WorldWideScience

Sample records for technology nist traceable

  1. How to Collect National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Traceable Fluorescence Excitation and Emission Spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Adam Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary spectrofluorimeters comprise exciting light sources, excitation and emission monochromators, and detectors that without correction yield data not conforming to an ideal spectral response. The correction of the spectral properties of the exciting and emission light paths first requires calibration of the wavelength and spectral accuracy. The exciting beam path can be corrected up to the sample position using a spectrally corrected reference detection system. The corrected reference response accounts for both the spectral intensity and drift of the exciting light source relative to emission and/or transmission detector responses. The emission detection path must also be corrected for the combined spectral bias of the sample compartment optics, emission monochromator, and detector. There are several crucial issues associated with both excitation and emission correction including the requirement to account for spectral band-pass and resolution, optical band-pass or neutral density filters, and the position and direction of polarizing elements in the light paths. In addition, secondary correction factors are described including (1) subtraction of the solvent's fluorescence background, (2) removal of Rayleigh and Raman scattering lines, as well as (3) correcting for sample concentration-dependent inner-filter effects. The importance of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) traceable calibration and correction protocols is explained in light of valid intra- and interlaboratory studies and effective spectral qualitative and quantitative analyses including multivariate spectral modeling.

  2. NIST-Traceable NMR Method to Determine Quantitative Weight Percentage Purity of Mustard (HD) Feedstock Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    analysis of this sample can be done periodically as part of the instrument QC validation. Detailed QC specifications are not included in this method ... method is measured in milligrams, and the Z level is arbitrarily based on detection limits of the current instrument . The data from a P&A test is...ECBC-TR-1506 NIST-TRACEABLE NMR METHOD TO DETERMINE QUANTITATIVE WEIGHT PERCENTAGE PURITY OF MUSTARD (HD) FEEDSTOCK SAMPLES David J

  3. Hg0 and HgCl2 Reference Gas Standards: ?NIST Traceability ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and NIST have collaborated to establish the necessary procedures for establishing the required NIST traceability of commercially-provided Hg0 and HgCl2 reference generators. This presentation will discuss the approach of a joint EPA/NIST study to accurately quantify the true concentrations of Hg0 and HgCl2 reference gases produced from high quality, NIST-traceable, commercial Hg0 and HgCl2 generators. This presentation will also discuss the availability of HCl and Hg0 compressed reference gas standards as a result of EPA's recently approved Alternative Methods 114 and 118. Gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0) and oxidized mercury (HgCl2) reference standards are integral to the use of mercury continuous emissions monitoring systems (Hg CEMS) for regulatory compliance emissions monitoring. However, a quantitative disparity of approximately 7-10% has been observed between commercial Hg0 and HgCl2 reference gases which currently limits the use of (HgCl2) reference gas standards. Resolving this disparity would enable the expanded use of (HgCl2) reference gas standards for regulatory compliance purposes.

  4. Hg0 and HgCl2 Reference Gas Standards: NIST Traceability and Comparability (And EPA ALT Methods for Hg and HCl )

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and NIST have collaborated to establish the necessary procedures for establishing the required NIST traceability of commercially-provided Hg0 and HgCl2 reference generators. This presentation will discuss the approach of a joint EPA/NIST study to accurately quantify the tru...

  5. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) cybersecurity risk management framework applied to modern vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The primary objective of the work described in this report is to review the National Institute of Science and Technology (NIST) guidelines and foundational publications from an automotive : cybersecurity risk management stand-point. The NIST approach...

  6. Advances in Measurement Technology at NIST's Physical Measurement Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehmer, Joseph

    2014-03-01

    The NIST mission is to promote U.S. innovation and industrial competitiveness by advancing measurement science, standards, and technology. The Physical Measurement Laboratory (PML) has responsibility for maintaining national standards for two dozen physical quantities needed for international trade; and, importantly, it carries out advanced research at the frontiers of measurement science to enable extending innovation into new realms and new markets. This talk will highlight advances being made across several sectors of technology; and it will describe how PML interacts with its many collaborators and clients in industry, government, and academe.

  7. Research and Construction of DC Energy Measurement Traceability Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Wang; Maotao, Yang; Jing, Yang

    2018-02-01

    With the implementation of energy saving and emission reduction policies, DC energy metering has been widely used in many fields. In view of the lack of a DC energy measurementtraceability system, in combination with the process of downward measurement transfer in relation to the DC charger-based field calibration technology and DC energy meter and shunt calibration technologies, the paper proposed DC fast charging, high DC, small DC voltage output and measuring technologies, and built a time-based plan by converting high DC voltage into low voltage and high current into low current and then into low voltage, leaving DC energy traceable to national standards in terms of voltage, current and time and thus filling in the gap in DC energy measurement traceability.

  8. UHF RFID technologies for identification and traceability

    CERN Document Server

    Laheurte, Jean-Marc; Paret, Dominique; Loussert, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    UHF Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is an electronic tagging technology that allows an object, place or person to be automatically identified at a distance without a direct line-of-sight using a radio wave exchange. Applications include inventory tracking, prescription medication tracking and authentication, secure automobile keys, and access control for secure facilities. This book begins with an overview of UHF RFID challenges describing the applications, markets, trades and basic technologies. It follows this by highlighting the main features distinguishing UHF (860MHz-960MHz) and HF

  9. Automatic summary generating technology of vegetable traceability for information sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhenxuan, Zhang; Minjing, Peng

    2017-06-01

    In order to solve problems of excessive data entries and consequent high costs for data collection in vegetable traceablility for farmers in traceability applications, the automatic summary generating technology of vegetable traceability for information sharing was proposed. The proposed technology is an effective way for farmers to share real-time vegetable planting information in social networking platforms to enhance their brands and obtain more customers. In this research, the influencing factors in the vegetable traceablility for customers were analyzed to establish the sub-indicators and target indicators and propose a computing model based on the collected parameter values of the planted vegetables and standard legal systems on food safety. The proposed standard parameter model involves five steps: accessing database, establishing target indicators, establishing sub-indicators, establishing standard reference model and computing scores of indicators. On the basis of establishing and optimizing the standards of food safety and traceability system, this proposed technology could be accepted by more and more farmers and customers.

  10. Applied Research of IOT and RFID Technology in Agricultural Product Traceability System

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Guogang; Yu, Haiye; Wang, Guowei; Sui, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    International audience; In recent years, more and more attention has been given to the safety of agricultural products, whose demands for the traceability system are increasingly urgent. This paper, in response to the demands, by using the C# programming language, database technology, IOT technology and RFID technology, realized the traceability system of agricultural products, and explained the implementation of network technology and RFID technology in detail. The traceability system can co...

  11. Traceability System For Agricultural Productsbased on Rfid and Mobile Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugahara, Koji

    In agriculture, it is required to establish and integrate food traceability systems and risk management systems in order to improve food safety in the entire food chain. The integrated traceability system for agricultural products was developed, based on innovative technology of RFID and mobile computing. In order to identify individual products on the distribution process efficiently,small RFID tags with unique ID and handy RFID readers were applied. On the distribution process, the RFID tags are checked by using the readers, and transit records of the products are stored to the database via wireless LAN.Regarding agricultural production, the recent issues of pesticides misuse affect consumer confidence in food safety. The Navigation System for Appropriate Pesticide Use (Nouyaku-navi) was developed, which is available in the fields by Internet cell-phones. Based on it, agricultural risk management systems have been developed. These systems collaborate with traceability systems and they can be applied for process control and risk management in agriculture.

  12. USCEA/NIST measurement assurance programs for the radiopharmaceutical and nuclear power industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golas, D.B.

    1993-01-01

    In cooperation with the U.S. Council for Energy Awareness (USCEA), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) supervises and administers two measurement assurance programs for radioactivity measurement traceability. One, in existence since the mid 1970s, provides traceability to suppliers of radiochemicals and radiopharmaceuticals, dose calibrators, and nuclear pharmacy services. The second program, begun in 1987, provides traceability to the nuclear power industry for utilities, source suppliers, and service laboratories. Each program is described, and the results of measurements of samples of known, but undisclosed activity, prepared at NIST and measured by the participants are presented

  13. Design and implementation of safety traceability system for candied fruits based on two-dimension code technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Kun

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Traceability is the basic principle of food safety.A food safety traceability system based on QR code and cloud computing technology was introduced in this paper.First of all we introduced the QR code technology and the concept of traceability.And then through the field investigation,we analyzed the traceability process.At the same time,we designed the system and database were found,and the consumer experiencing technology is studied.Finally we expounded the traceability information collection,transmission and final presentation style and expected the future development of traceability system.

  14. Design and Application of Quality Traceability System Based on RFID Technology for Red Jujubes

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Fenghua; Zhang, Shujuan; Zhao, Huaming

    2011-01-01

    Part 1: Decision Support Systems, Intelligent Systems and Artificial Intelligence Applications; International audience; The traceability system is regarded as an effective method to ensure safety quality for farm products by many countries all over the world. Although this system is common for a range of farm products, few reports for red jujube are available nowadays. Our study focuses on constructing a traceability system in terms of information technology in order to implement quality trac...

  15. Use of RFID Technology for Identification, Traceability Monitoring and the Checking of Product Authenticity

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Alexandru; Eleonora Tudora; Ovidiu Bica

    2010-01-01

    This paper is an overview of the structure of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems and radio frequency bands used by RFID technology. It also presents a solution based on the application of RFID for brand authentication, traceability and tracking, by implementing a production management system and extending its use to traders.

  16. Economic assessment of RFID coupled with open source technologies for wood traceability in Calabria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sperandio G

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to assess the economic sustainability of the implementation of a wood traceability system in Calabria based on RFID and open source technologies. We identified a break-even point in its implementation under different scenarios in order to highlight the economic sustainability limits, expressed in terms of m3 or tons of processed product. The results showed that the use of RFID technology along the supply chain could lead to an effective operational simplification and to a more efficient use of resources. Based on the average market prices for timber (80-120 € / m3, the implementation of RFID technology led to an increase in timber price by 8% under the worst scenarios. This suggests that the use of open source technologies for wood traceability is already feasible and economically sustainable, as 40% of private companies stated their willingness to pay a premium price (on average 3.25% higher for purchasing certified local wood products in Calabria. Moreover, we expect a further reduction of tags and hardware costs in the next future, up to half the costs estimated in this work, thus making the application of such technology to timber traceability even more affordable.

  17. 77 FR 18791 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; NIST Associates Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Institute of Standards and Technology Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; NIST Associates Information System AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and... access to the NIST campuses or NIST resources. The NIST Associates Information System (NAIS) information...

  18. Exploring the Limitations on RFID Technology in Traceability Systems at Beverage Factories

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel Expósito; Iñigo Cuiñas

    2013-01-01

    The application of RFID in traceability of products in beverage factories is analyzed in terms of the electromagnetic conditions defined by the massive presence of metallic elements and liquids. Various experiments are reported to determine the maximum reading range from RFID tags installed on tanks or to read RFID information around bottles, both empty and full of wine, trying to put in context the possible problems that could appear when installing an RFID-based traceability system within a...

  19. Application of RFID technology in patient tracking and medication traceability in emergency care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Pérez, María; Cabrero-Canosa, Mariano; Vizoso Hermida, José; Carrajo García, Lino; Llamas Gómez, Daniel; Vázquez González, Guillermo; Martín Herranz, Isabel

    2012-12-01

    One of the most important factors that directly affects the quality of health care is patient safety. Minimize the occurrence of adverse events is one of the main challenges for health professionals. This requires continuous tracking of the patient by different areas and services, a process known as traceability and proper patient identification and medication prescribed. This article presents an information system for patient tracking and drugs developed for the Emergency Department of Hospital A Coruña. The systems use RFID technology to perform various tasks: (1) locate patients in different areas; (2) measure patient care times and waiting times; (3) identify unitary doses of medication; and (4) ensure the correct matching between the patient and the medication prescribed by the doctor. The hardware infrastructure as well as the optimal configuration of devices interconnected via a wireless network was determined by conducting a detailed coverage study. To support all the functionality needed, specific tools were designed and integrated with proprietary software applications. The RFID system was evaluated positively by staff from different professional profiles involved in its development or subsequent implementation.

  20. Traceability information carriers. The technology backgrounds and consumers' perceptions of the technological solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros; Chryssochoidis, George; Kehagia, Olga

    2009-01-01

    , this paper explores the perceived benefits and drawbacks of such technologies. The aim is to identify factors that influence consumers' perceptions of such technologies, and furthermore to advise the agri-food business on issues that they should consider prior to the implementation of such technologies...

  1. Exploring the Limitations on RFID Technology in Traceability Systems at Beverage Factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Expósito

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of RFID in traceability of products in beverage factories is analyzed in terms of the electromagnetic conditions defined by the massive presence of metallic elements and liquids. Various experiments are reported to determine the maximum reading range from RFID tags installed on tanks or to read RFID information around bottles, both empty and full of wine, trying to put in context the possible problems that could appear when installing an RFID-based traceability system within a winery, a brewery, or any other beverage factory.

