WorldWideScience

Sample records for technology overview fact

  1. Vehicle Technologies Program Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2006-09-05

    Overview of the Vehicle Technologies Program including external assessment and market view; internal assessment, program history and progress; program justification and federal role; program vision, mission, approach, strategic goals, outputs, and outcomes; and performance goals.

  2. Vehicle Technologies Fact of the Week 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Williams, Susan E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Moore, Sheila A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boundy, Robert Gary [Roltek, Inc., Clinton, TN (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Each week the U.S. Department of Energy s Vehicle Technology Office (VTO) posts a Fact of the Week on their website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/ . These Facts provide statistical information, usually in the form of charts and tables, on vehicle sales, fuel economy, gasoline prices, and other transportation-related trends. Each Fact is a stand-alone page that includes a graph, text explaining the significance of the data, the supporting information on which the graph was based, and the source of the data. A link to the current week s Fact is available on the VTO homepage, but older Facts are archived and still available at: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/facts/. This report is a compilation of the Facts that were posted during calendar year 2013. The Facts were written and prepared by staff in Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Center for Transportation Analysis.

  3. FACT : forgiving agent comfort technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeiler, W.; Wortel, W.; Kamphuis, I.G.; Akkermans, Hans; Jelsma, J.; Bakker, L.

    2005-01-01

    To further reduce energy consumption of office buildings, a new control technology is needed in which the end-user behaviour is integrated. Improvement of the energy consumption is offered by agent-based systems for energy management in buildings, as well as possibilities for enhancing the comfort

  4. Vehicle Technologies Fact of the Week 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Diegel, Susan W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Moore, Sheila A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boundy, Robert G. [Roltek, Inc., Clinton, TN (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Each week the U.S. Department of Energy s Vehicle Technology Office (VTO) posts a Fact of the Week on their website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/ . These Facts provide statistical information, usually in the form of charts and tables, on vehicle sales, fuel economy, gasoline prices, and other transportation-related trends. Each Fact is a stand-alone page that includes a graph, text explaining the significance of the data, the supporting information on which the graph was based, and the source of the data. A link to the current week s Fact is available on the VTO homepage, but older Facts (back to 2009) are archived and still available at: http://energy.gov/eere/vehicles/current-and-past-years-facts-week. Each Fact of the Week website page includes a link to an Excel file. That file contains the data from the Supporting Information section of the page so that researchers can easily use data from the Fact of the Week in their work. Beginning in August of 2015, a subscription list is available on the DOE website so that those interested can sign up for an email to be sent each Monday which includes the text and graphic from the current week s Fact. This report is a compilation of the Facts that were posted during calendar year 2015. The Facts were created, written and prepared by staff in Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Center for Transportation Analysis.

  5. Canada and the Kyoto Protocol: Fact Sheet No. 1 - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-11-01

    This fact sheet outlines the principles underlying Canada's position at the sixth Conference of Parties (COP6) regarding climate change. Capsule descriptions of the Canadian view on carbon sinks (advocating a broader inclusion of sink activities), application of the flexibility mechanisms (the Clean Development Mechanism, Joint Implementation and International Emissions Trading), the issue of compliance (Canada favoring strong incentives to ensure compliance), and strengthening the capacity of developing countries to enhance their contribution to fighting climate change (Canada acknowledging that capacity building and technology transfer needs to be a central part of the global approach to combating climate change)

  6. Force Projection Technology Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    Technologies • Fuel Efficient Powertrain Lubricant • Nanotechnology for Fuels and Lubes • Water from Air • Water Reuse • In-line Water Monitoring...purification systems with new pretreatment, desalination and post treatment technologies. Payoff: • Reduces the logistical footprint associated with water...FY11 FY12 FY13 FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 •Water From Air •Water Quality Monitoring •Water Reuse •Pre and Post Treatment • Desalination 6 5 5

  7. Incinerator technology overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoleri, Joseph J.

    1993-03-01

    Many of the major chemical companies in the U.S. who regarded a safe environment as their responsibility installed waste treatment and disposal facilities on their plant sites in the last two decades. Many of these plants elected to use incinerators as the treatment process. This was not always the most economical method, but in many cases it was the only method of disposal that provided a safe and sure method of maximum destruction. Environmental concern over contamination from uncontrolled land disposal sites, and the emergence of tougher regulations for land disposal provide incentives for industry to employ a wide variety of traditional and advanced technologies for managing hazardous wastes. Incineration systems utilizing proper design, operation, and maintenance provides the safest, and in the long run, the most economical avenue to the maximum level of destruction of organic hazardous wastes.

  8. Incinerator technology overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoleri, Joseph J.

    1991-04-01

    In the 1960's, much effort was expended on cleaning up the air and water. Air Quality and Water Quality Acts were written and inpleinented in many states and coninunities. New products such as unleaded gasoline and water base paints were developed to aid in minimizing pollution. Conversion from oil fired combustion systems to natural gas fired for comfort and industrial heating was the normal practice. In 1970, the Clean Air Act was passed. There was concern on how to safely dispose of hazardous wastes. Indiscriminate dumping of chemical process wastes had been the practice since the birth of the chemical industry in the USA. Land dumping, inadequate landfills, and river-ocean dumping were the most economical ways to dispose of chemical wastes. Processes that would have reduced or eliminated wastes were disregarded as being too costly. Many of the major chemical companies who regarded a safe environment as their responsibility installed waste treatment and disposal facilities on their plant sites. Many of these plants elected to use incinerators as the treatment process. This was not always the most economical method, but in many cases it was the only method of disposal that provided a safe and sure method of maximum destruction. Environmental concern over contamination from uncontrolled land disposal sites, and the emergence of tougher regulations for land disposal provide incentives for industry to employ a wide variety of traditional and advanced technologies for managing hazardous wastes. Incineration systems utilizing proper design, operation, and maintenance provides the safest and in the long run, the most economical avenue to the maximum level of destruction of organic hazardous wastes.

  9. Slurry pipeline technology: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Jay P. [Pipeline Systems Incorporated (PSI), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Lima, Rafael; Pinto, Daniel; Vidal, Alisson [Ausenco do Brasil Engenharia Ltda., Nova Lima, MG (Brazil). PSI Div.

    2009-12-19

    Slurry pipelines represent an economical and environmentally friendly transportation means for many solid materials. This paper provides an over-view of the technology, its evolution and current Brazilian activity. Mineral resources are increasingly moving farther away from ports, processing plants and end use points, and slurry pipelines are an important mode of solids transport. Application guidelines are discussed. State-of-the-Art technical solutions such as pipeline system simulation, pipe materials, pumps, valves, automation, telecommunications, and construction techniques that have made the technology successful are presented. A discussion of where long distant slurry pipelines fit in a picture that also includes thickened and paste materials pipe lining is included. (author)

  10. Fishing Facts Unlimited. Enterprise: Man & Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale. Dept. of Technical and Industrial Education.

    Fishing Facts Unlimited, a student conducted enterprise in Technical and Industrial Education at Southern Illinois University, Carbondale has been a very successful operation, both financially and in providing a community service. The service provided by the enterprise was the production and sales of a 48-page fishing guide to Southern Illinois.…

  11. Next Generation Air Measurement Technologies Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is advancing lower cost and portable air measurement technology to enhance monitoring capabilities for complying with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. The technology is providing mobile and stationary real-time measurement capabilities.

  12. OPA Q's and A's: Overview of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990. Fact sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    The OPA Q's and A's are part of a series of fact sheets that provide up-to-date information on EPA's implementation of the OPA. The first fact sheet provides an overview of the various provisions of the OPA and the Agency's responsibilities under the new law

  13. Solar Energy Technologies Office Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solar Energy Technologies Office

    2018-03-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technologies Office (SETO) supports early-stage research and development to improve the affordability, reliability, and performance of solar technologies on the grid. The office invests in innovative research efforts that securely integrate more solar energy into the grid, enhance the use and storage of solar energy, and lower solar electricity costs.

  14. Vehicle Technologies' Fact of the Week 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL; Moore, Sheila A [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL

    2013-02-01

    Each week the U.S. Department of Energy s Vehicle Technology Office (VTO) posts a Fact of the Week on their website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/ . These Facts provide statistical information, usually in the form of charts and tables, on vehicle sales, fuel economy, gasoline prices, and other transportation-related trends. Each Fact is a stand-alone page that includes a graph, text explaining the significance of the data, the supporting information on which the graph was based, and the source of the data. A link to the current week s Fact is available on the VTO homepage, but older Facts are archived and still available at: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/facts/. This report is a compilation of the Facts that were posted during calendar year 2012. The Facts were written and prepared by staff in Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Center for Transportation Analysis.

  15. Vehicle Technologies' Fact of the Week 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL

    2012-04-01

    Each week the U.S. Department of Energy s Vehicle Technology Program (VTP) posts a Fact of the Week on their website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/. These Facts provide statistical information, usually in the form of charts and tables, on vehicle sales, fuel economy, gasoline prices, and other transportation-related trends. Each Fact is a stand-alone page that includes a graph, text explaining the significance of the data, the supporting information on which the graph was based, and the source of the data. A link to the current Fact is available Monday through Friday on the VTP homepage, but older Facts are archived and still available at: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/facts/. This report is a compilation of the Facts that were posted during calendar year 2011. The Facts were written and prepared by staff in Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Center for Transportation Analysis.

  16. Sludge minimization technologies - an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oedegaard, Hallvard

    2003-07-01

    The management of wastewater sludge from wastewater treatment plants represents one of the major challenges in wastewater treatment today. The cost of the sludge treatment amounts to more that the cost of the liquid in many cases. Therefore the focus on and interest in sludge minimization is steadily increasing. In the paper an overview is given for sludge minimization (sludge mass reduction) options. It is demonstrated that sludge minimization may be a result of reduced production of sludge and/or disintegration processes that may take place both in the wastewater treatment stage and in the sludge stage. Various sludge disintegration technologies for sludge minimization are discussed, including mechanical methods (focusing on stirred ball-mill, high-pressure homogenizer, ultrasonic disintegrator), chemical methods (focusing on the use of ozone), physical methods (focusing on thermal and thermal/chemical hydrolysis) and biological methods (focusing on enzymatic processes). (author)

  17. Comfort agent: FACT : from technology to value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeiler, W.; Wortel, W.; Hommelberg, M.P.F.; Kamphuis, I.G.; Bakker, L.

    2006-01-01

    Global warming, caused largely by energy consumption, is becoming a major problem. To further reduce energy consumption of office buildings, new control technology is needed. There is a very exciting development in control strategy in which the end-user behaviour is integrated. Within the SMART

  18. Tissue tightening technologies: fact or fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadick, Neil

    2008-01-01

    Skin laxity is associated with chronological aging and exposure to solar radiation. The authors summarize the advantages and limitations of current laser, light-, and radiofrequency (RF)-based technologies purported to treat skin laxity by effecting heat-induced collagen contraction and subsequent remodeling during the months after treatment. Although penetration of laser or broadband light to the deep dermal layers is limited because of scattering of the light by epidermal melanin, a new device in which broadband infrared light is minimally scattered may overcome these limitations. RF energy offers a treatment alternative that has not only been proven to promote collagen contraction and remodeling but also is not scattered by epidermal constituents. Recently launched devices that use combinations of optical and RF energy achieve clinical benefits at lower and therefore safer levels of energy, with only mild pain and few adverse effects. A combined infrared-RF device takes maximum advantage of both optical and RF technologies to achieve the desired clinical effect. The electrooptical synergy systems have proven to be safe, effective, reliable, and user-friendly. Other more advanced powerful technologies may also be effective in this setting.

  19. Wind energy - The facts. Vol. 1: Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, P.; Garrad, A.; Jamieson, P.; Snodin, H.; Tindal, A. (comps.) [Gerrad Hassan and partners (United Kingdom)

    2004-02-01

    The politics and economics of wind energy have played an important role in the development of the industry and contributed to its present success. Engineering is, however, pivotal. As the wind industry has become better established, the central place of engineering has become overshadowed by other issues. This is a tribute to the success of the engineers and their turbines. This volume addresses the key engineering Issues: 1) The turbines - their past achievements and future challenges - a remarkable tale of technical endeavour and entrepreneurship. 2) The wind - its characteristics and reliability - how can it be measured, quantified and harnessed? 3) The wind farms - an assembly of individual turbines into wind power stations or wind farms - their optimisation and development. 4) The grid - transporting the energy from remote locations with plentiful wind energy to the loads - the key technical and strategic challenges. This volume provides an historical overview of turbine development, describes the present status and considers future challenges. This is a remarkable story starting in the nineteenth century and then accelerating through the last two decades of the twentieth century on a course very similar to the early days of aeronautics. The story is far from finished but it has certainly started with a vengeance. Wind must be treated with great respect. The speed of the wind on a site has a very powerful effect on the economics of a wind farm; it provides both the fuel to generate electricity and the loads to destroy the turbine. This volume describes how it can be quantified, harnessed and put to work in an economic and predictable manner. The long-term behaviour of the wind is described as well as its short-term behaviour. The latter can be successfully forecast to allow wind energy to participate in electricity markets. In order for wind to live up to its raw potential promise, individual turbines must be assembled into wind farms or wind power stations

  20. Internet and information technologies: facts and fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Ronald D.

    2001-10-01

    Information technology advances are spawning visions of radically altered modus operandi for commerce, education, business, information storage and receival. Proponents of virtual technology domination offer a world of instant communications, information sharing, and binary commerce. Some express alarm to the electronic visionaries and see an expected world vacated of human interactions, which is populated by e-hermits. The reality is that access to the Internet is becoming pervasive worldwide and affords a virtual community and markets. Governments, education, markets, businesses and consumers are rushing to exploit and adjust to an electronic, virtual world. The exploitation and adjustment to this an 'ether-world' transcends boundaries is a challenge to stakeholders. Public policy, international agreements, education, businesses and consumers face monumental change in the way they live and conduct their lives. As with most paradigms shifts, pioneers rush forward and launch a myriad of new startups with many failing and some standing the test of time and utility. An example is the early pioneers in North America who headed westward to in search of a new vision of riches. They established towns, developed farms, dug mines and began new businesses. However, many of the pioneers moved from one venture to another. Some of their endeavors ended with ghost towns, abandoned farms and mines, and bankrupt businesses. In the end, however, a great nation was born. This author expects the ether-world to go through similar starts, fits, and adjustments before it emerges as a more stable part of the fabric of society.

  1. Overview of biomass conversion technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noor, S.; Latif, A.; Jan, M.

    2011-01-01

    A large part of the biomass is used for non-commercial purposes and mostly for cooking and heating, but the use is not sustainable, because it destroys soil-nutrients, causes indoor and outdoor pollution, adds to greenhouse gases, and results in health problems. Commercial use of biomass includes household fuelwood in industrialized countries and bio-char (charcoal) and firewood in urban and industrial areas in developing countries. The most efficient way of biomass utilization is through gasification, in which the gas produced by biomass gasification can either be used to generate power in an ordinary steam-cycle or be converted into motor fuel. In the latter case, there are two alternatives, namely, the synthesis of methanol and methanol-based motor fuels, or Fischer-Tropsch hydrocarbon synthesis. This paper deals with the technological overview of the state-of-the-art key biomass-conversion technologies that can play an important role in the future. The conversion routes for production of Heat, power and transportation fuel have been summarized in this paper, viz. combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, digestion, fermentation and extraction. (author)

  2. Overview of emerging environmental technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, D.C.

    2000-01-01

    DOD is executing environmental restoration projects in accordance with compliance regulations from many federal agencies. With the passage of amendments to the Superfund law in 1986 that stated a preference for treatment instead of disposal, demand developed for alternative methods that provided more permanent and less costly solutions for dealing with contaminated materials. The Army files environmental impact statements on major programs and specific projects that are currently affecting, or have the potential to affect the environment. Personnel conducting those studies may find it helpful to learn about current environmental assessment methods and the outcomes of previous environmental studies. The Army currently spends almost 2.4% of its total budget on environmental programs. As the future budget picture continues to decline, new technologies offer the potential to provide a lower cost means of achieving the same level of environmental protection. This paper will provide an overview of environmental restoration planning and procedures, discuss information capabilities available on the Internet, provide summaries of recent technological literature and field studies; and identifies areas of informational 'gaps'. It concludes by urging closer ties between industry and the Army, as well as the need to pursue new and innovative techniques to solve old problems. (author)

  3. Environmental science and technology: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    This report is intended to provide an overview of the scientific and technological effort to meet the environmental goals identified in the Green Plan. The report gives a sense of the range of scientific and technological efforts that are being devoted to issues as diverse as conserving our wildlife and national parks and developing innovative technologies to clean-up polluted sites.

  4. Technology overview of mined repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimera, R.; Thirumalai, K.

    1982-01-01

    Mined repositories present an environmentally viable option for permanent disposal of nuclear waste. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art mining technologies and identifies technological issues and developments necessary to mine a repository in basalt. The thermal loading, isolation, and retrieval requirements of a repository present unique technological challenges unknown to conventional mining practice. The technology issues and developments required in the areas of excavation, roof and ground support, equipment development, instrumentation development, and sealing are presented. Performance assessment methods must be developed to evaluate the adequacies of technologies developed to design, construct, operate, and decommission a repository. A stepwise test-and-development approach is used in the Basalt Waste Isolation Project to develop cost-effective technologies for a repository

  5. Relational Database Technology: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melander, Nicole

    1987-01-01

    Describes the development of relational database technology as it applies to educational settings. Discusses some of the new tools and models being implemented in an effort to provide educators with technologically advanced ways of answering questions about education programs and data. (TW)

  6. Facts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... it is a target to achieve but, rather, as a journey. Industry, government and academia coming together on policy innovation and standards development. Universities and R&D organizations collaboration for inventing technologies. Power grid and Smart grid is an corodinated effort. Any deficiency may give access to hackers..

  7. Tritium technology. A Canadian overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmings, R.L. [Canatom NPM (Canada)

    2002-10-01

    An overview of the various tritium research and operational activities in Canada is presented. These activities encompass tritium processing and recovery, tritium interactions with materials, and tritium health and safety. Many of these on-going activities form a sound basis for the tritium use and handling aspects of the ITER project. Tritium management within the CANDU heavy water reactor, associated detritiation facilities, research and development facilities, and commercial industry and improving the understanding of tritium behaviour in humans and the environment remain the focus of a long-standing Canadian interest in tritium. While there have been changes in the application of this knowledge and experience over time, the operating experience and the supporting research and development continue to provide for improved plant and facility operations, an improved understanding of tritium safety issues, and improved products and tools that facilitate tritium management. (author)

  8. Tritium technology. A Canadian overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemmings, R.L.

    2002-01-01

    An overview of the various tritium research and operational activities in Canada is presented. These activities encompass tritium processing and recovery, tritium interactions with materials, and tritium health and safety. Many of these on-going activities form a sound basis for the tritium use and handling aspects of the ITER project. Tritium management within the CANDU heavy water reactor, associated detritiation facilities, research and development facilities, and commercial industry and improving the understanding of tritium behaviour in humans and the environment remain the focus of a long-standing Canadian interest in tritium. While there have been changes in the application of this knowledge and experience over time, the operating experience and the supporting research and development continue to provide for improved plant and facility operations, an improved understanding of tritium safety issues, and improved products and tools that facilitate tritium management. (author)

  9. General Overview of Desalination Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ari-Nugroho

    2004-01-01

    Desalination, as discussed in this journal, refers to a water treatment process that removes salts from water. Desalination can be done in a number of ways, but the result is always the same : fresh water is produced from brackish or seawater. The quality of distillate water is indicated by the contents of Total Dissolved Solid (TDS) in it, the less number of TDS contents in it, the highest quality of distillate water it has. This article describes the general analysis of desalination technologies, the varies of water, operation and maintenance of the plant, and general comparison between desalination technologies. Basically, there are two common technologies are being used, i.e. thermal and membrane desalination, which are Multi Effect Distillation (MED), Multi Stage Flash (MSF) and Reverse Osmosis (RO), respectively. Both technologies differ from the energy source. Thermal desalination needs heat source from the power plant, while membrane desalination needs only the electricity to run the pumps. In thermal desalination, the vapour coming from boiling feedwater is condensate, this process produces the lowest saline water, about 10 part per million (ppm). The membrane technology uses semipermeable membrane to separate fresh water from salt dissolve. This technology produces the fresh water about 350-500 ppm. (author)

  10. Hybrid Fuel Cell Technology Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None available

    2001-05-31

    For the purpose of this STI product and unless otherwise stated, hybrid fuel cell systems are power generation systems in which a high temperature fuel cell is combined with another power generating technology. The resulting system exhibits a synergism in which the combination performs with an efficiency far greater than can be provided by either system alone. Hybrid fuel cell designs under development include fuel cell with gas turbine, fuel cell with reciprocating (piston) engine, and designs that combine different fuel cell technologies. Hybrid systems have been extensively analyzed and studied over the past five years by the Department of Energy (DOE), industry, and others. These efforts have revealed that this combination is capable of providing remarkably high efficiencies. This attribute, combined with an inherent low level of pollutant emission, suggests that hybrid systems are likely to serve as the next generation of advanced power generation systems.

  11. Overview of battery technology for HEV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smets, S.; Debal, P.; Conte, V.; Alaküla, M.; Santini, D.; Duvall, M.; Winkel, R.; Badin, F.

    2006-01-01

    Several electric energy storage systems exist with different principles and characteristics. On the other hand, there are also various hybrid electric vehicles with specific requirements. This paper gives an overview of the advantages/disadvantages and practical aspects of battery technologies and

  12. Microwave waste processing technology overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, R.D.

    1993-02-01

    Applications using microwave energy in the chemical processing industry have increased within the last ten years. Recently, interest in waste treatment applications process development, especially solidification, has grown. Microwave waste processing offers many advantages over conventional waste treatment technologies. These advantages include a high density, leach resistant, robust waste form, volume and toxicity reduction, favorable economics, in-container treatment, good public acceptance, isolated equipment, and instantaneous energy control. The results from the {open_quotes}cold{close_quotes} demonstration scale testing at the Rocky Flats nuclear weapons facility are described. Preliminary results for a transuranic (TRU) precipitation sludge indicate that volume reductions of over 80% are achievable over the current immobilization process. An economic evaluation performed demonstrated cost savings of $11.68 per pound compared to the immobilization process currently in use on wet sludge.

  13. Microwave waste processing technology overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, R.D.

    1993-02-01

    Applications using microwave energy in the chemical processing industry have increased within the last ten years. Recently, interest in waste treatment applications process development, especially solidification, has grown. Microwave waste processing offers many advantages over conventional waste treatment technologies. These advantages include a high density, leach resistant, robust waste form, volume and toxicity reduction, favorable economics, in-container treatment, good public acceptance, isolated equipment, and instantaneous energy control. The results from the open-quotes coldclose quotes demonstration scale testing at the Rocky Flats nuclear weapons facility are described. Preliminary results for a transuranic (TRU) precipitation sludge indicate that volume reductions of over 80% are achievable over the current immobilization process. An economic evaluation performed demonstrated cost savings of $11.68 per pound compared to the immobilization process currently in use on wet sludge

  14. Division of Information Technology - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szlachciak, J.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The Division of Information Technology continued its service-oriented activities in 2009. Our main duty was day-to-day support to all units in the Institute in IT related matters. One of our tasks was the acquiring, configuration and delivery of new computer equipment to our users. We automated the standard software installation task and decreased the delivery time for new and fully reconfigured computers to end users. We prepared the technical specifications for several bid and we verified thai the received bids complied with the specification. In addition to regular purchasing of computer equipment we supported the special software -related needs of EU projects. We purchased new licenses for: Computer Simulation Technology Studio Suite, Pulsar Physics General Particle Tracerm. Altium Designer. Autodesk Inventor. Autodesk AutoCAD Electrical, Altera Quartus II. Lahey/Fujitsu Fortran Professional. Code Gear Delphi, Steema Software TeeChart Pro, ANSYS Academic Research, Math Works Matlab, Keil PK51 Professional Developer's Kit, Corel Corporation CorelDraw Graphics Suite, Abbyy FineReader Professional, Adobe Acrobat Professional. We also renewed and increased the number of licenses for Microsoft and GFI products. We implemented a full high definition video conferencing system based on equipment from Lifesize. One-video conferencing terminal is placed in Swierk. another, enabling 4-way conferences, is located in Warsaw. This equipment is mainly used for teleconferences between our Institute and our partners in DESY and CERN. By the implementation of such a system we significantly improved the exchange of information and saved on travel costs. In addition the rooms housing the video conferencing systems were equipped with professional data projectors. We continued the modernization of the Local Area Network infrastructure. The first main achievement was a full replacement of cables and active network devices in the building where the Departments of Plasma

  15. Division of Information Technology - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szlachciak, J.

    2007-01-01

    I have a great pleasure to introduce the youngest division in our Institute, namely the Division of Information Technology. The division was created in 2005, but this is the first time when it reports its activities. The main purpose of creation was a better management of al IT activities in different departments, lowering IT costs and increase security over all computer systems used be the Institute. Although we have started with small human resources, we have received a big support from other departments. Special thanks go to the Department of Detectors and Nuclear Electronics. Our division handles many service-oriented activities. In daily work we answer many IT-related questions and deliver our help in order to solve hardware and software problems. The style of our work can be described as a result-oriented one. Here is the list of our biggest achievements: · construction of the server room; · implementation of two electronic bank systems; · development of the dynamic hardware and software inventory system; · development of the Scientific Activity Database. (author)

  16. Division of Information Technology - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szlachciak, J.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The Division of Information Technology continued its service-oriented activities in 2007. Our main duty was a day-to-day support to all units in the Institute in IT related matters. One of our tasks was the acquiring, configuration and delivery of new computer equipment to our users. We prepared technical specification for several biddings and we verified bids received from the point of view of correctness. Due to financial support from our government, we purchased about one-fourth of our existing computer equipment. This hardware has partially replaced the old units and partially supported our new staff. Implemented at the end of 2006 the Scientific Activity Database has continued its operation and has been extended by several useful reports and fields containing important information. We started preliminary activities related to implementation of video conferencing services in our Institute. Apart of taking part in seminars and consulting several companies, we have managed to transmit a few scientific seminars from Warsaw to our department in Lodz. (author)

  17. CMS fact sheet : to give an overview of the basic facts on the CMS Detector, its aims and collaboration

    CERN Multimedia

    CMS, Outreach

    2010-01-01

    2-sided color print A4 size sheet containing the facts on the CMS Detector, its name, what it is designed to do, questions scientists hope to answer, collaboration members, detector parts and their functions, and other miscellaneous facts on the CMS detector

  18. Nuclear power economics and technology: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Intended for the non-specialist reader interested in energy and environmental policy matters, this report presents an overview of the current expert consensus on the status of nuclear power technology and its economic position. It covers the potential demand for nuclear energy, its economic competitivity, and the relevant aspects of reactor performance and future technological developments. The report provides an objective contribution to the ongoing scientific and political debate about what nuclear power can offer, now and in the future, in meeting the world's growing demand for energy and in achieving sustainable economic development. 24 refs., 18 figs;, 12 tabs., 5 photos

  19. Smart Grid Technologies in Europe: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Ardito

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The old electricity network infrastructure has proven to be inadequate, with respect to modern challenges such as alternative energy sources, electricity demand and energy saving policies. Moreover, Information and Communication Technologies (ICT seem to have reached an adequate level of reliability and flexibility in order to support a new concept of electricity network — the smart grid. In this work, we will analyse the state-of-the-art of smart grids, in their technical, management, security, and optimization aspects. We will also provide a brief overview of the regulatory aspects involved in the development of a smart grid, mainly from the viewpoint of the European Union.

  20. Membrane Technologies in Wine Industry: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Rayess, Youssef; Mietton-Peuchot, Martine

    2016-09-09

    Membrane processes are increasingly reported for various applications in wine industry such as microfiltration, electrodialysis, and reverse osmosis, but also emerging processes as bipolar electrodialysis and membrane contactor. Membrane-based processes are playing a critical role in the field of separation/purification, clarification, stabilization, concentration, and de-alcoholization of wine products. They begin to be an integral part of the winemaking process. This review will provide an overview of recent developments, applications, and published literature in membrane technologies applied in wine industry.

  1. NASA Technology Demonstrations Missions Program Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Susan

    2011-01-01

    , more than 70% of the TDM funds will be competitively awarded as a result of yearly calls for proposed flight demonstrators and selected based on possible payoff to NASA, technology maturity, customer interest, cost, and technical risk reduction. This paper will give an overview of the TDM Program s mission and organization, as well as its current status in delivering advanced space technologies that will enable more flexible and robust future missions. It also will provide several examples of missions that fit within these parameters and expected outcomes.

  2. Micro-system inertial sensing technology overview.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, James Joe

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of Micro-System technology as it applies to inertial sensing. Transduction methods are reviewed with capacitance and piezoresistive being the most often used in COTS Micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) inertial sensors. Optical transduction is the most recent transduction method having significant impact on improving sensor resolution. A few other methods are motioned which are in a R&D status to hopefully allow MEMS inertial sensors to become viable as a navigation grade sensor. The accelerometer, gyroscope and gravity gradiometer are the type of inertial sensors which are reviewed in this report. Their method of operation and a sampling of COTS sensors and grade are reviewed as well.

  3. Brief overview of geophysical probing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, A.L.; Lytle, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    An evaluation of high-resolution geophysical techniques which can be used to characterize a nulcear waste disposal site is being conducted by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) at the request of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commisson (NRC). LLNL is involved in research work aimed at evaluating the current capabilities and limitations of geophysical methods used for site selection. This report provides a brief overview of the capabilities and limitations associated with this technology and explains how our work addresses some of the present limitations. We are examining both seismic and electromagnetic techniques to obtain high-resolution information. We are also assessing the usefulness of geotomography in mapping fracture zones remotely. Finally, we are collecting core samples from a site in an effort to assess the capability of correlating such geophysical data with parameters of interest such as fracture continuity, orientation, and fracture density

  4. Overview of plasma technology used in medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Thomas P.; Stalder, Kenneth R.; Woloszko, Jean

    2013-02-01

    Plasma Medicine is a growing field that is having an impact in several important areas in therapeutic patient care, combining plasma physics, biology, and clinical medicine. Historically, plasmas in medicine were used in electrosurgery for cautery and non-contact hemostasis. Presently, non-thermal plasmas have attained widespread use in medicine due to their effectiveness and compatibility with biological systems. The paper will give a general overview of how low temperature, non-equilibrium, gas plasmas operate, both from physics and biology perspectives. Plasma is commonly described as the fourth state of matter and is typically comprised of charged species, active molecules and atoms, as well as a source of UV and photons. The most active areas of plasma technology applications are in wound treatment; tissue regeneration; inactivation of pathogens, including biofilms; treating skin diseases; and sterilization. There are several means of generating plasmas for use in medical applications, including plasma jets, dielectric barrier discharges, capacitively or inductively coupled discharges, or microplasmas. These systems overcome the former constraints of high vacuum, high power requirements and bulky systems, into systems that use room air and other gases and liquids at low temperature, low power, and hand-held operation at atmospheric pressure. Systems will be discussed using a variety of energy sources: pulsed DC, AC, microwave and radiofrequency, as well as the range of frequency, pulse duration, and gas combinations in an air environment. The ionic clouds and reactive species will be covered in terms of effects on biological systems. Lastly, several commercial products will be overviewed in light of the technology utilized, health care problems being solved, and clinical trial results.

  5. Electric energy storage - Overview of technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boye, Henri

    2013-01-01

    Energy storage is a challenging and costly process, as electricity can only be stored by conversion into other forms of energy (e.g. potential, thermal, chemical or magnetic energy). The grids must be precisely balanced in real time and it must be made sure that the cost of electricity is the lowest possible. Storage of electricity has many advantages, in centralized mass storages used for the management of the transmission network, or in decentralized storages of smaller dimensions. This article presents an overview of the storage technologies: mechanical storage in hydroelectric and pumped storage power stations, compressed air energy storage (CAES), flywheels accumulating kinetic energy, electrochemical batteries with various technologies, traditional lead acid batteries, lithium ion, sodium sulfur (NaS) and others, including vehicle to grid, sensible heat thermal storage, superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES), super-capacitors, conversion into hydrogen... The different technologies are compared in terms of cost and level of maturity. The development of intermittent renewable energies will result in a growing need for mechanisms to regulate energy flow and innovative energy storage solutions seem well positioned to develop. (author)

  6. Overview of technologies to reprocess ion-exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrish, V.M.; Chernikova, N.P.; Ivanets, V.G.

    2010-01-01

    The article deals with overview of technologies for reprocessing of ion-exchange resins and determining the most optimal solutions for Ukraine. The technologies for cementations, thermal reprocessing, bituminization and deep decontamination are considered.

  7. Careers "Fact Sheets" for clinical engineering & biomedical technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacela, A F

    1991-01-01

    Three Careers "Fact Sheets" include information on CE and BMET job titles, job descriptions, and certification. These materials are intended to aid in furthering professional recognition for Clinical Engineers and BMETs, and may be useful in communicating with Administration or Human Resources departments.

  8. 2016 National Algal Biofuels Technology Review Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Algae-based biofuels and bioproducts offer great promise in contributing to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Bioenergy Technologies Office’s (BETO’s) vision of a thriving and sustainable bioeconomy fueled by innovative technologies. The state of technology for producing algal biofuels continues to mature with ongoing investment by DOE and the private sector, but additional research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) is needed to achieve widespread deployment of affordable, scalable, and sustainable algal biofuels.

  9. FY2000 Hanford Technology Deployment Accomplishments Fact Sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WIBLE, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    Cleaning up the Hanford Site is one of the top priorities for the U. S. Department of Energy. The department is continually looking for ways to expedite cleanup and reduce costs. During Fiscal Year (FY) 2000. Hanford Site staff deployed 24 new technologies, which produced an estimated lifecycle cost savings of 479 million dollars. This is a clear indicator of the impacts new technology has had and will have on the cleanup efforts. The Hanford Site cleanup is focused on the following: Restoring the Columbia River Corridor; Building and operating the tank waste treatment complex to complete the cleanup of highly radioactive tank waste at Hanford; and Transitioning the Central Plateau. Applying innovative science and technology from national laboratories, universities, and private industry is critical to our complex cleanup mission. The 24 new technologies deployed in FY 2000 are significantly higher than our goal of 14 technological deployments. Eleven of these technologies supported restoring the Columbia River Corridor, and seven were involved with the remediation of radioactive tank waste. These deployments produced valuable information to determine the effectiveness of the new technologies in the field and the efficiencies gained over existing cleanup methods. In several cases, the technology deployed presented a solution to a problem where a clear path of remediation had not yet been determined. New and innovative technologies will play a significant role in the cleanup of the Hanford Site and enable remediation to be done more efficiently. Technology is being developed at a staggering pace. This requires excellent communication throughout the scientific and industry arenas. To effect this communication, we have implemented a technology needs process in conjunction with the multi-year work planning process. Through the combination of these two processes, technology developments and deployments address the near-term technology needs and enable us to plan for the

  10. Wind turbines - facts from 20 years of technological progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, L H; Dannemand Andersen, P [Risoe Ntaional Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    The first Danish commercial wind turbines were installed in the late 1970s. Over the last 20 years the Danish wind turbine market has been relatively stable concerning annual installations, and the wind turbine technology has been able to develop continuously. This gives a unique time track for technology analysts. The aim of this paper is to extract reliable information on this time track from existing archives and statistics. Seven generations of wind turbine technology have been identified mainly based on `characteristic` rotor diameters. The technological development of each generation is described using indicators such as: market share in Denmark, generator size, rotor diameter, hub height, electricity production and productivity. Economical indicators comprise: costs of turbine and standard foundation. (au)

  11. Wind turbines - facts from 20 years of technological progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, L.H.; Dannemand Andersen, P.

    1999-01-01

    The first Danish commercial wind turbines were installed in the late 1970s. Over the last 20 years the Danish wind turbine market has been relatively stable concerning annual installations, and the wind turbine technology has been able to develop continuously. This gives a unique time track for technology analysts. The aim of this paper is to extract reliable information on this time track from existing archives and statistics. Seven generations of wind turbine technology have been identified mainly based on 'characteristic' rotor diameters. The technological development of each generation is described using indicators such as: market share in Denmark, generator size, rotor diameter, hub height, electricity production and productivity. Economical indicators comprise: costs of turbine and standard foundation. (au)

  12. U.S. EPA Federal Technology Transfer Program Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Federal Technology Transfer Act (FTTA), enacted by Congress in 1986 and building on previous legislation, improves access to federal laboratories by non-federal organizations for research and development opportunities.

  13. Overview of FACTS devices for wind power plants directly connected to the transmission network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamczyk, Andrzej Grzegorz; Teodorescu, Remus; Rodriguez, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    Growing number of wind turbines is changing electricity generation profile all over the world. This brings challenges for power system operation, which was designed and developed around conventional power plants with directly coupled synchronous generators. In result, safety and stability...... of the electrical network with high wind energy penetration might be compromised. For this reason transmission system operators (TSO) impose more stringent connection requirements on the wind power plant (WPP) owners. On the other hand flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) devices offer enhancement of grid...... research in FACTS applicability for WPPs is summarized. Examples of few existing FACTS applications for wind farms are given....

  14. Assisted reproductive technology (ART) in humans: facts and uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménézo, Y J; Veiga, A; Pouly, J L

    2000-01-15

    Since the first in vitro fertilization (IVF) in human, the number of patients using Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) has increased tremendously. ART technologies have increased in number and their spectrum has also widened. The first IVF babies are now more than 20 years old. All the retrospective analyses have demonstrated that the obstetrical and pediatrical impact has not really affected single births. The main problems observed occur with multiple pregnancies, including high costs for the couples and for society. The decrease in the number of embryos transferred has improved the situation and moreover does not impair the final results. IntraCytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) is a more debatable and questionable technique with a real negative genetic impact. The main problem is chromosome abnormalities more specifically related to the sex chromosomes. The question of a systematic genetic work-up on the patients entering ICSI programs is discussed. No negative impact of cryopreservation has been demonstrated even though some controversy arises from time to time. Pre-implantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) is now a interesting tool for patients carrying genetic defects. Blastocyst biopsy now has a future role in reproductive medicine. Gender selection through sperm sorting is also now a reality. As with the other developing bio-technologies related to reproduction, there are ethical questions. The decisions concerning these technologies do not belong solely to scientists but are rather a matter for society to decide.

  15. DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program: Overview and Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-05-01

    A non-technical overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Solar Energy Technologies Program, including sections on photovoltaics (PV), concentrating solar power, and solar heating and lighting R&D.

  16. Overview of NASA/OAST efforts related to manufacturing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, N. T.

    1976-01-01

    An overview of some of NASA's current efforts related to manufacturing technology and some possible directions for the future are presented. The topics discussed are: computer-aided design, composite structures, and turbine engine components.

  17. NASA Remediation Technology Collaboration Development Task, Overview and Project Summaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, James G.

    2014-01-01

    An overview presentation of NASA's Remediation Technology Collaboration Development Task including the following project summaries: in situ groundwater monitor, in situ chemical oxidation, in situ bioremediation, horizontal multi-port well, and high resolution site characterization.

  18. Department of Accelerator Physics and Technology: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachan, M.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: As presented at the overview seminar held on December 98, the activities of the Department were shared among several directions of accelerator applications, as well as research and development works on new accelerator techniques and technologies. In the group of proton and ion accelerators, two main tasks were advanced. The first was a further step in the optimization of operational parameters of multicusp ion-source, prepared for axial injection system in C-30 cyclotron. Another one is the participation in important modifications of r.f. acceleration system in heavy-ion accelerator C-200 of Warsaw University. In the broad field of electron accelerators our main attention was directed at medical applications. Most important of them was the designing and construction of a full scale technological model of a high-gradient accelerating structure for low-energy radiotherapy unit CO-LINE 1000. Microwave measurements, and tuning were accomplished, and the technical documentation for construction of radiation unit completed. This work was supported by the State Committee for Scientific Research. Preparatory work was continued to undertake in the year 1999 the design of two new medical accelerators. First is a new generation radiotherapy unit, with 15 MeV electron beam and two selected energies of X-ray photons. This accelerator should in future replace the existing Neptun 10 MeV units. The work will be executed in the frame of the Project-Ordered commissioned by the State Committee for Scientific Research. The next type of accelerators in preparation is the mobile, self-shielded electron-beam unit for inter operative irradiation. The specification of parameters was completed and study of possible solutions advanced. The programme of medical accelerator development is critically dependent on the existence of a metrological and experimental basis. Therefore the building of a former proton linear accelerator was adopted to the new function as electron accelerators

  19. Federal Energy Efficiency through Utility Partnerships: Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) Program Overview Fact Sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beattie, D.; Wolfson, M.

    2001-01-01

    This Utility Program Overview describes how the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) utility program assists Federal energy managers. The document identifies both a utility financing mechanism and FEMP technical assistance available to support agencies' implementation of energy and water efficiency methods and renewable energy projects

  20. Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) Technology Development Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stephen J.; Cheatwood, F. McNeil; Calomino, Anthony M.; Wright, Henry S.; Wusk, Mary E.; Hughes, Monica F.

    2013-01-01

    The successful flight of the Inflatable Reentry Vehicle Experiment (IRVE)-3 has further demonstrated the potential value of Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) technology. This technology development effort is funded by NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) Game Changing Development Program (GCDP). This paper provides an overview of a multi-year HIAD technology development effort, detailing the projects completed to date and the additional testing planned for the future.

  1. Overview of remote technologies applied to research reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oerdoegh, M.; Takats, F.

    1999-01-01

    This paper gives a brief overview of the remote technologies applied to research reactor fuels. Due to many reasons, the remote technology utilization to research reactor fuel is not so widespread as it is for power reactor fuels, however, the advantages of the application of such techniques are obvious. (author)

  2. Technology Entrepreneurship: Overview, Definition, and Distinctive Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Tony Bailetti

    2012-01-01

    Technology entrepreneurship lies at the heart of many important debates, including those around launching and growing firms, regional economic development, selecting the appropriate stakeholders to take ideas to markets, and educating managers, engineers, and scientists. Unless a generally accepted definition of technology entrepreneurship is established, however, these debates lose their focus. The purpose of this article is to identify the themes that dominate the technology entrepreneurshi...

  3. (CICT) Computing, Information, and Communications Technology Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDalsem, William R.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of the Computing, Information, and Communications Technology (CICT) program is to enable NASA's Scientific Research, Space Exploration, and Aerospace Technology Missions with greater mission assurance, for less cost, with increased science return through the development and use of advanced computing, information and communications technologies. This viewgraph presentation includes diagrams of how the political guidance behind CICT is structured. The presentation profiles each part of the NASA Mission in detail, and relates the Mission to the activities of CICT. CICT's Integrated Capability Goal is illustrated, and hypothetical missions which could be enabled by CICT are profiled. CICT technology development is profiled.

  4. An overview of advanced power generation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, D.; Shaw, P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper is intended as a brief review of the technologies currently applied in Australian electricity generation and the technologies which are likely to be employed in the future. The paper opens with a review of the primary energy resources available for the generation of electricity in Australia, and the technologies currently employed. The development of advanced generation technologies around the world is reviewed, and the most likely technologies to be employed in Australia are described. There are a number of renewable and alternative technologies, such as generation from sewage digester, landfill or mine gases. Their impact would, however, be disproportionate because of the strong climate forcing effect of methane. Of the wide range of other emerging renewable technologies examined, solar thermal offers the best prospect of maturing into a financially-competitive technology for large scale generation in the next 20 years. However, will remain unable to compete with non-renewable technologies in normal financial terms, at least until 2005 and probably well beyond that date. Generation using the fission of nuclear fuels is a mature, proven technology. Based on the most likely fuel and other assumptions made in this study, the costs of nuclear generation are only moderately higher than conventional coal-fired options. Nuclear generation is thus a relatively low cost route to reductions in carbon dioxide emission for new plant, at $19/tonne CO 2 saved, in comparison with conventional black coal technology, and $13/tonne CO 2 compared with conventional brown coal firing. While major considerations of societal acceptance clearly exist, nuclear generation has the necessary technical and financial qualifications for serious consideration as an element in any greenhouse strategy. 5 tab., 2 figs

  5. NASA Goddard Thermal Technology Overview 2018

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Dan; Swanson, Ted

    2018-01-01

    This presentation summarizes the current plans and efforts at NASA/Goddard to develop new thermal control technology for anticipated future missions. It will also address some of the programmatic developments currently underway at NASA, especially with respect to the NASA Technology Development Program. The effects of the recently submitted NASA budget will also be addressed. While funding for basic technology development is still tight, significant efforts are being made in direct support of flight programs. Thermal technology Implementation on current flight programs will be reviewed, and the recent push for Cube-sat mission development will also be addressed. Many of these technologies also have broad applicability to DOD, DOE, and commercial programs. Partnerships have been developed with the Air Force, Navy, and various universities to promote technology development. In addition, technology development activities supported by internal research and development (IRAD) program and the Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program are reviewed in this presentation. Specific technologies addressed include; two-phase systems applications and issues on NASA missions, latest developments of thermal control coatings, Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), Micro-scale Heat Transfer, and various other research activities.

  6. NASA Goddard Thermal Technology Overview 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Dan; Swanson, Ted

    2017-01-01

    This presentation summarizes the current plans and efforts at NASA Goddard to develop new thermal control technology for anticipated future missions. It will also address some of the programmatic developments currently underway at NASA, especially with respect to the NASA Technology Development Program. The effects of the recently enacted FY 17 NASA budget, which includes a sizeable increase, will also be addressed. While funding for basic technology development is still tight, significant efforts are being made in direct support of flight programs. Thermal technology Implementation on current flight programs will be reviewed, and the recent push for CubeSat mission development will also be addressed. Many of these technologies also have broad applicability to DOD (Dept. of Defense), DOE (Dept. of the Environment), and commercial programs. Partnerships have been developed with the Air Force, Navy, and various universities to promote technology development. In addition, technology development activities supported by internal research and development (IRAD) program and the Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program are reviewed in this presentation. Specific technologies addressed include; two-phase systems applications and issues on NASA missions, latest developments of electro-hydrodynamically pumped systems, Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), Micro-scale Heat Transfer, and various other research activities.

