peer supporter program, such positions require financial support, training in how to prevent and manage stress associated with the role, and a well-developed program of education and training.Keywords: human immunodeficiency virus, qualitative research, workplace experience

  16. Peer mentoring – is a virtual form of support a viable alternative?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pat Gannon-Leary

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Support systems are vital for university entrants and one established means of support is peer mentoring, which has the potential to improve student engagement and retention. Peer mentoring models are generally based on face-to-face contact. However, given the increasing number of higher education institutions using social media, might online models be beneficial in a peer mentoring context? This article describes a literature review and case study that considers the advantages and disadvantages of three potential virtual models to facilitate a peer mentoring scheme. The case study, undertaken at Northumbria University, UK, involved an investigation of mentoring needs and current usage of electronic media where special attention is afforded to a diverse student body. The three models discussed are virtual learning environments (VLE, social networking sites and virtual worlds. We find that the VLE is established within institutions but lacks excitement; social networking is popular particularly with younger students but there may be resentment if this appears to be appropriated by the institution; whilst virtual worlds are unfamiliar to many students and require advanced skills to use successfully. Based on these findings the social networking model is now being run as a pilot study by business programmes at Northumbria University.

  17. Peer-to-Peer Location-Based Services based on Blockchain and Web Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Brambilla, Giacomo

    2017-01-01

    A distinctive feature of smart cities is the fruitful and effective interconnection among mobile users and resources, to support the fulfillment of sophisticated location-based services (LBSs). LBSs are increasingly taking advantage of user geographic location to provide a broad range of applications, such as traffic monitoring, social networking, emergency management and advertising. Unfortunately, most LBSs rely upon centralized infrastructures, thus raising, besides scalability and r...

  18. Significance of family and peer support for metabolic control of type 1 diabetes in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurović Dušanka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to explore the significance of family and peer support for metabolic control of Type 1 diabetes in adolescents. Metabolic control refers to maintenance of acceptable blood glucose level thus diminishing risk for chronic complications. It involves regular insulin shots, measuring blood glucose and keeping diary, as the daily based self-control. Regular visits to endocrinologist and screening for chronic complications are compulsory. The sample comprised 79 adolescents age 10-17 years with diagnose of Type 1 diabetes and properly treated at the institute. The sample was divided in two groups - with good (N=40 and poor (N=39 metabolic control. A criterium for good metabolic control was glycosilated hemoglobin less than 7,6%. Social support was measured by Social Support Scale consisting of two parts - the first for estimation of registered family support (based upon modified Perceived Social Support Family Scale and the second for estimation of registered friends' support (modified Perceived Social Support Friend Scale. Adolescents with good metabolic control referred statistically more significant social support in the family, unlike the group with poor metabolic control. Considering peer social support, there was no statistically significant difference. Positive family history for diabetes also appeared to be directly linked to good metabolic control.

  19. A dedicated fund supports technological innovation

    CERN Document Server

    Katarina Anthony

    2010-01-01

    The Knowledge and Technology Transfer (KTT) Group is calling on CERN Departments to take their technology out of the confines of the laboratory and make it ready for dissemination. For the first time, projects can apply for financial support from the newly established KTT Fund.   Scientific inquiry can lead to unexpected developments for society when researchers apply their expertise for public use. CERN actively encourages this transfer of knowledge and technology and, for the first time, has created a dedicated fund to provide financial support to projects aiming at disseminating their technologies to external audiences. CERN’s technology transfer schemes were formalised in the recent Policy on the Management of Intellectual Property in Technology Transfer, approved in March. Revenues generated by commercial exploitation will be distributed between the members of the team that developed the technology, their Department, and the KTT Fund for reinvestment in further KTT projects. &qu...

  20. Development of a peer-supported, self-management intervention for people following mental health crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Alyssa; Lloyd-Evans, Brynmor; Fullarton, Kate; Morant, Nicola; Paterson, Bethan; Hindle, David; Kelly, Kathleen; Mason, Oliver; Lambert, Marissa; Johnson, Sonia

    2017-11-09

    A documented gap in support exists for service users following discharge from acute mental health services, and structured interventions to reduce relapse are rarely provided. Peer-facilitated self-management interventions have potential to meet this need, but evidence for their effectiveness is limited. This paper describes the development of a peer-provided self-management intervention for mental health service users following discharge from crisis resolution teams (CRTs). A five-stage iterative mixed-methods approach of sequential data collection and intervention development was adopted, following the development and piloting stages of the MRC framework for developing and evaluating complex interventions. Evidence review (stage 1) included systematic reviews of both peer support and self-management literature. Interviews with CRT service users (n = 41) regarding needs and priorities for support following CRT discharge were conducted (stage 2). Focus group consultations (n = 12) were held with CRT service-users, staff and carers to assess the acceptability and feasibility of a proposed intervention, and to refine intervention organisation and content (stage 3). Qualitative evaluation of a refined, peer-provided, self-management intervention involved qualitative interviews with CRT service user participants (n = 9; n = 18) in feasibility testing (stage 4) and a pilot trial (stage 5), and a focus group at each stage with the peer worker providers (n = 4). Existing evidence suggests self-management interventions can reduce relapse and improve recovery. Initial interviews and focus groups indicated support for the overall purpose and planned content of a recovery-focused self-management intervention for people leaving CRT care adapted from an existing resource: The personal recovery plan (developed by Repper and Perkins), and for peer support workers (PSWs) as providers. Participant feedback after feasibility testing was positive regarding facilitation of

  1. Effects of peer victimization in schools and perceived social support on adolescent well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, K

    2000-02-01

    It has been suggested that the mental health of schoolchildren can be undermined by repeated bullying at school and further exacerbated by having inadequate social support. To evaluate this claim, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) was administered anonymously to 845 adolescent schoolchildren attending coeducational secondary schools in South Australia, together with measures of the extent to which each reported being bullied at school and the social support available to them. Multiple regression analyses indicated that for both sexes frequent peer victimization and low social support contributed significantly and independently to relatively poor mental health. Copyright 2000 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents.

  2. Peer-led healthy lifestyle program in supportive housing: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabassa, Leopoldo J; Stefancic, Ana; O'Hara, Kathleen; El-Bassel, Nabila; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Luchsinger, José A; Gates, Lauren; Younge, Richard; Wall, Melanie; Weinstein, Lara; Palinkas, Lawrence A

    2015-09-02

    The risk for obesity is twice as high in people with serious mental illness (SMI) compared to the general population. Racial and ethnic minority status contribute additional health risks. The aim of this study is to describe the protocol of a Hybrid Trial Type 1 design that will test the effectiveness and examine the implementation of a peer-led healthy lifestyle intervention in supportive housing agencies serving diverse clients with serious mental illness who are overweight or obese. The Hybrid Trial Type 1 design will combine a randomized effectiveness trial with a mixed-methods implementation study. The effectiveness trial will test the health impacts of a peer-led healthy lifestyle intervention versus usual care in supportive housing agencies. The healthy lifestyle intervention is derived from the Group Lifestyle Balanced Program, lasts 12 months, and will be delivered by trained peer specialists. Repeated assessments will be conducted at baseline and at 6, 12, and 18 months post randomization. A mixed-methods (e.g., structured interviews, focus groups, surveys) implementation study will be conducted to examine multi-level implementation factors and processes that can inform the use of the healthy lifestyle intervention in routine practice, using data from agency directors, program managers, staff, and peer specialists before, during, and after the implementation of the effectiveness trial. This paper describes the use of a hybrid research design that blends effectiveness trial methodologies and implementation science rarely used when studying the physical health of people with SMI and can serve as a model for integrating implementation science and health disparities research. Rigorously testing effectiveness and exploring the implementation process are both necessary steps to establish the evidence for large-scale delivery of peer-led healthy lifestyle intervention to improve the physical health of racial/ethnic minorities with SMI. www

  3. Process assessment of a peer education programme for HIV prevention among sex workers in Dhaka, Bangladesh : a social support framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarafian, Isabelle

    2012-08-01

    This study evaluated the process of a peer education program for hotel-based sex workers in Dhaka, Bangladesh, with social support proposed as an organizing framework. Programme outcomes were examined through baseline and follow-up assessments. Sex workers naïve to peer education were assessed on socio-cognitive and behavioural variables; a subsample was reassessed at follow-up 23 weeks later on average. Process was assessed in terms of the content of peer education sessions. These sessions were recorded and coded into percentages of social support types provided by the peer educator to her audience: informational, instrumental, appraisal, emotional, companionship, non-support. Peer educators were classified into three "social support profiles" based on average proportions of emotional and informational support they provided. Seeing more peer educators with a high informational support profile was related to higher sex worker self-efficacy, self-reported STI symptoms, and self-reported condom use at follow-up; the same was true for the high emotional support profile and treatment seeking. Social support constituted a useful framework, but needs further exploration. This study provided a direct, in-depth examination of the process of peer education based on a comprehensive theoretical framework. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Biomass Program 2007 Program Peer Review - Biodiesel and Other Technologies Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-10-28

    This document discloses the comments provided by a review panel at the U.S. Department of Energy Office of the Biomass Program Peer Review held on November 15-16, 2007 in Baltimore, MD and the Biodiesel and Other Technologies, held on August 14th and 15th in Golden, Colorado.

  5. Peers versus professional training of basic life support in Syria: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Fatima; Sawaf, Bisher; Hanafi, Ibrahem; Hajeer, Mohammad Younis; Zakaria, Mhd Ismael; Abbas, Wafaa; Alabdeh, Fadi; Ibrahim, Nazir

    2018-06-18

    Peer training has been identified as a useful tool for delivering undergraduate training in basic life support (BLS) which is fundamental as an initial response in cases of emergency. This study aimed to (1) Evaluate the efficacy of peer-led model in basic life support training among medical students in their first three years of study, compared to professional-led training and (2) To assess the efficacy of the course program and students' satisfaction of peer-led training. A randomized controlled trial with blinded assessors was conducted on 72 medical students from the pre-clinical years (1st to 3rd years in Syria) at Syrian Private University. Students were randomly assigned to peer-led or to professional-led training group for one-day-course of basic life support skills. Sixty-four students who underwent checklist based assessment using objective structured clinical examination design (OSCE) (practical assessment of BLS skills) and answered BLS knowledge checkpoint-questionnaire were included in the analysis. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in delivering BLS skills to medical students in practical (P = 0.850) and BLS knowledge questionnaire outcomes (P = 0.900). Both groups showed statistically significant improvement from pre- to post-course assessment with significant statistical difference in both practical skills and theoretical knowledge (P-Value life support for medical students was beneficial and it provided a quality of education which was as effective as training conducted by professionals. This method is applicable and desirable especially in poor-resource countries and in crisis situation.

  6. International technology identification, transfer, and program support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitchen, B.

    1993-01-01

    Savannah River Site (SRS) activities primarily address vitrification technologies being investigated with Japan and the former Soviet Union (FSU). They also support the overall management of EM's international activities

  7. Supporting indigenous women in science, technology, engineering ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Supporting indigenous women in science, technology, engineering and mathematics careers in Mexico and Central ... ROSSA's latest bulletin puts a focus on women. ... IDRC invites applications for the IDRC Doctoral Research Awards.

  8. Supporting women's leadership in science, technology, and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Supporting women's leadership in science, technology, and innovation through early-career ... des las Naciones Unidas para la Educación, la Ciencia y la Cultura ... IDRC invests in research and knowledge to empower women in India.

  9. Mechanism change in a simulation of peer review: from junk support to elitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolucci, Mario; Grimaldo, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Peer review works as the hinge of the scientific process, mediating between research and the awareness/acceptance of its results. While it might seem obvious that science would regulate itself scientifically, the consensus on peer review is eroding; a deeper understanding of its workings and potential alternatives is sorely needed. Employing a theoretical approach supported by agent-based simulation, we examined computational models of peer review, performing what we propose to call redesign , that is, the replication of simulations using different mechanisms . Here, we show that we are able to obtain the high sensitivity to rational cheating that is present in literature. In addition, we also show how this result appears to be fragile against small variations in mechanisms. Therefore, we argue that exploration of the parameter space is not enough if we want to support theoretical statements with simulation, and that exploration at the level of mechanisms is needed. These findings also support prudence in the application of simulation results based on single mechanisms, and endorse the use of complex agent platforms that encourage experimentation of diverse mechanisms.

  10. Family and peer support matter for precoital and coital behaviors among adolescents in Lima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Angela M.; Cabrera, Lilia Z.; Gilman, Robert H.; Hindin, Michelle J.; Tsui, Amy O.

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed the association between sub-scales developed with adolescents and the outcomes of precoital behaviors and vaginal sex in Lima, Peru. Adolescent participants in key informant sessions operationalized concepts identified during qualitative concept mapping into several sub-scales. Face and content validity testing and pilot application with respondent debriefing were used to refine the sub-scales. Three hundred 15–17 year olds were surveyed about the sub-scales, socio-demographics and sexual behaviors. Exploratory factor analysis confirmed six sub-scales, self-image, goals and decision-making, family education, parental rules/control, school support and peer support, which we regressed on the outcomes. Twice as many males as females reported more than three precoital behaviors and vaginal sex. Higher peer support reduced the likelihood of vaginal sex and precoital behaviors and higher family education reduced precoital behaviors. Results affirm the importance of including adolescents in the entire research process and of sex education with family- and peer-based strategies. PMID:25305443

  11. Peer support of a faculty "writers' circle" increases confidence and productivity in generating scholarship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Catherine; Jamadar, David; Girish, Gandikota; Dong, Qian; Morag, Yoav; Mullan, Patricia

    2015-04-01

    Publishing is critical for academic medicine career advancement. Rejection of manuscripts can be demoralizing. Obstacles faced by clinical faculty may include lack of time, confidence, and optimal writing practices. This study describes the development and evaluation of a peer-writing group, informed by theory and research on faculty development and writing. Five clinical-track radiology faculty members formed a "Writers' Circle" to promote scholarly productivity and reflection on writing practices. Members decided to work with previously rejected manuscripts. After members' initial meeting, interactions were informal, face to face during clinical work, and online. After the first 6 months, an anonymous survey asked members about the status of articles and evaluations of the writing group. Ten previously rejected articles, at least one from each member, were submitted to the Circle. In 6 months, four manuscripts were accepted for publication, five were in active revision, and one was withdrawn. All participants (100%) characterized the program as worth their time, increasing their motivation to write, their opportunities to support scholarly productivity of colleagues, and their confidence in generating scholarship. Peer-support writing groups can facilitate the pooling of expertise and the exchange of recommended writing practices. Our peer-support group increased scholarly productivity and provided a collegial approach to academic writing. Copyright © 2015 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Mechanisms underpinning effective peer support: a qualitative analysis of interactions between expert peers and patients newly-diagnosed with bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Proudfoot Judith G

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing burden on mental health services has led to the growing use of peer support in psychological interventions. Four theoretical mechanisms have been proposed to underpin effective peer support: advice grounded in experiential knowledge, social support, social comparison and the helper therapy principle. However, there has been a lack of studies examining whether these mechanisms are also evident in clinical populations in which interpersonal dysfunction is common, such as bipolar disorder. Method This qualitative study, conducted alongside a randomized controlled trial, examined whether the four mechanisms proposed to underpin effective peer support were expressed in the email exchange between 44 individuals newly-diagnosed with bipolar disorder and their Informed Supporters (n = 4, over the course of a supported online psychoeducation program for bipolar disorder. A total of 104 text segments were extracted and coded. The data were complemented by face-to-face interviews with three of the four Informed Supporters who participated in the study. Results Qualitative analyses of the email interchange and interview transcripts revealed rich examples of all four mechanisms. The data illustrated how the involvement of Informed Supporters resulted in numerous benefits for the newly-diagnosed individuals, including the provision of practical strategies for illness management as well as emotional support throughout the intervention. The Informed Supporters encouraged the development of positive relationships with mental health services, and acted as role models for treatment adherence. The Informed Supporters themselves reported gaining a number of benefits from helping, including a greater sense of connectedness with the mental health system, as well as a broader knowledge of illness management strategies. Conclusions Examples of the mechanisms underpinning effective peer support were found in the sample of emails from

  13. Patient perspectives on peer support for adults with type 1 diabetes: a need for diabetes-specific social capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joensen LE

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Lene E Joensen,1 Tine Filges,2 Ingrid Willaing1 1Health Promotion Research, Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, 2Filges Analysis, Hellerup, Denmark Aim: To explore the function of peer support from the perspective of adults with type 1 diabetes in Denmark. Methods: The study population consisted of 20 adults with type 1 diabetes. The sample was diverse in relation to educational background, age, sex, and cohabitation status. Inspired by action research, several methods and perspectives on peer support were explored and tested. Workshops and group and individual interviews were performed. Systematic text condensation was used to analyze data, supplemented with theory-based interpretive analysis. Results: Adults with type 1 diabetes found peer support highly relevant to reduce a burdensome feeling of diabetes-specific loneliness. Peer support showed potential to create diabetes-specific social capital not only by creating reciprocal social support between peers but also, more importantly, by creating space for genuine trust and a feeling of communality. There was a widespread feeling of the pervasive impact of diabetes on daily life and thus the relevance of discussing all aspects of life. However, participants perceived peer support as particularly relevant in relation to big changes in life, for example, in family life, at work, or through treatment events such as getting an insulin pump. Conclusion: Peer support programs focusing on creating and establishing diabetes-specific social capital using participatory approaches seem highly relevant among adults with type 1 diabetes. Content, methods, and effects of peer support need further exploration in collaboration with adults with type 1 diabetes. Keywords: type 1 diabetes mellitus, adult, psychosocial support systems, patient preferences, peer support, diabetes-specific social capital, diabetes-specific loneliness

  14. Psychological distress and academic self-perception among international medical students: the role of peer social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yukari; Klugar, Miloslav; Ivanova, Katerina; Oborna, Ivana

    2014-11-28

    Psychological distress among medical students is commonly observed during medical education and is generally related to poor academic self-perception. We evaluated the role of peer social support at medical schools in the association between psychological distress and academic self-perception. An online survey was conducted in a medical degree program for 138 international students educated in English in the Czech Republic. The Medical Student Well-Being Index was used to define the students' psychological distress. Perceived peer social support was investigated with the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Poor academic self-perception was defined as the lowest 30% of a subscale score of the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure. Analyses evaluated the presence of additive interactions between psychological distress and peer social support on poor academic self-perception, adjusted for possible confounders. Both psychological distress and low peer social support were negatively associated with poor academic self-perception, adjusted for local language proficiency and social support from family. Students with psychological distress and low peer social support had an odds ratio of 11.0 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.1-56.6) for poor academic self-perception as compared with those without distress who had high peer social support. The presence of an additive interaction was confirmed in that the joint association was four times as large as what would have been expected to be on summing the individual risks of psychological distress and low peer social support (synergy index = 4.5, 95% CI: 1.3-14.9). Psychological distress and low peer social support may synergistically increase the probability of poor academic self-perception among international medical students. Promoting peer social relationships at medical school may interrupt the vicious cycle of psychological distress and poor academic performance.

  15. Cluster randomized controlled trial of a peer support program for people with diabetes: study protocol for the Australasian peers for progress study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riddell Michaela A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Well managed diabetes requires active self-management in order to ensure optimal glycaemic control and appropriate use of available clinical services and other supports. Peer supporters can assist people with their daily diabetes self-management activities, provide emotional and social support, assist and encourage clinical care and be available when needed. Methods A national database of Australians diagnosed with type 2 diabetes is being used to invite people in pre-determined locations to participate in community-based peer support groups. Peer supporters are self-identified from these communities. All consenting participants receive diabetes self-management education and education manual prior to randomization by community to a peer support intervention or usual care. This multi-faceted intervention comprises four interconnected components for delivering support to the participants. (1 Trained supporters lead 12 monthly group meetings. Participants are assisted to set goals to improve diabetes self-management, discuss with and encourage each other to strengthen linkages with local clinical services (including allied health services as well as provide social and emotional support. (2 Support through regular supporter-participant or participant-participant contact, between monthly sessions, is also promoted in order to maintain motivation and encourage self-improvement and confidence in diabetes self-management. (3 Participants receive a workbook containing diabetes information, resources and community support services, key diabetes management behaviors and monthly goal setting activity sheets. (4 Finally, a password protected website contains further resources for the participants. Supporters are mentored and assisted throughout the intervention by other supporters and the research team through attendance at a weekly teleconference. Data, including a self-administered lifestyle survey, anthropometric and biomedical

  16. Artificial intelligence in peer review: How can evolutionary computation support journal editors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrowinski, Maciej J; Fronczak, Piotr; Fronczak, Agata; Ausloos, Marcel; Nedic, Olgica

    2017-01-01

    With the volume of manuscripts submitted for publication growing every year, the deficiencies of peer review (e.g. long review times) are becoming more apparent. Editorial strategies, sets of guidelines designed to speed up the process and reduce editors' workloads, are treated as trade secrets by publishing houses and are not shared publicly. To improve the effectiveness of their strategies, editors in small publishing groups are faced with undertaking an iterative trial-and-error approach. We show that Cartesian Genetic Programming, a nature-inspired evolutionary algorithm, can dramatically improve editorial strategies. The artificially evolved strategy reduced the duration of the peer review process by 30%, without increasing the pool of reviewers (in comparison to a typical human-developed strategy). Evolutionary computation has typically been used in technological processes or biological ecosystems. Our results demonstrate that genetic programs can improve real-world social systems that are usually much harder to understand and control than physical systems.

  17. Artificial intelligence in peer review: How can evolutionary computation support journal editors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej J Mrowinski

    Full Text Available With the volume of manuscripts submitted for publication growing every year, the deficiencies of peer review (e.g. long review times are becoming more apparent. Editorial strategies, sets of guidelines designed to speed up the process and reduce editors' workloads, are treated as trade secrets by publishing houses and are not shared publicly. To improve the effectiveness of their strategies, editors in small publishing groups are faced with undertaking an iterative trial-and-error approach. We show that Cartesian Genetic Programming, a nature-inspired evolutionary algorithm, can dramatically improve editorial strategies. The artificially evolved strategy reduced the duration of the peer review process by 30%, without increasing the pool of reviewers (in comparison to a typical human-developed strategy. Evolutionary computation has typically been used in technological processes or biological ecosystems. Our results demonstrate that genetic programs can improve real-world social systems that are usually much harder to understand and control than physical systems.

  18. Promotion of Self-Transcendence in a Multiple Sclerosis Peer Support Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Ashktorab

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self-transcendence can organize the challenges of multiple sclerosis patients to achieve and maintain a constant state of well-being and sense of integrity in the disease process. As a research based on self-transcendence didn't done in Iran, the present study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of peer groups on promoting selftranscendence level in multiple sclerosis (MS patients. Materials and Methods: This study is a before and after quasi-experimental study that was conducted on 33 patients with confirmed MS participated in three peer support groups: 10 men in male group, 11 women in female group and 12 men and women in mixed group. Eight weekly sessions and each session was 2 hours were held. Data collection tool was Self-Transcendence Scale (STS with 15 item and Cronbach's coefficient was 0.68 that after modifying, it increased to 0.81. Patients completed self administered questionnaires pre- and post of sessions. Results: Results showed that peer support groups promote the self-transcendence (p=0.001 with increases in mean self-transcendence scores in all 3 groups (men group: 0.008, women group 0.005 and mixed group: 0.003. Comparing scores before and after intervention demonstrated that self-transcendence increased equally in all groups. Conclusion: The results showed an improving in self-transcendence in peer support group participants at the end of the intervention. The results can be used in areas of nursing education and management. It is proposed that the self-transcendence assessment to be done in other chronic disease in order to evaluate its efficiency.

  19. Perceived Racial/Ethnic Discrimination and Adjustment among Ethnically Diverse College Students: Family and Peer Support as Protective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Linda; Ittel, Angela; Hoferichter, Frances; Gallarin, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    Adopting a risk and resilience perspective, the current study examined whether family cohesion and peer support functioned as protective factors against the negative effects of racial/ethnic discrimination by peers. The sample included 142 ethnically diverse college students. The results showed that while greater perceived discrimination was…

  20. Peer Victimization and Academic Adjustment among Early Adolescents: Moderation by Gender and Mediation by Perceived Classmate Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Iannotti, Ronald J.; Luk, Jeremy W.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study examined the moderating role of gender and the mediating role of perceived peer support in the association between peer victimization and academic adjustment. Methods: Data were obtained from adolescents in grades 7 and 8 in the US 2005/2006 Health Behavior in School-aged Children study (N = 3436; mean age = 13.6 years).…

  1. Decision support software technology demonstration plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SULLIVAN,T.; ARMSTRONG,A.

    1998-09-01

    The performance evaluation of innovative and alternative environmental technologies is an integral part of the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) mission. Early efforts focused on evaluating technologies that supported the implementation of the Clean Air and Clean Water Acts. In 1986 the Agency began to demonstrate and evaluate the cost and performance of remediation and monitoring technologies under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program (in response to the mandate in the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA)). In 1990, the US Technology Policy was announced. This policy placed a renewed emphasis on making the best use of technology in achieving the national goals of improved quality of life for all Americans, continued economic growth, and national security. In the spirit of the technology policy, the Agency began to direct a portion of its resources toward the promotion, recognition, acceptance, and use of US-developed innovative environmental technologies both domestically and abroad. Decision Support Software (DSS) packages integrate environmental data and simulation models into a framework for making site characterization, monitoring, and cleanup decisions. To limit the scope which will be addressed in this demonstration, three endpoints have been selected for evaluation: Visualization; Sample Optimization; and Cost/Benefit Analysis. Five topics are covered in this report: the objectives of the demonstration; the elements of the demonstration plan; an overview of the Site Characterization and Monitoring Technology Pilot; an overview of the technology verification process; and the purpose of this demonstration plan.

  2. Cyrogenic Life Support Technology Development Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, David R.

    2015-01-01

    KSC has used cryogenic life support (liquid air based) technology successfully for many years to support spaceflight operations. This technology has many benefits unique to cryogenics when compared to traditional compressed gas systems: passive cooling, lighter, longer duration, and lower operating pressure. However, there are also several limiting factors that have prevented the technology from being commercialized. The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Office of Mine Safety and Health Research (NIOSH-OMSHR) has partnered with NASA to develop a complete liquid air based life support solution for emergency mine escape and rescue. The project will develop and demonstrate various prototype devices and incorporate new technological innovations that have to date prevented commercialization.

  3. The effect of peer support in adults with insulin pump-treated type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Lene Eide; Meldgaard Andersen, Merete; Jensen, Sabrina

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to explore the effects of a flexible and participatory peer support intervention in a clinical setting for adults with type 1 diabetes treated with an insulin pump, focusing on enhancing diabetes-specific social capital. The key questions were as follows: 1) what...... empowerment, diabetes distress, diabetes-specific social support, and diabetes loneliness. HbA1c levels were compared before and after the intervention. Results: Participants experienced enhanced diabetes-specific social capital, diabetes motivation, awareness of personal diabetes practices, and serenity...

  4. Peer-support suicide prevention in a non-metropolitan U.S. community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Rheeda L; Ashby, Judy; Hoskins, Olivia D; Greene, Farrah N

    2009-01-01

    Though suicide is a leading cause of death for high school age youth, the overall base rates for suicide deaths are relatively low. Consequently, very few evidence-based suicide prevention programs that address suicide death have emerged. Relative to urban areas, non-metropolitan and rural communities in particular tend to report higher suicide rates that are compounded by poor access to mental health care. In the current study, 63 high school youth participated in the three-day, LifeSavers peer-support suicide prevention training program. The goals of the program are to teach youth to engage in teamwork and listen to others without judgment in addition to recognizing the signs for youth who may be at risk for suicide. The overall aim of LifeSavers is to create a culture whereby primary prevention is active and crisis situations are preempted. Each participant in the current study completed pre-test and posttraining measures of suicide attitudes and knowledge, self-esteem, and also self-acceptance. Findings demonstrated a significant increase in knowledge and positive attitudes toward suicide prevention and also self-esteem, but not self-acceptance. Though more work is needed, these preliminary data reveal that youth in rural communities may benefit from programming such as LifeSavers that commit to advancing peer support and peer-gatekeeping efforts.

  5. A MOBILE-DEVICE-SUPPORTED PEER-ASSISTED LEARNING SYSTEM FOR COLLABORATIVE EARLY EFL READING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ju Lan

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Collaborative learning methods which emphasize peer interaction have been widely applied to increase the intensity and effectiveness of EFL reading programs. However, simply grouping students heterogeneously and assigning them group goals does not guarantee that effective collaborative learning will ensue. The present research includes two studies. In Study One, the weaknesses of collaborative learning in a traditional EFL setting were observed. Then, in Study Two, a mobile-device-supported peer-assisted learning (MPAL system was developed for the purpose of addressing the identified weaknesses. Two classes of twenty-six third grade students participated in the present research to examine the unique contribution of MPAL to collaborative EFL reading activities. The collaborative behavior of elementary EFL learners was videotaped and analyzed. Detailed analysis of the videotaped behavior indicated that MPAL helped improve collaboration in elementary school level EFL learners and promotes their reading motivation.

  6. Selling a service: experiences of peer supporters while promoting exclusive infant feeding in three sites in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nkonki Lungiswa L

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Even though it has been shown that peer support to mothers at home helps to increase exclusive breastfeeding, little is known about the experiences of peer supporters themselves and what is required of them to fulfil their day-to-day tasks. Therefore, a community-based randomised control trial using trained "lay" women to support exclusive infant feeding at home was implemented in three different sites across South Africa. The aim of this paper is to describe the experiences of peer supporters who promote exclusive infant feeding. Methods Three focus group discussions were held, in a language of their choice, with peer supporters. These meetings focused on how the peer educators utilised their time in the process of delivering the intervention. Data from the discussions were transcribed, with both verbatim and translated transcripts being used in the analysis. Results Unlike the services provided by mainstream health care, peer supporters had to market their services. They had to negotiate entry into the mother's home and then her life. Furthermore, they had to demonstrate competence and come across as professional and trustworthy. An HIV-positive mother's fear of being stigmatised posed an added burden - subsequent disclosure of her positive status would lead to an increased workload and emotional distress. Peer supporters spent most of their time in the field and had to learn the skill of self-management. Their support-base was enhanced when supervision focused on their working conditions as well as the delivery of their tasks. Despite this, they faced other insurmountable issues, such as mothers being compelled to offer their infants mixed feeding simultaneously due to normative practices and working in the fields postpartum. Conclusion Designers of peer support interventions should consider the skills required for delivering health messages and the skills required for selling a service. Supportive supervision should be

  7. Selling a service: experiences of peer supporters while promoting exclusive infant feeding in three sites in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkonki, Lungiswa L; Daniels, Karen L

    2010-10-26

    Even though it has been shown that peer support to mothers at home helps to increase exclusive breastfeeding, little is known about the experiences of peer supporters themselves and what is required of them to fulfil their day-to-day tasks. Therefore, a community-based randomised control trial using trained "lay" women to support exclusive infant feeding at home was implemented in three different sites across South Africa. The aim of this paper is to describe the experiences of peer supporters who promote exclusive infant feeding. Three focus group discussions were held, in a language of their choice, with peer supporters. These meetings focused on how the peer educators utilised their time in the process of delivering the intervention. Data from the discussions were transcribed, with both verbatim and translated transcripts being used in the analysis. Unlike the services provided by mainstream health care, peer supporters had to market their services. They had to negotiate entry into the mother's home and then her life. Furthermore, they had to demonstrate competence and come across as professional and trustworthy. An HIV-positive mother's fear of being stigmatised posed an added burden - subsequent disclosure of her positive status would lead to an increased workload and emotional distress. Peer supporters spent most of their time in the field and had to learn the skill of self-management. Their support-base was enhanced when supervision focused on their working conditions as well as the delivery of their tasks. Despite this, they faced other insurmountable issues, such as mothers being compelled to offer their infants mixed feeding simultaneously due to normative practices and working in the fields postpartum. Designers of peer support interventions should consider the skills required for delivering health messages and the skills required for selling a service. Supportive supervision should be responsive both to the health care task and the challenges faced in

  8. Moderating the Effects of Childhood Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence: The Roles of Parenting Characteristics and Adolescent Peer Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Emiko A; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Moylan, Carrie A; Derr, Amelia S

    2011-06-01

    We investigate parenting characteristics and adolescent peer support as potential moderators of the effects of childhood exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) on adolescent outcomes. Lehigh Longitudinal Study (N=416) data include parent and adolescent reports of childhood IPV exposure. Exposure to IPV predicted nearly all adverse outcomes examined, however after accounting for co-occurring child abuse and early child behavior problems, IPV predicted only one outcome. Several moderator effects were identified. Parental "acceptance" of the child moderated the effects of IPV exposure on the likelihood of teenage pregnancy and running away from home. Both peer communication and peer trust moderated the relationship between exposure to IPV and depression and running from home. Peer communication also moderated the effects of IPV exposure on high school dropout. Interventions that influence parenting practices and strengthen peer support for youth exposed to IPV may increase protection and decrease risk of several tested outcomes.

  9. Alcohol and Other Drug Use in Middle School: The Interplay of Gender, Peer Victimization, and Supportive Social Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormington, Stephanie V.; Anderson, Kristen G.; Tomlinson, Kristin L.; Brown, Sandra A.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the impact of supportive social relationships (i.e., teacher support, adult support, school relatedness) and peer victimization on middle school students' substance use. Over 3,000 middle school students reported on alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use, supportive social relationships, and instances in which they were…

  10. Using technology to support science inquiry learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P John Williams

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a case study of a teacher’s experience in implementing an inquiry approach to his teaching over a period of two years with two different classes. His focus was on using a range of information technologies to support student inquiry learning. The study demonstrates the need to consider the characteristics of students when implementing an inquiry approach, and also the influence of the teachers level of understanding and related confidence in such an approach. The case also indicated that a range of technologies can be effective in supporting student inquiry learning.

  11. Mothers' accounts of the impact on emotional wellbeing of organised peer support in pregnancy and early parenthood: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeish, Jenny; Redshaw, Maggie

    2017-01-13

    The transition to parenthood is a potentially vulnerable time for mothers' mental health and approximately 9-21% of women experience depression and/or anxiety at this time. Many more experience sub-clinical symptoms of depression and anxiety, as well as stress, low self-esteem and a loss of confidence. Women's emotional wellbeing is more at risk if they have little social support, a low income, are single parents or have a poor relationship with their partner. Peer support can comprise emotional, affirmational, informational and practical support; evidence of its impact on emotional wellbeing during pregnancy and afterwards is mixed. This was a descriptive qualitative study, informed by phenomenological social psychology, exploring women's experiences of the impact of organised peer support on their emotional wellbeing during pregnancy and in early parenthood. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were undertaken with women who had received peer support provided by ten projects in different parts of England, including both projects offering 'mental health' peer support and others offering more broadly-based peer support. The majority of participants were disadvantaged Black and ethnic minority women, including recent migrants. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcripts were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. 47 mothers were interviewed. Two key themes emerged: (1) 'mothers' self-identified emotional needs', containing the subthemes 'emotional distress', 'stressful circumstances', 'lack of social support', and 'unwilling to be open with professionals'; and (2) 'how peer support affects mothers', containing the subthemes 'social connection', 'being heard', 'building confidence', 'empowerment', 'feeling valued', 'reducing stress through practical support' and 'the significance of "mental health" peer experiences'. Women described how peer support contributed to reducing their low mood and anxiety by overcoming feelings of isolation, disempowerment and

  12. Challenges of a pharmacist-directed peer support program among adolescents with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Lisa M; Haines, Seena L

    2011-01-01

    To describe the development and challenges of a pharmacist-directed peer support program among adolescents with diabetes. The program was designed as adjunctive therapy for adolescents receiving care at the Diabetes Education and Research Center (DERC). DERC is an interdisciplinary facility at which the clinical pharmacist provides direct, diabetes-related patient care services. Through collaboration with DERC, pharmacists developed and facilitated each component of the program. The U. S. Diabetes Conversation Map program was used for the educational component of the program. This is an innovative, American Diabetes Association-approved tool for providing group education on diabetes self-management. As trained facilitators of the conversation maps, the investigators educated group leaders on how to be facilitators for their peers. Glycosylated hemoglobin (A1C), diabetes self-management skills, and diabetes-related quality of life were measured at baseline and following program completion. Qualitative outcomes were measured via validated questionnaires in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. The investigators facilitated the gathering of all quantitative and qualitative data. Several participants did not meet all inclusion criteria; therefore, data from only six participants were assessed. A1C increased among participants, affirming the challenge of metabolic control during adolescence. Despite this, qualitative analysis of questionnaires revealed improvements in adherence to lifestyle modifications and health perception after program completion. Evidence illustrates beneficial effects of peer-facilitated support on the physical and psychological challenges of diabetes self-management; however, challenges existed when implementing this program among adolescents. Suggestions to overcome these challenges include same-sex support groups, use of an appealing setting for participants, incorporation into camps or after-school programs, and extended program length

  13. Partnerships Enhancing Practice: A Preliminary Model of Technology-Based Peer-to-Peer Evaluations of Teaching in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servilio, Kathryn L.; Hollingshead, Aleksandra; Hott, Brittany L.