  2. Towards a Traceability System Based on RFID Technology to Check the Content of Pallets within Electronic Devices Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Angulo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years there has been a growing interest in smart solutions capable of dealing with the traceability of products and materials to improve logistical processes. Most of the existing solutions have been designed without considering the difficulties of deploying traceability systems in the storehouses currently working, not dealing with specific needs, such as environment characteristics or time required to be handled by workers. In this paper, in order to test the viability of its application, a first prototype of a traceability system capable of checking the content of pallets loaded with electronic devices is presented. It is based on ultra-high frequency (UHF radio frequency identification (RFID technology using passive tags. A holistic approach has been adopted to design the system: it begins with a radioelectrical characterization of the environment where the check points will be implemented, continues with the integration of a set of data acquisition and wireless communication devices, and ends with a logistics information system able to provide final user services. The combination of physical layer analysis with a top layer system view can aid the planning as well as operational phase of this type of RFID system within a logistic chain.

  3. The Atomic Spectroscopy Data Center at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Activities 1999-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiese, W.L.

    2001-01-01

    Dr. Wiese discussed activities and trends at the NIST Data Centers in the last two years. He reviewed priorities covered in data work and reviewed the bibliographic and numerical databases now on their website. The Atomic Spectra Database (ASD) is their main atomic physics web database and this is a reference data, e.g., the wavelength data is generally accurate to six significant figures and transition probability data is certain to with less than ±50%. Dr. Wiese also reported about recent work on the compilation and evaluation of data for wavelengths and energy levels of elements Cu, Kr and Mo (and several others), which are fusion relevant

  4. NIST high-dose calibration services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphreys, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    There is a need for the standardization of high-dose measurements used in the radiation-processing industry in order to provide assured traceability to national standards. NIST provides dosimetry calibration services to this industry. One of these services involves administration of known absorbed doses of gamma rays to customer-supplied dosimeters. The dosimeters are packaged to provide electron equilibrium conditions and are irradiated in a standard 60 Co calibration facility; this provides a calibration of that batch of dosimeters. Another service consists of supplying to a customer calibrated transfer dosimeters for irradiation with the customer's radiation source. The irradiated transfer dosimeters are then returned to NIST for analysis; the results are reported to the customer, providing a calibration of the dose rate of the customer's source. (orig.)

  5. AN INTEGRATED TECHNOLOGICAL TRACEABILITY MODEL IN THE OLIVE GROWING PRODUCTION CHAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferruccio Giametta

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The indication of the “path” travelled by all European agrofood products has by now become compulsory: starting from January the 1st, 2005 EC Regulation 178/2002 has established the notions of food tracking and tracing as well as the concept of food safety. Food traceability and safety are becoming notions of crucial importance to those who work in this sector in view of their potentially positive influence on produce competitiveness and appreciation on the part of consumers. This specific line of research is focused on the analysis and the use of both tracking and tracing systems of olive and olive oil products throughout the entire territory of Calabria. A detailed analysis of the productive processes has been made possible through the definition of the socalled “dynamic lot”: a unit of product processed (either directly or indirectly in a time unit (usually a day, as a function of the peculiarities of the olive growing farms involved (orographic features, level of mechanization, etc.. The software architecture (which is currently being updated has been studied considering the reality of the territory in question, and the average level of computer/software literacy of the operators asked to use it.

  6. EPA’s Hg Gas Traceability Approach for Source Emissions Measurement and Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solicited presentation (special topic) at the International Conference on Mercury as a Global Pollutant on how EPA establishes the NIST traceability of reference materials used to support regulatory mercury emissions measurements.

  7. NIST Gonio-spectroradiometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NIST gonio-spectroradiometer is used to measure total spectral radiant flux (TSRF) of incandescent lamps. The instrument consists of a 3-axis scanning mechanism;...

  8. LEP Traceability

    CERN Document Server

    Billen, R

    2000-01-01

    After more than ten years of production for high energy physics, CERN's current flagship, LEP, will be closed down definitively October 1st, 2000. Starting immediately, some 30,000 tonnes of LEP materials will be removed from the tunnel to make room for LHC installation. The dismantling project is a major undertaking in terms of resources and constraints, which has to be completed in less than one year. Moreover, since LEP is classified as a nuclear installation in France (as if it was a nuclear power plant), special procedures have to be followed in addition to the normal environmental and safety issues. One major facet of the project is the "traceability" of everything that comes out of the LEP tunnel. This implies that each piece of equipment must be identified and tracked from its origin through any temporary storage to its final destination. Special procedures have to be followed for all materials even if they are not radioactive. As much of the equipment as possible will be recycled or disposed of. This...

  9. 76 FR 66040 - NIST Framework and Roadmap for Smart Grid Interoperability Standards, Release 2.0 (Draft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology NIST Framework and Roadmap for Smart Grid Interoperability... and Technology (NIST) seeks comments on the draft NIST Framework and Roadmap for Smart Grid..., 2011. The entire draft version of the NIST Framework and Roadmap for Smart Grid Interoperability...

  10. ALT-114 and ALT-118 Alternative Approaches to NIST ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2016, US EPA approved two separate alternatives (ALT 114 and ALT 118) for the preparation and certification of Hydrogen Chloride (HCl) and Mercury (Hg) cylinder reference gas standards that can serve as EPA Protocol gases where EPA Protocol are required, but unavailable. The alternatives were necessary due to the unavailability of NIST reference materials (SRM, NTRM, CRM or RGM) or VSL reference materials (VSL PRM or VSL CRM), reference materials identified in EPA’s Green Book as necessary to establish the traceability of EPA protocol gases. ALT 114 and ALT 118 provides a pathway for gas vendors to prepare and certify traceable gas cylinder standards for use in certifying Hg and HCl CEMS. In this presentation, EPA will describe the mechanics and requirements of the performance-based approach, provide an update on the availability of these gas standards and also discuss the potential for producing and certifying gas standards for other compounds using this approach. This presentation discusses the importance of NIST-traceable reference gases relative to regulatory source compliance emissions monitoring. Specifically this presentation discusses 2 new approaches for making necessary reference gases available in the absence of NIST reference materials. Moreover, these approaches provide an alternative approach to rapidly make available new reference gases for additional HAPS regulatory compliance emissions measurement and monitoring.

  11. Quality Traceability System of Traditional Chinese Medicine Based on Two Dimensional Barcode Using Mobile Intelligent Technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Cai

    Full Text Available Currently, the chemical fingerprint comparison and analysis is mainly based on professional equipment and software, it's expensive and inconvenient. This study aims to integrate QR (Quick Response code with quality data and mobile intelligent technology to develop a convenient query terminal for tracing quality in the whole industrial chain of TCM (traditional Chinese medicine. Three herbal medicines were randomly selected and their chemical two-dimensional barcode (2D barcodes fingerprints were constructed. Smartphone application (APP based on Android system was developed to read initial data of 2D chemical barcodes, and compared multiple fingerprints from different batches of same species or different species. It was demonstrated that there were no significant differences between original and scanned TCM chemical fingerprints. Meanwhile, different TCM chemical fingerprint QR codes could be rendered in the same coordinate and showed the differences very intuitively. To be able to distinguish the variations of chemical fingerprint more directly, linear interpolation angle cosine similarity algorithm (LIACSA was proposed to get similarity ratio. This study showed that QR codes can be used as an effective information carrier to transfer quality data. Smartphone application can rapidly read quality information in QR codes and convert data into TCM chemical fingerprints.

  12. 77 FR 40586 - Draft NIST Interagency Report (NISTIR) 7823, Advanced Metering Infrastructure Smart Meter...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ...-01] Draft NIST Interagency Report (NISTIR) 7823, Advanced Metering Infrastructure Smart Meter... Technology (NIST) seeks comments on Draft NISTIR 7823, Advanced Metering Infrastructure Smart Meter... (AMI) Smart Meters. The target audience for Draft NISTIR 7823 includes numerous stakeholders in the...

  13. Safety and Traceability in Patient Healthcare through the Integration of RFID Technology for Intravenous Mixtures in the Prescription-Validation-Elaboration-Dispensation-Administration Circuit to Day Hospital Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Martínez Pérez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the integration of the RFID technology with the aim of ensuring the traceability of patients and minimization of adverse events during the process of prescription-validation-elaboration-dispensation-administration of medication by means of the implementation of various passive and active WIFI RFID systems in the Pharmacy and Day Hospital services of the Complejo Hospitalario Universitario A Coruña. Obtaining patient traceability and using the patient/drug binomial during this process allows us to minimize the occurrence of adverse events. The key points in this work are the unmistakably unique identification and accurate real time location of the controlled items (patients and medication. RFID technology has proved to be invaluable in assisting with the everyday clinical practice of a hospital, and has been successfully implemented in this environment and others. In services such as the day hospital, the implementation of said technology is further justified by the high costs of the service and the high risk to the patient.

  14. Safety and Traceability in Patient Healthcare through the Integration of RFID Technology for Intravenous Mixtures in the Prescription-Validation-Elaboration-Dispensation-Administration Circuit to Day Hospital Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Pérez, María; Vázquez González, Guillermo; Dafonte, Carlos

    2016-07-28

    This work presents the integration of the RFID technology with the aim of ensuring the traceability of patients and minimization of adverse events during the process of prescription-validation-elaboration-dispensation-administration of medication by means of the implementation of various passive and active WIFI RFID systems in the Pharmacy and Day Hospital services of the Complejo Hospitalario Universitario A Coruña. Obtaining patient traceability and using the patient/drug binomial during this process allows us to minimize the occurrence of adverse events. The key points in this work are the unmistakably unique identification and accurate real time location of the controlled items (patients and medication). RFID technology has proved to be invaluable in assisting with the everyday clinical practice of a hospital, and has been successfully implemented in this environment and others. In services such as the day hospital, the implementation of said technology is further justified by the high costs of the service and the high risk to the patient.

  15. Traceability and Measurement Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2004-01-01

    -Nürnberg, Chair for Quality Management and Manufacturing-Oriented Metrology (Germany). 'Metro-E-Learn' project proposes to develop and implement a coherent learning and competence chain that leads from introductory and foundation e-courses in initial manufacturing engineering studies towards higher....... Machine tool testing 9. The role of manufacturing metrology for QM 10. Inspection planning 11. Quality management of measurements incl. Documentation 12. Advanced manufacturing measurement technology The present report (which represents the section 2 - Traceability and Measurement Uncertainty – of the e-learning......This report is made as a part of the project ‘Metro-E-Learn: European e-Learning in Manufacturing Metrology’, an EU project under the program SOCRATES MINERVA (ODL and ICT in Education), Contract No: 101434-CP-1-2002-1-DE-MINERVA, coordinated by Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen...

  16. Traceability of measurement results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koumantakis, George

    2008-08-01

    * Trueness must be independent of analytical platform and measurements comparable regardless of the analytical procedure used. * Traceability requirements for the clinical laboratory are via National Metrology Institutes, Reference (Calibration) laboratories and finally the routine laboratory. * Traceability information required by today's clinical laboratory may be requested from the manufacturer of the analytical kits and the internet. * Traceable laboratory results will greatly enhance the role of the laboratory in patient management.

  17. NIST Stars: Absolute Spectrophotometric Calibration of Vega and Sirius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deustua, Susana; Woodward, John T.; Rice, Joseph P.; Brown, Steven W.; Maxwell, Stephen E.; Alberding, Brian G.; Lykke, Keith R.

    2018-01-01

    Absolute flux calibration of standard stars, traceable to SI (International System of Units) standards, is essential for 21st century astrophysics. Dark energy investigations that rely on observations of Type Ia supernovae and precise photometric redshifts of weakly lensed galaxies require a minimum accuracy of 0.5 % in the absolute color calibration. Studies that aim to address fundamental stellar astrophysics also benefit. In the era of large telescopes and all sky surveys well-calibrated standard stars that do not saturate and that are available over the whole sky are needed. Significant effort has been expended to obtain absolute measurements of the fundamental standards Vega and Sirius (and other stars) in the visible and near infrared, achieving total uncertainties between1% and 3%, depending on wavelength, that do not meet the needed accuracy. The NIST Stars program aims to determine the top-of-the-atmosphere absolute spectral irradiance of bright stars to an uncertainty less than 1% from a ground-based observatory. NIST Stars has developed a novel, fully SI-traceable laboratory calibration strategy that will enable achieving the desired accuracy. This strategy has two key components. The first is the SI-traceable calibration of the entire instrument system, and the second is the repeated spectroscopic measurement of the target star throughout the night. We will describe our experimental strategy, present preliminary results for Vega and Sirius and an end-to-end uncertainty budget

  18. The NIST radioactivity measurement assurance program for the radiopharmaceutical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cessna, Jeffrey T.; Golas, Daniel B.

    2012-01-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) maintains a program for the establishment and dissemination of activity measurement standards in nuclear medicine. These standards are disseminated through Standard Reference Materials (SRMs), Calibration Services, radionuclide calibrator settings, and the NIST Radioactivity Measurement Assurance Program (NRMAP, formerly the NEI/NIST MAP). The MAP for the radiopharmaceutical industry is described here. Consolidated results show that, for over 3600 comparisons, 96% of the participants' results differed from that of NIST by less than 10%, with 98% being less than 20%. Individual radionuclide results are presented from 214 to 439 comparisons, per radionuclide, for 67 Ga, 90 Y, 99m Tc, 99 Mo, 111 In, 125 I, 131 I, and 201 Tl. The percentage of participants results within 10% of NIST ranges from 88% to 98%. - Research highlights: ► NIST has maintained an MAP for the radiopharmaceutical industry since 1975. ► Participants measure sources with known, but blinded, activity and submit results. ► The schedule is chosen by a steering committee made up of participants and NIST. ► Participants submit calibrated sources for measurement by NIST during open months. ► Results are presented for over 3600 measurements of distributed sources.