  7. NASA Goddard Thermal Technology Overview 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Dan; Swanson, Ted

    2016-01-01

    This presentation summarizes the current plans and efforts at NASA Goddard to develop new thermal control technology for anticipated future missions. It will also address some of the programmatic developments currently underway at NASA, especially with respect to the NASA Technology Development Program. The effects of the recently enacted FY 16 NASA budget, which includes a sizeable increase, will also be addressed. While funding for basic technology development is still tight, significant efforts are being made in direct support of flight programs. Thermal technology implementation on current flight programs will be reviewed, and the recent push for Cube-sat mission development will also be addressed. Many of these technologies also have broad applicability to DOD, DOE, and commercial programs. Partnerships have been developed with the Air Force, Navy, and various universities to promote technology development. In addition, technology development activities supported by internal research and development (IRAD) program and the Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program are reviewed in this presentation. Specific technologies addressed include; two-phase systems applications and issues on NASA missions, latest developments of electro-hydrodynamically pumped systems, Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), Micro-scale Heat Transfer, and various other research activities.

  8. Overview of first wall/blanket/shield technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nygren, R.E.

    1983-04-01

    This brief overview of first wall, blanket, and shield technology focuses first on changes and trends in important design issues from the 1970's to the 1980's, then on current perceptions of critical issues in first wall, blanket, and shield design and related technology. The emphasis is on base technology rather than either systems engineering or materials development, on the two primary confinement systems, tokamaks and mirrors, and on production of electricity as the primary goal for development

  9. Technology Entrepreneurship: Overview, Definition, and Distinctive Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Bailetti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Technology entrepreneurship lies at the heart of many important debates, including those around launching and growing firms, regional economic development, selecting the appropriate stakeholders to take ideas to markets, and educating managers, engineers, and scientists. Unless a generally accepted definition of technology entrepreneurship is established, however, these debates lose their focus. The purpose of this article is to identify the themes that dominate the technology entrepreneurship literature, provide a definition of technology entrepreneurship, and identify its distinguishing aspects relative to economics, entrepreneurship, and management. The author argues that technology entrepreneurship is an investment in a project that assembles and deploys specialized individuals and heterogeneous assets to create and capture value for the firm. What distinguishes technology entrepreneurship from other entrepreneurship types (e.g., social entrepreneurship, small business management, and self-employment is the collaborative experimentation and production of new products, assets, and their attributes, which are intricately related to advances in scientific and technological knowledge and the firm’s asset ownership rights.

  10. An overview of latest deep water technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The 8th Deep Offshore Technology Conference (DOT VIII, Rio de Janeiro, October 30 - November 3, 1995) has brought together renowned specialists in deep water development projects, as well as managers from oil companies and engineering/service companies to discuss state-of-the-art technologies and ongoing projects in the deep offshore. This paper is a compilation of the session summaries about sub sea technologies, mooring and dynamic positioning, floaters (Tension Leg Platforms (TLP) and Floating Production Storage and Off loading (FPSO)), pipelines and risers, exploration and drilling, and other deep water techniques. (J.S.)

  11. Geothermal Technologies Program Overview - Peer Review Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milliken, JoAnn [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-06-06

    This Geothermal Technologies Program presentation was delivered on June 6, 2011 at a Program Peer Review meeting. It contains annual budget, Recovery Act, funding opportunities, upcoming program activities, and more.

  12. Overview of Advanced Technology Transportation, 2004 Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Zuboy, J.

    2004-08-01

    Document offers a ''snapshot'' of current vehicle technologies and trends. DOE program managers use this document to plan test and evaluation activities that focus resources where they have the greatest impact.

  13. Overview of CT technologies for children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frush, Donald P. [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Box 3808, Durham, NC (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Many technical advances in CT have reduced radiation exposure in children and adults. These advances in technology should be used in conjunction with CT techniques such as appropriate patient preparation and intravenous contrast media administration to maximize dose management and image quality. This article summarizes current dose reduction technologies for pediatric CT, noting ranges of dose reduction as well as potential limitations. Discussion includes some of the elusive aspects of assessing image quality and the need for developing personalized CT. (orig.)

  14. Overview of CT technologies for children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frush, Donald P.

    2014-01-01

    Many technical advances in CT have reduced radiation exposure in children and adults. These advances in technology should be used in conjunction with CT techniques such as appropriate patient preparation and intravenous contrast media administration to maximize dose management and image quality. This article summarizes current dose reduction technologies for pediatric CT, noting ranges of dose reduction as well as potential limitations. Discussion includes some of the elusive aspects of assessing image quality and the need for developing personalized CT. (orig.)

  15. Overview of existing cartilage repair technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNickle, Allison G; Provencher, Matthew T; Cole, Brian J

    2008-12-01

    Currently, autologous chondrocyte implantation and osteochondral grafting bridge the gap between palliation of cartilage injury and resurfacing via arthroplasty. Emerging technologies seek to advance first generation techniques and accomplish several goals including predictable outcomes, cost-effective technology, single-stage procedures, and creation of durable repair tissue. The biologic pipeline represents a variety of technologies including synthetics, scaffolds, cell therapy, and cell-infused matrices. Synthetic constructs, an alternative to biologic repair, resurface a focal chondral defect rather than the entire joint surface. Scaffolds are cell-free constructs designed as a biologic "net" to augment marrow stimulation techniques. Minced cartilage technology uses stabilized autologous or allogeneic fragments in 1-stage transplantation. Second and third generation cell-based methods include alternative membranes, chondrocyte seeding, and culturing onto scaffolds. Despite the promising early results of these products, significant technical obstacles remain along with unknown long-term durability. The vast array of developing technologies has exceptional promise and the potential to revolutionize the cartilage treatment algorithm within the next decade.

  16. Marshall Space Flight Center Technology Investments Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, Mike

    2014-01-01

    NASA is moving forward with prioritized technology investments that will support NASA's exploration and science missions, while benefiting other Government agencies and the U.S. aerospace enterprise. center dotThe plan provides the guidance for NASA's space technology investments during the next four years, within the context of a 20-year horizon center dotThis plan will help ensure that NASA develops technologies that enable its 4 goals to: 1.Sustain and extend human activities in space, 2.Explore the structure, origin, and evolution of the solar system, and search for life past and present, 3.Expand our understanding of the Earth and the universe and have a direct and measurable impact on how we work and live, and 4.Energize domestic space enterprise and extend benefits of space for the Nation.

  17. Heavy-Section Steel Technology program overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennell, W.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a status review of ongoing HSST program tasks aimed at refining the technology used in analysis of reactor pressure vessel fracture margins under pressurized thermal-shock (PTS) loading. Specific fracture-technology issues addressed include vessel flaw density and distribution, shallow flaws, fracture-toughness data transfer, circumferential cracks, ductile tearing and the influence of low-tearing toughness in stainless steel cladding. Preliminary results from the analysis and test programs are presented, together with interim assessments of their potential impact on a reactor vessel PTS analysis. 31 refs., 23 figs., 1 tab

  18. Smart Grid Technologies in Europe: An Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ardito, L.; Procaccianti, G.; Menga, G.; Morisio, M.

    2013-01-01

    The old electricity network infrastructure has proven to be inadequate, with respect to modern challenges such as alternative energy sources, electricity demand and energy saving policies. Moreover, Information and Communication Technologies (ICT)seem to have reached an adequate level of reliability

  19. OVERVIEW OF USEPA'S ARSENIC TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation provides a summary on the Arsenic Treatment Technology Demonstration Program. The information includes the history and the current status of the demonstration projects on both round 1 and round 2 including some photos of the treatment systems. The presentation m...

  20. Current Knowledge on Microarray Technology - An Overview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    This paper reviews basics and updates of each microarray technology and serves to .... through protein microarrays. Protein microarrays also known as protein chips are nothing but grids that ... conditioned media, patient sera, plasma and urine. Clontech ... based antibody arrays) is similar to membrane-based antibody ...

  1. Overview of emerging nonvolatile memory technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, Jagan Singh; Sze, Simon Min; Chand, Umesh; Tseng, Tseung-Yuen

    2014-01-01

    Nonvolatile memory technologies in Si-based electronics date back to the 1990s. Ferroelectric field-effect transistor (FeFET) was one of the most promising devices replacing the conventional Flash memory facing physical scaling limitations at those times. A variant of charge storage memory referred to as Flash memory is widely used in consumer electronic products such as cell phones and music players while NAND Flash-based solid-state disks (SSDs) are increasingly displacing hard disk drives as the primary storage device in laptops, desktops, and even data centers. The integration limit of Flash memories is approaching, and many new types of memory to replace conventional Flash memories have been proposed. Emerging memory technologies promise new memories to store more data at less cost than the expensive-to-build silicon chips used by popular consumer gadgets including digital cameras, cell phones and portable music players. They are being investigated and lead to the future as potential alternatives to existing memories in future computing systems. Emerging nonvolatile memory technologies such as magnetic random-access memory (MRAM), spin-transfer torque random-access memory (STT-RAM), ferroelectric random-access memory (FeRAM), phase-change memory (PCM), and resistive random-access memory (RRAM) combine the speed of static random-access memory (SRAM), the density of dynamic random-access memory (DRAM), and the nonvolatility of Flash memory and so become very attractive as another possibility for future memory hierarchies. Many other new classes of emerging memory technologies such as transparent and plastic, three-dimensional (3-D), and quantum dot memory technologies have also gained tremendous popularity in recent years. Subsequently, not an exaggeration to say that computer memory could soon earn the ultimate commercial validation for commercial scale-up and production the cheap plastic knockoff. Therefore, this review is devoted to the rapidly developing new

  2. Overview of emerging nonvolatile memory technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Nonvolatile memory technologies in Si-based electronics date back to the 1990s. Ferroelectric field-effect transistor (FeFET) was one of the most promising devices replacing the conventional Flash memory facing physical scaling limitations at those times. A variant of charge storage memory referred to as Flash memory is widely used in consumer electronic products such as cell phones and music players while NAND Flash-based solid-state disks (SSDs) are increasingly displacing hard disk drives as the primary storage device in laptops, desktops, and even data centers. The integration limit of Flash memories is approaching, and many new types of memory to replace conventional Flash memories have been proposed. Emerging memory technologies promise new memories to store more data at less cost than the expensive-to-build silicon chips used by popular consumer gadgets including digital cameras, cell phones and portable music players. They are being investigated and lead to the future as potential alternatives to existing memories in future computing systems. Emerging nonvolatile memory technologies such as magnetic random-access memory (MRAM), spin-transfer torque random-access memory (STT-RAM), ferroelectric random-access memory (FeRAM), phase-change memory (PCM), and resistive random-access memory (RRAM) combine the speed of static random-access memory (SRAM), the density of dynamic random-access memory (DRAM), and the nonvolatility of Flash memory and so become very attractive as another possibility for future memory hierarchies. Many other new classes of emerging memory technologies such as transparent and plastic, three-dimensional (3-D), and quantum dot memory technologies have also gained tremendous popularity in recent years. Subsequently, not an exaggeration to say that computer memory could soon earn the ultimate commercial validation for commercial scale-up and production the cheap plastic knockoff. Therefore, this review is devoted to the rapidly developing new

  3. Oxide fuel fabrication technology development of the FaCT project (1). Overall review of fuel technology development of the FaCT project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Tomoyuki; Namekawa, Takashi; Tanaka, Kenya

    2011-01-01

    The FaCT project is in progress in Japan for the commercialization of fast reactor cycle system. The development goal of the fuel in the FaCT project is a low-decontaminated TRU homo-recycling in a closed cycle and extension in average discharge burn-up to 150 GWd/t. Research and development on innovative technologies concerning the short process, remote maintenance and cooling system of automatic fuel production equipments, long life cladding material and control of oxygen potential have been conducted in phase I of the FaCT project. As the result of various test including 600 g batch MOX tests, it is concluded that the short process is available to fuel pellet fabrication of the FaCT project. Although cold mock-up tests on test model of some typical process equipments suggest possibilities of remote maintenance of automatic fuel fabrication equipment, it is concluded that it still needs further efforts to judge the operability of the completely remote fabrication for low-decontaminated TRU fuel. A cold mock-up test on fuel pin assembling equipment show that influence of decay heat of MA can be managed by cooling system. Irradiation tests in BOR-60 indicate that 9Cr-ODS possess the satisfactory in-reactor performance as the long life cladding material if homogeneity of alloy element is adequately controlled. Modification of cladding tube fabrication process to ensure homogeneity and further development of measures to control oxygen potential inside the fuel pin are necessary to reach the burn-up target of the FaCT project. (author)

  4. Overview of Nuclear Reactor Technologies Portfolio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O’Connor, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Office of Nuclear Energy Roadmap R&D Objectives: • Develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of current reactors; • Develop improvements in the affordability of new reactors to enable nuclear energy to help meet the Administration's energy security and climate change goals; • Develop sustainable nuclear fuel cycles; • Develop capabilities to reduce the risks of nuclear proliferation and terrorism

  5. Department of Plasma Physics and Technology - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadowski, M.

    1997-01-01

    In 1996 the main activities of Department P-5 (until December 1996 known as the Department of Thermonuclear Research) were concentrated on 5 topics: 1. Selected problems of plasma theory, 2. Studies of phenomena within high-current plasma concentrators, 3. Development of plasma diagnostic methods, 4. Studies in the field of fusion technology, 5. Research on new plasma-ion technologies. Theoretical studies mainly concerned elementary processes occurring within a plasma, and particularly those within near-electrode regions of microwave discharges as well as those within near-wall layers (SOL) of tokamaks. We also developed computational packages for parameter identification and modelling of physical phenomena in pulse plasma coaxial accelerators. Experimental studies were concentrated on the generation of a dense magnetized plasma in different high-current PF (Plasma Focus) facilities and small Z-Pinch devices. We carried out investigations of X-rays, relativistic electron beams (REBs), accelerated primary ions, and fast products of fusion reactions for deuterium discharges. Research on plasma diagnostics comprised the development of methods and equipment for studies of X-ray emission, pulsed electron beams, and fast ions, using special Cherenkov-type detectors of electrons and solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) of ions. New diagnostic techniques were developed. Studies in the field of fusion technology concerned the design, construction, and testing of different high-voltage pulse generators. We also developed special opto-electronic systems for control and data transmission. Research on plasma-ion technology concentrated on the generation of pulsed high-power plasma-ion streams and their applications for the surface modification of semiconductors, pure metals and alloys. The material engineering studies were carried out in close collaboration with our P-9 Department and other domestic and foreign research centers

  6. Overview of new-generation photovoltaic technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Della Sala, D.; Moro, A.; Fidanza, A.; Di Francia, G.; Giorgi, R.

    2008-01-01

    The number of photovoltaic installation is rising in Italy, but they are all based on imported technologies. This article describes some new types of photovoltaic cells that benefit from powerful synergies with other sectors. ENEA can help speed their development by exploiting its long experience with photovoltaic and the growing body of know-how on the new frontiers of electronics and new materials [it

  7. An Overview of Stationary Fuel Cell Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DR Brown; R Jones

    1999-03-23

    Technology developments occurring in the past few years have resulted in the initial commercialization of phosphoric acid (PA) fuel cells. Ongoing research and development (R and D) promises further improvement in PA fuel cell technology, as well as the development of proton exchange membrane (PEM), molten carbonate (MC), and solid oxide (SO) fuel cell technologies. In the long run, this collection of fuel cell options will be able to serve a wide range of electric power and cogeneration applications. A fuel cell converts the chemical energy of a fuel into electrical energy without the use of a thermal cycle or rotating equipment. In contrast, most electrical generating devices (e.g., steam and gas turbine cycles, reciprocating engines) first convert chemical energy into thermal energy and then mechanical energy before finally generating electricity. Like a battery, a fuel cell is an electrochemical device, but there are important differences. Batteries store chemical energy and convert it into electrical energy on demand, until the chemical energy has been depleted. Depleted secondary batteries may be recharged by applying an external power source, while depleted primary batteries must be replaced. Fuel cells, on the other hand, will operate continuously, as long as they are externally supplied with a fuel and an oxidant.

  8. Overview of fusion nuclear technology in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreani, R. E-mail: roberto.andreani@tech.efda.org; Gasparotto, M. E-mail: maurizio.gasparotto@tech.efda.org

    2002-11-01

    The fusion nuclear technology programme in the EU is focussed on materials and breeding blankets development, tritium and high heat flux component technologies. A strong effort is also devoted to the validation of the design of an intense 14 MeV neutron source (IFMIF). The material programme includes the development of reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel (EUROFER) to be used as structural material in a DEMO reactor, and potentially more attractive higher performance materials: ODS and SiC/SiC composites. The breeding blanket activities are focussed in the preparation of the two European Test Blanket Moduli to be installed in ITER. The Fuel Cycle activities for ITER include development of the torus exhaust cryopump, fuel storage system, performance characterisation of the torus exhaust processing and design of water detritiation system. High heat flux components have been developed in the framework of ITER R and D programme and based on copper alloy heat sink protected by an armour of beryllium, CFC or tungsten. Studies give an important contribution in defining the nuclear technology programme strategy.

  9. Overview of fusion nuclear technology in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreani, R.; Gasparotto, M.

    2002-01-01

    The fusion nuclear technology programme in the EU is focussed on materials and breeding blankets development, tritium and high heat flux component technologies. A strong effort is also devoted to the validation of the design of an intense 14 MeV neutron source (IFMIF). The material programme includes the development of reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel (EUROFER) to be used as structural material in a DEMO reactor, and potentially more attractive higher performance materials: ODS and SiC/SiC composites. The breeding blanket activities are focussed in the preparation of the two European Test Blanket Moduli to be installed in ITER. The Fuel Cycle activities for ITER include development of the torus exhaust cryopump, fuel storage system, performance characterisation of the torus exhaust processing and design of water detritiation system. High heat flux components have been developed in the framework of ITER R and D programme and based on copper alloy heat sink protected by an armour of beryllium, CFC or tungsten. Studies give an important contribution in defining the nuclear technology programme strategy

  10. An overview of smart card technology and markets

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Furletti

    2002-01-01

    As part of the Payment Cards Center's series of discussion papers, this paper provides an overview of smart card technology and its potential for significantly increasing payment card functionality. In addition to reviewing the current market for smart cards in the U.S., this paper examines the costs and barriers associated with their wide spread adoption. European and US smart card acceptance is compared. In addition, this paper provides background on the technological and infrastructure dev...

  11. Overview of international fusion technology programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffman, F.E.; Baublitz, J.E.; Beard, D.S.; Cohen, M.M.; Dalder, E.N.C.; Finfgeld, C.R.; Haas, G.M.; Head, C.R.; Murphy, M.R.; Nardella, G.R.

    1979-01-01

    World fusion technology programs, as well as current progress and future plans for the U.S., are discussed. Regarding conceptual design, the international INTOR tokamak study, the Garching Ignition Test Reactor Study, the U.S. Engineering Test Facility conceptual design, the Argonne National Laboratory Commercial Tokamak Study, mirror conceptual designs, and alternate concepts and applications studies are summarized. With regard to magnetics, progress to date in the large coil program and pulsed coil program is summarized. In the area of plasma heating and fueling and exhaust, work on a new positive ion source research and development program at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory is described, as is negative ion work. Tradeoff considerations for radio-frequency heating alternatives are made, and a new 60-100 GHz electron cyclotron heating research and development program is discussed. Progress and plans for solid hydrogen pellet injector development are analyzed, as are plans for a divertor technology initiative. A brief review of the U.S. alternate applications and environment and safety program is included

  12. Department of Plasma Physics and Technology - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabinski, M.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The activities of the Department in 2007 continued previous studies in the following fields of plasma physics, controlled nuclear fusion and plasma technology of surface engineering: · Studies of physical phenomena in pulsed discharges in the Plasma-Focus (PF) and RPI-IBIS facilities; · Development of selected methods for high-temperature plasma diagnostics; · Research on plasma technologies; · Selected problems of plasma theory and computational modelling. As for the experimental studies particular attention was paid to the analysis of the correlation of X-ray pulses with pulsed electron beams and other corpuscular emissions from different Plasma-Focus (PF) facilities. A collisional-radiative model, taking into account the Stark effect and strong electric fields in the so called '' hot- spot '' regions of a pinch, was applied in those analyses. The main aim of these studies was to identify the physical phenomena responsible for the emission during the PF-type discharges. The emitted protons were also measured with nuclear track detectors. The measurements made it possible to obtain images of the regions, where the D-D fusion reactions occurred, as well as to determine the angular distribution of the emitted protons. Pulsed plasma streams were also investigated by means of time-resolved optical spectroscopy and corpuscular diagnostics. In a frame of the EURATOM program, efforts were devoted to the development of diagnostic methods for tokamak-type facilities. Such studies include the design and construction of the 4-channel Cherenkov-type detection system for the TORE-SUPRA tokamak at CEA-Cadarache. In the meantime in order to collect some experience a new measuring head was especially prepared for experiments within small facilities. Other fusion- oriented efforts are connected with the application of the solid-state nuclear track detectors for investigation of protons from tokamak plasma and high-energy beams emitted from laser produced plasmas

  13. Department of Accelerator Physics and Technology: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plawski, E.

    2004-01-01

    problems with DKFZ Heidelberg, where she participates in the development so called scanning collimators. As a result of a collaboration with LNF INFN Frascati, apart from two travelling wave RF structures now operated in the CTF3 experiment at CERN, one additional TW structure was made in our Department. It serves as an experimental unit for further study of TW technology. The collaboration with the DESY TESLA-FEL Project during the past years concerned mainly the RF accelerating super-conducting superstructures. This work ended with good results; it was reported in a common international oral session held during PAC2003 in Portland, USA. The superstructures have a chance to be mass-produced if the TESLA Superconducting Collider gets international financial approval. The work on RF vacuum windows upgrading against the multipactor effects in high power couplers was continued at DESY till the end of 2003. The original new technologies of thin TiN coating of ceramic windows were applied using newly constructed coating set-up. The summary of our 2003 results on coating will be presented in the TESLA Report 2004-02. A prerequisite of practising Accelerator Physics is understanding its importance in the wider context. Looking to professional literature on accelerators applications, one finds that in the developed world roughly 20000 accelerators exist (excluding electron units below 0.2 MeV) and yearly this number increases by at least 10%. More than half are used for material modification and roughly 30 % in radiotherapy. The most advanced technically and technologically are accelerators for subatomic physics and synchrotron radiation sources, where the total number of existing or under construction machines surpasses 200. New solutions, new technologies, cost reductions are still being investigated. So, in spite of difficult financial conditions, there is real motivation to keep accelerator physics alive in our Institute. (author)

  14. Department of Plasma Physics and Technology: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadowski, M.

    1998-01-01

    (full text) In 1997, theoretical studies mainly concerned the verification of physical models on the basis of experimental data, an analysis of plasma behaviour within regions close to electrode surfaces during quasi-continuous discharges induced by microwaves , as well as modelling of a discharge development within coaxial plasma injectors. Another direction of theoretical studies concerned elementary processes of importance for plasma research, and in particular those taking into consideration the role of spin within a classical model of proton - hydrogen atom collisions. Experimental studies comprised measurements of pulsed electron beams and effects of the polarization of X-rays emitted from Plasma Focus (PF) facilities, research on emission characteristics of different PF devices, as well as measurements of pulsed electron and ion-beams emitted from various devices of the PF and Z-Pinch type. An important direction of experimental studies concerned X-ray and ion measurements at a large PF-1000 facility. In the field of plasma diagnostics, efforts were devoted to an analysis of the results obtained from time-resolved measurements of nitrogen ions and deuterons within PF-type devices. Within a frame of diagnostics, a substantial achievement was also the design and construction of a new measuring equipment for studies of plasma dynamics and X-ray emissions. Particular attention was also paid to studies connected with the calibration of various solid-state nuclear track detectors (NTDs), particularly modern plastic detectors of the CR-39, PM-355 and PM-500 type. Studies in the field of fusion technology concerned the design and construction of a special pulse generator for the simulation of electromagnetic interference, as well as other efforts connected with research on electromagnetic compatibility of electronic and electrotechnical devices. Research on new types of HV pulse generators were carried out partially under contracts with industrial laboratories. In

  15. Superconducting generator technology--an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edmonda, J.S.

    1979-01-01

    Application of superconducting technology to field windings of large ac generators provides virtually unlimited field capability without incurring resistive losses in the winding. Several small-scale superconducting generators have been built and tested demonstrating the feasibility of such concepts. For machines of much larger capacity, conceptual designs for 300 Mva and 1200 Mva have been completed. The development of a 300 Mva generator is projected. Designed, engineered and fabricated as a turbo generator, the superconducting machine is to be installed in a power plant, tested and operated in concert with a prime mover, the steam generator and the auxiliary support systems of the power plant. This will provide answers to the viability of operating a superconducting machine and its cryogenic handling systems in a full time, demanding environment. 21 refs

  16. Department of Plasma Physics and Technology - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadowski, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005 research activities in Department P-V were concentrated on the continuation of previous studies in the field of plasma physics and CNF, but new investigations were also undertaken, particularly in the field of plasma technology. The main tasks were as follows: 1. Studies of physical phenomena in pulsed discharges producing dense magnetized plasma; 2. Development of methods and tools for high-temperature plasma diagnostics; 3. Research in the field of plasma technologies. As to the first task, particular attention was paid to studies of X-ray pulses and pulsed electron beams, by means of different diagnostic techniques. Measurements of the polarization of the selected X-ray spectral lines and their correlation with pulsed e-beams were performed in the MAJA-PF facility. Taking into account microscopic irreproducibility of so-called 'hot-spots', particular efforts were devoted to the correlation of the X-ray emission from a single hot-spot with corresponding non-thermal electron pulses. Some observations of X-rays were performed also at the PF-1000 facility at IPPLM in Warsaw. Other studies concerned the correlation of fast-neutron pulses with X-rays and other corpuscular emissions. Results of experimental studies carried out in the IPJ-IPPLM collaboration were analyzed and summarized. New measurements, carried out in the MAJA-PF facility, determined the temporal correlation of X-rays pulses, fusion-neutrons, fast electron beams and high-energy ion beams. Other efforts concerned studies of fast (ripple-born) electrons in tokamaks. An analysis of the capability of special Cerenkov-type detectors (based on diamond-crystal radiators) was performed, and measuring heads for the CASTOR and TORE-SUPRA facilities have been designed. Concerning the development of plasma diagnostic techniques, characteristics of PM-355 nuclear track detectors were analyzed and the calibrated detectors (with appropriate absorption filters) were used for measurements of fast (> 3 Me

  17. Department of Plasma Physics and Technology: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadowski, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: In 2000 the research activity in the Dept. P-V was concentrated upon studies in the field of high-temperature plasma physics, nuclear fusion, and plasma technology. The main topics were as follows: l. Analysis of selected problems of plasma theory, 2. Investigation of phenomena in high-current pulse discharges of the Plasma-Focus (PF) and Z-Pinch type, 3. Development of the selected methods and equipment for plasma diagnostics, 4. Research on technology of experimental facilities for basic studies and applications, 5. Studies of the modification of material surfaces by means of pulse plasma-ion streams. In a frame of theoretical studies the numerical modeling was continued for discharges in coaxial plasma accelerators. The second theoretical aim was the description of some elementary atomic processes in the quasi- classical approach. A paper on the electron scattering on the atoms and molecules was published. In the quasi- classical model, the electron spin was taken into account and trajectories of 2 electrons in the helium atom were analyzed. In the frame of experimental studies, various phenomena were investigated in PF and Z-Pinch systems. The emission of pulse electron beams and ions as well as polarized X-rays were investigated in the MAFA-PF facility. New data about polarization of selected X-ray lines were obtained (2 papers at conferences and 2 publications). Ion emission measurements performed in small-scale PF-devices at INFIP and IFAS (Argentina), and in the Micro-Capillary device at Ecole Politechnique (France), were elaborated (5 papers at conferences and 2 publications). New measurements were also performed in the Capillary Z-Pinch device at IPP in Prague. With partial support of a US research contract, studies of the optimization of a neutron yield were performed in the PF-360 facility with special cryogenic targets (made of h eavy ice'' layers) or deuterium-gas targets (10 presentations at conferences, 2 reports for EOARD, and 7 papers

  18. Department of Accelerator Physics and Technology: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plawski, E.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The main activities of the Accelerator Physics and Technology Department were focused on following subjects: - contribution to development and building of New Therapeutical Electron Accelerator delivering the photon beams of 6 and 15 MeV, - study of the photon and electron spectra of narrow photon beams with the use of the BEAM/EGSnrc codes, - design and construction of special RF structures for use in CLIC Test Facility in CERN, - design and construction of 1:1 copper, room temperature models of accelerating superconducting 1.3 GHz structures for TESLA Project in DESY. In spite of drastic reduction of scientific and technical staff (from 16 to 10 persons) the planned works were successfully completed, but requested some extraordinary efforts. In realisation of 6/15 MeV Accelerator Project, the Department was responsible all along the project for calculations of all most important parts (electron gun, accelerating structure, beam focusing, achromatic deviation) and also for construction and physical modelling of some strategic subassemblies. The results of scientific and technical achievements of our Department in this work are documented in the Annex to Final Report on realisation of KBN Scientific Project No PBZ 009-13 and earlier Annual Reports 2000 and 2001. The results of Monte Carlo calculations of narrow photon beams and experimental verification using Varian Clinac 2003CD, Simens Mevatron and CGR MeV Saturn accelerators ended up with PhD thesis prepared by MSc Anna Wysocka. Her thesis: Collimation and Dosimetry of X-ray Beams for Stereotactic Radiotherapy with Linear Accelerators was sponsored by KBN scientific Project Nr T11E 04121. In collaboration with LNF INFN Frascati the electron beam deflectors were designed for CERN CLIC Test Facility CTF3. These special type travelling wave RF structures were built by our Department and are actually operated in CTF3 experiment. As the result of collaboration with TESLA-FEL Project in DESY, the set of RF

  19. Department of Accelerator Physics and Technology: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachan, M.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The principal Department's duties in 1999 have not changed and were consequently directed on development in the area of electron and ion accelerators and their applications in science, medicine and technology. Two important events dominated the current and future orientation of R and D activity. The first was finalizing of long time efforts for preparing of the ordered research project granted by the State Committee of Scientific Research and devoted to elaboration and design of a new electron accelerator for radiotherapy, with two energies of X-ray photon beams. This project was formally approved in March 1999 and due to organisatory procedures set in operation after few months. In the second half of 1999, an important progress was done in advancing the project. The second mentioned event is foundation by the government of a Multiyear Research Programme - called ''Isotopes and Accelerators''. This programme formulates a broad spectrum of important tasks oriented on application of isotopes and accelerator techniques in many branches of science and national economy. The expected participation of the Department in this programme comprises following subjects: medical interoperative accelerator, high power electron accelerator for radiation technology, and upgrading of cyclotron for isotopes production. In course of 1999, preparatory studies in these subjects were carried out. Some of the results were presented on conferences and seminars. An interesting experience was the expertise done on technical status of Eindhoven isochronous cyclotron and its possible transfer to Swierk as a professional tool for isotopes production. In the group of medical applications, three subjects were continued during 1999 and brought important results: - completion of microwave measurements of high gradient acceleration structure for low energy accelerators; such structure will be very useful solution for Co-Line and interoperative accelerator; - evaluation of design data and

  20. Department of Accelerator Physics and Technology: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachan, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: In view of limited number of scientific and technical staff, it was necessary to focus the activity on most important subjects and to keep balance between current duties and development of future projects. The dominant item was realisation of research and designing works in the Ordered Project for New Therapeutical Accelerator with two energies of photon beam 6 and 15 MeV. During the reported year, main efforts were oriented on: - computation and experimental works on optimization of electron gun parameters and electron optics in the injection system for accelerating structure, - calculation and modelling of standing wave, S-band accelerating structure to achieve broad range of electron energy variation with good phase acceptance and narrow energy spectrum of the output beam, - calculation and design of beam focusing and transport system, with deflection of the output beam for 2700 in achromatic sector magnet, - design and modelling of microwave power system, with pilot generator, klystron 6 MW amplifier, pulse modulator, waveguide system, four-port circulator and automatic frequency control, - preparative works on metrological procedures and apparatus for accelerated beam diagnostics comprising measurements of energy spectrum, beam intensity, transmission factor, leakage radiation, and other important beam parameters. Other important subject, worth mentioning are: - Advance in forming and metrology of narrow X-ray photon beams, dedicated to stereotactic radiosurgery and radiotherapy, - Adaptation of a new version of EGS-4, MC type code for computer simulation of dose distribution in therapeutical beams, - Participation in selected items of the TESLA Project in cooperation with DESY - Hamburg, - theory and computer simulation of higher order modes in superconducting accelerating structures, - technological research of methods and apparatus for thin layer coating of r.f. resonators and subunits in transmission circuits - Conceptual studies of proposed new

  1. Department of Accelerator Physics and Technology - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wronka, S.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The activity of the P-10 department is focused on the development of new acceleration techniques and technology, as well as on applications of particle accelerators. Our team is able to perform all kind of calculations of research, medical and industrial accelerator components, including accelerating cavities, magnets, transfer lines, sources and targets, collimators and applicators. The main topic of the 2010 was the realization of the ' Accelerators and Detectors ' project. All results of this work are included in detailed descriptions of the particular machines. The other tasks are summarized below: 1) WP-06 Task in the European XFEL Project As part of the EXFEL preparatory phase, IPJ is developing HOM and Pickup output lines from superconducting cavities antennas, and Beam Line Absorbers of travelling HOM. This abridged WP-06 task is wholly realized by IPJ and belongs to WPG-1 (Work Package Group 1- Cold linac). The HOM couplers are used to extract and to dissipate Radio Frequency ('' RF '') energy present in the cavity due to the excitation of the HOMs by the electron beam bunches. The low frequency part of the HOM spectrum (below the cut-off frequency of the beam tube) will be extracted by HOM couplers and transmitted via coax lines to external loads. Each 9-cell cavity is equipped with two HOM couplers placed close to the end cells and working in a 2K environment. The propagating HOM power will be ca. 5.4 W/cryomodule for operation with 40000 bunches/s of a nominal charge of 1 nCoulomb. Power dissipated in BLA will be transferred to the 70 K environment by a copper stub brazed directly to the absorbing ceramic ring. The stub holds the ring in a stainless steel vacuum chamber thermally isolated from the 2K region by a flexible bellows. In 2010 the wakefields excited by beam bunches down to 40 microns were calculated, and the related wake potential and frequency spectrum of HOMs evaluated. The absorbing material (CA137 of Ceradyne Enterprice

  2. FTTH: the overview of existing technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Dawid; Murphy, John

    2005-06-01

    The growing popularity of the Internet is the key driver behind the development of new access methods which would enable a customer to experience a true broadband. Amongst various technologies, the access methods based on the optical fiber are getting more and more attention as they offer the ultimate solution in delivering different services to the customers' premises. Three different architectures have been proposed that facilitate the roll out of Fiber-to-the-Home (FTTH) infrastructure. Point-to-point Ethernet networks are the most straightforward and already matured solution. Different flavors of Passive Optical Networks (PONs) with Time Division Multiplexing Access (TDMA) are getting more widespread as necessary equipment is becoming available on the market. The third main contender are PONs withWavelength DivisionMultiplexing Access (WDMA). Although still in their infancy, the laboratory tests show that they have many advantages over present solutions. In this paper we show a brief comparison of these three access methods. In our analysis the architecture of each solution is presented. The applicability of each system is looked at from different viewpoint and their advantages and disadvantages are highlighted.

  3. Department of Accelerator Physics and Technology: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachan, M.

    2002-01-01

    accelerator radiation head. These programmes enable us to take into account the data of all components along the beam transportation path, and facilitate the design of beam forming systems, e.g. narrow photon beams for stereotactic radiosurgery. * Preliminary studies of a bunching system for high power electron accelerator. Such an accelerator for radiation technology was planned in the programme ''Isotopes and Accelerators'' which was accepted by the Government but not put in operation. It is worthwhile to prepare for possible work on this task by a study of most crucial problems of new design. In effect it was proposed to divide the accelerating structure into two separate parts - bunching and accelerating sections. This solution should improve the efficiency of beam capture and transport. This is very important hut not easy for a beam with high space charge. * An interesting item was the study of possible solutions of a linear energy booster for upgrading proton energy achievable in existing cyclotrons, to get an energy useful for hadron therapy. The principal feature of this idea is to use typical structures of proton linear accelerators, with the RF frequency band in the range of 3000 MHz. It gives the possibility to diminish the dimensions of the structure, and also to achieve high gradients of the accelerating field. In this way it is possible in the module with length about 1.2 m, to get the energy increase of about 15 MeV. In the international collaboration, the Italian INFN-Frascati proposed to undertake a common task on the design and construction of travelling wave sections operating in a deflecting mode, for application in CLIC Test Facility as beam kickers. CLIC is the CERN competitor to the TESLA project of high energy linear beam collider, operating at room temperature but at extremely high frequency, 30 GHz. To join the proposed task it was necessary to make an initial theoretic study and to build an aluminium model in order to formulate the principal design

  4. Department of Plasma Physics and Technology: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadowski, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: In 2002 research activities in Dept. P-V were concentrated upon the continuation of high-temperature plasma investigations. Some new studies were initiated, particularly in the field of plasma technology. The main topics were as follows: 1. Selected problems of plasma theory; 2. Investigation of plasma phenomena in pulse discharges of the Plasma-Focus (PF) and Z-Pinch; 3. Development of the selected methods of plasma diagnostics; 4. Research on experimental facilities for basic studies and industrial applications; 5. Modification of material surfaces by means of pulse plasma-ion streams. Within theoretical studies we continued the numerical modeling of discharges in a coaxial plasma accelerator of the IPD type. An analysis of results, as obtained during several small IPD experiments, was also performed. The second theoretical task was the modeling of ion motion within a pinch column formed during PF-type discharges. As for experimental studies, some phenomena occurring in high-current discharges of the PF and Z-Pinch type were investigated. In particular, the correlation of X-rays with pulsed electron- and ion-beams, emitted from micro-regions (hot spots) formed inside a PF pinch column, was studied. It was shown that the polarization of important X-ray lines depends considerably on the observation direction, also in the case when a single hot-spot is observed. It confirmed a thesis that there appear groups of fast electrons moving in the radial direction. It was also shown that X-ray pulses are strongly correlated with fast electron beams, which are emitted mostly in the upstream direction. Some electron beams were also detected at different angles to the z-axis. Experimental studies of high-temperature plasma were also carried out within a large PF-1000 facility operated at IFPiLM in Warsaw. Some new experiments with wire-type liners were performed within the collaboration with IFPiLM and CVUT in Prague (Czech Republic). Other experimental

  5. Department of Plasma Physics and Technology - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadowski, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    In 2006 research activity of the P-V Department was concentrated on the continuation of previous studies in the field of plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion (CNF), but several new topics concerning plasma technology were also investigated. The main tasks of the research activities were as follows: 1. Studies of physical phenomena in pulsed discharges producing dense magnetized plasma; 2. Development of methods and tools for high-temperature plasma diagnostics; 3. Research in the field of plasma technologies. In a frame of the first task particular attention was paid to studies of X-ray pulses and fast electron beams emitted from different Plasma-Focus (PF) facilities. The correlation of X-ray pulses with pulsed electron beams and other corpuscular emissions (i.e. accelerated primary ions and fusion reaction products) was investigated in the PF-360 device in Swierk. The X-ray and corpuscular emission was also studied in a PF-1000 facility at IPPLM in Warsaw. Separate efforts were devoted to the investigation of fast electrons escaping from Tokamak-type facilities. Such studies were carried out in a frame of the EURATOM program, using special Cerenkov-type detectors within the CASTOR tokamak, operated at IPP in Prague. Signals from the Cerenkov detector were recorded and interpreted. Other studies concerned the design and construction of a new 4-channel Cerenkov detection system for a TORE-SUPRA facility at CEA-Cadarache. Since thermal loads upon the Cerenkov probe within the TORE SUPRA facility can amount to 1 MW/cm 2 , it was necessary to perform detailed computations of heat transfer in various materials (i.e. diamond-radiators and the probe body). Some efforts were devoted to the calibration of new nuclear track detectors (NTD) and their application for measurements of fusion-produced protons emitted from PF-360 and PF-1000 facilities. In frame of the EURATOM program the calibrated NTD were also applied for measurements of fusion-protons in a TEXTOR

  6. Department of Plasma Physics and Technology: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadowski, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: In 2003, research activities in Dept. P-V embraced the continuation of previous studies in the field of high - temperature plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion. Some new investigations were developed, particularly in the field of plasma technology. The main topics of the research activities were as follows: 1. Selected problems of plasma theory; 2. Investigation of plasma phenomena in pulse discharges of the Plasma-Focus (PF) and Z-Pinch type; 3. Development of selected methods of plasma diagnostics; 4. Research on experimental facilities for basic studies and industrial applications; 5. Modification of material surfaces by means of pulsed plasma-ion streams. Theoretical studies concerned the numerical modeling of discharges in a coaxial plasma accelerator of the IPD type. The modification of a 2-D model concerned mainly a plasma flow along the current sheath surface, taking into consideration the development of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. Several series of computations were performed and different parameters of the system were determined. As for experimental studies, we studied plasma phenomena which occur in high-current discharges of PF and Z-Pinch type. Measurements of pulsed electron beams, and their correlation with other plasma phenomena, were performed within the MAJA-PF device in Swierk and PF-1000 facility at IPPLM in Warsaw. Use was made of Cerenkov-type detectors and magnetic analyzers. It was confirmed that separate e-beams are generated in different hot-spots, and the electron energy spectrum ranges up to several hundreds keV (i.e. above the interelectrode voltage during the radial collapse phase). We also presented papers presenting results of previous research on polarization of X-ray lines emitted from the pinch column. Experimental studies of high-temperature plasma were also carried out within the PF-360 facility in Swierk. Several papers, describing the most important characteristics of this device and results of research

  7. Department of Accelerator Physics and Technology - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plawski, E.

    2006-01-01

    The activities of P-10 Department in year 2005 were devoted to: - development of radiographic 4 MeV electron accelerator, - development of accelerating and deflecting types travelling (TW) and standing wave (SW) RF structures for electrons and ions, - MC simulations applied to photon and ion radiotherapy The compact 6 MeV electron linac constructed in Department P-10 was put in the beginning of reported year into experimental operation. The request for permission to use ionisation source (6 MeV linac) was submitted to National Atomic Energy Agency. On the basis of all necessary documents the permission for routine using of our linac was granted. Actually the e/X conversion tungsten target has been moved from vacuum to air. To improve the safety of accelerator operation, the new collimator and some shielding walls were added. Two regimes of operation are actually possible: X ray output beam or electron beam depending on user demand. Some old non-reliable sub-units of accelerator were replaced, and energy and intensity optimisation for e-/X-ray conversion were made. The MC calculations of photon beams produced on e-/X converter were repeated taking into account the new collimator and additional shields. The triode gun, originally thought of as a part of 6/15 MeV medical accelerator is still on long term tests showing excellent performance; it was twice opened to air to confirm the possibility of repeated formation of gun dispenser cathode. New pulse modulator was routinely used in these tests. The sublimation set-up designed and made in our Department for the TiN coating of accelerator components underwent successfully the technological test including coating quality of several ceramic RF power vacuum windows. Within the German heavy ion therapy program the DKFZ Heidelberg is responsible for medical physics problems of treatment planning and modeling of ion beams for GSI Radiotherapy Facility. The MC simulations are used to calibrate the X-ray CT scanners to obtain

  8. Department of Accelerator Physics and Technology: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachan, M.

    1998-01-01

    (full text) In the context of general discussions concerning the activity of the Institute, it was important to look critically at current and future directions at the Department's activity. Attention is given to development of basic accelerator knowledge, realized at home and throughout international collaborations. Of importance is a steady improvement of metrological and experimental basis for accelerator research. Apart of this, some development tendencies were formulated during 1997, oriented to application fields of accelerators. As examples should be named: - medical applications: a) A serious effort was given to an idea of using the existing compact cyclotron C-30 as a source for creation of a diagnostic centre in Swierk. The proposition was formulated in contact with the Nuclear Medicine Department of the Medical Academy, and the ''Brodno'' General Hospital. In spite of declared medical interest in such an installation, the project was not approved, due to lack of proper financial support. b) Model measurements and verification of theoretical assumptions and calculations oriented on the design of a very short, high-gradiented acceleration structure for the low energy accelerator COLINE/1000 were done. This project will enable us to achieve ''source - isocentre distance'', of 1000 mm, instead of existing 800 mm. This is important for therapy. In 1998, this work will be supported by the State Committee for Scientific Research. c) Preliminary discussions, and design approach were undertaken in collaboration with the Centre of Oncology, for elaboration of a movable low-energy accelerator with electron beam output, matched to inter operational irradiation during surgical therapy of tumours. - applications in radiation technology: Comparison of isotope and machine radiation sources indicates that, under Polish conditions it is reasonable to use purpose-oriented high power accelerators. The working group composed of specialists from IChTJ and IPJ prepared the

  9. Department of Plasma Physics and Technology: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadowski, M.

    1999-01-01

    beams of protons, alphas, deuterons, nitrogen- and carbon-ions. We also performed tests of NTDs for ion measurements in the TEXTOR facility in Juelich (in cooperation with the ERM group from Brussels). We also continued the elaboration of improved crystal spectrometers for measurements of X-ray polarization (the collaboration with the Kurchatov Institute in Moscow). In addition, we constructed miniature magnetic spectrometers for studies of electron beams, and a nitrogen laser for interferometry (the collaboration with the MFTI in Moscow). Technological studies concerned modelling of HV pulse generators, and particularly systems with pulse transformers were used for pulse shaping. The PSPICE program was applied for computations of one-stage pulsed generators, multi-stage Marx-type systems, HV supply systems, and triggering units. Also designed was a high-energy simulator for studies of electromagnetic compatibility. Studies in the field of plasma-ion techniques used for material engineering were carried out in collaboration with Dept. P-IX in Swierk, and other research centers.In addition we realized a contract with the Ecole Politechnique in Palaiseau (France) connected with an INCO-COPERNICUS grant. It concerned measurements of overvoltages generated within plasma devices of the PF- and RPI-type. We also realized several contracts with industrial laboratories, concerning the design, manufacturing, and tests of special pulse generators. (author)

  10. Department of Accelerator Physics And Technology - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plawski, E.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The activity of department P-10 is focused on the development of new acceleration techniques and technology, as well as on applications of particle accelerators. In 2008, the following topics were investigated and/or realized: 1. A linear accelerator for protons called TOP (Terapia Oncologica con Protoni, Oncological Proton Therapy). Basically a proton linac of modified Alvarez type working at 3000 MHz frequency and delivering beams in the energy range from 65 MeV to 200 MeV. In 2005, a contract was signed between ENEA and SINS-Swierk for the design, manufacture and delivery to Frascati of the input section of a 65 MeV linac. This section of SCDTL type will increase the proton energy from 7 to 16 MeV. In 2008, the field distribution in the manufactured structure was measured and optimized using available universal test stand. Measurements were also performed in ENEA/Frascati in October; a small difference in results, around 0.25%, is under investigation. Beam dynamics calculations using 3D codes have been started in parallel. 2. Preparation for participation in the international X-FEL project. Calculations of the parasitic Higher Order Modes (HOMs) induced in superconducting accelerating structures by very short electron bunches have been continued. Thanks to the special research grant received by department P-10 the design and completion of the HOM elements has been started for two accelerating modules, where each module consists of eight superconducting accelerating structures and focusing/correcting elements. 3. Superconducting layers; studies in INFN-Roma. Within the European CARE/JRA1/WP4-2 project, serious modification of the Nb-coating stand for the 1.3 GHz single-cell copper resonators using a vacuum arc was performed. Thanks to this stand the internal surface of the resonator was successfully coated. 4. TiN coating vacuum stand for RF components. At this stand the analysis of the TiN layer thickness as a function of reactive atmosphere pressure

  11. Existing knowledge in science and technology as subject of judicial establishment of facts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czajika, D.