    2017-01-01

    In higher education, current teaching evaluation models typically involve senior faculty evaluating junior faculty. However, there is evidence that peer-to-peer junior faculty observations and feedback may be just as effective. This descriptive case study utilized an inductive analysis to examine experiences of six special education early career…

  14. Diaspora and peer support working: benefits of and challenges for the Butabika–East London Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Dave; Aligawesa, Mariam; Birabwa-Oketcho, Harriet; Hall, Cerdic; Kyaligonza, David; Mpango, Richard; Mulimira, Moses; Boardman, Jed

    2015-01-01

    The International Health Partnership (‘the Link’) between the East London NHS Foundation Trust and Butabika Hospital in Uganda was set up in 2005. It has facilitated staff exchanges and set up many workstreams (e.g. in child and adolescent psychiatry, nursing and psychology) and projects (e.g. a peer support worker project and a violence reduction programme). The Link has been collaborative and mutually beneficial. The authors describe benefits and challenges at individual and organisational levels. Notably, the Link has achieved a commitment to service user involvement and an increasingly central involvement of the Ugandan diaspora working in mental health in the UK. PMID:29093835

  15. Diaspora and peer support working: benefits of and challenges for the Butabika-East London Link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Dave; Aligawesa, Mariam; Birabwa-Oketcho, Harriet; Hall, Cerdic; Kyaligonza, David; Mpango, Richard; Mulimira, Moses; Boardman, Jed

    2015-02-01

    The International Health Partnership ('the Link') between the East London NHS Foundation Trust and Butabika Hospital in Uganda was set up in 2005. It has facilitated staff exchanges and set up many workstreams (e.g. in child and adolescent psychiatry, nursing and psychology) and projects (e.g. a peer support worker project and a violence reduction programme). The Link has been collaborative and mutually beneficial. The authors describe benefits and challenges at individual and organisational levels. Notably, the Link has achieved a commitment to service user involvement and an increasingly central involvement of the Ugandan diaspora working in mental health in the UK.

  16. Assessment Training Effects on Student Assessment Skills and Task Performance in a Technology-Facilitated Peer Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiongyi; Li, Lan

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the impact of an assessment training module on student assessment skills and task performance in a technology-facilitated peer assessment. Seventy-eight undergraduate students participated in the study. The participants completed an assessment training exercise, prior to engaging in peer-assessment activities. During the…

  17. Technology support for military capability based acquisition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Thaba, Mphahlela

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available gap between capability planning and acquisition of product systems in the SANDF. (Thaba J et al, 2015). The need for decision support tools and technologies to assist capability planners to close this gap and make sound decisions has become more...

  18. Progressing recovery-oriented care in psychiatric inpatient units: Occupational therapy’s role in supporting a stronger peer workforce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Lloyd

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - Initiated by the service user movement, recovery-oriented practices are one of the keystones of modern mental health care. Over the past two decades, substantial gains have been made with introducing recovery-oriented practice in many areas of mental health practice, but there remain areas where progress is delayed, notably, the psychiatric inpatient environment. The peer support workforce can play a pivotal role in progressing recovery-oriented practices. The purpose of this paper is to provide a pragmatic consideration of how occupational therapists can influence mental health systems to work proactively with a peer workforce. Design/methodology/approach - The authors reviewed current literature and considered practical approaches to building a peer workforce in collaboration with occupational therapists. Findings - It is suggested that the peer support workforce should be consciously enhanced in the inpatient setting to support culture change as a matter of priority. Occupational therapists working on inpatient units should play a key role in promoting and supporting the growth in the peer support workforce. Doing so will enrich the Occupational Therapy profession as well as improving service user outcomes. Originality/value - This paper seeks to provide a pragmatic consideration of how occupational therapists can influence mental health systems to work proactively with a peer workforce.

  19. Does supportive parenting mitigate the longitudinal effects of peer victimization on depressive thoughts and symptoms in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilsky, Sarah A; Cole, David A; Dukewich, Tammy L; Martin, Nina C; Sinclair, Keneisha R; Tran, Cong V; Roeder, Kathryn M; Felton, Julia W; Tilghman-Osborne, Carlos; Weitlauf, Amy S; Maxwell, Melissa A

    2013-05-01

    Cohen and Wills (Cohen, S., & Wills, T. A., 1985, Stress, social support, and the buffering hypothesis. Psychological Bulletin, 98, 310-357) described two broad models whereby social support could mitigate the deleterious effects of stress on health: a main effect model and stress-buffering model. A specific application of these models was tested in a three-wave, multimethod study of 1888 children to assess ways parental support (social support) mitigates the effects of peer victimization (stress) on children's depressive symptoms and depression-related cognitions (health-related outcomes). Results revealed that (a) both supportive parenting and peer victimization had main effects on depressive symptoms and cognitions; (b) supportive parenting and peer victimization did not interact in the prediction of depressive thoughts and symptoms; (c) these results generalized across age and gender; and (d) increases in depressive symptoms were related to later reduction of supportive parenting and later increase in peer victimization. Although supportive parenting did not moderate the adverse outcomes associated with peer victimization, results show that its main effect can counterbalance or offset these effects to some degree. Implications for practice and future research are discussed. © 2013 American Psychological Association

  20. Technology development activities supporting tank waste remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, W.F.; Beeman, G.H.

    1994-06-01

    This document summarizes work being conducted under the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Technology Development (EM-50) in support of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program. The specific work activities are organized by the following categories: safety, characterization, retrieval, barriers, pretreatment, low-level waste, and high-level waste. In most cases, the activities presented here were identified as supporting tank remediation by EM-50 integrated program or integrated demonstration lead staff and the selections were further refined by contractor staff. Data sheets were prepared from DOE-HQ guidance to the field issued in September 1993. Activities were included if a significant portion of the work described provides technology potentially needed by TWRS; consequently, not all parts of each description necessarily support tank remediation

  1. What Added Value Does Peer Support Bring? Insights from Principals and Teachers on the Utility and Challenges of a School-Based Mentoring Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Bernadine; Dolan, Pat; Canavan, John

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, there has been greater attention placed on the potential value of peer support models, particularly in school contexts. This paper uses the case study of an Irish school-based peer mentoring programme to identify the added value that peer led models of social support for children and young people offer in a school setting.…

  2. A one-year longitudinal qualitative study of peer support services in a non-Western context: The perspectives of peer support workers, service users, and co-workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Samson; Mak, Winnie W S; Lo, Iris W K; Liu, Lucia L; Yuen, Winnie W Y; Yau, Sania; Ho, Kimmy; Chan, Sau-Kam; Wong, Stephen

    2017-09-01

    This study explored the changing views of key stakeholders (peer support workers, their co-workers, and service users) about peer support services in a non-Western community, using a longitudinal qualitative approach. Five trainee peer support workers (PSWs), 15 service users, and 14 co-workers were interviewed over a 12-month period, under the auspices of the Peer Support Workers Project (also known as the Mindset project) in Hong Kong. A total of 77 interviews were transcribed and thematic analyses were conducted across the participant groups at three different time points (training, work placements, and employment). During the initial implementation of the services, uncertainty about the role of the PSWs were reported. However, trusting and beneficial relationships with service users were gradually built, showing growing resilience and confidence over time. The participants realized that PSWs' experiences of mental illnesses were a unique asset that could help service users to alleviate their own somatic symptoms and improve their connections with others. Our findings highlight that the perceptions of peer support services changed from confusion to viewing PSWs as an asset, to an awareness of the importance of family support, and to the belief that implementing such a program will benefit both service users and PSWs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Self-efficacy for healthy eating and peer support for unhealthy eating are associated with adolescents' food intake patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Amanda; Heary, Caroline; Kelly, Colette; Nixon, Elizabeth; Shevlin, Mark

    2013-04-01

    Adolescence, with its change in dietary habits, is likely to be a vulnerable period in the onset of obesity. It is considered that peers have an important role to play on adolescents' diet, however, limited research has examined the role of peers in this context. This study examined the relationship between self-efficacy for healthy eating, parent and peer support for healthy and unhealthy eating and food intake patterns. Participants were 264 boys and 219 girls (N=483), aged 13-18years, recruited from post-primary schools in Ireland. Self-report measures assessed self-efficacy, parent and peer support for healthy eating, and for unhealthy eating. Dietary pattern analysis, a popular alternative to traditional methods used in nutritional research, was conducted on a FFQ to derive food intake patterns. Two patterns were identified labelled 'healthy food intake' and 'unhealthy food intake'. Multi-group modelling was used to evaluate whether the hypothesized model of factors related to dietary patterns differed by gender. The multi-group model fit the data well, with only one path shown to differ by gender. Lower self-efficacy for healthy eating and higher peer support for unhealthy eating were associated with 'unhealthy food intake'. Higher self-efficacy was associated with 'healthy food intake'. Prevention programs that target self-efficacy for eating and peer support for unhealthy eating may be beneficial in improving dietary choices among adolescents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Peer Communication in Online Mental Health Forums for Young People: Directional and Nondirectional Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Terry; Ujhelyi, Katalin

    2017-01-01

    Background The Internet has the potential to help young people by reducing the stigma associated with mental health and enabling young people to access services and professionals which they may not otherwise access. Online support can empower young people, help them develop new online friendships, share personal experiences, communicate with others who understand, provide information and emotional support, and most importantly help them feel less alone and normalize their experiences in the world. Objective The aim of the research was to gain an understanding of how young people use an online forum for emotional and mental health issues. Specifically, the project examined what young people discuss and how they seek support on the forum (objective 1). Furthermore, it looked at how the young service users responded to posts to gain an understanding of how young people provided each other with peer-to-peer support (objective 2). Methods Kooth is an online counseling service for young people aged 11-25 years and experiencing emotional and mental health problems. It is based in the United Kingdom and provides support that is anonymous, confidential, and free at the point of delivery. Kooth provided the researchers with all the online forum posts between a 2-year period, which resulted in a dataset of 622 initial posts and 3657 initial posts with responses. Thematic analysis was employed to elicit key themes from the dataset. Results The findings support the literature that online forums provide young people with both informational and emotional support around a wide array of topics. The findings from this large dataset also reveal that this informational or emotional support can be viewed as directive or nondirective. The nondirective approach refers to when young people provide others with support by sharing their own experiences. These posts do not include explicit advice to act in a particular way, but the sharing process is hoped to be of use to the poster. The

  5. Peer Communication in Online Mental Health Forums for Young People: Directional and Nondirectional Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Julie; Hanley, Terry; Ujhelyi, Katalin

    2017-08-02

    The Internet has the potential to help young people by reducing the stigma associated with mental health and enabling young people to access services and professionals which they may not otherwise access. Online support can empower young people, help them develop new online friendships, share personal experiences, communicate with others who understand, provide information and emotional support, and most importantly help them feel less alone and normalize their experiences in the world. The aim of the research was to gain an understanding of how young people use an online forum for emotional and mental health issues. Specifically, the project examined what young people discuss and how they seek support on the forum (objective 1). Furthermore, it looked at how the young service users responded to posts to gain an understanding of how young people provided each other with peer-to-peer support (objective 2). Kooth is an online counseling service for young people aged 11-25 years and experiencing emotional and mental health problems. It is based in the United Kingdom and provides support that is anonymous, confidential, and free at the point of delivery. Kooth provided the researchers with all the online forum posts between a 2-year period, which resulted in a dataset of 622 initial posts and 3657 initial posts with responses. Thematic analysis was employed to elicit key themes from the dataset. The findings support the literature that online forums provide young people with both informational and emotional support around a wide array of topics. The findings from this large dataset also reveal that this informational or emotional support can be viewed as directive or nondirective. The nondirective approach refers to when young people provide others with support by sharing their own experiences. These posts do not include explicit advice to act in a particular way, but the sharing process is hoped to be of use to the poster. The directive approach, in contrast, involves

  6. Effects of peer education, social support and self esteem on breast self examination performance and knowledge level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malak, Arzu Tuna; Bektash, Murat; Turgay, Ayshe San; Tuna, Asli; Genç, Rabia Ekti

    2009-01-01

    To estimate associations among peer education, social support and self-esteem and their influences on performance of breast self-examination (BSE). Seven volunteer peer educators were given the BSE training programme and in turn educated 65 women students in the university. BSE knowledge evaluation forms developed by Maurer were applied for evaluation. Other data were collected with questionnaires for the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and Scale of Perceived Social Support over three months. Knowledge level points of students and the BSE practice ratio were increased by peer support. There was a positive relationship between average BSE knowledge points and social support and self-esteem. The results showed positive relationships among BSE knowledge, social support and self-esteem, these affecting the BSE performance level.

  7. "Very much evolving": a qualitative study of the views of psychiatrists about peer support workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Rachael; Firth, Lucy; Shakespeare, Tom

    2016-06-01

    Mental health services continue to develop service user involvement, including a growth in employment of peer support workers (PSWs). Despite the importance of the views and attitudes expressed by psychiatrists, this topic has not previously been studied. To gain insight into the views and attitudes psychiatrists have about PSWs. A qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews with 11 psychiatrists in the East of England. Psychiatrists were broadly positive and supportive of PSWs. Interviewees not only could anticipate a range of possible benefits of employing PSWs, but also had concerns regarding their implementation and management. There was a lack of clarity and consistency between interviewees about what the exact role of a PSW might involve. This study provides insights into how PSWs are perceived by psychiatrists. While broadly positive attitudes exist, the research highlights certain challenges, particularly role ambiguity.

  8. Peer support for families of children with complex needs: Development and dissemination of a best practice toolkit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schippke, J; Provvidenza, C; Kingsnorth, S

    2017-11-01

    Benefits of peer support interventions for families of children with disabilities and complex medical needs have been described in the literature. An opportunity to create an evidence-informed resource to synthesize best practices in peer support for program providers was identified. The objective of this paper is to describe the key activities used to develop and disseminate the Peer Support Best Practice Toolkit. This project was led by a team of knowledge translation experts at a large pediatric rehabilitation hospital using a knowledge exchange framework. An integrated knowledge translation approach was used to engage stakeholders in the development process through focus groups and a working group. To capture best practices in peer support, a rapid evidence review and review of related resources were completed. Case studies were also included to showcase practice-based evidence. The toolkit is freely available online for download and is structured into four sections: (a) background and models of peer support, (b) case studies of programs, (c) resources, and (d) rapid evidence review. A communications plan was developed to disseminate the resource and generate awareness through presentations, social media, and champion engagement. Eight months postlaunch, the peer support website received more than 2,400 webpage hits. Early indicators suggest high relevance of this resource among stakeholders. The toolkit format was valuable to synthesize and share best practices in peer support. Strengths of the work include the integrated approach used to develop the toolkit and the inclusion of both the published research literature and experiential evidence. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Stakeholder engagement in diabetes self-management: patient preference for peer support and other insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Bethany M; Jortberg, Bonnie; Warman, Meredith K; Kane, Ilima; Wearner, Robyn; Koren, Romona; Carrigan, Thomas; Martinez, Vincent; Nease, Donald E

    2017-06-01

    Self-management support (SMS) for patients with diabetes can improve adherence to treatment, mitigate disease-related distress, and improve health outcomes. Translating this evidence into real-world practice is needed, as it is not clear which SMS models are acceptable to patients, and feasible and sustainable for primary care practices. To use the Boot Camp Translation (BCT) method to engage patient, practice, community resource and research stakeholders in translation of evidence about SMS and diabetes distress into mutually acceptable care models and to inform patient-centred outcomes research (PCOR). Twenty-seven diabetes care stakeholders, including patients and providers from a local network of federally qualified health centres participated. Stakeholders met in-person and by conference call over the course of 8 months. Subject matter experts provided education on the diabetes SMS evidence. Facilitators engaged the group in discussions about barriers to self-management and opportunities for improving delivery of SMS. BCT participants identified lack of social support, personal resources, trust, knowledge and confidence as barriers to diabetes self-management. Intervention opportunities emphasized peer support, use of multidisciplinary care teams and centralized systems for sharing information about community and practice resources. BCT informed new services and a PCOR study proposal. Patients and family engaged in diabetes care research value peer support, group visits, and multidisciplinary care teams as key features of SMS models. SMS should be tailored to an individual patient's health literacy. BCT can be used to engage multiple stakeholders in translation of evidence into practice and to inform PCOR. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Lay-led and peer support interventions for adolescents with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kew, Kayleigh M; Carr, Robin; Crossingham, Iain

    2017-04-19

    Adolescents with asthma are at high risk of poor adherence with treatment. This may be compounded by activities that worsen asthma, in particular smoking. Additional support above and beyond routine care has the potential to encourage good self-management. We wanted to find out whether sessions led by their peers or by lay leaders help to reduce these risks and improve asthma outcomes among adolescents. To assess the safety and efficacy of lay-led and peer support interventions for adolescents with asthma. We identified trials from the Cochrane Airways Trials Register, which contains reports of randomised trials obtained from multiple electronic and handsearched sources, and we searched trial registries and reference lists of primary studies. We conducted the most recent searches on 25 November 2016. Eligible studies randomised adolescents with asthma to an intervention led by lay people or peers or to a control. We included parallel randomised controlled trials with individual or cluster designs. We included studies reported as full text, those published as abstract only and unpublished data. Two review authors screened the searches, extracted numerical data and study characteristics and assessed each included study for risk of bias. Primary outcomes were asthma-related quality of life and exacerbations requiring at least a course of oral steroids. We graded the analyses and presented evidence in a 'Summary of findings' table.We analysed dichotomous data as odds ratios, and continuous data as mean differences (MD) or standardised mean differences, all with a random-effects model. We assessed clinical, methodological and statistical heterogeneity when performing meta-analyses, and we described skewed data narratively. Five studies including a total of 1146 participants met the inclusion criteria for this review. As ever with systematic reviews of complex interventions, studies varied by design (cluster and individually randomised), duration (2.5 to 9 months

  11. MAppERS: a peer-produced community for emergency support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigerio, Simone; Schenato, Luca; Bianchizza, Chiara; Del Bianco, Daniele

    2014-05-01

    management. Citizens and volunteers of civil protection are then involved to test applications at pilot sites. This phase takes place in parallel to a dedicated training on app functioning. The app modules are to be later re-designed according to a methodological and technical feedback gained during pilot study. Training curricula for citizens that wish to be involved in the monitoring of the territory in the long run are then to be defined so to promote territorial knowledge and awareness, give information and practical skills on smart phone technologies and specific efficient jargon to communicate hazard relevant information. Overall, a user-friendly integration with existing monitoring on-site technique prevails on a deep new architecture. A synchronized platform would allow both the protection of private data from citizens and the identification of the users in case of misuse of the information sharing. The expected results of this project are: a) an easy-to-use "human-data" input on crisis management, b) the development of a multi-module smart phone application linking trained people and headquarters c) maximised utility of peer-produced mapping (e.g. damaged points, critical hotspots), d) the development of a strategy of disaster prevention based on development of human and social resources rather than structural mitigation options.

  12. Family and peer social support and their links to psychological distress among hurricane-exposed minority youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Donice M; Weems, Carl F

    2014-07-01

    Experiencing a disaster such as a hurricane places youth at a heightened risk for psychological distress such as symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and depression. Social support may contribute to resilience following disasters, but the interrelations of different types of support, level of exposure, and different symptoms among youth is not well understood. This study examined associations among family and peer social support, level of hurricane exposure, and their links to psychological distress using both a large single-time assessment sample (N = 1,098) as well as a longitudinal sample followed over a 6-month period (n = 192). Higher levels of hurricane exposure were related to lower levels of social support from family and peers. Higher levels of family and peer social support demonstrated both concurrent and longitudinal associations with lower levels of psychological distress, with associations varying by social support source and psychological distress outcome. Findings also suggested that the protective effects of high peer social support may be diminished by high hurricane exposure. The results of this study further our understanding of the role of social support in hurricane-exposed youths' emotional functioning and point to the potential importance of efforts to bolster social support following disasters.

  13. Supervision, mentorship and peer networks: how Estonian early career researchers get (or fail to get support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaana Eigi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses issues related to supervision and support of early career researchers in Estonian academia. We use nine focus groups interviews conducted in 2015 with representatives of social sciences in order to identify early career researchers’ needs with respect to support, frustrations they may experience, and resources they may have for addressing them. Our crucial contribution is the identification of wider support networks of peers and colleagues that may compensate, partially or even fully, for failures of official supervision. On the basis of our analysis we argue that support for early career researchers should take into account the resources they already possess but also recognise the importance of wider academic culture, including funding and employment patterns, and the roles of supervisors and senior researchers in ensuring successful functioning of support networks. Through analysing the conditions for the development of early career researchers – producers of knowledge – our paper contributes to social epistemology understood as analysis of specific forms of social organisation of knowledge production.

  14. Peer Support in Full-Service Partnerships: A Multiple Case Study Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siantz, Elizabeth; Henwood, Benjamin; Gilmer, Todd

    2017-07-01

    Peer providers are integral to Full Service Partnerships (FSPs), which are team-based mental health service models. Peer providers use principles of recovery to engage clients, but FSPs can vary in their recovery orientation. Whether and how peer recovery orientation reflects the organizational environments of FSPs is unclear. This qualitative study explored peer provider attitudes towards recovery within the organizational contexts of FSPs where they are employed. Case study analysis was conducted on eight purposively sampled FSPs using qualitative interviews with peer providers and program directors. In two cases, peer recovery attitudes diverged from those of their organizational context. In these cases, peer providers were champions for recovery, and used practice-based strategies to promote client autonomy despite working in settings with lower recovery orientation. Peer providers could be uniquely positioned to promote client autonomy in settings where organizational factors limit consumer choice.

  15. Factors associated with breastfeeding cessation in nursing mothers in a peer support programme in Eastern Lancashire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verma Arpana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The UK has one of the lowest breastfeeding rates worldwide and in recent years the Government has made breastfeeding promotion one of its priorities. The UNICEF UK Baby Friendly Initiative is likely to increase breastfeeding initiation but not duration. Other strategies which involve provision of support for breastfeeding mothers in the early weeks after birth are therefore required to encourage UK mothers to breastfeed for the recommended duration. This paper examines the effects of maternal socio-demographic factors, maternal obstetric factors, and in-hospital infant feeding practices on breastfeeding cessation in a peer support setting. Methods Data on mothers from Blackburn with Darwen (BwD and Hyndburn in Eastern Lancashire who gave birth at the Royal Blackburn Hospital and initiated breastfeeding while in hospital were linked to the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD. The data were analysed to describe infant feeding methods up to 6 months and the association between breastfeeding cessation, and maternal factors and in-hospital infant feeding practices. Results The mean breastfeeding duration was 21.6 weeks (95% CI 20.86 to 22.37 weeks and the median duration was 27 weeks (95% CI 25.6 to 28.30 weeks. White mothers were 69% more likely to stop breastfeeding compared with non-White mothers (HR: 0.59; 95% CI, 0.52 to 0.67 [White mothers were the reference group]. Breastfeeding cessation was also independently associated with parity and infant feeding practices in hospital. There were no significant associations between breastfeeding cessation and marital status, mode of delivery, timing of breastfeeding initiation and socio-economic deprivation. Conclusion In this study ethnicity, parity and in-hospital infant feeding practices remained independent predictors of breastfeeding cessation in this peer support setting. However other recognised predictors such as marital status, mode of delivery, timing of breastfeeding

  16. Intervention mapping as a guide for the development of a diabetes peer support intervention in rural Alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherrington, Andrea; Martin, Michelle Y; Hayes, Michaela; Halanych, Jewell H; Wright, Mary Annette; Appel, Susan J; Andreae, Susan J; Safford, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Peer support is a promising strategy for the reduction of diabetes-related health disparities; however, few studies describe the development of such strategies in enough detail to allow for replication. The objective of this article is to describe the development of a 1-year peer support intervention to improve diabetes self-management among African American adults with diabetes in Alabama's Black Belt. We used principles of intervention mapping, including literature review, interviews with key informants, and a discussion group with community health workers, to guide intervention development. Qualitative data were combined with behavioral constructs and principles of diabetes self-management to create a peer support intervention to be delivered by trained peer advisors. Feedback from a 1-month pilot was used to modify the training and intervention. The resulting intervention includes a 2-day training for peer advisors, who were each paired with 3 to 6 clients. A one-on-one in-person needs assessment begins an intensive intervention phase conducted via telephone for 8 to 12 weeks, followed by a maintenance phase of at least once monthly contacts for the remainder of the intervention period. A peer support network and process measures collected monthly throughout the study supplement formal data collection points at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Intervention mapping provided a useful framework for the development of culturally relevant diabetes peer support intervention for African Americans living in Alabama's Black Belt. The process described could be implemented by others in public health to develop or adapt programs suitable for their particular community or context.

  17. An Added Layer of Support: Introducing a Heterarchical Peer Mentoring Intervention to a Preservice Science Teacher Education Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neesemann, Lisa Ann

    2017-01-01

    In an effort to support preservice science teachers during their concurrent student teaching experiences and masters coursework, I created and implemented a Peer Mentoring Intervention to add an additional layer of support to those most traditionally curated. In this intervention, preservice secondary science teachers were paired into…

  18. Peer Victimization and School Disaffection: Exploring the Moderation Effect of Social Support and the Mediation Effect of Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galand, Benoît; Hospel, Virginie

    2013-01-01

    Background: Peer victimization is associated with increased internalizing problems and reduced school adjustment. Research into the main effect and the buffering effect of social support on these internalizing problems has produced inconsistent findings, and none has tested the buffering effect of social support on school adjustment. Moreover,…

  19. Assistive technology for memory support in dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Roest, Henriëtte G; Wenborn, Jennifer; Pastink, Channah; Dröes, Rose-Marie; Orrell, Martin

    2017-06-11

    The sustained interest in electronic assistive technology in dementia care has been fuelled by the urgent need to develop useful approaches to help support people with dementia at home. Also the low costs and wide availability of electronic devices make it more feasible to use electronic devices for the benefit of disabled persons. Information Communication Technology (ICT) devices designed to support people with dementia are usually referred to as Assistive Technology (AT) or Electronic Assistive Technology (EAT). By using AT in this review we refer to electronic assistive devices. A range of AT devices has been developed to support people with dementia and their carers to manage their daily activities and to enhance safety, for example electronic pill boxes, picture phones, or mobile tracking devices. Many are commercially available. However, the usefulness and user-friendliness of these devices are often poorly evaluated. Although reviews of (electronic) memory aids do exist, a systematic review of studies focusing on the efficacy of AT for memory support in people with dementia is lacking. Such a review would guide people with dementia and their informal and professional carers in selecting appropriate AT devices. Primary objectiveTo assess the efficacy of AT for memory support in people with dementia in terms of daily performance of personal and instrumental activities of daily living (ADL), level of dependency, and admission to long-term care. Secondary objectiveTo assess the impact of AT on: users (autonomy, usefulness and user-friendliness, adoption of AT); cognitive function and neuropsychiatric symptoms; need for informal and formal care; perceived quality of life; informal carer burden, self-esteem and feelings of competence; formal carer work satisfaction, workload and feelings of competence; and adverse events. We searched ALOIS, the Specialised Register of the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group (CDCIG), on 10 November 2016. ALOIS is

  20. Peer mentored teams to support undergraduate group work in higher education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinderey, Lynn Elizabeth

    This research starts with a set of practical research questions to investigate a problem which occurs in some computing undergraduate modules that use group work as part of the learning and assessment strategy. In this study final year students with experience in information systems project work and trained in team processes met with small groups of first year computing students with the aim of turning the first year project group into a team. This study seeks to explore the experience of the final year students as they take on the role of peer tutor looking at the problems they perceive within the first year teams and the skills and knowledge they use to help them. The study includes the recruitment and training of final year students (n=9) and allocation to first year teams. The final year students acted as co-researchers and team leaders in L4 Information Systems project work and recorded their thoughts and observations in a diary during the first semester of 2008/9 academic year. Diary data was supplemented by interview data from a sample of final year students (n=4). The sample was selected based on the richness of the data provided in the diaries and the number of meetings held with their teams. Rich data and thick descriptions were essential for a phenomenological examination of the experience of the final year students. A number of findings emerged. A critical approach to analysis revealed ongoing conflicts occurred across cultural divides within the first year teams that final year leaders did not articulate or appear fully aware of. This had important implications for individual team members. Other findings which relate to issues of changing levels of motivation in the teams over the ten weeks, roles adopted by the leaders, ability to systematize the project or team processes and the ability to reflect on unsuccessful strategies also had implications for peer mentoring training and support. The picture that emerged from the data suggested that lack of

  1. Technology Applications that Support Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Edward M.; Holderman, Mark L.

    2011-01-01

    Several enabling technologies have been identified that would provide significant benefits for future space exploration. In-Space demonstrations should be chosen so that these technologies will have a timely opportunity to improve efficiencies and reduce risks for future spaceflight. An early window exists to conduct ground and flight demonstrations that make use of existing assets that were developed for the Space Shuttle and the Constellation programs. The work could be mostly performed using residual program civil servants, existing facilities and current commercial launch capabilities. Partnering these abilities with the emerging commercial sector, along with other government agencies, academia and with international partners would provide an affordable and timely approach to get the launch costs down for these payloads, while increasing the derived benefits to a larger community. There is a wide scope of varied technologies that are being considered to help future space exploration. However, the cost and schedule would be prohibitive to demonstrate all these in the near term. Determining which technologies would yield the best return in meeting our future space needs is critical to building an achievable Space Architecture that allows exploration beyond Low Earth Orbit. The best mix of technologies is clearly to be based on our future needs, but also must take into account the availability of existing assets and supporting partners. Selecting those technologies that have complimentary applications will provide the most knowledge, with reasonable cost, for future use The plan is to develop those applications that not only mature the technology but actually perform a useful task or mission. These might include such functions as satellite servicing, a propulsion stage, processing lunar regolith, generating and transmitting solar power, cryogenic fluid transfer and storage and artificial gravity. Applications have been selected for assessment for future

  2. Do Adolescents with T1DM Differ from Their Peers in Health, Eating Habits and Social Support?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husárová, Daniela; Kostičová, Michaela; Kočišová, Denisa; Schusterová, Ingrid; Gecková, Andrea Madarasová

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse differences in health, eating habits and social support in adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in comparison to peers with another long-term illness or without any medical condition. We used self-reported data from the cross-sectional Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study collected in 2014 among Slovak adolescents as well as data from adolescents with T1DM collected in outpatient settings (11 to 15 years old, N=8,910, 50.3% of boys). Logistic regression models and general linear models were used to analyse differences between adolescents with T1DM and their peers with and without long-term illness in self-rated health, life satisfaction, health complaints, regular breakfast, sweets and soft drink consumption, and perceived support from family, teachers and classmates. Adolescents with T1DM reported worse self-rated health and suffer from more health complaints, but they have lower chance of having breakfast irregularly in comparison to their peers with another long-term illness or without any medical condition. Moreover, compared with their peers, adolescents with T1DM perceived stronger support from teachers and classmates, but weaker support from their family. We did not confirm any differences in life satisfaction, sweets and soft drink consumption between adolescents with T1DM and their peers. Adolescents with T1DM reported more regular eating habits, no difference in life satisfaction and more social support outside the family in comparison to their peers. However, their worse self-rated health, more health complaints and weaker support from family should be considered in interventions targeting psychosocial adjustment of adolescents with T1DM. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2017

  3. Naturally Occurring Peer Support through Social Media: The Experiences of Individuals with Severe Mental Illness Using YouTube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naslund, John A.; Grande, Stuart W.; Aschbrenner, Kelly A.; Elwyn, Glyn

    2014-01-01

    Increasingly, people with diverse health conditions turn to social media to share their illness experiences or seek advice from others with similar health concerns. This unstructured medium may represent a platform on which individuals with severe mental illness naturally provide and receive peer support. Peer support includes a system of mutual giving and receiving where individuals with severe mental illness can offer hope, companionship, and encouragement to others facing similar challenges. In this study we explore the phenomenon of individuals with severe mental illness uploading videos to YouTube, and posting and responding to comments as a form of naturally occurring peer support. We also consider the potential risks and benefits of self-disclosure and interacting with others on YouTube. To address these questions, we used qualitative inquiry informed by emerging techniques in online ethnography. We analyzed n = 3,044 comments posted to 19 videos uploaded by individuals who self-identified as having schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder. We found peer support across four themes: minimizing a sense of isolation and providing hope; finding support through peer exchange and reciprocity; sharing strategies for coping with day-to-day challenges of severe mental illness; and learning from shared experiences of medication use and seeking mental health care. These broad themes are consistent with accepted notions of peer support in severe mental illness as a voluntary process aimed at inclusion and mutual advancement through shared experience and developing a sense of community. Our data suggest that the lack of anonymity and associated risks of being identified as an individual with severe mental illness on YouTube seem to be overlooked by those who posted comments or uploaded videos. Whether or not this platform can provide benefits for a wider community of individuals with severe mental illness remains uncertain. PMID:25333470

  4. Naturally occurring peer support through social media: the experiences of individuals with severe mental illness using YouTube.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A Naslund

    Full Text Available Increasingly, people with diverse health conditions turn to social media to share their illness experiences or seek advice from others with similar health concerns. This unstructured medium may represent a platform on which individuals with severe mental illness naturally provide and receive peer support. Peer support includes a system of mutual giving and receiving where individuals with severe mental illness can offer hope, companionship, and encouragement to others facing similar challenges. In this study we explore the phenomenon of individuals with severe mental illness uploading videos to YouTube, and posting and responding to comments as a form of naturally occurring peer support. We also consider the potential risks and benefits of self-disclosure and interacting with others on YouTube. To address these questions, we used qualitative inquiry informed by emerging techniques in online ethnography. We analyzed n = 3,044 comments posted to 19 videos uploaded by individuals who self-identified as having schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder. We found peer support across four themes: minimizing a sense of isolation and providing hope; finding support through peer exchange and reciprocity; sharing strategies for coping with day-to-day challenges of severe mental illness; and learning from shared experiences of medication use and seeking mental health care. These broad themes are consistent with accepted notions of peer support in severe mental illness as a voluntary process aimed at inclusion and mutual advancement through shared experience and developing a sense of community. Our data suggest that the lack of anonymity and associated risks of being identified as an individual with severe mental illness on YouTube seem to be overlooked by those who posted comments or uploaded videos. Whether or not this platform can provide benefits for a wider community of individuals with severe mental illness remains uncertain.

  5. Naturally occurring peer support through social media: the experiences of individuals with severe mental illness using YouTube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naslund, John A; Grande, Stuart W; Aschbrenner, Kelly A; Elwyn, Glyn

    2014-01-01

    Increasingly, people with diverse health conditions turn to social media to share their illness experiences or seek advice from others with similar health concerns. This unstructured medium may represent a platform on which individuals with severe mental illness naturally provide and receive peer support. Peer support includes a system of mutual giving and receiving where individuals with severe mental illness can offer hope, companionship, and encouragement to others facing similar challenges. In this study we explore the phenomenon of individuals with severe mental illness uploading videos to YouTube, and posting and responding to comments as a form of naturally occurring peer support. We also consider the potential risks and benefits of self-disclosure and interacting with others on YouTube. To address these questions, we used qualitative inquiry informed by emerging techniques in online ethnography. We analyzed n = 3,044 comments posted to 19 videos uploaded by individuals who self-identified as having schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder. We found peer support across four themes: minimizing a sense of isolation and providing hope; finding support through peer exchange and reciprocity; sharing strategies for coping with day-to-day challenges of severe mental illness; and learning from shared experiences of medication use and seeking mental health care. These broad themes are consistent with accepted notions of peer support in severe mental illness as a voluntary process aimed at inclusion and mutual advancement through shared experience and developing a sense of community. Our data suggest that the lack of anonymity and associated risks of being identified as an individual with severe mental illness on YouTube seem to be overlooked by those who posted comments or uploaded videos. Whether or not this platform can provide benefits for a wider community of individuals with severe mental illness remains uncertain.

  6. Supporting Project Work with Information Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heilesen, Simon

    2015-01-01

    University problem-oriented project work is based. However, in implementing and integrating the new technologies in academic practices, a number of challenges have had to be addressed. This chapter discusses four of these challenges. The first is to provide a physical and virtual framework for learning......Like so many other institutions, Roskilde University has had to adapt to the new realities brought about by the rapid developments in information and communication technology (ICT). On the whole, ICT tools have proven to be helpful in supporting and developing the work forms on which Roskilde...... activities. The second is to direct student use of ICT in terms of making systems available and teaching academic computing. The third challenge is to supervise and conduct project work online and in blended learning environments. Finally, one must find a way to exploit the potentials of ICT in problem...

  7. Supporting Project Work with Information Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heilesen, Simon

    2015-01-01

    University problem-oriented project work is based. However, in implementing and integrating the new technologies in academic practices, a number of challenges have had to be addressed. This chapter discusses four of these challenges. The first is to provide a physical and virtual framework for learning...... activities. The second is to direct student use of ICT in terms of making systems available and teaching academic computing. The third challenge is to supervise and conduct project work online and in blended learning environments. Finally, one must find a way to exploit the potentials of ICT in problem......Like so many other institutions, Roskilde University has had to adapt to the new realities brought about by the rapid developments in information and communication technology (ICT). On the whole, ICT tools have proven to be helpful in supporting and developing the work forms on which Roskilde...

  8. The impact of befriending and peer support on family carers of people living with dementia: A mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Raymond; Drennan, Vari; Mackenzie, Ann; Greenwood, Nan

    Volunteer led befriending and peer support is provided to a wide range of people with varying needs. Despite large numbers of such schemes for carers of people with dementia, there is little evidence for any benefits they may offer. The aim of this research was to investigate the impact of befriending and peer support on carers of people with dementia and to explore their experiences of receiving the interventions using a mixed methods approach. Nineteen carers of people with dementia were recruited from befriending and peer support services. Carers completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) and UCLA Loneliness Scale at baseline, three months and six months. Of the 16 carers who completed the quantitative phase, eight took part in depth semi-structured interviews. A statistically significant increase in perceived social support from a significant other between baseline and three months was found (Z = 2.487, p = 0.013). Qualitative findings showed befriending and peer support to be important sources of emotional and social support for carers, which was facilitated by the volunteers' experiential similarity. Volunteer led befriending and peer support offers carers of people with dementia emotional and social support which enables them to cope better with challenges and continue caring. This has important implications for potentially reducing breakdowns in carer mental and physical health. Future research should explore whether these finding are replicable in other locations and in more diverse populations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The development and implications of peer emotional support for student service members/veterans and civilian college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Shawn D; Barry, Adam E; Mroczek, Daniel K; Macdermid Wadsworth, Shelley

    2013-04-01

    Student service members/veterans represent a growing population on college campuses. Despite this growth, scholarly investigations into their health- and adjustment-related issues are almost nonexistent. The limited research that is available suggests that student service members/veterans may have trouble connecting with their civilian counterparts and be at risk for social isolation. The present study compared the development and implications of emotional support from peers among 199 student service members/veterans and 181 civilian students through 3 distinct occasions over the course of 1 calendar year. Data were collected via electronic survey. Measured constructs included perceived emotional support from university friends, mental health, alcohol use, and academic functioning. A series of multilevel models revealed that student service members/veterans reported less emotional support from their peers compared with their civilian counterparts; yet, emotional support from peers increased similarly for both groups over time. Although, increasing peer emotional support was generally related to better academic and mental health outcomes for both groups, the links between emotional support and mental health were stronger for civilian students. Results suggest that mental health practitioners, particularly those on college campuses, should be prepared to deal with veteran-specific experiences that occur before and during college.