  19. Neutron Imaging Facility Development and Research Trend at NIST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, M.; Hussey, D. S.; Baltic, E. M.; Jacobson, D. L.

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)maintains a sustained focus in the development of advanced neutron imaging facilities and hardware components to enable breakthrough research with vastly improved spatial and temporal resolutions, and to identify and employ research practices important to a wide variety of industrial and scientific applications. NIST's main focus is to enable research with broad appeal and commercial impacts. In this article we will give a brief overview of the NIST facility, select examples of current research, and finally comment on emerging technologies including advance manufacturing where neutron imaging has the potential to play an important role.

  20. Characterization of the NIST seaweed Standard Reference Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Outola, I.; Filliben, J.; Inn, K.g.W.

    2006-01-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Material (SRM) for seaweed was developed through an interlaboratory comparison with 24 participants from 16 countries. After evaluating different techniques to calculate certified values for the radionuclides, the median...

  1. Food traceability systems in China: The current status of and future perspectives on food supply chain databases, legal support, and technological research and support for food safety regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qi; Li, Jiajia; Sun, Mei; Lv, Jun; Gai, Ruoyan; Mei, Lin; Xu, Lingzhong

    2015-02-01

    Over the past few decades, the field of food security has witnessed numerous problems and incidents that have garnered public attention. Given this serious situation, the food traceability system (FTS) has become part of the expanding food safety continuum to reduce the risk of food safety problems. This article reviews a great deal of the related literature and results from previous studies of FTS to corroborate this contention. This article describes the development and benefits of FTS in developed countries like the United States of America (USA), Japan, and some European countries. Problems with existing FTS in China are noted, including a lack of a complete database, inadequate laws and regulations, and lagging technological research into FTS. This article puts forward several suggestions for the future, including improvement of information websites, clarification of regulatory responsibilities, and promotion of technological research.

  2. Towards automated traceability maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäder, Patrick; Gotel, Orlena

    2012-10-01

    Traceability relations support stakeholders in understanding the dependencies between artifacts created during the development of a software system and thus enable many development-related tasks. To ensure that the anticipated benefits of these tasks can be realized, it is necessary to have an up-to-date set of traceability relations between the established artifacts. This goal requires the creation of traceability relations during the initial development process. Furthermore, the goal also requires the maintenance of traceability relations over time as the software system evolves in order to prevent their decay. In this paper, an approach is discussed that supports the (semi-) automated update of traceability relations between requirements, analysis and design models of software systems expressed in the UML. This is made possible by analyzing change events that have been captured while working within a third-party UML modeling tool. Within the captured flow of events, development activities comprised of several events are recognized. These are matched with predefined rules that direct the update of impacted traceability relations. The overall approach is supported by a prototype tool and empirical results on the effectiveness of tool-supported traceability maintenance are provided.

  3. Traceability of trace analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Bernard

    2002-01-01

    Traceability provides the terminology, concepts and strategy for ensuring that analytical chemical measurements are comparable. At present the reference points are often internationally agreed methods; they can also be reference materials. Ideally there should be a single reference point, which in the case of chemistry is the SI Unit the mole but much work will be required to achieve such a situation. Traceability does not imply high accuracy and levels of certainty consistent with fitness for purpose criteria is the goal. This paper discusses the relevance of the concept of traceability and reviews developments leading to a conceptual model for analytical chemistry. It also reports some recent work and considers future needs. (author)

  4. Traceable Pyrgeometer Calibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooraghi, Mike; Kutchenreiter, Mark; Reda, Ibrahim; Habte, Aron; Sengupta, Manajit; Andreas, Afshin; Newman, Martina

    2016-05-02

    This poster presents the development, implementation, and operation of the Broadband Outdoor Radiometer Calibrations (BORCAL) Longwave (LW) system at the Southern Great Plains Radiometric Calibration Facility for the calibration of pyrgeometers that provide traceability to the World Infrared Standard Group.

  5. KNOWLEDGE AND ACCEPTANCE OF RFID TRACEABILITY SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan KATO

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the food market has become highly dynamic. Food crises in the early 90's, or those of the recent years, such as avian flu pandemic, swine flu, the cucumber or horse meat crises all had a negative impact on the Romanian food industry. Food deficiencies have led not only to contamination but also to the illness or death of some consumers. The products traceability is a prerequisite for success in the food industry. As a modern solution, RFID technology can be useful for traceability applications made with rewritable passive RFID tags. This paper aims to examine how RFID technology can be useful for traceability applications and will submit a diligent search regarding the degree of knowledge of RFID technology and the acceptance of an empirical model by the employees of Romanian companies.

  6. Sandia WIPP calibration traceability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuhen, M.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dean, T.A. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-05-01

    This report summarizes the work performed to establish calibration traceability for the instrumentation used by Sandia National Laboratories at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) during testing from 1980-1985. Identifying the calibration traceability is an important part of establishing a pedigree for the data and is part of the qualification of existing data. In general, the requirement states that the calibration of Measuring and Test equipment must have a valid relationship to nationally recognized standards or the basis for the calibration must be documented. Sandia recognized that just establishing calibration traceability would not necessarily mean that all QA requirements were met during the certification of test instrumentation. To address this concern, the assessment was expanded to include various activities.

  7. Traceability of biologicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeer, Niels S; Spierings, Irina; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Traceability is important in the postmarketing surveillance of biologicals, since changes in the manufacturing process may give rise to product- or batch-specific risks. With the expected expansion of the biosimilar market, there have been concerns about the ability to trace...... not support the routine recording of batch information. Expected changes in supply chain standards provide opportunities to systematically record detailed exposure information. Spontaneous reporting systems are the most vulnerable link in ensuring traceability, due to the manual nature of data transfer...

  8. Development of Traceable Phantoms for Improved Image Quantification in Positron Emission Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Brian

    2014-03-01

    Clinical trials for new drugs increasingly rely on imaging data to monitor patient response to the therapy being studied. In the case of radiopharmaceutical applications, imaging data are also used to estimate organ and tumor doses in order to arrive at the optimal dosage for safe and effective treatment. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is one of the most commonly used imaging modalities for these types of applications. In large, multicenter trials it is crucial to minimize as much as possible the variability that arises due to use of different types of scanners and other instrumentation so that the biological response can be more readily evaluated. This can be achieved by ensuring that all the instruments are calibrated to a common standard and that their performance is continuously monitored throughout the trial. Maintaining links to a single standard also enables the comparability of data acquired on a heterogeneous collection of instruments in different clinical settings. As the standards laboratory for the United States, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has been developing a suite of phantoms having traceable activity content to enable scanner calibration and performance testing. The configurations range from small solid cylindrical sources having volumes from 1 mL to 23 mL to large cylinders having a total volume of 9 L. The phantoms are constructed with 68Ge as a long-lived substitute for the more clinically useful radionuclide 18F. The contained activity values are traceable to the national standard for 68Ge and are also linked to the standard for 18F through a careful series of comparisons. The techniques that have been developed are being applied to a variety of new phantom configurations using different radionuclides. Image-based additive manufacturing techniques are also being investigated to create fillable phantoms having irregular shapes which can better mimic actual organs and tumors while still maintaining traceability

  9. Making cocoa origin traceable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acierno, Valentina; Alewijn, Martin; Zomer, Paul; Ruth, van Saskia M.

    2018-01-01

    More and more attention is paid to sustainability in the cocoa production. Tools that assist in making sustainable cocoa traceable are therefore welcome. In the present study, the applicability of Flow Infusion-Electrospray Ionization- Mass Spectrometry (FI-ESI-MS) to assess the geographical origin

  10. An Introduction to Requirements Traceability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roelf J.

    This report surveys the requirements traceability literature and gives some recommendations for further research and for an approach to consultancy concerning traceability in the 2RARE project. The problem of maintaining traceability in a development project is viewed as the problem of maintaining

  11. Providing traceability for neuroimaging analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClatchey, Richard; Branson, Andrew; Anjum, Ashiq; Bloodsworth, Peter; Habib, Irfan; Munir, Kamran; Shamdasani, Jetendr; Soomro, Kamran

    2013-09-01

    With the increasingly digital nature of biomedical data and as the complexity of analyses in medical research increases, the need for accurate information capture, traceability and accessibility has become crucial to medical researchers in the pursuance of their research goals. Grid- or Cloud-based technologies, often based on so-called Service Oriented Architectures (SOA), are increasingly being seen as viable solutions for managing distributed data and algorithms in the bio-medical domain. For neuroscientific analyses, especially those centred on complex image analysis, traceability of processes and datasets is essential but up to now this has not been captured in a manner that facilitates collaborative study. Few examples exist, of deployed medical systems based on Grids that provide the traceability of research data needed to facilitate complex analyses and none have been evaluated in practice. Over the past decade, we have been working with mammographers, paediatricians and neuroscientists in three generations of projects to provide the data management and provenance services now required for 21st century medical research. This paper outlines the finding of a requirements study and a resulting system architecture for the production of services to support neuroscientific studies of biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease. The paper proposes a software infrastructure and services that provide the foundation for such support. It introduces the use of the CRISTAL software to provide provenance management as one of a number of services delivered on a SOA, deployed to manage neuroimaging projects that have been studying biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease. In the neuGRID and N4U projects a Provenance Service has been delivered that captures and reconstructs the workflow information needed to facilitate researchers in conducting neuroimaging analyses. The software enables neuroscientists to track the evolution of workflows and datasets. It also tracks the outcomes of

  12. Traceable nanoscale measurement at NML-SIRIM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlan, Ahmad M.; Abdul Hapip, A. I.

    2012-01-01

    The role of national metrology institute (NMI) has always been very crucial in national technology development. One of the key activities of the NMI is to provide traceable measurement in all parameters under the International System of Units (SI). Dimensional measurement where size and shape are two important features investigated, is one of the important area covered by NMIs. To support the national technology development, particularly in manufacturing sectors and emerging technology such nanotechnology, the National Metrology Laboratory, SIRIM Berhad (NML-SIRIM), has embarked on a project to equip Malaysia with state-of-the-art nanoscale measurement facility with the aims of providing traceability of measurement at nanoscale. This paper will look into some of the results from current activities at NML-SIRIM related to measurement at nanoscale particularly on application of atomic force microscope (AFM) and laser based sensor in dimensional measurement. Step height standards of different sizes were measured using AFM and laser-based sensors. These probes are integrated into a long-range nanoscale measuring machine traceable to the international definition of the meter thus ensuring their traceability. Consistency of results obtained by these two methods will be discussed and presented. Factors affecting their measurements as well as their related uncertainty of measurements will also be presented.

  13. Traceable nanoscale measurement at NML-SIRIM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlan, Ahmad M.; Abdul Hapip, A. I.

    2012-06-01

    The role of national metrology institute (NMI) has always been very crucial in national technology development. One of the key activities of the NMI is to provide traceable measurement in all parameters under the International System of Units (SI). Dimensional measurement where size and shape are two important features investigated, is one of the important area covered by NMIs. To support the national technology development, particularly in manufacturing sectors and emerging technology such nanotechnology, the National Metrology Laboratory, SIRIM Berhad (NML-SIRIM), has embarked on a project to equip Malaysia with state-of-the-art nanoscale measurement facility with the aims of providing traceability of measurement at nanoscale. This paper will look into some of the results from current activities at NML-SIRIM related to measurement at nanoscale particularly on application of atomic force microscope (AFM) and laser based sensor in dimensional measurement. Step height standards of different sizes were measured using AFM and laser-based sensors. These probes are integrated into a long-range nanoscale measuring machine traceable to the international definition of the meter thus ensuring their traceability. Consistency of results obtained by these two methods will be discussed and presented. Factors affecting their measurements as well as their related uncertainty of measurements will also be presented.

  14. Traceable nanoscale measurement at NML-SIRIM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlan, Ahmad M.; Abdul Hapip, A. I. [National Metrology Laboratory SIRIM Berhad (NML-SIRIM), Lot PT 4803, Bandar Baru Salak Tinggi, 43900 Sepang (Malaysia)

    2012-06-29

    The role of national metrology institute (NMI) has always been very crucial in national technology development. One of the key activities of the NMI is to provide traceable measurement in all parameters under the International System of Units (SI). Dimensional measurement where size and shape are two important features investigated, is one of the important area covered by NMIs. To support the national technology development, particularly in manufacturing sectors and emerging technology such nanotechnology, the National Metrology Laboratory, SIRIM Berhad (NML-SIRIM), has embarked on a project to equip Malaysia with state-of-the-art nanoscale measurement facility with the aims of providing traceability of measurement at nanoscale. This paper will look into some of the results from current activities at NML-SIRIM related to measurement at nanoscale particularly on application of atomic force microscope (AFM) and laser based sensor in dimensional measurement. Step height standards of different sizes were measured using AFM and laser-based sensors. These probes are integrated into a long-range nanoscale measuring machine traceable to the international definition of the meter thus ensuring their traceability. Consistency of results obtained by these two methods will be discussed and presented. Factors affecting their measurements as well as their related uncertainty of measurements will also be presented.

  15. Automatic requirements traceability

    OpenAIRE

    Andžiulytė, Justė

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on automatic requirements traceability and algorithms that automatically find recommendation links for requirements. The main objective of this paper is the evaluation of these algorithms and preparation of the method defining algorithms to be used in different cases. This paper presents and examines probabilistic, vector space and latent semantic indexing models of information retrieval and association rule mining using authors own implementations of these algorithms and o...