    1982-02-01

    The problems facing administrative courts in determining 'existing knowledge in science and technology' (No. 3 of paragraph 2 of sect. 7 of the Atomic Energy Law) cannot be solved by limiting the judicial establishment of facts. According to established law, in procedural or substantive law there is no foundation for doing so. Limits to this establishment of facts do result from the nature of the scientific process of understanding, which very often allows but the establishment of 'margins' pertaining to scientific opinions.

  12. Brief overview of BioMicroNano Technologies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gourley, Paul Lee

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of the fields of biological micro-electromechanical systems (bioMEMs) and associated nanobiotechnologies, collectively denoted as BioMicroNano. Although they are developing at a very rapid pace and still redefining themselves, several stabilized areas of research and development can be identified. Six major areas are delineated, and specific examples are discussed and illustrated. Various applications of the technologies are noted, and potential market sizes are compared.

  13. Overview of fusion nuclear technology in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morley, N.B.; Abdou, M.A.; Anderson, M.; Calderoni, P.; Kurtz, R.J.; Nygren, R.; Raffray, R.; Sawan, M.; Sharpe, P.; Smolentsev, S.; Willms, S.; Ying, A.Y.

    2006-01-01

    Fusion nuclear technology (FNT) research in the United States encompasses many activities and requires expertise and capabilities in many different disciplines. The US Enabling Technology program is divided into several task areas, with aspects of magnet fusion energy (MFE) fusion nuclear technology being addressed mainly in the Plasma Chamber, Neutronics, Safety, Materials, Tritium and Plasma Facing Component Programs. These various programs work together to address key FNT topics, including support for the ITER basic machine and the ITER Test Blanket Module, support for domestic plasma experiments, and development of DEMO relevant material and technological systems for blankets, shields, and plasma facing components. In addition, two inertial fusion energy (IFE) research programs conducting FNT-related research for IFE are also described. While it is difficult to describe all these activities in adequate detail, this paper gives an overview of critical FNT activities

  14. An overview of in situ waste treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, S.; Hyde, R.A.; Piper, R.B.; Roy, M.W.

    1992-01-01

    In situ technologies are becoming an attractive remedial alternative for eliminating environmental problems. In situ treatments typically reduce risks and costs associated with retrieving, packaging, and storing or disposing-waste and are generally preferred over ex situ treatments. Each in situ technology has specific applications, and, in order to provide the most economical and practical solution to a waste problem, these applications must be understood. This paper presents an overview of thirty different in situ remedial technologies for buried wastes or contaminated soil areas. The objective of this paper is to familiarize those involved in waste remediation activities with available and emerging in situ technologies so that they may consider these options in the remediation of hazardous and/or radioactive waste sites. Several types of in situ technologies are discussed, including biological treatments, containment technologies, physical/chemical treatments, solidification/stabilization technologies, and thermal treatments. Each category of in situ technology is briefly examined in this paper. Specific treatments belonging to these categories are also reviewed. Much of the information on in situ treatment technologies in this paper was obtained directly from vendors and universities and this information has not been verified

  15. Physics of the Cosmos (PCOS) Technology Development Program Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, B. Thai; Clampin, M.; Werneth, R. L.

    2014-01-01

    The Physics of the Cosmos (PCOS) Program Office was established in FY11 and resides at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The office serves as the implementation arm for the Astrophysics Division at NASA Headquarters for PCOS Program related matters. We present an overview of the Program’s technology management activities and the Program’s technology development portfolio. We discuss the process for addressing community-provided technology needs and the Technology Management Board (TMB)-vetted prioritization and investment recommendations. This process improves the transparency and relevance of technology investments, provides the community a voice in the process, and leverages the technology investments of external organizations by defining a need and a customer. Goals for the PCOS Program envisioned by the National Research Council’s (NRC) “New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics” (NWNH) Decadal Survey report include science missions and technology development for dark energy, gravitational waves, X-ray, and inflation probe science.

  16. An overview of research on technological and telecommunication development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Budimir

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The scientific and professional research on technological and telecommunication development started in the second half of the 20th century as the use of new media and technologies began to cause structural business and social changes. A review of research published in the early 1980s revealed that the focus was mainly on the acceptance, usefulness and impact of new media and information technology on the information society, whereas research conducted at the turn of the century was mostly interdisciplinary and related to the effect of technological and telecommunication development on various scientific and professional fields. The focus of this paper is an overview of published research on information technology since the 1980s to date, as well as technological and telecommunication development in recent years based on the latest official published data. On the basis of previous research, it can be concluded that more attention needs to be directed to monitoring trends of ICT products and services in order to increase benefits and reduce the costs for active users, as well as improving infrastructure and providing information to attract passive users in order to reduce technological and telecommunication gap between developed, developing and underdeveloped countries.

  17. Overview of Planar Magnetic Technology — Fundamental Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouyang, Ziwei; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2014-01-01

    The momentum towards high efficiency, high frequency, and high power density in power supplies limits wide use of conventional wire-wound magnetic components. This article gives an overview of planar magnetic technologies with respect to the development of modern power electronics. The major...... advantages and disadvantages in the use of planar magnetics for high frequency power converters are covered, and publications on planar magnetics are reviewed. A detailed survey of winding conduction loss, leakage inductance and winding capacitance for planar magnetics is presented so power electronics...

  18. Technical fact sheets on the impacts of new energy efficiency technologies and measures in ice rinks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This paper presents energy efficiency facts on ice rinks and arenas to advise and inform refrigeration and building professionals. The aim of the paper was to facilitate estimation and compare impacts of various energy efficiency measures and new technologies on the consumption of energy and the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. A computer-based tool modelling ice rink energy consumption was constructed based on DOE-2.1E software. The simulation tool was developed to study the sensitivity of various eco-energetic technologies applied to arenas. Results of the simulations have made it possible to construct 8 facts sheets, including information on simulated heat exchange; calculation of energy consumption for heating and refrigeration; the incorporation of several types of Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems; and to show various strategies of operation. To account for the effects of ice within a building, calculation routines in the form of functional values were added. The model addressed the following parameters: climate; characteristics of the envelope; lighting power and intensity; temperature of the resurfacing water; ice sheet temperature; humidity level of the ice rink; fresh air intake; emissivity index of the ceiling above the ice sheet; refrigeration systems according to type, capacity, output and operation mode; capacity output and operation mode of the air heating system, including heat recovery from the refrigeration system; and capacity, output and operation mode of the domestic and resurfacing hot water heating system, including heat recovery from the refrigeration system. Fact sheets were presented for the type of technology; description; direct or indirect benefits; energy-savings potential; environmental impacts; specific comments from specialists; and a set of charts to facilitate comprehension. tabs., figs.

  19. Review of FACTS technologies and applications for power quality in smart grids with renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gandoman, Foad H.; Ahmadi, Abdollah; Sharaf, Adel M.

    2018-01-01

    In the last two decades, emerging use of renewable and distributed energy sources in electricity grid has created new challenges for the utility regarding the power quality, voltage stabilization and efficient energy utilization. Power electronic converters are extensively utilized to interface...... the power quality. Also, distributed FACTSs play an important role in improving the power factor, energy utilization, enhancing the power quality, and ensuring efficient energy utilization and energy management in smart grids with renewable energy sources. This paper presents a literature survey of FACTS...... technology tools and applications for power quality and efficient renewable energy system utilization....

  20. Overview on the high power excimer laser technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingru

    2013-05-01

    High power excimer laser has essential applications in the fields of high energy density physics, inertial fusion energy and industry owing to its advantages such as short wavelength, high gain, wide bandwidth, energy scalable and repetition operating ability. This overview is aimed at an introduction and evaluation of enormous endeavor of the international high power excimer laser community in the last 30 years. The main technologies of high power excimer laser are reviewed, which include the pumping source technology, angular multiplexing and pulse compressing, beam-smoothing and homogenous irradiation, high efficiency and repetitive operation et al. A high power XeCl laser system developed in NINT of China is described in detail.

  1. A Technological Overview of Biogas Production from Biowaste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyridon Achinas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The current irrational use of fossil fuels and the impact of greenhouse gases on the environment are driving research into renewable energy production from organic resources and waste. The global energy demand is high, and most of this energy is produced from fossil resources. Recent studies report that anaerobic digestion (AD is an efficient alternative technology that combines biofuel production with sustainable waste management, and various technological trends exist in the biogas industry that enhance the production and quality of biogas. Further investments in AD are expected to meet with increasing success due to the low cost of available feedstocks and the wide range of uses for biogas (i.e., for heating, electricity, and fuel. Biogas production is growing in the European energy market and offers an economical alternative for bioenergy production. The objective of this work is to provide an overview of biogas production from lignocellulosic waste, thus providing information toward crucial issues in the biogas economy.

  2. An Overview of Cube-Satellite Propulsion Technologies and Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshay Reddy Tummala

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available CubeSats provide a cost effective means to perform scientific and technological studies in space. Due to their affordability, CubeSat technologies have been diversely studied and developed by educational institutions, companies and space organizations all over the world. The CubeSat technology that is surveyed in this paper is the propulsion system. A propulsion system is the primary mobility device of a spacecraft and helps with orbit modifications and attitude control. This paper provides an overview of micro-propulsion technologies that have been developed or are currently being developed for CubeSats. Some of the micro-propulsion technologies listed have also flown as secondary propulsion systems on larger spacecraft. Operating principles and key design considerations for each class of propulsion system are outlined. Finally, the performance factors of micro-propulsion systems have been summarized in terms of: first, a comparison of thrust and specific impulse for all propulsion systems; second, a comparison of power and specific impulse, as also thrust-to-power ratio and specific impulse for electric propulsion systems.

  3. New technology for sulfide reductions and increased oil recovery: Petroleum project fact sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-14

    This Fact Sheet is written for the Inventions and Innovations Program about a new technology for sulfide reduction and increased oil recovery. The new technology, called Bio-Competitive Exclusion (BCX), results in greater oil production and prevents the production of corrosive hydrogen sulfide in oil and gas reservoirs. This BCX process is initiated and maintained by a new product, called Max-Well 2000, in which nutrients are custom designed to stimulate targeted beneficial microorganisms that live in every oil and gas reservoir. Rapid growth of these microorganisms excludes activity of harmful sulfide-producing bacteria and produces by-products that serve as effective tertiary oil recovery agents and as sulfide degradation agents. Oil and gas production is both increased and sweetened.

  4. Overview of deformable mirror technologies for adaptive optics and astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madec, P.-Y.

    2012-07-01

    From the ardent bucklers used during the Syracuse battle to set fire to Romans’ ships to more contemporary piezoelectric deformable mirrors widely used in astronomy, from very large voice coil deformable mirrors considered in future Extremely Large Telescopes to very small and compact ones embedded in Multi Object Adaptive Optics systems, this paper aims at giving an overview of Deformable Mirror technology for Adaptive Optics and Astronomy. First the main drivers for the design of Deformable Mirrors are recalled, not only related to atmospheric aberration compensation but also to environmental conditions or mechanical constraints. Then the different technologies available today for the manufacturing of Deformable Mirrors will be described, pros and cons analyzed. A review of the Companies and Institutes with capabilities in delivering Deformable Mirrors to astronomers will be presented, as well as lessons learned from the past 25 years of technological development and operation on sky. In conclusion, perspective will be tentatively drawn for what regards the future of Deformable Mirror technology for Astronomy.

  5. European hydrogen and fuel cell technology platform. Strategic overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alleau, Th

    2005-07-01

    In January 2004, following the recommendation of the High Level Group, the European Commission set up the European Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Platform (HFP) a partnership of over 300 stakeholders. Its brief? To prepare and direct an effective strategy for bringing hydrogen and fuel cells to market in order to exploit their outstanding environmental and economic potential. An Advisory Council of 35 representatives from a broad range of industry, EC, public authority, academic and NGO stakeholders was set up to guide the activity, together with a number of subsidiary bodies. Two steering panels were then charged with defining a Strategic Research Agenda (SRA) and Deployment Strategy (DS) respectively in order to drive the transition forward. This report gives a work in progress strategic overview, with further details provided in the Executive Summaries of the Strategic Research Agenda and Deployment Strategy foundation documents. (authors)

  6. Alpha contamination assessment for D ampersand D activities: Technology overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conaway, J.G.; Rawool-Sullivan, M.W.; MacArthur, D.W.

    1996-02-01

    Instruments based on the principle of Long-Range Alpha Detection (LRAD) detect the ions created in ambient air by Ionizing radiation, particularly alpha radiation, interacting with air molecules. Using either an electrostatic field or forced convection, these ions can be transported to a detection grid where the ions produce a small current that is measured with a sensitive electrometer. LRAD-based instruments can give separate, simultaneous measurements of alpha-emitting solids and inert radioactive gases such as radon. LRAD-based instruments assess surface contamination on an entire object or large surface area in a single, rapid measurement, including relatively inaccessible areas such as interior surfaces of pipes and process equipment. The LRAD concept is well proven and has been developed into a range of different radiation detection devices. This paper presents an overview of the technology, while several associated papers explore specific applications in greater detail

  7. European hydrogen and fuel cell technology platform. Strategic overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alleau, Th.

    2005-01-01

    In January 2004, following the recommendation of the High Level Group, the European Commission set up the European Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Platform (HFP) a partnership of over 300 stakeholders. Its brief? To prepare and direct an effective strategy for bringing hydrogen and fuel cells to market in order to exploit their outstanding environmental and economic potential. An Advisory Council of 35 representatives from a broad range of industry, EC, public authority, academic and NGO stakeholders was set up to guide the activity, together with a number of subsidiary bodies. Two steering panels were then charged with defining a Strategic Research Agenda (SRA) and Deployment Strategy (DS) respectively in order to drive the transition forward. This report gives a work in progress strategic overview, with further details provided in the Executive Summaries of the Strategic Research Agenda and Deployment Strategy foundation documents. (authors)

  8. Overview: Defense high-level waste technology program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shupe, M.W.; Turner, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    Defense high-level waste generated by atomic energy defense activities is stored on an interim basis at three U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) operating locations; the Savannah River Plant in South Carolina, the Hanford Site in Washington, and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in Idaho. Responsibility for the permanent disposal of this waste resides with DOE's Office of Defense Waste and Transportation Management. The objective of the Defense High-Level Wast Technology Program is to develop the technology for ending interim storage and achieving permanent disposal of all U.S. defense high-level waste. New and readily retrievable high-level waste are immobilized for disposal in a geologic repository. Other high-level waste will be stabilized in-place if, after completion of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process, it is determined, on a site-specific basis, that this option is safe, cost effective and environmentally sound. The immediate program focus is on implementing the waste disposal strategy selected in compliance with the NEPA process at Savannah River, while continuing progress toward development of final waste disposal strategies at Hanford and Idaho. This paper presents an overview of the technology development program which supports these waste management activities and an assessment of the impact that recent and anticipated legal and institutional developments are expected to have on the program

  9. Technologies for Distributed Energy Resources. Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) Technical Assistance Fact Sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitchford, P.; Brown, T.

    2001-01-01

    This four-page fact sheet describes distributed energy resources for Federal facilities, which are being supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). Distributed energy resources include both existing and emerging energy technologies: advanced industrial turbines and microturbines; combined heat and power (CHP) systems; fuel cells; geothermal systems; natural gas reciprocating engines; photovoltaics and other solar systems; wind turbines; small, modular biopower; energy storage systems; and hybrid systems. DOE FEMP is investigating ways to use these alternative energy systems in government facilities to meet greater demand, to increase the reliability of the power-generation system, and to reduce the greenhouse gases associated with burning fossil fuels

  10. Overview of plant life extension technology development in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, T.; Arai, H.; Akiyama, M.; Mishima, Y.; Okubo, T.

    1993-01-01

    In Japan, it is expected that the nuclear power will continue to play an important role in electric power supply. Since it is expected that the fast breeder reactor (FBR) will be introduced sometime during the first half of the 21st century, light water reactors (LWRs) will continue to play a key role some 30 to 40 years to come. For this reason, technology development projects are being implemented to further enhance light water reactor technology and thereby improve the reliability of LWRs. From this point, the Plant Life Extension (PLEX) technology development program [1-4] is entrusted by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry to the Japan Power Engineering and Inspection Corporation (JAPEIC). This program is an 11-year plan which started in 1985. The objectives are to extend the service lives of existing LWRs to increase the energy generated by these plants during their lifetime, and to reduce the lifetime generating costs. In this report, we will present our project overview and recent activities with respect to extensive verification tests on component material behavior. The JAPEIC PLEX project is divided into 3 phases. Phase I is the feasibility study. Phase 2 involves the verification tests and the evaluation of life extension technologies. The overall evaluation of the project will be conducted in Phase 3. The feasibility study of Phase I has been completed in fiscal year 1985 and 1986. In Phase I, the important components (the components and structures that are likely to govern the lives of nuclear power plants) have been selected. (author)

  11. The Digital Economy: Social Interaction Technologies – an Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teófilo Redondo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Social interaction technologies (SIT is a very broad field that encompasses a large list of topics: interactive and networked computing, mobile social services and the Social Web, social software and social media, marketing and advertising, various aspects and uses of blogs and podcasting, corporate value and web-based collaboration, e-government and online democracy, virtual volunteering, different aspects and uses of folksonomies, tagging and the social semantic cloud of tags, blog-based knowledge management systems, systems of online learning, with their ePortfolios, blogs and wikis in education and journalism, legal issues and social interaction technology, dataveillance and online fraud, neogeography, social software usability, social software in libraries and nonprofit organizations, and broadband visual communication technology for enhancing social interaction. The fact is that the daily activities of many businesses are being socialized, as is the case with Yammer (https://www.yammer.com/, the social enterprise social network. The leitmotivs of social software are: create, connect, contribute, and collaborate.

  12. Overview of DOE's field screening technology development activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, C.W.; Anderson, T.D.; Cooley, C.R.; Hain, K.E.; Lien, S.C.T.; Erickson, M.D.

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has recently created the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, into which it consolidated those activities. Within this new organization, the Office of Technology Development (OTD) is responsible for research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation (RDDT ampersand E) activities aimed at meeting DOE cleanup goals, while minimizing cost and risk. Site characterization using traditional drilling, sampling, and analytical methods comprises a significant part of the environmental restoration efforts in terms of both cost and time to accomplish. It can also be invasive and create additional pathways for spread of contaminants. Consequently, DOE is focusing on site characterization as one of the areas in which significant technological advances are possible which will decrease cost, reduce risk, and shorten schedules for achieving restoration goals. DOE is investing considerably in R ampersand D and demonstration activities which will improve the abilities to screen chemical, radiological, and physical parameters in the field. This paper presents an overview of the program objectives and status and reviews some of the projects which are currently underway in the area. 1 ref

  13. An Overview on Wireless Sensor Networks Technology and Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Buratti

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs enable new applications and require non-conventional paradigms for protocol design due to several constraints. Owing to the requirement for low device complexity together with low energy consumption (i.e., long network lifetime, a proper balance between communication and signal/data processing capabilities must be found. This motivates a huge effort in research activities, standardization process, and industrial investments on this field since the last decade. This survey paper aims at reporting an overview of WSNs technologies, main applications and standards, features in WSNs design, and evolutions. In particular, some peculiar applications, such as those based on environmental monitoring, are discussed and design strategies highlighted; a case study based on a real implementation is also reported. Trends and possible evolutions are traced. Emphasis is given to the IEEE 802.15.4 technology, which enables many applications of WSNs. Some example of performance characteristics of 802.15.4-based networks are shown and discussed as a function of the size of the WSN and the data type to be exchanged among nodes.

  14. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; forest structure and fire hazard fact sheet 01: forest structure and fire hazard overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocky Mountain Research Station USDA Forest Service

    2004-01-01

    Many managers and policymakers guided by the National Environmental Policy Act process want to understand the scientific principles on which they can base fuel treatments for reducing the size and severity of wildfires. These Forest Structure and Fire Hazard fact sheets discuss how to estimate fire hazard, how to visualize fuel treatments, and how the role of...

  15. Overview of steam generator tube-inspection technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrutsky, L.; Renaud, J.; Lakhan, R.

    2014-01-01

    overview of regulatory issues, the current scope of SG inspections and inspection technology. (author)

  16. Overview of steam generator tube-inspection technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obrutsky, L.; Renaud, J.; Lakhan, R., E-mail: obrutskl@aecl.ca, E-mail: renaudj@aecl.ca, E-mail: lakhanr@aecl.ca [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-03-15

    evolution. It presents an overview of regulatory issues, the current scope of SG inspections and inspection technology. (author)

  17. Mass Spectrometry Based Lipidomics: An Overview of Technological Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köfeler, Harald C.; Fauland, Alexander; Rechberger, Gerald N.; Trötzmüller, Martin

    2012-01-01

    One decade after the genomic and the proteomic life science revolution, new ‘omics’ fields are emerging. The metabolome encompasses the entity of small molecules—Most often end products of a catalytic process regulated by genes and proteins—with the lipidome being its fat soluble subdivision. Within recent years, lipids are more and more regarded not only as energy storage compounds but also as interactive players in various cellular regulation cycles and thus attain rising interest in the bio-medical community. The field of lipidomics is, on one hand, fuelled by analytical technology advances, particularly mass spectrometry and chromatography, but on the other hand new biological questions also drive analytical technology developments. Compared to fairly standardized genomic or proteomic high-throughput protocols, the high degree of molecular heterogeneity adds a special analytical challenge to lipidomic analysis. In this review, we will take a closer look at various mass spectrometric platforms for lipidomic analysis. We will focus on the advantages and limitations of various experimental setups like ‘shotgun lipidomics’, liquid chromatography—Mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) based approaches. We will also examine available software packages for data analysis, which nowadays is in fact the rate limiting step for most ‘omics’ workflows. PMID:24957366

  18. Mass Spectrometry Based Lipidomics: An Overview of Technological Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald C. Köfeler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One decade after the genomic and the proteomic life science revolution, new ‘omics’ fields are emerging. The metabolome encompasses the entity of small molecules—Most often end products of a catalytic process regulated by genes and proteins—with the lipidome being its fat soluble subdivision. Within recent years, lipids are more and more regarded not only as energy storage compounds but also as interactive players in various cellular regulation cycles and thus attain rising interest in the bio-medical community. The field of lipidomics is, on one hand, fuelled by analytical technology advances, particularly mass spectrometry and chromatography, but on the other hand new biological questions also drive analytical technology developments. Compared to fairly standardized genomic or proteomic high-throughput protocols, the high degree of molecular heterogeneity adds a special analytical challenge to lipidomic analysis. In this review, we will take a closer look at various mass spectrometric platforms for lipidomic analysis. We will focus on the advantages and limitations of various experimental setups like ‘shotgun lipidomics’, liquid chromatography—Mass spectrometry (LC-MS and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF based approaches. We will also examine available software packages for data analysis, which nowadays is in fact the rate limiting step for most ‘omics’ workflows.

  19. Overview of bladder heating technology: matching capabilities with clinical requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, Paul R.; van Rhoon, Gerard C.

    2016-01-01

    Moderate temperature hyperthermia (40–450°C for one hour) is emerging as an effective treatment to enhance best available chemotherapy strategies for bladder cancer. A rapidly increasing number of clinical trials have investigated the feasibility and efficacy of treating bladder cancer with combined intravesical chemotherapy and moderate temperature hyperthermia. To date, most studies have concerned treatment of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) limited to the interior wall of the bladder. Following the promising results of initial clinical trials, investigators are now considering protocols for treatment of muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). This paper provides a brief overview of the devices and techniques used for heating bladder cancer. Systems are described for thermal conduction heating of bladder wall via circulation of hot fluid, intravesical microwave antenna heating, capacitively coupled RF current heating, and radiofrequency phased array deep regional heating of the pelvis. Relative heating characteristics of the available technologies are compared based on published feasibility studies, and the systems correlated with clinical requirements for effective treatment of MIBC and NMIBC. PMID:26939993

  20. Disruptive technological advances in vascular access for dialysis: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Wee-Song; Ng, Qin Xiang

    2017-11-29

    End-stage kidney disease (ESKD), one of the most prevalent diseases in the world and with increasing incidence, is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Current available modes of renal replacement therapy (RRT) include dialysis and renal transplantation. Though renal transplantation is the preferred and ideal mode of RRT, this modality may not be available to all patients with ESKD. Moreover, renal transplant recipients are constantly at risk of complications associated with immunosuppression and immunosuppressant use, and posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder. Dialysis may be the only available modality in certain patients. However, dialysis has its limitations, which include issues associated with lack of vascular access, risks of infections and vascular thrombosis, decreased quality of life, and absence of biosynthetic functions of the kidney. In particular, the creation and maintenance of hemodialysis vascular access in children poses a unique set of challenges to the pediatric nephrologist owing to the smaller vessel diameters and vascular hyperreactivity compared with adult patients. Vascular access issues continue to be one of the major limiting factors prohibiting the delivery of adequate dialysis in ESKD patients and is the Achilles' heel of hemodialysis. This review aims to provide a critical overview of disruptive technological advances and innovations for vascular access. Novel strategies in preventing neointimal hyperplasia, novel bioengineered products, grafts and devices for vascular access will be discussed. The potential impact of these solutions on improving the morbidity encountered by dialysis patients will also be examined.

  1. Photovoltaics Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-02-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the Photovoltaics (PV) subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Solar Energy Technologies Office works with industry, academia, national laboratories, and other government agencies to advance solar PV, which is the direct conversion of sunlight into electricity by a semiconductor, in support of the goals of the SunShot Initiative. SunShot supports research and development to aggressively advance PV technology by improving efficiency and reliability and lowering manufacturing costs. SunShot’s PV portfolio spans work from early-stage solar cell research through technology commercialization, including work on materials, processes, and device structure and characterization techniques.

  2. Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) Technology Development Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stephen J.; Cheatwood, F. McNeil; Calomino, Anthony M.; Wright, Henry S.

    2013-01-01

    The successful flight of the Inflatable Reentry Vehicle Experiment (IRVE)-3 has further demonstrated the potential value of Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) technology. This technology development effort is funded by NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) Game Changing Development Program (GCDP). This paper provides an overview of a multi-year HIAD technology development effort, detailing the projects completed to date and the additional testing planned for the future. The effort was divided into three areas: Flexible Systems Development (FSD), Mission Advanced Entry Concepts (AEC), and Flight Validation. FSD consists of a Flexible Thermal Protection Systems (FTPS) element, which is investigating high temperature materials, coatings, and additives for use in the bladder, insulator, and heat shield layers; and an Inflatable Structures (IS) element which includes manufacture and testing (laboratory and wind tunnel) of inflatable structures and their associated structural elements. AEC consists of the Mission Applications element developing concepts (including payload interfaces) for missions at multiple destinations for the purpose of demonstrating the benefits and need for the HIAD technology as well as the Next Generation Subsystems element. Ground test development has been pursued in parallel with the Flight Validation IRVE-3 flight test. A larger scale (6m diameter) HIAD inflatable structure was constructed and aerodynamically tested in the National Full-scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) 40ft by 80ft test section along with a duplicate of the IRVE-3 3m article. Both the 6m and 3m articles were tested with instrumented aerodynamic covers which incorporated an array of pressure taps to capture surface pressure distribution to validate Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model predictions of surface pressure distribution. The 3m article also had a duplicate IRVE-3 Thermal Protection System (TPS) to test in addition to testing with the

  3. Synthesis of a hybrid model of the VSC FACTS devices and HVDC technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovikov, Yu S.; Gusev, A. S.; Sulaymanov, A. O.; Ufa, R. A.

    2014-10-01

    The motivation of the presented research is based on the need for development of new methods and tools for adequate simulation of FACTS devices and HVDC systems as part of real electric power systems (EPS). The Research object: An alternative hybrid approach for synthesizing VSC-FACTS and -HVDC hybrid model is proposed. The results: the VSC- FACTS and -HVDC hybrid model is designed in accordance with the presented concepts of hybrid simulation. The developed model allows us to carry out adequate simulation in real time of all the processes in HVDC, FACTS devices and EPS as a whole without any decomposition and limitation on their duration, and also use the developed tool for effective solution of a design, operational and research tasks of EPS containing such devices.

  4. Synthesis of a hybrid model of the VSC FACTS devices and HVDC technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borovikov, Yu S; Gusev, A S; Sulaymanov, A O; Ufa, R A

    2014-01-01

    The motivation of the presented research is based on the need for development of new methods and tools for adequate simulation of FACTS devices and HVDC systems as part of real electric power systems (EPS). The Research object: An alternative hybrid approach for synthesizing VSC-FACTS and -HVDC hybrid model is proposed. The results: the VSC- FACTS and -HVDC hybrid model is designed in accordance with the presented concepts of hybrid simulation. The developed model allows us to carry out adequate simulation in real time of all the processes in HVDC, FACTS devices and EPS as a whole without any decomposition and limitation on their duration, and also use the developed tool for effective solution of a design, operational and research tasks of EPS containing such devices

  5. Recirculating aquaculture production systems : an overview of different components, management, economics and technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kals, J.

    2004-01-01

    Report of a literature study on Recirculating aquaculture production systems executed within the MRG ercirculation program. The report gives an overview of different components, management, economics and technology and is made by the Netherlands Institute for Fisheries Research (RIVO).

  6. Overview of the Defense Programs Research and Technology Development Program for Fiscal Year 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-30

    This documents presents a programmatic overview and program element plan summaries for conceptual design and assessment; physics; computation and modeling; system engineering science and technology; electronics, photonics, sensors, and mechanical components; chemistry and materials; special nuclear materials, tritium, and explosives.

  7. An overview of flight computer technologies for future NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkalai, L.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we present an overview of current developments by several US Government Agencies and associated programs, towards high-performance single board computers for use in space. Three separate projects will be described; two that are based on the Power PC processor, and one based on the Pentium processor.

  8. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Facts Bath Salts Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Marijuana (Weed, Pot) Facts MDMA ( ... Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/ ...

  9. Technology assisted education: An overview of success factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Asgarkhani

    Full Text Available This paper elaborates on the role of digital and web technologies in learning. It discusses that technology alone cannot deliver successful learning outcomes. In rolling out technology-enabled learning solutions a range of other factors must be taken into consideration. A model for technology-based learning values and pilot study of a group of technology-enabled digital learning initiatives in institutions are presented to highlight the importance of people and process related factors alongside technology. The outcome of this preliminary study is presented; it indicates no significant strategic gains were derived from the use of web-technologies.

  10. Computing, Information, and Communications Technology (CICT) Program Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDalsem, William R.

    2003-01-01

    The Computing, Information and Communications Technology (CICT) Program's goal is to enable NASA's Scientific Research, Space Exploration, and Aerospace Technology Missions with greater mission assurance, for less cost, with increased science return through the development and use of advanced computing, information and communication technologies

  11. Airspace Technology Demonstration 3 (ATD-3): Applied Traffic Flow Management Project Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chester

    2016-01-01

    ATD-3 Project Overview for 3rd Joint Workshop for KAIA-KARI - NASA ATM Research Collaboration. This presentation gives a high level description of the ATD-3 project and related technologies. These technologies include Multi-Flight Common Routes (MFCR), Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR) and Dynamic Routes for Arrivals in Weather (DRAW).

  12. Wireless Technology in the Library: The RIT Experience: Overview of the Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitkin, Pat

    2001-01-01

    Provides an overview of a project at RIT (Rochester Institute of Technology) that experimented with wireless technology, including laptop computers that circulate within the library building. Discusses project requirements, including ease of use, low maintenance, and low cost; motivation, including mobility; implementation; and benefits to the…

  13. An overview of exhaust emissions regulatory requirements and control technology for stationary natural gas engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballard, H.N.; Hay, S.C.; Shade, W.N. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper a practical overview of stationary natural gas engine exhaust emissions control technology and trends in emissions regulatory requirements is presented. Selective and non-selective catalytic reduction and lean burn technologies are compared. Particular emphasis is focussed on implications of the Clean Air Act of 1990. Recent emissions reduction conversion kit developments and a practical approach to continuous monitoring are discussed

  14. An overview of enabling technology research in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, Charles C.

    2002-01-01

    The mission of the US Fusion Energy Sciences Program is to advance plasma science, fusion science, and fusion technology--the knowledge base needed for an economically and environmentally attractive fusion energy source. In support of this overall mission, the Enabling Technology Program in the US incorporates both near and long term R and D, contributes to material and engineering sciences as well as technology development, contributes to spin-off applications, and performs global systems assessments and focused design studies. This work supports both magnetic and inertial fusion energy (IFE) concepts. The Enabling Technology research mission is to contribute to the national science and technology base by developing the enabling technology for existing and next-step experimental devices, by exploring and understanding key materials and technology feasibility issues for attractive fusion power sources, by conducting advanced design studies that integrate the wealth of our understanding to guide R and D priorities and by developing design solutions for next-step and future devices. The Enabling Technology Program Plan is organized around five elements: plasma technologies, fusion (chamber) technologies, materials sciences, advanced design, and IFE chamber and target technologies. The principal technical features and research objectives are described for each element

  15. Fact Sheet for Friction Materials Manufacturing Facilities Residual Risk and Technology Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    proposed amendments to the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Friction Materials Manufacturing Facilities to address the results of the residual risk and technology review

  16. Drug Facts

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  17. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

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  18. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

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  19. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

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  20. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Crank, Ice) Facts Pain Medicine (Oxy, Vike) Facts Spice (K2) Facts Tobacco and Nicotine Facts Other Drugs ... Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/Nicotine Other Drugs You can call ...

  1. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ecstasy, Molly) Facts Meth (Crank, Ice) Facts Pain Medicine (Oxy, Vike) Facts Spice (K2) Facts Tobacco and ... Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/Nicotine Other Drugs You can ...

  2. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

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  3. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Marijuana (Weed, Pot) Facts MDMA (Ecstasy, Molly) Facts Meth (Crank, ... Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/Nicotine ...

  4. Drug Facts

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  5. Overview of Stirling Technology Research at NASA Glenn Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Scott D.; Schifer, Nicholas A.; Williams, Zachary D.; Metscher, Jonathan F.

    2016-01-01

    Stirling Radioisotope Power Systems (RPSs) are under development to provide power on future space science missions where robotic spacecraft will orbit, fly by, land, or rove using less than a quarter of the plutonium the currently available RPS uses to produce about the same power. NASA Glenn Research Center's newly formulated Stirling Cycle Technology Development Project (SCTDP) continues development of Stirling-based systems and subsystems, which include a flight-like generator and related housing assembly, controller, and convertors. The project also develops less mature technologies under Stirling Technology Research, with a focus on demonstration in representative environments to increase the technology readiness level (TRL). Matured technologies are evaluated for selection in future generator designs. Stirling Technology Research tasks focus on a wide variety of objectives, including increasing temperature capability to enable new environments, reducing generator mass and/or size, improving reliability and system fault tolerance, and developing alternative designs. The task objectives and status are summarized.

  6. Battery Energy Storage Technology for power systems-An overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chandrashekhara, Divya K; Østergaard, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    the present status of battery energy storage technology and methods of assessing their economic viability and impact on power system operation. Further, a discussion on the role of battery storage systems of electric hybrid vehicles in power system storage technologies had been made. Finally, the paper...... suggests a likely future outlook for the battery technologies and the electric hybrid vehicles in the context of power system applications....

  7. An overview of DARPA's advanced space technology program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicastri, E.; Dodd, J.

    1993-02-01

    The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is the central research and development organization of the DoD and, as such, has the primary responsibility for the maintenance of U.S. technological superiority over potential adversaries. DARPA's programs focus on technology development and proof-of-concept demonstrations of both evolutionary and revolutionary approaches for improved strategic, conventional, rapid deployment and sea power forces, and on the scientific investigation into advanced basic technologies of the future. DARPA can move quickly to exploit new ideas and concepts by working directly with industry and universities. For four years, DARPA's Advanced Space Technology Program (ASTP) has addressed various ways to improve the performance of small satellites and launch vehicles. The advanced technologies that are being and will be developed by DARPA for small satellites can be used just as easily on large satellites. The primary objective of the ASTP is to enhance support to operational commanders by developing and applying advanced technologies that will provide cost-effective, timely, flexible, and responsive space systems. Fundamental to the ASTP effort is finding new ways to do business with the goal of quickly inserting new technologies into DoD space systems while reducing cost. In our view, these methods are prime examples of what may be termed 'technology leveraging.' The ASTP has initiated over 50 technology projects, many of which were completed and transitioned to users. The objectives are to quickly qualify these higher risk technologies for use on future programs and reduce the risk of inserting these technologies into major systems, and to provide the miniaturized systems that would enable smaller satellites to have significant - rather than limited - capability. Only a few of the advanced technologies are described, the majority of which are applicable to both large and small satellites.

  8. Overview of U.S. Fast Reactor Technology Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, Robert

    2013-01-01

    • Concept development studies guide R&D tasks by evaluating system impact for broad variety of technology options: – Small-scale facilities for R&D on key technology; – No near-term plan for demonstration reactor. • Fast reactor R&D is focused on key technologies innovations for performance improvement (cost reduction): – Advanced Structural Materials; – Advanced Energy Conversion; – Advanced Modeling and Simulation. • Other R&D is conducted to address known technology challenges: – Safety and Licensing; – Fuels Development; – Undersodium Viewing

  9. High Energy Laser Joint Technology Office: a mission overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, Don D.; Slater, John M.

    2004-10-01

    The High Energy Laser Joint Technology Office (HEL-JTO) was established in 2000 for the purpose of developing and executing a comprehensive investment strategy for HEL science and technology that would underpin weapons development. The JTO is currently sponsoring 80 programs across industry, academia, and government agencies with a budget of approximately $60 million. The competitively awarded programs are chosen to advance the current state of the art in HEL technology and fill technology gaps, thus providing a broad capability that can be harvested in acquisition programs by the military services.

  10. Systems Integration Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the Systems Integration subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. The Systems Integration subprogram enables the widespread deployment of safe, reliable, and cost-effective solar energy technologies by addressing the associated technical and non-technical challenges. These include timely and cost-effective interconnection procedures, optimal system planning, accurate prediction of solar resources, monitoring and control of solar power, maintaining grid reliability and stability, and many more. To address the challenges associated with interconnecting and integrating hundreds of gigawatts of solar power onto the electricity grid, the Systems Integration program funds research, development, and demonstration projects in four broad, interrelated focus areas: grid performance and reliability, dispatchability, power electronics, and communications.

  11. Environmental technology applications: fact file on toxic contaminants in industrial waste process streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newkirk, H.W.

    1977-05-11

    This report is a compendium of facts related to chemical materials present in industrial waste process streams which have already been declared or are being evaluated as hazardous under the Toxic Substances Control Act. Since some 400 chemicals are presently covered by consensus standards, the substances reviewed are only those considered to be a major threat to public health and welfare by Federal and State regulatory agencies. For each hazardous material cited, the facts relate, where possible, to an identification of the stationary industrial sources, the kind of waste stream impacted, proposed regulations and established effluent standards, the volume of emissions produced each year, the volume of emissions per unit of industrial product produced, present clean-up capabilities, limitations, and costs. These data should be helpful in providing information for the assessment of potential problems, should be of use to the manufacturers of pollution control equipment or of chemicals for pollution control, should be of use to the operators or potential operators of processes which produce pollutants, and should help to define industry-wide emission practices and magnitudes.

  12. Overview of NASA Power Technologies for Space and Aero Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Raymond F.

    2014-01-01

    To achieve the ambitious goals that NASA has outlined for the next decades considerable development of power technology will be necessary. This presentation outlines the development objectives for both the space and aero applications. It further looks at the various power technologies that support these objectives and examines drivers that will be a driving force for future development.

  13. Waste-to-Energy and Fuel Cell Technologies Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    Type (based on 40-million SCF* of biogas per year**) Generator Type Megawatt‐hours/year PAFC 2,900 MCFC 3,300 Mi t bi 1 800cro‐ ur ne , Reciprocating...anaerobic digestion of organic matter, are most easily mated to these fuel cell systems . Innovation for Our Energy Future Comparison by Generator ...Engine 1,500 * ~830 Btu/SCF (HHV) ** WWTP serving a community of about 110,000 people This comparison ignores the fact that generators do not come in

  14. Revealing facts behind spray dried solid dispersion technology used for solubility enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Bhavesh B.; Patel, Jayvadan K.; Chakraborty, Subhashis; Shukla, Dali

    2013-01-01

    Poor solubility and bioavailability of an existing or newly synthesized drug always pose challenge in the development of efficient pharmaceutical formulation. Numerous technologies can be used to improve the solubility and among them amorphous solid dispersion based spray drying technology can be successfully useful for development of product from lab scale to commercial scale with a wide range of powder characteristics. Current review deals with the importance of spray drying technology in drug delivery, basically for solubility and bioavailability enhancement. Role of additives, selection of polymer, effect of process and formulation parameters, scale up optimization, and IVIVC have been covered to gain the interest of readers about the technology. Design of experiment (DoE) to optimize the spray drying process has been covered in the review. A lot more research work is required to evaluate spray drying as a technology for screening the right polymer for solid dispersion, especially to overcome the issue related to drug re-crystallization and to achieve a stable product both in vitro and in vivo. Based on the recent FDA recommendation, the need of the hour is also to adopt Quality by Design approach in the manufacturing process to carefully optimize the spray drying technology for its smooth transfer from lab scale to commercial scale. PMID:27134535

  15. In-situ and on-site technologies; An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freestone, F J [Technical Support Branch, ORD, RREL, U.S. EPA, Edison, New Jersey (US)

    1990-01-01

    A broad analysis of and perspective on the characteristics and measured performance of in-situ and on-site treatment technologies available for remediation of contaminated soils, groundwater and associated debris at hazardous waste sites. Included in the analysis is information from U.S. and European sources. Available data are appended from nine recently completed field demonstrations from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program. The most frequently applied technology areas appear to be on-site thermal treatment for organics, on-site and in-situ solidification/stabilization technologies for most inorganics and metals, traditional on-site water treatment techniques, and soil vapor extraction for volatile organic compounds. Rapidly developing areas include bioremediation technologies, and concentration technologies. Two of the weakest areas include materials handling for such situations as excavating buried drums and soils with volatiles safely, and performing physical and chemical site characterization using technology-sensitive parameters. An area worthy of international cooperatin is that of performing benchscale screening and treatability studies, including the specification of key parameters needing measurement, techniques for such measurement and for interpretation, storage and retrieval of resulting data. We are in the process of evaluating existing treatability study data on soils and debris, and will be installing that data onto an on-line information system available to the public world-wide. (AB) 10 refs.

  16. Institutional overviews. Overview of the JAEA and the Nuclear Nonproliferation Science and Technology Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senzaki, Masao

    2006-01-01

    The Nuclear Nonproliferation Science and Technology Center (NPSTC) was formed within the new Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) to carry out safeguards and material control duties for the JAEA. Development of technologies and procedures for safeguards is an important duty. In addition, the new NPSTC will assume a 'think tank' role in support of the nonproliferation regime, help train nonproliferation experts, and cooperate with academic, government and non-governmental organizations on nonproliferation issues. This report briefly summarizes the formation of the JAEA and describes the duties and structure of the NPSTC in detail. (author)

  17. Overview of space nuclear technologies and the American Nuclear Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singleterry, R.C. Jr.

    2000-01-01

    The American Nuclear Society (ANS) has seen an aspect of the universe where nuclear technology is the best energy source available for power, transportation, etc. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been exploiting this aspect of the universe by sending machines and humans into it and exploring, colonizing, industrializing, developing, inhabiting, etc. Space is the final frontier, and nuclear technology is the best suited for today's or the next century's space exploration and development. Many aspects of nuclear technology and its uses in space will be needed. ANS encompasses these and many more aspects of nuclear technology, and all have some role to play in the exploration and development of space. It should be ANS's intent to be an advisory body to NASA on the nuclear aspects of space exploration

  18. Overview and future prospects of laser plasma propulsion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Zhiyuan; Lu Xin; Zhang Jie

    2003-01-01

    Due to its high cost, low efficiency, complex operation and unsatisfactory recycling, traditional rocket propulsion by chemical fuels has hindered the exploration of outer space to further limits. With the rapid development of laser and space technology, the new technology of laser propulsion exhibits unique advantages and prospects. The mechanism and current development of laser plasma propulsion are reviewed, with mention of the technical problems and focus issues of laser plasma in micro-flight propulsion

  19. An overview of weapons technologies used to improve US healthcare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahrenholtz, J.; Kovarik, T.L.

    1995-01-01

    At Sandia National Laboratories the Biomedical Engineering Program uses existing weapons-related technology in medical applications in order to reduce health care costs, improve diagnoses, and promote efficient health care delivery. This paper describes several projects which use Sandia technologies to solve biomedical problems. Specific technical capabilities that are important to this program include sensor data interpretation, robotics, lasers and optics, microelectronics, image processing and materials

  20. Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This section describes the activities and accomplishments of the DOE research and development program offices. The Office of Energy Research (ER) manages fundamental science and basic energy research programs in several areas: high-energy physics; nuclear physics; the physical, biological, and mathematical sciences; magnetic fusion energy; and environmental and health effects. ER also supports many scientific user facilities that are used by universities and private-sector researchers and manages the DOE Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program and the R ampersand D Laboratory Technology Transfer Program. Brief descriptions of technology transfer accomplishments in each of these areas are given

  1. Energizing Government Decision-Makers with the Facts on Solar Technology, Policy, and Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-01

    The Solar Technical Assistance Team (STAT) is a network of solar technology and implementation experts who provide timely, unbiased expertise to assist policymakers and regulators in making informed decisions about solar programs and policies. Government officials can submit requests directly to the STAT for technical assistance. STAT then partners with experts in solar policy, regulation, finance, technology, and other areas to deliver accurate, up-to-date information to state and local decision makers. The STAT responds to requests on a wide range of issues -- including, but not limited to, feed-in tariffs, renewable portfolio standards, rate design, program design, workforce and economic impacts of solar on jurisdictions, and project financing.