  10. Using peer-mediated instruction to support communication involving a student with autism during mathematics activities: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Paulo; Alant, Erna

    2018-01-01

    This study employed an A-B singled subject design to explore the extent to which a peer-mediated intervention supported a first-grade student with autism's usage both in purpose and frequency of a speech-generating device (SGD) during mathematics activities. The intervention involved teaching a peer without a disability to encourage the student with autism to use the SGD during partnered mathematics activities. Our analysis involved visual and descriptive examination of trends and patterns over time, and comparison of means between and within phases. We found during the course of this study that (1) the student with autism's level of overall communication, which included the relevancy of these communicative behaviors, increased; (2) the student with autism's level of spontaneous communication acts increased; and (3) the peer became more independent with supporting the student with autism's communication. Implications for future research and practice are provided.

  11. Online social support as a buffer against online and offline peer and sexual victimization among U.S. LGBT and non-LGBT youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybarra, Michele L; Mitchell, Kimberly J; Palmer, Neal A; Reisner, Sari L

    2015-01-01

    In today's technology-infused world, we need to better understand relationships youth form with friends online, how they compare to relationships formed in-person, and whether these online relationships confer protective benefits. This is particularly important from the perspective of peer victimization, given that social support in-person appears to reduce the odds of victimization in-person. To address this literature gap, data from a sample of 5,542 U.S. adolescents, collected online between August 2010 and January 2011, were analyzed. The main variables of interest were: online and in-person peer victimization (including generalized and bullying forms) and online and in-person sexual victimization (including generalized and sexual harassment forms). Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth were more likely than non-LGBT youth to have online friends and to appraise these friends as better than their in-person friends at providing emotional support. Peer victimization and unwanted sexual experiences were more commonly reported by LGBT than non-LGBT youth. Perceived quality of social support, either online or in-person, did little to attenuate the relative odds of victimization for LGBT youth. For all youth, in-person social support was associated with reduced odds of bully victimization (online and in-person) and sexual harassment (in-person), but was unrelated to the other outcomes of interest. Online social support did not reduce the odds of any type of victimization assessed. Together, these findings suggest that online friends can be an important source of social support, particularly for LGBT youth. Nonetheless, in-person social support appears to be more protective against victimization, suggesting that one is not a replacement for the other. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Peer to Peer Information Retrieval: An Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tigelaar, A.S.; Hiemstra, D.; Trieschnigg, D.

    2012-01-01

    Peer-to-peer technology is widely used for file sharing. In the past decade a number of prototype peer-to-peer information retrieval systems have been developed. Unfortunately, none of these have seen widespread real- world adoption and thus, in contrast with file sharing, information retrieval is

  13. Peer to Peer Information Retrieval: An Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tigelaar, A.S.; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Trieschnigg, Rudolf Berend

    Peer-to-peer technology is widely used for file sharing. In the past decade a number of prototype peer-to-peer information retrieval systems have been developed. Unfortunately, none of these have seen widespread real- world adoption and thus, in contrast with file sharing, information retrieval is

  14. Technologies in support of CANDU development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, C.; Tapping, B.

    2005-01-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada, Ltd. (AECL) has significant research and development (R and D) programs designed to meet the needs of both existing CANDU reactors and new and evolving CANDU plant designs. These R and D programs cover a wide range of technology, from chemistry and materials support through to inspection and life management tools. Emphasis is placed on effective technology development programs for fuel channels, feeders and steam generators to ensure their operation through design life, and beyond. This paper specifically addresses how the R and D has been applied in the production of longer-lived pressure tubes for the most recent CANDU 6 reactors, and how this technology forms the basis for the pressure tubes of the Advanced CANDU Reactor (ACR). Similarly, AECL has developed solutions for other critical components such as calandria tubes, feeder pipe and steam generators. The paper also discusses how the R and D knowledge has been integrated into aging management databases and health monitoring tools. Since 1997, AECL has been working with CANDU utilities on comprehensive and integrated CANDU Plant Life Management (PLiM) programs for successful and reliable plant operation through design life and beyond. AECL has developed and implemented an advanced chemistry monitoring and diagnostic system, called ChemAND which allows on-line access by the operators to current and past chemistry conditions enabling appropriate responses and facilitating planning of shutdown maintenance actions. An equivalent tool for monitoring, trending and diagnosing thermal and mechanical data has also been developed; this tool is called ThermAND. AECL is developing the Maintenance Information, Monitoring, and Control (MIMC) system, which provide information to the user for condition-based decision-making in maintenance. To enable more effective inspections, surveillance and data collection, AECL has developed unique one-off tooling to carry out unanticipated inspection and repair

  15. Effective peer-to-peer support for young people with end-stage renal disease: a mixed methods evaluation of Camp COOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The Camp COOL programme aims to help young Dutch people with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) develop self-management skills. Fellow patients already treated in adult care (hereafter referred to as ‘buddies’) organise the day-to-day program, run the camp, counsel the attendees, and also participate in the activities. The attendees are young people who still have to transfer to adult care. This study aimed to explore the effects of this specific form of peer-to-peer support on the self-management of young people (16–25 years) with ESRD who participated in Camp COOL (CC) (hereafter referred to as ‘participants’). Methods A mixed methods research design was employed. Semi-structured interviews (n = 19) with initiators/staff, participants, and healthcare professionals were conducted. These were combined with retrospective and pre-post surveys among participants (n = 62), and observations during two camp weeks. Results Self-reported effects of participants were: increased self-confidence, more disease-related knowledge, feeling capable of being more responsible and open towards others, and daring to stand up for yourself. According to participants, being a buddy or having one positively affected them. Self-efficacy of attendees and independence of buddies increased, while attendees’ sense of social inclusion decreased (measured as domains of health-related quality of life). The buddy role was a pro-active combination of being supervisor, advisor, and leader. Conclusions Camp COOL allowed young people to support each other in adjusting to everyday life with ESRD. Participating in the camp positively influenced self-management in this group. Peer-to-peer support through buddies was much appreciated. Support from young adults was not only beneficial for adolescent attendees, but also for young adult buddies. Paediatric nephrologists are encouraged to refer patients to CC and to facilitate such initiatives. Together with nephrologists in adult

  16. Supporting women's leadership in science, technology, and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The project will build the leadership and business skills needed for the dissemination and uptake of research results, and for career advancement. Participants will disseminate their research results in various ways, including technical reports and peer-reviewed publications on innovative research and its applications in ...

  17. Peer Support, Self-efficacy, and Combat-related Trauma Symptoms among Returning OIF/OEF Veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann MacEachron

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of PTSD and other combat-related trauma symptoms among more than 2 million veterans returning from Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF in Afghanistan suggests that many will experience psychological challenges in adjusting to civilian life. However, the literature is sparse about this new group of veterans. This study examined the relationships between peer support, self-efficacy, and PTSD symptoms among 216 OIF/OEF veterans who had attended 1 of 17 Vets4Vets peer support weekend retreats. Vets4Vets is a national grassroots program whose mission is to improve the psychological well-being of returning OIF/OEF veterans. Analysis of posttest changes indicate the generalizability of previous research findings, based on other groups of trauma-affected groups, to OIF/OEF veterans. As predicted, increased perceived peer support and self-efficacy reduced PTSD symptoms. From a theoretical perspective, we found that both models of self-efficacy, situation-specific (Bandura, 1997; Benight & Bandura, 2004 and general self-efficacy (Schwarzer & Fuchs, 1996, mediated or explained the relationship between peer support and PTSD symptoms. Implications for social work are discussed.

  18. Reclaiming Joy: Pilot Evaluation of a Mental Health Peer Support Program for Older Adults Who Receive Medicaid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, Rosemary K.; Sergeant, Julie F.; Landry, Sarah; Leedahl, Skye N.; Rachlin, Roxanne; Koenig, Terry; Graham, Annette

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Stigma and lack of access to providers create barriers to mental health treatment for older adults living in the community. In order to address these barriers, we developed and evaluated a peer support intervention for older adults receiving Medicaid services. Design and Methods: Reclaiming Joy is a mental health intervention that pairs…

  19. Effect of the peer supportive program on blood pressure changes in patients affected with hypertension: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameneh haidari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is the biggest risk factor of death worldwide. The peer supportive program is one of low-cost programs which can be used to enhance patient information in chronic diseases. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of peer supportive program on blood pressure changes in patients affected with hypertension. This study was conducted on 64 patients referring to Isfahan hypertension center in two experiment (attending in 6 one-hour sessions of the peer supportive program, and control (attending in tow training sessions hold by researcher groups in 2015.The blood pressure of samples was measured in two groups before the start of intervention, immediately, after that, and one month after intervention. Then it was analyzed using spss18 program, independent T-, Man-Withney, and Chi-Square experiments. Before the intervention, there was no significant difference between the systolic and diastolic blood pressure scores of the two groups. However, immediately after that, and one month after beginning of the intervention, the mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure scores in the experimental group was significantly (P < 0.001. The peer supportive program is effective in promoting systolic and diastolic blood pressure scores inpatients whit hypertension.

  20. A Peer-Mentoring Scheme for Immigrant Students in English Secondary Schools: A Support Mechanism for Promoting Inclusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messiou, Kyriaki; Azaola, Marta Cristina

    2018-01-01

    Immigration in Europe has increased rapidly over the last years. As a result, schools are accepting students arriving from other countries at various stages of the school year. This can be a challenging process both for students and for schools. This paper describes the introduction of a peer-mentoring scheme to support immigrant students in three…

  1. Teacher-Perceived Supportive Classroom Climate Protects against Detrimental Impact of Reading Disability Risk on Peer Rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuru, Noona; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Pakarinen, Eija; Siekkinen, Martti; Ahonen, Timo; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the role of a supportive classroom climate, class size, and length of teaching experience as protective factors against children's peer rejection. A total of 376 children were assessed in kindergarten for risk for reading disabilities (RD) and rated by their teachers on socially withdrawn and disruptive behaviors. The grade 1…

  2. Supporting Girls' Motivation in Science: A Study of Peer- and Self-Assessment in a Girls-Only Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nadine; Winterbottom, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This study examines how the use of self- and peer-assessment within a girls-only biology class can support students' motivation. The study took place over 22 weeks in a rural comprehensive school, and the participants were girls between 15 and 16 years of age. Data included questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, notes from lesson observations…

  3. Parent-to-parent peer support for parents of children with a disability: A mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Lucy; Carter, Bernie; Sanders, Caroline; Blake, Lucy; Keegan, Kimberley

    2017-08-01

    This paper will report on the findings of a study which investigated the influence of a befriending (parent-to-parent peer support) scheme on parents whose children have a disability or additional need. The scheme operated from an acute children's tertiary setting in the UK. A prospective concurrent mixed method design collected interview (n=70) and questionnaire (n=68) data at two time-points from befrienders (n=13) and befriendees (n=26). The main qualitative findings of the study relate to the different degrees parents (befriendees and befrienders) moved from being lost, to finding and being a guide and getting to a better place. The quantitative findings demonstrate that parent-to-parent peer support has a positive influence on parents' levels of psychological distress and their ability to cope with being a parent of a child with a disability. The befriending scheme acted as a catalyst for many parents to move towards a place where they could grow and begin to flourish and thrive. Professionals should inform parents who have a child with a disability that peer-to-peer parenting support schemes are a valuable and appropriate source of support and help. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES OF LOGISTICAL SUPPORT OF TROOPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Myamlin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Comprehensive and uninterrupted logistical support of troops is considered one of the main factors of successful conduct of hostilities by any state. The logistics support system, created in peacetime, is intended for use in the course of a military company. It is the link between the front and the economy of the country, and at the same time, it is one of the important factors affecting the combat operation. According to experts, changes in the geopolitical and military-strategic situation in Europe resulted also changes in the armed forces of states, including their logistical support, which is undergoing changes and is developing under the direct influence of the military strategy, the achievement of whose goals it is intended to provide. All this necessitates the search for new, more effective ways of solving logistical problems in modern combat. This is true today, including for the Armed Forces of Ukraine. Therefore, the purpose of the work is to consider and implement in practice the logistic support of the state power structures of innovations in the form of a new, improved product - the creation of modular complexes, including various block containers (kitchen-dining room, shower room, laundry, post-office, dispensary and others. They will dramatically change in the future the quality of resolving the issues of everyday life of servicemen during the performance of combat missions in emergency zones and with participation in armed conflicts. Methodology. The methodology is based on the main measures to improve the logistic support system in the near future, including the reorganization of the existing logistic support system and the creation of modular structures of forces and means that are easily adapted and subsequently targeted for specific tasks. Findings. A set of design documentation for the block - container for laundry and shower in the field is offered. Technological modules for combat (block-post, rear (kitchen

  5. The Jury Is Still Out: Psychoemotional Support in Peer E-Mentoring for Transition to University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risquez, Angelica; Sanchez-Garcia, Marife

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates how computer mediated communication (CMC) can sustain nourishing and emotionally enriching peer mentoring relations. A peer electronic mentoring program was implemented in an Irish university to facilitate freshmen's transition to college. A sample of 123 participants (42 mentors and 81 mentees) was evaluated with a…

  6. Peer-led training in basic life support and resuscitation using an automatic external defibrillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løfgren, Bo; Petersen, Christina Børlum; Mikkelsen, Ronni

    2009-01-01

    Peer-led training has been identified as a useful tool for delivering undergraduate healthcare training. In this paper we describe the implementation of the European Resuscitation Council BLS/AED Course as a peer-led training program for medical students....

  7. Semantic technologies in a decision support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasielewska, K.; Ganzha, M.; Paprzycki, M.; Bǎdicǎ, C.; Ivanovic, M.; Lirkov, I.

    2015-10-01

    The aim of our work is to design a decision support system based on ontological representation of domain(s) and semantic technologies. Specifically, we consider the case when Grid / Cloud user describes his/her requirements regarding a "resource" as a class expression from an ontology, while the instances of (the same) ontology represent available resources. The goal is to help the user to find the best option with respect to his/her requirements, while remembering that user's knowledge may be "limited." In this context, we discuss multiple approaches based on semantic data processing, which involve different "forms" of user interaction with the system. Specifically, we consider: (a) ontological matchmaking based on SPARQL queries and class expression, (b) graph-based semantic closeness of instances representing user requirements (constructed from the class expression) and available resources, and (c) multicriterial analysis based on the AHP method, which utilizes expert domain knowledge (also ontologically represented).

  8. Potential Benefits of Incorporating Peer-to-Peer Interactions Into Digital Interventions for Psychotic Disorders: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagianti, Bruno; Quraishi, Sophia H; Schlosser, Danielle A

    2018-04-01

    Peer-to-peer interactions and support groups mitigate experiences of social isolation and loneliness often reported by individuals with psychotic disorders. Online peer-to-peer communication can promote broader use of this form of social support. Peer-to-peer interactions occur naturally on social media platforms, but they can negatively affect mental health. Recent digital interventions for persons with psychotic disorders have harnessed the principles of social media to incorporate peer-to-peer communication. This review examined the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of recent digital interventions in order to identify strategies to maximize benefits of online peer-to-peer communication for persons with psychotic disorders. An electronic database search of PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Ovid MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Health Technology Assessment Database was conducted in February 2017 and yielded a total of 1,015 results. Eight publications that reported data from six independent trials and five interventions were reviewed. The technology supporting peer-to-peer communication varied greatly across studies, from online forums to embedded social networking. When peer-to-peer interactions were moderated by facilitators, retention, engagement, acceptability, and efficacy were higher than for interventions with no facilitators. Individuals with psychotic disorders were actively engaged with moderated peer-to-peer communication and showed improvements in perceived social support. Studies involving service users in intervention design showed higher rates of acceptability. Individuals with psychotic disorders value and benefit from digital interventions that include moderated peer-to-peer interactions. Incorporating peer-to-peer communication into digital interventions for this population may increase compliance with other evidence-based therapies by producing more acceptable and engaging online environments.

  9. Cleaner Technology in Denmark - support measures and regulatory efforts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2005-01-01

    Danish cleaner technology support policies have been successful in fostering innovations that reduce the invironmental impact of products and production. But the lack of enforcement support for cleaner technology in environmental permits has limited the overall impact....

  10. Peer support for parents of children with chronic disabling conditions: a systematic review of quantitative and qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilling, Val; Morris, Christopher; Thompson-Coon, Jo; Ukoumunne, Obioha; Rogers, Morwenna; Logan, Stuart

    2013-07-01

    To review the qualitative and quantitative evidence of the benefits of peer support for parents of children with disabling conditions in the context of health, well-being, impact on family, and economic and service implications. We comprehensively searched multiple databases. Eligible studies evaluated parent-to-parent support and reported on the psychological health and experience of giving or receiving support. There were no limits on the child's condition, study design, language, date, or setting. We sought to aggregate quantitative data; findings of qualitative studies were combined using thematic analysis. Qualitative and quantitative data were brought together in a narrative synthesis. Seventeen papers were included: nine qualitative studies, seven quantitative studies, and one mixed-methods evaluation. Four themes were identified from qualitative studies: (1) shared social identity, (2) learning from the experiences of others, (3) personal growth, and (4) supporting others. Some quantitative studies reported a positive effect of peer support on psychological health and other outcomes; however, this was not consistently confirmed. It was not possible to aggregate data across studies. No costing data were identified. Qualitative studies strongly suggest that parents perceive benefit from peer support programmes, an effect seen across different types of support and conditions. However, quantitative studies provide inconsistent evidence of positive effects. Further research should explore whether this dissonance is substantive or an artefact of how outcomes have been measured. © The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2013 Mac Keith Press.

  11. Occupational therapy influence on a carer peer support model in a clinical mental health service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Cate; Sanders, Bronwyn; Allchin, Becca; Lentin, Primrose; Lang, Shannon

    2015-10-01

    Current policy frameworks call for the participation of consumers and carers in all levels of mental health service delivery in Australia. Such inclusion leads to better outcomes for all, however, it is recognised that carers have needs and occupations beyond their carer role. The aim of this article is to describe an innovative carer peer support program developed by a group of occupational therapists. The article describes the rationale, phases of development and the role that occupational therapists played in developing and sustaining the model. This is followed by an exploration of the occupational therapy attitudes, knowledge and skills that contributed to the conceptualisation and implementation of the model. Five occupational therapists engaged in a review process involving documentation, literature review, evaluation, reflection and discussion. Four of the occupational therapists had either coordinated or managed the service described. The fifth author facilitated the process. Review of the model indicates it equips carers to perform their caring occupation and helps carers recognise the need for occupations beyond caring, for their health and wellbeing. Employing carers as paid workers values their 'real life' experience in their caring occupation. Findings also illustrate that the attitudes, knowledge, skills and competency standards of occupational therapists are well suited in enabling this emerging area of service delivery. Although this model has been developed in a clinical mental health setting, the key principles could be applied with carers or consumers across a variety of settings in which occupational therapists are employed. © 2015 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  12. Peer-assisted learning to train high-school students to perform basic life-support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyung Soo; Lee, Dong Hoon; Kim, Chan Woong; Kim, Sung Eun; Oh, Je Hyeok

    2015-01-01

    The inclusion of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in formal education has been a useful approach to providing basic life support (BLS) services. However, because not all students have been able to learn directly from certified instructors, we studied the educational efficacy of the use of peer-assisted learning (PAL) to train high-school students to perform BLS services. This study consisted of 187 high-school students: 68 participants served as a control group and received a 1-hour BLS training from a school nurse, and 119 were included in a PAL group and received a 1-hour CPR training from a PAL leader. Participants' BLS training was preceded by the completion of questionnaires regarding their background. Three months after the training, the participants were asked to respond to questionnaires about their willingness to perform CPR on bystander CPR and their retention of knowledge of BLS. We found no statistically significant difference between the control and PAL groups in their willingness to perform CPR on bystanders (control: 55.2%, PAL: 64.7%, P=0.202). The PAL group was not significantly different from the control group (control: 60.78±39.77, PAL: 61.76±17.80, P=0.848) in retention of knowledge about BLS services. In educating high school students about BLS, there was no significant difference between PAL and traditional education in increasing the willingness to provide CPR to bystanders or the ability to retain knowledge about BLS.

  13. Emergence of Yalom's therapeutic factors in a peer-led, asynchronous, online support group for family caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefenbeck, Cynthia A; Klemm, Paula R; Hayes, Evelyn R

    2014-01-01

    Support groups fill a critical void in the health care system, harnessing the power of shared experiences to provide support to group members. Likewise, family caregivers fill a void in the health care system, providing billions in unpaid care to the chronically ill. Caregiver support groups offer an opportunity for alleviating the psychological burden of caregiving. The power of any group, including a support group, to foster psychological well-being lies in its ability to cultivate Yalom's therapeutic factors. Gaps in the literature remain regarding the ability of non-prototypical groups to promote therapeutic mechanisms of change. The purpose of this study was to determine if and when Yalom's therapeutic group factors emerged in a peer-led support group delivered in an asynchronous, online format. Qualitative content analysis utilizing deductive category application was employed. Participants' responses were coded and frequency counts were conducted. Results revealed that 9 of 11 therapeutic factors emerged over the course of the group, with Group Cohesiveness, Catharsis, Imparting of Information, and Universality occurring most often. Several factors, including Interpersonal Learning, Corrective Recapitulation of the Primary Family Group, Imitative Behavior, and Development of Socializing Techniques were absent or virtually absent, likely due to the peer-led format of the group. Progression of therapeutic factors over the course of the group is presented. Findings demonstrate the presence of a variety of Yalom's therapeutic factors in an asynchronous, peer-led online support group.

  14. Teaching paediatric basic life support in medical schools using peer teaching or video demonstration: A prospective randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Frederik; Groetschel, Hanjo; Büscher, Anja K; Serdar, Deniz; Groes, Kjell A; Büscher, Rainer

    2018-05-13

    The outcome of children with an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is still poor, but bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation can increase survival and minimise severe neurological sequelae. While teaching basic life support is standardised in emergency medicine classes, paediatric basic life support (PBLS) in neonates and toddlers is under-represented in paediatric curricula during university education. The appropriate mixture of E-learning and peer teaching lessons remains controversial in teaching paediatric basic skills. However, an increasing number of medical schools and paediatric classes switch their curricula to much cheaper and less tutor-dependent E-learning modules. We hypothesise that a peer teaching lesson is superior to a PBLS video demonstration with co-extensive contents and improves knowledge, skills and adherence to resuscitation guidelines. Eighty-eight medical students were randomly assigned to a video PBLS lesson (n = 44) or a peer teaching group (n = 44). An objective structured clinical examination was performed immediately after the class and at the end of the semester. Students taught by a peer teacher performed significantly better immediately after the initial course and at the end of the semester when compared to the video-trained group (P = 0.008 and P = 0.003, respectively). In addition, a borderline regression analysis also revealed a better resuscitation performance of students instructed in the peer teaching group. In our setting, peer teaching is superior and more sustainable than a co-extensive video demonstration alone when teaching PBLS to medical students. However, additional studies with combinations of different teaching methods are necessary to evaluate long-term outcomes. © 2018 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  15. The effectiveness of a peer support camp for siblings of children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Ranita; Passmore, Anne; Baker, David

    2006-10-15

    Siblings of children with cancer have higher levels of psychological stress and adaptational difficulties compared to siblings of healthy children and children with other chronic illness. This is the first study to report on the mental health of Australian siblings of children with cancer and examines the effects of a therapeutic peer support camp-Camp Onwards, as an intervention. A protocol, designed to reduce levels of distress, improve social competence, and improve knowledge about the impact of cancer and its treatment was developed. Siblings (n=26) 8-13 years were assessed using standardised self-report measures pre and post intervention and at -8 weeks follow-up with: the Behaviour Assessment for Children (BASC) (Reynolds & Kamphaus, 1992), Self Perception Profile for Children (SPP-C) (Harter, 1985), Sibling Perception Questionnaire (SPQ) (Carpenter & Sahler, 1991). Change was measured using paired t tests. At pre-test, 40% of the sample demonstrated increased levels of emotional distress when compared to the normal population. Post intervention, siblings reported lower levels of distress demonstrated by decreased anxiety (P=0.01) and positive changes in the Self Report of Personality [BASC] (P=0.00). Improved social competence was noted in the interpersonal domain of the SPQ (P=0.01) and also greater social acceptance scores on the SPP-C (P=0.01). Improved knowledge about the impact of cancer and its treatment was evidenced by significant reductions in the fear of disease domain on the SPQ (P=0.01). Siblings who attended Camp Onwards demonstrated improved mental health outcomes that were sustained at follow-up, demonstrating its effectiveness as an intervention strategy in supporting sibling adjustment. Copyright (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Non-suicidal self-injury within the school context: Multilevel analysis of teachers' support and peer climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madjar, N; Ben Shabat, S; Elia, R; Fellner, N; Rehavi, M; Rubin, S E; Segal, N; Shoval, G

    2017-03-01

    Recent studies regarding non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) among adolescents have focused primarily on individual characteristics (e.g., depressive symptoms) and background factors (e.g., parental relationship), whereas less emphasis has been given to the role of school-related factors in NSSI. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to explore the relationships between teachers' support, peer climate, and NSSI within the school context. The sample consisted of 594 high school students nested within 27 regular classes (54.4% boys; mean age 14.96, SD=1.33 years). The students were evaluated for NSSI behaviors, perception of teacher support, peer climate, relationships with mothers, and depressive symptoms using validated scales. The primary analysis used hierarchical linear modeling (HLM), controlling for gender and age. The main findings indicated that teacher support was positively associated with NSSI at the classroom-level (OR=6.15, 95% CI=2.05-18.5) but negatively associated at the student-level (OR=0.66, 95% CI=0.49-0.89). There was a trend toward an association between positive peer climate and NSSI at the classroom-level (OR=0.43, 95% CI=0.18-1.05), while negative peer climate was associated with NSSI at the student-level (OR=1.37, 95% CI=1.00-1.87). School-related factors are associated with NSSI behaviors among students. Teachers and educators should focus on both individual-level and classroom-level perceptions of school context. Students who feel supported by their teachers and who are exposed to a positive peer climate are less likely to engage in NSSI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Using Peer Review to Support Development of Community Resources for Research Data Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Soyka

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To ensure that resources designed to teach skills and best practices for scientific research data sharing and management are useful, the maintainers of those materials need to evaluate and update them to ensure their accuracy, currency, and quality. This paper advances the use and process of outside peer review for community resources in addressing ongoing accuracy, quality, and currency issues. It further describes the next step of moving the updated materials to an online collaborative community platform for future iterative review in order to build upon mechanisms for open science, ongoing iteration, participation, and transparent community engagement. Setting: Research data management resources were developed in support of the DataONE (Data Observation Network for Earth project, which has deployed a sustainable, long-term network to ensure the preservation and access to multi-scale, multi-discipline, and multi-national environmental and biological science data (Michener et al. 2012. Created by members of the Community Engagement and Education (CEE Working Group in 2011-2012, the freely available Educational Modules included three complementary components (slides, handouts, and exercises that were designed to be adaptable for use in classrooms as well as for research data management training. Methods: Because the modules were initially created and launched in 2011-2012, the current members of the (renamed Community Engagement and Outreach (CEO Working Group were concerned that the materials could be and / or quickly become outdated and should be reviewed for accuracy, currency, and quality. In November 2015, the Working Group developed an evaluation rubric for use by outside reviewers. Review criteria were developed based on surveys and usage scenarios from previous DataONE projects. Peer reviewers were selected from the DataONE community network for their expertise in the areas covered by one of the 11 educational modules

  18. The role of parental and peer support in adolescents well-being: a comparison of adolescents with and without a visual impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kef, S.; Dekovic, M.

    2004-01-01

    In the present study we examined the importance of parental and peer support for well-being of adolescents with and without a visual impairment. The sample included 178 adolescents who are blind or visually impaired and 338 adolescents without visual impairments. Peer and parental support proved to

  19. Learning Circles: A Collaborative Technology-Mediated Peer-Teaching Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Kevin; Marshall, Kevin; Tangney, Brendan

    2015-01-01

    This research study explores peer teaching and learning without a domain expert teacher, within the context of an activity where teams of second level students (~16 years old) are required to create a learning experience for their peers. The study looks at how participants would like to be taught and how they would teach their peers if given the…

  20. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN INSURANCE SALES SUPPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stofor Ovidiu-Ilie

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Insurance system in Romania is carried out with a constant natural activity, evolving quite honorably these times. This is largely due to the difficulty with which insurance is sold in normal economic conditions when it comes to prosperity. Although psychologists, led by Maslow believes that the protection needs are basic needs, along with the physiological one, on the priority list regarding procurement, insurance needs are for some Romanians, of minimum or no importance, so that they are either pushed to the bottom of the list, or even, as it most often happens, they are non existent. Current economic conditions and climate, urges caution on most fields, especially in terms of individual properties, including, how somewhat forced, life and physical integrity which are still considered property, if this aspect is not debated in terms of Christian or other religious dogma. In other words, many Romanians see insurance as a product that “is not up their alley” including it in the luxury category. Furthermore, the media shows, sometimes amplify certain cases of doubt in relations between insurance company - customer. Appropriate marketing, allied with the information technology can improve the complete relationship between the two entities - the offeror and the consumer. Through this study we aim to identify important issues that facilitate the sale of insurance, using information technology, given that the sales of these financial products through the "ancestral" methods are effective but not very efficient. We will follow, byanchoring to the current reality, the insurance utility and how to use information technologies in support of marketing (sales. The study itself was done by observing the results in practical work, from an insurance agency, but also related to what the literature offers. Because this study is currently underway, there are certainly some limitations of accuracy of results, which are adjusted "on the fly". Realizing

  1. "Anonymous Meltdown": Content Themes Emerging in a Nonfacilitated, Peer-only, Unstructured, Asynchronous Online Support Group for Family Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefenbeck, Cynthia A; Klemm, Paula R; Hayes, Evelyn R

    2017-12-01

    By providing care for loved ones in the home, family caregivers save millions of dollars for our overtaxed healthcare system. Support groups can lighten the psychological burden of caregiving. Nonprofessionally facilitated (or peer) online caregiver support groups can help meet a critical need in healthcare as a low-cost resource for caregivers. Online caregiver peer support groups can promote the health and well-being of family caregivers and, by extension, the patients themselves, resulting in cost-savings for society. A better understanding of these types of groups is of critical importance, given the unrelenting pace of demographic shift in the United States. The purpose of this study was to examine content themes emerging from an unstructured, asynchronous online peer support group for family caregivers of people with chronic illness. Qualitative content analysis was used, yielding six themes: "experiencing the emotional toll," "need for catharsis/venting," "finding the silver linings," "seeking specific advice/problem solving," "realizing home is no longer a haven," and "adapting to the caregiver role." The themes reflect what emerged organically in an online support group that was not professionally facilitated or structured in any way. Heterogeneity in the relationship between caregivers and care recipients may negatively affect outcomes and requires further study.

  2. 'Walking the tightrope': The role of peer support workers in facilitating consumers' participation in decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Michelle; Raeburn, Toby; Escott, Phil; West, Sancia; Lopez, Violeta

    2018-05-09

    In adult mental health services, the participation of consumers is essential. The aim of this study was to explore the challenges faced by peer support workers when involving mental health consumers in decision-making about their care and the strategies they employed to overcome these challenges so as to improve mental health consumers' participation in decision-making and recovery. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with six peer support workers currently employed in psychiatric hospitals and/or community mental health systems. Thematic analysis identified challenges related to role definition, power imbalance, doctor-centric medical approaches to care, and lack of resources. Strategies to overcome these challenges that were reported, included the following: facilitating meaningful involvement for service users, appropriate use of the lived experience, building relationships and communication, promoting rights and advocacy, and promoting professionalism of peer support workers (PSWs). Nursing staff need ongoing support and education to understand and value the varied roles of PSWs and thereby empower PSWs to engage in enhancing consumer decision-making. The roles of the PSWs should be viewed as complementary, and greater appreciation and understanding of roles would better support recovery-oriented care. © 2018 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  3. Effectiveness of web-based self-disclosure peer-to-peer support for weight loss: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanaka, Mie; Ando, Masahiko; Kitamura, Tetsuhisa; Kawamura, Takashi

    2013-07-09

    Obesity is one of the most common public health problems in the industrialized world as a cause of noncommunicable diseases. Although primarily used for one-on-one communication, email is available for uninterrupted support for weight loss, but little is known about the effects of dietitian group counseling for weight control via the Internet. We developed a Web-based self-disclosure health support (WSHS) system for weight loss. This study aims to compare the effect of weight change between those using the WSHS and those using the email health support (EHS). This study was designed as an open prospective individual randomized controlled trial. Eligible participants were aged 35 to 65 years with a body mass index (BMI) of ≥25.0 in their latest health examination. Participants were randomly assigned to either the WSHS group or the EHS group. Thirteen registered dietitians under the direction of a principal dietitian each instructed 6 to 8 participants from the respective groups. All participants in the WSHS group could receive nutritional advice and calculate their nutritive intake from a photograph of a meal on their computer screen from the Internet sent to them by their dietitian, receive supervision from the registered dietitian, and view fellow participants' weight changes and lifestyle modifications. In the EHS group, a participant could receive one-on-one nutritional advice and calculate his/her nutritive intake from the photograph of a meal on computer screen sent by email from his/her dietitian, without being able to view fellow participants' status. The follow-up period was 12 weeks for both groups. The primary outcome measure was change in body weight. The secondary outcome measure included changes in BMI and waist circumference. The intergroup comparison of the changes before and after intervention was evaluated using analysis of covariance. A total of 193 participants were randomly assigned to either the WSHS group (n=97) or the EHS group (n=96). Ten

  4. Qualitative insights into implementation, processes, and outcomes of a randomized trial on peer support and HIV care engagement in Rakai, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, April; Nakigozi, Gertrude; Ddaaki, William; Bazaale, Jeremiah Mulamba; Gray, Ronald H; Wawer, Maria J; Reynolds, Steven J; Kennedy, Caitlin E; Chang, Larry W

    2017-01-10

    People living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who have not yet initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART) can benefit from being engaged in care and utilizing preventive interventions. Community-based peer support may be an effective approach to promote these important HIV services. After conducting a randomized trial of the impact of peer support on pre-ART outcomes, we conducted a qualitative evaluation to better understand trial implementation, processes, and results. Overall, 75 participants, including trial participants (clients), peer supporters, and clinic staff, participated in 41 in-depth interviews and 6 focus group discussions. A situated Information Motivation, and Behavioral skills model of behavior change was used to develop semi-structured interview and focus group guides. Transcripts were coded and thematically synthesized. We found that participant narratives were generally consistent with the theoretical model, indicating that peer support improved information, motivation, and behavioral skills, leading to increased engagement in pre-ART care. Clients described how peer supporters reinforced health messages and helped them better understand complicated health information. Peer supporters also helped clients navigate the health system, develop support networks, and identify strategies for remembering medication and clinic appointments. Some peer supporters adopted roles beyond visiting patients, serving as a bridge between the client and his or her family, community, and health system. Qualitative results demonstrated plausible processes by which peer support improved client engagement in care, cotrimoxazole use, and safe water vessel use. Challenges identified included insufficient messaging surrounding ART initiation, lack of care continuity after ART initiation, rare breaches in confidentiality, and structural challenges. The evaluation found largely positive perceptions of the peer intervention across stakeholders and provided valuable

  5. Literacy and Technology: Integrating Technology with Small Group, Peer-led Discussions of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genya Coffey

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This review examines research of computer-mediated small group discussion of literature. The goal of this review is to explore several instructional formats for integrating print-based and new literacies skills. First, the theoretical foundations for the shift from teacher-led to student led discussion are outlined. Research exploring ways in which technology has been infused into several common elements of literature discussion groups are presented next. Benefits and challenges of such integration are highlighted and suggestions for future research are presented.

  6. Supporting teachers' technology integration in lesson plans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Noortje

    2017-01-01

    Lesson planning offers rich opportunities for teachers to consider and implement technology in the classroom. This dissertation investigated the design and effectiveness of supplementary information to assist pre-service teachers during the lesson planning process. Based on the Technological,

  7. Institutional Support : Centre for Research and Technology ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    year-old science and technology research centre at Maseno University in western Kenya. The Centre focuses on science and technology research to influence both national policies and development practices at the community level. Currently ...