  16. Pig ham genetic traceability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dall'Olio

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowing meat product origin is an important factor to assure consumer safety. A definitive method to solve this question is to identify, through molecular genetics analysis, a sample collected from the alive animal and a sample collected on the processed product. The only way to assure the origin of meat and meat products is by the proved identity of both genotypes for each different analyzed loci. Identity test was utilized to achieve individual traceability of meat for cattle......

  17. 77 FR 52692 - NIST Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 140-3 (Second Draft), Security Requirements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ...-03] NIST Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 140-3 (Second Draft), Security Requirements....'' Authority: Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) are issued by the National Institute of Standards... Standards and Technology (NIST) seeks additional comments on specific sections of Federal Information...

  18. 75 FR 57898 - NIST Blue Ribbon Commission on Management and Safety-II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... on Management and Safety--II AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of establishment of the NIST Blue Ribbon Commission on Management and Safety--II... NIST Blue Ribbon Commission on Management and Safety--II ``Commission''. The Commission will assess...

  19. HAPPY Team Entry to NIST OpenSAD Challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinnunen, Tomi; Sholokhov, Alexey; Khoury, Elie

    2016-01-01

    Speech activity detection (SAD), the task of locating speech segments from a given recording, remains challenging under acoustically degraded conditions. In 2015, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) coordinated OpenSAD bench-mark. We summarize “HAPPY” team effort to Open- SAD...

  20. Magnetic Structure Determinations at NBS/NIST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, J W; Borchers, J A; Huang, Q; Santoro, A; Erwin, R W

    2001-01-01

    Magnetic neutron scattering plays a central role in determining and understanding the microscopic properties of a vast variety of magnetic systems, from the fundamental nature, symmetry, and dynamics of magnetically ordered materials to elucidating the magnetic characteristics essential in technological applications. From the early days of neutron scattering measurements at NBS/NIST, magnetic diffraction studies have been a central theme involving many universities, industrial and government labs from around the United States and worldwide. Such measurements have been used to determine the spatial arrangement and directions of the atomic magnetic moments, the atomic magnetization density of the individual atoms in the material, and the value of the ordered moments as a function of thermodynamic parameters such as temperature, pressure, and applied magnetic field. These types of measurements have been carried out on single crystals, powders, thin films, and artificially grown multilayers, and often the information collected can be obtained by no other experimental technique. This article presents, in an historical perspective, a few examples of work carried out at the NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCNR), and discusses the key role that the Center can expect to play in future magnetism research.

  1. Comparison of the Calibration Algorithms and SI Traceability of MODIS, VIIRS, GOES, and GOES-R ABI Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raju Datla

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The radiometric calibration equations for the thermal emissive bands (TEB and the reflective solar bands (RSB measurements of the earth scenes by the polar satellite sensors, (Terra and Aqua MODIS and Suomi NPP (VIIRS, and geostationary sensors, GOES Imager and the GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI are analyzed towards calibration algorithm harmonization on the basis of SI traceability which is one of the goals of the NOAA National Calibration Center (NCC. One of the overarching goals of NCC is to provide knowledge base on the NOAA operational satellite sensors and recommend best practices for achieving SI traceability for the radiance measurements on-orbit. As such, the calibration methodologies of these satellite optical sensors are reviewed in light of the recommended practice for radiometric calibration at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST. The equivalence of some of the spectral bands in these sensors for their end products is presented. The operational and calibration features of the sensors for on-orbit observation of radiance are also compared in tabular form. This review is also to serve as a quick cross reference to researchers and analysts on how the observed signals from these sensors in space are converted to radiances.

  2. The 2016 NIST Speaker Recognition Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-20

    impact on system performance. Index Terms: NIST evaluation, NIST SRE, speaker detection, speaker recognition, speaker verification 1. Introduction NIST...test segments were uni- formly sampled, ranging approximately from 10s to 60s. This provided the opportunity to more precisely measure the impact of...test segment duration on speaker recognition performance. As for speaker model enrollment, unlike previous SREs, gender labels were not provided. There

  3. Consumer acceptance of a quick response (QR) code for the food traceability system: Application of an extended technology acceptance model (TAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeong Gug; Woo, Eunju

    2016-07-01

    The objectives of this study are to apply the TAM using the addition of perceived information to individuals' behavioral intention to use the QR code for the food traceability system; and to determine the moderating effects of food involvement on the relationship between perceived information and perceived usefulness. Results from a survey of 420 respondents are analyzed using structural equation modeling. The study findings reveal that the extended TAM has a satisfactory fit to the data and that the underlying dimensions have a significant effect on consumers' intention to use the QR code for the food traceability system. In addition, food involvement plays a significant moderating function in the relationship between perceived information and perceived usefulness. The implications of this study for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Scanning probe microscope dimensional metrology at NIST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramar, John A; Dixson, Ronald; Orji, Ndubuisi G

    2011-01-01

    Scanning probe microscope (SPM) dimensional metrology efforts at the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) are reviewed in this paper. The main SPM instruments for realizing the International System of Units (SI) are the Molecular Measuring Machine, the calibrated atomic force microscope and the critical dimension atomic force microscope. These are optimized for long-distance measurements, three-dimensional measurements over conventional SPM distances and critical dimension or linewidth measurements, respectively. 10 mm distances have been measured with the relative standard uncertainty, u c , of 1.5 × 10 −5 ; step heights at the 100 nm scale have been measured with the relative u c of 2.5 × 10 −3 and sub-micrometer linewidths have been measured with u c = 0.8 nm

  5. Managing traceability information in manufacture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen-Vullers, M.H.; Dorp, van C.A.; Beulens, A.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, an approach to design information systems for traceability is proposed. The paper applies gozinto graph modelling for traceability of the goods flow. A gozinto graph represents a graphical listing of raw materials, parts, intermediates and subassemblies, which a process transforms

  6. In-situ burning: NIST studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.D.

    1992-01-01

    In-situ burning of spilled oil has distinct advantages over other countermeasures. It offers the potential to convert rapidly large quantities of oil into its primary combustion products, carbon dioxide and water, with a small percentage of other unburned and residue byproducts. Because the oil is converted to gaseous products of combustion by burning, the need for physical collection, storage, and transport of recovered fluids is reduced to the few percent of the original spill volume that remains as residue after burning. Burning oil spills produces a visible smoke plume containing smoke particulate and other products of combustion which may persist for many kilometers from the burn. This fact gives rise to public health concerns, related to the chemical content of the smoke plume and the downwind deposition of particulate, which need to be answered. In 1985, a joint Minerals Management Service (MMS) and Environment Canada (EC) in-situ burning research program was begun at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). This research program was designed to study the burning of large crude oil spills on water and how this burning would affect air quality by quantifying the products of combustion and developing methods to predict the downwind smoke particulate deposition. To understand the important features of in-situ burning, it is necessary to perform both laboratory and mesoscale experiments. Finally, actual burns of spilled oil at sea will be necessary to evaluate the method at the anticipated scale of actual response operations. In this research program there is a continuing interaction between findings from measurements on small fire experiments performed in the controlled laboratory environments of NIST and the Fire Research Institute (FRI) in Japan, and large fire experiments at facilities like the USCG Fire Safety and Test Detachment in Mobile, Alabama where outdoor liquid fuel burns in large pans are possible

  7. Modeling and Implementation of Cattle/Beef Supply Chain Traceability Using a Distributed RFID-Based Framework in China

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Wanjie; Cao, Jing; Fan, Yan; Zhu, Kefeng; Dai, Qiwei

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, traceability systems have been developed as effective tools for improving the transparency of supply chains, thereby guaranteeing the quality and safety of food products. In this study, we proposed a cattle/beef supply chain traceability model and a traceability system based on radio frequency identification (RFID) technology and the EPCglobal network. First of all, the transformations of traceability units were defined and analyzed throughout the cattle/beef chain. Secondly,...

  8. Reliable Food Traceability Using RFID Tagging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuara, Guillermo; Salazar, José L.; Tornos, José L.; Piles, Joan J.

    Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) technology has numerous potential applications in various industries. One important use is for complete traceability of a specific product with the added advantage of being able to verify that quality controls have been passed, with all the necessary steps complied with and for the time required. The aim of this work is to present a food traceability system using RFID tags with contents guaranteed secure by the use of public-key cryptography and at an affordable cost without the need for substantial investment in infrastructure. Aggregate signatures are used so that all the steps can be signed in a reduced memory space. This type of signature is a cryptographic primitive that "consolidates" several signatures into one in such a way that if n users sign n messages, all the signatures can be grouped into one single signature.

  9. Traceability in healthcare: crossing boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovis, C

    2008-01-01

    This paper is a survey on the problem of traceability in healthcare. Traceability covers many different aspects and its understanding varies among different players. In supply chains and retails, traceability usually covers aspects pertaining to logistics. The challenge is to keep trace of objects manufactured, to track their locations in a production and distribution processes. In food industry, traceability has received a lot of attention because of public health problems related to infectious diseases. For instance, in Europe, the challenge of traceability has been to build the tracking of meat, from the living animal to the shell. In the health sector, traceability has mostly been involved in patient safety around human products such as blood derivates contaminants or implanted devices and prosthesis such as mammary implants. There are growing interests involving traceability in health related to drug safety, including the problem of counterfeited drugs, and to privacy. Traceability is also increasingly seen as a mean to improve efficiency of the logistics of care and a way to better understand costs and usage of resources. This survey is reviewing the literature and proposes a discussion based on the real use and needs of traceability in a large teaching hospital. Traceability in healthcare is at the crossroads of numerous needs. It is therefore of particular complexity and raises many new challenges. Identification management and entity tracking, from serialization of consumers' good production in the supply chains, to the identification of actors, patients, care providers, locations and processes is a huge effort, tackling economical, political, ethical and technical challenges. New requirements are needed, not usually met in the supply chain, such as serialization and persistence in time. New problems arise, such as privacy and legal frameworks. There are growing needs to increase traceability for drug products, related to drug safety, counterfeited drugs

  10. Ethical Traceability and Communicating Food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traceability – the ability to track a product from farm to plate – is now widely used in the food sector for a range of purposes: it allows companies to improve efficiency, facilitates product recall, and helps producers flag the specific characteristics of their goods. But traceability systems a...... food choices consistent with their own values, but also to play a more informed role in the way food is produced and distributed. It will appeal to academics, students and policy makers with an interest in traceability, food ethics and food policy....... ethics, political philosophy and philosophy of law) around food ethics and empirical research in three important food chains (UK bread, Danish bacon and Greek olive oil) to argue that ethical traceability systems could be used to communicate food information to consumers, allowing them not only to make...

  11. The use of high accuracy NAA for the certification of NIST botanical standard reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.A.; Greenberg, R.R.; Stone, S.F.

    1992-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis is one of many analytical techniques used at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for the certification of NIST Standard Reference Materials (SRMs). NAA competes favorably with all other techniques because of it's unique capabilities for high accuracy even at very low concentrations for many elements. In this paper, instrumental and radiochemical NAA results are described for 25 elements in two new NIST SRMs, SRM 1515 (Apple Leaves) and SRM 1547 (Peach Leaves), and are compared to the certified values for 19 elements in these two new botanical reference materials. (author) 7 refs.; 4 tabs

  12. The MITLL NIST LRE 2015 Language Recognition System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-06

    Task The National Institute of Science and Technology (NIST) has conducted formal evaluations of language detection algorithms since 1994. In...clusters included Arabic, Chinese, English , French, Slavic and Iberian. The breakdown of these language clusters is presented in Table 1...Haitian Creole has a range of spoken forms, with the more formal variety being more French-like and the informal variety much less so. Thus, the

  13. Traceability of genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarts, Henk J M; van Rie, Jean-Paul P F; Kok, Esther J

    2002-01-01

    EU regulations stipulate the labeling of food products containing genetically modified organisms (GMOs) unless the GMO content is due to adventitious and unintended 'contamination' and not exceeding the 1% level at ingredient basis. In addition, member states have to ensure full traceability at all stages of the placing on the market of GMOs. Both requirements ensure consumers 'right to know', facilitate enforcement of regulatory requirements and are of importance for environmental monitoring and postmarket surveillance. Besides administrative procedures, such as used in quality certification systems, the significance of adequate molecular methods becomes more and more apparent. During the last decade a considerable number of molecular methods have been developed and validated that enable the detection, identification and quantification of GMO impurities. Most of them rely on the PCR technology and can only detect one specific stretch of DNA. It can, however, be anticipated that in the near future the situation will become more complex. The number of GMO varieties, including 'stacked-gene' varieties, which will enter the European Market will increase and it is likely that these varieties will harbor more variable constructs. New tools will be necessary to keep up with these developments. One of the most promising techniques is microarray analysis. This technique enables the screening for a large number of different GMOs within a single experiment.

  14. Performance Prediction of a MongoDB-Based Traceability System in Smart Factory Supply Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Yong-Shin; Park, Il-Ha; Youm, Sekyoung

    2016-01-01

    In the future, with the advent of the smart factory era, manufacturing and logistics processes will become more complex, and the complexity and criticality of traceability will further increase. This research aims at developing a performance assessment method to verify scalability when implementing traceability systems based on key technologies for smart factories, such as Internet of Things (IoT) and BigData. To this end, based on existing research, we analyzed traceability requirements and ...