  2. Overview and Summary of the Advanced Mirror Technology Development Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. P.

    2014-01-01

    Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) is a NASA Strategic Astrophysics Technology project to mature to TRL-6 the critical technologies needed to produce 4-m or larger flight-qualified UVOIR mirrors by 2018 so that a viable mission can be considered by the 2020 Decadal Review. The developed mirror technology must enable missions capable of both general astrophysics & ultra-high contrast observations of exoplanets. Just as JWST’s architecture was driven by launch vehicle, a future UVOIR mission’s architectures (monolithic, segmented or interferometric) will depend on capacities of future launch vehicles (and budget). Since we cannot predict the future, we must prepare for all potential futures. Therefore, to provide the science community with options, we are pursuing multiple technology paths. AMTD uses a science-driven systems engineering approach. We derived engineering specifications for potential future monolithic or segmented space telescopes based on science needs and implement constraints. And we are maturing six inter-linked critical technologies to enable potential future large aperture UVOIR space telescope: 1) Large-Aperture, Low Areal Density, High Stiffness Mirrors, 2) Support Systems, 3) Mid/High Spatial Frequency Figure Error, 4) Segment Edges, 5) Segment-to-Segment Gap Phasing, and 6) Integrated Model Validation Science Advisory Team and a Systems Engineering Team. We are maturing all six technologies simultaneously because all are required to make a primary mirror assembly (PMA); and, it is the PMA’s on-orbit performance which determines science return. PMA stiffness depends on substrate and support stiffness. Ability to cost-effectively eliminate mid/high spatial figure errors and polishing edges depends on substrate stiffness. On-orbit thermal and mechanical performance depends on substrate stiffness, the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and thermal mass. And, segment-to-segment phasing depends on substrate & structure stiffness

  3. An Overview of SBIR Phase 2 Communications Technology and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.

    2015-01-01

    Technological innovation is the overall focus of NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The program invests in the development of innovative concepts and technologies to help NASA's mission directorates address critical research and development needs for agency projects. This report highlights innovative SBIR Phase II projects from 2007-2012 specifically addressing areas in Communications Technology and Development which is one of six core competencies at NASA Glenn Research Center. There are eighteen technologies featured with emphasis on a wide spectrum of applications such as with a security-enhanced autonomous network management, secure communications using on-demand single photons, cognitive software-defined radio, spacesuit audio systems, multiband photonic phased-array antenna, and much more. Each article in this booklet describes an innovation, technical objective, and highlights NASA commercial and industrial applications. This report serves as an opportunity for NASA personnel including engineers, researchers, and program managers to learn of NASA SBIR's capabilities that might be crosscutting into this technology area. As the result, it would cause collaborations and partnerships between the small companies and NASA Programs and Projects resulting in benefit to both SBIR companies and NASA.

  4. Medical simulation technology: educational overview, industry leaders, and what's missing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, Nicholas; Hurst, Stephen; Khadra, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Modern medical simulation technology (MST) debuted in 1960 with the development of Resusci Annie (Laerdal 2007), which assisted students in the acquisition of proper ventilation and compression techniques used during basic life support. Following a steady stream of subsequent technological advances and innovations, MST manufacturers are now able to offer training aids capable of facilitating innovative learning in such diverse areas as human patient simulators, simulated clinical environments, virtual procedure stations, virtual medical environments, electronic tutors, and performance recording. The authors list a number of the most popular MSTs presently available while citing evaluative efforts undertaken to date regarding the efficacy of MST to the medical profession. They conclude by proposing a variety of simulation innovations of prospective interest to both medical and technology personnel while offering healthcare administrators a series of recommended considerations when planning to integrate MST into existing medical systems.

  5. Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program: Project fact sheets 2000, status as of June 30, 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-09-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT Program), a model of government and industry cooperation, responds to the Department of Energy's (DOE) mission to foster a secure and reliable energy system that is environmentally and economically sustainable. The CCT Program represents an investment of over $5.2 billion in advanced coal-based technology, with industry and state governments providing an unprecedented 66 percent of the funding. With 26 of the 38 active projects having completed operations, the CCT Program has yielded clean coal technologies (CCTs) that are capable of meeting existing and emerging environmental regulations and competing in a deregulated electric power marketplace. The CCT Program is providing a portfolio of technologies that will assure that U.S. recoverable coal reserves of 274 billion tons can continue to supply the nation's energy needs economically and in an environmentally sound manner. As the nation embarks on a new millennium, many of the clean coal technologies have realized commercial application. Industry stands ready to respond to the energy and environmental demands of the 21st century, both domestically and internationally, For existing power plants, there are cost-effective environmental control devices to control sulfur dioxide (S02), nitrogen oxides (NO,), and particulate matter (PM). Also ready is a new generation of technologies that can produce electricity and other commodities, such as steam and synthetic gas, and provide efficiencies and environmental performance responsive to global climate change concerns. The CCT Program took a pollution prevention approach as well, demonstrating technologies that remove pollutants or their precursors from coal-based fuels before combustion. Finally, new technologies were introduced into the major coal-based industries, such as steel production, to enhance environmental performance. Thanks in part to the CCT Program, coal--abundant, secure, and economical

  6. Medical smart textiles based on fiber optic technology: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaroni, Carlo; Saccomandi, Paola; Schena, Emiliano

    2015-04-13

    The growing interest in the development of smart textiles for medical applications is driven by the aim to increase the mobility of patients who need a continuous monitoring of such physiological parameters. At the same time, the use of fiber optic sensors (FOSs) is gaining large acceptance as an alternative to traditional electrical and mechanical sensors for the monitoring of thermal and mechanical parameters. The potential impact of FOSs is related to their good metrological properties, their small size and their flexibility, as well as to their immunity from electromagnetic field. Their main advantage is the possibility to use textile based on fiber optic in a magnetic resonance imaging environment, where standard electronic sensors cannot be employed. This last feature makes FOSs suitable for monitoring biological parameters (e.g., respiratory and heartbeat monitoring) during magnetic resonance procedures. Research interest in combining FOSs and textiles into a single structure to develop wearable sensors is rapidly growing. In this review we provide an overview of the state-of-the-art of textiles, which use FOSs for monitoring of mechanical parameters of physiological interest. In particular we briefly describe the working principle of FOSs employed in this field and their relevant advantages and disadvantages. Also reviewed are their applications for the monitoring of mechanical parameters of physiological interest.

  7. Medical Smart Textiles Based on Fiber Optic Technology: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaroni, Carlo; Saccomandi, Paola; Schena, Emiliano

    2015-01-01

    The growing interest in the development of smart textiles for medical applications is driven by the aim to increase the mobility of patients who need a continuous monitoring of such physiological parameters. At the same time, the use of fiber optic sensors (FOSs) is gaining large acceptance as an alternative to traditional electrical and mechanical sensors for the monitoring of thermal and mechanical parameters. The potential impact of FOSs is related to their good metrological properties, their small size and their flexibility, as well as to their immunity from electromagnetic field. Their main advantage is the possibility to use textile based on fiber optic in a magnetic resonance imaging environment, where standard electronic sensors cannot be employed. This last feature makes FOSs suitable for monitoring biological parameters (e.g., respiratory and heartbeat monitoring) during magnetic resonance procedures. Research interest in combining FOSs and textiles into a single structure to develop wearable sensors is rapidly growing. In this review we provide an overview of the state-of-the-art of textiles, which use FOSs for monitoring of mechanical parameters of physiological interest. In particular we briefly describe the working principle of FOSs employed in this field and their relevant advantages and disadvantages. Also reviewed are their applications for the monitoring of mechanical parameters of physiological interest. PMID:25871010

  8. Medical Smart Textiles Based on Fiber Optic Technology: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Massaroni

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The growing interest in the development of smart textiles for medical applications is driven by the aim to increase the mobility of patients who need a continuous monitoring of such physiological parameters. At the same time, the use of fiber optic sensors (FOSs is gaining large acceptance as an alternative to traditional electrical and mechanical sensors for the monitoring of thermal and mechanical parameters. The potential impact of FOSs is related to their good metrological properties, their small size and their flexibility, as well as to their immunity from electromagnetic field. Their main advantage is the possibility to use textile based on fiber optic in a magnetic resonance imaging environment, where standard electronic sensors cannot be employed. This last feature makes FOSs suitable for monitoring biological parameters (e.g., respiratory and heartbeat monitoring during magnetic resonance procedures. Research interest in combining FOSs and textiles into a single structure to develop wearable sensors is rapidly growing. In this review we provide an overview of the state-of-the-art of textiles, which use FOSs for monitoring of mechanical parameters of physiological interest. In particular we briefly describe the working principle of FOSs employed in this field and their relevant advantages and disadvantages. Also reviewed are their applications for the monitoring of mechanical parameters of physiological interest.

  9. An overview of the market for energy technologies in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escofet, A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the Mexican energy sector and economy,key characteristics of the electric power and energy conservation market, and business opportunities in energy efficiency and conservation, and cogeneration. Mexico is well endowed with a range of fossil fuel and renewable energy resources. The largest energy resource involves hydrocarbons. The country has crude oil reserves of 51 billion barrels (about 55 years' reserve at the 1990 production rate) and natural gas reserves of 72 trillion cubic feet (equivalent to 14.2 billion barrels of crude oil), most of it associated with oil production. Indigenous thermal coal is of low quality and reserves amount to 643 million tons (equivalent to 3.2 billion barrels of crude oil). Large-scale hydropower is the most important renewable energy resource, with a technical potential of about 85 TWH/year (of which about 35% has been developed). About 400 known geothermal fields have a potential for a total installed capacity of 3,900 MW, with only about 18% of the geothermal potential having been developed to date

  10. An overview of NASA's activities in micro-nano technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocky, J. F.

    2000-01-01

    An examination of how mass is used in spacecraft design indicates that technology efforts directed only to reduce the mass of electronics, both digital and analog will not significantly reduce the mass of a spacecraft, regardless of how much success those efforts achieve.

  11. An Overview of SBIR Phase 2 Airbreathing Propulsion Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.; Bitler, Dean W.

    2014-01-01

    Technological innovation is the overall focus of NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The program invests in the development of innovative concepts and technologies to help NASA's mission directorates address critical research and development needs for agency projects. This report highlights innovative SBIR Phase II projects from 2007-2012 specifically addressing areas in Airbreathing Propulsion which is one of six core competencies at NASA Glenn Research Center. There are twenty technologies featured with emphasis on a wide spectrum of applications such as with a Turbo-Brayton cryocooler for aircraft superconducting systems, braided composite rotorcraft structures, engine air brake, combustion control valve, flexible composite driveshaft, and much more. Each article in this booklet describes an innovation, technical objective, and highlights NASA commercial and industrial applications. This report serves as an opportunity for NASA personnel including engineers, researchers, and program managers to learn of NASA SBIR's capabilities that might be crosscutting into this technology area. As the result, it would cause collaborations and partnerships between the small companies and NASA Programs and Projects resulting in benefit to both SBIR companies and NASA.

  12. Chongqing Economic and Technological Development Area:Community Overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Chongqing Economic and Technological Development Area, for 13 years of development, has made detailed work in building the investment environment, bold job in the management system innovation, full strengths in business recruitment and investment attacting,hard job in cultivating new point of economic growth.

  13. An overview of GSM-R technology and its shortcomings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sniady, Aleksander; Soler, José

    2012-01-01

    Railway communication technologies undergo a revolutionary change bringing them from the analog to the digital era. The European Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS) replaces numerous incompatible analog radio systems, classical side-track signs and legacy in-cab signaling with an integrated...

  14. Brief: Information technology as an aid to productivity in petroleum exploration -- fact or fiction?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, M.; Iliffe, J.

    1994-01-01

    This paper considers the relationship between information technology investment, technical productivity, and business benefit. The effect of introducing IT to the industry and its impact on geoscience is described, along with a discussion of whether investment in IT has brought the expected benefits to other industries. The paper concludes with a consideration of the present business perceptions of IT and asks whether a company, by concentrating solely on such issues as technical productivity, will actually maximize the benefits of IT

  15. Energy Innovation Portal Brings DOE Technologies to the Market (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    For venture capitalists, energy entrepreneurs, and industry veterans, finding the right renewable energy or energy efficiency solution used to be like looking for a needle in a haystack. Now, a searchable treasure trove of innovative U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) technologies is available. Created by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the online Energy Innovation Portal helps businesses and entrepreneurs access the intellectual property of DOE's 17 national laboratories and other research partners.

  16. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... form Search Menu Home Drugs That People Abuse Alcohol Facts Bath Salts Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts ... addiction, and treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain ...

  17. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Facts Search form Search Menu Home Drugs That People Abuse Alcohol Facts Bath Salts Facts Cocaine (Coke, ... Drugs? Effects of Drugs Drug Use and Other People Drug Use and Families Drug Use and Kids ...

  18. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Drugs That People Abuse Alcohol Facts Bath Salts Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) ... treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice ( ...

  19. Moulded Pulp Manufacturing: Overview and Prospects for the Process Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Didone, Mattia; Saxena, Prateek; Meijer, Ellen Brilhuis

    2017-01-01

    Eco-friendly packaging such as moulded pulp products have gained commercial importance in the recent years. However, it remains a greatly under-researched area, and there is an arising need to consolidate the best practices from research and industry in order to increase its implementation....... Moreover, based on the latest research in the field, an innovative drying technique that utilizes concepts derived from impulse drying is presented, and the implementation of this process technology is discussed....

  20. An Overview of Computer Network security and Research Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Rathore, Vandana

    2016-01-01

    The rapid development in the field of computer networks and systems brings both convenience and security threats for users. Security threats include network security and data security. Network security refers to the reliability, confidentiality, integrity and availability of the information in the system. The main objective of network security is to maintain the authenticity, integrity, confidentiality, availability of the network. This paper introduces the details of the technologies used in...

  1. Overview of current and future - clean coal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darthenay, A.

    1995-01-01

    A new generation of advanced coal technology, environmentally cleaner and in many cases more efficient, has been developed: flue gas treatment of pulverized coal combustion, circulating fluidized bed (CFB), integrated gasification with combined cycle (IGCC) and pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC). These techniques are described, giving a balance of their references and of the steps which are still to be got over in order to have industrial processes applicable to large size power plants. 4 tabs

  2. The NASA Next Generation Stirling Technology Program Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, J. G.; Shaltens, R. K.; Wong, W. A.

    2005-12-01

    NASAs Science Mission Directorate is developing the next generation Stirling technology for future Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for surface and deep space missions. The next generation Stirling convertor is one of two advanced power conversion technologies currently being developed for future NASA missions, and is capable of operating for both planetary atmospheres and deep space environments. The Stirling convertor (free-piston engine integrated with a linear alternator) produces about 90 We(ac) and has a specific power of about 90 We/kg. Operating conditions of Thot at 850 degree C and Trej at 90 degree C results in the Stirling convertor estimated efficiency of about 40 per cent. Using the next generation Stirling convertor in future RPS, the "system" specific power is estimated at 8 We/kg. The design lifetime is three years on the surface of Mars and fourteen years in deep space missions. Electrical power of about 160 We (BOM) is produced by two (2) free-piston Stirling convertors heated by two (2) General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. This development is being performed by Sunpower, Athens, OH with Pratt & Whitney, Rocketdyne, Canoga Park, CA under contract to Glenn Research Center (GRC), Cleveland, Ohio. GRC is guiding the independent testing and technology development for the next generation Stirling generator.

  3. An overview to development of fuel cell technology in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amirinejad, M.; Rowshanzamir, S.; Eikani, M.H.

    2005-01-01

    The fuel cell has been known as a modern technology for conversion of chemical energy into electrical energy in the worldwide. Some factors of adaptation to environment targets and high efficiency production of energy are two main reasons that motivated several governments to be active in supporting developments of the fuel cells sector through integrated strategies. The rapid population growth in Iran in recent years is a significant agent of consuming more energy that is satisfied with the fossil resources resulting in environmental problems. The demand for environmental quality and balance in fuel consumption are two main drivers behind the development of fuel cell vehicle in Iran. In order to have sustainable economy and independent on the oil revenue, it is required to make use of oil and natural gas resources in a better manner. Fuel cells are the best candidates to fulfill this requirement. Iran's potential application for this technology in different sectors, design and construction it and fuel system based on natural gas is high. In this paper, current status, potential application, and future research and development of this technology in Iran are investigated

  4. Department of Nuclear Equipment '' High Technology Center - HITEC '' - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krawczyk, P.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The Department of Nuclear Equipment specializes in applications of accelerator technologies in medicine and industrial radiography. It combines research and development with manufacturing activities. The year 2009 was an important and busy period for the Department. We expect to observe already its full results in the coming year. In 2009, the Department concentrated on developing technologies, solutions and elements for use in the new generation of medical accelerators. Design, manufacturing and tests of a model of a new accelerating structure were conducted. The overall mechanical and electrical design of the accelerator was reworked and partially tested. Major efforts were devoted to creating an efficient software environment for the accelerators: new concepts for the control system were developed and tested, and a recording and verification system based on the DICOM standard was completed. A new imaging system was designed and manufactured and work on the associated imaging software was initiated. Design work on a multileaf collimator, begun in 2008, was continued. In effect, an operational model of the device was manufactured which allowed a practical verification of the design ideas. A lull scale prototype is scheduled for manufacture in 2010. The 2009 edition of the HITEC School on Medical Accelerators was directed to Medical Technicians. Very positive feedback from the participants proves the correctness of that decision. The year 2009 was also important for the manufacturing capabilities of the Department of Nuclear Equipment: a new Precision Machining Workshop was established and equipped with modern CNC milling machines. Also, the Vacuum Technologies Laboratory significantly extended the range of its machinery. In 2009 HITEC underwent deep organizational changes. The Quality Management System that governs all aspects of the Department's activities was also substantially redesigned. In December 2009, the new System was successfully audited and

  5. Overview of Heatshield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology (HEEET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, David M.; Ellerby, Donald T.; Gasch, Matthew J.; Mahzari, Milad; Milos, Frank S.; Nishioka, Owen S.; Stackpoole, Margaret M.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Young, Zion W.; Gage, Peter J.; hide

    2018-01-01

    The Heatshield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology (HEEET) projects objective is to mature a 3-D Woven Thermal Protection System (TPS) to Technical Readiness Level (TRL) 6 to support future NASA missions to destinations such as Venus and Saturn. The scope of the project, status of which will be discussed, encompasses development of manufacturing and integration processes, fabrication of a prototype 1m diameter engineering test unit (ETU) that will undergo a series of structural tests, characterizing material aerothermal performance including development of a material response model, and structural testing and analysis to develop tools to support design and establish system capability.

  6. Development of Communication Technologies in Turkey: A General Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Penpece

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Communication is a system that senders have possibility to send message to receiver in general meaning. It is considered that as a modern Turkish economy should use communication systems largely. It is critically important to show Turkey’s usage of communication technologies as a country that keeps up with new developments in the world. Communication tools that examined in this study are postal services, newspaper and magazines, fixed-line telephone and mobile phone, internet. According to examined period it is resulted that the usage of communication tools increased. It is observed that some communication tools usage decreased caused by different factors in some terms.

  7. An Overview of the HomePlug AV2 Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Yonge, Larry; Abad, Jose; Afkhamie, Kaywan; Guerrieri, Lorenzo; Katar, Srinivas; Lioe, Hidayat; Pagani, Pascal; Riva, Raffaele; Schneider, Daniel M.; Schwager, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    HomePlug AV2 is the solution identified by the HomePlug Alliance to achieve the improved data rate performance required by the new generation of multimedia applications without the need to install extra wires. Developed by industry-leading participants in the HomePlug AV Technical Working Group, the HomePlug AV2 technology provides Gigabit-class connection speeds over the existing AC wires within home. It is designed to meet the market demands for the full set of future in-home networking co...

  8. Department of Nuclear Equipment 'High Technology Center - HITEC' - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopec, J.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The main activities of the Department for Nuclear Equipment High Technology Centre in 2008 were focused on the development of specialized systems using linear accelerators for medical applications, realized within the frame of the Innovative Economy Operational Program: · Calculations, simulations and design of accelerator structures and beam shaping devices · Design of a model of carrying structures · Building stands for carrying out critical component examinations and tests A new evolutionary algorithm has been implemented in a three-dimensional treatment planning system for intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) planning optimization. A design for a multi leaf collimator, second model, was worked out. The Department received an Award for the Polkam TBI therapeutic table in the first edition of the '' Teraz-Polska '' national contest for the best Polish innovative product. Equipment manufactured by the High Technology Centre and especially for total body irradiation techniques was presented for the first time during the Biennial Meeting of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology in Goeteborg, Sweden. The second edition of the School of Medical Accelerator Physics organized in October 2008 was well received by medical physicists and physicians. (author)

  9. Effect of technological treatments on bovine lactoferrin: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Indira; Pérez, María Dolores; Conesa, Celia; Calvo, Miguel; Sánchez, Lourdes

    2018-04-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is a multifunctional protein that exerts important activities in the neonate through its presence in milk, and also in other external mucosas, acting as a defense protein of innate immunity. The addition of bovine LF to infant formula and also to other functional products and cosmetics has increased during the last decades. Consequently, it is essential to know the effect that the technological processes, necessary to elaborate those products, have on LF activity. In this study, we have revised the effect of classical treatments on lactoferrin structure and activity, such as heat treatment or drying, and also of emerging technologies, like high pressure or pulsed electric field. The results of the studies included in this review indicate that LF stability is dependent on its level of iron-saturation and on the characteristics of the treatment media. Furthermore, the studies revised here reveal that the non-thermal treatments are interesting alternatives to the traditional ones, as they protect better the structure and activity of lactoferrin. It is also clear the need for research on LF encapsulation by different ways, to protect its properties before it reaches the intestine. All this knowledge would allow designing processes less harmful for LF, thus maintaining all its functionality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. An Overview of Rare Earth Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gschneidner, Karl, Jr.

    2012-02-01

    Currently rare earth science and technology is robust: this includes all the major branches of science -- biochemistry, chemistry, materials and physics. There are, however, currently some anomalies and distortions especially in the technology and applications sector of the rare earth field, which is caused by the dominance of China on the sales of rare earths and rare earth containing products. For the past 5 to 10 years ˜95% of rare earths utilized in commerce came from China. Although Chinese actions have lead to sudden and large price spikes and export embargoes, the rare earths are still available but at a higher cost. The start up of production in 2011 at mines in the USA and Australia will alleviate this situation in about two years. Basic and applied research on the condensed matter physics/materials science has hardly been impacted by these events, but new research opportunities are opening up especially with regard to the USA's military and energy security. Magnets seems to be the hottest topic, but research on battery materials, phosphors and catalysts are also (or should be) strongly considered.

  11. Technological advances in bovine mastitis diagnosis: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Carla M; Freitas, Paulo P; Bexiga, Ricardo

    2015-11-01

    Bovine mastitis is an economic burden for dairy farmers and preventive control measures are crucial for the sustainability of any dairy business. The identification of etiological agents is necessary in controlling the disease, reducing risk of chronic infections and targeting antimicrobial therapy. The suitability of a detection method for routine diagnosis depends on several factors, including specificity, sensitivity, cost, time in producing results, and suitability for large-scale sampling of milk. This article focuses on current methodologies for identification of mastitis pathogens and for detection of inflammation, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of different methods. Emerging technologies, such as transcriptome and proteome analyses and nano- and microfabrication of portable devices, offer promising, sensitive methods for advanced detection of mastitis pathogens and biomarkers of inflammation. The demand for alternative, fast, and reliable diagnostic procedures is rising as farms become bigger. Several examples of technological and scientific advances are summarized which have given rise to more sensitive, reliable and faster diagnostic results. © 2015 The Author(s).

  12. Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    The 2nd issue of The Alan Guttmacher Institute's 1993 "State Reproductive Health Monitor: Legislative Proposals and Actions" chronicles and summarizes reproductive health-related legislation introduced and acted on in the 50 US states from January 1 to May 31, 1993. Topics covered include abortion, family planning, sex and health education, teenage pregnancy, infertility, maternal and infant care, sexually transmitted diseases, and AIDS. Legislatures in every state but Kentucky convened sessions in 1993. By the end of May, 29 legislatures had adjourned. Abortion legislation included: the status of legal abortion, counseling and/or waiting periods, parental involvement, public funding for low income women, harassment of providers. Family planning, sex and health education, and teenage pregnancy legislation covered: family planning, Norplant implants, and teenage pregnancy prevention. Legislation on maternal and infant health care included prenatal care and medicaid, perinatal drug and alcohol abuse (with proposals to make available or expand treatment and rehabilitative services to mount public education campaigns on the effects of alcohol and drug use while pregnant, and to punish women for drug use during pregnancy), and maternity and family medical leave. Infertility legislation covered medical insurance, the legality and regulation of surrogate contracts, other kinds of assisted reproductive technology arrangements, and the licensing of fertility clinics. Under the subject of sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS, legislation included education and prevention strategies, setting guidelines and requirements for testing and reporting, criminal penalties, treatment services and insurance, health care providers and patients, discrimination, and the establishment of study commissions.

  13. Ultra-thin films for plasmonics: a technology overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malureanu, Radu; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    Ultra-thin films with low surface roughness that support surface plasmon-polaritons in the infra-red and visible ranges are needed in order to improve the performance of devices based on the manipulation of plasmon propagation. Increasing amount of efforts is made in order not only to improve...... the quality of the deposited layers but also to diminish their thickness and to find new materials that could be used in this field. In this review, we consider various thin films used in the field of plasmonics and metamaterials in the visible and IR range. We focus our presentation on technological issues...... of their deposition and reported characterization of film plasmonic performance....

  14. An Overview of the HomePlug AV2 Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry Yonge

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available HomePlug AV2 is the solution identified by the HomePlug Alliance to achieve the improved data rate performance required by the new generation of multimedia applications without the need to install extra wires. Developed by industry-leading participants in the HomePlug AV Technical Working Group, the HomePlug AV2 technology provides Gigabit-class connection speeds over the existing AC wires within home. It is designed to meet the market demands for the full set of future in-home networking connectivity. Moreover, HomePlug AV2 guarantees backward interoperability with other HomePlug systems. In this paper, the HomePlug AV2 system architecture is introduced and the technical details of the key features at both the PHY and MAC layers are described. The HomePlug AV2 performance is assessed, through simulations reproducing real home scenarios.

  15. Fabricating binary optics: An overview of binary optics process technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Margaret B.

    1993-01-01

    A review of binary optics processing technology is presented. Pattern replication techniques have been optimized to generate high-quality efficient microoptics in visible and infrared materials. High resolution optical photolithography and precision alignment is used to fabricate maximally efficient fused silica diffractive microlenses at lambda = 633 nm. The degradation in optical efficiency of four-phase-level fused silica microlenses resulting from an intentional 0.35 micron translational error has been systematically measured as a function of lens speed (F/2 - F/60). Novel processes necessary for high sag refractive IR microoptics arrays, including deep anisotropic Si-etching, planarization of deep topography and multilayer resist techniques, are described. Initial results are presented for monolithic integration of photonic and microoptic systems.

  16. Overview of Fiber Optic Sensor Technologies for Strain/Temperature Sensing Applications in Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Manjusha; Rajan, Ginu; Semenova, Yuliya; Farrell, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the different types of fiber optic sensors (FOS) that can be used with composite materials and also their compatibility with and suitability for embedding inside a composite material. An overview of the different types of FOS used for strain/temperature sensing in composite materials is presented. Recent trends, and future challenges for FOS technology for condition monitoring in smart composite materials are also discussed. This comprehensive review provides essential information for the smart materials industry in selecting of appropriate types of FOS in accordance with end-user requirements. PMID:26784192

  17. The social construction of facts and artefacts: or How the sociology of science and the sociology of technology might benefit each other

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinch, Trevor J.; Bijker, Wiebe E.

    1984-01-01

    The need for an integrated social constructivist approach towards the study of science and technology is outlined. Within such a programme both scientific facts and technological artefacts are to be understood as social constructs. Literature on the sociology of science, the science-technology

  18. Overview of principles and challenges of fusion nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.

    2007-01-01

    Fusion offers very attractive features as a sustainable, broadly available energy source: no emissions of greenhouse gases, no risk of severe accident, and no long-lived radioactive waste. Significant advances in the science and technology of fusion have been realized in the past decades. Seven countries (EU, Japan, USA, Russia, S. Korea, China, and India) comprising about half the world population are constructing a major magnetic fusion facility, called ITER, in France. The objectives of ITER are to demonstrate self-sustaining burning fusion plasma and to test fusion technologies relevant to fusion reactor. Many challenges to the practical utilization of fusion energy remain ahead. Among these challenges is the successful development of Fusion Nuclear Technology (FNT). FNT includes those fusion system components circumscribing the plasma and responsible for tritium production and processing, heat removal at high temperature and power density, and high heat flux components. FNT components face a new and more challenging environment than experienced by any previous nuclear application. Beyond plasma physics, FNT has most of the remaining feasibility and attractiveness issues in the development of fusion as an energy source. The blanket, a key FNT component, determines the critical path to DEMO. The blanket is exposed to an intense radiation environment. Radioactivity and decay heat can be produced in the structure and other blanket elements. Hence, material choices have a large impact on safety and environmental attractiveness. The unique conditions of the fusion environment include high radiation flux, high surface heat flux, strong 3-D-component magnetic field with large gradients, and ultra-low vacuum. These conditions, together with the requirements for high-temperature operation and tritium self-sufficiency, make blanket design and development challenging tasks. The blanket concepts being considered worldwide can be classified into solid breeders and liquid

  19. Department of Nuclear Equipment '' High Technology Center - HITEC '' - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krawczyk, P.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The Department of Nuclear Equipment, also known under the brand '' HITEC '' plays a unique role in the Institute. It combines research and development with manufacturing activities in the area of accelerator technology applications in medicine and industrial radiography. In 2010, the Department continued intense development efforts in the framework of Project No. POIG.01.01-14-012/08-00 (known under the short name of '' Accelerators and Detectors '') funded by EU Structural Funds. As described in detail elsewhere in this Report, these efforts resulted in substantial progress in the design and manufacture of the first model of a medical multi-energy accelerator for advanced radiotherapy. This model is an important testbed for a number of technologies and solutions that will be implemented in the final accelerator. Also, design and manufacture of the elements for an intra-surgery accelerator was carried out. It is worth noting that participation in the '' Accelerators and Detectors '' Project allowed HITEC to modernize significantly its manufacturing and testing capabilities. In 2010, the new equipment was successfully implemented for use in a manufacturing regime. The year 2010 also saw the completion of two R(and)D projects co-financed by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education: · Multileaf Collimator as a Precision Device for Irradiation Field Delimiting in Medical Accelerators; · 4? Recessed Ionization Chamber with Internal Power Supply. In both cases, full scale prototypes of the respective devices were manufactured. In response to market interest HITEC started in 2010 a concept study of a compact low energy industrial radiography accelerator. Subsequently, HITEC received an order to develop and manufacture such a device and the development work was started. On completion the new device will extend the range of commercially available accelerators. In parallel to the above, HITEC continued to extend its engagement in scientific

  20. Fast reactor cycle technology development. 'FaCT seminar - R and D for key technology of national importance'. Seminar report and collection of documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-03-01

    An R and D program on the fast breeder reactor cycle commercialization, the FaCT Project, which was selected as one of the Key Technologies of National Importance, has been conducted at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency for the purposes of resolving the issues of long-term sustainable energy supply and the global warming. The first Seminar of the FaCT Project was held at the Osaka Science and Technology Center on November 30, 2007, to present the progress and status of the Project and exchange opinions among the participants from various sectors. In the Seminar, MEXT, METI and JAEA reported the national nuclear policy, the current status and future plan of the FaCT Project. A special panel session was also held on the approach to international collaboration relevant to the project, and the importance was stressed on further promoting the international collaboration and keeping the framework of international partnership in this area, while distinguishing the relationship between 'cooperation' and 'competition'. Over 260 audiences from various sectors including government, universities, research organizations, utilities, nuclear industries participated. This report provides a seminar summary and the presented papers. (author)

  1. Overview of NASA Langley's Piezoelectric Ceramic Packaging Technology and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Robert G.

    2007-01-01

    Over the past decade, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has developed several actuator packaging concepts designed to enhance the performance of commercial electroactive ceramics. NASA LaRC focused on properly designed actuator and sensor packaging for the following reasons, increased durability, protect the working material from the environment, allow for proper mechanical and electrical contact, afford "ready to use" mechanisms that are scalable, and develop fabrication methodology applicable to any active material of the same physical class. It is more cost effective to enhance or tailor the performance of existing systems, through innovative packaging, than to develop, test and manufacture new materials. This approach led to the development of several solid state actuators that include THUNDER, the Macrofiber Composite or (MFC) and the Radial Field Diaphragm or (RFD). All these actuators are fabricated using standard materials and processes derived from earlier concepts. NASA s fabrication and packaging technology as yielded, piezoelectric actuators and sensors that are easy to implement, reliable, consistent in properties, and of lower cost to manufacture in quantity, than their predecessors (as evidenced by their continued commercial availability.) These piezoelectric actuators have helped foster new research and development in areas involving computational modeling, actuator specific refinements, and engineering system redesign which led to new applications for piezo-based devices that replace traditional systems currently in use.

  2. Renewable energy technologies diffusion in sindh: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, A.A.; Memon, Z.A.; Sethar, W.; Shafaq, S.; Shah, A.

    2017-01-01

    The abundant resources of Sindh province for RE (Renewable Energy) such as wind, solar, etc. can be tapped through RETs (Renewable Energy Technologies) to fulfil energy needs. But RETs are still not able to make major breakthrough in individual's life to enhance it. Even though individuals began to use solar panels to conquer power deficiencies, more endeavours are required to diffuse RETs in Sindh. This research paper explores the present situation for the dissemination of RETs in masses. A survey is conducted to achieve the said task. It measures the opinion difference of respondents regarding awareness creation towards RETs, needs for funding, provision of incentives and role of community engagement required for promotion of RETs in Sindh. The opinion difference was measured regarding stakeholders individual perception and chances of occurring the same (societal perception). The outcome of the survey identifies an entirely opposite opinion of stakeholders regarding their individual and social perceptions. Thus, predicting the real situation for RETs diffusion in Sindh. It indicates that despite much enthusiasm for RETs, lesser possibilities are accessible for their fruitful dispersion in Sindh in current conditions. Lack of awareness regarding RETs, few funding opportunities and absence of incentives from government resulted in the low engagement of communities to utilise RETs. Hence, due to hurdles identified, RETs face hindrances in their popularisation, which can be addressed through appropriate policy decisions. (author)

  3. Overview of superconducting ion linacs and related technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facco, A.

    2004-01-01

    Particle accelerators, fundamental tools in physics, are presently becoming part of everyday life, being extensively used in industry, medicine and, in the future, also for energy production and nuclear waste transmutation. Accelerator technology is very important not only for the progress of science but also because it often finds unforeseen application a long time after its development. Different particle types, different energy range and different applications require different kinds of accelerators. Electrostatic accelerators provide DC beams but are limited in energy to about 20 MeV per charge unit; for higher energies, RF accelerators are required. In circular accelerators, like synchrotrons, the beam is passing many times through the same RF accelerating structures in order to acquire the requested energy; the limits come from synchrotron radiation and magnetic field intensity that force the construction of very large rings. Cyclotrons are cheap machines suitable for intermediate energy cw beams (up to hundreds of MeV); they are limited in current and in energy by extraction problems and by dipole magnet size. Linear accelerators, where the beam goes only once through RF accelerating structures, can provide cw beams from very low to very high energy (they are not limited by synchrotron radiation), and they can allow for the highest beam current, up to hundreds of mA (figure 1). The next frontier in energy, after the construction of the LHC synchrotron at CERN, will be probably reached by a superconducting linac

  4. Overview of the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witt, C.E.; Mitchell, R.L.; Mooney, G.D.

    1993-08-01

    The Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project is a historic government/industry photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing R ampersand D partnership composed of joint efforts between the federal government (through the US Department of Energy) and members of the US PV industry. The project's ultimate goal is to ensure that the US industry retains and extends its world leadership role in the manufacture and commercial development of PV components and systems. PVMaT is designed to do this by helping the US PV industry improve manufacturing processes, accelerate manufacturing cost reductions for PV modules, improve commercial product performance, and lay the groundwork for a substantial scale-up of US-based PV manufacturing capacities. Phase 1 of the project, the problem identification phase, was completed in early 1991. Phase 2, the problem solution phase, which addresses process-specific problems of specific manufacturers, is now underway with an expected duration of 5 years. Phase 3 addresses R ampersand D problems that are relatively common to a number of PV companies or the PV industry as a whole. These ''generic'' problem areas are being addressed through a teamed research approach

  5. Renewable Energy Technologies Diffusion in Sindh: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASIF ALISHAH

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The abundant resources of Sindh province for RE (Renewable Energy such as wind, solar, etc. can be tapped through RETs (Renewable Energy Technologies to fulfil energy needs. But RETs are still not able to make major breakthrough in individual?s life to enhance it. Even though individuals began to use solar panels to conquer power deficiencies, more endeavours are required to diffuse RETs in Sindh. This research paper explores the present situation for the dissemination of RETs in masses. A survey is conducted to achieve the said task. It measures the opinion difference of respondents regarding awareness creation towards RETs, needs for funding, provision of incentives and role of community engagement required for promotion of RETs in Sindh. The opinion difference was measuredregarding stakeholders? individual perception and chances of occurring the same (societal perception. The outcome of the survey identifies an entirely opposite opinion of stakeholders regarding their individual and social perceptions. Thus, predicting the real situation for RETs diffusion in Sindh. It indicates that despite much enthusiasm for RETs, lesser possibilities are accessible for their fruitful dispersion in Sindh in current conditions. Lack of awareness regarding RETs, few funding opportunities and absence of incentives from government resulted in the low engagement of communities to utilise RETs. Hence, due to hurdles identified, RETs face hindrances in their popularisation, which can be addressed through appropriate policy decisions.

  6. DOE/Fossil Energy`s drilling, completion, and stimulation RD&D: A technologies/products overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duda, J.R.; Yost, A.B. II

    1995-12-31

    An overview of natural gas drilling, completion, and stimulation RD&D sponsored by the US Department of Energy is reported in this paper. Development of high rate-of-penetration drilling systems and underbalanced drilling technologies are detailed among other RD&D activities. The overview serves as a technology transfer medium and is intended to accelerate the deployment of the products and technologies described.

  7. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pain Medicine (Oxy, Vike) Facts Spice (K2) Facts Tobacco and Nicotine Facts Other Drugs of Abuse What ... Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/Nicotine Other Drugs You can call 1-800- ...

  8. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Oxy, Vike) Facts Spice (K2) Facts Tobacco and Nicotine Facts Other Drugs of Abuse What is Addiction? ... Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/Nicotine Other Drugs You can call 1-800-662- ...

  9. An Overview of Information Technology Tools Implementation in Supply Chain Management

    OpenAIRE

    Mahadi Hasan Miraz; Md. Mamun Habib; Mohammad Shahansha Molla

    2016-01-01

    Information Technology (IT) and its usage in administrations and across the supply chain has develop a factor of competitive benefit for numerous companies. This paper focuses the practice of IT tools for Supply Chain Management (SCM) [10]. It also highlights the impact of IT in helping to rearrange the whole delivery set up to accomplish advanced service levels and lower inventory and lower supply chain charges [10]. An overview and perceptible benefits of the present IT tools that are exten...

  10. DC Vs AC - War Of Currents For Future Power Systems A HVDC Technology Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil K. Rai

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available DC vs AC discussion began in 1880s with development of first commercial power transmission in Wall Street New York. Later when AC technology came into notice by efforts of inventor and researcher Sir Nicola Tesla soon the advantages of AC transmission and AC devices overtook the DC technology. It was hoped that DC technology had lost battle of currents. Today with researches going on FACTS devices and bulk power transmission HVDC has again gained a reputation in power sector. Solution of this centuries old debate is to develop HVDC systems that assists HVAC systems for better performance stability and control

  11. 3D Systems' Technology Overview and New Applications in Manufacturing, Engineering, Science, and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Mike; Weislogel, Mark; Moeck, Peter; Stone-Sundberg, Jennifer; Birkes, Derek; Hoffert, Madeline Paige; Lindeman, Adam; Morrill, Jeff; Fercak, Ondrej; Friedman, Sasha; Gunderson, Jeff; Ha, Anh; McCollister, Jack; Chen, Yongkang; Geile, John; Wollman, Andrew; Attari, Babak; Botnen, Nathan; Vuppuluri, Vasant; Shim, Jennifer; Kaminsky, Werner; Adams, Dustin; Graft, John

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Since the inception of 3D printing, an evolutionary process has taken place in which specific user and customer needs have crossed paths with the capabilities of a growing number of machines to create value-added businesses. Even today, over 30 years later, the growth of 3D printing and its utilization for the good of society is often limited by the various users' understanding of the technology for their specific needs. This article presents an overview of current 3D printing technologies and shows numerous examples from a multitude of fields from manufacturing to education. PMID:28473997

  12. Overview of radiation effects on emerging non-volatile memory technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fetahović Irfan S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we give an overview of radiation effects in emergent, non-volatile memory technologies. Investigations into radiation hardness of resistive random access memory, ferroelectric random access memory, magneto-resistive random access memory, and phase change memory are presented in cases where these memory devices were subjected to different types of radiation. The obtained results proved high radiation tolerance of studied devices making them good candidates for application in radiation-intensive environments. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 171007

  13. Overview of technologies for removal of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levchuk, Irina; Bhatnagar, Amit; Sillanpää, Mika

    2014-04-01

    Wide use of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) as fuel oxygenates leads to worldwide environment contamination with this compound basically due to fuel leaks from storage or pipelines. Presence of MTBE in drinking water is of high environmental and social concern. Existing methods for MTBE removal from water have a number of limitations which can be possibly overcome in the future with use of emerging technologies. This work aims to provide an updated overview of recent developments in technologies for MTBE removal from water. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Plant phenomics: an overview of image acquisition technologies and image data analysis algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Sanz, Fernando; Navarro, Pedro J; Egea-Cortines, Marcos

    2017-11-01

    The study of phenomes or phenomics has been a central part of biology. The field of automatic phenotype acquisition technologies based on images has seen an important advance in the last years. As with other high-throughput technologies, it addresses a common set of problems, including data acquisition and analysis. In this review, we give an overview of the main systems developed to acquire images. We give an in-depth analysis of image processing with its major issues and the algorithms that are being used or emerging as useful to obtain data out of images in an automatic fashion. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  15. Overview of the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project's Propulsion Technology Portfolio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suder, Kenneth L.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project is focused on developing and demonstrating integrated systems technologies to TRL 4-6 by 2020 that enable reduced fuel burn, emissions, and noise for futuristic air vehicles. The specific goals aim to simultaneously reduce fuel burn by 50%, reduce Landing and Take-off Nitrous Oxides emissions by 75% relative to the CAEP 6 guidelines, and reduce cumulative noise by 42 Decibels relative to the Stage 4 guidelines. These goals apply to the integrated vehicle and propulsion system and are based on a reference mission of 3000nm flight of a Boeing 777-200 with GE90 engines. This paper will focus primarily on the ERA propulsion technology portfolio, which consists of advanced combustion, propulsor, and core technologies to enable these integrated air vehicle systems goals. An overview of the ERA propulsion technologies will be described and the status and results to date will be presented.

  16. 2008 public transportation fact book

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    This Public Transportation Fact Book presents statistics describing the entire United States transit industry for 1995 : through 2006 with additional detail and overview presentations for 2006. Also included are definitions of reported data : items.

  17. Overview of Chromium Remediation Technology Evaluations At The Hanford Site, Richland Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, J. G.; Hanson, J. P.

    2009-12-01

    This paper will present an overview of the different technologies and the results to date for optimizing and improving the remediation of Cr+6 in the soil and groundwater at the Hanford Site. The Hanford Site, par of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE)nuclear weapons complex, encompasses approximately 586 square miles in southeast Washington State. The Columbia River flows through the site (Hanford Reach.) Reactors were located along the Hanford Reach as part of the production process. Sodium dichromate was used as a corrosion inhibitor in the cooling water for the reactors. As a result chromium (Cr+6) is present in the soil and groundwater. Since the mid 90's interim groundwater pump and treat systems have been in place to try and contain or mitigate the migration of contaminated groundwater into the Columbia River. The primary concern being the protection of aquatic spawning habitat for salmon and other species. In order to improve the effectiveness of the remedial actions a number of different technologies have been evaluated and/or deployed. These include, permeable reactive barriers, in-situ bio-stimulation, in-situ chemical reduction, zero-valent iron injection and evaluation of improved above ground treatment technologies. An overview of the technologies and results to date are presented.

  18. Overview of LWR severe accident research activities at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miassoedov, Alexei; Albrecht, Giancarlo; Foit, Jerzy-Jan; Jordan, Thomas; Steinbrück, Martin; Stuckert, Juri; Tromm, Walter

    2012-01-01

    The research activities in the light water reactor (LWR) severe accidents domain at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) are concentrated on the in- and ex-vessel core melt behavior. The overall objective is to investigate the core melt scenarios from the beginning of core degradation to melt formation and relocation in the vessel, possible melt dispersion to the reactor cavity and to the containment, corium concrete interaction and corium coolability in the reactor cavity, and hydrogen behaviour in reactor systems. The results of the experiments contribute to a better understanding of the core melt sequences and thus improve safety of existing and, in the long-term, of future reactors by severe accident mitigation measures and by safety installations where required. This overview paper describes the experimental facilities used at KIT for severe accident research and gives an overview of the main directions and objectives of the R&D work. (author)

  19. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to main content Easy-to-Read Drug Facts Search form Search Menu Home Drugs That People Abuse Alcohol Facts ... Past Drug Use Prevention Phone Numbers and Websites Search Share Listen English Español Information about this page ...