  8. Effects of Using Child Personas in the Development of a Digital Peer Support Service for Childhood Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wärnestål, Pontus; Svedberg, Petra; Lindberg, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    Background Peer support services have the potential to support children who survive cancer by handling the physical, mental, and social challenges associated with survival and return to everyday life. Involving the children themselves in the design process allows for adapting services to authentic user behaviors and goals. As there are several challenges that put critical requirements on a user-centered design process, we developed a design method based on personas adapted to the particular needs of children that promotes health and handles a sensitive design context. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of using child personas in the development of a digital peer support service for childhood cancer survivors. Methods The user group’s needs and behaviors were characterized based on cohort data and literature, focus group interviews with childhood cancer survivors (n=15, 8-12 years), stakeholder interviews with health care professionals and parents (n=13), user interviews, and observations. Data were interpreted and explained together with childhood cancer survivors (n=5) in three explorative design workshops and a validation workshop with children (n=7). Results We present findings and insights on how to codesign child personas in the context of developing digital peer support services with childhood cancer survivors. The work resulted in three primary personas that model the behaviors, attitudes, and goals of three user archetypes tailored for developing health-promoting services in this particular use context. Additionally, we also report on the effects of using these personas in the design of a digital peer support service called Give Me a Break. Conclusions By applying our progressive steps of data collection and analysis, we arrive at authentic child-personas that were successfully used to design and develop health-promoting services for children in vulnerable life stages. The child-personas serve as effective collaboration and

  9. Effect of peer support on prevention of postnatal depression among high risk women: multisite randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, C-L; Hodnett, E; Kenton, L; Weston, J; Zupancic, J; Stewart, D E; Kiss, A

    2009-01-15

    To evaluate the effectiveness of telephone based peer support in the prevention of postnatal depression. Multisite randomised controlled trial. Seven health regions across Ontario, Canada. 701 women in the first two weeks postpartum identified as high risk for postnatal depression with the Edinburgh postnatal depression scale and randomised with an internet based randomisation service. Proactive individualised telephone based peer (mother to mother) support, initiated within 48-72 hours of randomisation, provided by a volunteer recruited from the community who had previously experienced and recovered from self reported postnatal depression and attended a four hour training session. Edinburgh postnatal depression scale, structured clinical interview-depression, state-trait anxiety inventory, UCLA loneliness scale, and use of health services. After web based screening of 21 470 women, 701 (72%) eligible mothers were recruited. A blinded research nurse followed up more than 85% by telephone, including 613 at 12 weeks and 600 at 24 weeks postpartum. At 12 weeks, 14% (40/297) of women in the intervention group and 25% (78/315) in the control group had an Edinburgh postnatal depression scale score >12 (chi(2)=12.5, P<0.001; number need to treat 8.8, 95% confidence interval 5.9 to 19.6; relative risk reduction 0.46, 95% confidence interval 0.24 to 0.62). There was a positive trend in favour of the intervention group for maternal anxiety but not loneliness or use of health services. For ethical reasons, participants identified with clinical depression at 12 weeks were referred for treatment, resulting in no differences between groups at 24 weeks. Of the 221 women in the intervention group who received and evaluated their experience of peer support, over 80% were satisfied and would recommend this support to a friend. Telephone based peer support can be effective in preventing postnatal depression among women at high risk. ISRCTN 68337727.

  10. Development and implementation of a peer-based mental health support programme for adolescents orphaned by HIV/AIDS in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thupayagale-Tshweneagae, Gloria

    2011-12-01

    The article describes a framework and the process for the development of the peer-based mental health support programme and its implementation. The development of a peer-based mental health support programme is based on Erikson's theory on the adolescent phase of development, the psycho-educational processes; the peer approach and the orphaned adolescents lived experiences as conceptual framework. A triangulation of five qualitative methods of photography, reflective diaries, focus groups, event history calendar and field notes were used to capture the lived experiences of adolescents orphaned to HIV and AIDS. Analysis of data followed Colaizzi's method of data analysis. The combination of psycho-education, Erikson's stages of development and peer support assisted the participants to gain knowledge and skills to overcome adversity and to assist them to become to more resilient. The peer based mental health support programme if used would enhance the mental health of adolescent orphans.

  11. Influence of peer support on HIV/STI prevention and safety amongst international migrant sex workers: A qualitative study at the Mexico-Guatemala border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febres-Cordero, Belen; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Rocha-Jimenez, Teresita; Fernandez-Casanueva, Carmen; Morales-Miranda, Sonia; Goldenberg, Shira M

    2018-01-01

    Migrant women engaged in precarious employment, such as sex work, frequently face pronounced social isolation alongside other barriers to health and human rights. Although peer support has been identified as a critical HIV and violence prevention intervention for sex workers, little is known about access to peer support or its role in shaping health and social outcomes for migrant sex workers. This article analyses the role of peer support in shaping vulnerability and resilience related to HIV/STI prevention and violence among international migrant sex workers at the Mexico-Guatemala border. This qualitative study is based on 31 semi-structured interviews conducted with international migrant sex workers in the Mexico-Guatemala border communities of Tapachula, Mexico and Tecún Umán and Quetzaltenango, Guatemala. Peer support was found to be critical for reducing social isolation; improving access to HIV/STI knowledge, prevention and resources; and mitigating workplace violence, particularly at the initial stages of migration and sex work. Peer support was especially critical for countering social isolation, and peers represented a valuable source of HIV/STI prevention knowledge and resources (e.g., condoms), as well as essential safety supports in the workplace. However, challenges to accessing peer support were noted, including difficulties establishing long-lasting relationships and other forms of social participation due to frequent mobility, as well as tensions among peers within some work environments. Variations in access to peer support related to country of work, work environment, sex work and migration stage, and sex work experience were also identified. Results indicate that peer-led and community empowerment interventions represent a promising strategy for promoting the health, safety and human rights of migrant sex workers. Tailored community empowerment interventions addressing the unique migration-related contexts and challenges faced by migrant sex

  12. A Lunar Surface System Supportability Technology Development Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Struk, Peter M.; Taleghani, barmac K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the establishment of a Supportability Technology Development Roadmap as a guide for developing capabilities intended to allow NASA s Constellation program to enable a supportable, sustainable and affordable exploration of the Moon and Mars. Presented is a discussion of supportability, in terms of space facility maintenance, repair and related logistics and a comparison of how lunar outpost supportability differs from the International Space Station. Supportability lessons learned from NASA and Department of Defense experience and their impact on a future lunar outpost is discussed. A supportability concept for future missions to the Moon and Mars that involves a transition from a highly logistics dependent to a logistically independent operation is discussed. Lunar outpost supportability capability needs are summarized and a supportability technology development strategy is established. The resulting Lunar Surface Systems Supportability Strategy defines general criteria that will be used to select technologies that will enable future flight crews to act effectively to respond to problems and exploit opportunities in an environment of extreme resource scarcity and isolation. This strategy also introduces the concept of exploiting flight hardware as a supportability resource. The technology roadmap involves development of three mutually supporting technology categories, Diagnostics Test and Verification, Maintenance and Repair, and Scavenging and Recycling. The technology roadmap establishes two distinct technology types, "Embedded" and "Process" technologies, with different implementation and thus different criteria and development approaches. The supportability technology roadmap addresses the technology readiness level, and estimated development schedule for technology groups that includes down-selection decision gates that correlate with the lunar program milestones. The resulting supportability technology roadmap is intended to develop a set

  13. The impact of self-transcendence on physical health status promotion in multiple sclerosis patients attending peer support groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    JadidMilani, Maryam; Ashktorab, Tahereh; AbedSaeedi, Zhila; AlaviMajd, Hamid

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of self-transcendence on the physical health of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients attending peer support groups. This study was a quasi-experimental before-and-after design including 33 MS patients in three groups: 10 men in the men-only group, 11 women in the women-only group, and 12 men and women in the mixed group. Participants were required to attend eight weekly sessions of 2 h each. Instruments included the physical health section of the Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life Inventory and Reed's Self-Transcendence Scale. Peer support group attendance was found to have a significant positive effect on the physical health and self-transcendence of MS patients when comparing average scores before and after attendance. Regression analysis showed that improvement in self-transcendence predicted improvement in physical health. Results show the positive effects of peer support groups on self-transcendence and physical health in MS patients, and suggest that improvement in well-being can be gained by promoting self-transcendence and physical health. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. An examination of the relationship among Iiraqi high school students' science achievement and perceptions of the value of education, parent support, and peer support in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mandwee, Samir F.

    The objective of this dissertation was to quantitatively study Iraqi students (N=90) who arrived in the U.S.A. in the last 20 years. A non-experimental, descriptive research design was used for this study, which took place in one of three high schools in a large Midwestern suburban school district, during the 2013--2014 academic year. Three factors, including the students' perception of the value of education, the parental support, and the peer support, were examined using the Facilitating Conditions Questionnaire. The three subscales were part of a larger self-administered questionnaire used by McInerney (1997). In addition to the FCQ survey, a student demographic questionnaire was also used in the survey. Quantitative data from the FCQ survey reported that the students' perception of the value of education and their perception of peer support had a significant relationship with science academic achievement, which was measured for two semesters. Moreover, their peer support was the only predictor for science achievement.

  15. Using Mobile Phone Technology to Support Young Liver Transplant Recipients Moving to Adult Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coad, Jane; Toft, Alex; Claridge, Lee; Ferguson, James; Hind, Jonathon; Jones, Rebecca; McClean, Patricia; McKiernan, Patrick; Samyn, Marianne; Taylor, Rachel

    2017-06-01

    The process and preparation of moving from child to adult services (transition) is a challenging period of time for young people and represents significant changes in care and support systems. The proliferation of mobile phone applications for health purposes suggests that it is an area for further investigation. The review explores the potential to use mobile phone technology to help support young liver transplant recipients moving to adult services. It represents the first review conducted in this specialism and considers a new model of support for young liver patients. A systematic rapid review of the published peer-reviewed literature. Two searches were conducted: Search 1: the use of technology to support transition to adult services (6 studies) and Search 2: how best to support liver transplant recipients during transition (6 studies). Research shows that to achieve positive transition young people need information about their condition and transition. The process needs to be guided by transition readiness, rather than the young persons' age. Although parents and support networks should be in place and are valued, transition should build upon self-management and independence. Results suggest that there appears to be scope to use mobile phone technology to support transition. This is the first time a review has explored the types of issues or concerns facing liver transplant patients and how these can be addressed through mobile phone technology.

  16. Decision support for redesigning wastewater treatment technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConville, Jennifer R; Künzle, Rahel; Messmer, Ulrike; Udert, Kai M; Larsen, Tove A

    2014-10-21

    This paper offers a methodology for structuring the design space for innovative process engineering technology development. The methodology is exemplified in the evaluation of a wide variety of treatment technologies for source-separated domestic wastewater within the scope of the Reinvent the Toilet Challenge. It offers a methodology for narrowing down the decision-making field based on a strict interpretation of treatment objectives for undiluted urine and dry feces and macroenvironmental factors (STEEPLED analysis) which influence decision criteria. Such an evaluation identifies promising paths for technology development such as focusing on space-saving processes or the need for more innovation in low-cost, energy-efficient urine treatment methods. Critical macroenvironmental factors, such as housing density, transportation infrastructure, and climate conditions were found to affect technology decisions regarding reactor volume, weight of outputs, energy consumption, atmospheric emissions, investment cost, and net revenue. The analysis also identified a number of qualitative factors that should be carefully weighed when pursuing technology development; such as availability of O&M resources, health and safety goals, and other ethical issues. Use of this methodology allows for coevolution of innovative technology within context constraints; however, for full-scale technology choices in the field, only very mature technologies can be evaluated.

  17. Brain-Based Learning With Technological Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Anita

    2004-01-01

    Utilization of technology in secondary schools is varied and depends on the training and interest of the individual instructors. Even though technology has advanced way beyond its utilitarian roots of being viewed solely by educators as a useful machine for teachers to key exams and worksheets on, there are still many secondary educators who still…

  18. Decision Support System for Condition Monitoring Technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouatamir, Abderrahim

    2018-01-01

    The technological feasibility of a condition-based maintenance (CBM) policy is intrinsically related to the suitable selection of condition monitoring (CM) technologies such as vibration- and oil analysis or other non-destructive testing (NDT) techniques such as radiographic- and magnetic particle

  19. Using Peer Collaboration to Support Online Reading, Writing, and Communication: An Empowerment Model for Struggling Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Laurie A.; Castek, Jill; O'Byrne, W. Ian; Zawilinski, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    This comparative case study investigated the implementation of an empowerment model for struggling readers that utilized the Internet as a context for reading, writing, and communicating in 3 different classroom contexts. Through student-centered techniques, such as flexible grouping and peer teaching, we designed Internet Reciprocal Teaching to…

  20. Defending victimized peers : Opposing the bully, supporting the victim, or both?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijntjes, Albert; Vermande, Marjolijn; Olthof, Tjeert; Goossens, Frits A; Aleva, Liesbeth; van der Meulen, Matty

    2016-01-01

    To reduce bullying, more knowledge on children defending their victimized peers is critical. In previous work, predominantly cross-sectional in nature, defending has typically been operationalized as one single, broad construct. However, there are good reasons to assume that attacking the bully

  1. Peer counseling in an online chat service: a content analysis of social support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fukkink, R.

    2011-01-01

    In a recently launched one-on-one chat service for young people with psychosocial problems, young peer volunteers (ages 16-23) have a leading role in the conversations, comparable to the role of counselors in web-based and telephone-based child help-line services. A content analysis of the chat

  2. A Pedagogical Design for ICT-Supported Cross-age Peer Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudiksen, Maria Boel Klok; Horn, Line Helverskov; Knudsen, Torben Broe

    2016-01-01

    is based on the idea that internship students’ individual learning could be shared with younger peers through online interaction. In the context of a bachelor programme in Northern Denmark, the concept was implemented as discussion forums embedded in the local LMS. In these forums, the students engaged...

  3. Facilitating Peer Discourse to Support Third Graders' Comprehension of the News

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Michelle; Massad, Michael, Sr.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored how one third-grade teacher facilitated daily peer-led discussions around articles from a local newspaper. Two students were assigned to select and summarize an article, then lead a whole-class discussion with the teacher's help. The teacher differentially scaffolded engagement with newspaper articles, adaptively responding to…

  4. Social Play at the Computer: Preschoolers Scaffold and Support Peers' Computer Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Nancy K.; Somerindyke, Jennifer

    2001-01-01

    Describes preschoolers' collaboration during free play in a computer lab, focusing on the computer's contribution to active, peer-mediated learning. Discusses these observations in terms of Parten's insights on children's social play and Vygotsky's socio-cultural learning theory, noting that the children scaffolded each other's growing computer…

  5. Leveraging the Potential of Peer Feedback in an Academic Writing Activity through Sense-Making Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, Astrid; Funk, Alexandra; Rummel, Nikol

    2018-01-01

    The act of revising is an important aspect of academic writing. Although revision is crucial for eliminating writing errors and producing high-quality texts, research on writing expertise shows that novices rarely engage in revision activities. Providing information on writing errors by means of peer feedback has become a popular method in writing…

  6. Adults Make a Difference: The Protective Effects of Parent and Teacher Emotional Support on Emotional and Behavioral Problems of Peer-Victimized Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Rachel; Leadbeater, Bonnie

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the associations between peer victimization and maladaptive outcomes (emotional and behavioral problems) among 580 adolescents concurrently and across a 2-year period, and proposed that adult emotional support moderated this association. Peer victimization and maladaptive outcomes were assessed from…

  7. Promoting Positive Peer Interactions in the Preschool Classroom: The Role and the Responsibility of the Teacher in Supporting Children's Sociodramatic Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton-Chapman, Tina L.

    2015-01-01

    Teachers play an important role in expanding and supporting children's play and interactions with peers. This manuscript provides specific guidelines for interventions teachers can use to promote successful peer interactions in preschool settings. The strategies discussed include: (a) preparing the physical environment for play (e.g., toy…

  8. Peer support to decrease diabetes-related distress in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: design of a randomised controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, L. de; Heijden, A.A.W.A. van der; Riet, E. van 't; Baan, C.A.; Kostense, P.J.; Rijken, M.; Rutten, G.E.H.M.; Nijpels, G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many type 2 diabetes mellitus patients face difficulties self-managing their illness, which can lead to high levels of diabetes-related distress. Diabetes distress may be decreased by peer support, as peers understand and have dealt with similar problems, and can help motivate each

  9. Peer support to decrease diabetes-related distress in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: design of a randomised controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, L.; van der Heijden, A.A.; van 't Riet, E.; Baan, C.A.; Kostense, P.J.; Rijken, M.; Rutten, G.E.H.M.; Nijpels, G.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many type 2 diabetes mellitus patients face difficulties self-managing their illness, which can lead to high levels of diabetes-related distress. Diabetes distress may be decreased by peer support, as peers understand and have dealt with similar problems, and can help motivate each

  10. Peer support to decrease diabetes-related distress in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: design of a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, L.; van der Heijden, A.A.W.A.; van 't Riet, E.; Baan, C.A.; Kostense, P.J.; Rijken, M.; Rutten, G.E.H.M.; Nijpels, G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many type 2 diabetes mellitus patients face difficulties self-managing their illness, which can lead to high levels of diabetes-related distress. Diabetes distress may be decreased by peer support, as peers understand and have dealt with similar problems, and can help motivate each

  11. Subthreshold psychotic symptom distress, self-stigma, and peer social support among college students with mental health concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denenny, Danielle; Thompson, Elizabeth; Pitts, Steven C; Dixon, Lisa B; Schiffman, Jason

    2015-06-01

    The primary aim of this study was to explore the potential moderating effect of social support on the relation between distress caused by psychosis risk symptoms and self-stigma among college students with mental health diagnoses. Participants were young adult college students who endorsed having a past or present mental health diagnosis (n = 63). Self-report data were examined from the Prodromal Questionnaire-Brief, a measure of subthreshold psychosis risk symptoms; the Self-Concurrence/Application subscale of the Self-Stigma of Mental Illness Scale, a measure of self-stigma; and the Friendships subscale of the Lubben Social Network Scale-Revised, a measure of social support from peers. There was a modest direct relation between distress associated with psychosis risk symptoms and self-stigma. There was a larger relation between distress from risk symptoms and self-stigma for those with low social support compared to those with mean and high social support. Although causality cannot be determined based on this study, a strong relation between symptom distress and stigma was found among those reporting low peer social support. Interventions that target both self-stigma and social support might be relevant for young adults with a history of mental health concerns who currently endorse subthreshold psychotic symptoms. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Technology status in support of refined technical baseline for the Spent Nuclear Fuel project. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puigh, R.J.; Toffer, H.; Heard, F.J.; Irvin, J.J.; Cooper, T.D.

    1995-10-20

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNFP) has undertaken technology acquisition activities focused on supporting the technical basis for the removal of the N Reactor fuel from the K Basins to an interim storage facility. The purpose of these technology acquisition activities has been to identify technology issues impacting design or safety approval, to establish the strategy for obtaining the necessary information through either existing project activities, or the assignment of new work. A set of specific path options has been identified for each major action proposed for placing the N Reactor fuel into a ``stabilized`` form for interim storage as part of this refined technical basis. This report summarizes the status of technology information acquisition as it relates to key decisions impacting the selection of specific path options. The following specific categories were chosen to characterize and partition the technology information status: hydride issues and ignition, corrosion, hydrogen generation, drying and conditioning, thermal performance, criticality and materials accountability, canister/fuel particulate behavior, and MCO integrity. This report represents a preliminary assessment of the technology information supporting the SNFP. As our understanding of the N Reactor fuel performance develops the technology information supporting the SNFP will be updated and documented in later revisions to this report. Revision 1 represents the incorporation of peer review comments into the original document. The substantive evolution in our understanding of the technical status for the SNFP (except section 3) since July 1995 have not been incorporated into this revision.

  13. Technology status in support of refined technical baseline for the Spent Nuclear Fuel project. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puigh, R.J.; Toffer, H.; Heard, F.J.; Irvin, J.J.; Cooper, T.D.

    1995-01-01

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNFP) has undertaken technology acquisition activities focused on supporting the technical basis for the removal of the N Reactor fuel from the K Basins to an interim storage facility. The purpose of these technology acquisition activities has been to identify technology issues impacting design or safety approval, to establish the strategy for obtaining the necessary information through either existing project activities, or the assignment of new work. A set of specific path options has been identified for each major action proposed for placing the N Reactor fuel into a ''stabilized'' form for interim storage as part of this refined technical basis. This report summarizes the status of technology information acquisition as it relates to key decisions impacting the selection of specific path options. The following specific categories were chosen to characterize and partition the technology information status: hydride issues and ignition, corrosion, hydrogen generation, drying and conditioning, thermal performance, criticality and materials accountability, canister/fuel particulate behavior, and MCO integrity. This report represents a preliminary assessment of the technology information supporting the SNFP. As our understanding of the N Reactor fuel performance develops the technology information supporting the SNFP will be updated and documented in later revisions to this report. Revision 1 represents the incorporation of peer review comments into the original document. The substantive evolution in our understanding of the technical status for the SNFP (except section 3) since July 1995 have not been incorporated into this revision

  14. Effectiveness and experiences of families and support workers participating in peer-led parenting support programs delivered as home visiting programs: a comprehensive systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munns, Ailsa; Watts, Robin; Hegney, Desley; Walker, Roz

    2016-10-01

    Designing child and family health services to meet the diverse needs of contemporary families is intended to minimize impacts of early disadvantage and subsequent lifelong health and social issues. Innovative programs to engage families with child and family support services have led to interest in the potential value of peer-led home visiting from parents in local communities. There is a range of benefits and challenges identified in a limited number of studies associated with home visiting peer support. The objective of the review is to identify: INCLUSION CRITERIA PARTICIPANTS: Families/parents with one or more children aged zero to four years, peer support workers and their supervisors. Peer-led home visiting parenting support programs that use volunteer or paraprofessional home visitors from the local community compared to standard community maternal-child care. The phenomenon of interest will be the relationships between participants in the program. Quantitative studies: randomized control trials (RCTs). Qualitative studies: grounded theory and qualitative descriptive studies. Parental attitudes and beliefs, coping skills and confidence in parenting, parental stress, compliance with child health checks/links with primary healthcare services, satisfaction with peer support and services and the nature of the relationship between parents and home visitors. The search strategy will include both published and unpublished studies. Seven journal databases and five other sources will be searched. Only studies published in the English language from 2000 to 2015 will be considered. Studies were assessed by two independent reviewers using standardized critical appraisal tools from the Joanna Briggs Institute Meta-Analysis of Statistics Assessment and Review Instrument (JBI-MAStARI) and the Joanna Briggs Institute Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument (JBI-QARI) as appropriate. Both quantitative and qualitative data were independently extracted by two reviewers

  15. Power of Peer Support to Change Health Behavior to Reduce Risks for Heart Disease and Stroke for African American Men in a Faith-Based Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sohye; Schorr, Erica; Hadidi, Niloufar Niakosari; Kelley, Robin; Treat-Jacobson, Diane; Lindquist, Ruth

    2018-02-01

    Peer support has powerful potential to improve outcomes in a program of health behavior change; yet, how peer support is perceived by participants, its role, and how it contributes to intervention efficacy is not known, especially among African Americans. The purpose of this study was to identify the subjectively perceived experience and potential contributions of peer support to the outcomes of a peer group behavioral intervention designed to change health behavior to reduce risks for heart disease and stroke in African American men in a faith-based community. A peer support group intervention was implemented to increase health knowledge and to improve health behaviors in line with the American Heart Association's Life Simple 7 domains (get active, control cholesterol, eat better, manage blood pressure, lose weight, reduce blood sugar, and stop smoking). Fourteen peer group sessions and eight follow-up interviews with program participants were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed. Seven key themes emerged, including (1) enhancing access to health behavior information and resources, (2) practicing and applying problem-solving skills with group feedback and support, (3) discussing health behavior challenges and barriers, (4) sharing health behavior changes, (5) sharing perceived health outcome improvements and benefits, (6) feelings of belonging and being cared for, and (7) addressing health of family and community. Qualitative findings revealed a positive perception of peer support and greater understanding of potential reasons why it may be an effective strategy for African American men.

  16. Establishing a support service for educational technology within a university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Longstaffe

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade it has become increasingly apparent that computer technology is extremely effective in the support of teaching and learning. It has also become obvious that without proselytization and support, the adoption of this new method of teaching is patchy and frequently inappropriate. The raising of awareness, the training of staff and the provision of informed advice and support are necessary to facilitate the appropriate development of technology-supported learning within an institution.

  17. An Optimal Mobile Service for Telecare Data Synchronization using a Role-based Access Control Model and Mobile Peer-to-Peer Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Chih-Kun; Lin, Zheng-Hua

    2015-09-01

    The progress of information and communication technologies (ICT) has promoted the development of healthcare which has enabled the exchange of resources and services between organizations. Organizations want to integrate mobile devices into their hospital information systems (HIS) due to the convenience to employees who are then able to perform specific healthcare processes from any location. The collection and merage of healthcare data from discrete mobile devices are worth exploring possible ways for further use, especially in remote districts without public data network (PDN) to connect the HIS. In this study, we propose an optimal mobile service which automatically synchronizes the telecare file resources among discrete mobile devices. The proposed service enforces some technical methods. The role-based access control model defines the telecare file resources accessing mechanism; the symmetric data encryption method protects telecare file resources transmitted over a mobile peer-to-peer network. The multi-criteria decision analysis method, ELECTRE (Elimination Et Choice Translating Reality), evaluates multiple criteria of the candidates' mobile devices to determine a ranking order. This optimizes the synchronization of telecare file resources among discrete mobile devices. A prototype system is implemented to examine the proposed mobile service. The results of the experiment show that the proposed mobile service can automatically and effectively synchronize telecare file resources among discrete mobile devices. The contribution of this experiment is to provide an optimal mobile service that enhances the security of telecare file resource synchronization and strengthens an organization's mobility.

  18. A realist review of one-to-one breastfeeding peer support experiments conducted in developed country settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trickey, Heather; Thomson, Gill; Grant, Aimee; Sanders, Julia; Mann, Mala; Murphy, Simon; Paranjothy, Shantini

    2018-01-01

    The World Health Organisation guidance recommends breastfeeding peer support (BFPS) as part of a strategy to improve breastfeeding rates. In the UK, BFPS is supported by National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidance and a variety of models are in use. The experimental evidence for BFPS in developed countries is mixed and traditional methods of systematic review are ill-equipped to explore heterogeneity, complexity, and context influences on effectiveness. This review aimed to enhance learning from the experimental evidence base for one-to-one BFPS intervention. Principles of realist review were applied to intervention case studies associated with published experimental studies. The review aimed (a) to explore heterogeneity in theoretical underpinnings and intervention design for one-to-one BFPS intervention; (b) inform design decisions by identifying transferable lessons developed from cross-case comparison of context-mechanism-outcome relationships; and (c) inform evaluation design by identifying context-mechanism-outcome relationships associated with experimental conditions. Findings highlighted poor attention to intervention theory and considerable heterogeneity in BFPS intervention design. Transferable mid-range theories to inform design emerged, which could be grouped into seven categories: (a) congruence with local infant feeding norms, (b) integration with the existing system of health care, (c) overcoming practical and emotional barriers to access, (d) ensuring friendly, competent, and proactive peers, (e) facilitating authentic peer-mother interactions, (f) motivating peers to ensure positive within-intervention amplification, and (g) ensuring positive legacy and maintenance of gains. There is a need to integrate realist principles into evaluation design to improve our understanding of what forms of BFPS work, for whom and under what circumstances. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Property Outlaws in Cyberspace and Meatspace? Examining the Relationship between Online Peer Production and Support for Private Property Violations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Gibson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Marxian theory has long viewed the institution of private property as central to labour exploitation. After all, private property laws allow those who control the means of production to expropriate surplus value from the dispossessed. An analogous relationship arguably defines life on the Internet, where users are forced to venture onto privately owned digital enclosures to access key services. Yet these online property relationships are anything but settled and uncontested. Outside the digital enclosures of Apple and Google, the Internet has fostered the development of “commons-based peer production”, where key resources (e.g. software are produced without anyone claiming exclusive property rights. In fact, some scholars have argued that the rise of peer production on the web has begun to re-shape popular attitudes concerning the legitimacy of property exclusions more broadly. In short, as we become “property outlaws” on the web, we come to question the inevitability and legitimacy of private property elsewhere in life. This paper explores this hypothesis by reporting data from a survey of Internet users at an East Coast university. Are users who engage in more peer production activities on the web also more likely to approve of “property outlaw” behaviours not just in the online context, but in the offline world as well (e.g. squatting? The data provide only partial support for the hypothesis: active online peer producers were indeed more likely to support violations of intangible (intellectual properties, but not violations of tangible or “real-world” properties.

  20. Family bedside orientations: An innovative peer support model to enhance a culture of family-centred care at the Stollery Children's Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodinski, Lindsay M; Mattson McCrady, Heather M; Oswald, Christie M; Lyste, Nicole J M; Forbes, Karen L L

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents family bedside orientations, an innovative bedside peer support model for families of paediatric patients piloted in one unit at the Stollery Children's Hospital in Edmonton, Alberta. The model invites family members of former patients back to the hospital as volunteer peer mentors responsible for meeting one-on-one with current inpatient families to provide a listening presence, discuss patient safety practices and encourage families to participate in their child's care. Using qualitative and quantitative data collection methods, the model was evaluated over 1 year (December 2014 to December 2015). Data sources included peer mentor field notes (from 163 visits) detailing the number of family bedside orientations completed by peer mentors and how they interacted with families, as well as post-visit family (n=35) surveys, Hospital-Child Inpatient Experience Survey data, peer mentor (n=6) questionnaires, focus groups with unit staff (n=10) and interviews with members of the project leadership team (n=5). Our findings indicated that family bedside orientations became an established practice in the pilot unit and positively impacted family care experiences. We attribute these successes to championing and support from unit staff and our multidisciplinary project leadership team. We discuss how our team addressed family privacy and confidentiality while introducing peer mentors in the unit. We also highlight strategies used to integrate peer mentors as part of the staff team and enhance peer support culture in the pilot unit. Practical considerations for implementing this model in other paediatric environments are provided.

  1. Supporting the industrialisation of aerospace technologies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, M

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available rates do not offer a competitive advantage; an insufficient skills pipeline; loss of skills; and risk of exclusion from secondary markets, due to rising aerospace emerging market economies. The Aerospace Industry Support Initiative (AISI) is a Department...

  2. Information technology support for emergency management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uuspaeae, P.

    1990-01-01

    Information systems for distributed decision support for emergency management are considered. Specific applications include nuclear power plant emergencies. Emergencies in other industries such as chemical industry may also be considered. Research in the ISEM project is briefly summarized

  3. Artificial intelligence in peer review: How can evolutionary computation support journal editors?

    OpenAIRE

    Mrowinski, Maciej J.; Fronczak, Piotr; Fronczak, Agata; Ausloos, Marcel; Nedic, Olgica

    2017-01-01

    With the volume of manuscripts submitted for publication growing every year, the deficiencies of peer review (e.g. long review times) are becoming more apparent. Editorial strategies, sets of guidelines designed to speed up the process and reduce editors' workloads, are treated as trade secrets by publishing houses and are not shared publicly. To improve the effectiveness of their strategies, editors in small publishing groups are faced with undertaking an iterative trial-and-error approach. ...

  4. Impacts of online peer support for children with asthma and allergies: It just helps you every time you can't breathe well".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Miriam; Letourneau, Nicole; Masuda, Jeffrey R; Anderson, Sharon; McGhan, Shawna

    2013-01-01

    Children with asthma and allergies experience social isolation and gaps in social support particularly from peers. The objective of this pilot study was to design and test an accessible online support intervention for these children. Support was delivered by peer mentors with asthma and allergies and a professional. Weekly support groups were conducted over 8 weeks using Go to Meeting and Club Penguin. Quantitative measures and a qualitative interview were administered. Significant increases in perceived support and support-seeking coping and trends in decreased loneliness emerged at post-test. Participants also reported increased self-confidence and satisfaction with the intervention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of Peer Tutoring Services to Support Osteopathic Medical Students' Academic Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swindle, Nicholas; Wimsatt, Leslie

    2015-11-01

    Peer tutoring can benefit both tutors and tutored students, but information is lacking regarding establishing and measuring outcomes of such a program at new medical schools. To examine the outcomes of a pilot peer tutoring initiative and explore the implications for long-term program development. Fifty-one osteopathic medical students who participated in a pilot peer tutoring program during the 2013-2014 academic year were surveyed regarding satisfaction with the program. Course grade means for the tutors (all courses) and tutored students (specific courses) were analyzed before and after participating in the tutoring experience. Data analyses were performed using frequency distributions, t tests, and qualitative assessment of emergent themes. The survey had a 76% response rate (39 of 51 students). Both tutored students and tutors were satisfied with the tutoring program. Statistically significant changes in course grades for the tutored courses were noted at 3 to 4 and 8 to 9 months among the tutored students who were most at risk for failure (P=.001). Tutor course grades showed no significant changes for any of the courses in which they were enrolled (P=.445). Learning gains were realized by the students at greatest academic risk. Additional research is needed to evaluate long-term outcomes.

  6. Getting Your Counselor to Support Technology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preble, Brian C.

    2016-01-01

    Is there a disconnect between counselors and educators in technology and vocational education? What is counseling, and what is a school counselor's role in a secondary school setting? How can one work with his or her guidance staff to ensure that students better understand your course offerings? The development of relationships, knowledge, and…

  7. Institutional Support : African Technology Policy Studies - Tanzania ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    African Technology Policy Studies - Tanzania (ATPS-Tanzania) was registered as a national nongovernmental organization in 2001. ... While resource flows to ATPS-Tanzania from ATPS headquarters in Nairobi were reliable, the organization produced a larger volume of research outputs than most other ATPS national ...

  8. Myths about Technology-Supported Professional Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killion, Joellen; Treacy, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The future of professional learning is shaped by its present and past. As new technologies emerge to increase affordability, access, and appropriateness of professional learning, three beliefs are visible in current practices related to online learning. Each contains a premise that merits identification and examination. The authors call these…

  9. Integration of element technology and system supporting thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    A special committee for integrated system technology survey on thermonuclear fusion (TNF) was begun on June, 1999, under an aim to generally summarize whole of shapes on technology to realize TNF reactor to summarize present state of every technologies and their positioning in whole of their TNF technology. On a base of survey of these recent informations, this report is comprehensively summarized for an integrated system technology on TNF. It has outlines on magnetic field enclosing method, outlines on inertia enclosing method, element technology supporting TNF, new power generation techniques, and ripple effects on TNF technology. (G.K.)

  10. A qualitative analysis exploring preferred methods of peer support to encourage adherence to a Mediterranean diet in a Northern European population at high risk of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Christina M; McEvoy, Claire T; Moore, Sarah E; Prior, Lindsay; Lawton, Julia; Kee, Frank; Cupples, Margaret E; Young, Ian S; Appleton, Katherine; McKinley, Michelle C; Woodside, Jayne V

    2018-02-05

    Epidemiological and randomised controlled trial evidence demonstrates that adherence to a Mediterranean diet (MD) can reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. However, methods used to support dietary change have been intensive and expensive. Peer support has been suggested as a possible cost-effective method to encourage adherence to a MD in at risk populations, although development of such a programme has not been explored. The purpose of this study was to use mixed-methods to determine the preferred peer support approach to encourage adherence to a MD. Qualitative (focus groups) and quantitative methods (questionnaire and preference scoring sheet) were used to determine preferred methods of peer support. Sixty-seven high CVD risk participants took part in 12 focus groups (60% female, mean age 64 years) and completed a questionnaire and preference scoring sheet. Focus group data were transcribed and thematically analysed. The mean preference score (1 being most preferred and 5 being least preferred) for group support was 1.5, compared to 3.4 for peer mentorship, 4.0 for telephone peer support and 4.0 for internet peer support. Three key themes were identified from the transcripts: 1. Components of an effective peer support group: discussions around group peer support were predominantly positive. It was suggested that an effective group develops from people who consider themselves similar to each other meeting face-to-face, leading to the development of a group identity that embraces trust and honesty. 2. Catalysing Motivation: participants discussed that a group peer support model could facilitate interpersonal motivations including encouragement, competitiveness and accountability. 3. Stepping Stones of Change: participants conceptualised change as a process, and discussed that, throughout the process, different models of peer support might be more or less useful. A group-based approach was the preferred method of peer support to encourage a population at high

  11. An Added Layer of Support: Introducing a Heterarchical Peer Mentoring Intervention to a Preservice Science Teacher Education Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neesemann, Lisa Ann

    In an effort to support preservice science teachers during their concurrent student teaching experiences and masters coursework, I created and implemented a Peer Mentoring Intervention to add an additional layer of support to those most traditionally curated. In this intervention, preservice secondary science teachers were paired into heterarchical (as contrasted with hierarchical) mentoring groups, instructed in norms of collaboration and given class time to work as dyads offering support and feedback to one another. During the three-semester span of the intervention data was collected in many forms, such as prompted journal entries, course assignments and semi-structured interviews. Qualitative findings are reported and the case study of one dyad is also presented. Findings included concerns and solutions regarding relating to the assigned peer, developing academic and organizational skills, navigating and learning to appreciate different layers of support, a deeper level of reflection, varying levels of commitment to social justice, and realized self-efficacy. Next steps include refining and implementing the program with a new cohort of students as well as following the participants as they move forward in their teaching careers as well as rethinking the role of mentorship to realize equality among members and challenge the traditionally established hierarchies in mentor relationships.