  15. RFID Based Grain and Oil Products Traceability and Its Computer Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Haiyan; Cui, Yunpeng

    2009-01-01

    International audience; Food safety is a widely concerned problem in current world. Traceability technology is an effective measure to solve the problem. This paper describes the study of the traceability of grain and oil products. Include the study contents, and a system we developed for traceability of grain and oil products, and the demonstration of the study. The system we developed was used in Luhua group and some supermarkets and get good feedbacks.

  16. RFID Based Grain and Oil Products Traceability and Its Computer Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Haiyan; Cui, Yunpeng

    Food safety is a widely concerned problem in current world. Traceability technology is an effective measure to solve the problem. This paper describes the study of the traceability of grain and oil products. Include the study contents, and a system we developed for traceability of grain and oil products, and the demonstration of the study. The system we developed was used in Luhua group and some supermarkets and get good feedbacks.

  17. A response to: "NIST experts urge caution in use of courtroom evidence presentation method"

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, Geoffrey Stewart

    2017-01-01

    A press release from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)could potentially impede progress toward improving the analysis of forensic evidence and the presentation of forensic analysis results in courts in the United States and around the world. "NIST experts urge caution in use of courtroom evidence presentation method" was released on October 12, 2017, and was picked up by the phys.org news service. It argues that, except in exceptional cases, the results of forensic ana...

  18. Standards and measurements for assessing bone health-workshop report co-sponsored by the International Society for Clinical Densitometry (ISCD) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Herbert S; Dienstfrey, Andrew; Hudson, Lawrence T; Oreskovic, Tammy; Fuerst, Thomas; Shepherd, John

    2006-01-01

    This article reports and discusses the results of the recent ISCD-NIST Workshop on Standards and Measurements for Assessing Bone Health. The purpose of the workshop was to assess the status of efforts to standardize and compare results from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans, and then to identify and prioritize ongoing measurement and standards needs.

  19. ALT-114 and ALT-118 Alternative Approaches to NIST-Traceable Reference Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2016, US EPA approved two separate alternatives (ALT 114 and ALT 118) for the preparation and certification of Hydrogen Chloride (HCl) and Mercury (Hg) cylinder reference gas standards that can serve as EPA Protocol gases where EPA Protocol are required, but unavailable. The a...

  20. Perspectives on traceability in food manufacture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moe, Tina

    1998-01-01

    Traceability in food manufacturing can range from in-house traceability in production plants to traceability in whole or part of the production chain from raw material to consumer, and descriptors of the product and its history can be few or many as decided. Well thought-out traceability systems...... are fundamental to achieving optimal benefits from quality control, production control and for fulfilling consumer demands etc. In order to facilitate the discussion of a traceability strategy in food industries this Viewpoint outlines the fundamental theoretical issues of traceability systems and presents a more...... practical discussion of its extent. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  1. KNOWLEDGE AND ACCEPTANCE OF RFID TRACEABILITY SOLUTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Zoltan KATO

    2014-01-01

    In recent years the food market has become highly dynamic. Food crises in the early 90's, or those of the recent years, such as avian flu pandemic, swine flu, the cucumber or horse meat crises all had a negative impact on the Romanian food industry. Food deficiencies have led not only to contamination but also to the illness or death of some consumers. The products traceability is a prerequisite for success in the food industry. As a modern solution, RFID technology can be useful for tr...

  2. Traceability from a US perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G C; Tatum, J D; Belk, K E; Scanga, J A; Grandin, T; Sofos, J N

    2005-09-01

    Traceability of a food consists of development of "an information trail that follows the food product's physical trail". Internationally, the US is lagging behind many countries in developing traceability systems for food in general and especially for livestock, poultry and their products. The US food industry is developing, implementing and maintaining traceability systems designed to improve food supply management, facilitate traceback for food safety and quality, and differentiate and market foods with subtle or undetectable quality attributes. Traceability, for livestock, poultry and meat, in its broadest context, can, could, or will eventually be used: (1) to ascertain origin and ownership, and to deter theft and misrepresentation, of animals and meat; (2) for surveillance, control and eradication of foreign animal diseases; (3) for biosecurity protection of the national livestock population; (4) for compliance with requirements of international customers; (5) for compliance with country-of-origin labeling requirements; (6) for improvement of supply-side management, distribution/delivery systems and inventory controls; (7) to facilitate value-based marketing; (8) to facilitate value-added marketing; (9) to isolate the source and extent of quality-control and food-safety problems; and (10) to minimize product recalls and make crisis management protocols more effective. Domestically and internationally, it has now become essential that producers, packers, processors, wholesalers, exporters and retailers assure that livestock, poultry and meat are identified, that record-keeping assures traceability through all or parts of the complete life-cycle, and that, in some cases, the source, the production-practices and/or the process of generating final products, can be verified. At issue, as the US develops traceback capabilities, will be the breadth, depth and precision of its specific traceability systems.

  3. [Traceability of the standards and calibrations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassault, A; Giroud, C; Arnaud, J

    2010-12-01

    Accuracy of results depends on the traceability of the standards values to a reference system. According to the ISO 15189 requirements, the laboratory has to document the traceability of the value of the standards used.

  4. Performance Prediction of a MongoDB-Based Traceability System in Smart Factory Supply Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yong-Shin; Park, Il-Ha; Youm, Sekyoung

    2016-01-01

    In the future, with the advent of the smart factory era, manufacturing and logistics processes will become more complex, and the complexity and criticality of traceability will further increase. This research aims at developing a performance assessment method to verify scalability when implementing traceability systems based on key technologies for smart factories, such as Internet of Things (IoT) and BigData. To this end, based on existing research, we analyzed traceability requirements and an event schema for storing traceability data in MongoDB, a document-based Not Only SQL (NoSQL) database. Next, we analyzed the algorithm of the most representative traceability query and defined a query-level performance model, which is composed of response times for the components of the traceability query algorithm. Next, this performance model was solidified as a linear regression model because the response times increase linearly by a benchmark test. Finally, for a case analysis, we applied the performance model to a virtual automobile parts logistics. As a result of the case study, we verified the scalability of a MongoDB-based traceability system and predicted the point when data node servers should be expanded in this case. The traceability system performance assessment method proposed in this research can be used as a decision-making tool for hardware capacity planning during the initial stage of construction of traceability systems and during their operational phase. PMID:27983654

  5. Performance Prediction of a MongoDB-Based Traceability System in Smart Factory Supply Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Shin Kang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the future, with the advent of the smart factory era, manufacturing and logistics processes will become more complex, and the complexity and criticality of traceability will further increase. This research aims at developing a performance assessment method to verify scalability when implementing traceability systems based on key technologies for smart factories, such as Internet of Things (IoT and BigData. To this end, based on existing research, we analyzed traceability requirements and an event schema for storing traceability data in MongoDB, a document-based Not Only SQL (NoSQL database. Next, we analyzed the algorithm of the most representative traceability query and defined a query-level performance model, which is composed of response times for the components of the traceability query algorithm. Next, this performance model was solidified as a linear regression model because the response times increase linearly by a benchmark test. Finally, for a case analysis, we applied the performance model to a virtual automobile parts logistics. As a result of the case study, we verified the scalability of a MongoDB-based traceability system and predicted the point when data node servers should be expanded in this case. The traceability system performance assessment method proposed in this research can be used as a decision-making tool for hardware capacity planning during the initial stage of construction of traceability systems and during their operational phase.

  6. Performance Prediction of a MongoDB-Based Traceability System in Smart Factory Supply Chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yong-Shin; Park, Il-Ha; Youm, Sekyoung

    2016-12-14

    In the future, with the advent of the smart factory era, manufacturing and logistics processes will become more complex, and the complexity and criticality of traceability will further increase. This research aims at developing a performance assessment method to verify scalability when implementing traceability systems based on key technologies for smart factories, such as Internet of Things (IoT) and BigData. To this end, based on existing research, we analyzed traceability requirements and an event schema for storing traceability data in MongoDB, a document-based Not Only SQL (NoSQL) database. Next, we analyzed the algorithm of the most representative traceability query and defined a query-level performance model, which is composed of response times for the components of the traceability query algorithm. Next, this performance model was solidified as a linear regression model because the response times increase linearly by a benchmark test. Finally, for a case analysis, we applied the performance model to a virtual automobile parts logistics. As a result of the case study, we verified the scalability of a MongoDB-based traceability system and predicted the point when data node servers should be expanded in this case. The traceability system performance assessment method proposed in this research can be used as a decision-making tool for hardware capacity planning during the initial stage of construction of traceability systems and during their operational phase.

  7. Ethical Traceability and Communicating Food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ethics, political philosophy and philosophy of law) around food ethics and empirical research in three important food chains (UK bread, Danish bacon and Greek olive oil) to argue that ethical traceability systems could be used to communicate food information to consumers, allowing them not only to make...

  8. Management traceability information system for the food supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendriss, S.; Benabdelhafid, A.; Boukachour, J.

    2008-06-01

    For a long time, the traceability was applied only for management reasons, but with the advent of new communication and information technologies more and more used in the logistic medium, the notion of the traceability became new extensive to meet the new market needs in term of information by ensuring accessibility the data characteristic or been dependent on the product throughout its life cycle. On the basis of this postulate, we tried to raise some questions of research, beginning by the presentation of the progress achieved, assumptions and objective relating to the traceability, in the second time we mentioned principal work by showing how evolved the scientific question especially the information systems integrating the traceability were developed very little in the literature. Based on what was developed in the first part, we present our generic modeling approach of communicating product "smart object", able to take into account the various essential elements for its traceability: the product in its various states, various operations carried out on the product, resources used, its localization, and interactions between the product and its environment carried out on the basis of whole of service. In order to validate our generic modeling, a case of study representing an application in a context of food industry is presented.

  9. Modeling and Implementation of Cattle/Beef Supply Chain Traceability Using a Distributed RFID-Based Framework in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wanjie; Cao, Jing; Fan, Yan; Zhu, Kefeng; Dai, Qiwei

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, traceability systems have been developed as effective tools for improving the transparency of supply chains, thereby guaranteeing the quality and safety of food products. In this study, we proposed a cattle/beef supply chain traceability model and a traceability system based on radio frequency identification (RFID) technology and the EPCglobal network. First of all, the transformations of traceability units were defined and analyzed throughout the cattle/beef chain. Secondly, we described the internal and external traceability information acquisition, transformation, and transmission processes throughout the beef supply chain in detail, and explained a methodology for modeling traceability information using the electronic product code information service (EPCIS) framework. Then, the traceability system was implemented based on Fosstrak and FreePastry software packages, and animal ear tag code and electronic product code (EPC) were employed to identify traceability units. Finally, a cattle/beef supply chain included breeding business, slaughter and processing business, distribution business and sales outlet was used as a case study to evaluate the beef supply chain traceability system. The results demonstrated that the major advantages of the traceability system are the effective sharing of information among business and the gapless traceability of the cattle/beef supply chain.

  10. Modeling and Implementation of Cattle/Beef Supply Chain Traceability Using a Distributed RFID-Based Framework in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wanjie; Cao, Jing; Fan, Yan; Zhu, Kefeng; Dai, Qiwei

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, traceability systems have been developed as effective tools for improving the transparency of supply chains, thereby guaranteeing the quality and safety of food products. In this study, we proposed a cattle/beef supply chain traceability model and a traceability system based on radio frequency identification (RFID) technology and the EPCglobal network. First of all, the transformations of traceability units were defined and analyzed throughout the cattle/beef chain. Secondly, we described the internal and external traceability information acquisition, transformation, and transmission processes throughout the beef supply chain in detail, and explained a methodology for modeling traceability information using the electronic product code information service (EPCIS) framework. Then, the traceability system was implemented based on Fosstrak and FreePastry software packages, and animal ear tag code and electronic product code (EPC) were employed to identify traceability units. Finally, a cattle/beef supply chain included breeding business, slaughter and processing business, distribution business and sales outlet was used as a case study to evaluate the beef supply chain traceability system. The results demonstrated that the major advantages of the traceability system are the effective sharing of information among business and the gapless traceability of the cattle/beef supply chain. PMID:26431340

  11. Modeling and Implementation of Cattle/Beef Supply Chain Traceability Using a Distributed RFID-Based Framework in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanjie Liang

    Full Text Available In recent years, traceability systems have been developed as effective tools for improving the transparency of supply chains, thereby guaranteeing the quality and safety of food products. In this study, we proposed a cattle/beef supply chain traceability model and a traceability system based on radio frequency identification (RFID technology and the EPCglobal network. First of all, the transformations of traceability units were defined and analyzed throughout the cattle/beef chain. Secondly, we described the internal and external traceability information acquisition, transformation, and transmission processes throughout the beef supply chain in detail, and explained a methodology for modeling traceability information using the electronic product code information service (EPCIS framework. Then, the traceability system was implemented based on Fosstrak and FreePastry software packages, and animal ear tag code and electronic product code (EPC were employed to identify traceability units. Finally, a cattle/beef supply chain included breeding business, slaughter and processing business, distribution business and sales outlet was used as a case study to evaluate the beef supply chain traceability system. The results demonstrated that the major advantages of the traceability system are the effective sharing of information among business and the gapless traceability of the cattle/beef supply chain.