  20. NASA Environmental Control and Life Support Technology Development and Maturation for Exploration: 2015 to 2016 Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Walter F.; Gatens, Robyn L.; Anderson, Molly S.; Broyan, James L.; MaCatangay, Ariel V.; Shull, Sarah A.; Perry, Jay L.; Toomarian, Nikzad

    2016-01-01

    Over the last year, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has continued to refine the understanding and prioritization of technology gaps that must be closed in order to achieve Evolvable Mars Campaign objectives and near term objectives in the cislunar proving ground. These efforts are reflected in updates to the technical area roadmaps released by NASA in 2015 and have guided technology development and maturation tasks that have been sponsored by various programs. This paper provides an overview of the refined Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) strategic planning, as well as a synopsis of key technology and maturation project tasks that occurred in 2014 and early 2015 to support the strategic needs. Plans for the remainder of 2015 and subsequent years are also described.

  1. Fused-core particle technology in high-performance liquid chromatography: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph J. Kirkland

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The advent of superficially porous particles (SPPs for packed HPLC columns has changed the way that many practitioners have approached the problem of developing needed separations. The very high efficiency of such columns, combined with convenient operating conditions, modest back pressures and the ability to use conventional HPLC instruments has resulted in intense basic studies of SPP technology, and widespread applications in many sciences. This report contains an overview of the SPP technology first developed in 2006 by Advanced Materials Technology, Inc., for sub-3-μm particles, then expanded into a family of SPP products with different particle sizes, pore sizes and other physical parameters. This approach was designed so that each particle of the family could be optimized for separating a particular group of compounds, usually based on solute size. Keywords: Superficially porous particles, Fused-core particles, Core–shell particles, Peptides, Proteins, Drug separations

  2. Overview of free-piston Stirling engine technology for space power application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slaby, J.G.

    1987-01-01

    An overview is presented of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center (LeRC) free-piston Stirling engine activities directed toward space-power application. Free-piston Stirling technology is applicable for both solar and nuclear powered systems. As such, the NASA Lewis Research Center serves as the project office to manage the newly initiated SP-100 Advanced Technology program. This program provides the technology push for providing significant component and subsystem options for increased efficiency, reliability and survivability, and power output growth at reduced specific mass. One of the major elements of the program is the development of advanced power conversion of which the Stirling cycle is a viable candidate. Under this program the status of the 25 kWe opposed-piston Space Power Demonstrator Engine (SPDE) is presented. Included in the SPDE discussion are initial differences between predicted and experimental power outputs and power output influenced by variations in regenerators

  3. Technology as a tool in autism spectrum disorder (ASD): an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Tarje Evenssønn

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this thesis is to provide an overview of modern technology as a tool in diagnostics and treatment for children and adolescents with ASD. METHOD: A literature review was performed during early 2016, based on results from PubMed searches with MESH-tags “Autism” or “Autism Spectrum Disorder” and one of the following: “Technology”, “Robotics”, “Video Games”, “Video”, “Video Modeling”, “Diagnostics”, “Radiology” and “Virtual Reality”. RESULTS: Both studies about the use of technolo...

  4. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... Nicotine Facts Other Drugs of Abuse What is Addiction? What are some signs and symptoms of someone ... use problem? How Does Drug Use Become an Addiction? What Makes Someone More Likely to Get Addicted ...

  5. [Overview of the US policies for health information technology and lessons learned for Israel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topaz, Maxim; Ash, Nachman

    2013-05-01

    The heaLthcare system in the United States (U.S.) faces a number of significant changes aimed at improving the quality and availability of medical services and reducing costs. Implementation of health information technologies, especiaLly ELectronic Health Records (EHR), is central to achieving these goals. Several recent Legislative efforts in the U.S. aim at defining standards and promoting wide scale "Meaningful Use" of the novel technologies. In Israel, the majority of heaLthcare providers adopted EHR throughout the Last decade. Unlike the U.S., the process of EHR adoption occurred spontaneously, without governmental control or the definition of standards. In this article, we review the U.S. health information technology policies and standards and suggest potential lessons Learned for Israel. First, we present the three-staged Meaningful Use regulations that require eligible healthcare practitioners to use EHR in their practice. We also describe the standards for EHR certification and national efforts to create interoperable health information technology networks. Finally, we provide a brief overview of the IsraeLi regulation in the field of EHR. Although the adoption of health information technology is wider in Israel, the Lack of technology standards and governmental control has Led to Large technology gaps between providers. The example of the U.S. Legislation urges the adoption of several critical steps to further enhance the quality and efficiency of the Israeli healthcare system, in particular: strengthening health information technology regulation; developing Licensure criteria for health information technology; bridging the digital gap between healthcare organizations; defining quality measures; and improving the accessibility of health information for patients.

  6. Five Indisputable Facts on Modern Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloom, Aaron P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brinkman, Gregory L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lopez, Anthony J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Holttinen, Hannele [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland; Helman, Udi [Helman Analytics; Summers, Kate [Pacific Hydro; Bakke, Jordan [Midcontinent Independent System Operator

    2017-08-01

    This presentation overviews five indisputable facts about modern power systems: Fact one: The grid can handle more renewable generation than previously thought. Fact two: Geographic and resource diversity provide additional reliability to the system. Fact three: Wind and solar forecasting provide significant value. Fact four: Our electric power markets were not originally designed for variable renewables -- but they could be adapted. Fact five: Modern power electronics are creating new sources of essential reliability services.

  7. An Overview of Information Technology Tools Implementation in Supply Chain Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahadi Hasan Miraz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Information Technology (IT and its usage in administrations and across the supply chain has develop a factor of competitive benefit for numerous companies. This paper focuses the practice of IT tools for Supply Chain Management (SCM [10]. It also highlights the impact of IT in helping to rearrange the whole delivery set up to accomplish advanced service levels and lower inventory and lower supply chain charges [10]. An overview and perceptible benefits of the present IT tools that are extensively organized is also providing with focus on current configurations considerations, accessible applications. The role of existing communication technologies in making IT an enabler of SCM is highlighted by addressing a range of dissimilar point and initiative solutions in a diversity of supply chain settings.

  8. Overview of the IFE chamber and target technologies R and D in the U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, W.R.; Abdou, M.A.; Kulcinski, G.L.; Moir, R.W.; Nobile, A.; Peterson, P.F.; Petti, D.A.; Schultz, K.R.; Tillack, M.; Yoda, M.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy Science (OFES) formed the Virtual Laboratory for Technology (VLT) to develop the technologies needed to support near term fusion experiments and to provide the basis for future magnetic and inertial fusion energy power plants. The scope of the inertial fusion energy (IFE) element of the VLT includes the fusion chamber, driver/chamber interface, target fabrication and injection, and safety and environmental assessment for IFE. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, in conjunction with other laboratories, universities and industry, has written an R and D plan to address the critical issues in these areas over the next 5 years in a coordinated manner. This paper provides an overview of the U.S. research activities addressing these critical issues. (author)

  9. Teacher educators' competences in fostering student teachers' proficiency in teaching and learning with technology : An overview of relevant research literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dana Uerz; Monique Volman; Marijke Kral

    2018-01-01

    Teacher educators play an important role in preparing student teachers to integrate technology into their classrooms. This article presents an overview of research literature on teacher educators' competences in preparing their students to teach with technology. A literature search yielded 26

  10. e-Addictology: An Overview of New Technologies for Assessing and Intervening in Addictive Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreri, Florian; Bourla, Alexis; Mouchabac, Stephane; Karila, Laurent

    2018-01-01

    New technologies can profoundly change the way we understand psychiatric pathologies and addictive disorders. New concepts are emerging with the development of more accurate means of collecting live data, computerized questionnaires, and the use of passive data. Digital phenotyping , a paradigmatic example, refers to the use of computerized measurement tools to capture the characteristics of different psychiatric disorders. Similarly, machine learning-a form of artificial intelligence-can improve the classification of patients based on patterns that clinicians have not always considered in the past. Remote or automated interventions (web-based or smartphone-based apps), as well as virtual reality and neurofeedback, are already available or under development. These recent changes have the potential to disrupt practices, as well as practitioners' beliefs, ethics and representations, and may even call into question their professional culture. However, the impact of new technologies on health professionals' practice in addictive disorder care has yet to be determined. In the present paper, we therefore present an overview of new technology in the field of addiction medicine. Using the keywords [e-health], [m-health], [computer], [mobile], [smartphone], [wearable], [digital], [machine learning], [ecological momentary assessment], [biofeedback] and [virtual reality], we searched the PubMed database for the most representative articles in the field of assessment and interventions in substance use disorders. We screened 595 abstracts and analyzed 92 articles, dividing them into seven categories: e-health program and web-based interventions, machine learning, computerized adaptive testing, wearable devices and digital phenotyping, ecological momentary assessment, biofeedback, and virtual reality. This overview shows that new technologies can improve assessment and interventions in the field of addictive disorders. The precise role of connected devices, artificial

  11. Reptile Facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinheimer, Margaret

    1993-01-01

    Describes an award-winning bulletin board for introducing a unit on reptiles. This interactive bulletin board contains fun facts and counters common misconceptions about reptiles. Twelve true-false statements are hidden behind pull-up flaps. Four pictures ask students to identify the difference between often-confused animals. (PR)

  12. An Overview of New Technologies Driving Innovation in the Airborne Science Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fladeland, Matthew M.

    2017-01-01

    Following a more than a century of scientific aircraft and ballooning there is a sense that a renaissance of sorts is at hand in the aviation industry. The advent of incredibly miniaturized autopilots, inertial navigation systems, GPS antennae, and payloads has sparked a revolution in manned and unmanned aircraft. Improved SATCOM and onboard computing has enabled realtime data processing and improved transfer of data on and off the aircraft, making flight planning and data collection more efficient and effective. Electric propulsion systems are scaling up to larger and larger vehicles as evidenced by the NASA GL-10, which is leading to a new X-plane and is leading to renewed interest in personal air vehicles. There is also significant private and government investments in the development of High Altitude, Long Endurance (HALE) aircraft. This presentation will explore how such developments are likely to improve our ability to observe earth systems processes from aircraft by providing an overview of current NASA Airborne Science capabilities, followed by a brief discussion of new technologies being applied to Airborne Science missions, and then conclude with an overview of new capabilities on the horizon that are likely to be of interest to the Earth Science community.

  13. A Overview of New Technologies Driving Innovation in the Airborne Science Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fladeland, Matthew M.

    2017-01-01

    Following a more than a century of scientific aircraft and ballooning there is a sense that a renaissance of sorts is at hand in the aviation industry. The advent of incredibly miniaturized autopilots, inertial navigation systems, GPS antennae, and payloads has sparked a revolution in manned and unmanned aircraft. Improved SATCOM and onboard computing has enabled realtime data processing and improved transfer of data on and off the aircraft, making flight planning and data collection more efficient and effective. Electric propulsion systems are scaling up to larger and larger vehicles as evidenced by the NASA GL-10, which is leading to a new X-plane and is leading to renewed interest in personal air vehicles. There is also significant private and government investments in the development of High Altitude, Long Endurance (HALE) aircraft. This presentation will explore how such developments are likely to improve our ability to observe earth systems processes from aircraft by providing an overview of current NASA Airborne Science capabilities, followed by a brief discussion of new technologies being applied to Airborne Science missions, and then conclude with an overview of new capabilities on the horizon that are likely to be of interest to the Earth Science community.

  14. Technology-Enhanced Assessment of Math Fact Automaticity: Patterns of Performance for Low- and Typically Achieving Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickney, Eric M.; Sharp, Lindsay B.; Kenyon, Amanda S.

    2012-01-01

    Because math fact automaticity has been identified as a key barrier for students struggling with mathematics, we examined how initial math achievement levels influenced the path to automaticity (e.g., variation in number of attempts, speed of retrieval, and skill maintenance over time) and the relation between attainment of automaticity and gains…

  15. An overview of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plummer, T.L.; Morreale, B.J.

    1991-01-01

    The primary objective of low-level radioactive (LLW) waste management is to safely dispose of LLW while protecting the health of the public and the quality of the environment. LLW in the United States is generated through both Department of Energy (DOE) and commercial activities. In this paper, waste from commercial activities will be referred to as ''commercial LLW.'' The DOE waste will not be discussed in this paper. Commercial LLW is waste that is generated by Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) designated licensees or Agreement States. Commercial LLW is generated by nuclear power reactors, hospitals, universities, and manufacturers. This paper will give an overview of the current disposal technologies planned by selected States' for disposing of their LLW and the processes by which those selections were made. 3 refs

  16. Electrochemical processing of spent nuclear fuels: An overview of oxide reduction in pyroprocessing technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Young Choi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical reduction process has been used to reduce spent oxide fuel to a metallic form using pyroprocessing technology for a closed fuel cycle in combination with a metal-fuel fast reactor. In the electrochemical reduction process, oxides fuels are loaded at the cathode basket in molten Li2O–LiCl salt and electrochemically reduced to the metal form. Various approaches based on thermodynamic calculations and experimental studies have been used to understand the electrode reaction and efficiently treat spent fuels. The factors that affect the speed of the electrochemical reduction have been determined to optimize the process and scale-up the electrolysis cell. In addition, demonstrations of the integrated series of processes (electrorefining and salt distillation with the electrochemical reduction have been conducted to realize the oxide fuel cycle. This overview provides insight into the current status of and issues related to the electrochemical processing of spent nuclear fuels.

  17. MicroCHP: Overview of selected technologies, products and field test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, Vollrad [Berliner Energieagentur GmbH, Franzoesische Strasse 23, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Klemes, Jiri; Bulatov, Igor [Centre for Process Integration, CEAS, The University of Manchester, P.O. Box 88, M60 1QD Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2008-11-15

    This paper gives an overview on selected microCHP technologies and products with the focus on Stirling and steam machines. Field tests in Germany, the UK and some other EC countries are presented, assessed and evaluated. Test results show the overall positive performance with differences in sectors (domestic vs. small business). Some negative experiences have been received, especially from tests with the Stirling engines and the free-piston steam machine. There are still obstacles for market implementation. Further projects and tests of microCHP are starting in various countries. When positive results will prevail and deficiencies are eliminated, a way to large-scale production and market implementation could be opened. (author)

  18. Overview of advanced technologies for stabilization of 238Pu-contaminated waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, K.B.; Foltyn, E.M.; Heslop, J.M.

    1998-02-01

    This paper presents an overview of potential technologies for stabilization of 238 Pu-contaminated waste. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has processed 238 PuO 2 fuel into heat sources for space and terrestrial uses for the past several decades. The 88-year half-life of 238 Pu and thermal power of approximately 0.6 watts/gram make this isotope ideal for missions requiring many years of dependable service in inaccessible locations. However, the same characteristic which makes 238 Pu attractive for heat source applications, the high Curie content (17 Ci/gram versus 0.06 Ci/gram for 239 Pu ), makes disposal of 238 Pu-contaminated waste difficult. Specifically, the thermal load limit on drums destined for transport to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), 0.23 gram per drum for combustible waste, is impossible to meet for nearly all 238 Pu-contaminated glovebox waste. Use of advanced waste treatment technologies including Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) and aqueous chemical separation will eliminate the combustible matrix from 238 Pu-contaminated waste and recover kilogram quantities of 238 PuO 2 from the waste stream. A conceptual design of these advanced waste treatment technologies will be presented

  19. AN OVERVIEW OF POWER DISSIPATION AND CONTROL TECHNIQUES IN CMOS TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. B. ROMLI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Total power dissipation in CMOS circuits has become a huge challenging in current semiconductor industry due to the leakage current and the leakage power. The exponential growth of both static and dynamic power dissipations in any CMOS process technology option has increased the cost and efficiency of the system. Technology options are used for the execution specifications and usually it depends on the optimisation and the performance constraints over the chip. This article reviews the relevant researches of the source or power dissipation, the mechanism to reduce the dynamic power dissipation as well as static power dissipation and an overview of various circuit techniques to control them. Important device parameters including voltage threshold and switching capacitance impact to the circuit performance in lowering both dynamic and static power dissipation are presented. The demand for the reduction of power dissipation in CMOS technology shall remain a challenging and active area of research for years to come. Thus, this review shall work as a guideline for the researchers who wish to work on power dissipation and control techniques.

  20. e-Addictology: An Overview of New Technologies for Assessing and Intervening in Addictive Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Ferreri

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundNew technologies can profoundly change the way we understand psychiatric pathologies and addictive disorders. New concepts are emerging with the development of more accurate means of collecting live data, computerized questionnaires, and the use of passive data. Digital phenotyping, a paradigmatic example, refers to the use of computerized measurement tools to capture the characteristics of different psychiatric disorders. Similarly, machine learning–a form of artificial intelligence–can improve the classification of patients based on patterns that clinicians have not always considered in the past. Remote or automated interventions (web-based or smartphone-based apps, as well as virtual reality and neurofeedback, are already available or under development.ObjectiveThese recent changes have the potential to disrupt practices, as well as practitioners’ beliefs, ethics and representations, and may even call into question their professional culture. However, the impact of new technologies on health professionals’ practice in addictive disorder care has yet to be determined. In the present paper, we therefore present an overview of new technology in the field of addiction medicine.MethodUsing the keywords [e-health], [m-health], [computer], [mobile], [smartphone], [wearable], [digital], [machine learning], [ecological momentary assessment], [biofeedback] and [virtual reality], we searched the PubMed database for the most representative articles in the field of assessment and interventions in substance use disorders.ResultsWe screened 595 abstracts and analyzed 92 articles, dividing them into seven categories: e-health program and web-based interventions, machine learning, computerized adaptive testing, wearable devices and digital phenotyping, ecological momentary assessment, biofeedback, and virtual reality.ConclusionThis overview shows that new technologies can improve assessment and interventions in the field of addictive

  1. An overview of the welding technologies of CLAM steels for fusion application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Xizhang, E-mail: kernel.chen@gmail.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, ZhenJiang, Jiangsu 212013 (China); Huang Yuming [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, ZhenJiang, Jiangsu 212013 (China); Madigan, Bruce [Montana Tech. of University of Montana, Butte, MT 59701 (United States); Zhou Jianzhong [School of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu University, ZhenJiang, Jiangsu 221013 (China)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Welding technologies of China Low Activation Martensitic steel is overviewed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Most welding technologies in use are discussed and suggestions are given. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proper welding technologies could ensure weld properties but more detailed work are necessary. - Abstract: China Low Activation Martensitic steel (CLAMs), a kind of RAFM steel with Chinese intellectual property rights, is considered as the primary structural material for the China-designed ITER test blanket module (TBM). As one of the key issues in the fabrication of the fusion reactor, the welding technologies of CLAMs are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on the weldability of CLAMs by different welding methods, and on the properties of as-welded and post-weld heat-treated joints. Recent highlights in research and development for the welding of CLAMs show that proper welding procedure could provide welds with adequate tensile strength but the welds exhibit lower impact toughness compared with the base metal. Post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) and the application of ultrasonic energy during TIG welding could dramatically improve impact toughness. Research also shows that welds in CLAMs have sufficient resistance to swelling under irradiation as well as suitable compatibility with liquid LiPb. The microstructure, mechanical and other physical properties of welds are significantly different from those of the base metal due to the complicated welding thermal cycle. The weld joint is the area most likely to fail one or more of the design requirements within the fusion reactor. Therefore significant additional research is necessary to ensure safe application of welded CLAM steel for fusion reactor construction.

  2. An Overview of CO{sub 2} capture technologies. What are the challenges ahead?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Stanley (IEA Greenhouse Gas R& amp; D Programme)

    2008-07-15

    In this paper it is described what the program of R&D of the International Energy Agency consists of, for the reduction of greenhouse effect gasses. Some of the factors that have impelled the policy of the development of technologies for the CO{sub 2} capture are synthesized. Also an overview is given of the 3 main technologies for the capture and storage of CO{sub 2} that are the capture post-combustion, the capture oxy-combustion and the capture pre-combustion; finally several aspects related to the capture and sequestration of CO{sub 2} are mentioned. [Spanish] En esta ponencia se describe en que consiste el programa de I&D para la reduccion de gases de efecto invernadero de la Agencia Internacional de Energia. Se sintetizan algunos de los factores que han impulsado a la politica del desarrollo de tecnologias para la captura de CO{sub 2}. Tambien se da un panorama de las 3 principales tecnologias para la captura y almacenamiento de CO{sub 2} que son la captura post-combustion, la captura oxi-combustion y la captura pre-combustion; finalmente se mencionan varios aspectos relacionados con la captura y secuestro de CO{sub 2}.

  3. The three main monotheistic religions and gm food technology: an overview of perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singer Peter A

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public acceptance of genetically modified crops is partly rooted in religious views. However, the views of different religions and their potential influence on consumers' decisions have not been systematically examined and summarized in a brief overview. We review the positions of the Judaism, Islam and Christianity – the three major monotheistic religions to which more than 55% of humanity adheres to – on the controversies aroused by GM technology. Discussion The article establishes that there is no overarching consensus within the three religions. Overall, however, it appears that mainstream theology in all three religions increasingly tends towards acceptance of GM technology per se, on performing GM research, and on consumption of GM foods. These more liberal approaches, however, are predicated on there being rigorous scientific, ethical and regulatory scrutiny of research and development of such products, and that these products are properly labeled. Summary We conclude that there are several other interests competing with the influence exerted on consumers by religion. These include the media, environmental activists, scientists and the food industry, all of which function as sources of information and shapers of perception for consumers.

  4. Overview on recent developments in energy storage: Mechanical, electrochemical and hydrogen technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amirante, Riccardo; Cassone, Egidio; Distaso, Elia; Tamburrano, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • World energy demand is analyzed. • Promising energy storage systems are shown to explore their potentials. • Different storage are considered and compared. • The efficiency and costs of each are shown. • Easy guidelines for selection of energy storage are provided. - Abstract: Energy production is changing in the world because of the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, to reduce the dependence on carbon/fossil sources and to introduce renewable energy sources. Despite the great amount of scientific efforts, great care to energy storage systems is necessary to overcome the discontinuity in the renewable production. A wide variety of options and complex characteristic matrices make it difficult and so in this paper the authors show a clear picture of the available state-of-the-art technologies. The paper provides an overview of mechanical, electrochemical and hydrogen technologies, explaining operation principles, performing technical and economic features. Finally a schematic comparison among the potential utilizations of energy storage systems is presented.

  5. Overview of diffraction gratings technologies for spaceflight satellites and ground-based telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotel, A.; Liard, A.; Desserouer, F.; Pichon, P.

    2017-11-01

    The diffraction gratings are widely used in Space-flight satellites for spectrograph instruments or in ground-based telescopes in astronomy. The diffraction gratings are one of the key optical components of such systems and have to exhibit very high optical performances. HORIBA Jobin Yvon S.A.S. (part of HORIBA Group) is in the forefront of such gratings development for more than 40 years. During the past decades, HORIBA Jobin Yvon (HJY) has developed a unique expertise in diffraction grating design and manufacturing processes for holographic, ruled or etched gratings. We will present in this paper an overview of diffraction grating technologies especially designed for space and astronomy applications. We will firstly review the heritage of the company in this field with the space qualification of different grating types. Then, we will describe several key grating technologies developed for specific space or astronomy projects: ruled blazed low groove density plane reflection grating, high-groove density holographic toroidal and spherical grating, and finally transmission Fused Silica Etched (FSE) grism-assembled grating. We will not present the Volume Phase Holographic (VPHG) grating type which is used in Astronomy.

  6. Overview of diffraction gratings technologies for space-flight satellites and astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotel, Arnaud; Liard, Audrey; Desserouer, Frédéric; Bonnemason, Francis; Pichon, Pierre

    2014-09-01

    The diffraction gratings are widely used in Space-flight satellites for spectrograph instruments or in ground-based telescopes in astronomy. The diffraction gratings are one of the key optical components of such systems and have to exhibit very high optical performances. HORIBA Jobin Yvon S.A.S. (part of HORIBA Group) is in the forefront of such gratings development for more than 40 years. During the past decades, HORIBA Jobin Yvon (HJY) has developed a unique expertise in diffraction grating design and manufacturing processes for holographic, ruled or etched gratings. We will present in this paper an overview of diffraction grating technologies especially designed for space and astronomy applications. We will firstly review the heritage of the company in this field with the space qualification of different grating types. Then, we will describe several key grating technologies developed for specific space or astronomy projects: ruled blazed low groove density plane reflection grating, holographic blazed replica plane grating, high-groove density holographic toroidal and spherical grating and transmission Fused Silica Etched (FSE) grismassembled grating.

  7. An Overview of Current and Past W-UO[2] CERMET Fuel Fabrication Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas E. Burkes; Daniel M. Wachs; James E. Werner; Steven D. Howe

    2007-01-01

    fuel fabrication technology as related to the GE 710 and ANL Nuclear Rocket Programs, in addition to discussing future plans, viable alternatives and preliminary investigations for W-UO2 CERMET fuel fabrication. The intention of the talk is to provide the brief history and tie in an overview of current programs and investigations as related to NTP based W-UO2 CERMET fuel fabrication, and hopefully peak interest in advanced fuel fabrication technologies

  8. Overview of current development in electrical energy storage technologies and the application potential in power system operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Xing; Wang, Jihong; Dooner, Mark; Clarke, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An overview of the state-of-the-art in Electrical Energy Storage (EES) is provided. • A comprehensive analysis of various EES technologies is carried out. • An application potential analysis of the reviewed EES technologies is presented. • The presented synthesis to EES technologies can be used to support future R and D and deployment. - Abstract: Electrical power generation is changing dramatically across the world because of the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to introduce mixed energy sources. The power network faces great challenges in transmission and distribution to meet demand with unpredictable daily and seasonal variations. Electrical Energy Storage (EES) is recognized as underpinning technologies to have great potential in meeting these challenges, whereby energy is stored in a certain state, according to the technology used, and is converted to electrical energy when needed. However, the wide variety of options and complex characteristic matrices make it difficult to appraise a specific EES technology for a particular application. This paper intends to mitigate this problem by providing a comprehensive and clear picture of the state-of-the-art technologies available, and where they would be suited for integration into a power generation and distribution system. The paper starts with an overview of the operation principles, technical and economic performance features and the current research and development of important EES technologies, sorted into six main categories based on the types of energy stored. Following this, a comprehensive comparison and an application potential analysis of the reviewed technologies are presented

  9. Advanced Technology and Alternative Fuel Vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuttle, J.

    2001-01-01

    This fact sheet provides a basic overview of today's alternative fuel choices--including biofuels, biodiesel, electricity, and hydrogen--alternative fuel vehicles, and advanced vehicle technology, such as hybrid electric vehicles, fuel cells and advanced drive trains

  10. Overview of Human-Centric Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Science and Technology (S&T)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianni, J.; Aleva, D.; Ellis, S.

    2012-09-01

    A number of organizations, within the government, industry, and academia, are researching ways to help humans understand and react to events in space. The problem is both helped and complicated by the fact that there are numerous data sources that need to be planned (i.e., tasked), collected, processed, analyzed, and disseminated. A large part of the research is in support of the Joint Space Operational Center (JSpOC), National Air and Space Intelligence Center (NASIC), and similar organizations. Much recent research has been specifically targeting the JSpOC Mission System (JMS) which has provided a unifying software architecture. This paper will first outline areas of science and technology (S&T) related to human-centric space situational awareness (SSA) and space command and control (C2) including: 1. Object visualization - especially data fused from disparate sources. Also satellite catalog visualizations that convey the physical relationships between space objects. 2. Data visualization - improve data trend analysis as in visual analytics and interactive visualization; e.g., satellite anomaly trends over time, space weather visualization, dynamic visualizations 3. Workflow support - human-computer interfaces that encapsulate multiple computer services (i.e., algorithms, programs, applications) into a 4. Command and control - e.g., tools that support course of action (COA) development and selection, tasking for satellites and sensors, etc. 5. Collaboration - improve individuals or teams ability to work with others; e.g., video teleconferencing, shared virtual spaces, file sharing, virtual white-boards, chat, and knowledge search. 6. Hardware/facilities - e.g., optimal layouts for operations centers, ergonomic workstations, immersive displays, interaction technologies, and mobile computing. Secondly we will provide a survey of organizations working these areas and suggest where more attention may be needed. Although no detailed master plan exists for human

  11. BPA Facts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-03-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration is a federal nonprofit power marketing administration based in the Pacific Northwest . Although BPA is part of the U .S . Department of Energy, it is self-funding and covers its costs by selling its products and services . BPA markets wholesale electrical power from 31 federal hydro projects in the Columbia River Basin, one nonfederal nuclear plant and several small nonfederal power plants . The dams are operated by the U .S . Army Corps of Engineers and the Bureau of Reclamation . About 30 percent of the electric power used in the Northwest comes from BPA . BPA’s resources — primarily hydroelectric — make its power nearly carbon free . BPA also operates and maintains about three- fourths of the high-voltage transmission in its service territory . BPA’s service territory includes Idaho, Oregon, Washington, western Montana and small parts of eastern Montana, California, Nevada, Utah and Wyoming . BPA promotes energy efficiency, renewable resources and new technologies that improve its ability to deliver on its mission . BPA also funds regional efforts to protect and enhance fish and wildlife populations affected by hydropower development in the Columbia River Basin . BPA is committed to public service and seeks to make its decisions in a manner that provides opportunities for input from stakeholders . In its vision statement, BPA dedicates itself to providing high system reliability, low rates consistent with sound business principles, environmental stewardship and accountability

  12. TH-C-BRC-01: An Overview of Emerging Technologies in SRS/SBRT Delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, L.

    2016-01-01

    The delivery techniques for SRS/SBRT have been under rapid developments in recent years, which pose new challenges to medical physicists ranging from planning and quality assurance to imaging and motion management. This educational course will provide a general overview of the latest delivery techniques in SRS/SBRT, and discuss the clinical processes to address the challenges of each technique with special emphasis on dedicated gamma-ray based device, robotic x-band linac-based system and conventional C-arm s-band linac-based SRS systems. (1). Gamma-ray based SRS/SRT: This is the gold standard of intracranial SRS. With the advent of precision imaging guidance and frameless patient positioning capabilities, novel stereoscopic CBCT and automatic dose adaption solution are introduced to the Gamma-ray based SRS for the first time. The first North American system has been approved by the US regulatory for patient treatments in the spring of 2016. (2). Robotic SRS/SBRT system: A number of technological milestones have been developed in the past few years, including variable aperture collimator, sequential optimization technique, and the time reduction technique. Recently, a new robotic model allows the option of a multi-leaf collimator. These technological advances have reduced the treatment time and improved dose conformity significantly and could potentially expand the application of radiosurgery for the treatment of targets not previously suitable for robotic SRS/SBRT or fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy. These technological advances have created new demanding mandates on hardware and patient quality assurance (QA) tasks, as well as the need for updating/educating the physicists in the community on these requirements. (3). Conventional Linac based treatments: Modulated arc therapy (MAT) has gained wide popularities in Linac-based treatments in recent years due to its high delivery efficiency and excellent dose conformities. Recently, MAT has been introduced to

  13. TH-C-BRC-01: An Overview of Emerging Technologies in SRS/SBRT Delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, L. [UCSF Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    The delivery techniques for SRS/SBRT have been under rapid developments in recent years, which pose new challenges to medical physicists ranging from planning and quality assurance to imaging and motion management. This educational course will provide a general overview of the latest delivery techniques in SRS/SBRT, and discuss the clinical processes to address the challenges of each technique with special emphasis on dedicated gamma-ray based device, robotic x-band linac-based system and conventional C-arm s-band linac-based SRS systems. (1). Gamma-ray based SRS/SRT: This is the gold standard of intracranial SRS. With the advent of precision imaging guidance and frameless patient positioning capabilities, novel stereoscopic CBCT and automatic dose adaption solution are introduced to the Gamma-ray based SRS for the first time. The first North American system has been approved by the US regulatory for patient treatments in the spring of 2016. (2). Robotic SRS/SBRT system: A number of technological milestones have been developed in the past few years, including variable aperture collimator, sequential optimization technique, and the time reduction technique. Recently, a new robotic model allows the option of a multi-leaf collimator. These technological advances have reduced the treatment time and improved dose conformity significantly and could potentially expand the application of radiosurgery for the treatment of targets not previously suitable for robotic SRS/SBRT or fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy. These technological advances have created new demanding mandates on hardware and patient quality assurance (QA) tasks, as well as the need for updating/educating the physicists in the community on these requirements. (3). Conventional Linac based treatments: Modulated arc therapy (MAT) has gained wide popularities in Linac-based treatments in recent years due to its high delivery efficiency and excellent dose conformities. Recently, MAT has been introduced to

  14. Scientific and technological monitoring: international overview on R. and D. related to Pra's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llory, M.; Stioui, A.

    1993-03-01

    In 1989, the R and D Division of Electricite de France launched a programme for a Technological and Scientific Overview (TSO) covering a certain number of topics considered to be important for the future of EDF. Probabilistic approaches to studies related to safety were considered to be strategically important to EDF, and therefore this area was selected for further study. A TSO is a process which can only start on the basis of a structured state-of-the-art organized as a basis of knowledge, together with the highlighting of a certain number of scientific and strategic ''set of references . The state-of-the-art of R and D related to Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) was carried out in collaboration between the EDF R and D Division (SR branch) and SRI International. The approach chosen included: segmentation of the wide field of PSAs into subject areas, topics and sensitive points to be monitored; conception of a grid for the interviews; approximately thirty in-depth interviews of organizations and experts representative of the domain; analysis leading to identify certain problems areas or particularly important features. Emerging themes for research and further consideration in relation to PSAs, their application and their limits were also identified. Based on this state-of-the-art, various themes of monitoring were defined (living PSAs, limits of PSAs,...) and an organizational structure for monitoring was set up in the branch. The state of the art is not static, it is the reason why an in-depth extension of the study was undertaken on issues of special interest for EDF. (authors). 2 figs., 2 refs

  15. Overview of recent developments in organic thin-film transistor sensor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanese, M.C.; Marinelli, F.; Angione, D.; Torsi, L.

    2008-01-01

    Bio and chemical sensing represents one of the most attractive applications of organic electronics and of Organic Thin Film Transistors(OTFTs) in particular. The implementation of miniaturized portable systems for the detection of chemical analytes as well as of biological species, is still a challenge for the sensor' community. In this respect OTFTs appear as a new class of sensors able, in principle, to overcome some of the commercial sensors drawbacks. As far as volatile analytes are concerned, commercially available sensing systems, such as metal oxide based chemi-resistors, offer great stability but rather poor selectivity. In spite of the improved selectivity offered by organic chemi-resistors the reliability of such devices is not yet satisfactory proven. On the other hand, complex odors recognition, but also explosives or pathogen bacteria detection are currently being addressed by sensor array systems, called e-noses, that try to mimic the mammalian olfactory system. Even though potentially very effective, this technology has not yet reached the performance level required by the market mostly because miniaturization and cost effective production issues. OTFT sensors can offer the advantage of room temperature operation and deliver high repeatable responses. Beside, they show very good selectivity properties. In fact, they implement organic active layers, which behave as sensing layers as well. This improves OTFTs sensitivity towards different chemical and biological analytes as organic materials can be properly chemically tailored to achieve differential detection and potentially even discrimination of biological species. In addiction to this, OTFTs are also able to offer the unique advantages of multi-parametric response and a gate bias enhanced sensitivity. Recently thin dielectric low-voltage OTFTs have also been demonstrated. Their implementation in low power consumption devices has attracted the attention of the organic electronic community. But such

  16. HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV Overview Home Understanding HIV/AIDS Fact Sheets HIV/ ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials Last Reviewed: August 25, 2017 ...

  17. More Cancer Types - SEER Cancer Stat Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer Statistical Fact Sheets are summaries of common cancer types developed to provide an overview of frequently-requested cancer statistics including incidence, mortality, survival, stage, prevalence, and lifetime risk.

  18. Energetic soft-tissue treatment technologies: an overview of procedural fundamentals and safety factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Berg, N. J.; van den Dobbelsteen, J. J.; Jansen, F. W.; Grimbergen, C. A.; Dankelman, J.

    2013-01-01

    Energy administered during soft-tissue treatments may cauterize, coagulate, seal, or otherwise affect underlying structures. A general overview of the functionality, procedural outcomes, and associated risks of these treatments, however, is not yet generally available. In addition, literature is

  19. Advancing automation and robotics technology for the Space Station and for the US economy. Volume 1: Executive overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    In response to Public Law 98-371, dated July 18, 1984, the NASA Advanced Technology Advisory Committee has studied automation and robotics for use in the Space Station. The Executive Overview, Volume 1 presents the major findings of the study and recommends to NASA principles for advancing automation and robotics technologies for the benefit of the Space Station and of the U.S. economy in general. As a result of its study, the Advanced Technology Advisory Committee believes that a key element of technology for the Space Station is extensive use of advanced general-purpose automation and robotics. These systems could provide the United States with important new methods of generating and exploiting space knowledge in commercial enterprises and thereby help preserve U.S. leadership in space.

  20. Soft Costs Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-05-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the systems integration subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. Soft costs can vary significantly as a result of a fragmented energy marketplace. In the U.S., there are 18,000 jurisdictions and 3,000 utilities with different rules and regulations for how to go solar. The same solar equipment may vary widely in its final installation price due to process and market variations across jurisdictions, creating barriers to rapid industry growth. SunShot supports the development of innovative solutions that enable communities to build their local economies and establish clean energy initiatives that meet their needs, while at the same time creating sustainable solar market conditions.

  1. Impact of Information and Communication Technologies on Nursing Care: Results of an Overview of Systematic Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouleau, Geneviève; Côté, José; Payne-Gagnon, Julie; Hudson, Emilie; Dubois, Carl-Ardy

    2017-01-01

    Background Information and communication technologies (ICTs) are becoming an impetus for quality health care delivery by nurses. The use of ICTs by nurses can impact their practice, modifying the ways in which they plan, provide, document, and review clinical care. Objective An overview of systematic reviews was conducted to develop a broad picture of the dimensions and indicators of nursing care that have the potential to be influenced by the use of ICTs. Methods Quantitative, mixed-method, and qualitative reviews that aimed to evaluate the influence of four eHealth domains (eg, management, computerized decision support systems [CDSSs], communication, and information systems) on nursing care were included. We used the nursing care performance framework (NCPF) as an extraction grid and analytical tool. This model illustrates how the interplay between nursing resources and the nursing services can produce changes in patient conditions. The primary outcomes included nurses’ practice environment, nursing processes, professional satisfaction, and nursing-sensitive outcomes. The secondary outcomes included satisfaction or dissatisfaction with ICTs according to nurses’ and patients’ perspectives. Reviews published in English, French, or Spanish from January 1, 1995 to January 15, 2015, were considered. Results A total of 5515 titles or abstracts were assessed for eligibility and full-text papers of 72 articles were retrieved for detailed evaluation. It was found that 22 reviews published between 2002 and 2015 met the eligibility criteria. Many nursing care themes (ie, indicators) were influenced by the use of ICTs, including time management; time spent on patient care; documentation time; information quality and access; quality of documentation; knowledge updating and utilization; nurse autonomy; intra and interprofessional collaboration; nurses’ competencies and skills; nurse-patient relationship; assessment, care planning, and evaluation; teaching of patients

  2. Impacts of information and communication technologies on nursing care: an overview of systematic reviews (protocol).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouleau, Geneviève; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Côté, José

    2015-05-23

    Information and communication technologies (ICTs) used in the health sector have well-known advantages. They can promote patient-centered healthcare, improve quality of care, and educate health professionals and patients. However, implementation of ICTs remains difficult and involves changes at different levels: patients, healthcare providers, and healthcare organizations. Nurses constitute the largest health provider group of the healthcare workforce. The use of ICTs by nurses can have impacts in their practice. The main objective of this review of systematic reviews is to systematically summarize the best evidence regarding the effects of ICTs on nursing care. We will include all types of reviews that aim to evaluate the influence of ICTs used by nurses on nursing care. We will consider four types of ICTs used by nurses as a way to provide healthcare: management systems, communication systems, information systems, and computerized decision support systems. We will exclude nursing management systems, educational systems, and telephone systems. The following types of comparisons will be carried out: ICT in comparison with usual care/practice, ICT compared to any other ICT, and ICT versus other types of interventions. The primary outcomes will include nurses' practice environment, nursing processes/scope of nursing practice, nurses' professional satisfaction as well as nursing sensitive outcomes, such as patient safety, comfort, and quality of life related to care, empowerment, functional status, satisfaction, and patient experience. Secondary outcomes will include satisfaction with ICT from the nurses and patients' perspective. Reviews published in English, French, or Spanish from 1 January 1995 will be considered. Two reviewers will independently screen the title and abstract of the papers in order to assess their eligibility and extract the following information: characteristics of the population and setting, type of interventions (e.g., type of ICTs and service

  3. 75 FR 48957 - Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services; Overview Information; Technology and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services; Overview... Special Education Programs (OSEP) provides competitive grant funds to support the video description of... exceeding $1,000,000 for a single budget period of 12 months. The Assistant Secretary for Special Education...

  4. 75 FR 59699 - Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services; Overview Information; Technology and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services; Overview... provisions, the Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) awarded two 18-month grants to support States... Secretary for Special Education and Rehabilitative Services may change the maximum amount through a notice...

  5. 75 FR 5291 - Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services; Overview Information; Technology and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services; Overview..., Assistant Secretary for Special Education and Rehabilitative Services. [FR Doc. 2010-2182 Filed 2-1-10; 8:45... the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)). Absolute Priority: For FY 2010 and any...

  6. An overview of heat exchanger technology in the Canadian nuclear program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlucci, L.N.; Dalrymple, D.G.; Ko, P.L.; Pathania, R.; Pettigrew, M.I.; Scott, D.A.

    1981-06-01

    This paper provides an overview of the Canadian approach to the reliability and serviceability of heat exchange equipment used in nuclear power stations and heavy water plants. Current work in vibration and fretting predictions, thermal-hydraulic analyses, and corrosion research is described. Procedures developed for in-service inspection, in situ tube replacment and chemical cleaning of corrosion products are also outlined

  7. A critical overview of safety-related and technological criteria for nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahodova, M.; Valach, M.

    2000-10-01

    A detailed overview of the safety criteria, methods of analysis and computer codes used in OECD countries is presented. A critical analysis of the validity of criteria in the high burnup domain was performed, and recommendations for testing their validity based on available experimental data are put forth. (author)

  8. Impact of Information and Communication Technologies on Nursing Care: Results of an Overview of Systematic Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouleau, Geneviève; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Côté, José; Payne-Gagnon, Julie; Hudson, Emilie; Dubois, Carl-Ardy

    2017-04-25

    Information and communication technologies (ICTs) are becoming an impetus for quality health care delivery by nurses. The use of ICTs by nurses can impact their practice, modifying the ways in which they plan, provide, document, and review clinical care. An overview of systematic reviews was conducted to develop a broad picture of the dimensions and indicators of nursing care that have the potential to be influenced by the use of ICTs. Quantitative, mixed-method, and qualitative reviews that aimed to evaluate the influence of four eHealth domains (eg, management, computerized decision support systems [CDSSs], communication, and information systems) on nursing care were included. We used the nursing care performance framework (NCPF) as an extraction grid and analytical tool. This model illustrates how the interplay between nursing resources and the nursing services can produce changes in patient conditions. The primary outcomes included nurses' practice environment, nursing processes, professional satisfaction, and nursing-sensitive outcomes. The secondary outcomes included satisfaction or dissatisfaction with ICTs according to nurses' and patients' perspectives. Reviews published in English, French, or Spanish from January 1, 1995 to January 15, 2015, were considered. A total of 5515 titles or abstracts were assessed for eligibility and full-text papers of 72 articles were retrieved for detailed evaluation. It was found that 22 reviews published between 2002 and 2015 met the eligibility criteria. Many nursing care themes (ie, indicators) were influenced by the use of ICTs, including time management; time spent on patient care; documentation time; information quality and access; quality of documentation; knowledge updating and utilization; nurse autonomy; intra and interprofessional collaboration; nurses' competencies and skills; nurse-patient relationship; assessment, care planning, and evaluation; teaching of patients and families; communication and care

  9. 2014 Overview of NASA GRC Electrochemical Power and Energy Storage Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Concha M.

    2014-01-01

    Overview presentation to the IAPG Chemical Working Group meeting, discussing current electrochemical power and energy storage R and D at NASA GRC including missions, demonstrations, and reserch projects. Activities such as ISS Lithium-Ion Battery Replacements, the Advanced Exploration Systems Modular Power Systems project, Enabling Electric Aviation with Ultra-High Energy Litium Metal Batteries, Advanced Space Power Systems project, and SBIR STTR work, will be discussed.

  10. NASA Subsonic Rotary Wing Project-Multidisciplinary Analysis and Technology Development: Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Gloria K.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the objectives of the Multidisciplinary Analysis and Technology Development (MDATD) in the Subsonic Rotary Wing project. The objectives are to integrate technologies and analyses to enable advanced rotorcraft and provide a roadmap to guide Level 1 and 2 research. The MDATD objectives will be met by conducting assessments of advanced technology benefits, developing new or enhanced design tools, and integrating Level 2 discipline technologies to develop and enable system-level analyses and demonstrations.

  11. Overview of recent advances in Health care technology and its impact on health care delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Editor, ISJMI

    2018-01-01

    Recent advancement in technology such as Machine Learning (ML), Artificial intelligence(AI), Robotics, internet of things (IOT), Block Chain technologies, Big Data analytics, Cloud computing Natural Language Processing, Mobile Applications is making a huge impact on the day to day lives of human beings. These technologies started helping us to save resources, time and cost and at the same time increase the accuracy and efficiency. Biomedical domain also started embracing these new technologi...