  12. A pilot training program for people in recovery of mental illness as vocational peer support workers in Hong Kong - Job Buddies Training Program (JBTP): A preliminary finding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yam, Kevin Kei Nang; Lo, William Tak Lam; Chiu, Rose Lai Ping; Lau, Bien Shuk Yin; Lau, Charles Ka Shing; Wu, Jen Kei Yu; Wan, Siu Man

    2016-10-24

    The present study reviews the delivery of a pilot curriculum-mentorship-based peer vocational support workers training in a Hong Kong public psychiatric hospital. The present paper reports (1) on the development of a peer vocational support workers training - Job Buddies Training Program (JBTP) in Hong Kong; and (2) preliminary findings from both quantitative and qualitative perspectives. The curriculum consists of 15-session coursework, 8-session storytelling workshop and 50-hour practicum to provide Supported Employment Peer Service (SEPS) under the mentorship of occupational therapists. Six trainees were assessed using three psychosocial assessments and qualitative methods. Compared to the baseline, the Job Buddies (JB) trainees showed an increase in awareness of their own recovery progress, occupational competence and problem-solving skills at the end of the training. Their perceived level of self-stigma was also lessened. In post-training evaluation, all Job Buddies trainees said they perceived positive personal growth and discovered their own strengths. They also appreciated the help from their mentors and gained mutual support from other trainees and from exposure with various mini-projects in the training. This pilot study provides an example of incorporating peer support and manualized training into existing work rehabilitation service for our JB trainees. Further studies on the effectiveness of service provided by peer support workers and for development on the potential use of peer support workers in other clinical and rehabilitation settings with larger subjects will be fruitful. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Lifelong Learning and its support with new technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalz, Marco

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview about the use of new technologies for lifelong learning. While in the past learning technologies were mostly provided by educational institutions to support a specific lifetime or shorter learning episodes nowadays more personal technologies are used for lifelong

  14. Technology-Supported Learning Environments in Science Classrooms in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Adit; Fisher, Darrell

    2012-01-01

    The adoption of technology has created a major impact in the field of education at all levels. Technology-supported classroom learning environments, involving modern information and communication technologies, are also entering the Indian educational system in general and the schools in Jammu region (Jammu & Kashmir State, India) in…

  15. Professional Learning Design Framework: Supporting Technology Integration in Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Thiel, Lydia

    2018-01-01

    Researchers around the world are interested in knowing how to support teachers in developing both their technology skills and their understanding of how educational technologies can provide opportunity to engage all learners at their skill and interest level in learning activities that were not possible without technology. The solution involves…

  16. Beyond Social Skills: Supporting Peer Relationships and Friendships for School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, Amy; Estes, Annette

    2018-04-01

    Social impairments are the sine qua non of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, children with ASD are capable of forming reciprocal friendships and many people with ASD have a strong desire for friends. Developing and maintaining friendships is associated with many important outcomes, including improved quality of life, mental health, and academic achievement. Children with ASD often attend groups to improve social skills, but strategies for building and maintaining friendships are not consistently addressed or measured following intervention. In this article, our objective is to build an understanding of peer relationships and friendships in school-aged children with ASD and how to best support them. In this article, we describe characteristics of peer relationships and friendships for children with ASD. We discuss current research findings on intervention to improve social skills, peer relationships, and friendships in school-aged children with ASD. Finally, we give suggestions for clinical practice and future research. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  17. Integrated aerospace technologies in precision agriculture support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borfecchia, F.; De Cecco, L.; Martini, S.; Giordano, L.; Trotta, C.; Masci, D.; Di Gioia, V.; Pignatelli, V.; Micheli, C.; Moreno, A.; Taraglio, S.; Nanni, V.; Moriconi, Cl.; Mancini, S.; Pizzuti, A.; Picciucco, P.

    2015-01-01

    In a scenery where agriculture plays a more and more 'decisive and strategic role, the spread, in that sector, of aerospace and advanced robotic technology, more and more' accessible, meets the needs of basing decisions on integrated information, not only for increase production, but also to ensure food quality 'to the world population, minimizing the environmental impacts and climatic problems, and enhancing biodiversity'. [it

  18. Online Therapy for Depressive Symptoms: An Evaluation of Counselor-Led and Peer-Supported Life Review Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhof, Gerben J; Lamers, Sanne M A; Postel, Marloes G; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T

    2017-09-18

    Life review therapy is recognized as an evidence-based treatment for depression in later life. The current article evaluates an online life review therapy in middle-aged and older persons, comparing a counselor-led to a peer-supported mode of delivery. A pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) was carried out with 3 conditions and 4 measurement points: (a) online life review therapy with online counseling, (b) online life review therapy with online peer support, and (c) a waitlist control condition. A mixed methods study provided insight in the reach, adherence, effectiveness, user experiences, and acceptability. Fifty-eight people were included in the study. The intervention reached a vulnerable group of mainly middle-aged, college-educated women. The pilot RCT on effectiveness showed that participants in all conditions improved significantly in depressive symptoms, engaged living, mastery, and vitality, but not in ego integrity and despair, social support, loneliness, and well-being. The adherence, user experience, and acceptability were better in the counselor condition than in the peer condition. No differences were found between middle-aged and older adults. Despite the nonsignificant effects, possibly due to the small sample size, online life review therapy might be a good method for alleviating depressive symptoms in people in their second half of life. Further research is needed, addressing how online life review is best offered. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Spallation sources in support of technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pynn, R [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-05-01

    In this contribution I summarize a number of recent experiments at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) that have contributed to strategic and applied research. A number of new tools have been developed to address these problems, including software that allows materials texture to be obtained during Rietveld refinement, Bragg-edge diffraction, resonant-neutron and proton radiography. These tools have the potential to impact basic as well as applied research. It is clear that a new, more powerful neutron source such as the planned Japanese Hadron Project will be able to use these and other techniques to contribute in a direct way to important industrial technologies. (author)

  20. Systematic review of peer support for breastfeeding continuation: metaregression analysis of the effect of setting, intensity, and timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, Kate; Ingram, Lucy; Khan, Khalid S; Deeks, Jonathan J; Freemantle, Nick; MacArthur, Christine

    2012-01-25

    To examine the effect of setting, intensity, and timing of peer support on breast feeding. Systematic review and metaregression analysis of randomised controlled trials. Cochrane Library, Medline, CINAHL, the National Research Register, and British Nursing Index were searched from inception or from 1980 to 2011. Review methods Study selection, data abstraction, and quality assessment were carried out independently and in duplicate. Risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for individual studies and pooled. Effects were estimated for studies grouped according to setting (high income countries, low or middle income countries, and the United Kingdom), intensity (services in high income countries need to undergo concurrent evaluation.

  1. The Affordances of Mobile-App Supported Teacher Observations for Peer Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Sercan; Baran, Evrim; Sert, Olcay

    2018-01-01

    Mobile technologies offer new affordances for teacher observation in teacher education programs, albeit under-examined in contrast to video technologies. The purpose of this article is to investigate the integration of mobile technologies into teacher observation. Using a case study method, the authors compare the traditional narrative paper-pen,…

  2. 'All in the same boat'? Patient and carer attitudes to peer support and social comparison in Motor Neurone Disease (MND).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locock, Louise; Brown, Janice B

    2010-10-01

    This paper explores attitudes to peer support among people with Motor Neurone Disease (MND) and their family carers. It reports findings from a secondary analysis of data from two UK interview studies conducted by the authors. The process of secondary analysis is reported in detail. 48 people with MND and 22 carers were interviewed in 2005-2007. The authors identified narrative extracts on peer support from their own datasets and exchanged them for independent thematic analysis. Subsequent discussion, drawing on literature on support groups and social comparison, led to an exploration of two overarching themes: valuing camaraderie and comparison, and choosing isolation. Findings suggest that social comparison theory is a useful framework for analysing attitudes to MND support groups, but that on its own it is insufficient. 'Valuing camaraderie and comparison' explains how support groups offer practical and social support, as well as beneficial opportunities for social comparison. Seeing others coping well with the condition can provide hope, while downward comparison with those worse off can also make people feel better about their own situation. However, most people are also shocked and saddened by seeing others with the condition. Tension of identity can occur when group membership starts to define the individual as 'a person with MND, rather than the person I am that happens to have MND'. Choosing isolation can be a deliberate defensive strategy, to protect oneself from witnessing one's possible future. Levels of involvement may change over time as people struggle with their changing needs and fears. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The impact of volunteering on the volunteer: findings from a peer support programme for family carers of people with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlesworth, Georgina; Sinclair, James B; Brooks, Alice; Sullivan, Theresa; Ahmad, Shaheen; Poland, Fiona

    2017-03-01

    With an ageing population, there are increasing numbers of experienced family carers (FCs) who could provide peer support to newer carers in a similar care situation. The aims of this paper are to: (i) use a cross-sectional study design to compare characteristics of volunteers and recipients of a peer support programme for FCs of people with dementia, in terms of demographic background, social networks and psychological well-being; and (ii) use a longitudinal study design to explore the overall impact of the programme on the volunteers in terms of psychological well-being. Data were collected from programmes run in Norfolk, Northamptonshire, Berkshire and four London boroughs between October 2009 and March 2013. The volunteer role entailed empathic listening and encouragement over a 10-month period. Both carer support volunteers (N = 87) and recipient FCs (N = 109) provided baseline demographic information. Data on social networks, personal growth, self-efficacy, service use and well-being (SF-12; EuroQol Visual Analogue Scale; Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; Control, Autonomy, Self-Realisation, Pleasure-19) were collected prior to the start of the intervention (N = 43) and at either 3- to 5 month or 10 month follow-up (N = 21). Volunteers were more likely than recipients of support to be female and to have cared for a parent/grandparent rather than spouse. Volunteers were also more psychologically well than support recipients in terms of personal growth, depression and perceived well-being. The longitudinal analysis identified small but significant declines in personal growth and autonomy and a positive correlation between the volunteers' duration of involvement and perceived well-being. These findings suggest that carers who volunteer for emotional support roles are resilient and are at little psychological risk from volunteering. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Intelligent decision technology support in practice

    CERN Document Server

    Neves-Silva, Rui; Jain, Lakhmi; Phillips-Wren, Gloria; Watada, Junzo; Howlett, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This book contains a collection of innovative chapters emanating from topics raised during the 5th KES International Conference on Intelligent Decision Technologies (IDT), held during 2013 at Sesimbra, Portugal. The authors were invited to expand their original papers into a plethora of innovative chapters espousing IDT methodologies and applications. This book documents leading-edge contributions, representing advances in Knowledge-Based and Intelligent Information and Engineering System. It acknowledges that researchers recognize that society is familiar with modern Advanced Information Processing and increasingly expect richer IDT systems. Each chapter concentrates on the theory, design, development, implementation, testing or evaluation of IDT techniques or applications.  Anyone that wants to work with IDT or simply process knowledge should consider reading one or more chapters and focus on their technique of choice. Most readers will benefit from reading additional chapters to access alternative techniq...

  5. In Pursuit of Theoretical Ground in Behavior Change Support Systems: Analysis of Peer-to-Peer Communication in a Health-Related Online Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myneni, Sahiti; Cobb, Nathan; Cohen, Trevor

    2016-02-02

    Research studies involving health-related online communities have focused on examining network structure to understand mechanisms underlying behavior change. Content analysis of the messages exchanged in these communities has been limited to the "social support" perspective. However, existing behavior change theories suggest that message content plays a prominent role reflecting several sociocognitive factors that affect an individual's efforts to make a lifestyle change. An understanding of these factors is imperative to identify and harness the mechanisms of behavior change in the Health 2.0 era. The objective of this work is two-fold: (1) to harness digital communication data to capture essential meaning of communication and factors affecting a desired behavior change, and (2) to understand the applicability of existing behavior change theories to characterize peer-to-peer communication in online platforms. In this paper, we describe grounded theory-based qualitative analysis of digital communication in QuitNet, an online community promoting smoking cessation. A database of 16,492 de-identified public messages from 1456 users from March 1-April 30, 2007, was used in our study. We analyzed 795 messages using grounded theory techniques to ensure thematic saturation. This analysis enabled identification of key concepts contained in the messages exchanged by QuitNet members, allowing us to understand the sociobehavioral intricacies underlying an individual's efforts to cease smoking in a group setting. We further ascertained the relevance of the identified themes to theoretical constructs in existing behavior change theories (eg, Health Belief Model) and theoretically linked techniques of behavior change taxonomy. We identified 43 different concepts, which were then grouped under 12 themes based on analysis of 795 messages. Examples of concepts include "sleepiness," "pledge," "patch," "spouse," and "slip." Examples of themes include "traditions," "social support

  6. 'We have beaten HIV a bit': a qualitative study of experiences of peer support during pregnancy with an HIV Mentor Mother project in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeish, Jenny; Redshaw, Maggie

    2016-06-20

    To explore the experiences of women living with HIV in England who received or gave Mentor Mother (trained mother-to-mother) volunteer peer support during pregnancy and early motherhood. Qualitative descriptive study, using semistructured, in-depth interviews and inductive thematic analysis, theoretically informed by phenomenological social psychology. A London-based third sector peer support organisation for people living with HIV. 12 women living with HIV who had given or received Mentor Mother volunteer peer support (6 had given support and 6 had received support). 11 were black African. The key themes in participants' descriptions of their lives as pregnant women and mothers living with HIV were 'fear and distress', 'stigma and isolation' and 'the gap in maternity care'. The key themes related to Mentor Mother peer support during and after pregnancy were 'support to avoid mother-to-child transmission' (with subthemes 'reinforcing medical advice', 'reframing faith issues', 'prioritisation and problem-solving' and 'practical strategies for managing HIV and motherhood'), and 'emotional support' (with subthemes 'role modelling and inspiring hope', 'openness and non-judgemental acceptance', 'a caring relationship', 'recreating the lost family network', 'being understood from the inside' and 'self-confidence'). The Mentor Mothers' support appeared to be a successful hybrid between the peer education Mentor Mothers programmes in southern Africa and the more general pregnancy volunteer peer support models operating in England. A Mentor Mother peer support programme is acceptable to, and valued by, black African mothers with HIV in England. Peer support from trained volunteers during and after pregnancy can complement and reinforce medical advice on avoiding mother-to-child transmission of HIV, and can have a multidimensional positive impact on vulnerable mothers' emotional well-being. Mentor Mother peer support should be considered by those designing programmes for the

  7. Integrated plant information technology design support functionality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yeon Seung; Kim, Dae Jin; Barber, P. W.; Goland, D.

    1996-06-01

    This technical report was written as a result of Integrated Plant Information System (IPIS) feasibility study on CANDU 9 project which had been carried out from January, 1994 to March, 1994 at AECL (Atomic Energy Canada Limited) in Canada. From 1987, AECL had done endeavour to change engineering work process from paper based work process to computer based work process through CANDU 3 project. Even though AECL had a lot of good results form computerizing the Process Engineering, Instrumentation Control and Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Computer Aided Design and Drafting, and Document Management System, but there remains the problem of information isolation and integration. On this feasibility study, IPIS design support functionality guideline was suggested by evaluating current AECL CAE tools, analyzing computer aided engineering task and work flow, investigating request for implementing integrated computer aided engineering and describing Korean request for future CANDU design including CANDU 9. 6 figs. (Author)

  8. Integrated plant information technology design support functionality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeon Seung; Kim, Dae Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Barber, P W; Goland, D [Atomic Energy Canada Ltd., (Canada)

    1996-06-01

    This technical report was written as a result of Integrated Plant Information System (IPIS) feasibility study on CANDU 9 project which had been carried out from January, 1994 to March, 1994 at AECL (Atomic Energy Canada Limited) in Canada. From 1987, AECL had done endeavour to change engineering work process from paper based work process to computer based work process through CANDU 3 project. Even though AECL had a lot of good results form computerizing the Process Engineering, Instrumentation Control and Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Computer Aided Design and Drafting, and Document Management System, but there remains the problem of information isolation and integration. On this feasibility study, IPIS design support functionality guideline was suggested by evaluating current AECL CAE tools, analyzing computer aided engineering task and work flow, investigating request for implementing integrated computer aided engineering and describing Korean request for future CANDU design including CANDU 9. 6 figs. (Author).

  9. In Pursuit of Theoretical Ground in Behavior Change Support Systems: Analysis of Peer-to-Peer Communication in a Health-Related Online Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Nathan; Cohen, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    Background Research studies involving health-related online communities have focused on examining network structure to understand mechanisms underlying behavior change. Content analysis of the messages exchanged in these communities has been limited to the “social support” perspective. However, existing behavior change theories suggest that message content plays a prominent role reflecting several sociocognitive factors that affect an individual’s efforts to make a lifestyle change. An understanding of these factors is imperative to identify and harness the mechanisms of behavior change in the Health 2.0 era. Objective The objective of this work is two-fold: (1) to harness digital communication data to capture essential meaning of communication and factors affecting a desired behavior change, and (2) to understand the applicability of existing behavior change theories to characterize peer-to-peer communication in online platforms. Methods In this paper, we describe grounded theory–based qualitative analysis of digital communication in QuitNet, an online community promoting smoking cessation. A database of 16,492 de-identified public messages from 1456 users from March 1-April 30, 2007, was used in our study. We analyzed 795 messages using grounded theory techniques to ensure thematic saturation. This analysis enabled identification of key concepts contained in the messages exchanged by QuitNet members, allowing us to understand the sociobehavioral intricacies underlying an individual’s efforts to cease smoking in a group setting. We further ascertained the relevance of the identified themes to theoretical constructs in existing behavior change theories (eg, Health Belief Model) and theoretically linked techniques of behavior change taxonomy. Results We identified 43 different concepts, which were then grouped under 12 themes based on analysis of 795 messages. Examples of concepts include “sleepiness,” “pledge,” “patch,” “spouse,” and

  10. Pathways to Commercial Success. Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2010-08-01

    This report identifies the commercial and near-commercial (emerging) hydrogen and fuel cell technologies and products that resulted from Department of Energy support through the Fuel Cell Technologies Program in the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  11. The development of pedagogical content knowledge in science teachers: New opportunities through technology-mediated reflection and peer-exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, M. Cheryl-Ann

    This design-based research study investigates the development of pedagogical content knowledge among nine teacher-participants (N = 9) in three design phases. PCK is a particular type of teacher knowledge that addresses not only the teacher's understanding of the content to be instructed, but also ways of how to teach that content effectively. This knowledge has been well documented over several decades, and is seen as central to teacher expertise. However, its actual development has been difficult for researchers to investigate. This study offers a detailed perspective on how teachers developed PCK with their engagement in lesson planning and enactment of a project-based technology-enhanced lesson. The study includes two specific interventions designed to enhance teachers' development of PCK: (1) scaffolded reflection that occurs throughout the practices; and (2) peer-exchange of lesson plans, enactment ideas, and completed reflections. The findings demonstrate that teachers improve their planning and enactment of project-based technology-enhanced lessons with scaffolded reflection and peer exchange. Positive correlations were seen between teachers' engagement in the reflections and the quality of their lesson planning. Teachers who participated more deeply in the scaffolded reflections were able to understand how their lesson plans and enactment patterns fostered student understanding of relevant science concepts. Positive correlations were also seen between community influence and teacher lesson plans and enactment. Additionally, positive correlations were confirmed between teachers' level of participation in the peer exchange activities and the quality of their lesson planning and enactments. Teachers who contributed more deeply within the online and face-to-face peer community meetings benefited from the different perspectives of their peers about student learning and the best ways to succeed with project-based instruction. This study allowed some insight into

  12. Use of technology for supporting and developing the national open

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emeka Egbochuku

    ways of solving this problem was the establishment of the National Open. University of ... organizations and individual experts in partnership for the advancement of using needed modern technology to support the university. Key Words: ...

  13. The HANS KAI Project: a community-based approach to improving health and well-being through peer support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Henteleff

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: HANS KAI is a unique health promotion intervention to improve participants’ health by focussing on interrelated chronic disease prevention behaviours through peer support and strengthening of social support networks. The study objective was to determine the effectiveness of HANS KAI in an urban Canadian setting. Methods: We used a mixed methods intervention research design that involved multiple sites from November 2010 to April 2015. Data was obtained from participant surveys as well as in-person interviews at zero, 6, 12 and 24 months. Participants met in groups at least once a month during the research period, to self-monitor health indicators, prepare and share a healthy snack, participate in a physical activity, set a healthy lifestyle goal (optional and socialize. Results: There were statistically significant mental health improvements from pre- to post-program, and 66% of the participants described specific behaviour changes as a result of HANS KAI participation. Additional positive health impacts included peer support; acquiring specific health knowledge; inspiration, motivation or accountability; the empowering effect of monitoring one’s own health indicators; overcoming social isolation and knowing how to better access services. Conclusion: The need to identify innovative ways to address chronic disease prevention and management has been the driver for implementing and evaluating HANS KAI. While further research will be required to validate the present findings, it appears that HANS KAI may be an effective approach to create environments that empower community members to support each other while promoting healthy lifestyle choices and detecting early changes in health status.

  14. A Pre-Service Teacher Training Model with Instructional Technology Graduate Students as Peer Coaches to Elementary Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slagter van Tryon, Patricia J.; Schwartz, Catherine Stein

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a peer coaching collaboration between graduate students in a Master's program in Instructional Technology and undergraduate pre-service teachers enrolled in an elementary mathematics methods course. Integrated as a major project in a graduate level K-12 technology integration course, the Instructional Technology students…

  15. Technology Integration Support Levels for In-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Mable Evans

    2017-01-01

    In-service teachers across the globe are expected to integrate technology in their respective instructional content area. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the perceptions of in-service teachers concerning building-level support for technology integration. Participants in the study were asked to participate in semi-structured…

  16. A Professional Learning Model Supporting Teachers to Integrate Digital Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, Rachel; Blackley, Susan; Moro, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Contemporary teachers have an obligation to support and scaffold students' learning in digital technologies and to do this in authentic contexts. In order for teachers to be successful in this, their own competency in digital technologies needs to be high, and their own 21st century learning skills of communication, collaboration, creativity and…

  17. Effects of iPod Touch™ Technology as Communication Devices on Peer Social Interactions across Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancil, G. Richmond; Lorah, Elizabeth R.; Whitby, Peggy Schaefer

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the use of the iPod Touch™ as a Speech Generated Device (SGD) for Functional Communication Training (FCT). The evaluation of the effects on problem behavior, the effects on generalization and maintenance of the acquired communication repertoire, and the social initiations of peers between the new SGD (iPod…

  18. Using Online Peer Assessment in an Instructional Technology and Material Design Course through Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Mehmet

    2018-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the student teachers perceptions about and benefits and challenges of using Facebook as an online peer assessment tool for the student teachers' works. The study group included 24 student teachers in science education department of a state university located in the southeast region of Turkey. A case study…

  19. The Moderating Effects of Peer and Parental Support on the Relationship Between Vicarious Victimization and Substance Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Riane N; Fagan, Abigail A; Wright, Emily M

    2014-10-01

    General strain theory (GST) hypothesizes that youth are more likely to engage in delinquency when they experience vicarious victimization, defined as knowing about or witnessing violence perpetrated against others, but that this relationship may be attenuated for those who receive social support from significant others. Based on prospective data from youth aged 8 to 17 participating in the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN), this article found mixed support for these hypotheses. Controlling for prior involvement in delinquency, as well as other risk and protective factors, adolescents who reported more vicarious victimization had an increased likelihood of alcohol use in the short term, but not the long term, and victimization was not related to tobacco or marijuana use. Peer support did not moderate the relationship between vicarious victimization and substance use, but family support did. In contrast to strain theory's predictions, the relationship between vicarious victimization and substance use was stronger for those who had higher compared with lower levels of family support. Implications of these findings for strain theory and future research are discussed.

  20. Supporting science in developing countries using open technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canessa, Enrique; Zennaro, Marco; Fonda, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    We describe our contributions in using information and communication technologies (ICT) to address the digital and knowledge divides in developing regions. These include the implementation of new prototype systems using state-of-the-art, low-cost technologies based on the scientific audience, the local information technology infrastructure and the level of support available from local technical staff. Efforts are made to provide the necessary capacity and know-how to understand and manage their available information infrastructure with the final goal of supporting their science to allow participation at an international level

  1. FEATURES OF USING AUGMENTED REALITY TECHNOLOGY TO SUPPORT EDUCATIONAL PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury A. Kravchenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the concept and technology of augmented reality, the rationale given the relevance and timeliness of its use to support educational processes. Paper is a survey and study of the possibility of using augmented reality technology in education. Architecture is proposed and constructed algorithms of the software system management QR-codes media objects. An overview of the features and uses of augmented reality technology to support educational processes is displayed, as an option of a new form of visual demonstration of complex objects, models and processes. 

  2. Effect of peer support interventions on cardiovascular disease risk factors in adults with diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Sonal J; Ruppar, Todd; Koopman, Richelle J; Lindbloom, Erik J; Elliott, Susan G; Mehr, David R; Conn, Vicki S

    2018-03-23

    Peer support by persons affected with diabetes improves peer supporter's diabetes self-management skills. Peer support interventions by individuals who have diabetes or are affected by diabetes have been shown to improve glycemic control; however, its effects on other cardiovascular disease risk factors in adults with diabetes are unknown. We aimed to estimate the effect of peer support interventions on cardiovascular disease risk factors other than glycemic control in adults with diabetes. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing peer support interventions to a control condition in adults affected by diabetes that measured any cardiovascular disease risk factors [Body Mass Index, smoking, diet, physical activity, cholesterol level, glucose control and blood pressure]. Quality was assessed by Cochrane's risk of bias tool. We calculated standardized mean difference effect sizes using random effects models. We retrieved 438 citations from multiple databases including OVID MEDLINE, Cochrane database and Scopus, and author searches. Of 233 abstracts reviewed, 16 articles met inclusion criteria. A random effects model in a total of 3243 participants showed a positive effect of peer support interventions on systolic BP with a pooled effect size of 2.07 mmHg (CI 0.35 mmHg to 3.79 mmHg, p = 0.02); baseline pooled systolic blood pressure was 137 mmHg. There was a non-significant effect of peer support interventions on diastolic blood pressure, cholesterol, body mass index, diet and physical activity. Cardiovascular disease risk factors other than glycemic control outcomes were secondary outcomes in most studies and baseline values were normal or mildly elevated. Only one study reported smoking outcomes. We found a small (2 mmHg) positive effect of peer support interventions on systolic blood pressure in adults with diabetes whose baseline blood pressure was on average minimally elevated. Additional studies need to

  3. Families as catalysts for peer adherence support in enhancing hope for people living with HIV/AIDS in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masquillier, Caroline; Wouters, Edwin; Mortelmans, Dimitri; Booysen, Frederik le Roux

    2014-01-01

    Hope is an essential dimension of successful coping in the context of illnesses such as HIV/AIDS, because positive expectations for the future alleviate emotional distress, enhance quality of life and have been linked to the capacity for behavioural change. The social environment (e.g. family, peers) is a regulator of hope for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). In this regard, the dual aim of this article is (1) to analyze the influence of a peer adherence support (PAS) intervention and the family environment on the state of hope in PLWHA and (2) to investigate the interrelationship between the two determinants. The Effective AIDS Treatment and Support in the Free State study is a prospective randomized controlled trial. Participants were recruited from 12 public antiretroviral treatment (ART) clinics across five districts in the Free State Province of South Africa. Each of these patients was assigned to one of the following groups: a control group receiving standard care, a group receiving additional biweekly PAS or a group receiving PAS and nutritional support. Latent cross-lagged modelling (Mplus) was used to analyse the impact of PAS and the family environment on the level of hope in PLWHA. The results of the study indicate that neither PAS nor the family environment has a direct effect on the level of hope in PLWHA. Subsequent analysis reveals a positive significant interaction between family functioning and PAS at the second follow-up, indicating that better family functioning increases the positive effect of PAS on the state of hope in PLWHA. The interplay between well-functioning families and external PAS generates higher levels of hope, which is an essential dimension in the success of lifelong treatment. This study provides additional insight into the important role played by family dynamics in HIV/AIDS care, and it underscores the need for PAS interventions that are sensitive to the contexts in which they are implemented.

  4. Peer support interventions seeking to improve physical health and lifestyle behaviours among people with serious mental illness: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Brendon; Williams, Julie; Shannon, Jennifer; Gaughran, Fiona; Craig, Tom

    2016-12-01

    People with serious mental illness (SMI) experience a premature mortality gap of between 10 and 20 years. Interest is growing in the potential for peer support interventions (PSI) to improve the physical health of people with SMI. We conducted a systematic review investigating if PSI can improve the physical health, lifestyle factors, and physical health appointment attendance among people with SMI. A systematic search of major electronic databases was conducted from inception until February 2016 for any article investigating PSI seeking to improve physical health, lifestyle, or physical health appointment attendance. From 1347 initial hits, seven articles were eligible, including three pilot randomized, control trials (interventions: n = 85, controls: n = 81), and four pretest and post-test studies (n = 54). There was considerable heterogeneity in the type of PSI, and the role of the peer support workers (PSW) varied considerably. Three studies found that PSI resulted in insignificant reductions in weight. Evidence from three studies considering the impact of PSI on lifestyle changes was equivocal, with only one study demonstrating that PSI improved self-report physical activity and diet. Evidence regarding physical health appointment attendance was also unclear across four studies. In conclusion, there is inconsistent evidence to support the use of PSW to improve the physical health and promote lifestyle change among people with SMI. The small sample sizes, heterogeneity of interventions, outcome measures, and lack of clarity about the unique contribution of PSW means no definitive conclusions can be made about the benefits of PSW and physical health in SMI. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  5. Emotional Support and Expectations from Parents, Teachers, and Peers Predict Adolescent Competence at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentzel, Kathryn R.; Russell, Shannon; Baker, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    We examined perceived emotional support and expectations from parents, teachers, and classmates in relation to Mexican American adolescents' (n = 398) social behavior and academic functioning. Results of regression analyses indicated that direct associations between emotional support and expectations differ as a function of source and domain;…

  6. Pick a Book, Any Book: Using Children's Books to Support Positive Attitudes toward Peers with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Mouzourou, Chryso; Dorsey, Emily A.; Favazza, Paddy C.; Leboeuf, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    The Division for Early Childhood/National Association for the Education of Young Children's (2009) joint position statement on inclusion stresses the importance of (a) developing practices that support young children of diverse abilities in inclusive learning environments, (b) being part of supportive school communities, and (c) engaging in…

  7. Assistive Technologies for Aged Care: Supportive or Empowering?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchada Vichitvanichphong

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to explore the potentials of assistive technologies to support seniors’ independent living. The work looks at two salient aspects of utilizing technologies for elderly, namely direct support and empowering technologies. The research undertakes a comprehensive analysis of attempts that have been made through investigation of the literature. For this purpose, a realist review of relevant papers published since 2000 has been conducted. The paper concludes that although much research in this area targets the direct support for older adults, the effective use of technologies to maintain seniors’ physical and cognitive abilities requires further investigations. This can provide avenues of opportunities that would empower seniors for their independent living.

  8. Exploration Life Support Technology Development for Lunar Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, Michael K.; Barta, Daniel J.; McQuillan, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Exploration Life Support (ELS) is one of NASA's Exploration Technology Development Projects. ELS plans, coordinates and implements the development of new life support technologies for human exploration missions as outlined in NASA's Vision for Space Exploration. ELS technology development currently supports three major projects of the Constellation Program - the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), the Altair Lunar Lander and Lunar Surface Systems. ELS content includes Air Revitalization Systems (ARS), Water Recovery Systems (WRS), Waste Management Systems (WMS), Habitation Engineering, Systems Integration, Modeling and Analysis (SIMA), and Validation and Testing. The primary goal of the ELS project is to provide different technology options to Constellation which fill gaps or provide substantial improvements over the state-of-the-art in life support systems. Since the Constellation missions are so challenging, mass, power, and volume must be reduced from Space Shuttle and Space Station technologies. Systems engineering analysis also optimizes the overall architecture by considering all interfaces with the life support system and potential for reduction or reuse of resources. For long duration missions, technologies which aid in closure of air and water loops with increased reliability are essential as well as techniques to minimize or deal with waste. The ELS project utilizes in-house efforts at five NASA centers, aerospace industry contracts, Small Business Innovative Research contracts and other means to develop advanced life support technologies. Testing, analysis and reduced gravity flight experiments are also conducted at the NASA field centers. This paper gives a current status of technologies under development by ELS and relates them to the Constellation customers who will eventually use them.

  9. Atoms in industry: Radiation technology supports development [Foreword

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Yukiya

    2015-01-01

    Cutting-edge industrial technologies underpin the success of strong economies, in developed and developing countries alike. Nuclear science and technology, in particular, can make a major contribution to economic growth and competitiveness, and have an important role to play in support of sustainable development. The IAEA helps to make nuclear science and technology available to enable countries to pursue wider development objectives in areas including human health, agriculture, natural resource management and environmental protection. This edition of the IAEA Bulletin highlights some of the ways in which the technology is being put to effective use in industry.

  10. Peer support for parents of disabled children part 2: how organizational and process factors influenced shared experience in a one-to-one service, a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilling, V; Bailey, S; Logan, S; Morris, C

    2015-07-01

    Parents of disabled children often seek support from their peers. The shared experience between parents appears to be a crucial mediating factor. Understanding how a sense of shared experience is fostered can help to design and evaluate services that seek to provide peer support. We carried out a qualitative study involving semi-structured interviews and focus groups. Participants were 12 parents and 23 befrienders who had contact with the Face2Face one-to-one befriending service in Devon and Cornwall during a 12-month period, and 10 professionals from health, social care and education. Formal structures and processes in place such as training and ongoing supervision and support were highly valued as was the highly personalized, confidential, flexible, one-to-one at-home nature of the service. Crucial to establishing rapport was putting the right people together and ensuring a good match between befrienders and parents. Clearly, the befriending parent has to be emotionally prepared to provide help. However, if the parent being offered support was not ready to accept help at the time it was offered or the type of support was not right for them, they are less likely to engage with the service. Organizational and process factors as well as characteristics of the parents offering and receiving support contribute to the sense of shared experience in one-to-one peer support. These factors interact to influence whether peer support is effective and should be explicitly considered when designing and evaluating services. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. What is in It for Them? Understanding the Impact of a ‘Support, Appreciate, Listen Team’ (SALT)-Based Suicide Prevention Peer Education Program on Peer Educators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zachariah, Bobby; de Wit, Emma E.; Bahirat, Jyotsna Dnyaneshwar; Bunders-Aelen, Joske F.G.; Regeer, Barbara J.

    2018-01-01

    Youth suicide is a public health problem in India, and young people in school, particularly adolescents, experience heavy psychological burden. Prevention programs, involving peer educators (PEs), have proved useful strategies to address this problem, but their impact on the PEs is less understood,

  12. The potential of technology for enhancing individual placement and support supported employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Sarah E; McGurk, Susan R; Nicholson, Joanne; Carpenter-Song, Elizabeth A; Tauscher, Justin S; Becker, Deborah R; Swanson, Sarah J; Drake, Robert E; Bond, Gary R

    2014-06-01

    The potential of technology to enhance delivery and outcomes of Individual Placement and Support (IPS) supported employment. IPS supported employment has demonstrated robust success for improving rates of competitive employment among individuals with psychiatric disabilities. Still, a majority of those with serious mental illnesses are not employed (Bond, Drake, & Becker, 2012). The need to promote awareness of IPS and expand services is urgent. In this study, we describe ways that technologies may enhance delivery of IPS supported employment across the care continuum and stakeholder groups. Directions for research are highlighted. published literature, clinical observations, IPS learning collaborative. Technology has the potential to enhance direct service as well as workflow in the IPS supported employment process, which may lead to improved fidelity and client outcomes. Mobile and cloud technologies open opportunities for collaboration, self-directed care, and ongoing support to help clients obtain and maintain meaningful employment. Research is needed to evaluate efficacy of technology-based approaches for promoting client employment outcomes, to identify provider and organization barriers to using technology for IPS delivery, and to determine effective strategies for implementing technology with IPS in different settings and with diverse client audiences.

  13. Technology tools to support reading in the digital age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancarosa, Gina; Griffiths, Gina G

    2012-01-01

    Advances in digital technologies are dramatically altering the texts and tools available to teachers and students. These technological advances have created excitement among many for their potential to be used as instructional tools for literacy education. Yet with the promise of these advances come issues that can exacerbate the literacy challenges identified in the other articles in this issue. In this article Gina Biancarosa and Gina Griffiths characterize how literacy demands have changed in the digital age and how challenges identified in other articles in the issue intersect with these new demands. Rather than seeing technology as something to be fit into an already crowded education agenda, Biancarosa and Griffiths argue that technology can be conceptualized as affording tools that teachers can deploy in their quest to create young readers who possess the higher levels of literacy skills and background knowledge demanded by today's information-based society. Biancarosa and Griffiths draw on research to highlight some of the ways technology has been used to build the skills and knowledge needed both by children who are learning to read and by those who have progressed to reading to learn. In their review of the research, Biancarosa and Griffiths focus on the hardware and software used to display and interface with digital text, or what they term e-reading technology. Drawing on studies of e-reading technology and computer technology more broadly, they also reflect on the very real, practical challenges to optimal use of e-reading technology. The authors conclude by presenting four recommendations to help schools and school systems meet some of the challenges that come with investing in e-reading technology: use only technologies that support Universal Design for Learning; choose evidence-based tools; provide technology users with systemic supports; and capitalize on the data capacities and volume of information that technology provides.

  14. Combining Clinical Treatment and Peer Support: A Unique Approach to Overcoming Stigma and Delivering Care

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heber, Alexandra; Grenier, Stephane; Richardson, Donald; Darte, Kathy

    2006-01-01

    .... These include post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and substance abuse. The Canadian Forces and Veterans Affairs Canada have established mental health clinics, called Operational Trauma and Stress Support Centres (OTSSC's...

  15. Friends, Sisters, and Wives: Social Support and Social Risks in Peer Relationships Among Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM) in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomori, Cecilia; Srikrishnan, Aylur K; Ridgeway, Kathleen; Solomon, Sunil S; Mehta, Shruti H; Solomon, Suniti; Celentano, David D

    2016-04-01

    Globally, men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk for HIV. Many HIV-prevention efforts rely on community outreach and mobilization to engage MSM. This study examines peer relationships and their potential role in HIV prevention through 31 focus group discussions (FGDS) and 121 in-depth interviews (IDIs) with 363 MSM across 15 sites in India. Results indicate that MSM receive social support in friendships, sex-worker collaborations, constructed kin relationships, and romantic partnerships. Access to these relationships, however, is uneven across MSM, and can carry risks of disclosure of same-sex behavior and exclusion based on HIV- positive status. Positive peer relationships can serve as the basis of community empowerment, education, and couple-based interventions for MSM, and peer counselors can also provide a buffer against the social risks of peer relationships and facilitate linkage to care and continued engagement in treatment. These insights can improve HIV interventions for MSM in India and elsewhere.

  16. 2014 Water Power Program Peer Review: Marine and Hydrokinetic Technologies, Compiled Presentations (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-02-01

    This document represents a collection of all presentations given during the EERE Wind and Water Power Program's 2014 Marine and Hydrokinetic Peer Review. The purpose of the meeting was to evaluate DOE-funded hydropower and marine and hydrokinetic R&D projects for their contribution to the mission and goals of the Water Power Program and to assess progress made against stated objectives.

  17. 2014 Water Power Program Peer Review: Hydropower Technologies, Compiled Presentations (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-02-01

    This document represents a collection of all presentations given during the EERE Wind and Water Power Program's 2014 Hydropower Peer Review. The purpose of the meeting was to evaluate DOE-funded hydropower and marine and hydrokinetic R&D projects for their contribution to the mission and goals of the Water Power Program and to assess progress made against stated objectives.