  12. Materials Research With Neutrons at NIST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelletti, R L; Glinka, C J; Krueger, S; Lindstrom, R A; Lynn, J W; Prask, H J; Prince, E; Rush, J J; Rowe, J M; Satija, S K; Toby, B H; Tsai, A; Udovic, T J

    2001-01-01

    The NIST Materials Science and Engineering Laboratory works with industry, standards bodies, universities, and other government laboratories to improve the nation's measurements and standards infrastructure for materials. An increasingly important component of this effort is carried out at the NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCNR), at present the most productive center of its kind in the United States. This article gives a brief historical account of the growth and activities of the Center with examples of its work in major materials research areas and describes the key role the Center can expect to play in future developments.

  13. NIST commitment to national MQA programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caswell, R.S.

    1993-01-01

    The program of the Ionizing Radiation Division, Physics Laboratory is discussed, especially relating to standards, calibrations, and measurement quality assurance (MQA). The NIST program is open-quotes vertically integrated,close quotes meaning that activities extend from fundamental research to measurement research to supplying services and data. Typical methods NIST uses to assure the quality of the national standards are presented. Some of the programs in x-ray, gamma-ray, electron, neutron, and radioactivity research which support MQA are presented. Examples are given of MQA activities

  14. Towards a framework for improving requirement traceability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Toranzo Céspedes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Work regarding requirement traceability focuses on programming aspects instead of identifying, analysing and modelling all traceable data in a software project. This paper describes the development of a framework for improving software requirement traceability. The framework consisted of classifying traced information, defining and using relationship types regarding traced information, a set of guidelines for developing a requirements traceability model for a software project and using my management tool (MyMT tool to support developing a requirement traceability model. A university library management system was used to illustrate applying the framework.

  15. Molecular Markers for Food Traceability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Martins-Lopes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA analysis with molecular markers has opened a way to understand complex organism's genome. It is presently being widely applied across different fields, where food takes a preeminent position. Constant outbreaks of foodborne illnesses are increasing consumer's attention towards more detailed information related to what they are consuming. This overview reports on the areas where food traceability has been considered, and the problems that still remain to be bypassed in order to be widely applied. An outline of the most broadly used PCR-based methods for food traceability is described. Applications in the area of detection of genetically modified organisms, protected denomination of origin, allergenic and intolerance reactions are detailed in order to understand the dimension of the performed studies.

  16. Elemental characterization of new Polish and U.S. NIST geological, environmental and biological reference materials by neutron activation analysis and comments on the methodology of interlaboratory comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucera, J.

    1995-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) has been extensively used in interlaboratory comparisons aiming at the certification of new Polish geological, environmental and botanical materials (RMs): Apatite Concentrate CTA-AC-1, Fine Fly Ash CTA-FFA-1, Oriental Tobacco Leaves CTA-OTL-1, Virginia Tobacco Leaves CTA-VTL-2. For quality assurance and traceability purposes, already existing RMs of similar composition, such as Apatite Ore AR and NIST SRM-2704 Buffalo River Sediment were analyzed in our Laboratory as well as NIST SRM-1573a Tomato Leaves which was assayed as an intercomparison sample prior to the certification at the NIST. Results obtained for a total of 47 elements are reported and critically evaluated. Problems of organizing and evaluating interlaboratory comparisons are also discussed. (author). 28 refs, 1 fig., 8 tabs

  17. REFLEAK: NIST Leak/Recharge Simulation Program for Refrigerant Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 73 NIST REFLEAK: NIST Leak/Recharge Simulation Program for Refrigerant Mixtures (PC database for purchase)   REFLEAK estimates composition changes of zeotropic mixtures in leak and recharge processes.

  18. Conversion Preliminary Safety Analysis Report for the NIST Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, D. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Baek, J. S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hanson, A. L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Cheng, L-Y [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Brown, N. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Cuadra, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-01-30

    The NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCNR) is a reactor-laboratory complex providing the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the nation with a world-class facility for the performance of neutron-based research. The heart of this facility is the NIST research reactor (aka NBSR); a heavy water moderated and cooled reactor operating at 20 MW. It is fueled with high-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel elements. A Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) program is underway to convert the reactor to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. This program includes the qualification of the proposed fuel, uranium and molybdenum alloy foil clad in an aluminum alloy, and the development of the fabrication techniques. This report is a preliminary version of the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) that would be submitted to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for approval prior to conversion. The report follows the recommended format and content from the NRC codified in NUREG-1537, “Guidelines for Preparing and Reviewing Applications for the Licensing of Non-power Reactors,” Chapter 18, “Highly Enriched to Low-Enriched Uranium Conversions.” The emphasis in any conversion SAR is to explain the differences between the LEU and HEU cores and to show the acceptability of the new design; there is no need to repeat information regarding the current reactor that will not change upon conversion. Hence, as seen in the report, the bulk of the SAR is devoted to Chapter 4, Reactor Description, and Chapter 13, Safety Analysis.

  19. Traceability Method for Software Engineering Documentation

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Adila Azram; Rodziah Atan

    2012-01-01

    Traceability has been widely discussed in research area. It has been one of interest topic to be research in software engineering. Traceability in software documentation is one of the interesting topics to be research further. It is important in software documentation to trace out the flow or process in all the documents whether they depends with one another or not. In this paper, we present a traceability method for software engineering documentation. The objective of this research is to fac...

  20. Supplemental Fingerprint Card Data (SFCD) for NIST Special Database 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supplemental Fingerprint Card Data (SFCD) for NIST Special Database 9 (Web, free access)   NIST Special Database 10 (Supplemental Fingerprint Card Data for Special Database 9 - 8-Bit Gray Scale Images) provides a larger sample of fingerprint patterns that have a low natural frequency of occurrence and transitional fingerprint classes in NIST Special Database 9. The software is the same code used with NIST Special Database 4 and 9. A newer version of the compression/decompression software on the CDROM can be found at the website http://www.nist.gov/itl/iad/ig/nigos.cfm as part of the NBIS package.

  1. Recent Developments in the NIST Atomic Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramida, Alexander

    2011-05-01

    New versions of the NIST Atomic Spectra Database (ASD, v. 4.0) and three bibliographic databases (Atomic Energy Levels and Spectra, v. 2.0, Atomic Transition Probabilities, v. 9.0, and Atomic Line Broadening and Shapes, v. 3.0) have recently been released. In this contribution I will describe the main changes in the way users get the data through the Web. The contents of ASD have been significantly extended. In particular, the data on highly ionized tungsten (W III-LXXIV) have been added from a recently published NIST compilation. The tables for Fe I and Fe II have been replaced with newer, much more extensive lists (10000 lines for Fe I). The other updated or new spectra include H, D, T, He I-II, Li I-III, Be I-IV, B I-V, C I-II, N I-II, O I-II, Na I-X, K I-XIX, and Hg I. The new version of ASD now incorporates data on isotopes of several elements. I will describe some of the issues the NIST ASD Team faces when updating the data.

  2. Recent Developments in the NIST Atomic Databases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramida, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    New versions of the NIST Atomic Spectra Database (ASD, v. 4.0) and three bibliographic databases (Atomic Energy Levels and Spectra, v. 2.0, Atomic Transition Probabilities, v. 9.0, and Atomic Line Broadening and Shapes, v. 3.0) have recently been released. In this contribution I will describe the main changes in the way users get the data through the Web. The contents of ASD have been significantly extended. In particular, the data on highly ionized tungsten (W III-LXXIV) have been added from a recently published NIST compilation. The tables for Fe I and Fe II have been replaced with newer, much more extensive lists (10000 lines for Fe I). The other updated or new spectra include H, D, T, He I-II, Li I-III, Be I-IV, B I-V, C I-II, N I-II, O I-II, Na I-X, K I-XIX, and Hg I. The new version of ASD now incorporates data on isotopes of several elements. I will describe some of the issues the NIST ASD Team faces when updating the data.

  3. Assessing Customer Satisfaction at the NIST Research Library: Essential Tool for Future Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rosa; Allmang, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a campus-wide customer satisfaction survey undertaken by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Research Library in 2007. The methodology, survey instrument, data analysis, results, and actions taken in response to the survey are described. The outcome and recommendations will guide the library both…

  4. Determination of water in NIST reference material for mineral oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedergren; Nordmark

    2000-07-15

    The accuracy of the reference concentrations of moisture in electrical insulating oil RM 8506 and lubricating oil RM 8507 (both of mineral type) and specified by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) as containing 39.7 and 76.8 ppm (w/w) water, respectively, has recently been the subject of debate in this journal. To shed some further light on this controversy, we report in this correspondence results for these oils obtained by two additional methods, one based on specially designed reagents for diaphragm-free Karl Fischer (KF) coulometry and the other based on the concept of stripping at elevated temperature/continuous KF coulometry. A positive interference effect was shown to take place for RM 8506 when the direct coulometric method was used. If the results are corrected for this, the values including six different procedures varied in the range 13.5-15.6 ppm (w/w). For RM 8507, all values were between 42.5 and 47.2 ppm (w/w), which means that the values recommended by NIST for both reference oils using volumetric titration are about twice as high as those obtained with the other techniques. A possible explanation for this discrepancy is presented.

  5. Species specific isotope dilution for the accurate and SI traceable determination of arsenobetaine and methylmercury in cuttlefish and prawn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumkrong, Paramee [National Research Council Canada, 1200 Montreal Rd, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0R6 (Canada); Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research, 35 Mu 3 Tambon Khlong Ha, Amphoe Khlong Luang, Pathum Thani, 12120 (Thailand); Thiensong, Benjaporn [Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research, 35 Mu 3 Tambon Khlong Ha, Amphoe Khlong Luang, Pathum Thani, 12120 (Thailand); Le, Phuong Mai; McRae, Garnet; Windust, Anthony [National Research Council Canada, 1200 Montreal Rd, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0R6 (Canada); Deawtong, Suladda [Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research, 35 Mu 3 Tambon Khlong Ha, Amphoe Khlong Luang, Pathum Thani, 12120 (Thailand); Meija, Juris; Maxwell, Paulette [National Research Council Canada, 1200 Montreal Rd, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0R6 (Canada); Yang, Lu, E-mail: Lu.yang@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [National Research Council Canada, 1200 Montreal Rd, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0R6 (Canada); Mester, Zoltán [National Research Council Canada, 1200 Montreal Rd, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0R6 (Canada)

    2016-11-02

    Methods based on species specific isotope dilution were developed for the accurate and SI traceable determination of arsenobetaine (AsBet) and methylmercury (MeHg) in prawn and cuttlefish tissues by LC-MS/MS and SPME GC-ICPMS. Quantitation of AsBet and MeHg were achieved by using a {sup 13}C-enriched AsBet spike (NRC CRM CBET-1) and an enriched spike of Me{sup 198}Hg (NRC CRM EMMS-1), respectively, wherein analyte mass fractions in enriched spikes were determined by reverse isotope dilution using natural abundance AsBet and MeHg primary standards. Purity of these primary standards were characterized by quantitative {sup 1}H-NMR with the use of NIST SRM 350b benzoic acid as a primary calibrator, ensuring the final measurement results traceable to SI. Validation of employed methods of ID LC-MS/MS and ID SPME GC-ICPMS was demonstrated by analysis of several biological CRMs (DORM-4, TORT-3, DOLT-5, BCR-627 and BCR-463) with satisfying results. The developed methods were applied for the determination of AsBet and MeHg in two new certified reference materials (CRMs) prawn (PRON-1) and cuttlefish (SQID-1) produced jointly by Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research (TISTR) and National Research Council Canada (NRC). With additional measurements of AsBet using LC-ICPMS with standard additions calibration and external calibration at NRC and TISTR, respectively, certified values of 1.206 ± 0.058 and 13.96 ± 0.54 mg kg{sup −1} for AsBet as As (expanded uncertainty, k = 2) were obtained for the new CRMs PRON-1 and SQID-1, respectively. The reference value of 0.324 ± 0.028 mg kg{sup −1} as Hg (expanded uncertainty, k = 2) for MeHg was obtained for the SQID-1 based on the results obtained by ID SPME GC-ICPMS method only, whereas MeHg in PRON-1 was found to be < 0.015 mg kg{sup −1}. It was found that AsBet comprised 69.7% and 99.0% of total As in the prawn and cuttlefish, respectively, whereas MeHg comprised 94.5% of total Hg in

  6. NFC-Based Traceability in the Food Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Pigini

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, many events related to food and public health, such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, commonly known as mad cow disease, dioxin, bird flu and swine flu, brought the issue of food security to the center of international attention. Many countries established strict rules to ensure the food traceability “from farm to fork” to meet the demand of consumer safety and to ensure public health. Consequently, the concepts of controlled supply chain, brand of quality and traceability of food products have had a strong evolution. Companies in the food production sector must evolve and change their organizational and management chain to satisfy increasingly stringent government rules and to respond to the requirements of the market. From this point of view, NFC (Near Field Communication has all the requirements to become the main technology for traceability in the various food sectors. This paper proposes a solution to gather information throughout the entire food supply chain and bring it directly to the consumer. The architecture consists of a complex identification system based on NFC tags, which cumulates data during all phases of the production process. The aim of this work is to keep track of the information generated during food processing, not only for traceability purposes, but also for enhancing and optimizing production. The data generated by the traceability system are collected in a cloud database through apps on Android smartphones. The information is accessible by the consumers through a public Android application. The pork supply chain has been used as an application example of the proposed methodology.