  12. Non-Thermal Plasma (NTP) session overview: Second International Symposium on Environmental Applications of Advanced Oxidation Technologies (AOTs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosocha, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    Advanced Oxidation Technologies (used in pollution control and treating hazardous wastes) has expanded from using hydroxyl radicals to treat organic compounds in water, to using reductive free radicals as well, and to application to pollutants in both gases and aqueous media. Non-Thermal Plasma (NTP) is created in a gas by an electrical discharge or energetic electron injection. Highly reactive species (O atoms, OH, N radicals, plasma electrons) react with entrained hazardous organic chemicals in the gas, converting them to CO2, H2O, etc. NTP can be used to simultaneously remove different kinds of pollutants (eg, VOCs, SOx, NOx in flue gases). This paper presents an overview of NTP technology for pollution control and hazardous waste treatment; it is intended as an introduction to the NTP session of the symposium

  13. e-PTSD: an overview on how new technologies can improve prediction and assessment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourla, Alexis; Mouchabac, Stephane; El Hage, Wissam; Ferreri, Florian

    2018-01-01

    Background : New technologies may profoundly change our way of understanding psychiatric disorders including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Imaging and biomarkers, along with technological and medical informatics developments, might provide an answer regarding at-risk patient's identification. Recent advances in the concept of 'digital phenotype', which refers to the capture of characteristics of a psychiatric disorder by computerized measurement tools, is one paradigmatic example. Objective : The impact of the new technologies on health professionals practice in PTSD care remains to be determined. The recent evolutions could disrupt the clinical practices and practitioners in their beliefs, ethics and representations, going as far as questioning their professional culture. In the present paper, we conducted an extensive search to highlight the articles which reflect the potential of these new technologies. Method : We conducted an overview by querying PubMed database with the terms [PTSD] [Posttraumatic stress disorder] AND [Computer] OR [Computerized] OR [Mobile] OR [Automatic] OR [Automated] OR [Machine learning] OR [Sensor] OR [Heart rate variability] OR [HRV] OR [actigraphy] OR [actimetry] OR [digital] OR [motion] OR [temperature] OR [virtual reality]. Results : We summarized the synthesized literature in two categories: prediction and assessment (including diagnostic, screening and monitoring). Two independent reviewers screened, extracted data and quality appraised the sources. Results were synthesized narratively. Conclusions : This overview shows that many studies are underway allowing researchers to start building a PTSD digital phenotype using passive data obtained by biometric sensors. Active data obtained from Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) could allow clinicians to assess PTSD patients. The place of connected objects, Artificial Intelligence and remote monitoring of patients with psychiatric pathology remains to be defined. These tools

  14. Overview of technology modeling in the Remedial Action Assessment System (RAAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.D.; Bagaasen, L.M.; Chan, T.C.; Lamar, D.A.; Buelt, J.L.; Freeman, C.J.; Skeen, R.S.

    1994-08-01

    There are numerous hazardous waste sites under the jurisdiction of the US Department of Energy (DOE). To assist the cleanup of these sites in a more consistent, timely, and cost-effective manner, the Remedial Action Assessment System (RAAS) is being developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). RAAS is a software tool designed to automate the initial technology selection within the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) process. The software does several things for the user: (1) provides information about available remedial technologies, (2) sorts possible technologies to recommend a list of technologies applicable to a given site, (3) points out technical issues that may prevent the implementation of a technology, and (4) provides an estimate of the effectiveness of a given technology at a particular site. Information from RAAS can be used to compare remediation options and guide selection of technologies for further study

  15. Project Overview of the Naval Postgraduate School Spacecraft Architecture and Technology Demonstration Experiment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reuer, Charles

    2001-01-01

    The Naval Postgraduate School's current attempt at getting another spacecraft into orbit is focusing on Naval Postgraduate School Spacecraft Architecture and Technology Demonstration Experiment (NPSAT1...

  16. Microalgal carbohydrates. An overview of the factors influencing carbohydrates production, and of main bioconversion technologies for production of biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markou, Giorgos; Georgakakis, Dimitris [Agricultural Univ. of Athens (Greece). Dept. of Natural Resources Management and Agricultural Engineering; Angelidaki, Irini [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Environmental Engineering

    2012-11-15

    Microalgal biomass seems to be a promising feedstock for biofuel generation. Microalgae have relative high photosynthetic efficiencies, high growth rates, and some species can thrive in brackish water or seawater and wastewater from the food- and agro-industrial sector. Today, the main interest in research is the cultivation of microalgae for lipids production to generate biodiesel. However, there are several other biological or thermochemical conversion technologies, in which microalgal biomass could be used as substrate. However, the high protein content or the low carbohydrate content of the majority of the microalgal species might be a constraint for their possible use in these technologies. Moreover, in the majority of biomass conversion technologies, carbohydrates are the main substrate for production of biofuels. Nevertheless, microalgae biomass composition could be manipulated by several cultivation techniques, such as nutrient starvation or other stressed environmental conditions, which cause the microalgae to accumulate carbohydrates. This paper attempts to give a general overview of techniques that can be used for increasing the microalgal biomass carbohydrate content. In addition, biomass conversion technologies, related to the conversion of carbohydrates into biofuels are discussed. (orig.)

  17. Overview of the Development of the Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission 12.5-kW Hall Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Huang, Wensheng; Haag, Thomas; Yim, John; Chang, Li; Clayman, Lauren; Herman, Daniel; Shastry, Rohit; Thomas, Robert; Verhey, Timothy; hide

    2014-01-01

    NASA is developing mission concepts for a solar electric propulsion technology demonstration mission. A number of mission concepts are being evaluated including ambitious missions to near Earth objects. The demonstration of a high-power solar electric propulsion capability is one of the objectives of the candidate missions under consideration. In support of NASA's exploration goals, a number of projects are developing extensible technologies to support NASA's near and long term mission needs. Specifically, the Space Technology Mission Directorate Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission project is funding the development of a 12.5-kilowatt magnetically shielded Hall thruster system to support future NASA missions. This paper presents the design attributes of the thruster that was collaboratively developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The paper provides an overview of the magnetic, plasma, thermal, and structural modeling activities that were carried out in support of the thruster design. The paper also summarizes the results of the functional tests that have been carried out to date. The planned thruster performance, plasma diagnostics (internal and in the plume), thermal, wear, and mechanical tests are outlined.

  18. Overview Of Research And Development On Radiation Technology In Vietnam During The Period Of 2005 - 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Khac An; Nguyen Quoc Hien

    2008-01-01

    Radiation technology is increasingly applied in may countries including Vietnam. This paper reviews R and D works, manpower, irradiation facilities and service irradiation in the period of 2005-2007. The orientation of development for radiation technology in the country and international co-operation programs are also briefly discussed in this paper as well. (author)

  19. The Large UV/Optical/Infrared Surveyor (LUVOIR): Decadal Mission concept technology development overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolcar, Matthew R.

    2017-09-01

    The Large Ultraviolet / Optical / Infrared (LUVOIR) Surveyor is one of four large mission concept studies being developed by NASA for consideration in the 2020 Astrophysics Decadal Survey. LUVOIR will support a broad range of science objectives, including the direct imaging and spectral characterization of habitable exoplanets around sun-like stars, the study of galaxy formation and evolution, the epoch of reionization, star and planet formation, and the remote sensing of Solar System bodies. The LUVOIR Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) has tasked a Technology Working Group (TWG), with more than 60 members from NASA centers, academia, industry, and international partners, with identifying technologies that enable or enhance the LUVOIR science mission. The TWG has identified such technologies in the areas of Coronagraphy, Ultra-Stable Opto-mechanical Systems, Detectors, Coatings, Starshades, and Instrument Components, and has completed a detailed assessment of the state-of-the-art. We present here a summary of this technology assessment effort, as well as the current progress in defining a technology development plan to mature these technologies to the required technology readiness level (TRL).

  20. 75 FR 30795 - Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services; Overview Information; Technology and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ..., social and emotional needs, of children; (b) Implement procedures for monitoring the extent to which the... Information; Technology and Media Services for Individuals With Disabilities--Television Access; Notice.... Funding Opportunity Description Purpose of Program: The purposes of the Technology and Media Services for...

  1. An Historical Overview of the Production Requirement for the Satellite Technology Demonstration. Technical Report No. 0504.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Myron P.; Sosey, Phillip

    The Satellite Technology Demonstration employs the latest telecommunications technology to deliver community oriented programing to rural areas. To meet the demand for contemporary broadcasts responsive to community needs, a studio was constructed in the Denver area to produce and coordinate future programs for the Rocky Mountains area. Problems…

  2. Overview of non-thermal mixed waste treatment technologies: Treatment of mixed waste (ex situ); Technologies and short descriptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This compendium contains brief summaries of new and developing non- thermal treatment technologies that are candidates for treating hazardous or mixed (hazardous plus low-level radioactive) wastes. It is written to be all-encompassing, sometimes including concepts that presently constitute little more than informed ``ideas``. It bounds the universe of existing technologies being thought about or considered for application on the treatment of such wastes. This compendium is intended to be the very first step in a winnowing process to identify non-thermal treatment systems that can be fashioned into complete ``cradle-to-grave`` systems for study. The purpose of the subsequent systems paper studies is to investigate the cost and likely performance of such systems treating a representative sample of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mixed low level wastes (MLLW). The studies are called Integrated Non-thermal Treatment Systems (INTS) Studies and are being conducted by the Office of Science and Technology (OST) of the Environmental Management (EM) of the US Department of Energy. Similar studies on Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems have recently been published. These are not designed nor intended to be a ``downselection`` of such technologies; rather, they are simply a systems evaluation of the likely costs and performance of various non- thermal technologies that have been arranged into systems to treat sludges, organics, metals, soils, and debris prevalent in MLLW.

  3. Overview of non-thermal mixed waste treatment technologies: Treatment of mixed waste (ex situ); Technologies and short descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    This compendium contains brief summaries of new and developing non- thermal treatment technologies that are candidates for treating hazardous or mixed (hazardous plus low-level radioactive) wastes. It is written to be all-encompassing, sometimes including concepts that presently constitute little more than informed ''ideas''. It bounds the universe of existing technologies being thought about or considered for application on the treatment of such wastes. This compendium is intended to be the very first step in a winnowing process to identify non-thermal treatment systems that can be fashioned into complete ''cradle-to-grave'' systems for study. The purpose of the subsequent systems paper studies is to investigate the cost and likely performance of such systems treating a representative sample of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mixed low level wastes (MLLW). The studies are called Integrated Non-thermal Treatment Systems (INTS) Studies and are being conducted by the Office of Science and Technology (OST) of the Environmental Management (EM) of the US Department of Energy. Similar studies on Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems have recently been published. These are not designed nor intended to be a ''downselection'' of such technologies; rather, they are simply a systems evaluation of the likely costs and performance of various non- thermal technologies that have been arranged into systems to treat sludges, organics, metals, soils, and debris prevalent in MLLW

  4. An overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's program for liquid metal reactor seismic technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jetter, R.I.; Seidensticker, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    During the past decade, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has sponsored the development of seismic design technology in support of Liquid Metal Reactors (LMR's). This has been accomplished through 1) major projects such as the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) and the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR), 2) base technology programs and 3) support to the design development of innovative LMR's, SAFR and PRISM. These developments have come in the areas of ground motion definition, soil-structure interaction, seismic isolation, fluid-structure interaction and structural analysis methods and criteria for equipment and components such as piping, reactor core and vessels. The initial developments in seismic design technology by DOE and others were directed toward ensuring that the plant, equipment and components had sufficient seismic resistance to ensure availability after an Operations Basis Earthquake (OBE) and to survive a Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE). During this period, the emphasis on conservative design had significant cost impacts. The current focus is directed toward a better understanding of seismic design margins and the development of methods to reduce seismic loads on plant and equipment and to enhance siting flexibility. From this perspective, the DOE is currently reassessing the needs and priorities for future seismic technology development. Coordination with University research programs and ongoing seismic technology development sponsored by other governmental agencies and institutions is an integral part of this planning process. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the current status of DOE's seismic technology program for LMR's and to provide an overview of future areas of interest. (author). 7 refs

  5. OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY AND INTERNATIONAL, NATURAL BARRIERS THRUST OVERVIEW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B. Bodvarsson; Y. Tsang

    2006-01-01

    The Natural Barriers Thrust supports scientific studies of the natural system at the proposed repository site of Yucca Mountain. It stresses the realistic representation of the natural system with respect to processes and parameters, by means of laboratory, field, and modeling studies. It has the objectives to demonstrate that the natural barriers can make large contributions to repository performance, supporting the multiple-barrier concept for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste; and to reduce the overall cost of repository development by elimination of unnecessary engineered components, given the demonstrated natural barriers performance. In this overview we enumerate the research projects within the Natural Barriers Thrust grouped under five elements: (1) Drift Seepage, (2) In-drift Environment, (3) Drift Shadow, (4) Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport, and (5) Saturated Zone Flow and Transport. The long-term strategic plan of the Natural Barriers Thrust and some key results are also briefly described

  6. Vertical flight training: An overview of training and flight simulator technology with emphasis on rotary-wing requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderete, Thomas S.; Ascencio-Lee, Carmen E.; Bray, Richard; Carlton, John; Dohme, Jack; Eshow, Michelle M.; Francis, Stephen; Lee, Owen M.; Lintern, Gavan; Lombardo, David A.

    1994-01-01

    The principal purpose of this publication is to provide a broad overview of the technology that is relevant to the design of aviation training systems and of the techniques applicable to the development, use, and evaluation of those systems. The issues addressed in our 11 chapters are, for the most part, those that would be expected to surface in any informed discussion of the major characterizing elements of aviation training systems. Indeed, many of the same facets of vertical-flight training discussed were recognized and, to some extent, dealt with at the 1991 NASA/FAA Helicopter Simulator Workshop. These generic topics are essential to a sound understanding of training and training systems, and they quite properly form the basis of any attempt to systematize the development and evaluation of more effective, more efficient, more productive, and more economical approaches to aircrew training. Individual chapters address the following topics: an overview of the vertical flight industry: the source of training requirements; training and training schools: meeting current requirements; training systems design and development; transfer of training and cost-effectiveness; the military quest for flight training effectiveness; alternative training systems; training device manufacturing; simulator aero model implementation; simulation validation in the frequency domain; cockpit motion in helicopter simulation; and visual space perception in flight simulators.

  7. Alternative response technology program for the Deepwater Horizon in the Gulf of Mexico - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortez, Michael J.; Rowe, Hunter G.

    2011-01-01

    The innovative approach utilized by the Alternative Response Technology (ART) Program for the MC252 Deepwater Horizon response in the Gulf of Mexico during 2010 was presented in this paper. The ART program is authorized by the Unified Area Command. This paper focuses on the spill response technologies that were implemented offshore, near shore and on-shore, and covers technologies related to booming, skimming, separation, sand cleaning, surveillance and detection. A process was designed and implemented for capturing ideas real time, which leveraged the public's ingenuity and entrepreneurial spirit. About 120,000 individual ideas were submitted by the public globally from more than 100 countries. About 40,000 of these ideas were related to addressing the spill response. There are about 100 new technologies related to spill response that were formally evaluated and/or field tested, and approximately 25 of those tested were successfully implemented across the spill response area.

  8. Alternative response technology program for the Deepwater Horizon in the Gulf of Mexico - an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortez, Michael J.; Rowe, Hunter G. [BP - Gulf Coast Restoration (United States)], email: michael.cortez@bp.com

    2011-07-01

    The innovative approach utilized by the Alternative Response Technology (ART) Program for the MC252 Deepwater Horizon response in the Gulf of Mexico during 2010 was presented in this paper. The ART program is authorized by the Unified Area Command. This paper focuses on the spill response technologies that were implemented offshore, near shore and on-shore, and covers technologies related to booming, skimming, separation, sand cleaning, surveillance and detection. A process was designed and implemented for capturing ideas real time, which leveraged the public's ingenuity and entrepreneurial spirit. About 120,000 individual ideas were submitted by the public globally from more than 100 countries. About 40,000 of these ideas were related to addressing the spill response. There are about 100 new technologies related to spill response that were formally evaluated and/or field tested, and approximately 25 of those tested were successfully implemented across the spill response area.

  9. Life cycle assessment (LCA) of electricity generation technologies: Overview, comparability and limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turconi, Roberto; Boldrin, Alessio; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2013-01-01

    , nuclear, biomass, hydroelectric, solar photovoltaic (PV) and wind was carried out to identify ranges of emission data for GHG, NOx and SO2 related to individual technologies. It was shown that GHG emissions could not be used as a single indicator to represent the environmental performance of a system...... identified as follows: the energy recovery efficiency and the flue gas cleaning system for fossil fuel technologies; the electricity mix used during both the manufacturing and the construction phases for nuclear and renewable technologies; and the type, quality and origin of feedstock, as well as the amount....... The most critical methodological aspects in relation to LCA studies were identified as follows: definition of the functional unit, the LCA method employed (e.g., IOA, PCA and hybrid), the emission allocation principle and/or system boundary expansion. The most important technological aspects were...

  10. Overview of selected surrogate technologies for high-temporal resolution suspended-sediment monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, John R.; Gartner, Jeffrey W.

    2010-01-01

    Traditional methods for characterizing selected properties of suspended sediments in rivers are being augmented and in some cases replaced by cost-effective surrogate instruments and methods that produce a temporally dense time series of quantifiably accurate data for use primarily in sediment-flux computations. Turbidity is the most common such surrogate technology, and the first to be sanctioned by the U.S. Geological Survey for use in producing data used in concert with water-discharge data to compute sediment concentrations and fluxes for storage in the National Water Information System. Other technologies, including laser-diffraction, digital photo-optic, acoustic-attenuation and backscatter, and pressure-difference techniques are being evaluated for producing reliable sediment concentration and, in some cases, particle-size distribution data. Each technology addresses a niche for sediment monitoring. Their performances range from compelling to disappointing. Some of these technologies have the potential to revolutionize fluvial-sediment data collection, analysis, and availability.

  11. Overview of the Performance and Cost Effectiveness of Small Arsenic Removal Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presentation provides information on the performance and cost of primarily four arsenic removal technologies; adsorptive media, iron removal, coagulation/filtration and the combination system of iron removal followed by adsorptive media.

  12. Overview of RFID technology and its applications in the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P; Reinitz, H W; Simunovic, J; Sandeep, K P; Franzon, P D

    2009-10-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) is an alternative technology with a potential to replace traditional universal product code (UPC) barcodes. RFID enables identification of an object from a distance without requiring a line of sight. RFID tags can also incorporate additional data such as details of product and manufacturer and can transmit measured environmental factors such as temperature and relative humidity. This article presents key concepts and terminology related to RFID technology and its applications in the food industry. Components and working principles of an RFID system are described. Numerous applications of RFID technology in the food industry (supply chain management, temperature monitoring of foods, and ensuring food safety) are discussed. Challenges in implementation of RFID technology are also discussed in terms of read range, read accuracy, nonuniform standards, cost, recycling issues, privacy, and security concerns.

  13. FENTON-DRIVEN REGENERATION OF GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON: A TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Fenton-driven mechanism for regenerating spent granular activated carbon (GAC) involves the combined, synergistic use of two reliable and well established treatment technologies - adsorption onto activated carbon and Fenton oxidation. During carbon adsorption treatment, enviro...

  14. An overview of hydraulic fracturing and other formation stimulation technologies for shale gas production

    OpenAIRE

    GANDOSSI Luca

    2013-01-01

    The technology of hydraulic fracturing for hydrocarbon well stimulation is not new, but only fairly recently has become a very common and widespread technique, especially in North America, due to technological advances that have allowed extracting natural gas from so-called unconventional reservoirs (tight sands, coal beds and shale formations). The conjunction of techniques such as directional drilling, high volume fracturing, micro-seismic monitoring, etc. with the development of multi-well...

  15. An overview of hydraulic fracturing and other formation stimulation technologies for shale gas production - Update 2015

    OpenAIRE

    GANDOSSI Luca; VON ESTORFF Ulrik

    2015-01-01

    The technology of hydraulic fracturing for hydrocarbon well stimulation is not new, but only fairly recently has become a very common and widespread technique, especially in North America, due to technological advances that have allowed extracting natural gas from so-called unconventional reservoirs (tight sands, coal beds and shale formations). The conjunction of techniques such as directional drilling, high volume fracturing, micro-seismic monitoring, etc. with the development of multi-well...

  16. Cervical Precancer Treatment in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Technology Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Maza

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in women worldwide, with 90% of cases occurring in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. There has been a global effort to increase access to affordable screening in these settings; however, a corresponding increase in availability of effective and inexpensive treatment modalities for ablating or excising precancerous lesions is also needed to decrease mortality. This article reviews the current landscape of available and developing technologies for treatment of cervical precancer in LMICs. At present, the standard treatment of most precancerous lesions in LMICs is gas-based cryotherapy. This low-cost, effective technology is an expedient treatment in many areas; however, obtaining and transporting gas is often difficult, and unwieldy gas tanks are not conducive to mobile health campaigns. There are several promising ablative technologies in development that are gasless or require less gas than conventional cryotherapy. Although further evaluation of the efficacy and cost-effectiveness is needed, several of these technologies are safe and can now be implemented in LMICs. Nonsurgical therapies, such as therapeutic vaccines, antivirals, and topical applications, are also promising, but most remain in early-stage trials. The establishment of evidence-based standardized protocols for available treatments and the development and introduction of novel technologies are necessary steps in overcoming barriers to treatment in LMICs and decreasing the global burden of cervical cancer. Guidance from WHO on emerging treatment technologies is also needed.

  17. Zero emissions trucks. An overview of state-of-the-art technologies and their potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Boer, E.; Aarnink, S. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Kleiner, F.; Pagenkopf, J. [German Aerospace Center DLR, Cologne (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    The study by CE Delft and the German Aerospace Center (DLR), commissioned by the International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT), surveys the technology potential for zero-emission road freight transport in the EU. For short distance transport, battery electric technology is feasible, as distribution trucks have lower range requirements and recharging can occur at scheduled downtimes (e.g. overnight). For long haul applications, battery electric vehicles coupled with overhead wires (catenary) or in-road charging (dynamic) infrastructure are possible, as well as fuel cell drivelines. The cost differential between conventional and zero emission HDVs will diminish over the next 10-15 years, as fuel savings offset other costs. If zero-emission technologies are introduced on a large scale in the onroad freight transport sector beginning in 2020, the total end-user costs will not significantly increase. The total cost of ownership within this study do not consider required infrastructure investments. All zero emission technologies require major infrastructure investments, whether hydrogen refuelling stations, in-road inductive charging, or other systems. Broad policy support is needed to encourage the development and evaluation of various technology options. Over time, the policy focus must shift from stimulating innovation and technology adoption to regulation, if it is to spur a successful transformation of the truck market.

  18. An Overview of 2014 SBIR Phase 1 and Phase 2 Communications Technology and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.; Morris, Jessica R.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program focuses on technological innovation by investing in development of innovative concepts and technologies to help NASA mission directorates address critical research needs for Agency programs. This report highlights eight of the innovative SBIR 2014 Phase I and Phase II projects that emphasize one of NASA Glenn Research Center's six core competencies-Communication Technology and Development. The technologies cover a wide spectrum of applications such as X-ray navigation, microsensor instrument for unmanned aerial vehicle airborne atmospheric measurements, 16-element graphene-based phased array antenna system, interferometric star tracker, ultralow power fast-response sensor, and integrated spacecraft navigation and communication. Each featured technology describes an innovation, technical objective, and highlights NASA commercial and industrial applications. This report provides an opportunity for NASA engineers, researchers, and program managers to learn how NASA SBIR technologies could help their programs and projects, and lead to collaborations and partnerships between the small SBIR companies and NASA that would benefit both.

  19. Overview of NASA Lewis Research Center free-piston Stirling engine technology activities applicable to space power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaby, Jack G.

    1987-01-01

    A brief overview is presented of the development and technological activities of the free-piston Stirling engine. The engine started as a small scale fractional horsepower engine which demonstrated basic engine operating principles and the advantages of being hermetically sealed, highly efficient, and simple. It eventually developed into the free piston Stirling engine driven heat pump, and then into the SP-100 Space Reactor Power Program from which came the Space Power Demonstrator Engine (SPDE). The SPDE successfully operated for over 300 hr and delivered 20 kW of PV power to an alternator plunger. The SPDE demonstrated that a dynamic power conversion system can, with proper design, be balanced; and the engine performed well with externally pumped hydrostatic gas bearings.

  20. Oxyfuel technologies for CO{sub 2} capture : a techno-economic overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmonds, M. [BP Exploration, Sunbury on Thames (United Kingdom); Miracca, I. [Snamprogetti SPA, San Donato Milanese (Italy); Gerdes, K. [ChevronTexaco, Richmond, CA (United States)

    2005-07-01

    This paper reviewed various oxyfuel combustion technologies developed by the CO{sub 2} Capture Project (CCP), a joint partnership of 8 major energy companies. Over the last 3 years, the CCP has conducted several studies focusing on oxyfuel combustion in order to assess the potential application of oxyfuel combustion technologies for heat and power production systems. Studies on oxyfuel firing using cryogenically supplied oxygen and flue gas recycle as a means of moderating combustion temperature have been proven, and are now being used as a baseline case for the retrofitting of process heaters and boilers. The cost of CO{sub 2} capture using cryogenically supplied oxygen is expected to range between $35 to $45 per tonne. Studies examining the application of pure oxygen firing to gas turbines have suggested that significant development is needed by turbine manufacturers to incorporate the use of new materials capable of operating at the high temperatures needed to avoid unacceptable reductions in energy efficiency. A new generation of oxygen production techniques using ceramic membrane technologies may significantly reduce the unit cost of oxygen production, which will in turn have an impact on the cost of CO{sub 2} capture. An additional CCP study suggested that significant markets for exported power are needed to ensure the commercialization of ion transport membranes in the retrofitting of existing heaters and boilers. The most significant research and development effort in oxyfuel technologies to date has centred on the development of a chemical looping combustion (CLC) concept. The CLC technology is based on using mixed metal oxide pellets as a carrier for transferring oxygen from combustion air to the fuel. The technology uses 2 fluidized bed reactors for a continuous circulation of solids. Key risks associated with the technology centre on the production of mixed metal oxide materials which are capable of withstanding repeated oxidation and reduction cycles

  1. Overview of NASA's Space Solar Power Technology Advanced Research and Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Joe; Mankins, John C.; Davis, N. Jan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Large solar power satellite (SPS) systems that might provide base load power into terrestrial markets were examined extensively in the 1970s by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Following a hiatus of about 15 years, the subject of space solar power (SSP) was reexamined by NASA from 1995-1997 in the 'fresh look' study, and during 1998 in an SSP 'concept definition study', and during 1999-2000 in the SSP Exploratory Research and Technology (SERT) program. As a result of these efforts, during 2001, NASA has initiated the SSP Technology Advanced Research and Development (STAR-Dev) program based on informed decisions. The goal of the STAR-Dev program is to conduct preliminary strategic technology research and development to enable large, multi-megawatt to gigawatt-class space solar power (SSP) systems and wireless power transmission (WPT) for government missions and commercial markets (in-space and terrestrial). Specific objectives include: (1) Release a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) for SSP Projects; (2) Conduct systems studies; (3) Develop Component Technologies; (4) Develop Ground and Flight demonstration systems; and (5) Assess and/or Initiate Partnerships. Accomplishing these objectives will allow informed future decisions regarding further SSP and related research and development investments by both NASA management and prospective external partners. In particular, accomplishing these objectives will also guide further definition of SSP and related technology roadmaps including performance objectives, resources and schedules; including 'multi-purpose' applications (commercial, science, and other government).

  2. An Overview of SBIR Phase 2 Physical Sciences and Biomedical Technologies in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.

    2015-01-01

    Technological innovation is the overall focus of NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The program invests in the development of innovative concepts and technologies to help NASA's mission directorates address critical research and development needs for agency projects. This report highlights innovative SBIR Phase II projects from 2007-2012 specifically addressing areas in physical sciences and biomedical technologies in space, which is one of six core competencies at NASA Glenn Research Center. There are twenty two technologies featured with emphasis on a wide spectrum of applications such as reusable handheld electrolyte, sensor for bone markers, wideband single crystal transducer, mini treadmill for musculoskeletal, and much more. Each article in this report describes an innovation, technical objective, and highlights NASA commercial and industrial applications. This report serves as an opportunity for NASA personnel including engineers, researchers, and program managers to learn of NASA SBIR's capabilities that might be crosscutting into this technology area. As the result, it would cause collaborations and partnerships between the small companies and NASA Programs and Projects resulting in benefit to both SBIR companies and NASA.

  3. Spray cooling heat transfer: Technology overview and assessment of future challenges for micro-gravity application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, Eric A.; Golliher, Eric L.; Paneer Selvam, R.

    2008-01-01

    Advanced on-board flight systems for future NASA space exploration programs consist of components such as laser-diode arrays (LDA's) and multi-chip modules (MCM's). Thermal management of these systems require high heat flux cooling capability (≥100 W/cm 2 ), tight temperature control (approx. ±2 deg. C), reliable start-up (on demand) and long term stability. Traditional multiphase thermal control technologies for space flight (e.g., loop heat pipes, capillary pumped loops, etc.) satisfy the temperature control, start-up and stability requirements, but their heat flux removal capabilities are limited. Spray cooling can provide high heat fluxes in excess of 100 W/cm 2 using fluorinerts and over 1000 W/cm 2 with water while allowing tight temperature control at low coolant fluid flow rates. Spray cooling has been flight proven in an open loop configuration through the Space shuttle's flash evaporator system (FES). However, several closed system issues require investigation to further advance the technology to a technology readiness level (TRL) appropriate for closed system space flight application. This paper provides a discussion of the current status of spray cooling technology as well as NASA's goals, current direction, and challenges associated with the implementation and practice of this technology in the micro-gravity environment

  4. Transuranic and Low-Level Boxed Waste Form Nondestructive Assay Technology Overview and Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, G.; Connolly, M.; McIlwain, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) identified the need to perform an assessment of the functionality and performance of existing nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques relative to the low-level and transuranic waste inventory packaged in large-volume box-type containers. The primary objectives of this assessment were to: (1) determine the capability of existing boxed waste form NDA technology to comply with applicable waste radiological characterization requirements, (2) determine deficiencies associated with existing boxed waste assay technology implementation strategies, and (3) recommend a path forward for future technology development activities, if required. Based on this assessment, it is recommended that a boxed waste NDA development and demonstration project that expands the existing boxed waste NDA capability to accommodate the indicated deficiency set be implemented. To ensure that technology will be commercially available in a timely fashion, it is recommended this development and demonstration project be directed to the private sector. It is further recommended that the box NDA technology be of an innovative design incorporating sufficient NDA modalities, e.g., passive neutron, gamma, etc., to address the majority of the boxed waste inventory. The overall design should be modular such that subsets of the overall NDA system can be combined in optimal configurations tailored to differing waste types

  5. An overview of emerging technologies in contemporary decision support system development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nursal, Ahmad Taufik; Omar, Mohd Faizal; Nawi, Mohd Nasrun Mohd

    2014-12-01

    The rapid development of Web technology has opened a new approach to Decision Support System (DSS) development. For instance, Social Media is one of the Web 2.0 digital platforms that allow the creation and exchanges of user-generate content through an interactive interface, high user control and mass participation. The concept and characteristics of Web 2.0 such as remote, platform-independent, context-rich and easy to use, which is fulfill the concept and purpose of DSS. This paper outlines some of the elementary concepts of Web 2.0 and social media technology which can be potentially integrated within DSS to enhance the decision-making process. Our initial investigation indicates that there is limited study attempt to embed Web 2.0 into DSS. Thus, this paper highlights the importance of Web 2.0 technology in order to foster the betterment of DSS development and its usability.

  6. Overview of established and emerging treatment technologies for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at wood preserving facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shearon, M.D.

    1992-01-01

    The contamination of soil and groundwater by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is common to wood preserving facilities and manufactured gas plants. Since the inception of RCRA and CERCLA, much attention has been focused upon the remediation of both active and defunct wood preserving facilities. The experiences gleaned from the use of proven technologies, and more importantly, the lessons being learned in the trials of emerging technologies on creosote-derived PAH clean-ups at wood preserving sites, should have direct bearing on the clean-up of similar contaminants at MGP sites. In this paper, a review of several remedial actions using waste removal/disposal, on-site incineration, and bioremediation will be presented. Additionally, emerging technologies for the treatment of PAH-contaminated soil and water will be reviewed. Lastly, recent information on risk assessment results for creosote sites and treated PAH waste will be discussed

  7. An overview of emerging technologies in contemporary decision support system development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nursal, Ahmad Taufik, E-mail: taufiknursal@yahoo.com, E-mail: faizal-omar@uum.edu.my; Omar, Mohd Faizal, E-mail: taufiknursal@yahoo.com, E-mail: faizal-omar@uum.edu.my [School of Quantitative Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, Universiti Utara Malaysia, 06010 Sintok, Kedah (Malaysia); Nawi, Mohd Nasrun Mohd, E-mail: nasrun@uum.edu.my [School of Technology Management and Logistics, Universiti Utara Malaysia, 06010 Sintok, Kedah (Malaysia)

    2014-12-04

    The rapid development of Web technology has opened a new approach to Decision Support System (DSS) development. For instance, Social Media is one of the Web 2.0 digital platforms that allow the creation and exchanges of user-generate content through an interactive interface, high user control and mass participation. The concept and characteristics of Web 2.0 such as remote, platform-independent, context-rich and easy to use, which is fulfill the concept and purpose of DSS. This paper outlines some of the elementary concepts of Web 2.0 and social media technology which can be potentially integrated within DSS to enhance the decision-making process. Our initial investigation indicates that there is limited study attempt to embed Web 2.0 into DSS. Thus, this paper highlights the importance of Web 2.0 technology in order to foster the betterment of DSS development and its usability.

  8. An overview of emerging technologies in contemporary decision support system development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nursal, Ahmad Taufik; Omar, Mohd Faizal; Nawi, Mohd Nasrun Mohd

    2014-01-01

    The rapid development of Web technology has opened a new approach to Decision Support System (DSS) development. For instance, Social Media is one of the Web 2.0 digital platforms that allow the creation and exchanges of user-generate content through an interactive interface, high user control and mass participation. The concept and characteristics of Web 2.0 such as remote, platform-independent, context-rich and easy to use, which is fulfill the concept and purpose of DSS. This paper outlines some of the elementary concepts of Web 2.0 and social media technology which can be potentially integrated within DSS to enhance the decision-making process. Our initial investigation indicates that there is limited study attempt to embed Web 2.0 into DSS. Thus, this paper highlights the importance of Web 2.0 technology in order to foster the betterment of DSS development and its usability

  9. Investigating the ways in which health information technology can promote antimicrobial stewardship: a conceptual overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Abby; Cresswell, Kathrin M; Coleman, Jamie J; Pontefract, Sarah K; Slee, Ann; Williams, Robin; Sheikh, Aziz

    2017-08-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is now recognised as a threat to health worldwide. Antimicrobial stewardship aims to promote the responsible use of antibiotics and is high on international and national policy agendas. Health information technology has the potential to support antimicrobial stewardship in a number of ways, but this field is still poorly characterised and understood. Building on a recent systematic review and expert roundtable discussions, we take a lifecycle perspective of antibiotic use in hospitals and identify potential targets for health information technology-based interventions to support antimicrobial stewardship. We aim for this work to help chart a future research agenda in this critically important area.

  10. New developments in technology-assisted supervision and training: a practical overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousmaniere, Tony; Abbass, Allan; Frederickson, Jon

    2014-11-01

    Clinical supervision and training are now widely available online. In this article, three of the most accessible and widely adopted new developments in clinical supervision and training technology are described: Videoconference supervision, cloud-based file sharing software, and clinical outcome tracking software. Partial transcripts from two online supervision sessions are provided as examples of videoconference-based supervision. The benefits and limitations of technology in supervision and training are discussed, with an emphasis on supervision process, ethics, privacy, and security. Recommendations for supervision practice are made, including methods to enhance experiential learning, the supervisory working alliance, and online security. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Overview: Solar Electric Propulsion Concept Designs for SEP Technology Demonstration Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcguire, Melissa L.; Hack, Kurt J.; Manzella, David; Herman, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    JPC presentation of the Concept designs for NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration mission paper. Multiple Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Missions were developed to assess vehicle performance and estimated mission cost. Concepts ranged from a 10,000 kg spacecraft capable of delivering 4000 kg of payload to one of the Earth Moon Lagrange points in support of future human-crewed outposts to a 180 kg spacecraft capable of performing an asteroid rendezvous mission after launched to a geostationary transfer orbit as a secondary payload.

  12. Overview: Applicability of U.S. environmental control technologies for Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, S.W. [DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    A review of the applicability of US environmental control technologies for Korea is presented in outline form. The following topics are discussed: PETC coal research activities, environmental costs, environmental challenges, Clean Air Act requirements, additional regulations for air toxics, clean coal technologies (CCT) approach, CCT help meet environmental challenges, utility options, research goals for advanced power systems, PETC Programs, the NO{sub x} SO process, flue gas cleanup program, air toxics emissions, and retrofit NO{sub x} control for coal-burning boilers.

  13. Electron Beam Processing of Polymers: Facts and Opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gielenz, G.

    2006-01-01

    Electron Beam (EB) processing of polymers is a well established and mature technology in a multitude of industrial polymer applications for more than 40 years. Constant research effort in combination with emerging tailored EB process technologies, have led to numerous new (niche) applications and products within the past decade. Nonetheless, and despite the fact, that nowadays a large variety of EB and related process equipment is readily available for use by the respective industries, EB processing of polymers still takes up only a small niche in comparison to the overall polymer business. In this lecture the author attempts to present a short overview on the current industrial established and emerging radiation processing applications and the related EB equipment suppliers. Then some selected plastics business facts and figures with a forecast of the global plastics consumption situation up to 2010 will be shown. As a conclusion from these facts, some comments will be deduced, regarding the future potential, attractiveness and economical relevance of irradiation processing technologies in present day competitive global markets

  14. An Overview to Research on Education Technology Based on Constructivist Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiksoy, Gulsum; Ozdamli, Fezile

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the trends of education technology researches on Constructivist Learning Approach, which were published on database of ScienceDirect between 2010 and 2016. It also aims to guide researchers who will do studies in this field. After scanning the database, 81 articles published on ScienceDirect's data base…

  15. An Overview of the Certification of VSB-30 with Emphasis on Technological Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Ramalho de Souza Carvalho

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is focused on the space sector, mainly due to the devices developed and marketed that require high investments in research, development and technological innovation, supported by a permanent need to meet the standard requirement to guarantee their effectiveness, among all the correct certification. In such scenario, this article has examined, highlighting technological innovation, which are the context and elements involved in the certification of the Vehicle Survey Booster – 30 (VSB-30. The research is characterized as a case study, conducted in the first semester of 2011, and it consisted of reviewing the literature on technological innovation and certification as well as information available in various reports, some of which were public, and interviews. The article presents a brief description of the development of the VSB-30, its importance to the market and the relevant aspects of the certification and the Certification Body of Brazil. The conclusion is that the certification is a contribution to technological innovation for it provides benefits in process improvement, especially regarding the question of documentation, creating conditions for the industry to adapt to formal established and qualified processes and, in return, to become restricted to trade companies unable to adjust to these requirements.

  16. An overview of power electronic converter technology for renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents power electronic technology which is an enabling tool for modern wind and marine energy conversion systems. In this chapter, the main power electronic devices are described. Various power electronic converter topologies are represented, and commonly used modulation schemes...

  17. An Overview of Recent Advances in Technologies of Inclusive Well-Being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Anthony Lewis

    2017-01-01

    This chapter reflects on luminary work on the use of digital media for the therapeutic benefit and well-being of a wide range of people. It also discusses the importance of multidisciplinarity, end user participation in design, and the future of new technologies of inclusive well-being. A summary...

  18. An overview of technologies for immobilization of enzymes and surface analysis techniques for immobilized enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, Nur Royhaila; Marzuki, Nur Haziqah Che; Buang, Nor Aziah; Huyop, Fahrul; Wahab, Roswanira Abdul

    2015-01-01

    The current demands of sustainable green methodologies have increased the use of enzymatic technology in industrial processes. Employment of enzyme as biocatalysts offers the benefits of mild reaction conditions, biodegradability and catalytic efficiency. The harsh conditions of industrial processes, however, increase propensity of enzyme destabilization, shortening their industrial lifespan. Consequently, the technology of enzyme immobilization provides an effective means to circumvent these concerns by enhancing enzyme catalytic properties and also simplify downstream processing and improve operational stability. There are several techniques used to immobilize the enzymes onto supports which range from reversible physical adsorption and ionic linkages, to the irreversible stable covalent bonds. Such techniques produce immobilized enzymes of varying stability due to changes in the surface microenvironment and degree of multipoint attachment. Hence, it is mandatory to obtain information about the structure of the enzyme protein following interaction with the support surface as well as interactions of the enzymes with other proteins. Characterization technologies at the nanoscale level to study enzymes immobilized on surfaces are crucial to obtain valuable qualitative and quantitative information, including morphological visualization of the immobilized enzymes. These technologies are pertinent to assess efficacy of an immobilization technique and development of future enzyme immobilization strategies. PMID:26019635

  19. Clarification of vaccines: An overview of filter based technology trends and best practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besnard, Lise; Fabre, Virginie; Fettig, Michael; Gousseinov, Elina; Kawakami, Yasuhiro; Laroudie, Nicolas; Scanlan, Claire; Pattnaik, Priyabrata

    2016-01-01

    Vaccines are derived from a variety of sources including tissue extracts, bacterial cells, virus particles, recombinant mammalian, yeast and insect cell produced proteins and nucleic acids. The most common method of vaccine production is based on an initial fermentation process followed by purification. Production of vaccines is a complex process involving many different steps and processes. Selection of the appropriate purification method is critical to achieving desired purity of the final product. Clarification of vaccines is a critical step that strongly impacts product recovery and subsequent downstream purification. There are several technologies that can be applied for vaccine clarification. Selection of a harvesting method and equipment depends on the type of cells, product being harvested, and properties of the process fluids. These techniques include membrane filtration (microfiltration, tangential-flow filtration), centrifugation, and depth filtration (normal flow filtration). Historically vaccine harvest clarification was usually achieved by centrifugation followed by depth filtration. Recently membrane based technologies have gained prominence in vaccine clarification. The increasing use of single-use technologies in upstream processes necessitated a shift in harvest strategies. This review offers a comprehensive view on different membrane based technologies and their application in vaccine clarification, outlines the challenges involved and presents the current state of best practices in the clarification of vaccines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. An Overview of the Needs of Technology in Language Testing in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Laborda, Jesus; Magal Royo, Teresa; Barcena Madera, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Over the few years, computer based language testing has become prevailing worldwide. The number of institutions the use computers as the main means of delivery has increased dramatically. Many students face each day tests for well-known high-stakes decisions which imply the knowledge and ability to use technology to provide evidence of language…

  1. Overview of CERN Technology Transfer Strategy and Accelerator-Related Activities

    CERN Document Server

    Chesta, E; Wuensch, W; Sgobba, S; Stora, T; Chiggiato, P; Taborelli, M

    2013-01-01

    CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, is actively engaged in identifying technologies developed for its accelerator complex that could be profitably used by partner research organizations or commercial companies in applications with potentially high socio-economic impact beyond pure fundamental physics research. \

  2. Communication Media and Educational Technology: An Overview and Assessment with Reference to Communication Satellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlman, Herbert

    In this survey and analysis of the present state and future trends of communication media and educational technology, particular emphasis is placed on the potential uses of communication satellites and the substitution of electronic transmission for physical distribution of educational materials. The author analyzes in detail the characteristics…

  3. An overview of the main foodstuff sample preparation technologies for tetracycline residue determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Michael; Pellerano, Roberto Gerardo; Pezza, Leonardo; Pezza, Helena Redigolo

    2018-05-15

    Tetracyclines are widely used for both the treatment and prevention of diseases in animals as well as for the promotion of rapid animal growth and weight gain. This practice may result in trace amounts of these drugs in products of animal origin, such as milk and eggs, posing serious risks to human health. The presence of tetracycline residues in foods can lead to the transmission of antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria through the food chain. In order to ensure food safety and avoid exposure to these substances, national and international regulatory agencies have established tolerance levels for authorized veterinary drugs, including tetracycline antimicrobials. In view of that, numerous sensitive and specific methods have been developed for the quantification of these compounds in different food matrices. One will note, however, that the determination of trace residues in foods such as milk and eggs often requires extensive sample extraction and preparation prior to conducting instrumental analysis. Sample pretreatment is usually the most complicated step in the analytical process and covers both cleaning and pre-concentration. Optimal sample preparation can reduce analysis time and sources of error, enhance sensitivity, apart from enabling unequivocal identification, confirmation and quantification of target analytes. The development and implementation of more environmentally friendly analytical procedures, which involve the use of less hazardous solvents and smaller sample sizes compared to traditional methods, is a rapidly increasing trend in analytical chemistry. This review seeks to provide an updated overview of the main trends in sample preparation for the determination of tetracycline residues in foodstuffs. The applicability of several extraction and clean-up techniques employed in the analysis of foodstuffs, especially milk and egg samples, is also thoroughly discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Overview of Opportunities for Co-Location of Solar Energy Technologies and Vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beatty, Brenda [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hill, Graham [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Large-scale solar facilities have the potential to contribute significantly to national electricity production. Many solar installations are large-scale or utility-scale, with a capacity over 1 MW and connected directly to the electric grid. Large-scale solar facilities offer an opportunity to achieve economies of scale in solar deployment, yet there have been concerns about the amount of land required for solar projects and the impact of solar projects on local habitat. During the site preparation phase for utility-scale solar facilities, developers often grade land and remove all vegetation to minimize installation and operational costs, prevent plants from shading panels, and minimize potential fire or wildlife risks. However, the common site preparation practice of removing vegetation can be avoided in certain circumstances, and there have been successful examples where solar facilities have been co-located with agricultural operations or have native vegetation growing beneath the panels. In this study we outline some of the impacts that large-scale solar facilities can have on the local environment, provide examples of installations where impacts have been minimized through co-location with vegetation, characterize the types of co-location, and give an overview of the potential benefits from co-location of solar energy projects and vegetation. The varieties of co-location can be replicated or modified for site-specific use at other solar energy installations around the world. We conclude with opportunities to improve upon our understanding of ways to reduce the environmental impacts of large-scale solar installations.

  5. MIT Lincoln Laboratory Facts 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    creativity . Representative Technical Positions ■■ Aerospace engineer ■■ Applications engineer ■■ Bioengineer ■■ Biologist 16 Facts 2012–2013...schedules, part-time employment, and telecommuting opportunities. Child Care The Technology Children’s Center facility in Lexington (TCC Lincoln

  6. Optical gesture sensing and depth mapping technologies for head-mounted displays: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, Bernard; Lee, Johnny

    2013-05-01

    Head Mounted Displays (HMDs), and especially see-through HMDs have gained renewed interest in recent time, and for the first time outside the traditional military and defense realm, due to several high profile consumer electronics companies presenting their products to hit market. Consumer electronics HMDs have quite different requirements and constrains as their military counterparts. Voice comments are the de-facto interface for such devices, but when the voice recognition does not work (not connection to the cloud for example), trackpad and gesture sensing technologies have to be used to communicate information to the device. We review in this paper the various technologies developed today integrating optical gesture sensing in a small footprint, as well as the various related 3d depth mapping sensors.