  18. The promotive effects of peer support and active coping on the relationship between bullying victimization and depression among chinese boarding students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xue-Qin; Wang, Li-Hui; Zhang, Guo-Dong; Liang, Xiao-Bing; Li, Jason; Zimmerman, Marc A; Wang, Jin-Liang

    2017-10-01

    We examined the relationship between bully victimization experience and depression in rural adolescents and analyzed the moderating roles of peer support and active coping in male and female students. The sample comprised N=755 adolescents (376 females) with a mean age of 13.52 years. Through structural model and multi-group analysis, the results indicated: (1) a significant gender difference on the positive association between bullying victimization and depression; (2) peer support had a directly negative effect on depression among all boarding adolescents; and (3) significant moderating effect of active coping on the association between victimization and depression, without significant gender difference. We discuss enhancing active coping and peer support as a prevention strategy to reduce adverse mental health outcomes in adolescents due to bullying victimization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Peer support for family carers of people with dementia, alone or in combination with group reminiscence in a factorial design: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenborn Jennifer

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peer support interventions can improve carer wellbeing and interventions that engage both the carer and person with dementia can have significant mutual benefits. Existing research has been criticised for inadequate rigour of design or reporting. This paper describes the protocol for a complex trial that evaluates one-to-one peer support and a group reminiscence programme, both separately and together, in a factorial design. Design A 2 × 2 factorial multi-site randomised controlled trial of individual peer support and group reminiscence interventions for family carers and people with dementia in community settings in England, addressing both effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. Discussion The methods described in this protocol have implications for research into psychosocial interventions, particularly complex interventions seeking to test both individual and group approaches. Trial Registration ISRCTN37956201

  20. Effects of a peer support programme for youth social services employees experiencing potentially traumatic events: a protocol for a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guay, Stephane; Tremblay, Nicole; Goncalves, Jane; Bilodeau, Henriette; Geoffrion, Steve

    2017-06-24

    The use of peer support programmes to help workers experiencing potentially traumatic events (PTE) has increased in high-risk organisations in the last decades. However, the scientific evidence of its effectiveness is still very limited. This paper aims to describe the protocol of a prospective cohort study that assesses the efficacy of a peer support programme among youth social services employees exposed to a PTE at work on psychological well-being, work functioning and needs of support. This is a mixed-methods prospective study that will examine workers' evolution four times over a 12-month period in Canada. This study involves: (1) quantitative data obtained through self-administrated questionnaires among 222 workers, and (2) qualitative in-depth interviews with a subsample of 45 workers. This study will compare findings from a cohort who received the support of a peer following a PTE (peer support-experimental protocol) as part of the experimental protocol of the Montreal Youth Social Services-University Institute (MYSS-UI), the second group of workers did not ask for the peer support (no peer support-experimental protocol) but was part of MYSS-UI, and the third group received standard organisational support from the Monteregie Youth Social Services (MYSS) (standard organisational protocol). The protocol and informed consent form complied with the ethics guidelines of the MYSS-UI. The Research Ethics Board of MYSS-UI and MYSS reviewed and accepted the protocol as required. The results of the study will be published in peer-reviewed journals, presented at research and general public conferences, disseminated via a public report for the institute that funded the project and for all workers. Results of this study will influence decision making regarding intervention policies following PTE and peer support interventions may be expanded throughout the youth social services in Canada and worldwide. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated

  1. Organizational Support for Employee Engagement in Technology-Enhanced Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justina Naujokaitiene

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available When trying to integrate technology-enhanced learning (TEL into employees’ competence development, it is necessary for an organization to have an appropriate support system. The research aim was to identify the form of organizational support that is most relevant for employee engagement in TEL. Findings of a questionnaire survey showed that employees become involved in TEL if organizations support their learning. The policy of the organization and its infrastructure-based support are also important for employees while engaging in TEL. Manager and colleague support is slightly more related to engagement in TEL than is infrastructural and institutional policy support. Benefits of organizational support for both employees and employers are mutual. Employees benefit by receiving higher salaries, better working conditions, satisfaction of attention given by managers, and the feeling that their work is meaningful and contributes to the organization’s operations, whereas the organization benefits as its employees are more committed to the organization, and work harder and more effectively. Findings extend the understanding about the relationship of organizational support and its different elements with employees’ engagement in TEL. However, there are aspects that are not covered in this research, and further research should be considered. It might be useful to carry out research in different kinds of organizations, especially in those where the use of technological tools is low. According to scientific literature analysis, not only internal support, but also external support, such as family, influences employees’ willingness to engage into TEL, should be studied.

  2. The effect of peer support in adults with insulin pump-treated type 1 diabetes: a pilot study of a flexible and participatory intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joensen LE

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Lene Eide Joensen,1 Merete Meldgaard Andersen,2 Sabrina Jensen,1 Kirsten Nørgaard,2 Ingrid Willaing1 1Diabetes Management Research, Steno Diabetes Center Copenhagen, Gentofte, 2Department of Endocrinology, Hvidovre Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark Aim: The aim of this study was to explore the effects of a flexible and participatory peer support intervention in a clinical setting for adults with type 1 diabetes treated with an insulin pump, focusing on enhancing diabetes-specific social capital. The key questions were as follows: 1 what effects are appropriate to expect, according to participants? and 2 to what extent did these effects occur? Methods: Two peer support intervention programs were conducted in a diabetes specialist clinic (N=30. A participatory and adaptable approach allowed flexibility in the content of peer support meetings, which were facilitated by a diabetes nurse. Individual interviews explored participants’ perception of effects of the intervention. Interview data were analyzed qualitatively. Participants (n=27 completed a baseline and postintervention questionnaire that included items assessing diabetes empowerment, diabetes distress, diabetes-specific social support, and diabetes loneliness. HbA1c levels were compared before and after the intervention. Results: Participants experienced enhanced diabetes-specific social capital, diabetes motivation, awareness of personal diabetes practices, and serenity and openness in life with diabetes. They also became more aware of treatment and support possibilities. Negative effects included feeling sad or upset after the meetings or feeling different than and not as well-controlled as other participants. Quantitative analyses showed enhanced social support, decreased eating distress and trends toward enhanced diabetes empowerment, decreased diabetes loneliness, and decreased diabetes distress (powerlessness. We found fewer positive and/or negative outcomes among participants who felt

  3. Buildings R&D Breakthroughs: Technologies and Products Supported by the Building Technologies Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weakley, Steven A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of the project described in this report is to identify and characterize commercially available products and emerging (near-commercial) technologies that benefited from the support of the Building Technologies Program (BTP) within the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The investigation specifically focused on technology-oriented research and development (R&D) projects funded by BTP’s Emerging Technologies subprogram from 2005-2011.

  4. Buildings R&D Breakthroughs. Technologies and Products Supported by the Building Technologies Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-04-01

    This report identifies and characterizes commercially available products and emerging (near-commercial) technologies that benefited from the support of the Building Technologies Program (BTP) within the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The investigation specifically focused on technology-oriented research and development (R&D) projects sponsored by BTP’s Emerging Technologies subprogram from 2005-2009.

  5. Supporting learner-centered technology integration through situated mentoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Marian Goode

    Situated mentoring was used as a professional development method to help 11 high school science teachers integrate learner-centered technology. The teachers' learner-centered technology beliefs and practices as well as their perception of barriers to learner-centered technology integration were explored before and after participating in the mentoring program. In addition, the participants' thoughts about the effectiveness of various components of the mentoring program were analyzed along with the mentor's observations of their practices. Situated mentoring can be effective for supporting learner-centered technology integration, in particular decreasing the barriers teachers experience. Goal setting, collaborative planning, reflection, and onsite just-in-time support were thought to be the most valuable components of the mentoring program.

  6. Effect of Internet peer-support groups on psychosocial adjustment to cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høybye, Mette Terp; Dalton, S O; Deltour, I

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We conducted a randomised study to investigate whether providing a self-guided Internet support group to cancer patients affected mood disturbance and adjustment to cancer. METHODS: Baseline and 1-, 6- and 12-month assessments were conducted from 2004 to 2006 at a national rehabilitat......BACKGROUND: We conducted a randomised study to investigate whether providing a self-guided Internet support group to cancer patients affected mood disturbance and adjustment to cancer. METHODS: Baseline and 1-, 6- and 12-month assessments were conducted from 2004 to 2006 at a national...... rehabilitation centre in Denmark. A total of 58 rehabilitation course weeks including 921 survivors of various cancers were randomly assigned to a control or an intervention group by cluster randomisation. The intervention was a lecture on the use of the Internet for support and information followed...... by participation in an Internet support group. Outcome measures included self-reported mood disturbance, adjustment to cancer and self-rated health. Differences in scores were compared between the control group and the intervention group. RESULTS: The effect of the intervention on mood disturbance and adjustment...

  7. Peer and Professional Parenting Support on the Internet: A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Christa C.C. Nieuwboer; Prof.Dr. Ruben G. Fukkink; Prof.Dr. Jo M.A. Hermanns

    2013-01-01

    The Internet offers many opportunities to provide parenting support. An overview of empirical studies in this domain is lacking, and little is known about the design of web based parenting resources and their evaluations, raising questions about its position in the context of parenting intervention

  8. Peer and professional parenting support on the Internet : a systematic review (versie: Dissertatie 2014)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Christa C.C. Nieuwboer

    2014-01-01

    The Internet offers many opportunities to provide parenting support. An overview of empirical studies in this domain is lacking, and little is known about the design of webbased parenting resources and their evaluations, raising questions about its position in the context of parenting intervention

  9. Facebook and the Final Practicum: The Impact of Online Peer Support in the Assistant Teacher Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Lisa F.; Boston, Julie; Morris, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Australian pre-service teachers (PST) frequently report feeling isolated and vulnerable during the high stakes Assistant Teacher Program (ATP) final practicum. Mentoring and online learning communities have been shown to offer effective support during periods in which pre-service and beginning teachers feel challenged. As social media…

  10. Returning the Favor: Positive Employee Responses to Supervisor and Peer Support for Training Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei Tian, Amy; Cordery, John; Gamble, Jos

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on social exchange theory and associated notions of reciprocity, we argue that interpersonal support for training transfer in the workplace is associated with increased employee task performance and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and reduced turnover intention. We test our hypotheses using survey data from 786 Chinese retail…

  11. Supporting the Writing up of Teacher Research: Peer and Mentor Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikilitas, Kenan; Mumford, Simon E.

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses specifically on the writing up process of relatively inexperienced teacher researchers. The data consist of interviews with 11 teacher researchers at a private university in Turkey. There was evidence that mentor-supported collaboration created a socio-constructivist learning environment, leading to the development of academic…

  12. Peer Support in Negotiating Multiple Relationships within Supervision among Counselor Education Doctoral Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Amanda J.; Pimpleton, Asher; Stinchfield, Tracy; Stevens, Heath; Othman, Nor Asma

    2013-01-01

    Counselor education doctoral students (CEDSs), like other doctoral students, need assistance and support to ensure their self-care. One area markedly affecting self-care is one's relationships with others. The purpose of this article is to examine the multiple relationships involved within CEDSs supervision, the potential areas to utilize peer…

  13. Constant Companions: Instant Messaging Conversations as Sustainable Supportive Study Structures amongst Undergraduate Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmis, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Universities are facing severe cuts in funding and a transformation of both the economic model underpinning higher education and the relationship between students, tutors and universities and the traditional forms of support for students' learning may be eroded. At the same time, mobile communications, instant messaging and social networking are…

  14. The diabetes online community: Older adults supporting self-care through peer health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litchman, Michelle L; Rothwell, Erin; Edelman, Linda S

    2018-03-01

    The use of the diabetes online community (DOC) is growing across all age groups. The aim of this exploratory study was to describe why older adults participated in the DOC, and how DOC users interacted with their healthcare providers. Telephone interviews (N=20) were conducted with older adult DOC users (born between 1946 and 1964) living in the United States. Interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis adhering to rigor and reproducibility standards. Themes that emerged from the data related to DOC participation included: information to improve self-care, emotional support, belonging to a community, validation of information, cause for concern and interaction with healthcare providers. Participants used the DOC for day to day diabetes management advice and healthcare providers for medical information and care. Participants highly valued the DOC and regarded their participation as a way to increase knowledge to improve self-care and reciprocate emotional support with others for diabetes management. The DOC filled gaps in knowledge and support participants were not able to get elsewhere. The DOC serves as an important source of information and support for individuals with diabetes and may be a cost-effective strategy to augment standard diabetes care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluating the effects of a peer-support model: reducing negative body esteem and disordered eating attitudes and behaviours in grade eight girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Carmen; Russell-Mayhew, Shelly; Saraceni, Reana

    2012-01-01

    During adolescence girls become increasingly preoccupied with unrealistic ideals about body weight, often leading to dieting and unhealthy compensatory behaviours. These practices have been linked to adverse psychological, social, and health consequences. Peer-support groups offer promise in addressing risk factors for disordered eating. This study explored the effects of peer-support on measures of body satisfaction, weight loss/weight gain behaviour, internalization of media ideals, weight based teasing, and communication, for a cohort of grade 8 girls. High-risk participants demonstrated trends toward decreased internalization of media ideals and increased body satisfaction at post-test. Implications and future research direction are discussed.

  16. Past Year Technology-Involved Peer Harassment Victimization and Recent Depressive Symptoms and Suicide Ideation Among a National Sample of Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kimberly J; Jones, Lisa M; Turner, Heather A

    2017-12-01

    This article aims to better understand the complex role of technology in peer victimization events with recent depressive symptomatology and suicide ideation (SI). Telephone interviews were conducted with a national sample of 791 youth in the United States, aged 10 to 20 years, collected from December 2013 to March 2014. Rates of any peer harassment victimization varied by past month depressive symptomatology and SI -28% of youth with no/low depressive symptomatology reported past year peer harassment as did 43% of youth with high depressive symptomatology without SI, and 66% of youth with SI. When examining the role of technology in peer harassment, youth experiencing any mixed harassment (i.e., those incidents that occurred both in-person and through technology) were almost 4 times more likely to report past month depressive symptoms without SI (RR adj = 3.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.5, 10.0], p ≤ .01) and 7.5 times (95% CI = [1.9, 28.9], p ≤ .01) more likely to report past month SI compared with youth who had no past year peer harassment. Given the multilayered relationships among these variables, schools, medical, and mental health professionals might screen youth who are involved in higher risk peer victimization situations, for depressive symptoms and SI to improve their access to appropriate mental health services.

  17. ENABLING SMART MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGIES FOR DECISION-MAKING SUPPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helu, Moneer; Libes, Don; Lubell, Joshua; Lyons, Kevin; Morris, KC

    2017-01-01

    Smart manufacturing combines advanced manufacturing capabilities and digital technologies throughout the product lifecycle. These technologies can provide decision-making support to manufacturers through improved monitoring, analysis, modeling, and simulation that generate more and better intelligence about manufacturing systems. However, challenges and barriers have impeded the adoption of smart manufacturing technologies. To begin to address this need, this paper defines requirements for data-driven decision making in manufacturing based on a generalized description of decision making. Using these requirements, we then focus on identifying key barriers that prevent the development and use of data-driven decision making in industry as well as examples of technologies and standards that have the potential to overcome these barriers. The goal of this research is to promote a common understanding among the manufacturing community that can enable standardization efforts and innovation needed to continue adoption and use of smart manufacturing technologies. PMID:28649678

  18. Strategies to facilitate stakeholder and regulator support for technology deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burford, T.D.

    1997-01-01

    Implementation and deployment of new and innovative environmental technologies is impossible without regulator, enduser and stakeholder support. Technologies being developed for different needs require different strategies to facilitate this endorsement. Areas addressed will include technologies developed to meet site specific cleanup needs and those developed for multiple site applications. A third area deals with using site specific technologies at previously unidentified locations. In order to expand the application of these technologies to other sites a plan to include potential site regulators and stakeholders early in the development process should be considered. The Subsurface Contaminant Focus Area has developed a Stakeholder Communication Plan. This plan, in addition to lessons learned from current technology development projects that have successfully obtained this type of support, will provide the basis for the information provided in this paper. The object of this paper is to suggest strategies that could facilitate the implementation and deployment of technologies at environmental sites by involving regulators and stakeholders at the proper time for various applications

  19. Systems analysis support to the waste management technology center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, A.L.; Osborne-Lee, I.W.; DePaoli, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a systems analysis concept being developed in support of waste management planning and analysis activities for Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), sites. This integrated systems model serves as a focus for the accumulation and documentation of technical and economic information from current waste management practices, improved operations projects, remedial actions, and new system development activities. The approach is generic and could be applied to a larger group of sites. This integrated model is a source of technical support to waste management groups in the Energy Systems complex for integrated waste management planning and related technology assessment activities. This problem-solving methodology for low-level waste (LLW) management is being developed through the Waste Management Technology Center (WMTC) for the Low-Level Waste Disposal, Development, and Demonstration (LLWDDD) Program. In support of long-range planning activities, this capability will include the development of management support tools such as specialized systems models, data bases, and information systems. These management support tools will provide continuing support in the identification and definition of technical and economic uncertainties to be addressed by technology demonstration programs. Technical planning activities and current efforts in the development of this system analysis capability for the LLWDDD Program are presented in this paper

  20. "Supporting Early Career Women in the Geosciences through Online Peer-Mentoring: Lessons from the Earth Science Women's Network (ESWN)"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, T.; Hastings, M. G.; Barnes, R. T.; Fischer, E. V.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Rodriguez, C.; Adams, M. S.; Marin-Spiotta, E.

    2014-12-01

    The Earth Science Women's Network (ESWN) is an international peer-mentoring organization with over 2000 members, dedicated to career development and community for women across the geosciences. Since its formation in 2002, ESWN has supported the growth of a more diverse scientific community through a combination of online and in-person networking activities. Lessons learned related to online networking and community-building will be presented. ESWN serves upper-level undergraduates, graduate students, professionals in a range of environmental fields, scientists working in federal and state governments, post-doctoral researchers, and academic faculty and scientists. Membership includes women working in over 50 countries, although the majority of ESWN members work in the U.S. ESWN increases retention of women in the geosciences by enabling and supporting professional person-to-person connections. This approach has been shown to reduce feelings of isolation among our members and help build professional support systems critical to career success. In early 2013 ESWN transitioned online activities to an advanced social networking platform that supports discussion threads, group formation, and individual messaging. Prior to that, on-line activities operated through a traditional list-serve, hosted by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). The new web center, http://eswnonline.org, serves as the primary forum for members to build connections, seek advice, and share resources. For example, members share job announcements, discuss issues of work-life balance, and organize events at professional conferences. ESWN provides a platform for problem-based mentoring, drawing from the wisdom of colleagues across a range of career stages.

  1. Technology, Time, and Participation: How a Principal Supports Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Robert B.

    1985-01-01

    Argues that administrations might better support teachers if they provided: (1) up-to-date technology, such as Xerox machines; (2) "guilt-free" time for curriculum work or special projects; and (3) more opportunities for teacher participation in school decision making. (KH)

  2. Agent Technology in Agile Multiparallel Manufacturing and Product Support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Moergestel, L.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The thesis describes the application of agent technology in product manufacturing and product support. Important issues in the requirements of modern production are short time to market, requirement-driven production and low cost small quantity production. To meet these requirements special low cost

  3. Technology to Support Sign Language for Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donne, Vicki

    2013-01-01

    This systematic review of the literature provides a synthesis of research on the use of technology to support sign language. Background research on the use of sign language with students who are deaf/hard of hearing and students with low incidence disabilities, such as autism, intellectual disability, or communication disorders is provided. The…

  4. Using New Technologies in Support of Future Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooke, Adrian J.; Welch, David C.

    1997-01-01

    This paper forms a perspective of how new technologies such as onboard autonomy and internet-like protocols will change the look and feel of operations. It analyzes the concept of a lights-out mission operations control center and it's role in future mission support and it describes likely scenarios for evolving from current concepts.

  5. 31 CFR 548.313 - Financial, material, or technological support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., or technological support, as used in § 548.201(a)(2)(iv) of this part, means any property, tangible or intangible, including but not limited to currency, financial instruments, securities, or any other.... “Technologies” as used in this definition means specific information necessary for the development, production...

  6. 31 CFR 594.317 - Financial, material, or technological support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., material, or technological support, as used in § 594.201(a)(4)(i) of this part, means any property, tangible or intangible, including but not limited to currency, financial instruments, securities, or any... transportation; or goods. “Technologies” as used in this definition means specific information necessary for the...

  7. Toward Understanding Non-Centralized Technology Support in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Robert Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this research is an examination of service quality provided by non-centralized technology personnel, Local Technical Support Providers (LSPs), at a southern research university. The SERVQUAL instrument was selected to measure service quality of LSPs within the Academic Affairs Division. The rationale for selecting and testing SERVQUAL…

  8. What Do Information Technology Support Services Really Cost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Karen; Smallen, David

    1998-01-01

    A study examined the cost of information-technology support services in higher education institutions. The report describes the project's origins and work to date and reports initial results in three areas: network services, desktop repair services, and administrative information systems, looking in each case at economies of scale, outsourcing…

  9. Internationalization at home: Technology-supported multicultural learning in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Olivos Rossini, L.M.

    2016-01-01

    This research contributes to the disciplines of information systems, management science in particular the field of management education and cross-cultural studies. It further proposes a model to understand technology-supported multicultural learning in Peru. In addition, the model examines intercultural competence as an outcome of both intervening variables of ICT and the training methods used by experts.

  10. Internationalization at home : Technology-supported multicultural learning in Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivos Rossini, L.M.

    2016-01-01

    This research contributes to the disciplines of information systems, management science in particular the field of management education and cross-cultural studies. It further proposes a model to understand technology-supported multicultural learning in Peru. In addition, the model examines

  11. PLATON: Peer-to-Peer load adjusting tree overlay networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lymberopoulos, L.; Pittaras, C.; Grammatikou, M.; Papavassiliou, S.; Maglaris, V.

    2011-01-01

    Peer-to-Peer systems supporting multi attribute and range queries use a number of techniques to partition the multi dimensional data space among participating peers. Load-balancing of data accross peer partitions is necessary in order to avoid the presence of network hotspots which may cause

  12. Supporting Collective Inquiry: A Technology Framework for Distributed Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissenbaum, Michael

    This design-based study describes the implementation and evaluation of a technology framework to support smart classrooms and Distributed Technology Enhanced Learning (DTEL) called SAIL Smart Space (S3). S3 is an open-source technology framework designed to support students engaged in inquiry investigations as a knowledge community. To evaluate the effectiveness of S3 as a generalizable technology framework, a curriculum named PLACE (Physics Learning Across Contexts and Environments) was developed to support two grade-11 physics classes (n = 22; n = 23) engaged in a multi-context inquiry curriculum based on the Knowledge Community and Inquiry (KCI) pedagogical model. This dissertation outlines three initial design studies that established a set of design principles for DTEL curricula, and related technology infrastructures. These principles guided the development of PLACE, a twelve-week inquiry curriculum in which students drew upon their community-generated knowledge base as a source of evidence for solving ill-structured physics problems based on the physics of Hollywood movies. During the culminating smart classroom activity, the S3 framework played a central role in orchestrating student activities, including managing the flow of materials and students using real-time data mining and intelligent agents that responded to emergent class patterns. S3 supported students' construction of knowledge through the use individual, collective and collaborative scripts and technologies, including tablets and interactive large-format displays. Aggregate and real-time ambient visualizations helped the teacher act as a wondering facilitator, supporting students in their inquiry where needed. A teacher orchestration tablet gave the teacher some control over the flow of the scripted activities, and alerted him to critical moments for intervention. Analysis focuses on S3's effectiveness in supporting students' inquiry across multiple learning contexts and scales of time, and in

  13. A peer adherence support intervention to improve the antiretroviral treatment outcomes of HIV patients in South Africa: the moderating role of family dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Edwin; Masquillier, Caroline; Ponnet, Koen; le Roux Booysen, Frederik

    2014-07-01

    Given the severe shortage of human resources in the healthcare sector in many countries with high HIV prevalence, community-based peer adherence support is being increasingly cited as an integral part of a sustainable antiretroviral treatment (ART) strategy. However, the available scientific evidence on this topic reports discrepant findings on the effectiveness of peer adherence support programmes. These conflicting findings to some extent can be attributed to the lack of attention to the social contexts in which peer adherence support programmes are implemented. This study explores the potential moderating role of family dynamics by assessing the differential impact of peer adherence support in different types of families, based on the theoretical underpinnings of the family functioning framework. These relationships were explored with the aid of multivariate statistical analysis of cross-sectional, post-trial data for a sample of 340 patients interviewed as part of the Effectiveness of Aids Treatment and Support in the Free State (FEATS) study conducted in the public-sector ART programme of the Free State Province of South Africa. The analysis reveals no significant overall differences in CD4 cell count between the intervention group accessing additional peer adherence support and the control group receiving standard care. When controlling for the potential moderating role of family dynamics, however, the outcomes clearly reveal a significant interaction effect between the adherence intervention and the level of family functioning with regard to treatment outcomes. Multi-group analysis demonstrates that peer adherence support has a positive effect on immunological restoration in well-functioning families, while having a negative effect in dysfunctional families. The study outcomes stress the need for peer adherence interventions that are sensitive to the suboptimal contexts in which they are often implemented. Generic, broad-based interventions do not

  14. The effects of student support services peer tutoring on learning and study strategies, grades, and retention at a rural community college

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumford, Thomas J.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Student Support Services peer tutoring on rural community college students' success in an Anatomy and Physiology class as measured changes in self-reported learning and study strategies, the final grade in Anatomy and Physiology class, and persistence/retention in the following semesters. A secondary goal was to assess the relative merits of two training methods: standard peer tutoring and standard peer tutoring plus introduction to attribution theory. This Anatomy and Physiology class typically has a failure rate of 50%. The federal government annually funds more than 700 Student Support Services (SSS) grants and 162 Health Career Opportunities Programs (HCOP). Nearly 94% of these SSS programs included a tutoring component, and 84% of these programs use peer tutoring. Peer tutors were randomly assigned to one of the treatment conditions and students were randomly assigned to one of the two treatment conditions. There were 31 students in the attribution condition and 28 students in the standard condition. Students were required to have a minimum of 10 hours of tutoring to be included in the analysis. Each tutored student was yoked to a control student who had not sought peer tutoring assistance. Participants were matched for age, marital status, number of adults in the family, number of children in the family and incoming academic skills (CPT Reading Test Results), financial status, and race. The results support peer tutoring as an effective method of increasing student success. The findings support the use of attribution training for tutors as a theoretical base of intervention. Students tutored by attribution trained tutors scored significantly higher on LASSI, had higher Anatomy and Physiology grades, and returned to college at a higher rate than their yoked controls. Standard trained tutors scored significantly higher on the LASSI Test Taking subscale and returned to college at a higher rate than their

  15. Engineering, Analysis and Technology FY 1995 Site Support Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suyama, R.M.

    1994-09-01

    The vision of the Engineering, Analysis and Technology organization is to be recognized as the cost-effective supplier of specialized, integrated, multi-disciplined engineering teams to support Hanford missions. The mission of the Engineering, Analysis and Technology organization is to provide centralized engineering services. These services are focused on supplying technical design, analytical engineering and related support services that support Hanford's environmental restoration mission. These services include engineering analysis, design and development of systems and engineered equipment, supplying multi-disciplined engineering teams to all Hanford programs and project organizations, engineering document release, and site-wide leadership in the development and implementation of engineering standards, engineering practices, and configuration management processes

  16. The intersection of antiretroviral therapy, peer support programmes, and economic empowerment with HIV stigma among HIV-positive women in West Nile Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellett, Nicole Coffey; Gnauck, Katherine

    2016-12-01

    HIV stigma remains a major problem of the AIDS epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa. Women fear impending social stigma including blame, isolation and abuse. HIV infection and HIV stigma interact cyclically, creating and reinforcing economic and social exclusion for individuals living with HIV. Evidence suggests that interventions for people living with HIV infection that include, in combination, antiretroviral therapy (ART), peer support and economic empowerment are likely to be more effective than if used alone. We report a qualitative study in West Nile Uganda that explored perceptions of HIV stigma among fifty-four HIV-positive women who had similar access to ART and HIV peer support programmes, but varying levels of participation (full-time, intermittent, none) in economic empowerment programmes. Our study found that access to ART, peer support groups, and economic empowerment programmes helped to curb perceptions of deep-seated HIV stigma for participants. More expressions of usefulness, hope and psychological well-being prevailed with participants who had increased participation in economic empowerment programmes. Our findings underscore the value of HIV outreach programmes which combine ART, peer support and economic empowerment to alleviate HIV stigma. Further research to quantify the interaction of these factors is warranted.

  17. Pathways to Commercial Success. Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-09-01

    This FY 2011 report updates the results of an effort to identify and characterize commercial and near-commercial (emerging) technologies and products that benefited from the support of the Fuel Cell Technologies Program and its predecessor programs within DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  18. Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Office - 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-04-30

    This FY 2013 report updates the results of an effort to identify and characterize commercial and near-commercial (emerging) technologies and products that benefited from the support of the Fuel Cell Technologies Office and its predecessor programs within DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  19. Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Office - 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-02-01

    This FY 2014 report updates the results of an effort to identify and characterize commercial and near-commercial (emerging) technologies and products that benefited from the support of the Fuel Cell Technologies Office and its predecessor programs within DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  20. Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Office - 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-01-08

    This FY 2015 report updates the results of an effort to identify and document the commercial and emerging (projected to be commercialized within the next 3 to 5 years) hydrogen and fuel cell technologies and products that resulted from U.S. Department of Energy support through the Fuel Cell Technologies Office in the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  1. Pathways to Commercial Success. Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Program - 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-09-01

    This FY 2012 report updates the results of an effort to identify and characterize commercial and near-commercial (emerging) technologies and products that benefited from the support of the Fuel Cell Technologies Program and its predecessor programs within DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  2. FDA's Activities Supporting Regulatory Application of "Next Gen" Sequencing Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Carolyn A; Simonyan, Vahan

    2014-01-01

    Applications of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies require availability and access to an information technology (IT) infrastructure and bioinformatics tools for large amounts of data storage and analyses. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) anticipates that the use of NGS data to support regulatory submissions will continue to increase as the scientific and clinical communities become more familiar with the technologies and identify more ways to apply these advanced methods to support development and evaluation of new biomedical products. FDA laboratories are conducting research on different NGS platforms and developing the IT infrastructure and bioinformatics tools needed to enable regulatory evaluation of the technologies and the data sponsors will submit. A High-performance Integrated Virtual Environment, or HIVE, has been launched, and development and refinement continues as a collaborative effort between the FDA and George Washington University to provide the tools to support these needs. The use of a highly parallelized environment facilitated by use of distributed cloud storage and computation has resulted in a platform that is both rapid and responsive to changing scientific needs. The FDA plans to further develop in-house capacity in this area, while also supporting engagement by the external community, by sponsoring an open, public workshop to discuss NGS technologies and data formats standardization, and to promote the adoption of interoperability protocols in September 2014. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies are enabling breakthroughs in how the biomedical community is developing and evaluating medical products. One example is the potential application of this method to the detection and identification of microbial contaminants in biologic products. In order for the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to be able to evaluate the utility of this technology, we need to have the information technology infrastructure and

  3. Beyond computer literacy: supporting youth's positive development through technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bers, Marina Umaschi

    2010-01-01

    In a digital era in which technology plays a role in most aspects of a child's life, having the competence and confidence to use computers might be a necessary step, but not a goal in itself. Developing character traits that will serve children to use technology in a safe way to communicate and connect with others, and providing opportunities for children to make a better world through the use of their computational skills, is just as important. The Positive Technological Development framework (PTD), a natural extension of the computer literacy and the technological fluency movements that have influenced the world of educational technology, adds psychosocial, civic, and ethical components to the cognitive ones. PTD examines the developmental tasks of a child growing up in our digital era and provides a model for developing and evaluating technology-rich youth programs. The explicit goal of PTD programs is to support children in the positive uses of technology to lead more fulfilling lives and make the world a better place. This article introduces the concept of PTD and presents examples of the Zora virtual world program for young people that the author developed following this framework.

  4. Patient-reported benefits from patient organization magazines and Internet-based peer support in Ménière's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchaiah, Vinaya; Pyykkö, Ilmari; Zou, Jing; Levo, Hilla; Kentala, Erna

    2017-01-01

    To facilitate self-help, the Finnish Ménière's Federation (FMF) provides various kinds of support to persons with Ménière's disease (MD), which includes patient magazines (PM) and Internet-based peer support (iPS). The current study aimed to evaluate the benefits reported by MD patients in terms of PM and iPS. The study used a cross-sectional survey design with a mixture of structured and open-ended questions administered online. A sample of 185 patients from the FMF membership database provided complete data. Ninety-two percent of the respondents rated PM as useful, or very useful. The main benefits of PM included: information on the disease and complaints, information about elements of peer support program, patient's experience with useful positive case studies, relevant news on MD, and information of activity of the FMF. Of the 185 persons, 68 reported that they did not have a need for peer support as their disease was either in silent phase or did not cause any annoyance. The main reasons for nonuse were: mild disease, personal reasons, and problems in using. Regarding the benefits of iPS, 75% of recent and 64% of chronic MD patients said that they would benefit from such a program. The main benefits of iPS included: reliable information on the disease and its management, peer support useful for coping with the disease, information about managing MD symptoms, information about managing attitude, and information about therapy. Moreover, the study identified different groups of individuals, which included: nonusers of support from patient organizations, those who used the support but did not feel they benefited, and those who used and also benefited from such programs. The current study results provide some information about the preferences of MD patients regarding different forms of support and could certainly prove helpful while developing wider support strategies.

  5. Technology Integration Initiative In Support of Outage Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory Weatherby; David Gertman

    2012-07-01

    Plant outage management is a high priority concern for the nuclear industry from cost and safety perspectives. Often, command and control during outages is maintained in the outage control center where many of the underlying technologies supporting outage control are the same as those used in the 1980’s. This research reports on the use of advanced integrating software technologies and hand held mobile devices as a means by which to reduce cycle time, improve accuracy, and enhance transparency among outage team members. This paper reports on the first phase of research supported by the DOE Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program that is performed in close collaboration with industry to examine the introduction of newly available technology allowing for safe and efficient outage performance. It is thought that this research will result in: improved resource management among various plant stakeholder groups, reduced paper work, and enhanced overall situation awareness for the outage control center management team. A description of field data collection methods, including personnel interview data, success factors, end-user evaluation and integration of hand held devices in achieving an integrated design are also evaluated. Finally, the necessity of obtaining operations cooperation support in field studies and technology evaluation is acknowledged.

  6. Advanced Technologies to Improve Closure of Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    As NASA looks beyond the International Space Station toward long-duration, deep space missions away from Earth, the current practice of supplying consumables and spares will not be practical nor affordable. New approaches are sought for life support and habitation systems that will reduce dependency on Earth and increase mission sustainability. To reduce launch mass, further closure of Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) beyond the current capability of the ISS will be required. Areas of particular interest include achieving higher degrees of recycling within Atmosphere Revitalization, Water Recovery and Waste Management Systems. NASA is currently investigating advanced carbon dioxide reduction processes that surpass the level of oxygen recovery available from the Sabatier Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) on the ISS. Candidate technologies will potentially improve the recovery of oxygen from about 50% (for the CRA) to as much as 100% for technologies who's end product is solid carbon. Improving the efficiency of water recycling and recovery can be achieved by the addition of advanced technologies to recover water from brines and solid wastes. Bioregenerative technologies may be utilized for water reclaimation and also for the production of food. Use of higher plants will simultaneously benefit atmosphere revitalization and water recovery through photosynthesis and transpiration. The level at which bioregenerative technologies are utilized will depend on their comparative requirements for spacecraft resources including mass, power, volume, heat rejection, crew time and reliability. Planetary protection requirements will need to be considered for missions to other solar system bodies.

  7. Effectiveness of a Peer Support Programme versus Usual Care in Disease Management of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 regarding Improvement of Metabolic Control: A Cluster-Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Tim; Keller, Sophie; Winkler, Henrike; Ostermann, Thomas; Weitgasser, Raimund; Sönnichsen, Andreas C

    2016-01-01

    Testing the effectiveness of peer support additionally to a disease management programme (DMP) for type 2 diabetes patients. Unblinded cluster-randomised controlled trial (RCT) involving 49 general practices, province of Salzburg, Austria. All patients enrolled in the DMP were eligible, n = 337 participated (intervention: 148 in 19 clusters; control: 189 in 20 clusters). The peer support intervention ran over 24 months and consisted of peer supporter recruitment and training, and group meetings weekly for physical exercise and monthly for discussion of diabetes related topics. At two-year follow-up, adjusted analysis revealed a nonsignificant difference in HbA1c change of 0.14% (21.97 mmol/mol) in favour of the intervention (95% CI -0.08 to 0.36%, p = 0.22). Baseline values were 7.02 ± 1.25% in the intervention and 7.08 ± 1.25 in the control group. None of the secondary outcome measures showed significant differences except for improved quality of life (EQ-5D-VAS) in controls (4.3 points on a scale of 100; 95% CI 0.08 to 8.53, p = 0.046) compared to the intervention group. Our peer support intervention as an additional DMP component showed no significant effect on HbA1c and secondary outcome measures. Further RTCs with a longer follow-up are needed to reveal whether peer support will have clinically relevant effects. This trial has been registered with Current Controlled Trials Ltd. (ISRCTN10291077).

  8. Dignity and Deferral Narratives as Strategies in Facilitated Technology-Based Support Groups for People with Advanced Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette F. Street

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the value of facilitated telephone and online support groups for palliative care. Telephone interviews were conducted with twenty people living with advanced cancer who had participated in either a telephone or online support group facilitated by the Cancer Council Victoria, Melbourne, Australia. Two dominant participant narratives emerged: a focus on dying with dignity or an interest in deferring discussion of death and dying to focus on the present. Despite the different approaches, participants found the technology-based support groups to be accessible and safe environments in which to discuss difficult topics in privacy. Technology-based strategies provide opportunities for health professionals to provide social and emotional care to more people by moving beyond individualised care and facilitate peer-to-peer support at the end of life, especially to those with specific needs. Such options are feasible for palliative care services to set up and acceptable to a group of clients, especially for younger clients or those socially or geographically isolated.