  7. Towards traceable transient pressure metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Edward; Olson, Douglas A.; Liu, Haijun; Ahmed, Zeeshan; Douglass, Kevin O.

    2018-04-01

    We describe our progress in developing the infrastructure for traceable transient measurements of pressure. Towards that end, we have built and characterized a dual diaphragm shock tube that allows us to achieve shock amplitude reproducibility of approximately 2.3% for shocks with Mach speeds ranging from 1.26–1.5. In this proof-of-concept study we use our shock tube to characterize the dynamic response of photonic sensors embedded in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), a material of choice for soft tissue phantoms. Our results indicate that the PDMS-embedded photonic sensors response to shock evolves over a tens to hundreds of microseconds time scale making it a useful system for studying transient pressures in soft tissue.

  8. Nist Microwave Blackbody: The Design, Testing, and Verification of a Conical Brightness Temperature Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houtz, Derek Anderson

    Microwave radiometers allow remote sensing of earth and atmospheric temperatures from space, anytime, anywhere, through clouds, and in the dark. Data from microwave radiometers are high-impact operational inputs to weather forecasts, and are used to provide a vast array of climate data products including land and sea surface temperatures, soil moisture, ocean salinity, cloud precipitation and moisture height profiles, and even wind speed and direction, to name a few. Space-borne microwave radiometers have a major weakness when it comes to long-term climate trends due to their lack of traceability. Because there is no standard, or absolute reference, for microwave brightness temperature, nationally or internationally, individual instruments must each rely on their own internal calibration source to set an absolute reference to the fundamental unit of Kelvin. This causes each subsequent instrument to have a calibration offset and there is no 'true' reference. The work introduced in this thesis addresses this vacancy by proposing and introducing a NIST microwave brightness temperature source that may act as the primary reference. The NIST standard will allow pre-launch calibration of radiometers across a broad range of remote sensing pertinent frequencies between 18 GHz and 220 GHz. The blackbody will be capable of reaching temperatures ranging between liquid nitrogen boiling at approximately 77 K and warm-target temperature of 350 K. The brightness temperature of the source has associated standard uncertainty ranging as a function of frequency between 0.084 K and 0.111 K. The standard can be transferred to the calibration source in the instrument, providing traceability of all subsequent measurements back to the primary standard. The development of the NIST standard source involved predicting and measuring its brightness temperature, and minimizing the associated uncertainty of this quantity. Uniform and constant physical temperature along with well characterized and

  9. Traceability from governmental producers of radiopharmaceuticals in measuring (18)F in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, A E; Iwahara, A; Silva, C J; Cruz, P A L; Poledna, R; Silva, R L; Laranjeira, A S; Delgado, J U; Tauhata, L; Loureiro, J S; Toledo, B C; Braghirolli, A M S; Andrade, E A L; Silva, J L; Hernandes, H O K; Valente, E S; Dalle, H M; Almeida, V M; Silva, T G; Fragoso, M C F; Oliveira, M L; Nascimento, E S S; Oliveira, E M; Herrerias, R; Souza, A A; Bambalas, E; Bruzinga, W A

    2016-03-01

    Since the inception of its proficiency test program to evaluate radionuclide measurement in hospitals and clinics, the National Metrology Laboratory of Ionizing Radiation-LNMRI, that represents Brazilian National Metrology Institute (NMI) for ionizing radiation has expanded its measurement and calibration capability. Requirements from the National Health Surveillance Agency from Ministry of Health (ANVISA), to producers of radiopharmaceuticals provided an opportunity to improve the full traceability chain to the highest level. Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-(18)F) is the only radiopharmaceutical simultaneously produced by all Brazilian radiopharmaceutical production centers (RPCs). By running this proficiency test, LNMRI began to provide them with the required traceability. For evaluation, the ratio of RPC to reference value results and ISO/IEC17043:2010 criteria were used. The reference value established as calibration factor on the secondary standard ionization chamber was obtained from three absolute measurements systems, and routinely confirmed in each round of proficiency test by CIEMAT/NIST liquid scintillation counting. The γ-emitting impurities were checked using a High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector. The results show that Brazilian RPCs are in accordance with (accuracy within ±10%) the Brazilian standard for evaluation of measurements with radionuclide calibrators (CNEN NN 3.05., 2013). Nevertheless, the RPCs should improve the methodology of uncertainty estimates, essential when using the statistical criteria of ISO/IEC 17043 standard, in addition to improving accuracy to levels consistent with their position in the national traceability chain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Waste collection multi objective model with real time traceability data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faccio, Maurizio; Persona, Alessandro; Zanin, Giorgia

    2011-12-01

    Waste collection is a highly visible municipal service that involves large expenditures and difficult operational problems, plus it is expensive to operate in terms of investment costs (i.e. vehicles fleet), operational costs (i.e. fuel, maintenances) and environmental costs (i.e. emissions, noise and traffic congestions). Modern traceability devices, like volumetric sensors, identification RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) systems, GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) and GPS (Global Positioning System) technology, permit to obtain data in real time, which is fundamental to implement an efficient and innovative waste collection routing model. The basic idea is that knowing the real time data of each vehicle and the real time replenishment level at each bin makes it possible to decide, in function of the waste generation pattern, what bin should be emptied and what should not, optimizing different aspects like the total covered distance, the necessary number of vehicles and the environmental impact. This paper describes a framework about the traceability technology available in the optimization of solid waste collection, and introduces an innovative vehicle routing model integrated with the real time traceability data, starting the application in an Italian city of about 100,000 inhabitants. The model is tested and validated using simulation and an economical feasibility study is reported at the end of the paper. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. RFID Data Loggers in Fish Supply Chain Traceability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Trebar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Radio frequency identification (RFID is an innovative and well-recognized technology that supports all kinds of traceability systems in many areas. It becomes very important in the food industry where the electronic systems are used to capture the data in the supply chain. Additionally, RFID data loggers with sensors are available to perform a cold chain optimization for perishable foods. This paper presents the temperature monitoring solution at the box level in the fish supply chain as part of the traceability system implemented with RFID technology. RFID data loggers are placed inside the box to measure the temperature of the product and on the box for measuring ambient temperature. The results show that the system is very helpful during the phases of storage and transportation of fish to provide the quality control. The sensor data is available immediately at the delivery to be checked on the mobile RFID reader and afterwards stored in the traceability systems database to be presented on a web to stakeholders and private consumers.

  12. Examination of quantitative accuracy of PIXE analysis for atmospheric aerosol particle samples. PIXE analysis of NIST air particulate on filter media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitoh, Katsumi; Sera, Koichiro

    2005-01-01

    In order to confirm accuracy of the direct analysis of filter samples containing atmospheric aerosol particles collected on a polycarbonate membrane filter by PIXE, we carried out PIXE analysis on a National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, USA) air particulate on filter media (SRM 2783). For 16 elements with NIST certified values determined by PIXE analysis - Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb - quantitative values were 80-110% relative to NIST certified values except for Na, Al, Si and Ni. Quantitative values of Na, Al and Si were 140-170% relative to NIST certified values, which were all high, and Ni was 64%. One possible reason why the quantitative values of Na, Al and Si were higher than the NIST certified values could be the difference in the X-ray spectrum analysis method used. (author)

  13. Improving food safety in the supply chain: Integrating traceability in production and distribution planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunow, Martin; Rong, Aiying; Akkerman, Renzo

    2008-01-01

    with traceability from the viewpoint of information system development and technology development such as radio frequency identification (RFID) and DNA-based techniques. However, traceability and its implications for food safety are thus far not incorporated in the standard operations management literature......After a number of food safety crises, the design and implementation of traceability systems became an important focus of the food industry. As a result, food product traceability ranks high on senior management agendas for supply chain activities. In the literature, numerous studies deal...... on production and distribution planning. Here, we develop a methodology for production and distribution planning in food supply chains which minimizes production and logistics costs and at the same time reduces food safety concerns, limits the size of potential recalls, and satisfies product quality...

  14. Traceability and change in legal requirements engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, A.; van Engers, T.; Winkels, R.

    2010-01-01

    While isomorphism of knowledge representation has been recognized as important, particularly to maintenance in legal knowledge representation, the requirements of the maintenance process in general get less attention. Traceability from knowledge resources used in the organization to the sources of

  15. Design of a Distributed Food Traceability Platform and Its Application in Food Traceability at Guangdong Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Haibiao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Food traceability is an important measure to secure food safety. This paper designed a food traceability platform based on distribution framework and implemented it in Guangdong province. The platform can provide traceability service, production and management service for food enterprise, provide forward and backward traceability of the whole cycle of food production and circulation, and provide various methods of food traceability for public. One characteristic of the platform is that it opens up the data flow among production, circulation and supervising departments, and builds a unified commodity circulation data pool. Based on the flow data pool, not only the production and circulation information of the food product can be traced, but also its inspection and quarantine information. Another characteristic of the platform is that its database and data interface were developed based on the fool electronic traceability standards formulated by the National Food and Drug Administration. Its interface standardization and compatibility with other food traceability platforms can thus be guaranteed. The platform is running at Guangdong province for key supervising products of Infant formula foods (including milk powder, rice flour, farina, etc, editable oil and liquor. The public can use the Guangdong food traceability portal, mobile APP, Wechat or the self-service terminals in the supermarkets to trace food products by scanning or input its traceability code or its product code and verify its authenticity. It will help to promote consumer confidence in food safety.

  16. Mutton Traceability Method Based on Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Min-Ning

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the mutton traceability efficiency for Internet of Things and solve the problem of data transmission, analyzed existing tracking algorithm, proposed the food traceability application model, Petri network model of food traceability and food traceability of time series data of improved K-means algorithm based on the Internet of things. The food traceability application model to convert, integrate and mine the heterogeneous information, implementation of the food safety traceability information management, Petri network model for food traceability in the process of the state transition were analyzed and simulated and provides a theoretical basis to study the behavior described in the food traceability system and structural design. The experiments on simulation data show that the proposed traceability method based on Internet of Things is more effective for mutton traceability data than the traditional K-means methods.

  17. Ethical traceability in the bacon supply chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thorkild; Kristensen, Niels Heine

    2008-01-01

    The chapter describes how Danish consumers feel a need for more information about bacon production practices,especially about some of the invisible attributes, such as origin, use of medicine and animal welfare, even though there is a long tradition for highly developed traceability systems. Trac....... Traceability is reactive in this chain and is not intended to transmit information on the safety, production practices or quality of the final product proactively downstream to firms or end consumers....

  18. Traceability and uncertainty estimation in coordinate metrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Savio, Enrico; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2001-01-01

    National and international standards have defined performance verification procedures for coordinate measuring machines (CMMs) that typically involve their ability to measure calibrated lengths and to a certain extent form. It is recognised that, without further analysis or testing, these results...... are required. Depending on the requirements for uncertainty level, different approaches may be adopted to achieve traceability. Especially in the case of complex measurement situations and workpieces the procedures are not trivial. This paper discusses the establishment of traceability in coordinate metrology...

  19. A traceability system for food safety and quality of Shanghai Cangqiao pear:a geographical indicational product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GU Chenrong

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Food traceability system is one of the important means of food safety regulation,and its core functions include recording and transfer and inquiry of the traceability information.A traceability system was established based on the two-dimensional bar code technology in this article.This system was built base on the Shanghai Cangqiao pear case.Considering of the ″Geographical indication protection regulations″ and basing on the Local-GAP,2013,we established the traceability information collection points.Through the four parts study on the production process field investigation,traceable process design,database structures and tracing system platform establishment,the system can offer the consumers a quickly way to check product safety information.At the same time,some public comments on the orchard database are also included in the system,which can push important data to the regulators and relevant enterprises for improving their management efficiency.

  20. Traceability of biologicals: present challenges in pharmacovigilance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, Niels S; Spierings, Irina; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K; Straus, Sabine M J M; Giezen, Thijs J; Leufkens, Hubert G M; Egberts, Toine C G; De Bruin, Marie L

    2015-01-01

    Traceability is important in the postmarketing surveillance of biologicals, since changes in the manufacturing process may give rise to product- or batch-specific risks. With the expected expansion of the biosimilar market, there have been concerns about the ability to trace individual products within pharmacovigilance databases. The authors discuss the present challenges in the traceability of biologicals in relation to pharmacovigilance, by exploring the processes involved in ensuring traceability. They explore both the existing systems that are in place for the recording of exposure information in clinical practice, as well as the critical steps involved in the transfer of exposure data to various pharmacovigilance databases. The existing systems ensure the traceability of biologicals down to the manufacturer within pharmacy records, but do not support the routine recording of batch information. Expected changes in supply chain standards provide opportunities to systematically record detailed exposure information. Spontaneous reporting systems are the most vulnerable link in ensuring traceability, due to the manual nature of data transfer. Efforts to improve the traceability should, in the short term, be focused toward encouraging health professionals and patients to systematically record and report detailed exposure information. Long-term solutions lie in expanding the accessibility to, and increasing the electronic exchange of exposure data.