  7. Overview of micro- and nano-technology tools for stem cell applications: micropatterned and microelectronic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagnin, Stefano; Cimetta, Elisa; Guiducci, Carlotta; Martini, Paolo; Lanfranchi, Gerolamo

    2012-11-19

    In the past few decades the scientific community has been recognizing the paramount role of the cell microenvironment in determining cell behavior. In parallel, the study of human stem cells for their potential therapeutic applications has been progressing constantly. The use of advanced technologies, enabling one to mimic the in vivo stem cell microenviroment and to study stem cell physiology and physio-pathology, in settings that better predict human cell biology, is becoming the object of much research effort. In this review we will detail the most relevant and recent advances in the field of biosensors and micro- and nano-technologies in general, highlighting advantages and disadvantages. Particular attention will be devoted to those applications employing stem cells as a sensing element.

  8. Overview of ground coupled heat pump research and technology transfer activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, V. D.; Mei, V. C.

    Highlights of DOE-sponsored ground coupled heat pump (GCHP) research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are presented. ORNL, in cooperation with Niagara Mohawk Power Company, Climate Master, Inc., and Brookhaven National Laboratory developed and demonstrated an advanced GCHP design concept with shorter ground coils that can reduce installed costs for northern climates. In these areas it can also enhance the competitiveness of GCHP systems versus air-source heat pumps by lowering their payback from 6 to 7 years to 3 to 5 years. Ground coil heat exchanger models (based primarily on first principles) have been developed and used by others to generate less conservative ground coil sizing methods. An aggressive technology transfer initiative was undertaken to publicize results of this research and make it available to the industry. Included in this effort were an international workshop, trade press releases and articles, and participation in a live teleconference on GCHP technology.

  9. Space Solar Power Satellite Technology Development at the Glenn Research Center: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudenhoefer, James E.; George, Patrick J.

    2000-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). is participating in the Space Solar Power Exploratory Research and Technology program (SERT) for the development of a solar power satellite concept. The aim of the program is to provide electrical power to Earth by converting the Sun's energy and beaming it to the surface. This paper will give an overall view of the technologies being pursued at GRC including thin film photovoltaics, solar dynamic power systems, space environmental effects, power management and distribution, and electric propulsion. The developmental path not only provides solutions to gigawatt sized space power systems for the future, but provides synergistic opportunities for contemporary space power architectures. More details of Space Solar Power can be found by reading the references sited in this paper and by connecting to the web site http://moonbase.msfc.nasa.gov/ and accessing the "Space Solar Power" section "Public Access" area.

  10. Innovative nuclear technologies based on radiation induced surface activation (RISA). 1. The project overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujisawa, Kyosuke; Morooka, Shinichi; Hishida, Mamoru

    2004-01-01

    This research of the Innovative nuclear technologies based on Radiation Induced Surface Activation (RISA) is due to start from 2003 and to be ended to 2006, and performed fund by Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) Japan. One of the innovative technologies is to develop a high performance corrosion-proof film to prevent the surface of reactor internals from stress corrosion cracking (SCC), the other one is to develop the film for improving the heat transfer performance a high performance of the nuclear fuel rod. Both of these properties are derived under gamma ray irradiation by the RISA effect. This paper reports about the summary of this subsidy enterprise by METI. (author)

  11. Overview of Instructional Technology Used in the Education of Occupational Therapy Students: A Survey Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan M. Gee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the type of instructional technology (IT master’s degree level occupational therapy educational programs routinely use as a part of their lecture- and laboratory-based instruction. Surveying the administrators of 121 graduate occupational therapy programs in the United States, we found that the majority of the respondents identified their program as using IT in some form for lecturebased courses, with less inclusion of IT for laboratory-based courses. Hybrid instruction, with the majority of the content being delivered face-to-face and the remainder via online, were the trends among the respondents. The findings also indicated that the respondents’ programs avoid certain IT, including synchronous online chat rooms or instant messaging, digital image collections, blogs or online journaling, Wikis, and audio/video podcasting. Few of the respondents said their programs had made a significant leap into implementing a larger online presence with instructional technology

  12. Enabling technology: an overview of offshore innovations in the oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amado, Luiz C.N. [Shell International Exploration and Production (E and P) Inc., Houston, TX (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Big accumulations found in the past are not likely to occur again. On the contrary several small size accumulations may still be there unless a new play be discovered such as the sub salt. With global demand for oil rapidly increasing and easy oil becoming scarcer, we need to start looking at more difficult reservoirs from which to produce hydrocarbons. To boost daily global oil supplies to 100 million barrels, against current levels of some 85 million barrels, will be 'extremely difficult to reach' as we have heard in the news. It is not a question of available oil reserves, but a combination of technology, geopolitics and actual production decline in existing fields. Geopolitics and depletion rates are highly complex variables upon which we do not have full control. However Technology can still be designed fit for purposes. (author)

  13. A historical overview of magnetic resonance imaging, focusing on technological innovations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Tao; Morelli, John N; Hu, Xuemei; Hao, Dapeng; Goerner, Frank L; Ager, Bryan; Runge, Val M

    2012-12-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has now been used clinically for more than 30 years. Today, MRI serves as the primary diagnostic modality for many clinical problems. In this article, historical developments in the field of MRI will be discussed with a focus on technological innovations. Topics include the initial discoveries in nuclear magnetic resonance that allowed for the advent of MRI as well as the development of whole-body, high field strength, and open MRI systems. Dedicated imaging coils, basic pulse sequences, contrast-enhanced, and functional imaging techniques will also be discussed in a historical context. This article describes important technological innovations in the field of MRI, together with their clinical applicability today, providing critical insights into future developments.

  14. Wind energy program overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    This overview emphasizes the amount of electric power that could be provided by wind power rather than traditional fossil fuels. New wind power markets, advances in technology, technology transfer, and wind resources are some topics covered in this publication

  15. Radioactive Waste Conditioning, Immobilisation, And Encapsulation Processes And Technologies: Overview And Advances (Chapter 7)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, Carol M. [Savannah River National Lab., Aiken SC (United States); Lee, William E. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials; Ojovan, Michael I. [Univ. of Sheffield (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2012-10-19

    The main immobilization technologies that are available commercially and have been demonstrated to be viable are cementation, bituminization, and vitrification. Vitrification is currently the most widely used technology for the treatment of high level radioactive wastes (HLW) throughout the world. Most of the nations that have generated HLW are immobilizing in either alkali borosilicate glass or alkali aluminophosphate glass. The exact compositions of nuclear waste glasses are tailored for easy preparation and melting, avoidance of glass-in-glass phase separation, avoidance of uncontrolled crystallization, and acceptable chemical durability, e.g., leach resistance. Glass has also been used to stabilize a variety of low level wastes (LLW) and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) low level wastes (MLLW) from other sources such as fuel rod cladding/decladding processes, chemical separations, radioactive sources, radioactive mill tailings, contaminated soils, medical research applications, and other commercial processes. The sources of radioactive waste generation are captured in other chapters in this book regarding the individual practices in various countries (legacy wastes, currently generated wastes, and future waste generation). Future waste generation is primarily driven by interest in sources of clean energy and this has led to an increased interest in advanced nuclear power production. The development of advanced wasteforms is a necessary component of the new nuclear power plant (NPP) flowsheets. Therefore, advanced nuclear wasteforms are being designed for robust disposal strategies. A brief summary is given of existing and advanced wasteforms: glass, glass-ceramics, glass composite materials (GCM’s), and crystalline ceramic (mineral) wasteforms that chemically incorporate radionuclides and hazardous species atomically in their structure. Cementitious, geopolymer, bitumen, and other encapsulant wasteforms and composites that atomically bond and encapsulate

  16. Materials Information for Science and Technology (MIST): Project overview: Phase 1 and 2 and general considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grattidge, W.; Westbrook, J.; McCarthy, J.; Northrup, C. Jr.; Rumble, J. Jr.

    1986-11-01

    The National Bureau of Standards and the Department of Energy have embarked on a program to build a demonstration computerized materials data system called Materials Information for Science and Technology (MIST). This report documents the first two phases of the project. The emphasis of the first phase was on determining what information was needed and how it could impact user productivity. The second phase data from the Aerospace Metal Handbook on a set of alloys was digitized and incorporated in the system.

  17. Overview of R and D activities on tritium processing and handling technology in JAEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanishi, Toshihiko, E-mail: yamanishi.toshihiko@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Nakamura, Hirofumi; Kawamura, Yoshinori; Iwai, Yasunori; Isobe, Kanetsugu; Oyaidsu, Makoto; Yamada, Masayuki; Suzuki, Takumi; Hayashi, Takumi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The tritium technologies have been studied at Tritium Process Laboratory of JAEA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A monitoring method for the blanket system of a fusion reactor have been studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Basic studies on the tritium behavior in confinement system have been carried out. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Studies on the detritiation have been carried out as another significant activity. - Abstract: In JAEA, the tritium processing and handling technologies have been studied at TPL (Tritium Process Laboratory). The main R and D activities are: the tritium processing technology for the blanket recovery systems; the basic tritium behavior in confinement materials; and detritiation and decontamination. The R and D activities on tritium processing and handling technologies for a demonstration reactor (DEMO) are also planned to be carried out in the broader approach (BA) program by JAEA with Japanese universities. The ceramic proton conductor has been studied as a possible tritium processing method for the blanket system. The BIXS method has also been studied as a monitoring of tritium in the blanket system. The hydrogen transfer behavior from water to metal has been studied as a function of temperature. As for the behavior of high concentration tritium water, it was observed that the formation of the oxidized layer was prevented by the presence of tritium in water (0.23 GBq/cc). A new hydrophobic catalyst has been developed for the conversion of tritium to water. The catalyst could convert tritium to water at room temperature. A new Nafion membrane has also been developed by gamma ray irradiation to get the strong durability for tritium.

  18. Hydro power plants, an overview of the current types and technology

    OpenAIRE

    Tkáč Štefan

    2018-01-01

    Despite the long history of hydropower technology and rising number of system harvesting energy from alternative sources, the constant research within hydro power sector becoming increasingly important as the power from water was and still is the leading alternative source of green energy generation, capitalized not necessarily within micro-urban structures only. The advantages of hydro systems involve their relatively low acquisition cost against durability, the possibility of gaining energy...

  19. Performance analysis of dedicated short range communications technology and overview of the practicability for developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana Bassoo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular communication is a widely researched field and aims at developing technologies that may complement systems such as the advanced driver assistance systems. It is therefore important to analyse and infer on the performance of vehicular technologies for different driving and on-road criteria. This study considers the dedicated short range communications technology and more precisely the IEEE 802.11p standard for a performance and practicability analysis. There is also the proposal of a new classification scheme for typical driving conditions, which includes the main categories of Emergency and Safety scenarios while sub-classifications of Critical and Preventive Safety also exist. The scheme is used to build up scenarios as well as related equations relevant to developing countries for practical network simulation. The results obtained indicate that the relative speed of nodes is a determining factor in the overall performance and effectiveness of wireless vehicular communication systems. Moreover, delay values of low order were observed while an effective communication range of about 800 m was calculated for highway scenarios. The research thus indicates suitability of the system for an active use in collision avoidance even though independent factors such as climatic conditions and driver behaviour may affect its effectiveness in critical situations.

  20. Collective Sensing: Integrating Geospatial Technologies to Understand Urban Systems—An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey J. Hay

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Cities are complex systems composed of numerous interacting components that evolve over multiple spatio-temporal scales. Consequently, no single data source is sufficient to satisfy the information needs required to map, monitor, model, and ultimately understand and manage our interaction within such urban systems. Remote sensing technology provides a key data source for mapping such environments, but is not sufficient for fully understanding them. In this article we provide a condensed urban perspective of critical geospatial technologies and techniques: (i Remote Sensing; (ii Geographic Information Systems; (iii object-based image analysis; and (iv sensor webs, and recommend a holistic integration of these technologies within the language of open geospatial consortium (OGC standards in-order to more fully understand urban systems. We then discuss the potential of this integration and conclude that this extends the monitoring and mapping options beyond “hard infrastructure” by addressing “humans as sensors”, mobility and human-environment interactions, and future improvements to quality of life and of social infrastructures.

  1. Utility-Scale Concentrating Solar Power and Photovoltaic Projects: A Technology and Market Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendelsohn, M.; Lowder, T.; Canavan, B.

    2012-04-01

    Over the last several years, solar energy technologies have been, or are in the process of being, deployed at unprecedented levels. A critical recent development, resulting from the massive scale of projects in progress or recently completed, is having the power sold directly to electric utilities. Such 'utility-scale' systems offer the opportunity to deploy solar technologies far faster than the traditional 'behind-the-meter' projects designed to offset retail load. Moreover, these systems have employed significant economies of scale during construction and operation, attracting financial capital, which in turn can reduce the delivered cost of power. This report is a summary of the current U.S. utility-scale solar state-of-the-market and development pipeline. Utility-scale solar energy systems are generally categorized as one of two basic designs: concentrating solar power (CSP) and photovoltaic (PV). CSP systems can be further delineated into four commercially available technologies: parabolic trough, central receiver (CR), parabolic dish, and linear Fresnel reflector. CSP systems can also be categorized as hybrid, which combine a solar-based system (generally parabolic trough, CR, or linear Fresnel) and a fossil fuel energy system to produce electric power or steam.

  2. An overview of crystalline silicon solar cell technology: Past, present, and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopian, K.; Cheow, S. L.; Zaidi, S. H.

    2017-09-01

    Crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cell, ever since its inception, has been identified as the only economically and environmentally sustainable renewable resource to replace fossil fuels. Performance c-Si based photovoltaic (PV) technology has been equal to the task. Its price has been reduced by a factor of 250 over last twenty years (from ˜ 76 USD to ˜ 0.3 USD); its market growth is expected to reach 100 GWP by 2020. Unfortunately, it is still 3-4 times higher than carbon-based fuels. With the matured PV manufacturing technology as it exists today, continuing price reduction poses stiff challenges. Alternate manufacturing approaches in combination with thin wafers, low (< 10 x) optical enhancement with Fresnel lenses, band-gap engineering for enhanced optical absorption, and newer, advanced solar cell configurations including partially transparent bifacial and back contact solar cells will be required. This paper will present a detailed, cost-based analysis of advanced solar cell manufacturing technologies aimed at higher (˜ 22 %) efficiency with existing equipment and processes.

  3. A Succinct Overview of Virtual Reality Technology Use in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Betances, Rebeca I.; Arredondo Waldmeyer, María Teresa; Fico, Giuseppe; Cabrera-Umpiérrez, María Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    We provide a brief review and appraisal of recent and current virtual reality (VR) technology for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) applications. We categorize them according to their intended purpose (e.g., diagnosis, patient cognitive training, caregivers’ education, etc.), focus feature (e.g., spatial impairment, memory deficit, etc.), methodology employed (e.g., tasks, games, etc.), immersion level, and passive or active interaction. Critical assessment indicates that most of them do not yet take full advantage of virtual environments with high levels of immersion and interaction. Many still rely on conventional 2D graphic displays to create non-immersive or semi-immersive VR scenarios. Important improvements are needed to make VR a better and more versatile assessment and training tool for AD. The use of the latest display technologies available, such as emerging head-mounted displays and 3D smart TV technologies, together with realistic multi-sensorial interaction devices, and neuro-physiological feedback capacity, are some of the most beneficial improvements this mini-review suggests. Additionally, it would be desirable that such VR applications for AD be easily and affordably transferable to in-home and nursing home environments. PMID:26029101

  4. A succinct overview of virtual reality technology use in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Betances, Rebeca I; Arredondo Waldmeyer, María Teresa; Fico, Giuseppe; Cabrera-Umpiérrez, María Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    We provide a brief review and appraisal of recent and current virtual reality (VR) technology for Alzheimer's disease (AD) applications. We categorize them according to their intended purpose (e.g., diagnosis, patient cognitive training, caregivers' education, etc.), focus feature (e.g., spatial impairment, memory deficit, etc.), methodology employed (e.g., tasks, games, etc.), immersion level, and passive or active interaction. Critical assessment indicates that most of them do not yet take full advantage of virtual environments with high levels of immersion and interaction. Many still rely on conventional 2D graphic displays to create non-immersive or semi-immersive VR scenarios. Important improvements are needed to make VR a better and more versatile assessment and training tool for AD. The use of the latest display technologies available, such as emerging head-mounted displays and 3D smart TV technologies, together with realistic multi-sensorial interaction devices, and neuro-physiological feedback capacity, are some of the most beneficial improvements this mini-review suggests. Additionally, it would be desirable that such VR applications for AD be easily and affordably transferable to in-home and nursing home environments.

  5. An Overview of Scaffold Design and Fabrication Technology for Engineered Knee Meniscus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Current surgical treatments for meniscal tears suffer from subsequent degeneration of knee joints, limited donor organs and inconsistent post-treatment results. Three clinical scaffolds (Menaflex CMI, Actifit® scaffold and NUsurface® Meniscus Implant are available on the market, but additional data are needed to properly evaluate their safety and effectiveness. Thus, many scaffold-based research activities have been done to develop new materials, structures and fabrication technologies to mimic native meniscus for cell attachment and subsequent tissue development, and restore functionalities of injured meniscus for long-term effects. This study begins with a synopsis of relevant structural features of meniscus and goes on to describe the critical considerations. Promising advances made in the field of meniscal scaffolding technology, in terms of biocompatible materials, fabrication methods, structure design and their impact on mechanical and biological properties are discussed in detail. Among all the scaffolding technologies, additive manufacturing (AM is very promising because of its ability to precisely control fiber diameter, orientation, and pore network micro-architecture to mimic the native meniscus microenvironment.

  6. Overview of energy/hydrogen storage: state-of-the-art of the technologies and prospects for nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conte, M.; Prosini, P.P.; Passerini, S.

    2004-01-01

    A sustainable energy economy will be demanding primary energy sources, preferably renewable and mainly domestically available, using energy carriers, such as hydrogen and electricity, able to solve environmental problems and to assure adequate energy security. Instrumental to such goals will be the research and development of storage systems with performance characteristics compatible with major application requirements. Lithium or nickel are replacing lead in batteries, in order to better meet the extremely varying technical and economical requirements in fast growing conventional and new applications. Moreover, few technologies now permit to store hydrogen by modifying its physical state in gaseous or liquid form. The variety of hydrogen needs in the energy systems and in the vehicular sector is justifying the effort on solid state (metal hydrides and carbon nanostructures) or chemical systems (chemical hydrides). In this overview, emphasis is given to the major achievements in the field of electrical energy and hydrogen storage, in relation to the technological goals, which have been proposed in the major public research and collaborative programs throughout the world

  7. NASA In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) Technology and Development Project Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Gerald B.; Lason, William E.; Sacksteder, Kurt R.; Mclemore, Carole; Johnson, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Since the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) was released in 2004, NASA, in conjunction with international space agencies, industry, and academia, has continued to define and refine plans for sustained and affordable robotic and human exploration of the Moon and beyond. With the goal of establishing a lunar Outpost on the Moon to extend human presence, pursue scientific activities, use the Moon to prepare for future human missions to Mars, and expand Earth s economic sphere, a change in how space exploration is performed is required. One area that opens up the possibility for the first time of breaking our reliance on Earth supplied consumables and learn to live off the land is In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). ISRU, which involves the extraction and processing of space resources into useful products, can have a substantial impact on mission and architecture concepts. In particular, the ability to make propellants, life support consumables, and fuel cell reagents can significantly reduce the cost, mass, and risk of sustained human activities beyond Earth. However, ISRU is an unproven capability for human lunar exploration and can not be put in the critical path of lunar Outpost success until it has been proven. Therefore, ISRU development and deployment needs to take incremental steps toward the desired end state. To ensure ISRU capabilities are available for pre-Outpost and Outpost deployment by 2020, and mission and architecture planners are confident that ISRU can meet initial and long term mission requirements, the ISRU Project is developing technologies and systems in three critical areas: (1) Regolith Excavation, Handling and Material Transportation; (2) Oxygen Extraction from Regolith; and (3) Volatile Extraction and Resource Prospecting, and in four development stages: (I) Demonstrate feasibility; (II) Evolve system w/ improved technologies; (III) Develop one or more systems to TRL 6 before start of flight development; and (IV) Flight development for

  8. Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... That People Abuse » Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Listen Cocaine is a white ... 69 KB) "My life was built around getting cocaine and getting high." ©istock.com/ Marjot Stacey is ...

  9. Meningitis Myths and Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases Infographic Prevention and Control of Meningococcal Disease Meningitis Myths and Facts Myth: Meningococcal disease is easy ... infected person, such as shaking hands. Fact: Meningococcal meningitis is spread through air droplets and direct contact ...

  10. Facts about Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information » Glaucoma » Facts About Glaucoma Listen Facts About Glaucoma This information was developed by the National Eye ... is the best person to answer specific questions. Glaucoma Defined What is Glaucoma? Glaucoma is a group ...

  11. Chlamydia - CDC Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Archive STDs Home Page Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) Chlamydia Gonorrhea Genital Herpes Hepatitis HIV/AIDS & STDs Human Papillomavirus ( ... sheet Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) – CDC fact sheet Gonorrhea – CDC fact sheet STDs Home Page Bacterial Vaginosis ( ...

  12. Key Facts about Tularemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Key Facts About Tularemia Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir This fact ... and Prevention (CDC) Tularemia Web site . What is Tularemia? Tularemia is a potentially serious illness that occurs ...

  13. High Blood Pressure Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN High Blood Pressure Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Top of Page CDC Fact Sheets Related to High Blood Pressure High Blood Pressure Pulmonary Hypertension Heart Disease Signs ...

  14. An overview of SCK-CEN's technological research for the treatment of tritiated waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braet, J.; Bruggeman, A.; Vanderbiesen, S.

    2004-01-01

    The production of fusion energy involves the use of huge amounts of tritium, of the order of 4 x 10 19 Bq/Gwe.a. Therefore operation and dismantling of test installations and future commercial fusion reactors are not possible without the production of tritiated waste. Various categories of tritiated waste are and will be produced which require different detritiation techniques to lower the initial tritium content in the samples and to allow final waste disposal of the partly detritiated material and of all by-products generated in the processes. The current internationally adopted strategy is to convert all kinds of tritiated waste into tritiated water, which can then be treated in one water detritiation installation. Since several years SCK-CEN has been developing techniques for the treatment of tritiated waste. Amongst them technologies for the treatment of tritiated organic liquids, surface contaminated metals, contaminated concrete and most importantly water detritiation. The so-called liquid phase catalytic exchange for water detritiation requires an efficient catalyst that should furthermore be hydrophobic because of the low solubility and hence slow diffusion of hydrogen in the water layer that covers normal catalysts. In the past SCK-CEN invented and developed such a catalyst which has recently been optimized and tested in a bench scale installation. To confirm the performances of our improved catalyst for a longer period of time and in a longer column, we are now doing tests in a 2 meter high trickle bed reactor and the endurance of the catalyst is being tested at ICSI. Using a good performing catalyst, LPCE will be, in combination with electrolysis, a technically and economically sound technology for water detritiation. Other R and D focuses on the development of a system do decontaminate surface contaminated metals and concrete using superheated steam. The resulting water can in its turn be treated in a water detritiation installation. For the purpose of

  15. Low level radioactive waste disposal/treatment technology overview: Savannah River site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturm, H.F. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The Savannah River Site will begin operation of several low-level waste disposal/treatment facilities during the next five years, including a new low-level solid waste disposal facility, a low-level liquid effluent treatment facility, and a low-level liquid waste solidification process. Closure of a radioactive hazardous waste burial ground will also be completed. Technical efforts directed toward waste volume reduction include compaction, incineration, waste avoidance, and clean waste segregation. This paper summarizes new technology being developed and implemented. 11 refs., 1 fig

  16. The role of nonequilibrium thermo-mechanical statistics in modern technologies and industrial processes: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Clóves G.; Silva, Antônio A. P.; Silva, Carlos A. B.; Vasconcellos, Áurea R.; Ramos, J. Galvão; Luzzi, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    The nowadays notable development of all the modern technology, fundamental for the progress and well being of world society, imposes a great deal of stress in the realm of basic Physics, more precisely on Thermo-Statistics. We do face situations in electronics and optoelectronics involving physical-chemical systems far-removed-from equilibrium, where ultrafast (in pico- and femto-second scale) and non-linear processes are present. Further, we need to be aware of the rapid unfolding of nano-te...

  17. Overview and outlook on muon survey tomography based on micromegas detectors for unreachable sites technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roche I. Lázaro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present document describes the functioning principles of the Muon Survey Tomography based on Micromegas detectors for Unreachable Sites Technology and its distinguishing features from other Micromegas-like detectors. Additionally, it addresses the challenges found while operating the first generation and the resulting improvements. Currently, the project Temporal Tomography of the Densitometry by the Measurement of Muons is focused on obtaining a reliable pulse from the micromesh, associated to the passing of a muon, in order to trigger the acquisition and operate in standalone mode. An outlook of the future steps of the project is provided as well.

  18. Chemical Data Reporting Fact Sheet: Chemicals Snapshot

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet provides a brief overview of the chemical manufacturing, processing, and use information collected for the 2012 Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) rule. Users do not have access to the complete CDR data set and should draw conclusions with care.

  19. Teaching Science Fact with Science Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raham, R. Gary

    2004-01-01

    The literature of science fiction packs up the facts and discoveries of science and runs off to futures filled with both wonders and warnings. Kids love to take the journeys it offers for the thrill of the ride, but they can learn as they travel, too. This book will provide the reader with: (1) an overview of the past 500 years of scientific…

  20. An overview of environmental pollution status and waste treatment technology used in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, T.; Qureshi, R.M.; Ahmad, S.; Sajjad, M.I.; Mashiatullah, A.; Shah, Z.

    1998-01-01

    There is little pollution consciousness in Pakistan. Rapid growth in population and unplanned disposal of untreated industrial, agricultural and domestic wastes has caused severe pollution problems in air, soil, drinking water and coastal marine water environments. To date, no systematic approach is being used in the domestic and industrial sectors for continuous processing and decontamination of solid, liquid and gaseous wastes prior to disposal. The two large industrial and population centers namely, the cities of Karachi and Islamabad, use small scale wastewater treatment facilities consisting of trickling filters and activated sludge process, respectively. Presently, no accelerator is being used in Pakistan for decontamination of hospital, industrial or domestic wastes. However, the prospects of Radiation Technology for waste treatment are well realized and a 250 keV ion accelerator has been developed at the Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH) for research, development and training purposes. The main emphasis is now to locally design and fabricate user dedicated electron beam machines for radiation curing and decontamination of domestic, industrial and hospital wastes

  1. Overview and challenges of molecular technologies in the veterinary microbiology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Mónica V; Inácio, João

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial, aquatic, and aerial animals, either domestic or wild, humans, and plants all face similar health threats caused by infectious agents. Multifaceted anthropic pressure caused by an increasingly growing and resource-demanding human population has affected biodiversity at all scales, from the DNA molecule to the pathogen, to the ecosystem level, leading to species declines and extinctions and, also, to host-pathogen coevolution processes. Technological developments over the last century have also led to quantic jumps in laboratorial testing that have highly impacted animal health and welfare, ameliorated animal management and animal trade, safeguarded public health, and ultimately helped to "secure" biodiversity. In particular, the field of molecular diagnostics experienced tremendous technical progresses over the last two decades that significantly have contributed to our ability to study microbial pathogens in the clinical and research laboratories. This chapter highlights the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (or challenges) of molecular technologies in the framework of a veterinary microbiology laboratory, in view of the latest advances.

  2. Molten Salt Reactor in the Overview and Perspective of Technological Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julia Abdul Karim; Khaironie Md Takip; Muhammad Khairul Arif Mustafa; Mohd Hairie Rabir; Lanyau, T.; Tom, P.P.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: A Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) is unique in its characteristics that offer safer operation, deliver efficient power output that can assure in the sustainable energy production without CO_2 emissions. Several concepts of this kind of reactor have been proposed by stake holder with different design and configuration and up to date they are exasperating to obtain an optimum workable solution to the fuel salt composition in the foresee of neutronic properties, operating temperature, actinide and fission products solubility, chemical control and processing, materials compatibility and handling of waste. Hence, these key issues are wide open as the potential Research and Development in the specific areas of studies. In addition to that, concern arise in the viewpoint of socioeconomic, politics, public acceptance, safety and security, proven technology, proliferation resistance and physical protection that also need to give special attention in problem solving. The worldwide collaboration through Gen IV International Forum has discussed the potential of MSR and addresses on the issues globally. Recently, Malaysia has taken an initiative aiming to participate in MSR studies due to its potential as an energy source using thorium. Therefore, this paper is focusing on the technology assessment for Thorium-breeding Molten Salt Reactor (TMSR) especially on the ability of utilizing thorium as fuel. This assessment also will help to enhance the understanding of thorium beneficiation to cater for the energy demand. (author)

  3. Materials information for science and technology (MIST): Project overview: Phases I and II and general considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grattidge, W.; Westbrook, J.; McCarthy, J.; Northrup, C. Jr.; Rumble, J. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    This report documents the initial phases of the Materials Information for Science and Technology (MIST) project jointly supported by the Department of Energy and the National Bureau of Standards. The purpose of MIST is to demonstrate the power and utility of computer access to materials property data. The initial goals include: to exercise the concept of a computer network of materials databases and to build a demonstration of such a system suitable for use as the core of operational systems in the future. Phases I and II are described in detail herein. In addition, a discussion is given of the expected usage of the system. The primary MIST prototype project is running on an IBM 3084 under STS at the Stanford University's Information Technology Services (ITS). Users can access the Stanford system via ARPANET, TELENET, and TYMNET, as well as via commercial telephone lines. For fastest response time and use of the full screen PRISM interface, direct connection using a 2400 baud modem with the MNP error-correcting protocol over standard telephone lines gives the best results - though slower speed connections and a line-oriented interface are also available. This report gives detailed plans regarding the properties to be enterend and the materials to be entered into the system.

  4. Remediation of heavy metal contaminated ecosystem: an overview on technology advancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, A.; Prasad, S. M.

    2015-01-01

    The issue of heavy metal pollution is very much concerned because of their toxicity for plant, animal and human beings and their lack of biodegradability. Excess concentrations of heavy metals have adverse effect on plant metabolic activities hence affect the food production, quantitatively and qualitatively. Heavy metal when reaches human tissues through various absorption pathways such as direct ingestion, dermal contact, diet through the soil-food chain, inhalation, and oral intake may seriously affect their health. Therefore, several management practices are being applied to minimize metal toxicity by attenuating the availability of metal to the plants. Some of the traditional methods are either extremely costly or they are simply applied to isolate contaminated site. The biology based technology like use of hyper metal accumulator plants occurring naturally or created by transgenic technology, in recent years draws great attention to remediate heavy metal contamination. Recently, applications of nanoparticle for metal remediation are also attracting great research interest due to their exceptional adsorption and mechanical properties and unique electrical property, highly chemical stability, and large specific surface area. Thus the present review deals with different management approaches to reduce level of metal contamination in soil and finally to the food chain

  5. Photovoltaic technology and applications: Overview for the workshop on photochemistry research opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benner, J.P. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The business surrounding photovoltaic energy conversion for terrestrial applications has changed dramatically in the last several years. It is now a business that makes money. Industry is responding. with manufacturing capacity expansions, and planned expansions, that will triple U.S. annual output within the next eighteen months. The majority of this product is exported (70%) where it is proven to be a cost competitive alternative. This industry provides experience in manufacturing and reliability in fielded systems that will serve as the basis for extrapolating growth to larger-scale installations and utility systems. The largest part of the National Photovoltaic Program budget supports assisting industry in advancing manufacturing technology and stimulating applications to reduce cost and expand the evolving industry. A growing segment of society looks to photovoltaics as an alternative that may be needed to replace conventional electric generating capacity. The grand challenge for photovoltaics is to make the technology economically competitive for large scale electric power generation before real or perceived evidence of environmental damage from conventional sources dictates its use at economically disruptive costs.

  6. Corporate monitoring by technological means in Spain: overview of substantive and procedural conceptual construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Tascón López

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The incredible technological advances have found one of their most striking (and legally sensitive manifestations in the resized capacity control by the employer regarding the provision of services performed by employees. Art. 20.3 of the Spanish Workers’ Statute (WS designated to set the limits of action in this matter, only diffusely refers to human dignity, without the legislator proceeding to update a pre-informative precept.In this context, case law (both of the Constitutional Court and of the Supreme Court has been responsible for assuming quasi-legislative work and proceeds to exaggerate the limits of corporate monitoring power when they collide (real or potential with the nonspecific fundamental rights (to privacy –Art. 18.1 of the Spanish Constitution (SC–, communications secrecy –Art. 18.3 SC– or to the informational self-determination –Art.18.4 SC– of employees. The present article aims, based on the analysis of the doctrines used by the high national courts in statements, whether classic or recent (proportionality of corporate measure, expectation of privacy, and informational self-determination of the employee, to build a synthesis rule that allows us to better shape the limits of corporate monitoring power through the use of new technologies. Over time, the main procedural problems raised by this issue are discovered.

  7. An Overview of the Thermal Calculation and the Cooling Technology for Active Magnetic Bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Yu, Meiyun; Luo, Yanyan; Liu, Jun; Ren, Yafeng

    2017-10-01

    The cooling process of AMB is that the energy loss is sent out to the outside world when the system is operating. The energy loss transfers to the surrounding medium in the form of heat, which leads to raise the temperature of system components and influences the performance of the system. So it is necessary to study the internal loss of the magnetic bearing system and thermal calculation method. Three kinds of thermal calculation methods are compared, which is important for the design and calculation of cooling. At the same time, the cooling way, the cooling method, and the cooling system is summarized on the basis of cooling technology of active magnetic bearing, and the design method of the cooling system is studied. But for the active magnetic bearing system, when designing the cooling system, heat dissipation of the motor can not be ignored. It is important not only for the performance of the active magnetic bearing system and stable operation, and but also for the improvement of the cooling technology.

  8. An Overview of Communications Technology and Development Efforts for 2015 SBIR Phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.

    2017-01-01

    This report highlights innovative SBIR 2015 Phase I projects specifically addressing areas in Communications Technology and Development which is one of six core competencies at NASA Glenn Research Center. There are fifteen technologies featured with emphasis on a wide spectrum of applications such as novel solid state lasers for space-based water vapor dial; wide temperature, high voltage and energy density capacitors for aerospace exploration; instrument for airborne measurement of carbonyl sulfide; high-power tunable seed laser for methane Lidar transmitter; ROC-rib deployable ka-band antenna for nanosatellites; a SIC-based microcontroller for high-temperature in-situ instruments and systems; improved yield, performance and reliability of high-actuator-count deformable mirrors; embedded multifunctional optical sensor system; switching electronics for space-based telescopes with advanced AO systems; integrated miniature DBR laser module for Lidar instruments; and much more. Each article in this booklet describes an innovation, technical objective, and highlights NASA commercial and industrial applications. space-based water vapor dial; wide temperature, high voltage and energy density capacitors foraerospace exploration; instrument for airborne measurement of carbonyl sulfide; high-power tunable seed laser formethane Lidar transmitter; ROC-rib deployable ka-band antenna for nanosatellites.

  9. Life Finder Detectors: An Overview of Detector Technologies for Detecting Life on Other Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Bernard J.; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn; Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Hsieh, Wen-Ting; McElwain, Michael W.; Moseley, Samuel H.; Noroozian, Omid; Norton, Tim; Kutyrev, Alexander; Rinehart, Stephen; stock, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Future large space telescopes will seek evidence for life on other worlds by searching for spectroscopic biosignatures. Atmospheric biosignature gases include oxygen, ozone, water vapor, and methane. Non-biological gases, including carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, are important for discriminating false positives. All of these gases imprint spectroscopic features in the UV through mid-IR that are potentially detectable using future space based coronagraphs or star shades for starlight suppression.Direct spectroscopic biosignature detection requires sensors capable of robustly measuring photon arrival rates on the order of 10 per resolution element per hour. Photon counting is required for some wavefront sensing and control approaches to achieve the requisite high contrast ratios. We review life finder detector technologies that either exist today, or are under development, that have the potential to meet these challenging requirements. We specifically highlight areas where more work or development is needed.Life finder detectors will be invaluable for a wide variety of other major science programs. Because of its cross cutting nature; UV, optical, and infrared (UVOIR) detector development features prominently in the 2010 National Research Council Decadal Survey, 'New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics', and the NASA Cosmic Origins Program Technology Roadmap.

  10. Large-scale laboratory testing of bedload-monitoring technologies: overview of the StreamLab06 Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, Jeffrey D.G.; Gray, John R.; Davis, Broderick E.; Ellis, Chris; Johnson, Sara; Gray, John R.; Laronne, Jonathan B.; Marr, Jeffrey D.G.

    2010-01-01

    A 3-month-long, large-scale flume experiment involving research and testing of selected conventional and surrogate bedload-monitoring technologies was conducted in the Main Channel at the St. Anthony Falls Laboratory under the auspices of the National Center for Earth-surface Dynamics. These experiments, dubbed StreamLab06, involved 25 researchers and volunteers from academia, government, and the private sector. The research channel was equipped with a sediment-recirculation system and a sediment-flux monitoring system that allowed continuous measurement of sediment flux in the flume and provided a data set by which samplers were evaluated. Selected bedload-measurement technologies were tested under a range of flow and sediment-transport conditions. The experiment was conducted in two phases. The bed material in phase I was well-sorted siliceous sand (0.6-1.8 mm median diameter). A gravel mixture (1-32 mm median diameter) composed the bed material in phase II. Four conventional bedload samplers – a standard Helley-Smith, Elwha, BLH-84, and Toutle River II (TR-2) sampler – were manually deployed as part of both experiment phases. Bedload traps were deployed in study Phase II. Two surrogate bedload samplers – stationarymounted down-looking 600 kHz and 1200 kHz acoustic Doppler current profilers – were deployed in experiment phase II. This paper presents an overview of the experiment including the specific data-collection technologies used and the ambient hydraulic, sediment-transport and environmental conditions measured as part of the experiment. All data collected as part of the StreamLab06 experiments are, or will be available to the research community.

  11. Management of Gliomas: Overview of the Latest Technological Advancements and Related Behavioral Drawbacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ganau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The advancements in basic sciences and the availability of sophisticated technological aids to surgical removal of gliomas have led over the last few years to the rise of innovative surgical strategies, the identification of better prognostic/predictive biomolecular factors, and the development of novel drugs and all are meant to profoundly impact the outcome of patients diagnosed with these aggressive tumours. Unfortunately, the treatment protocols available nowadays still confer only a small survival advantage at a potentially high cost in terms of overall well-being. In this review we identified the potential and limits of the most promising research trends in the management of glioma patients, also highlighting the related externalities. Finally, we focused our attention on the imbalance between the technical and behavioral aspects pertinent to this research area, which ultimately represent the two sides of the same coin.

  12. Asphalt emulsion radon barrier systems for uranium mill tailings: an overview of the technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, E.G.; Hartley, J.N.; Freeman, H.D.; Gates, T.E.; Nelson, D.A.; Dunning, R.L.

    1984-03-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) office, has developed an asphalt emulsion cover system to reduce the release of radon from uranium mill tailings. The system has been field tested at Grand Junction, Colorado. Results from laboratory and field tests indicate that this system is effective in reducing radon release to near-background levels ( -2 s -1 ) and has the properties required for long-term effectiveness and stability. Engineering specifications have been developed, and analysis indicates that asphalt emulsion covers are cost-competitive with other cover systems. This report summarizes the technology for asphalt emulsion radon barrier systems. 59 references, 45 figures, 36 tables

  13. Asphalt emulsion radon barrier systems for uranium mill tailings: an overview of the technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, E.G.; Hartley, J.N.; Freeman, H.D.; Gates, T.E.; Nelson, D.A.; Dunning, R.L.

    1984-03-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) office, has developed an asphalt emulsion cover system to reduce the release of radon from uranium mill tailings. The system has been field tested at Grand Junction, Colorado. Results from laboratory and field tests indicate that this system is effective in reducing radon release to near-background levels (<2.5 pCi m/sup -2/s/sup -1/) and has the properties required for long-term effectiveness and stability. Engineering specifications have been developed, and analysis indicates that asphalt emulsion covers are cost-competitive with other cover systems. This report summarizes the technology for asphalt emulsion radon barrier systems. 59 references, 45 figures, 36 tables.

  14. Quenching technology: a selected overview of the current state-of-the-art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauralice de Campos Franceschini Canale

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Many papers have been published on a wide range of aspects of the fundamental physics and chemistry of quenching such as: additive technology, surface rewetting, hardness distribution prediction, role of heat transfer and residual stresses, etc.1,2. However, relatively little information has been published on the application of these insightful research results for the solution of long standing quench tank production problems. This paper will address three areas where technical advancements have been, or may be, made. These include discussion of: 1 the application fundamental fluid dynamics to characterize quenching uniformity due to agitation; 2 the use of "waves" to provide uniform agitation during the quenching process; and 3 the use of pressure as a variable to mediate heat transfer throughout the quenching process.

  15. Hydro power plants, an overview of the current types and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkáč, Štefan

    2018-03-01

    Despite the long history of hydropower technology and rising number of system harvesting energy from alternative sources, the constant research within hydro power sector becoming increasingly important as the power from water was and still is the leading alternative source of green energy generation, capitalized not necessarily within micro-urban structures only. The advantages of hydro systems involve their relatively low acquisition cost against durability, the possibility of gaining energy independence, relatively high flexibility and adaptability for spatial conditions and energy demands of the end users. Nowadays micro hydro systems could capitalize head range starting at 100cm and the efficiency of hydro systems in general ranges between 65-75% in micro and small applications climbing up to 96% in macro designs. It is mostly due to flexibility in applications, adaptability in combinations with other renewable energy systems and the ability to generate clean, stable, thus reliable energy that makes technical development the most vibrant and noticeable in the micro sphere.

  16. The overview and history of permanent magnet devices in accelerator technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, R.H.

    1994-01-01

    This paper looks at the early history of accelerator development with a particular focus on the important discoveries that opened the door for the application of permanent-magnet materials to this area of science. Researchers began to use permanent-magnet materials in particle accelerators soon after the invention of the alternating gradient principle, that showed magnetic fields could be used to control the transverse envelope of charged-particle beams. Since that time, permanent-magnet materials have found wide application in the modern charged particle accelerator. A brief history of permanent-magnet use in accelerator physics and technology is outlined, some of the general design considerations are presented, and several material properties of concern for particle accelerator applications are discussed

  17. The nasal approach to delivering treatment for brain diseases: an anatomic, physiologic, and delivery technology overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djupesland, Per G; Messina, John C; Mahmoud, Ramy A

    2014-06-01

    The intricate pathophysiology of brain disorders, difficult access to the brain, and the complexity and high risks and costs of drug development represent major hurdles for improving therapies. Nose-to-brain drug transport offers an attractive alternative or addition to formulation-only strategies attempting to enhance drug penetration into the CNS. Although still a matter of controversy, many studies in animals claim direct nose-to-brain transport along the olfactory and trigeminal nerves, circumventing the traditional barriers to CNS entry. Some clinical trials in man also suggest nose-to-brain drug delivery, although definitive proof in man is lacking. This review focuses on new nasal delivery technologies designed to overcome inherent anatomical and physiological challenges and facilitate more efficient and targeted drug delivery for CNS disorders.

  18. An overview of application of bayesian classifier approach in radioactive tracer technology.case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Aseer, A.; Dawood, E.; Ben Ayad, S.; Alwerfalli, M.

    2015-01-01

    The usefulness of implementing a radioactive tracer techniques subjected to varied risk factors. Thus, the setup procedure for the application experimental techniques of radioactive tracer must be evaluated prior the decision action steps. One way of doing this, is to use Bay's theorem techniques. As there is a possibility of classifying the implemented parameters into certain catogries depending on their certainty to effect radioactive tracer technology. In this paper, the radioactive tracer experimental parameters classified accoring to Bayesian theory. Using this theory, one can study the proposed technical systems to determine the probabilities of the effectiveness of any selected parameter among the others. The classification of the applied experimental parameters into suitable or unsuitable in proposed theoretically. Ten parameters used in this experimental data were classified accordingly. The posterior is calculate from the prior and the likelihood previously determined by bayes rule.(author)

  19. The overview and history of permanent magnet devices in accelerator technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, R.H. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews the early history of accelerator development with a particular focus on the important discoveries that opened the door for the application of permanent-magnet materials to this area of science. Researchers began to use permanent-magnet materials in particle accelerators soon after the invention of the alternating gradient principle, that showed magnetic fields could be used to control the transverse envelope of charged-particle beams. Since that time, permanent-magnet materials have found wide application in the modern charged particle accelerator. The history of permanent-magnet use in accelerator physics and technology is outlined, general design considerations are presented, and material properties of concern for particle accelerator applications are discussed

  20. Vehicle Technologies’ Fact of the Week 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Diegel, Susan W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Moore, Sheila A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boundy, Robert Gary [Roltek, Inc., Clinton, TN (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Each week the U.S. Department of Energy’s Vehicle Technology Office (VTO) posts a Fact of the Week on their website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/ . These Facts provide statistical information, usually in the form of charts and tables, on vehicle sales, fuel economy, gasoline prices, and other transportation-related trends. Each Fact is a stand-alone page that includes a graph, text explaining the significance of the data, the supporting information on which the graph was based, and the source of the data. A link to the current week’s Fact is available on the VTO homepage, but older Facts are archived and still available at: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/facts/. This report is a compilation of the Facts that were posted during calendar year 2013. The Facts were written and prepared by staff in Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Center for Transportation Analysis.

  1. Stabilized helical peptides: overview of the technologies and its impact on drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Mark

    2017-11-01

    Protein-protein interactions are predominant in the workings of all cells. Until now, there have been a few successes in targeting protein-protein interactions with small molecules. Peptides may overcome some of the challenges of small molecules in disrupting protein-protein interactions. However, peptides present a new set of challenges in drug discovery. Thus, the study of the stabilization of helical peptides has been extensive. Areas covered: Several technological approaches to helical peptide stabilization have been studied. In this review, stapled peptides, foldamers, and hydrogen bond surrogates are discussed. Issues regarding design principles are also discussed. Furthermore, this review introduces select computational techniques used to aid peptide design and discusses clinical trials of peptides in a more advanced stage of development. Expert opinion: Stabilized helical peptides hold great promise in a wide array of diseases. However, the field is still relatively new and new design principles are emerging. The possibilities of peptide modification are quite extensive and expanding, so the design of stabilized peptides requires great attention to detail in order to avoid a large number of failed lead peptides. The start of clinical trials with stapled peptides is a promising sign for the future.