  9. Peer-led training and assessment in basic life support for healthcare students: synthesis of literature review and fifteen years practical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, P R; Higenbottam, C V; Owen, A; Hulme, J; Bion, J F

    2012-07-01

    In 1995, the University of Birmingham, UK, School of Medicine and Dentistry replaced lecture-based basic life support (BLS) teaching with a peer-led, practical programme. We present our 15-yr experience of peer-led healthcare undergraduate training and examination with a literature review. A literature review of healthcare undergraduate peer-led practical skills teaching was performed though Pubmed. The development of the Birmingham course is described, from its inception in 1995-2011. Training methods include peer-led training and assessment by senior students who complete an European Resuscitation Council-endorsed instructor course. Student assessors additionally undergo training in assessment and communication skills. The course has been developed by parallel research evaluation and peer-reviewed publication. Course administration is by an experienced student committee with senior clinician support. Anonymous feedback from the most recent courses and the current annual pass rates are reported. The literature review identified 369 publications of which 28 met our criteria for inclusion. Largely descriptive, these are highly positive about peer involvement in practical skills teaching using similar, albeit smaller, courses to that described below. Currently approximately 600 first year healthcare undergraduates complete the Birmingham course; participant numbers increase annually. Successful completion is mandatory for students to proceed to the second year of studies. First attempt pass rate is 86%, and close to 100% (565/566 students, 99.8%) following re-assessment the same day. 97% of participants enjoyed the course, 99% preferred peer-tutors to clinicians, 99% perceived teaching quality as "good" or "excellent", and felt they had sufficient practice. Course organisation was rated "good" or "excellent" by 91%. Each year 3-4 student projects have been published or presented internationally. The annual cost of providing the course is currently £15,594.70 (Eur 18

  10. A Survey of Technologies Supporting Virtual Project Based Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Lone

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a survey of technologies and to what extent they support virtual project based learning. The paper argues that a survey of learning technologies should be related to concrete learning tasks and processes. Problem oriented project pedagogy (POPP) is discussed, and a framework...... for evaluation is proposed where negotiation of meaning, coordination and resource management are identified as the key concepts in virtual project based learning. Three e-learning systems are selected for the survey, Virtual-U, Lotus Learningspace and Lotus Quickplace, as each system offers different strategies...... for e-learning. The paper concludes that virtual project based learning may benefit from facilities of all these systems....

  11. Effect of peer counselling by mother support groups on infant and young child feeding practices: the Lalitpur experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushwaha, Komal P; Sankar, Jhuma; Sankar, M Jeeva; Gupta, Arun; Dadhich, J P; Gupta, Y P; Bhatt, Girish C; Ansari, Dilshad A; Sharma, B

    2014-01-01

    Our primary objective was to evaluate the effect of peer counselling by mother support groups (MSG's) in improving the infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices in the community. We conducted this repeated-measure before and after study in the Lalitpur district of Uttar Pradesh, India between 2006 and 2011. We assessed the IYCF practices before and after creating MSG's within the community. The feeding practices were reassessed at two time points-2 (T1) and 5 years (T2) after the intervention and compared with that of the pre-intervention phase (T0). The total population covered by the project from the time of its initiation was 105000. A total of 425 (T0), 480 (T1) and 521 (T2) mother infant pairs were selected from this population. There was significant improvement in the following IYCF practices in the community (represented as %; adjOR (95% CI, p) such as initiation of breast feeding within 1 hour at both T1 (71% vs. 11%); 19.6 (13.6, 28.2, p =  counseling by MSG's improved the IYCF practices in the district and could be sustained.

  12. Research and technology programmes supporting waste management in BNFL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairhall, G.A.; Horner, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    Waste Management is a major activity of BNFL in the UK and at various locations internationally. To support these activities extensive programmes of Research and Technology have been undertaken for many years. This involves practical studies involving active and non-active work at laboratory and pilot plant scale. Extensive use is also made of theoretical and modelling techniques. Current work is aimed at underpinning and improving current operations supporting the design and safety cases of new plant and addressing waste management activities of the future including decommissioning. (authors)

  13. Mums 4 Mums: structured telephone peer-support for women experiencing postnatal depression. Pilot and exploratory RCT of its clinical and cost effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKenzie-McHarg Kirstie

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postnatal depression (PND can be experienced by 13% of women who give birth, and such women often exhibit disabling symptoms, which can have a negative effect on the mother and infant relationship, with significant consequences in terms of the child's later capacity for affect regulation. Research has shown that providing support to mothers experiencing PND can help reduce their depressive symptoms and improve their coping strategies. The Mums4Mums study aims to evaluate the impact of telephone peer-support for women experiencing PND. Methods/Design The study design adopts the MRC framework for the development and evaluation of complex interventions. Health visitors in Warwickshire and Coventry Primary Care Trusts are screening potential participants at the 8-week postnatal check using either the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS > = 10 or the three Whooley questions recommended by NICE (http://guidance.nice.org.uk/CG45. The Mums4Mums telephone support intervention is being delivered by trained peer-supporters over a period of four months. The primary outcome is depressive symptomatology as measured by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Secondary outcomes include mother-child interaction, dyadic adjustment, parenting sense of competence scale, and self-efficacy. Maternal perceptions of the telephone peer-support are being assessed using semi-structured interviews following the completion of the intervention. Discussion The proposed study will develop current innovative work in peer-led support interventions and telecare by applying existing expertise to a new domain (i.e. PND, testing the feasibility of a peer-led telephone intervention for mothers living with PND, and developing the relationship between the lay and clinical communities. The intervention will potentially benefit a significant number of patients and support a future application for a larger study to undertake a full evaluation of the clinical

  14. Peer support of complex health behaviors in prevention and disease management with special reference to diabetes: systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Edwin B; Boothroyd, Renée I; Elstad, Emily A; Hays, Laura; Henes, Amy; Maslow, Gary R; Velicer, Clayton

    2017-01-01

    Examine Peer Support (PS) for complex, sustained health behaviors in prevention or disease management with emphasis on diabetes prevention and management. PS was defined as emotional, motivational and practical assistance provided by nonprofessionals for complex health behaviors. Initial review examined 65 studies drawn from 1442 abstracts identified through PubMed, published 1/1/2000-7/15/2011. From this search, 24 reviews were also identified. Extension of the search in diabetes identified 30 studies published 1/1/2000-12/31/2015. In initial review, 54 of all 65 studies (83.1%) reported significant impacts of PS, 40 (61.5%) reporting between-group differences and another 14 (21.5%) reporting significant within-group changes. Across 19 of 24 reviews providing quantifiable findings, a median of 64.5% of studies reviewed reported significant effects of PS. In extended review of diabetes, 26 of all 30 studies (86.7%) reported significant impacts of PS, 17 (56.7%) reporting between-group differences and another nine (30.0%) reporting significant within-group changes. Among 19 of these 30 reporting HbA1c data, average reduction was 0.76 points. Studies that did not find effects of PS included other sources of support, implementation or methodological problems, lack of acceptance of interventions, poor fit to recipient needs, and possible harm of unmoderated PS. Across diverse settings, including under-resourced countries and health care systems, PS is effective in improving complex health behaviors in disease prevention and management including in diabetes.

  15. Digital Technologies Supporting Person-Centered Integrated Care - A Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øvretveit, John

    2017-09-25

    Shared electronic health and social care records in some service systems are already showing some of the benefits of digital technology and digital data for integrating health and social care. These records are one example of the beginning "digitalisation" of services that gives a glimpse of the potential of digital technology and systems for building coordinated and individualized integrated care. Yet the promise has been greater than the benefits, and progress has been slow compared to other industries. This paper describes for non-technical readers how information technology was used to support integrated care schemes in six EU services, and suggests practical ways forward to use the new opportunities to build person-centered integrated care.

  16. Knowledge Management Technology for Decision Support: an empirical examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meliha Handzic

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of an empirical examination of the effectiveness of one type of knowledge management technology, namely 'contextual knowledge repository', for supporting individual decision makers in a predictive judgement task context. 31 volunteer subjects participated in the study. The results indicate that a given technology was fairly useful, but insufficient to maximally enhance individual decision making. On one hand, subjects were found to extract more knowledge and make significantly smaller decision errors than their notional naive counterparts. On the other hand, subjects tended to extract less knowledge and make significantly larger decision errors compared to notional optimal counterparts. These findings suggest that individuals could potentially benefit from those knowledge management technologies that would provide additional explicit analytical and procedural knowledge, or those that would facilitate sharing of tacit knowledge through interaction with others. Future research is necessary to address these issues.

  17. Space assets, technology and services in support of energy policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasko, C. A.; Adriaensen, M.; Bretel, A.; Duvaux-Bechon, I.; Giannopapa, C. G.

    2017-09-01

    Space can be used as a tool by decision and policy makers in developing, implementing and monitoring various policy areas including resource management, environment, transport, security and energy. This paper focuses on the role of space for the energy policy. Firstly, the paper summarizes the European Union's (EU) main objectives in energy policy enclosed in the Energy Strategy 2020-2030-2050 and demonstrates how space assets can contribute to achieving those objectives. Secondly, the paper addresses how the European Space Agency (ESA) has established multiple initiatives and programs that directly finance the development of space assets, technology and applications that deliver services in support of the EU energy policy and sector. These efforts should be continued and strengthened in order to overcome identified technological challenges. The use of space assets, technology and applications, can help achieve the energy policy objectives for the next decades.

  18. Aerospace Communications Technologies in Support of NASA Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Felix A.

    2016-01-01

    NASA is endeavoring in expanding communications capabilities to enable and enhance robotic and human exploration of space and to advance aero communications here on Earth. This presentation will discuss some of the research and technology development work being performed at the NASA Glenn Research Center in aerospace communications in support of NASAs mission. An overview of the work conducted in-house and in collaboration with academia, industry, and other government agencies (OGA) to advance radio frequency (RF) and optical communications technologies in the areas of antennas, ultra-sensitive receivers, power amplifiers, among others, will be presented. In addition, the role of these and other related RF and optical communications technologies in enabling the NASA next generation aerospace communications architecture will be also discussed.

  19. Positive-Themed Suicide Prevention Messages Delivered by Adolescent Peer Leaders: Proximal Impact on Classmates' Coping Attitudes and Perceptions of Adult Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Mariya; Wyman, Peter A; Schmeelk-Cone, Karen; Pisani, Anthony R

    2015-12-01

    Developing science-based communication guidance and positive-themed messages for suicide prevention are important priorities. Drawing on social learning and elaboration likelihood models, we designed and tested two positive-focused presentations by high school peer leaders delivered in the context of a suicide prevention program (Sources of Strength). Thirty-six classrooms in four schools (N = 706 students) were randomized to (1) peer leader modeling of healthy coping, (2) peer leader modeling plus audience involvement to identify trusted adults, or (3) control condition. Students' attitudes and norms were assessed by immediate post-only assessments. Exposure to either presentation enhanced positive coping attitudes and perceptions of adult support. Students who reported suicide ideation in the past 12 months benefited more than nonsuicidal students. Beyond modeling alone, audience involvement modestly enhanced expectations of adult support, congruent with the elaboration likelihood model. Positive peer modeling is a promising alternative to communications focused on negative consequences and directives and may enhance social-interpersonal factors linked to reduced suicidal behaviors. © 2015 The American Association of Suicidology.

  20. Relations Of Peer -Victimization Exposure In Adolescents With The Perceived Social Support, Parental Attitude, School Success, School Change And Area Of Residence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülşah Tura

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is made to determine the predictive powers of the perceived social support, parental attitude, school success, school change and living in different area of residences variables in the students of 8.grade who are exposed to peer-victimization. T he data of the research has been procured from 550 students who are the eighth-grader in Diyarbakır and Kocaeli. The data related to the predicted variable has been collected by using Peer-victimization Scale (Mynard & Joseph, 2000 and the data related to the predictor variables has been gathered by using the Perceived Social Support Scale – Revised Form (Yıldırım, 2004, the Parental Attitude Scale (Lamborn, Mounts, Steinberg & Dornbush, 1991 and the Personal Information Form prepared by the researcher. The statistical analysis of the gathered data has been performed in computer by using SPSS 11.5 packaged software. Multiple Regression Analysis is used in determining the variables predicting peer-victimization exposure which is the purpose of the study. On the other hand, the Stepwise Regression Analysis is implemented in order to determine the explanatory variables having high correlation coefficient and the predicted variable. The findings obtained by the research can be summarized as the following: School success, perceived social support and authoritarian parental attitude are the variables predicting the peer-victimization exposure. It has been found out that the other variables in the analysis do not predict the exposure of the students to the peer-victimization. The findings obtained in the research are discussed and commented and suggestions have been made based on the facts.

  1. The Virtual Learning Commons: Supporting Science Education with Emerging Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, D. D.; Gandara, A.; Gris, I.

    2012-12-01

    The Virtual Learning Commons (VLC), funded by the National Science Foundation Office of Cyberinfrastructure CI-Team Program, is a combination of Semantic Web, mash up, and social networking tools that supports knowledge sharing and innovation across scientific disciplines in research and education communities and networks. The explosion of scientific resources (data, models, algorithms, tools, and cyberinfrastructure) challenges the ability of educators to be aware of resources that might be relevant to their classes. Even when aware, it can be difficult to understand enough about those resources to develop classroom materials. Often emerging data and technologies have little documentation, especially about their application. The VLC tackles this challenge by providing mechanisms for individuals and groups of educators to organize Web resources into virtual collections, and engage each other around those collections in order to a) learn about potentially relevant resources that are available; b) design classes that leverage those resources; and c) develop course syllabi. The VLC integrates Semantic Web functionality for structuring distributed information, mash up functionality for retrieving and displaying information, and social media for discussing/rating information. We are working to provide three views of information that support educators in different ways: 1. Innovation Marketplace: supports users as they find others teaching similar courses, where they are located, and who they collaborate with; 2. Conceptual Mapper: supports educators as they organize their thinking about the content of their class and related classes taught by others; 3. Curriculum Designer: supports educators as they generate a syllabus and find Web resources that are relevant. This presentation will discuss the innovation and learning theories that have informed design of the VLC, hypotheses about the use of emerging technologies to support innovation in classrooms, and will include a

  2. The Triple Flip: Using Technology for Peer and Self-Editing of Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojeij, Zeina; Hurley, Zoe

    2017-01-01

    Many teachers consider themselves digital immigrants who struggle to keep up with student digital natives. Whether or not this dichotomy still holds true, in a 21st Century context of teaching and learning, is debatable not least of all because of the exponential development of apps and mobile learning technology. Nevertheless, it is sometimes…

  3. Peer Learning and Support of Technology in an Undergraduate Biology Course to Enhance Deep Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaushu, Masha; Tal, Tali; Sagy, Ornit; Kali, Yael; Gepstein, Shimon; Zilberstein, Dan

    2012-01-01

    This study offers an innovative and sustainable instructional model for an introductory undergraduate course. The model was gradually implemented during 3 yr in a research university in a large-lecture biology course that enrolled biology majors and nonmajors. It gives priority to sources not used enough to enhance active learning in higher…

  4. Effectiveness of personalised feedback alone or combined with peer support to improve physical activity in sedentary older Malays with type 2 diabetes: A randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shariff-Ghazali eSazlina

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Regular physical activity is an important aspect of self management among older people with type 2 diabetes but many remain inactive. Interventions to improve physical activity levels have been studied but few studies have evaluated the effects of personalised feedback or peer support; and there was no study on older people of Asian heritage. Hence, this trial evaluated whether personalised feedback (PF only or combined with peer support (PS improves physical activity among older Malays with type 2 diabetes (T2DM compared to usual care only. Materials and methods: A three arm randomised controlled trial was conducted in a primary healthcare clinic in Malaysia. 69 sedentary Malays aged 60 years and older with T2DM who received usual diabetes care were randomised to PF or PS interventions or as controls for 12 weeks with follow-ups at weeks 24 and 36. Intervention groups performed unsupervised walking activity and received written feedback on physical activity. The PS group also received group and telephone contacts from trained peer mentors. The primary outcome was pedometer steps. Secondary outcomes were self-reported physical activity, cardiovascular risk factors, cardiorespiratory fitness, balance, quality of life and psychosocial wellbeing. Results: 52 (75.4% completed the 36-week study. The PS group showed greater daily pedometer readings than the PF and controls (p=0.001. The PS group also had greater improvement in weekly duration (p<0.001 and frequency (p<0.001 of moderate intensity physical activity, scores on the Physical Activity Scale for Elderly (p=0.003, six minute walk test (p<0.001 and social support from friends (p=0.032 than PF and control groups. Conclusions: The findings suggest personalised feedback combined with peer support in older Malays with T2DM improved their physical activity levels, cardiorespiratory fitness and support from friends. Trial registration: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN71447000.

  5. Technology Infusion Challenges from a Decision Support Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adumitroaie, V.; Weisbin, C. R.

    2009-01-01

    In a restricted science budget environment and increasingly numerous required technology developments, the technology investment decisions within NASA are objectively more and more difficult to make such that the end results are satisfying the technical objectives and all the organizational constraints. Under these conditions it is rationally desirable to build an investment portfolio, which has the highest possible technology infusion rate. Arguably the path to infusion is subject to many influencing factors, but here only the challenges associated with the very initial stages are addressed: defining the needs and the subsequent investment decision-support process. It is conceivable that decision consistency and possibly its quality suffer when the decision-making process has limited or no traceability. This paper presents a structured decision-support framework aiming to provide traceable, auditable, infusion- driven recommendations towards a selection process in which these recommendations are used as reference points in further discussions among stakeholders. In this framework addressing well-defined requirements, different measures of success can be defined based on traceability to specific selection criteria. As a direct result, even by using simplified decision models the likelihood of infusion can be probed and consequently improved.

  6. Context before implementation: a qualitative study of decision makers' views of a peer-led healthy lifestyle intervention for people with serious mental illness in supportive housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabassa, Leopoldo J; Stefancic, Ana

    2018-04-04

    People with serious mental illness die at an earlier age than people in the general population largely due to cardiovascular disease. Healthy lifestyle interventions can help reduce this health inequity. In this qualitative study, we examined the perceptions that decision makers in supportive housing agencies had toward a peer-led healthy lifestyle intervention and their views of contextual factors that could shape implementation at these agencies. A purposive sample of 12 decision makers from three supportive housing agencies was recruited. We presented participants a vignette describing our peer-led intervention and used semistructured qualitative interviews to examine their views. Interviews were recorded, professionally transcribed, and analyzed using directed content analysis. Participants reported positive views toward the intervention with the most valued intervention attributes being relative advantage over existing services, compatibility to clients' needs, ability to pilot the intervention, and cost. A model emerged from our data depicting multilevel contextual factors believed to shape the implementation of our intervention at these agencies, including system- (funding, marketability, and external regulations), organization- (leadership support, fit with organization, staff buy-in and burden), and client-level (adaptability to clients' needs, and clients' buy-in) factors. Study findings illustrate the importance of understanding the context of practice before implementation. This examination can help identify critical views from decision makers that could undermine or advance the integration of peer-led interventions in supportive housing agencies and help identify structures, policies, and organizational practices that can inform the implementation process.

  7. Peers, Regulators, and Professions: The Influence of Organizations in Health Information Technology Adoption

    OpenAIRE

    Campion, Thomas R.; Gadd, Cynthia S.

    2010-01-01

    According to the U.S. National Research Council, current health information technology (HIT) efforts are insufficient and arguably detrimental to healthcare transformation. Many hospitals have already implemented HIT, and federal stimulus funding will further adoption efforts. Organizations become more similar through the adoption of innovations like HIT, but the effects of the changes do not necessarily improve efficiency. This view from sociology and organizational studies, called instituti...

  8. Results of a pilot randomised controlled trial to measure the clinical and cost effectiveness of peer support in increasing hope and quality of life in mental health patients discharged from hospital in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Alan; Flood, Chris; Rowe, Julie; Quigley, Jody; Henry, Susan; Hall, Cerdic; Evans, Richard; Sherman, Paul; Bowers, Len

    2014-02-05

    Mental health patients can feel anxious about losing the support of staff and patients when discharged from hospital and often discontinue treatment, experience relapse and readmission to hospital, and sometimes attempt suicide. The benefits of peer support in mental health services have been identified in a number of studies with some suggesting clinical and economic gains in patients being discharged. This pilot randomised controlled trial with economic evaluation aimed to explore whether peer support in addition to usual aftercare for patients during the transition from hospital to home would increase hope, reduce loneliness, improve quality of life and show cost effectiveness compared with patients receiving usual aftercare only, with follow-up at one and three-months post-discharge. A total of 46 service users were recruited to the study; 23 receiving peer support and 23 in the care-as-usual arm. While this pilot trial found no statistically significant benefits for peer support on the primary or secondary outcome measures, there is an indication that hope may be further increased in those in receipt of peer support. The total cost per case for the peer support arm of the study was £2154 compared to £1922 for the control arm. The mean difference between costs was minimal and not statistically significant. However, further analyses demonstrated that peer support has a reasonably high probability of being more cost effective for a modest positive change in the measure of hopelessness. Challenges faced in recruitment and follow-up are explored alongside limitations in the delivery of peer support. The findings suggest there is merit in conducting further research on peer support in the transition from hospital to home consideration should be applied to the nature of the patient population to whom support is offered; the length and frequency of support provided; and the contact between peer supporters and mental health staff. There is no conclusive evidence to

  9. The impact of peer support and mp3 messaging on adherence to inhaled corticosteroids in minority adolescents with asthma: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosnaim, Giselle; Li, Hong; Martin, Molly; Richardson, DeJuran; Belice, Paula Jo; Avery, Elizabeth; Ryan, Norman; Bender, Bruce; Powell, Lynda

    2013-01-01

    Poor adherence to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) is a critical risk factor contributing to asthma morbidity among low-income minority adolescents. This trial tested whether peer support group meetings and peer asthma messages delivered via mp3 players improved adherence to ICS. Low-income African American and/or Hispanic adolescents, ages 11-16 years old, with persistent asthma, and poor (≤ 48%) adherence to prescription ICS during the 3-week run-in were randomized to intervention or attention control groups (ATG) for the 10-week treatment. During treatment, the intervention arm subjects participated in weekly coping peer group support sessions and received mp3 peer-recorded asthma messages that promoted adherence. The ATG participated in weekly meetings with a research assistant and received an equivalent number of mp3 physician-recorded asthma messages. Adherence was measured by using self-report and the Doser CT, an electronic dose counter. The primary outcome was the difference in adherence at 10 weeks between the 2 arms. Thirty-four subjects were randomized to each arm. At 10 weeks, no statistical difference in objectively measured adherence could be detected between the 2 arms when adjusting for baseline adherence (P = .929). Adherence declined in both groups over the course of the active treatment period. In both study arms, self-reported adherence by participants was significantly higher than their objectively measured adherence at week 10 (P mp3-delivered peer asthma messages may not be of sufficient dose to improve outcomes. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. TUTOR SUPPORT OF TEACHING MATHEMATICS WITH INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateryna P. Osadcha

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the tutor activity in the process of mathematics teaching support on the basis of the use of information and communication technologies (ICT. The author has analysed the available Internet resources and mobile applications in mathematics, which are classified according to their functional purposes into groups: systems of mass open courses, platforms for adaptive learning, video channels, mathematical online simulators, online tasks, mathematical games, mathematical portals, online platforms, mathematical sites, mathematical online platforms, mathematical services, mobile applications in mathematics (simulators, games, generators of example, assistant programs, training complexes, calculators. In accordance with the student age categories mathematical information and communication technologies are divided into three groups: for elementary school students, secondary school students and high school students. The basic ICT tools for teaching mathematics are outlined. The algorithm for constructing tutorial classes with their application is presented.

  11. The influence of perception and peer support on STI prevention behavior (syphilis case study) in group of MSM at veterans STI-VCT clinic in Medan year 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukatendel, K.; Napitupulu, T. E.; Rusmalawati; Andayani, L. S.; Yustina, I.

    2018-03-01

    According to Behavioral and Biological Integrated Surveillance (BBIS) in Indonesia, 2011, there was an increase in syphilis surveillance in men who like to commit sexual intercourse with other men (MSM). It was 13% of the 3% in BBIS 2007 in bad STI prevention behavior. There were 478 MSM have visited STI-VCT clinic in Medan throughout 2015, and syphilis-infected 59 men. This study aims to analyze the influence of perception and peer support on prevention of STI in MSM at Veteran STI-VCT Clinic in Medan, 2016. It was a mixed method quantitative and qualitative study with the cross-sectional approach, enrolled 50 respondents. Data were collected and analyzed with SPSS 19. There was the influence of perception and peer support on STI prevention behavior of MSM group at STI-VCT Veteran Clinic in Medan.

  12. The influence of authoritative parenting during adolescence on depressive symptoms in young adulthood: examining the mediating roles of self-development and peer support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, Joan H; Cavell, Emily Cohen; Lustig, Kara

    2010-01-01

    A diverse sample of 1,143 high school seniors and 182 students who were part of the same cohort but who left high school without graduating were interviewed during late adolescence (Time 1 [T1]) as well as 2 (Time 2 [T2]) and 4 years later (Time 3 [T3]). Perceived self-development, peer support, and prior levels of depressive symptoms (T2) were hypothesized to mediate the relationship between authoritative parenting during adolescence (T1) and depressive symptoms during young adulthood (T3). T2 sense of self as worthy and efficacious and depressive symptoms, but not peer support, fully mediated the effect of authoritative parenting on T3 depressive symptoms. The authors discuss the importance of parenting for healthy, emerging adult self-development and the continuing influence of parenting styles during adolescence on young adult depressive symptoms.

  13. Development of Beam Utilization Technologies and Support for Users

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyeryung; Jung, Myunghwan; Noh, Yongoh; Lee, Sooyeon; Kim, Hyukwook; Kil, Jaekeun; Lee, Nayoung; Ra, Sekin; Lee, Miejeen; Kim, Sora

    2013-02-01

    The Final goals are to achieve the 2nd goals of the Proton Engineering Frontier Project, development of proton beam utilization technologies, to incubate the potential users, and to develop fundamental technologies. Based on these achievements, we are going to enhance the accelerator utilization and maximize contribution to the local society after accelerator construction completion. For the these goals, we were operating user program reflecting the results of 3rd step planning. We support 38 small projects during 2 years. As results of activation of beam utilization, we acquired 768 users at the end of 2012. We survey proton beam technology proposals, individuals and institutions participation letter of intent through the research of 'Planning of a support program for both basic research by using accelerator and manpower cultivation'. And inaugurated KOPUA (Korea Proton Accelerator User Association) on March 28, 2012 with 152 members. We secured experimental conditions at TR23 and TR103 and reflected in the target room design and operation scenarios via investigate the requirements. Through these requirements, we make a remote sample transfer system, beam regulating system, hot cell and sample transport container. Moreover, we develop proton beam technologies such as in-vivo proton beam irradiation system, comparison of the biological effects for pulse beam and continuous beam, basic experiments for the metal nanopaticle synthesis, research for radioactivatied samples and devices, conceptual design and calculation for neutron source target and calculation of the isotope production yield. Proton accelerator can be utilized in a variety of field, including NT, BT, IT, ST, ET, Nuclear, medical, and some of the user facilities required were constructed through this project, Experience for the construction and operation of these facilities can be reflected to the construction of the rest 8 target room of proton accelerator center

  14. Technology-Supported Art as a "Way to Participation"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly Bathje MS, OTR/L

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Brianna Vitale provided the painting featured on the cover of the Spring 2014 issue of The Open Journal of Occupational Therapy. Brianna completed the painting, titled “Flamingo,” using a mouth joystick (joust to draw the image on her computer and an assistive device to translate her computer artwork into the watercolor painting. At 12 years old, Brianna has been living for the past 9 years with tetraplegia, the result of a spinal cord injury (SCI. Through technology and with the support of family, friends, and health care professionals, Brianna energetically engages in a variety of creative, social, and philanthropic activities.

  15. A two-state comparative implementation of peer-support intervention to link veterans to health-related services after incarceration: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Molly M; Fincke, Benjamin G; Drainoni, Mari-Lynn; Kim, Bo; Byrne, Tom; Smelson, David; Casey, Kevin; Ellison, Marsha L; Visher, Christy; Blue-Howells, Jessica; McInnes, D Keith

    2017-09-12

    Approximately 600,000 persons are released from prison annually in the United States. Relatively few receive sufficient re-entry services and are at risk for unemployment, homelessness, poverty, substance abuse relapse and recidivism. Persons leaving prison who have a mental illness and/or a substance use disorder are particularly challenged. This project aims to create a peer mentor program to extend the reach and effectiveness of reentry services provided by the Department of Veterans' Affairs (VA). We will implement a peer support for reentry veterans sequentially in two states. Our outcome measures are 1) fidelity of the intervention, 2) linkage to VA health care and, 3) continued engagement in health care. The aims for this project are as follows: (1) Conduct contextual analysis to identify VA and community reentry resources, and describe how reentry veterans use them. (2) Implement peer-support, in one state, to link reentry veterans to Veterans' Health Administration (VHA) primary care, mental health, and SUD services. (3) Port the peer-support intervention to another, geographically, and contextually different state. This intervention involves a 2-state sequential implementation study (Massachusetts, followed by Pennsylvania) using a Facilitation Implementation strategy. We will conduct formative and summative analyses, including assessment of fidelity, and a matched comparison group to evaluate the intervention's outcomes of veteran linkage and engagement in VHA health care (using health care utilization measures). The study proceeds in 3 phases. We anticipate that a peer support program will be effective at improving the reentry process for veterans, particularly in linking them to health, mental health, and SUD services and helping them to stay engaged in those services. It will fill a gap by providing veterans with access to a trusted individual, who understands their experience as a veteran and who has experienced justice involvement. The outputs from

  16. The Influence of Authoritative Parenting during Adolescence on Depressive Symptoms in Young Adulthood: Examining the Mediating Roles of Self-Development and Peer Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, Joan H.; Cavell, Emily Cohen; Lustig, Kara

    2010-01-01

    A diverse sample of 1,143 high school seniors and 182 students who were part of the same cohort but who left high school without graduating were interviewed during late adolescence (Time 1 [T1]) as well as 2 (Time 2 [T2]) and 4 years later (Time 3 [T3]). Perceived self-development, peer support, and prior levels of depressive symptoms (T2) were…

  17. Separations technologies supporting the development of a deployable ATW system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laidler, J. J.

    2000-01-01

    A program has been initiated for the purpose of developing the chemical separations technologies necessary to support a large Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) system capable of dealing with the projected inventory of spent fuel from the commercial nuclear power stations in the United States. The first several years of the program will be directed toward an elucidation of related technical issues and to the establishment, by means of comprehensive trade studies, of an optimum configuration of the elements of the chemical processing infrastructure required for support of the total ATW system. By adopting this sort of disciplined systems engineering approach, it is expected that development and demonstration costs can be minimized and that it will be possible to deploy an ATW system that is an environmentally sound and economically viable venture

  18. Advanced intelligent computational technologies and decision support systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kountchev, Roumen

    2014-01-01

    This book offers a state of the art collection covering themes related to Advanced Intelligent Computational Technologies and Decision Support Systems which can be applied to fields like healthcare assisting the humans in solving problems. The book brings forward a wealth of ideas, algorithms and case studies in themes like: intelligent predictive diagnosis; intelligent analyzing of medical images; new format for coding of single and sequences of medical images; Medical Decision Support Systems; diagnosis of Down’s syndrome; computational perspectives for electronic fetal monitoring; efficient compression of CT Images; adaptive interpolation and halftoning for medical images; applications of artificial neural networks for real-life problems solving; present and perspectives for Electronic Healthcare Record Systems; adaptive approaches for noise reduction in sequences of CT images etc.

  19. Developing Effluent Analysis Technologies to Support Nonproliferation Initiatives, Arms Control and Nonproliferation Technologies, Third quarter 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, S A; Staehle, G; Alonzo, G M [eds.

    1995-01-01

    This issue provides an overview of the Effluent Research Program of the DOE Office of Research and Development, highlighting a number of representative projects within this program in support of nonproliferation initiatives. Technologies reported include portable instruments for on-site inspections, standoff detectors, fieldable, real-time instruments, field collection techniques, and ultrasensitive laboratory techniques.

  20. The effect of peer support groups on family adaptation from the perspective of wives of war veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagharseyyedin, Seyyed Abolfazl; Gholami, Mojtaba; Hajihoseini, Morteza; Esmaeili, Aliakbar

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of peer group support on family adaptation of wives of war veterans suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In this randomized controlled trial, 80 wives of war veterans with PTSD were incorporated, and selected participants were randomly assigned into intervention and control groups (n = 40 per group). The intervention group was divided into four subgroups, with each participating in eight weekly based 1.5-hr peer support group sessions and the control group received no intervention. Demographics form and Family Adaptation Scale (FAS) developed by Antonovsky and Sourani (1988) were applied. The total mean scores of family adaptation increased significantly more in the intervention group than in the control group (p = .033). Furthermore, the time × group interaction effects were significant for internal family fit (p = .013) and a combination of both family fit and family community fit (p = .020) dimensions. Nonetheless family fit dimensions mean scores had no significant increase in the intervention group than the control group over time (p = .948). Peer support group can be a useful tool for health care professionals to enhance family adaptation in spouses of war veterans with PTSD. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. What Influences Chinese Adolescents’ Choice Intention between Playing Online Games and Learning? Application of Theory of Planned Behavior with Subjective Norm Manipulated as Peer Support and Parental Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Liu, Ru-De; Ding, Yi; Liu, Ying; Xu, Le; Zhen, Rui

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated how and why Chinese adolescents choose between playing online games and doing homework, using the model of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in which the subjective norm was manipulated as two sub-elements (peer support and parental monitoring). A total of 530 students from an elementary school and a middle school in China were asked to complete the measures assessing two predictors of TPB: attitude and perceived behavioral control (PBC). Next, they completed a survey about their choice intention between playing an online game and doing homework in three different situations, wherein a conflict between playing online games and doing homework was introduced and subjective norm was manipulated as peers supporting and parents objecting to playing online games. The results showed that adolescents’ attitude and PBC, as well as the perception of obtaining or not obtaining support from their peers and caregivers (manipulated subjective norm), significantly influenced their choice intention in online gaming situations. These findings contribute to the understanding of the factors affecting adolescents’ online gaming, which has been a concern of both caregivers and educators. With regard to the theoretical implications, this study extended previous work by providing evidence that TPB can be applied to analyze choice intention. Moreover, this study illuminated the effects of the separating factors of subjective norm on choice intention between playing online games and studying. PMID:28458649

  2. What Influences Chinese Adolescents' Choice Intention between Playing Online Games and Learning? Application of Theory of Planned Behavior with Subjective Norm Manipulated as Peer Support and Parental Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Liu, Ru-De; Ding, Yi; Liu, Ying; Xu, Le; Zhen, Rui

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated how and why Chinese adolescents choose between playing online games and doing homework, using the model of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in which the subjective norm was manipulated as two sub-elements (peer support and parental monitoring). A total of 530 students from an elementary school and a middle school in China were asked to complete the measures assessing two predictors of TPB: attitude and perceived behavioral control (PBC). Next, they completed a survey about their choice intention between playing an online game and doing homework in three different situations, wherein a conflict between playing online games and doing homework was introduced and subjective norm was manipulated as peers supporting and parents objecting to playing online games. The results showed that adolescents' attitude and PBC, as well as the perception of obtaining or not obtaining support from their peers and caregivers (manipulated subjective norm), significantly influenced their choice intention in online gaming situations. These findings contribute to the understanding of the factors affecting adolescents' online gaming, which has been a concern of both caregivers and educators. With regard to the theoretical implications, this study extended previous work by providing evidence that TPB can be applied to analyze choice intention. Moreover, this study illuminated the effects of the separating factors of subjective norm on choice intention between playing online games and studying.

  3. Connecting Technological Innovation in Artificial Intelligence to Real-world Medical Practice through Rigorous Clinical Validation: What Peer-reviewed Medical Journals Could Do

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) is projected to substantially influence clinical practice in the foreseeable future. However, despite the excitement around the technologies, it is yet rare to see examples of robust clinical validation of the technologies and, as a result, very few are currently in clinical use. A thorough, systematic validation of AI technologies using adequately designed clinical research studies before their integration into clinical practice is critical to ensure patient benefit and safety while avoiding any inadvertent harms. We would like to suggest several specific points regarding the role that peer-reviewed medical journals can play, in terms of study design, registration, and reporting, to help achieve proper and meaningful clinical validation of AI technologies designed to make medical diagnosis and prediction, focusing on the evaluation of diagnostic accuracy efficacy. Peer-reviewed medical journals can encourage investigators who wish to validate the performance of AI systems for medical diagnosis and prediction to pay closer attention to the factors listed in this article by emphasizing their importance. Thereby, peer-reviewed medical journals can ultimately facilitate translating the technological innovations into real-world practice while securing patient safety and benefit.

  4. Connecting Technological Innovation in Artificial Intelligence to Real-world Medical Practice through Rigorous Clinical Validation: What Peer-reviewed Medical Journals Could Do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seong Ho; Kressel, Herbert Y

    2018-05-28

    Artificial intelligence (AI) is projected to substantially influence clinical practice in the foreseeable future. However, despite the excitement around the technologies, it is yet rare to see examples of robust clinical validation of the technologies and, as a result, very few are currently in clinical use. A thorough, systematic validation of AI technologies using adequately designed clinical research studies before their integration into clinical practice is critical to ensure patient benefit and safety while avoiding any inadvertent harms. We would like to suggest several specific points regarding the role that peer-reviewed medical journals can play, in terms of study design, registration, and reporting, to help achieve proper and meaningful clinical validation of AI technologies designed to make medical diagnosis and prediction, focusing on the evaluation of diagnostic accuracy efficacy. Peer-reviewed medical journals can encourage investigators who wish to validate the performance of AI systems for medical diagnosis and prediction to pay closer attention to the factors listed in this article by emphasizing their importance. Thereby, peer-reviewed medical journals can ultimately facilitate translating the technological innovations into real-world practice while securing patient safety and benefit.

  5. Using information technology to support knowledge conversion processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main roles of Information Technology in Knowledge Management programs is to accelerate the speed of knowledge transfer and creation. The Knowledge Management tools intend to help the processes of collecting and organizing the knowledge of groups of individuals in order to make this knowledge available in a shared base. Due to the largeness of the concept of knowledge, the software market for Knowledge Management seems to be quite confusing. Technology vendors are developing different implementations of the Knowledge Management concepts in their software products. Because of the variety and quantity of Knowledge Management tools available on the market, a typology may be a valuable aid to organizations that are looking for answers to specific needs. The objective of this article is to present guidelines that help to design such a typology. Knowledge Management solutions such as intranet systems, Electronic Document Management (EDM, groupware, workflow, artificial intelligence-based systems, Business Intelligence (BI, knowledge map systems, innovation support, competitive intelligence tools and knowledge portals are discussed in terms of their potential contributions to the processes of creating, registering and sharing knowledge. A number of Knowledge Management tools (Lotus Notes, Microsoft Exchange, Business Objects, Aris Toolset, File Net, Gingo, Vigipro, Sopheon have been checked. The potential of each category of solutions to support the transfer of tacit and/or explicit knowledge and to facilitate the knowledge conversion spiral in the sense of Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995 is discussed.

  6. Arctic Glass: Innovative Consumer Technology in Support of Arctic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthkoski, T.

    2015-12-01

    The advancement of cyberinfrastructure on the North Slope of Alaska is drastically limited by location-specific conditions, including: unique geophysical features, remoteness of location, and harsh climate. The associated cost of maintaining this unique cyberinfrastructure also becomes a limiting factor. As a result, field experiments conducted in this region have historically been at a technological disadvantage. The Arctic Glass project explored a variety of scenarios where innovative consumer-grade technology was leveraged as a lightweight, rapidly deployable, sustainable, alternatives to traditional large-scale Arctic cyberinfrastructure installations. Google Glass, cloud computing services, Internet of Things (IoT) microcontrollers, miniature LIDAR, co2 sensors designed for HVAC systems, and portable network kits are several of the components field-tested at the Toolik Field Station as part of this project. Region-specific software was also developed, including a multi featured, voice controlled Google Glass application named "Arctic Glass". Additionally, real-time sensor monitoring and remote control capability was evaluated through the deployment of a small cluster of microcontroller devices. Network robustness was analyzed as the devices delivered streams of abiotic data to a web-based dashboard monitoring service in near real time. The same data was also uploaded synchronously by the devices to Amazon Web Services. A detailed overview of solutions deployed during the 2015 field season, results from experiments utilizing consumer sensors, and potential roles consumer technology could play in support of Arctic science will be discussed.

  7. LIDAR technology developments in support of ESA Earth observation missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Yannig; Caron, Jérôme; Hélière, Arnaud; Bézy, Jean-Loup; Meynart, Roland

    2017-11-01

    Critical lidar technology developments have been ongoing at the European Space Agency (ESA) in support of EarthCARE (Earth Clouds, Aerosols, and Radiation Explorer), the 6th Earth Explorer mission, and A-SCOPE (Advanced Space Carbon and Climate Observation of Planet Earth), one of the candidates for the 7th Earth Explorer mission. EarthCARE is embarking an Atmospheric backscatter Lidar (ATLID) while A-SCOPE is based on a Total Column Differential Absorption Lidar. As EarthCARE phase B has just started, the pre-development activities, aiming at validating the technologies used in the flight design and at verifying the overall instrument performance, are almost completed. On the other hand, A-SCOPE pre-phase A has just finished. Therefore technology developments are in progress, addressing critical subsystems or components with the lowest TRL, selected in the proposed instrument concepts. The activities described in this paper span over a broad range, addressing all critical elements of a lidar from the transmitter to the receiver.

  8. An algorithmic interactive planning framework in support of sustainable technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prica, Marija D.

    This thesis addresses the difficult problem of generation expansion planning that employs the most effective technologies in today's changing electric energy industry. The electrical energy industry, in both the industrialized world and in developing countries, is experiencing transformation in a number of different ways. This transformation is driven by major technological breakthroughs (such as the influx of unconventional smaller-scale resources), by industry restructuring, changing environmental objectives, and the ultimate threat of resource scarcity. This thesis proposes a possible planning framework in support of sustainable technologies where sustainability is viewed as a mix of multiple attributes ranging from reliability and environmental impact to short- and long-term efficiency. The idea of centralized peak-load pricing, which accounts for the tradeoffs between cumulative operational effects and the cost of new investments, is the key concept in support of long-term planning in the changing industry. To start with, an interactive planning framework for generation expansion is posed as a distributed decision-making model. In order to reconcile the distributed sub-objectives of different decision makers with system-wide sustainability objectives, a new concept of distributed interactive peak load pricing is proposed. To be able to make the right decisions, the decision makers must have sufficient information about the estimated long-term electricity prices. The sub-objectives of power plant owners and load-serving entities are profit maximization. Optimized long-term expansion plans based on predicted electricity prices are communicated to the system-wide planning authority as long-run bids. The long-term expansion bids are cleared by the coordinating planner so that the system-wide long-term performance criteria are satisfied. The interactions between generation owners and the coordinating planning authority are repeated annually. We view the proposed

  9. Peer Interaction and Social Network Analysis of Online Communities with the Support of Awareness of Different Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jian-Wei; Mai, Li-Jung; Lai, Yung-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Although several studies related to social-context awareness (SA) and knowledge-context awareness (KA) argued that each (SA or KA) can individually enhance peer interaction in an online learning community, other studies reached opposite conclusions. These conflicting findings likely stem from different experimental settings. Most importantly, few…

  10. Naturally Occurring Peer Support through Social Media: The Experiences of Individuals with Severe Mental Illness Using YouTube

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naslund, J.A.; Grande, S.W.; Aschbrenner, K.A.; Elwyn, G.

    2014-01-01

    Increasingly, people with diverse health conditions turn to social media to share their illness experiences or seek advice from others with similar health concerns. This unstructured medium may represent a platform on which individuals with severe mental illness naturally provide and receive peer

  11. Utilization of a Technical Peer Review to Support the Mission of the Nevada Test Site Community Advisory Board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, Earle C.; Peterson, Kathleen

    2003-01-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV) Environmental Management (EM) Underground Test Area (UGTA) project addresses the characterization and needs for long-term monitoring of the subsurface contamination resulting from 828 underground nuclear weapon tests at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). EM promotes, and is required, to include stakeholders in its program. However, UGTA is a very complex program not easily understood by members of the public. The NTS Community Advisory Board (CAB), a federally chartered Site Specific Advisory Board (SSAB), has studied the UGTA project since 1996, and has found it a challenge to completely comprehend and provide NNSA/NV meaningful citizen input. The CAB realized the benefit of a technical peer review and in 2000 recommended to NNSA/NV that a peer review of the UGTA strategy would provide valuable feedback to the program to address underground contamination at the NTS. N NSA agreed to the CAB's recommendation, and moved forward with a scope of work to have the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) perform the peer review of the UGTA strategy. The ASME began the peer review in June 2001, and their final report was published in November 2001. In January 2002, the CAB devoted their monthly meeting in Las Vegas, Nevada to reporting the results of the peer review of the UGTA strategy to the public. Two public workshops were later held in the community of Amargosa, Nevada during the month of January to help educate and build interest in the CAB February 2002 monthly meeting which was also held in Amargosa. The CAB recommendation to NNSA to utilize a technical peer review has provided valuable information to NNSA, the State of Nevada, and the CAB. At other DOE sites SSABs are challenged by a number of complex, technical programs requiring considerable time and resources for the board to comprehend. It is worth considering the utilization of an independent

  12. Academic Libraries and Learning Support in Collaboration. Library Based Guidance for Peer Assisted Learning Leaders at Bournemouth University: Theory and Practice.

    OpenAIRE

    Parton, Steve; Fleming, Hugh

    2008-01-01

    This article begins with an overview of the University’s pioneering Peer Assisted Learning Scheme (PAL) and describes how in 2005/6, the Library became involved, collaborating with the PAL Coordinator to develop materials for use by PAL Leaders. PAL is intended to foster cross-year support between students on the same course. It encourages students to support each other and learn co-operatively under the guidance of trained students from the year above - called PAL Leaders. Two documents were...

  13. Support to X-33/Resusable Launch Vehicle Technology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The X-33 Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) Peer Review Team (PRT) was formed to assess the integrated X-33 vehicle GN&C system in order to identify any areas of disproportionate risk for initial flight. The eventual scope of the PRT assessment encompasses the GN&C algorithms, software, avionics, control effectors, applicable models, and testing. The initial (phase 1) focus of the PRT was on the GN&C algorithms and the Flight Control Actuation Subsystem (FCAS). The PRT held meetings during its phase 1 assessment at X-33 assembly facilities in Palmdale, California on May 17-18, 2000 and at Honeywell facilities in Tempe, Arizona on June 7, 2000. The purpose of these meetings was for the PRT members to get background briefings on the X-33 vehicle and for the PRT team to be briefed on the design basis and current status of the X-33 GN&C algorithms as well as the FCAS. The following material is covered in this PRT phase 1 final report. Some significant GN&C-related accomplishments by the X-33 development team are noted. Some topics are identified that were found during phase 1 to require fuller consideration when the PRT reconvenes in the future. Some new recommendations by the PRT to the X-33 program will likely result from a thorough assessment of these subjects. An initial list of recommendations from the PRT to the X-33 program is provided. These recommendations stem from topics that received adequate review by the PRT in phase 1. Significant technical observations by the PRT members as a result of the phase 1 meetings are detailed. (These are covered in an appendix.) There were many X-33 development team members who contributed to the technical information used by the PRT during the phase 1 assessment, who supported presentations to the PRT, and who helped to address the many questions posed by the PRT members at and after the phase 1 meetings. In all instances the interaction between the PRT and the X-33 development team members was cordial and very

  14. Smart home technologies for health and social care support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Suzanne; Kelly, Greg; Kernohan, W George; McCreight, Bernadette; Nugent, Christopher

    2008-10-08

    The integration of smart home technology to support health and social care is acquiring an increasing global significance. Provision is framed within the context of a rapidly changing population profile, which is impacting on the number of people requiring health and social care, workforce availability and the funding of healthcare systems. To explore the effectiveness of smart home technologies as an intervention for people with physical disability, cognitive impairment or learning disability, who are living at home, and to consider the impact on the individual's health status and on the financial resources of health care. We searched the following databases for primary studies: (a) the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) Group Register, (b) the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), (The Cochrane Library, issue 1, 2007), and (c) bibliographic databases, including MEDLINE (1966 to March 2007), EMBASE (1980 to March 2007) and CINAHL (1982 to March 2007). We also searched the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE). We searched the electronic databases using a strategy developed by the EPOC Trials Search Co-ordinator. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-experimental studies, controlled before and after studies (CBAs) and interrupted time series analyses (ITS). Participants included adults over the age of 18, living in their home in a community setting. Participants with a physical disability, dementia or a learning disability were included. The included interventions were social alarms, electronic assistive devices, telecare social alert platforms, environmental control systems, automated home environments and 'ubiquitous homes'. Outcome measures included any objective measure that records an impact on a participant's quality of life, healthcare professional workload, economic outcomes, costs to healthcare provider or costs to participant. We included measures of service satisfaction

  15. Application of Telemedicine Technologies to Long Term Spaceflight Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, O. I.; Grigoriev, A. I.

    projects on space biology and medicine at the modern high level. In spite of the ISS international cooperation transparency space research programs require to follow the biomedicine ethics and provide confidentiality of the special medical information exchange. That can be achieved in the telemedicine support system built on the network principle. Presently we have all technical facilities needed to create such a system. In Russia activities on space telemedicicine support improvement are carried out by the State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation - Institute for Biomedical Problems of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Mission Control Center of the Russian Aviation and Space Agency, Space Biomedical Center for Training and Research and Yu. Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center. Communications development and next generation Internet systems creation almost eliminate differences in the types of information technologies implementation both in the earth-based and near-earth space conditions. In prospect of the information community creation the telecommunication system of the near-earth space objects and its telemedicine element will become a natural part of the Earth unified information field that will open unlimited perspectives for flight support system improvement and space biomedical research conducting. Russia has unique data of numerous investigations on simulation of long, up to a year, effects of space flight factors on the human body. The sphere of situations studied by space medicine specialists embraced orbit manned space flights of the escalating duration (438 days in 1995). However a number of biomedical problems related to space flights didn't face optimal solutions. It's evident that during a space flight to Mars biomedical problems will be much more difficult in comparison with those of the orbit flights of the same duration. The summed up factors of such flights specify a level of the total medical risk that require assessment and application of

  16. Mobile technology supporting trainee doctors' workplace learning and patient care: an evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardyman, Wendy; Bullock, Alison; Brown, Alice; Carter-Ingram, Sophie; Stacey, Mark

    2013-01-21

    The amount of information needed by doctors has exploded. The nature of knowledge (explicit and tacit) and processes of knowledge acquisition and participation are complex. Aiming to assist workplace learning, Wales Deanery funded "iDoc", a project offering trainee doctors a Smartphone library of medical textbooks. Data on trainee doctors' (Foundation Year 2) workplace information seeking practice was collected by questionnaire in 2011 (n = 260). iDoc baseline questionnaires (n = 193) collected data on Smartphone usage alongside other workplace information sources. Case reports (n = 117) detail specific instances of Smartphone use. Most frequently (daily) used information sources in the workplace: senior medical staff (80% F2 survey; 79% iDoc baseline); peers (70%; 58%); and other medical/nursing team staff (53% both datasets). Smartphones were used more frequently by males (p mobile technology used for simple (information-based), complex (problem-based) clinical questions and clinical procedures (skills-based scenarios). From thematic analysis, the Smartphone library assisted: teaching and learning from observation; transition from medical student to new doctor; trainee doctors' discussions with seniors; independent practice; patient care; and this 'just-in-time' access to reliable information supported confident and efficient decision-making. A variety of information sources are used regularly in the workplace. Colleagues are used daily but seniors are not always available. During transitions, constant access to the electronic library was valued. It helped prepare trainee doctors for discussions with their seniors, assisting the interchange between explicit and tacit knowledge.By supporting accurate prescribing and treatment planning, the electronic library contributed to enhanced patient care. Trainees were more rapidly able to medicate patients to reduce pain and more quickly call for specific assessments. However, clinical decision-making often requires

  17. An Information Technology Tool to Support Negotiating Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Montanana

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses computer-supported large-scale negotiation, in particular, negotiation with advisers. It is claimed that better communication within negotiating teams should lead to longer, more productive sessions than the current ones. To this end, an information technology environment should be provided for the negotiation. The paper introduces SHINE, a collaborative software system developed at the University of Chile. This software has many features to allow rich interactions among advisers belonging to the same team, among negotiators and also between a negotiator and his advisers. Emphasis is placed on the design features to enable and ease these interactions. The facilities include WYSIWIS windows, enhanced electronic mail to send and receive text or video messages with several urgency levels, an evaluation procedure and various ways to state comments and ideas. SHINE has been implemented as a prototype on Sun Sparc workstations.

  18. 75 FR 57520 - NASA Advisory Council; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Supporting Research and Technology Working...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (10-112)] NASA Advisory Council; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Supporting Research and Technology Working Group; Meeting AGENCY: National... announces a meeting of the Supporting Research and Technology Working Group of the Planetary Science...

  19. A Project in Support of Nuclear Technology Cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Young Cheol; Kim, Kyoung Pyo; Yi, Ji Ho [and others

    2007-12-15

    The results and contents of the project are as follows; - Establish strategies of international cooperation in an effort to promote our nation's Leading role in international society, to form the foundation for the effective transfer of nuclear technology to developing countries, and to cope with the rapidly changing international nuclear climate. - Domestic INIS project has carried out various activities on supporting a decision-making for INIS Secretariat, exchanges of the statistical information between INIS and the country, and technical assistance for domestic end-users using INIS database. - Based on the construction of INIS database sent by member states, the data published in the country has been gathered, collected, and inputted to INIS database according to the INIS reference series. - Using the INIS output data, it has provided domestic users with searching INIS CD-ROM DB and INIS online database, INIS SDI service, non-conventional literature delivery services and announce INIS to users. - Establish the integrated management system of information resources and to automate business flow and to improve business productivity through efficient information sharing. - Promotion of domestic nuclear energy technology by utilizing nuclear energy information and computer software developed in the advanced countries.

  20. Interim monitoring of cost dynamics for publicly supported energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemet, Gregory F. [La Follette School of Public Affairs, University of Wisconsin, 1225 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)]|[Nelson Institute for Environmental Studies, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53726 (United States)

    2009-03-15

    The combination of substantial public funding of nascent energy technologies and recent increases in the costs of those that have been most heavily supported has raised questions about whether policy makers should sustain, alter, enhance, or terminate such programs. This paper uses experience curves for photovoltaics (PV) and wind to (1) estimate ranges of costs for these public programs and (2) introduce new ways of evaluating recent cost dynamics. For both technology cases, the estimated costs of the subsidies required to reach targets are sensitive to the choice of time period on which cost projections are based. The variation in the discounted social cost of subsidies exceeds an order of magnitude. Vigilance is required to avoid the very expensive outcomes contained within these distributions of social costs. Two measures of the significance of recent deviations are introduced. Both indicate that wind costs are within the expected range of prior forecasts but that PV costs are not. The magnitude of the public funds involved in these programs heightens the need for better analytical tools with which to monitor and evaluate cost dynamics. (author)

  1. A Project in Support of Nuclear Technology Cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Young Cheol; Kim, Kyoung Pyo; Yi, Ji Ho

    2007-12-01

    The results and contents of the project are as follows; - Establish strategies of international cooperation in an effort to promote our nation's Leading role in international society, to form the foundation for the effective transfer of nuclear technology to developing countries, and to cope with the rapidly changing international nuclear climate. - Domestic INIS project has carried out various activities on supporting a decision-making for INIS Secretariat, exchanges of the statistical information between INIS and the country, and technical assistance for domestic end-users using INIS database. - Based on the construction of INIS database sent by member states, the data published in the country has been gathered, collected, and inputted to INIS database according to the INIS reference series. - Using the INIS output data, it has provided domestic users with searching INIS CD-ROM DB and INIS online database, INIS SDI service, non-conventional literature delivery services and announce INIS to users. - Establish the integrated management system of information resources and to automate business flow and to improve business productivity through efficient information sharing. - Promotion of domestic nuclear energy technology by utilizing nuclear energy information and computer software developed in the advanced countries

  2. A Project in Support of Nuclear Technology Cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Young Cheol; Kim, Kyoung Pyo; Yi, Ji Ho (and others)

    2007-12-15

    The results and contents of the project are as follows; - Establish strategies of international cooperation in an effort to promote our nation's Leading role in international society, to form the foundation for the effective transfer of nuclear technology to developing countries, and to cope with the rapidly changing international nuclear climate. - Domestic INIS project has carried out various activities on supporting a decision-making for INIS Secretariat, exchanges of the statistical information between INIS and the country, and technical assistance for domestic end-users using INIS database. - Based on the construction of INIS database sent by member states, the data published in the country has been gathered, collected, and inputted to INIS database according to the INIS reference series. - Using the INIS output data, it has provided domestic users with searching INIS CD-ROM DB and INIS online database, INIS SDI service, non-conventional literature delivery services and announce INIS to users. - Establish the integrated management system of information resources and to automate business flow and to improve business productivity through efficient information sharing. - Promotion of domestic nuclear energy technology by utilizing nuclear energy information and computer software developed in the advanced countries.

  3. ANALYSIS AND COMPARISON OF EXISTING DECISION SUPPORT TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Rybak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of an analytical review and comparison of the most common managerial decision support technologies: the analytic hierarchy method, neural networks, fuzzy set theory, genetic algorithms and neural-fuzzy modeling. The advantages and disadvantages of these approaches are shown. Determine the scope of their application. It is shown that the hierarchy analysis method works well with the full initial information, but due to the need for expert comparison of alternatives and the selection of evaluation criteria has a high proportion of subjectivity. For problems in the conditions of risk and uncertainty prediction seems reasonable use of the theory of fuzzy sets and neural networks. It is also considered technology collective decision applied both in the general election, and the group of experts. It reduces the time for conciliation meetings to reach a consensus by the preliminary analysis of all views submitted for the plane in the form of points. At the same time the consistency of opinion is determined by the distance between them.

  4. Support to X-33/Reusable Launch Vehicle Technology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The Primary activities of Lee & Associates for the referenced Purchase Order has been in direct support of the X-33/Reusable Launch Vehicle Technology Program. An independent review to evaluate the X-33 liquid hydrogen fuel tank failure, which recently occurred after-test of the starboard tank has been provided. The purpose of the Investigation team was to assess the tank design modifications, provide an assessment of the testing approach used by MSFC (Marshall Space Flight Center) in determining the flight worthiness of the tank, assessing the structural integrity, and determining the cause of the failure of the tank. The approach taken to satisfy the objectives has been for Lee & Associates to provide the expertise of Mr. Frank Key and Mr. Wayne Burton who have relevant experience from past programs and a strong background of experience in the fields critical to the success of the program. Mr. Key and Mr. Burton participated in the NASA established Failure Investigation Review Team to review the development and process data and to identify any design, testing or manufacturing weaknesses and potential problem areas. This approach worked well in satisfying the objectives and providing the Review Team with valuable information including the development of a Fault Tree. The detailed inputs were made orally in real time in the Review Team daily meetings. The results of the investigation were presented to the MSFC Center Director by the team on February 15, 2000. Attached are four charts taken from that presentation which includes 1) An executive summary, 2) The most probable cause, 3) Technology assessment, and 4) Technology Recommendations for Cryogenic tanks.

  5. EERE Peer Review Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-01-18

    The primary purpose of this guide is to provide managers and staff guidance in establishing formal in-progress peer review that provides intellectually fair expert evaluation of EERE RD3 and supporting business administration programs, both retrospective and prospective.

  6. A Web-Disseminated Self-Help and Peer Support Program Could Fill Gaps in Mental Health Care: Lessons From a Consumer Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banschback, Kaitlin; Santorelli, Gennarina D; Constantino, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    Background Self-guided mental health interventions that are disseminated via the Web have the potential to circumvent barriers to treatment and improve public mental health. However, self-guided interventions often fail to attract consumers and suffer from user nonadherence. Uptake of novel interventions could be improved by consulting consumers from the beginning of the development process in order to assess their interest and their preferences. Interventions can then be tailored using this feedback to optimize appeal. Objective The aim of our study was to determine the level of public interest in a new mental health intervention that incorporates elements of self-help and peer counseling and that is disseminated via a Web-based training course; to identify predictors of interest in the program; and to identify consumer preferences for features of Web-based courses and peer support programs. Methods We surveyed consumers via Amazon’s Mechanical Turk to estimate interest in the self-help and peer support program. We assessed associations between demographic and clinical characteristics and interest in the program, and we obtained feedback on desired features of the program. Results Overall, 63.9% (378/592) of respondents said that they would try the program; interest was lower but still substantial among those who were not willing or able to access traditional mental health services. Female gender, lower income, and openness to using psychotherapy were the most consistent predictors of interest in the program. The majority of respondents, although not all, preferred romantic partners or close friends as peer counselors and would be most likely to access the program if the training course were accessed on a stand-alone website. In general, respondents valued training in active listening skills. Conclusions In light of the apparent public interest in this program, Web-disseminated self-help and peer support interventions have enormous potential to fill gaps in

  7. Application of NASA's Advanced Life Support Technologies in Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David L.

    1997-01-01

    The problems of obtaining adequate pure drinking water and disposing of liquid and solid waste in the U.S Arctic, a region where virtually all water is frozen solid for much of the year, has led to unsanitary solutions. Sanitation and a safe water supply are particularly problems in rural villages. These villages are without running water and use plastic buckets for toilets. The outbreak of diseases is believed to be partially attributable to exposure to human waste and lack of sanitation. Villages with the most frequent outbreaks of disease are those in which running water is difficult to obtain. Waste is emptied into open lagoons, rivers, or onto the sea coast. It does not degrade rapidly and in addition to affecting human health, can be harmful to the fragile ecology of the Arctic and the indigenous wildlife and fish populations. Current practices for waste management and sanitation pose serious human hazards as well as threaten the environment. NASA's unique knowledge of water/wastewater treatment systems for extreme environments, identified in the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment report entitled An Alaskan Challenge: Native Villagt Sanitation, may offer practical solutions addressing the issues of safe drinking water and effective sanitation practices in rural villages. NASA's advanced life support technologies are being combined with Arctic science and engineering knowledge to address the unique needs of the remote communities of Alaska through the Advanced Life Systems for Extreme Environments (ALSEE) project. ALSEE is a collaborative effort involving the NASA, the State of Alaska, the University of Alaska, the North Slope Borough of Alaska, Ilisagvik College in Barrow and the National Science Foundation (NSF). The focus is a major issue in the State of Alaska and other areas of the Circumpolar North; the health and welfare of its people, their lives and the subsistence lifestyle in remote communities, economic opportunity, and care for the

  8. Development of NPP Monitoring and Operation Support Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Park, Jae Chang; Lee, Yong Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2008-04-15

    During the first stage (2001.7.1-2004.6.30), we developed general human factors design guidelines VDU-based workstations, PMAS alarm display design guidelines, PMAS SPADES display design guidelines, and the revision of KHNP HFE guidelines (HF-010), which have been applied to domestic NPP designs. We also supported other KNICS projects by performing RPS COM design reviews, development of RPS COM Style Guide, and a review of CEDMCS cabinet operator module display design. We developed the ADIOS prototype, NPP performance analysis systems for YGN No.1, 2 plants and Kori No. 2 plant, alarm cause tracking systems for Kori No. 2 plant and OPR1000, and signal fault detection and diagnosis methods for deaerators and steam generators. During the second stage(2004.7.1-2008.4.30), we supported other KNICS projects by reviewing RPS COM display designs three times, developing ESF-CCS COM style guides and reviewing ESF-CCS COM display design, reviewing CRCS LOM and PCS MTP display designs, and developing requirements for DCS GUI components. We also developed integrated style guide for I and C cabinet operator module display designs. In cooperative research with KOPEC-AE, we developed basic technologies for advanced HSI design including task analysis methods, an information and control requirements database, display design criteria, a HSI prototype with its evaluation, and methods for human factors engineering verification and validation.

  9. A Project in Support of Nuclear Technology Cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyu Jung; Choi, Pyong Hoon; Yi, Ji Ho and others

    2004-12-01

    The result and contents of the project are as follows; - Establish strategies of international cooperation in an effort to promote our nation's Leading role in international society, to form the foundation for the effective transfer of nuclear technology to developing countries, and to cope with the rapidly changing international nuclear climate. - Domestic INIS project has carried out various activities on supporting a decision-making for INIS Secretariat, exchanges of the statistical information between INIS and the country, and technical assistance for domestic end-users using INIS database. - Based on the construction of INIS database sent by member states, the data published in the country has been gathered, collected, and inputted to INIS database according to the INIS reference series. - Using the INIS output data, it has provided domestic users with searching INIS CD-Rom DB and INIS online database, INIS SDI service, non-conventional literature delivery services and announce INIS to users. - Establish the integrated management system of information resources and to automate business flow and to improve business productivity through efficient information sharing. - Effective management of computer codes for nuclear application and establishment of information exchange mechanism for rapid technical support. - acquisition of nuclear computer codes from NEA Data Bank an registration of new software developed by domestic organization

  10. Development of NPP Monitoring and Operation Support Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Park, Jae Chang; Lee, Yong Hee

    2008-04-01

    During the first stage (2001.7.1-2004.6.30), we developed general human factors design guidelines VDU-based workstations, PMAS alarm display design guidelines, PMAS SPADES display design guidelines, and the revision of KHNP HFE guidelines (HF-010), which have been applied to domestic NPP designs. We also supported other KNICS projects by performing RPS COM design reviews, development of RPS COM Style Guide, and a review of CEDMCS cabinet operator module display design. We developed the ADIOS prototype, NPP performance analysis systems for YGN No.1, 2 plants and Kori No. 2 plant, alarm cause tracking systems for Kori No. 2 plant and OPR1000, and signal fault detection and diagnosis methods for deaerators and steam generators. During the second stage(2004.7.1-2008.4.30), we supported other KNICS projects by reviewing RPS COM display designs three times, developing ESF-CCS COM style guides and reviewing ESF-CCS COM display design, reviewing CRCS LOM and PCS MTP display designs, and developing requirements for DCS GUI components. We also developed integrated style guide for I and C cabinet operator module display designs. In cooperative research with KOPEC-AE, we developed basic technologies for advanced HSI design including task analysis methods, an information and control requirements database, display design criteria, a HSI prototype with its evaluation, and methods for human factors engineering verification and validation

  11. Daily work-family conflict and alcohol use: testing the cross-level moderation effects of peer drinking norms and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mo; Liu, Songqi; Zhan, Yujie; Shi, Junqi

    2010-03-01

    In the current study, we conducted daily telephone interviews with a sample of Chinese workers (N = 57) for 5 weeks to examine relationships between daily work-family conflict and alcohol use. Drawn from the tension reduction theory and the stressor-vulnerability model, daily work-family conflict variables were hypothesized to predict employees' daily alcohol use. Further, social variables (i.e., peer drinking norms, family support, and coworker support) were hypothesized to moderate the relationship between work-family conflict and alcohol use. Results showed that daily work-to-family conflict but not family-to-work conflict had a significant within-subject main effect on daily alcohol use. In addition, there was significant between-subject variation in the relationship between work-to-family conflict and alcohol use, which was predicted by peer drinking norms, coworker support, and family support. The current findings shed light on the daily health behavior consequences of work-family conflict and provide important theoretical and practical implications. 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  12. Communities of practice: pedagogy and internet-based technologies to support educator's continuing technology professional development in higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maurice Schols

    2011-01-01

    Advances in information and communication technologies (ICTs) as well as modern pedagogical perspectives have created new possibilities to facilitate and support learning in higher education (HE). Emerging technologies bring opportunities to reconsider teaching and learning. New ideas and concepts

  13. Peer-To-Peer Architectures in Distributed Data Management Systems for Large Hadron Collider Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Lo Presti, Giuseppe; Lo Re, G; Orsini, L

    2005-01-01

    The main goal of the presented research is to investigate Peer-to-Peer architectures and to leverage distributed services to support networked autonomous systems. The research work focuses on development and demonstration of technologies suitable for providing autonomy and flexibility in the context of distributed network management and distributed data acquisition. A network management system enables the network administrator to monitor a computer network and properly handle any failure that can arise within the network. An online data acquisition (DAQ) system for high-energy physics experiments has to collect, combine, filter, and store for later analysis a huge amount of data, describing subatomic particles collision events. Both domains have tight constraints which are discussed and tackled in this work. New emerging paradigms have been investigated to design novel middleware architectures for such distributed systems, particularly the Active Networks paradigm and the Peer-to-Peer paradigm. A network man...

  14. Peer exchange May 3-5, 2016 : Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities : research development & technology transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Members of the Peer Exchange Team identified actions Alaska should consider to : improve effectiveness of the research program: : 1. Conduct Research Strategic Visioning Workshop with Staff and Research : Advisory Board in Fall, 2016 : 2. Develop a T...

  15. Healthcare professional behaviour change using technological supports: A realist literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Chris Keyworth; Jo Hart; Chris A. Armitage

    2015-01-01

    Background Changing healthcare professional behaviour is fundamental to effective patient management. Recent systematic reviews examining healthcare professional behaviour change interventions (such as audit and feedback) suggest that technological support is likely to be crucial in helping healthcare professionals to improve patient outcomes. However we know little about the effectiveness of technological support interventions, and whether the design of technological support interventions...

  16. Notes on Adolescent's Peer Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    栗本, かおり; Kaori, KURIMOTO; 岩手県立大学社会福祉学部; FACULTY OF SOCIAL WELFARE IWATE PREFECTURAL UNIVERSITY

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the influence of adolescents' peer relationships on their psychosocial development. Adolescents influence on each other, though some psychosocial merit and demerit emerge in peer influence on adolescents. The merit improves adolescents' identity, self-esteem, satisfaction of life and happiness, provides support under the crisis as well. A case of the demerit can be seen as the negative peer pressure. Adolescents are willing to conform to the norm of peer...

  17. The effect of peer-group size on the delivery of feedback in basic life support refresher training: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Youngsuk; Je, Sangmo; Yoon, Yoo Sang; Roh, Hye Rin; Chang, Chulho; Kang, Hyunggoo; Lim, Taeho

    2016-07-04

    Students are largely providing feedback to one another when instructor facilitates peer feedback rather than teaching in group training. The number of students in a group affect the learning of students in the group training. We aimed to investigate whether a larger group size increases students' test scores on a post-training test with peer feedback facilitated by instructor after video-guided basic life support (BLS) refresher training. Students' one-rescuer adult BLS skills were assessed by a 2-min checklist-based test 1 year after the initial training. A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of student number in a group on BLS refresher training. Participants included 115 final-year medical students undergoing their emergency medicine clerkship. The median number of students was 8 in the large groups and 4 in the standard group. The primary outcome was to examine group differences in post-training test scores after video-guided BLS training. Secondary outcomes included the feedback time, number of feedback topics, and results of end-of-training evaluation questionnaires. Scores on the post-training test increased over three consecutive tests with instructor-led peer feedback, but not differ between large and standard groups. The feedback time was longer and number of feedback topics generated by students were higher in standard groups compared to large groups on the first and second tests. The end-of-training questionnaire revealed that the students in large groups preferred the smaller group size compared to their actual group size. In this BLS refresher training, the instructor-led group feedback increased the test score after tutorial video-guided BLS learning, irrespective of the group size. A smaller group size allowed more participations in peer feedback.

  18. Pressure and judgement within a dichotomous landscape of infant feeding: a grounded theory study to explore why breastfeeding women do not access peer support provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Louise; Thomson, Gill

    2017-04-01

    Lack of support is reported as a key reason for early breastfeeding cessation. While breastfeeding peer support (BPS) is a recommended intervention to increase breastfeeding rates, a number of studies identify that engagement with BPS is problematic. Due to paucity of research in this area, this study explores why breastfeeding women do not access BPS in South-West England. Utilising a constructionist grounded theory approach, 33 participants (women (n = 13), health professionals (n = 6) and peer supporters (n = 14)) participated in a semi-structured interview (n = 22) or focus group (n = 11). Analysis involved open coding, constant comparisons and focussed coding. One core category and three main themes explicating non-access were identified. The core category concerns women's experiences of pressure and judgement around their feeding decisions within a dichotomous landscape of infant feeding language and support. Theme one, 'place and space of support', describes the contrast between perceived pressure to breastfeed and a lack of adequate and appropriate support. Theme two, 'one way or no way', outlines the rules-based approach to breastfeeding adopted by some health professionals and how women avoided BPS due to anticipating a similar approach. Theme three, 'it must be me', concerns how lack of embodied insights could lead to 'breastfeeding failure' identities. A background of dichotomised language, pressure and moral judgement, combined with the organisation of post-natal care and the model of breastfeeding adopted by health professionals, may inhibit women's access to BPS. A socio-cultural model of breastfeeding support providing clear messages regarding the value and purpose of BPS should be adopted. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Application of modern technology for fieldwork support in network operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggen, Arnt Ove; Langdal, Bjoern Inge

    2006-04-01

    Demands for rational and efficient operation and management in several business sectors such as power-, oil- and gas industry, telecommunication, water and multi-utility has lead to big changes for personnel in charge of managing the infrastructure and for the field-workers. Contractors providing services for the large power network companies do not have the local knowledge about construction projects, and there are increased demands on efficiency related to completion, documentation and reporting. This implies a need for transmission of knowledge and experiences between office and the field, and support for fieldwork in the form of applications using various technological possibilities. Field solutions that have well-developed technical and organisational properties will make administration of the infrastructure more efficient, and raise the quality of the work. The choice of mobile service will always be a compromise between several different wishes and needs. The properties of hardware, software and communication options will often influence possible choices in the respective fields. As an important step in testing of hardware, software and communication, some prototypes have been developed for Pocket Pc. The prototypes 'Befaring' and 'HelikopterBefaring' have been chosen because they contain many of the elements that are important in a mobile solution. In addition a prototype for internet applications has been developed ('HelikopterBefaringMottak') and a Windows application ('HelikopterBefaringPresentasjon') in order to visualise the received and managed information sent from the mobile units. The technological development both in software, hardware, GPS and mobile telephones is extremely rapid, and the first mobile solutions with Pocket Pc, mobile telephone and GPS in one integrated unit is already on the market (ml)

  20. Long-Term Social Reintegration Outcomes for Burn Survivors With and Without Peer Support Attendance: A Life Impact Burn Recovery Evaluation (LIBRE) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieve, Brian; Shapiro, Gabriel D; Wibbenmeyer, Lucy; Acton, Amy; Lee, Austin; Marino, Molly; Jette, Alan; Schneider, Jeffrey C; Kazis, Lewis E; Ryan, Colleen M

    2017-10-31

    To examine differences in long-term social reintegration outcomes for burn survivors with and without peer support attendance. Cross-sectional survey. Community-dwelling burn survivors. Burn survivors (N=601) aged ≥18 years with injuries to ≥5% total body surface area (TBSA) or burns to critical areas (hands, feet, face, or genitals). Not applicable. The Life Impact Burn Recovery Evaluation Profile was used to examine the following previously validated 6 scale scores of social participation: Family and Friends, Social Interactions, Social Activities, Work and Employment, Romantic Relationships, and Sexual Relationships. Burn support group attendance was reported by 330 (55%) of 596 respondents who responded to this item. Attendees had larger burn size (43.4%±23.6% vs 36.8%±23.4% TBSA burned, P10 years from injury (50% vs 42.5%, Preintegration in burn survivors. This cross-sectional study prompts further exploration into the potential benefits of peer support groups on burn recovery with future intervention studies. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.