  2. Neutron transmutation doping technology of silicon and overview of trial irradiations at Cirus reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Tej; Bhatnagar, Anil; Singh, Kanchhi; Raina, V.K.

    2007-12-01

    Neutron transmutation doped silicon (NTD-Si) has been used extensively in manufacturing of high power semiconductor devices. The quality of NTD-Si, both from view points of dopant concentration and homogeneity has been found superior to the quality of doped silicon produced by conventional methods. The technology of NTD-Si has been perfected to achieve more accurate resistivity and homogenous resistivity with complete elimination of hot spots. In addition, the greater spatial uniformity, as well as the precise control over the resistivity achievable by using the NTD process, has led to a substantial increase in the breakdown voltage capability of thyristors. The report describes the fundamentals of NTD-Si production and discusses various techniques used for control of dopant concentration and homogeneity. Various aspects like radiation damage, residual radio-activity, nuclear heating, surface contamination and annealing requirements of the silicon ingots after irradiation have also been discussed. Details of trail irradiation and characterization of NTD-Si samples have been provided. Future plans for production of NTD-Si in Cirus and Dhruva reactors have also been discussed. (author)

  3. Hydro power plants, an overview of the current types and technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkáč Štefan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the long history of hydropower technology and rising number of system harvesting energy from alternative sources, the constant research within hydro power sector becoming increasingly important as the power from water was and still is the leading alternative source of green energy generation, capitalized not necessarily within micro-urban structures only. The advantages of hydro systems involve their relatively low acquisition cost against durability, the possibility of gaining energy independence, relatively high flexibility and adaptability for spatial conditions and energy demands of the end users. Nowadays micro hydro systems could capitalize head range starting at 100cm and the efficiency of hydro systems in general ranges between 65-75% in micro and small applications climbing up to 96% in macro designs. It is mostly due to flexibility in applications, adaptability in combinations with other renewable energy systems and the ability to generate clean, stable, thus reliable energy that makes technical development the most vibrant and noticeable in the micro sphere.

  4. Going digital: a narrative overview of the clinical and organisational impacts of eHealth technologies in hospital practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keasberry, Justin; Scott, Ian A; Sullivan, Clair; Staib, Andrew; Ashby, Richard

    2017-12-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of hospital-based eHealth technologies on quality, safety and efficiency of care and clinical outcomes. Methods Systematic reviews and reviews of systematic reviews of eHealth technologies published in PubMed/Medline/Cochrane Library between January 2010 and October 2015 were evaluated. Reviews of implementation issues, non-hospital settings or remote care or patient-focused technologies were excluded from analysis. Methodological quality was assessed using a validated appraisal tool. Outcome measures were benefits and harms relating to electronic medical records (EMRs), computerised physician order entry (CPOE), electronic prescribing (ePrescribing) and computerised decision support systems (CDSS). Results are presented as a narrative overview given marked study heterogeneity. Results Nineteen systematic reviews and two reviews of systematic reviews were included from 1197 abstracts, nine rated as high quality. For EMR functions, there was moderate-quality evidence of reduced hospitalisations and length of stay and low-quality evidence of improved organisational efficiency, greater accuracy of information and reduced documentation and process turnaround times. For CPOE functions, there was moderate-quality evidence of reductions in turnaround times and resource utilisation. For ePrescribing, there was moderate-quality evidence of substantially fewer medications errors and adverse drug events, greater guideline adherence, improved disease control and decreased dispensing turnaround times. For CDSS, there was moderate-quality evidence of increased use of preventive care and drug interaction reminders and alerts, increased use of diagnostic aids, more appropriate test ordering with fewer tests per patient, greater guideline adherence, improved processes of care and less disease morbidity. There was conflicting evidence regarding effects on in-patient mortality and overall costs. Reported harms were

  5. Knowledge and Technology Transfer (KTT) Activities Between Universities and Firms in Switzerland: The Main Facts: an empirical analysis based on firm-level data

    OpenAIRE

    Arvanitis, Spyridon; Kubli, Ursina; Sydow, Nora; Wörter, Martin

    2005-01-01

    This study is part of a large project aiming at the investigation of a) extent and b) economic relevance of knowledge and technology transfer (KTT) between science institutions (universities, universities of a pplied science and other public re search institutions) and private corporations. Under knowledge and technology transfer we understand very broadly any activities targeted at transferring knowledge an d technology that may help a company or a research institution – depending on the dir...

  6. Overview of remote handling technologies developed for inspection and maintenance of spent fuel management facilities in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desbats, Philippe [CEA - Direction de la Recherche Technologique / LIST, BP 6 - 92265, Fontenay-aux-Roses cedex (France); Piolain, Gerard [COGEMA-HAG/DMCO, AREVA NC SA, 2, rue Paul Dautier, BP 4, 78 141 Velizy Cedex (France)

    2006-07-01

    In the facilities of the end of the nuclear fuel cycle, like spent fuel storage pools, reprocessing plants, Plutonium-based fuel manufacturing plants or waste temporary storage units, materials handling must be carried out remotely, taking into account the nuclear radiating environment. In addition to the automation requirement, robotics equipment in the nuclear industry must be substituted to human operators in order to respect the ALARA principle. More over, remote handling technologies aim to improve the working conditions, as well as the quality of the work achieved by the operators. Ten years ago, COGEMA (AREVA Group) and CEA (French Atomic Energy Agency) started an ambitious R and D program in robotics and remote handling technologies applied to COGEMA spent fuel management facilities in France, with the aim to cover the requirements of the different plant life cycle steps. The paper gives an overview of the important developments that have been carried out by CEA and then transferred to the COGEMA industrial group. The range includes the next generation of servo-manipulators, long range inspection tools and carriers, nuclear versions of industrial robots, radiation hardened electronic systems, interactive environment modeling tools, as well as force-feedback master-slave generic control software for tele-operation systems. Some applications of this development are presented in the paper: - rad-hard electronic modules for robotic equipment which are used by COGEMA in high radiating environment; - long reach articulated carrier for inspection of spent full management blind cells; - new electrical force feedback master/slave system to improve the tele-operation of standard tele-manipulators; - generic control software for tele-manipulators. The results of the robotic program carried out by COGEMA and CEA have been very valuable for the introduction of new technologies inside nuclear industry. Innovative products and sub-systems can be integrated now in a large

  7. Rett Syndrome Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help them maintain adequate weight. Special academic, social, vocational, and support services may be required in some ... Are Funded Small Business Grants Overview Areas of Interest Budget Information Grant Timeline Award Information Entrepreneurial Resources ...

  8. The Fabulous Fact Fan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, Jene P.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the use and construction of "fact fans," fun and easy-to-make manipulatives that provide elementary school students with the opportunity to explore mathematics operations being studied in the classroom and to practice addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division facts. (BB)

  9. Advanced scientific computational methods and their applications of nuclear technologies. (1) Overview of scientific computational methods, introduction of continuum simulation methods and their applications (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Yoshiaki; Okuda, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    Scientific computational methods have advanced remarkably with the progress of nuclear development. They have played the role of weft connecting each realm of nuclear engineering and then an introductory course of advanced scientific computational methods and their applications to nuclear technologies were prepared in serial form. This is the first issue showing their overview and introduction of continuum simulation methods. Finite element method as their applications is also reviewed. (T. Tanaka)

  10. Intelligent Transportation Systems Joint Program Office (ITS JPO) within the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology (OST-R) : [fact sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-19

    The ITS JPO is the U.S. Department of Transportations primary advocate and national leader for ITS research, development, and future deployment of connected vehicle technologies, focusing on intelligent vehicles, intelligent infrastructure, and th...

  11. Sandia National Laboratories: News: Publications: Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Management System Pollution Prevention History 60 impacts Diversity Locations Facts & Figures Does Sandia Buy? Opportunities Small Business Procurement Technical Assistance Program (PTAP) Current Technology Partnerships Business, Industry, & Non-Profits Government Universities Center for

  12. Nanotechnology for Site Remediation: Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet presents a snapshot of nanotechnology and its current uses in remediation. It presents information to help site project managers understand the potential applications of this group of technologies at their sites.

  13. Anesthesia Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education About NIGMS NIGMS Home > Science Education > Anesthesia Anesthesia Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area En español ... Version (464 KB) Other Fact Sheets What is anesthesia? Anesthesia is a medical treatment that prevents patients ...

  14. Structural Biology Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIGMS NIGMS Home > Science Education > Structural Biology Structural Biology Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area PDF Version (688 KB) Other Fact Sheets What is structural biology? Structural biology is the study of how biological ...

  15. Childhood Obesity Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Local Programs Related Topics Diabetes Nutrition Childhood Obesity Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Children (WIC) Program, 2000-2014 Prevalence of Childhood Obesity in the United States Childhood obesity is a ...

  16. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type 1 Type 2 Facts About Type 2 ... Planner, and tips from experts Let's Be Well: Products to help you thrive with diabetes - lets-be- ...

  17. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type 1 Type 2 Facts ... Online Community Site Menu Are You at Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes ...

  18. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Association Events Messaging Tools Recruiting Advocates Local Market Planning Training Webinars News & Events Advocacy News Call ... Diabetes Basics > Type 2 Share: Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Facts About ...

  19. Postpartum Depression Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Where can I find more information? Share Postpartum Depression Facts Download PDF Download ePub Download Mobi Order ... for herself or her family. What is postpartum depression? Postpartum depression is a mood disorder that can ...

  20. Facts about Omphalocele

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... label> Information For… Media Policy Makers Facts about Omphalocele Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... hardly ever is open or broken. What is Omphalocele? Omphalocele, also known as exomphalos, is a birth ...

  1. Facts about Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... label> Information For… Media Policy Makers Facts about Birth Defects Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... having a baby born without a birth defect. Birth Defects Are Common Every 4 ½ minutes, a ...

  2. Cholesterol Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Managing High Cholesterol Cholesterol-lowering Medicine High Cholesterol Statistics and Maps High Cholesterol Facts High Cholesterol Maps ... Deo R, et al. Heart disease and stroke statistics—2017 update: a report from the American Heart ...

  3. Alcohol Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standard Drink? Drinking Levels Defined Alcohol Facts and Statistics Print version Alcohol Use in the United States: ... 1238–1245, 2004. PMID: 15010446 National Center for Statistics and Analysis. 2014 Crash Data Key Findings (Traffic ...

  4. CMS Fast Facts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CMS has developed a new quick reference statistical summary on annual CMS program and financial data. CMS Fast Facts includes summary information on total program...

  5. Tinnitus: Understanding the Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Tinnitus Association Donate Become A Member Member Login Find A Provider Support Search form Search Menu Close Understanding The Facts Managing Your Tinnitus Research Toward A Cure About Us Initiatives News & ...

  6. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... August 1, 2013 Last Edited: October 27, 2015 Articles from Diabetes Forecast® magazine: lp-type-2, . In this section Diabetes Basics Type 2 Facts About Type 2 Recently Diagnosed Treatment and Care Blood ...

  7. Facts about Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Facts about Physical Activity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Some Americans ... Activity Guideline for aerobic activity than older adults. Physical activity and socioeconomic status Adults with more education are ...

  8. Facts about Folic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information For… Media Policy Makers Facts About Folic Acid Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... of the baby’s brain and spine. About folic acid Folic acid is a B vitamin. Our bodies ...

  9. Facts and Figures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Saves Lives Facts & Figures My Blood, Your Blood Blood Donation Types Did you know there is more than one type of blood donation? Learn more about blood donation types here. Blood Safety and Testing The blood supply ...

  10. Proceedings of the 1998 international joint power generation conference (FACT-Vol.22). Volume 1: Fuels and combustion technologies; Gas turbines; Environmental engineering; Nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, A.; Natole, R.; Sanyal, A.; Veilleux, J.

    1998-01-01

    Papers are arranged under the following topical sections: Fuels and combustion technologies; Low NOx burner applications; Low cost solutions to utility NOx compliance issues; Coal combustion--Retrofit experiences, low NOx, and efficiency; Highly preheated air combustion; Combustion control and optimization; Advanced technology for gas fuel combustion; Spray combustion and mixing; Efficient power generation using gas turbines; Safety issues in power industry; Efficient and environmentally benign conversion of wastes to energy; Artificial intelligence monitoring, control, and optimization of power plants; Combustion modeling and diagnostics; Advanced combustion technologies and combustion synthesis; Aero and industrial gas turbine presentations IGTI gas turbine division; NOx/SO 2 ; Plant cooling water system problems and solutions; Issues affecting plant operations and maintenance; and Costs associated with operating and not operating a nuclear power plant. Papers within scope have been processed separately for inclusion on the database

  11. [Suicide, a social fact].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudelot, Christian

    2017-04-01

    Treating suicide as a social fact means disregarding its individual and dramatic dimensions. Sociologists do not reason on the basis of specific cases but by studying the variations, in space and time, of suicide rates. Their contribution relates essentially to a renewed perspective on society: suicide is in fact a very accurate indicator of the intensity and quality of the bonds which unite or isolate individuals in a society. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Development NGOs: Basic Facts

    OpenAIRE

    Aldashev, Gani; Navarra, Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    This paper systematizes the results of the empirical literature on development non-governmental organizations (NGOs), drawing both from quantitative and qualitative analyses, and constructs a set of basic facts about these organizations. These basic facts concern the size of the development NGO sector and its evolution, the funding of NGOs, the allocation of NGO aid and projects across beneficiary countries, the relationship of NGOs with beneficiaries, and the phenomenon of globalization of d...

  13. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Share the facts: Quick Facts Prevalence Mortality Caregivers Cost Special Report Alzheimer's in each state Quick Facts Share the facts: Prevalence The number of Americans living with Alzheimer's is growing — and growing fast. An ...

  14. Performance of Fourth-Grade Students with Learning Disabilities on Multiplication Facts Comparing Teacher-Mediated and Technology-Mediated Interventions: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Brian R.; Ok, Minwook; Kang, Eun Young; Kim, Min Kyung; Lang, Russell; Bryant, Diane Pedrotty; Pfannestiel, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Instructional applications (apps) are educational software programs that can be accessed via mobile technologies (e.g., iPad, smartphone) and used to help students acquire various academic skills, including mathematics. Although research suggests that app-based instruction (AI) can be effective, there is a paucity of research comparing AI, to…

  15. Proceedings of the 1999 international joint power generation conference (FACT-vol. 23). Volume 1: Fuels and combustion technologies; Gas turbines; and Nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penfield, S.R. Jr.; Moussa, N.A.

    1999-01-01

    Papers are arranged under the following topical sections: Gas turbine combustion; Advanced energy conversion; Low NOx solutions; Burner developments; Alternative fuels combustion; Advanced energy conversion technologies; Numerical modeling of combustion; Fluidized bed combustion; Coal combustion; Combustion research; Gasification systems; Mercury emissions; Highly preheated air combustion; Selective catalytic reduction; Special topics in combustion research; Gas turbines and advanced energy; and How can the nuclear industry become more efficient? Papers within scope have been processed separately for inclusion on the database

  16. Nanotechnology: the word is new but the concept is old. An overview of the science and technology in food and food products at the nanoscale level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian C. Bryksa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Food scientists and technologists are actively engaged in examining and developing nanotechnologies for applications such as novel functional ingredients and nutrient delivery systems, safety testing, packaging, and authenticity/authentication at an ever-increasing pace. However, before these new products/technologies are commercialised, rigorous safety testing and risk/benefit analysis are required to ensure that public and environmental concerns are addressed. This review provides an overview of food nanoscience and technology including a brief history, education, definitions pertaining to policy and regulation, and applications. The most recent findings and advances are emphasised, focussing on bioactives' delivery. In addition, proposed directions in the area of nano-based targeting of pathogens for food safety as well as medical foods are discussed. As food nanoscience and technology has been extensively reviewed in recent years, specific case examples will be limited to those reported within the past year.

  17. Food irradiation: Facts or fiction?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaharanu, P.

    1990-01-01

    Food irradiation is at a political crossroad. In one direction, it is moving forward supported by overwhelming scientific evidence of its safety and benefits to economy and health. In the opposite direction, it threatens to be derailed by misleading claims about its safety and usefulness. Whether people will ultimately benefit from the use of irradiation to help fight serious food problems, or whether they will allow the technology to go to waste, will be determined by how successful people are in separating the facts from the fiction of food irradiation

  18. DER 86: main facts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This report presents the important facts among the studies carried out by the Direction des Etudes et Recherches (E.D.F.): new applications of electric power for customers, protection of environment, classical equipments for power plants and nuclear equipments, monitoring and control of power plants, electrical equipments, development and operation of electrical networks, informatics and office automation [fr

  19. Cholera Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news-room/fact-sheets/detail/cholera","@context":"http://schema.org","@type":"Article"}; العربية 中文 français русский español ... that includes feedback at the local level and information-sharing at the global level. Cholera cases are ...

  20. Facts about Vitamin K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facts about Vitamin K 1 R. Elaine Turner and Wendy J. Dahl 2 FCS8666 Figure 1. Vitamin K is mostly found in vegetables, especially green ... ColognePhotos/iStock/Thinkstock, © ColognePhotos Why do we need vitamin K? Vitamin K is one of the fat- ...

  1. Pseudomonas - Fact Sheet

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2012-01-01

    Fact sheet on Pseudomonas, including:What is Pseudomonas?What infections does it cause?Who is susceptible to pseudomonas infection?How will I know if I have pseudomonas infection?How can Pseudomonas be prevented from spreading?How can I protect myself from Pseudomonas?How is Pseudomonas infection treated?

  2. Main facts 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This report presents the main facts of the studies carried out by the Direction des Etudes et Recherches (DER) of Electricite de France: new applications of electricity, classical and nuclear thermal power plants, electrical equipment, environment protection, monitoring and plants operations

  3. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... from Diabetes Forecast® magazine: lp-type-2, . In this section Diabetes Basics Type 2 Facts About Type ... ensureArray(data.submitSurveyResponse.errors); $.each(surveyErrors, function () { if (this.errorField) { $('input[name="' + this.errorField + '"]').closest('.form-group') . ...

  4. Type 1 Diabetes Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Affiliates JDRF Celebrity Ambassadors JDRF Logo Usage Contact Us Donate Events More Type 1 Diabetes Facts Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune ... about Insulin and T1D Learn More What Is Diabetes? Causes of T1D The Complexity of Diagnosing ... US CAREERS NEWSROOM FOR RESEARCHERS © JDRF 2018 • Privacy Policy • ...

  5. Facts in nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buenemann, D.

    1979-07-01

    This compilation of facts has been published on behalf of Kerntechnische Gesellschaft (Society for Nuclear Engineering), as a basis for the discussion between promoters and opponents of nuclear power. It intends to make the nuclear discussion less emotional by providing relevant data material. (orig./HP) [de

  6. Diet myths and facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... night will make you fat. FACT: People who eat late at night do tend to put on extra weight. One possible reason is that late-night eaters tend to choose high-calorie treats. Some people who snack after dinner do not sleep well, which can lead to ...

  7. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... org > Diabetes Basics > Type 2 Share: Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Facts ... Type 2 Education Series Hear audio clips and full recordings of past Q&A events at your ...

  8. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type 1 Type 2 Facts About Type 2 Enroll in ... Where Do I Begin With Type2? Living With Type 1 Diabetes Enroll in the Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes ...

  9. Homosexuality: Facts for Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Talking to Your Kids About VirginityTalking to Your Kids About Sex Home Family Health Kids and Teens Homosexuality: Facts ... by: familydoctor.org editorial staff Categories: Family Health, Kids and Teens, Prevention and Wellness, Sex and Birth Control, Sex and SexualityTags: female, Gay ...

  10. Hibernia fact sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This fact sheet gives details of the Hibernia oil field including its location, discovery date, oil company's interests in the project, the recoverable reserves of the two reservoirs, the production system used, capital costs of the project, and overall targets for Canadian benefit. Significant dates for the Hibernia project are listed. (UK)

  11. Mastering the Multiplication Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ettorre, Jenna

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to share the results of a six-week research project (after baseline data was collected) that focused on three different strategies (flashcards, interactive games, and music) and their effectiveness in helping fifth grade students memorize the basic multiplication facts. Many teachers face a serious problem when their…

  12. Main facts 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the main facts of the studies carried out by the Direction des Etudes et Recherches (DER) of Electricite de France: new applications of electricity, classical and nuclear thermal power plants, electrical equipment, environment protection, network analysis, information and informatic equipment

  13. Nuclear fact book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, O. F.; Platt, A. M.; Robinson, J. V. [comps

    1983-05-01

    This reference provides significant highlights and summary facts in the following areas: general energy; nuclear energy; nuclear fuel cycle; uranium supply and enrichment; nuclear reactors; spent fuel and advanced repacking concepts; reprocessing; high-level waste; gaseous waste; transuranic waste; low-level waste; remedial action; transportation; disposal; radiation information; environment; legislation; socio-political aspects; conversion factors; and a glossary. (GHT)

  14. Gun Sales. Firearm Facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duker, Laurie, Ed.

    Minimal federal regulations on firearm sales have facilitated the proliferation of guns, gun owners, and gun dealers in the United States. This fact sheet offers data on the growing number of firearm dealers, the relative ease of obtaining and keeping a license to sell guns from the Federal Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms, the lack of…

  15. Ethanol Basics (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  16. Advanced scientific computational methods and their applications to nuclear technologies. (4) Overview of scientific computational methods, introduction of continuum simulation methods and their applications (4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekimura, Naoto; Okita, Taira

    2006-01-01

    Scientific computational methods have advanced remarkably with the progress of nuclear development. They have played the role of weft connecting each realm of nuclear engineering and then an introductory course of advanced scientific computational methods and their applications to nuclear technologies were prepared in serial form. This is the fourth issue showing the overview of scientific computational methods with the introduction of continuum simulation methods and their applications. Simulation methods on physical radiation effects on materials are reviewed based on the process such as binary collision approximation, molecular dynamics, kinematic Monte Carlo method, reaction rate method and dislocation dynamics. (T. Tanaka)

  17. An overview of aerospace gas turbine technology of relevance to the development of the automotive gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, D. G.; Miller, T. J.

    1978-01-01

    The NASA-Lewis Research Center (LeRC) has conducted, and has sponsored with industry and universities, extensive research into many of the technology areas related to gas turbine propulsion systems. This aerospace-related technology has been developed at both the component and systems level, and may have significant potential for application to the automotive gas turbine engine. This paper summarizes this technology and lists the associated references. The technology areas are system steady-state and transient performance prediction techniques, compressor and turbine design and performance prediction programs and effects of geometry, combustor technology and advanced concepts, and ceramic coatings and materials technology.

  18. Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Statistics and Facts A- A A+ Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts An estimated 6 million people in ... Understanding the Brain Warning Signs/ Symptoms Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts Seeking Medical Attention Risk Factors Aneurysm ...

  19. Mixmaster: fact and belief

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinzle, J Mark; Uggla, Claes

    2009-01-01

    We consider the dynamics towards the initial singularity of Bianchi type IX vacuum and orthogonal perfect fluid models with a linear equation of state. Surprisingly few facts are known about the 'Mixmaster' dynamics of these models, while at the same time most of the commonly held beliefs are rather vague. In this paper, we use Mixmaster facts as a base to build an infrastructure that makes it possible to sharpen the main Mixmaster beliefs. We formulate explicit conjectures concerning (i) the past asymptotic states of type IX solutions and (ii) the relevance of the Mixmaster/Kasner map for generic past asymptotic dynamics. The evidence for the conjectures is based on a study of the stochastic properties of this map in conjunction with dynamical systems techniques. We use a dynamical systems formulation, since this approach has so far been the only successful path to obtain theorems, but we also make comparisons with the 'metric' and Hamiltonian 'billiard' approaches.

  20. Chernobyl: the facts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radicella, Renato

    2007-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident and its consequences are briefly outlined in order to provide a synthesis of the facts from the most reliable sources. The paper describes in main lines the accident and the measures that were taken to mitigate its effects. The data on the radiation doses received by the population and the effects of the accident on the human health as well as on the environment are summarized. (author) [es

  1. Clean Cities Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-01-01

    This fact sheet explains the Clean Cities Program and provides contact information for all coalitions and regional offices. It answers key questions such as: What is the Clean Cities Program? What are alternative fuels? How does the Clean Cities Program work? What sort of assistance does Clean Cities offer? What has Clean Cities accomplished? What is Clean Cities International? and Where can I find more information?

  2. Faith, Fact, and Behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staddon, J E R

    2013-01-01

    David Hume argued that ought cannot be derived from is . That is, no set of facts, no amount of scientific knowledge, is by itself sufficient to urge us to action. Yet generations of well-meaning scientists (more and more as secular influences grow in the West) seem to have forgotten Hume's words of wisdom. All motivated action depends ultimately on beliefs that cannot be proved by the methods of science, that is, on faith.

  3. Biomolecular Science (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-04-01

    A brief fact sheet about NREL Photobiology and Biomolecular Science. The research goal of NREL's Biomolecular Science is to enable cost-competitive advanced lignocellulosic biofuels production by understanding the science critical for overcoming biomass recalcitrance and developing new product and product intermediate pathways. NREL's Photobiology focuses on understanding the capture of solar energy in photosynthetic systems and its use in converting carbon dioxide and water directly into hydrogen and advanced biofuels.

  4. Facts 2009 - The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Contents: Foreword; The petroleum sector; Norwegian resource management; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology; Environmental considerations; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  5. Wind Energy. The Facts. Executive Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-02-01

    Considered to be the most important wind energy reference in the world. It presents a detailed overview of the wind energy sector, with the most up-to-date and in-depth information on the essential issues concerning wind power today. The new edition includes chapters on: Technology; Grid integration; The economics of wind; Industry and markets; Environmental issues; and Scenarios and targets

  6. Chernobyl: the facts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanbridge, R.; Dept. of Journalism, Media and Communication Studies)

    1993-01-01

    In these Search Strategies, searchers from different countries and professions are given a question to answer, a budget of Pounds 50 and a time in which to produce their report. We hope that these blow-by-blow accounts, together with the hints and tips picked up along the way, will help readers to develop their own search strategies. Journalists are more and more coming to use online services and here the author gives a journalist's account of tracking down the elusive facts surrounding the Chernobyl disaster. (author)

  7. Overview of the Defense Programs Research and Technology Development Program for fiscal year 1993. Appendix II research laboratories and facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-30

    This document contains summaries of the research facilities that support the Defense Programs Research and Technology Development Program for FY 1993. The nine program elements are aggregated into three program clusters as follows: (1) Advanced materials sciences and technologies; chemistry and materials, explosives, special nuclear materials (SNM), and tritium. (2) Design sciences and advanced computation; physics, conceptual design and assessment, and computation and modeling. (3) Advanced manufacturing technologies and capabilities; system engineering science and technology, and electronics, photonics, sensors, and mechanical components. Section I gives a brief summary of 23 major defense program (DP) research and technology facilities and shows how these major facilities are organized by program elements. Section II gives a more detailed breakdown of the over 200 research and technology facilities being used at the Laboratories to support the Defense Programs mission.

  8. Centennial Challenges Program Overview: How NASA Successfully Involves the General Public in the Solving of Current Technology Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Monsi C.; Kim, Tony; Sudnik, Janet; Sivak, Amy; Porter, Molly; Cylar, Rosaling; Cavanaugh, Dominique; Krome, Kim

    2017-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Centennial Challenges Program, part of the Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD), addresses key technology needs of NASA and the nation, while facilitating new sources of innovation outside the traditional community. This is done by the direct engagement of the public at large, through the offering of Congressional authorized prize purses and associated challenges developed by NASA and the aerospace community and set up as a competition awarding the prize money for achieving the specified technology goal.

  9. Water: Facts without Myths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Henry

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Among all the chemical substances available in the universe, water, with its deceptively simple formula H2O, is the most discussed subject either in science or in philosophy [1]. If you are not convinced by this affirmation, a little experiment at no cost may help you change your mind. Just open your favorite web browser and type the word “water” in any search engine. When I have done that using Google, the number of hits was about 682,000,000 (please do not try to read all the pages. In fact, the only words that seem to beat water at this little game are “air” (770,000,000 hits with Google and 3,120,000,000 with Yahoo, and “food” (689,000,000 hits with Google and 3,820,000,000 with Yahoo. Of course this should not be a surprise, as breathing, eating, drinking just mean that you are a living entity. In fact extending the water search to “eau” (French, “wasser” (German, “agua” (Spanish, Portuguese and “acqua” (Italian leads to 978,900,000 hits under Google and 3,426,000,000 hits under Yahoo, showing now that water is about as important as food. After all, as everybody knows, “water is life”, and do we really have to read about one billion documents to know at least what water really is? [...

  10. [Overview of patents on targeted genome editing technologies and their implications for innovation and entrepreneurship education in universities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiang-yu; Lin, Yan-ping; Liao, Guo-jian; Xie, Jian-ping

    2015-12-01

    Zinc finger nuclease, transcription activator-like effector nuclease, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas9 nuclease are important targeted genome editing technologies. They have great significance in scientific research and applications on aspects of functional genomics research, species improvement, disease prevention and gene therapy. There are past or ongoing disputes over ownership of the intellectual property behind every technology. In this review, we summarize the patents on these three targeted genome editing technologies in order to provide some reference for developing genome editing technologies with self-owned intellectual property rights and some implications for current innovation and entrepreneurship education in universities.

  11. Bringing solid fuel ramjet projectiles closer to application - An overview of the TNO/RWMS technology demonstration programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veraar, R.G.; Giusti, G.

    2005-01-01

    TNO executed a technology demonstration programme in co-operation with RWMS on the application of solid fuel ramjet propulsion technology to medium calibre air defence projectiles. From 2000 to 2004 a complete and integrated structural and aero-thermodynamic projectile design was conceived

  12. Facts on Nirex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This folder contains twelve two-page leaflets (fact sheets) which answer questions posed about UK NIREX Ltd, its operations and radioactive waste. NIREX (the Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive) is the organisation responsible for implementing the British Government's policy for the disposal of most low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste produced in the United Kingdom. The questions posed are; what is NIREX. What is radioactivity. What is radioactive waste. Radioactive waste, what are the options. What is a radioactive waste repository. Some aspects of such a repository are then explained - how engineered barriers work, how geological barriers work, how long can concrete last, how is the radioactive waste transported, how are repository sites identified. The last two leaflets consider why do we need research, and look at radioactive waste management worldwide. The answers are in non-technical language and are short. (UK)

  13. Psychoacoustics Facts and Models

    CERN Document Server

    Fastl, Hugo

    2007-01-01

    Psychoacoustics – Facts and Models offers a unique, comprehensive summary of information describing the processing of sound by the human hearing system. It includes quantitative relations between sound stimuli and auditory perception in terms of hearing sensations, for which quantitative models are given, as well as an unequalled collection of data on the human hearing system as a receiver of acoustic information. In addition, many examples of the practical application of the results of basic research in fields such as noise control, audiology, or sound quality engineering are detailed. The third edition includes an additional chapter on audio-visual interactions and applications, plus more on applications throughout. Reviews of previous editions have characterized it as "an essential source of psychoacoustic knowledge," "a major landmark ," and a book that "without doubt will have a long-lasting effect on the standing and future evolution of this scientific domain."

  14. Fact sheet: Ethanol from corn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-31

    This fact sheet is intended to provide an overview of the advantages of ethanol from corn, emphasizing ethanol`s contribution to environmental protection and sustainable agriculture. Ethanol, an alternative fuel used as an octane enhancer is produced through the conversion of starch to sugars by enzymes, and fermentation of these sugars to ethanol by yeast. The production process may involve wet milling or dry milling. Both these processes produce valuable by-products, in addition to ethanol and carbon dioxide. Ethanol contains about 32,000 BTU per litre. It is commonly believed that using state-of-the-art corn farming and corn processing processes, the amount of energy contained in ethanol and its by-products would be more than twice the energy required to grow and process corn into ethanol. Ethanol represents the third largest market for Ontario corn, after direct use as animal feed and wet milling for starch, corn sweetener and corn oil. The environmental consequences of using ethanol are very significant. It is estimated that a 10 per cent ethanol blend in gasoline would result in a 25 to 30 per cent decrease in carbon monoxide emissions, a 6 to 10 per cent decrease in net carbon dioxide, a slight increase in nitrous oxide emissions which, however, would still result in an overall decrease in ozone formation, since the significant reduction in carbon monoxide emissions would compensate for any slight increase in nitrous oxide. Volatile organic compounds emission would also decrease by about 7 per cent with a 10 per cent ethanol blend. High level blends could reduce VOCs production by as much as 30 per cent. 7 refs.

  15. An Overview of the Past, Present, and Future of 3D Printing Technology with an Emphasis on the Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Robin M.

    2014-01-01

    Just as the cost of high quality laser printing started in the tens of thousands of dollar and can now be purchased for under $100, so too has 3D printing technology started in the tens of thousands of dollars and is now in the thousand dollar range. Current 3D printing technology takes 2D printing into a third dimension. Many 3D printers are…

  16. Major Trends in Mobility Technology Research and Development: Overview of the Results of the NSF-WTEC European Study

    OpenAIRE

    Reinkensmeyer, David J; Boninger, Michael L; Chan, Leighton; Cowan, Rachel E; Fregly, Benjamin J; Rodgers, Mary M; Bonato, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Mobility technologies, including wheelchairs, prostheses, joint replacements, assistive devices, and therapeutic exercise equipment help millions of people participate in desired life activities. Yet, these technologies are not yet fully transformative because many desired activities cannot be pursued or are difficult to pursue for the millions of individuals with mobility related impairments. This WTEC study, initiated and funded by the National Science Foundation, was designed to g...

  17. Overview and Recent Accomplishments of the Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) for Large Aperture UVOIR Space Telescopes Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2013-01-01

    Per Astro2010, a new, larger UVO telescope is needed to answer fundamental scientific questions, such as: is there life on Earth-like exoplanets; how galaxies assemble stellar populations; how baryonic matter interacts with intergalactic medium; and how solar systems form and evolve. And, present technology is not mature enough to affordably build and launch any potential UVO concept. Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) is a funded SAT project. Our objective is to mature to TRL-6 the critical technologies needed to produce 4-m or larger flight-qualified UVOIR mirrors by 2018 so that a viable mission can be considered by the 2020 Decadal Review. AMTD uses a science-driven systems engineering approach. We mature technologies required to enable the highest priority science AND result in a high-performance low-cost low-risk system. To provide the science community with options, we are pursuing multiple technology paths. We have assembled an outstanding team from academia, industry, and government with extensive expertise in astrophysics and exoplanet characterization, and in the design/manufacture of monolithic and segmented space telescopes. One of our key accomplishments is that we have derived engineering specifications for advanced normal-incidence monolithic and segmented mirror systems needed to enable both general astrophysics and ultra-high contrast observations of exoplanets missions as a function of potential launch vehicle and its inherent mass and volume constraints. We defined and initiated a program to mature 6 key technologies required to fabricate monolithic and segmented space mirrors.

  18. Adolescent Literacy. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The nation's workforce is demanding ever more literate workers and citizens. As technology advances and the American economy grows increasingly knowledge based, individuals must be able to read, write, and communicate at higher levels in order to remain economic and social contributors. A student's level of literacy is a critical determinant of…

  19. Marketing Transformation (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program

    2011-10-13

    Through the SunShot Initiative, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) works with manufacturers, communities, states, utilities, and other partners to enable the solar market by reducing non-hardware balance-of-system (BOS) costs, developing a skilled workforce, and eliminating market barriers to widespread adoption of solar technologies.

  20. Historical overview of the synchrotron radiation research in Japan. From the view point of creative works in the development of light sources and related technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamitsubo, Hiromichi

    2007-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation research in Japan started in early 1960's when the first electron synchrotron was commissioned at the Institute of Nuclear Study (INS), University of Tokyo (UT). This review covers the parasite use of the INS electron synchrotron and research works done at the light sources in Japan such as SOR-RING, Photon Factory (KEK-PF) Accumulator Ring (KEK-AR), and SPring-8. History of synchrotron radiation research in Japan was overviewed by paying attention to the creative works in the development of light sources and related technology, as well as the pioneering works on the development of experimental techniques and methods. At present there are more than ten synchrotron radiation sources are in operation and the number of their users, especially users from industries in Japan is increasing very rapidly and the research fields of users are also developing. Accordingly the synchrotron radiation facility becomes more and more indispensable facility in the society in Japan. (author)

  1. EU AND GLOBALIZATION: SOME STYLIZED FACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scamuffa Domenico

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Most of the people all over the world claim that globalization is a result of dynamic interactions between economic, technological, social and political factors. The aim of this paper is to document some stylized facts on this phenomenon in order to take

  2. Facts, values, and journalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Susan

    2017-03-01

    At a time of fake news, hacks, leaks, and unverified reports, many people are unsure whom to believe. How can we communicate in ways that make individuals question their assumptions and learn? My colleagues at The Hastings Center and many journalists and scientists are grappling with this question and have, independently, reached the same first step: recognize that facts can't be fully understood without probing their connection to values. "Explaining the basics is important, of course, but we also need to diversify our approach to the coverage of science-particularly as it intersects with the matrix of cultural, religious, social, and political values of our readers," said an article in Undark, an online magazine of science journalism. An editorial in Nature called for scientists to engage directly with citizens in debates over climate change and genome editing, noting that "the ethical issues can be critically dependent on the science, for example, in understanding where the boundaries between non-heritable and heritable genome modifications might be." We're here to help. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  3. Trends in the industrial science and technology policies and an overview of the innovation system in New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-01-01

    The paper reported the investigation into policies on industrial science technology of the New Zealand government. In 1996, the New Zealand government adopted high-grade strategic priorities on research, science and technology. Those are as follows: The social value/attitude that scientific technology is critical for the future prosperity is to be created; An adequate level of investment in science is to be ensured as a part of the national life; Benefits of scientific technology are to be enjoyed for social/economical/environmental preservation. As goals of the scientific technology, the following were set up: innovation goal to enhance the innovative capacity of New Zealand by knowledge creation, reinforcement of human/social capitals, and education systems; goal to strengthen the competitive force of enterprises of New Zealand by new products, processes, and systems/services; goal to increase the knowledge of the environment for maintaining the healthy environment; goal to build the society where all New Zealanders can enjoy health, independence and identity. (NEDO)

  4. Facts about Anophthalmia and Microphthalmia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facts About Anophthalmia and Microphthalmia Listen Facts About Anophthalmia and Microphthalmia This information was developed by the ... is the best person to answer specific questions. Anophthalmia and Microphthalmia Defined What are anophthalmia and microphthalmia? ...

  5. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Text size: A A A 2018 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures Download the full report: Download ... about memory loss? KNOW THE 10 SIGNS Alzheimer's Disease Facts in Each State The 2018 Alzheimer's Disease ...

  6. Rubella - Fact Sheet for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and 4 through 6 years Fact Sheet for Parents Color [2 pages] Español: Rubéola The best way ... according to the recommended schedule. Fact Sheets for Parents Diseases and the Vaccines that Prevent Them Chickenpox ...

  7. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dementia >> Home Text size: A A A 2018 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures Download the full report: Download ... worried about memory loss? KNOW THE 10 SIGNS Alzheimer's Disease Facts in Each State The 2018 Alzheimer's Disease ...

  8. Field Audit Checklist Tool (FACT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Download EPA's The Field Audit Checklist Tool (FACT). FACT is intended to help auditors perform field audits, to easily view monitoring plan, quality assurance and emissions data and provides access to data collected under MATS.

  9. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... THE 10 SIGNS Alzheimer's Disease Facts in Each State The 2018 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures report ... on the impact of this disease in every state across the nation. Click below to see the ...

  10. Microalgal carbohydrates: an overview of the factors influencing carbohydrates production, and of main bioconversion technologies for production of biofuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markou, Giorgos; Angelidaki, Irini; Georgakakis, Dimitris

    2012-01-01

    in research is the cultivation of microalgae for lipids production to generate biodiesel. However, there are several other biological or thermochemical conversion technologies, in which microalgal biomass could be used as substrate. However, the high protein content or the low carbohydrate content...... of the majority of the microalgal species might be a constraint for their possible use in these technologies. Moreover, in the majority of biomass conversion technologies, carbohydrates are the main substrate for production of biofuels. Nevertheless, microalgae biomass composition could be manipulated by several......Microalgal biomass seems to be a promising feedstock for biofuel generation. Microalgae have relative high photosynthetic efficiencies, high growth rates, and some species can thrive in brackish water or seawater and wastewater from the food- and agro-industrial sector. Today, the main interest...

  11. [An overview of the definition and implementation of the Brazilian National Policy on Health Data and Information Technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, Ricardo Bezerra; Kerr-Pinheiro, Marta Macedo; Guimarães, Eliete Albano de Azevedo; Miranda, Richardson Machado

    2015-05-01

    The This qualitative study aimed to analyze the development and implementation of the Brazilian National Policy on Health Data and Information Technology (NPIIH). We analyzed documents and applied an online questionnaire to the experts involved in developing the policy. The data were submitted to content analysis using the categorical thematic modality. The PNIIS is the target of debate and proposals at various levels. Provisions have appeared in parallel to regulate measures on health data and information technology. Community participation in developing this policy and the convergence of laws, standards, resolutions, and policy-making levels in a common and broadly acknowledged and enforced policy are challenges, in addition to linking the public and private sectors. The study concludes that the National Policy on Health Data and Information Technology is making gradual progress, predominantly in theoretical debates, revisions, and updates. There are numerous challenges for its implementation and a prevailing need for legitimation.

  12. Overview Of Impacts Of Technology Deployment On The Mission Of The Department Of Energy Office Of Environmental Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, D.; Chamberlain, G.; Looney, B.; Gladden, J.

    2010-01-01

    The Environmental Management (EM) mission is to complete the safe cleanup of the environmental legacy brought about from five decades of nuclear weapons development and government-sponsored nuclear energy research. The EM program has embraced a mission completion philosophy based on reducing risk and environmental liability over a 40-50 year lifecycle. The Department has made great progress toward safely disposing of its legacy nuclear waste. EM Research and Development (R and D) program management strategies have driven numerous technology and engineering innovations to reduce risk, minimize cleanup costs, and reduce schedules. Engineering and technology investments have provided the engineering foundation, technical assistance, approaches, and technologies that have contributed to moving the cleanup effort forward. These successes include start-up and operation of several waste treatment facilities and processes at the sites.

  13. An overview of ecological monitoring based on geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) technology in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Jia; Du, Xiangyang; Kang, Hou; Qiao, Minjuan

    2017-11-01

    Due to the rapid development of human economy and society, the resulting ecological problems are becoming more and more prominent, and the dynamic monitoring of the various elements in the ecosystem has become the focus of the current research. For the complex structure and function of the ecological environment monitoring, advanced technical means should be adopted. With the development of spatial information technology, the ecological monitoring technology based on GIS and RS is becoming more and more perfect, and spatial analysis will play an important role in the field of environmental protection. Based on the GIS and RS technology, this paper analyzes the general centralized ecological monitoring model, and makes an objective analysis of the current ecological monitoring trend of China. These are important for the protection and management of ecological environment in China.

  14. Immunoscintigraphy : facts and fiction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munz, D.L.; Emrich, D.

    1990-01-01

    In the first part of this volume the fundamentals of immuno-scintigraphy including immunological and technological basics, radio-labelling, biokinetics, dosimetry, adverse reactions, and legislation concerning approval of radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies as radio-pharmaceuticals are dealt with. In the second part, clinical experience in using monoclonal antibodies in the most relevant oncologic and non-neoplastic diseases is presented both from a diagnostic and a therapeutic point of view. (author). refs.; figs.; tabs

  15. Pinellas Plant facts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-09-01

    This plant was built in 1956 in response to a need for the manufacture of neutron generators, a principal component in nuclear weapons. The neutron generators consist of a miniaturized linear ion accelerator assembled with the pulsed electrical power supplies required for its operation. The ion accelerator, or neutron tube, requires ultra clean, high vacuum technology: hermetic seals between glass, ceramic, glass-ceramic, and metal materials: plus high voltage generation and measurement technology. The existence of these capabilities at the Pinellas Plant has led directly to the assignment of the lightning arrester connector, specialty capacitor, vacuum switch, and crystal resonator. Active and reserve batteries and the radioisotopically-powered thermoelectric generator draw on the materials measurement and controls technologies which are required to ensure neutron generator life. A product development and production capability in alumina ceramics, cermet (electrical) feedthroughs, and glass ceramics has become a specialty of the plant; the laboratories monitor the materials and processes used by the plant's commercial suppliers of ferroelectric ceramics. In addition to the manufacturing facility, a production development capability is maintained at the Pinellas Plant

  16. John Searle on Institutional Facts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    m Abdullahi

    2010-09-01

    Here we argue that the essence of institutional facts is status functions. Humans recognize these functions which contain a set of deontic powers through collective intentionality. Therefore, institutional facts are ontologically subjective and epistemologically objective. Nevertheless, objectivity of institutional facts totally depends on language which itself is a fundamental institution for other institutions.

  17. SunShot Catalyst Prize Competition Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solar Energy Technologies Office

    2015-04-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the Catalyst Energy Innovation Prize, an open innovation program launched in 2014 by the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. This program aims to catalyze the rapid creation and development of products and solutions that address near-term challenges in the U.S. solar energy marketplace.

  18. State Arts Agency Fact Sheet: Support for Arts Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online Submission, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This national overview of state arts agency grants and services for arts education includes summary statistics and geographic distribution. The fact sheet uses data from Final Descriptive Reports of state arts agency grant-making activities submitted annually to the National Assembly of State Arts Agencies (NASAA) and the National Endowment for…

  19. An overview of the state of the art technologies for multi-MW scale offshore wind turbines and beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Natarajan, Anand

    2014-01-01

    systems that ensure performance and the design of offshore support structures to minimize cost of energy. Light weight carbon fiber blades, aeroelastic tailoring using bend–twist coupling are discussed in coordination with a multitude of aerodynamic technologies for optimal power capture such as high...

  20. OVERVIEW OF THE HISTORY, PRESENT STATUS, AND FUTURE DIRECTION OF SOLIDIFICATION/STABILIZATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solidification/stabilization (S/S) technology processes are currently being utilized in the United States to treat inorganic and organic hazardous waste and radioactive waste. These wastes are generated from operating industry or have resulted from the uncontrolled management of ...