  1. Wine Traceability: A Data Model and Prototype in Albanian Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukatana, Kreshnik; Sevrani, Kozeta; Hoxha, Elira

    2016-02-17

    Vine traceability is a critical issue that has gained interest internationally. Quality control programs and schemes are mandatory in many countries including EU members and the USA. Albania has transformed most of the EU regulations on food into laws. Regarding the vine sector, the obligation of wine producers to keep traceability data is part of the legislation. The analysis on the interviews conducted with Albanian winemakers show that these data are actually recorded only in hard copy. Another fact that emerges from the interviews is that only two producers have implemented the ISO (International Organization for Standardization) standards on food. The purpose of this paper is to develop an agile and automated traceability system based on these standards. We propose a data model and system prototype that are described in the second and third section of this work. The data model is an adaption along the lines of the GS1 (Global Standards One) specifications for a wine supply chain. The proposed prototype has a key component that is mobile access to the information about wine through barcode technology. By using this mechanism the consumer obtains transparency on his expectations concerning the quality criteria. Another important component of the proposed system in this paper is a real-time notification module that works as an alert system when a risk is identified. This can help producers and authorities to have a rapid identification of a contaminated product. It is important in cases when recalling the product from the market or preventing it from reaching the consumer.

  2. Modeling traceability information and functionality requirement in export-oriented tilapia chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoshuan; Feng, Jianying; Xu, Mark; Hu, Jinyou

    2011-05-01

    Tilapia has been named as the 'food fish of the 21st century' and has become the most important farmed fish. China is the world leader in tilapia production and export. Identifying information and functional requirements is critical in developing an efficient traceability system because traceability has become a fundamental prerequisite for exporting aquaculture products. This paper examines the export-oriented tilapia chains and information flow in the chains, and identifies the key actors, information requirements and information-capturing points. Unified Modeling Language (UML) technology is adopted to describe the information and functionality requirement for chain traceability. The barriers of traceability system adoption are also identified. The results show that the traceability data consist of four categories that must be recorded by each link in the chain. The functionality requirement is classified into four categories from the fundamental information record to decisive quality control; the top three barriers to the traceability system adoption are: high costs of implementing the system, lack of experienced and professional staff; and low level of government involvement and support. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Method development in quantitative NMR towards metrologically traceable organic certified reference materials used as (31)P qNMR standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Michael; Hellriegel, Christine; Rueck, Alexander; Wuethrich, Juerg; Jenks, Peter; Obkircher, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (qNMR) spectroscopy is employed by an increasing number of analytical and industrial laboratories for the assignment of content and quantitative determination of impurities. Within the last few years, it was demonstrated that (1)H qNMR can be performed with high accuracy leading to measurement uncertainties below 1 % relative. It was even demonstrated that the combination of (1)H qNMR with metrological weighing can lead to measurement uncertainties below 0.1 % when highly pure substances are used. Although qNMR reference standards are already available as certified reference materials (CRM) providing traceability on the basis of (1)H qNMR experiments, there is an increasing demand for purity assays on phosphorylated organic compounds and metabolites requiring CRM for quantification by (31)P qNMR. Unfortunately, the number of available primary phosphorus standards is limited to a few inorganic CRM which only can be used for the analysis of water-soluble analytes but fail when organic solvents must be employed. This paper presents the concept of value assignment by (31)P qNMR measurements for the development of CRM and describes different approaches to establish traceability to primary Standard Reference Material from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST SRM). Phosphonoacetic acid is analyzed as a water-soluble CRM candidate, whereas triphenyl phosphate is a good candidate for the use as qNMR reference material in organic solvents. These substances contain both nuclei, (1)H and (31)P, and the concept is to show that it is possible to indirectly quantify a potential phosphorus standard via its protons using (1)H qNMR. The same standard with its assigned purity can then be used for the quantification of an analyte via its phosphorus using (31)P qNMR. For the validation of the concept, triphenyl phosphate and phosphonoacetic acid have been used as (31)P qNMR standards to determine the purity of the analyte

  4. Species specific isotope dilution for the accurate and SI traceable determination of arsenobetaine and methylmercury in cuttlefish and prawn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumkrong, Paramee; Thiensong, Benjaporn; Le, Phuong Mai; McRae, Garnet; Windust, Anthony; Deawtong, Suladda; Meija, Juris; Maxwell, Paulette; Yang, Lu; Mester, Zoltán

    2016-11-02

    Methods based on species specific isotope dilution were developed for the accurate and SI traceable determination of arsenobetaine (AsBet) and methylmercury (MeHg) in prawn and cuttlefish tissues by LC-MS/MS and SPME GC-ICPMS. Quantitation of AsBet and MeHg were achieved by using a 13 C-enriched AsBet spike (NRC CRM CBET-1) and an enriched spike of Me 198 Hg (NRC CRM EMMS-1), respectively, wherein analyte mass fractions in enriched spikes were determined by reverse isotope dilution using natural abundance AsBet and MeHg primary standards. Purity of these primary standards were characterized by quantitative 1 H-NMR with the use of NIST SRM 350b benzoic acid as a primary calibrator, ensuring the final measurement results traceable to SI. Validation of employed methods of ID LC-MS/MS and ID SPME GC-ICPMS was demonstrated by analysis of several biological CRMs (DORM-4, TORT-3, DOLT-5, BCR-627 and BCR-463) with satisfying results. The developed methods were applied for the determination of AsBet and MeHg in two new certified reference materials (CRMs) prawn (PRON-1) and cuttlefish (SQID-1) produced jointly by Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research (TISTR) and National Research Council Canada (NRC). With additional measurements of AsBet using LC-ICPMS with standard additions calibration and external calibration at NRC and TISTR, respectively, certified values of 1.206 ± 0.058 and 13.96 ± 0.54 mg kg -1 for AsBet as As (expanded uncertainty, k = 2) were obtained for the new CRMs PRON-1 and SQID-1, respectively. The reference value of 0.324 ± 0.028 mg kg -1 as Hg (expanded uncertainty, k = 2) for MeHg was obtained for the SQID-1 based on the results obtained by ID SPME GC-ICPMS method only, whereas MeHg in PRON-1 was found to be < 0.015 mg kg -1 . It was found that AsBet comprised 69.7% and 99.0% of total As in the prawn and cuttlefish, respectively, whereas MeHg comprised 94.5% of total Hg in cuttlefish. Crown Copyright © 2016

  5. Using NIST Crystal Data Within Siemens Software for Four-Circle and SMART CCD Diffractometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byram, Susan K.; Campana, Charles F.; Fait, James; Sparks, Robert A.

    1996-01-01

    NIST Crystal Data developed at The National Institute for Standards and Technology has been incorporated with Siemens single crystal software for data collection on four-circle and two-dimensional CCD diffractometers. Why this database is useful in the process of single crystal structure determination, and how the database is searched, are described. Ideas for future access to this and other databases are presented. PMID:27805166

  6. Updated uncertainty budgets for NIST thermocouple calibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, C. W.; Garrity, K. M.

    2013-09-01

    We have recently updated the uncertainty budgets for calibrations in the NIST Thermocouple Calibration Laboratory. The purpose for the updates has been to 1) revise the estimated values of the relevant uncertainty elements to reflect the current calibration facilities and methods, 2) provide uncertainty budgets for every standard calibration service offered, and 3) make the uncertainty budgets more understandable to customers by expressing all uncertainties in units of temperature (°C) rather than emf. We have updated the uncertainty budgets for fixed-point calibrations of type S, R, and B thermocouples and comparison calibrations of type R and S thermocouples using a type S reference standard. In addition, we have constructed new uncertainty budgets for comparison calibrations of type B thermocouples using a type B reference standard as well as using both a type S and type B reference standard (for calibration over a larger range). We have updated the uncertainty budgets for comparison calibrations of base-metal thermocouples using a type S reference standard and alternately using a standard platinum resistance thermometer reference standard. Finally, we have constructed new uncertainty budgets for comparison tests of noble-metal and base-metal thermoelements using a type S reference standard. A description of these updates is presented in this paper.

  7. NIST-Traceable NMR Method to Determine Quantitative Weight Percentage Purity of Nitrogen Mustard HN-1 Feedstock Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Aldrich), Part Number 74658- 5G , CAS No. 95-93-2, as a TraceCERT® certified reference material (CRM) standard for quantitative NMR. The...If the integration is incorrect, the spectrum can be manually integrated. In particular, Figure 2 shows that each peak has two 13C satellite peaks...0.55% of the center peak. The satellite peaks should be included in the integration of the central peak. (If the magnet is not well shimmed, the

  8. NIST-Traceable NMR Method to Determine Quantitative Weight Percentage Purity of Nitrogen Mustard HN-3 Feedstock Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    The internal standard was 1,2,4,5-tetramethylbenzene, purchased from Fluka (Sigma Aldrich), Part Number 74658- 5G , CAS No. 95-93-2, as a...integration is incorrect, the spectrum can be manually integrated. In particular, Figure 2 shows that each peak has two 13 C satellite peaks on each...center peak. The satellite peaks should be included in the integration of the central peak. (If the magnet is not well shimmed, the satellite peaks

  9. Traceability of optical roughness measurements on polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Gasparin, Stefania; Carli, Lorenzo

    2008-01-01

    -focus instrument, and a confocal microscope. Using stylus measurements as reference, parameter settings on the optical instruments were optimised and residual noise reduced by low pass filtering. Traceability of optical measurements could be established with expanded measuring uncertainties (k=2) of 4......An experimental investigation on surface roughness measurements on plastics was carried out with the objective of developing a methodology to achieve traceability of optical instruments. A ground steel surface and its replicas were measured using a stylus instrument, an optical auto......% for the auto-focus instrument and 10% for confocal microscope....

  10. The NIST Simple Guide for Evaluating and Expressing Measurement Uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Possolo, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    NIST has recently published guidance on the evaluation and expression of the uncertainty of NIST measurement results [1, 2], supplementing but not replacing B. N. Taylor and C. E. Kuyatt's (1994) Guidelines for Evaluating and Expressing the Uncertainty of NIST Measurement Results (NIST Technical Note 1297) [3], which tracks closely the Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM) [4], originally published in 1995 by the Joint Committee for Guides in Metrology of the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM). The scope of this Simple Guide , however, is much broader than the scope of both NIST Technical Note 1297 and the GUM, because it attempts to address several of the uncertainty evaluation challenges that have arisen at NIST since the 1990s, for example to include molecular biology, greenhouse gases and climate science measurements, and forensic science. The Simple Guide also expands the scope of those two other guidance documents by recognizing observation equations (that is, statistical models) as bona fide measurement models. These models are indispensable to reduce data from interlaboratory studies, to combine measurement results for the same measurand obtained by different methods, and to characterize the uncertainty of calibration and analysis functions used in the measurement of force, temperature, or composition of gas mixtures. This presentation reviews the salient aspects of the Simple Guide , illustrates the use of models and methods for uncertainty evaluation not contemplated in the GUM, and also demonstrates the NIST Uncertainty Machine [5] and the NIST Consensus Builder , which are web-based applications accessible worldwide that facilitate evaluations of measurement uncertainty and the characterization of consensus values in interlaboratory studies. (paper)

  11. 76 FR 67418 - Request for Comments on NIST Special Publication 500-293, US Government Cloud Computing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ...-1659-01] Request for Comments on NIST Special Publication 500-293, US Government Cloud Computing... Publication 500-293, US Government Cloud Computing Technology Roadmap, Release 1.0 (Draft). This document is... (USG) agencies to accelerate their adoption of cloud computing. The roadmap has been developed through...

  12. Macromolecular Crystallography and Structural Biology Databases at NIST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, G L

    2001-01-01

    In the late 1970s, macromolecular crystallography at NIST began with collaboration between NIST and NIH to establish a single-crystal neutron diffractometer. This instrument was constructed and employed to solve a number of crystal structures: bovine ribonuclease A, bovine-ribonuclease-uridine vanadate complex, and porcine insulin. In the mid 1980s a Biomolecular Structure Group was created establishing NIST capabilities in biomolecular singe-crystal x-ray diffraction. The group worked on a variety of structural problems until joining the NIST/UMBI Center for Advanced Research in Biotechnology (CARB) in 1987. Crystallographic studies at CARB were then focused on protein engineering efforts that included among others chymosin, subtilisin BPN', interleukin 1β, and glutathione S-transferase. Recently, the structural biology efforts have centered on enzymes in the chorismate metabolic pathways involved in amino acid biosynthesis and in structural genomics that involves determining the structures of "hypothetical" proteins to aid in assigning function. In addition to crystallographic studies, structural biology database activities began with the formal establishment of the Biological Macro-molecule Crystallization Database in 1989. Later, in 1997, NIST in partnership with Rutgers and UCSD formed the Research Collaboratory for Structural Bioinformatics that successfully acquired the Protein Data Bank. The NIST efforts in these activities have focused on data uniformity, establishing and maintaining the physical archive, and working with the NMR community.

  13. Can LSI help reconstructing requirements traceability in design and test?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lormans, M.; Van Deursen, A.

    2006-01-01

    Managing traceability data is an important aspect of the software development process. In this paper we investigate to what extent latent semantic indexing (LSI), an information retrieval technique, can help recovering the information needed for automatically reconstructing traceability during the

  14. Visualizing and Validating Metadata Traceability within the CDISC Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, Sam; Sarnikar, Surendra; Becnel, Lauren; Bennett, Dorine

    2017-01-01

    The Food & Drug Administration has begun requiring that electronic submissions of regulated clinical studies utilize the Clinical Data Information Standards Consortium data standards. Within regulated clinical research, traceability is a requirement and indicates that the analysis results can be traced back to the original source data. Current solutions for clinical research data traceability are limited in terms of querying, validation and visualization capabilities. This paper describes (1) the development of metadata models to support computable traceability and traceability visualizations that are compatible with industry data standards for the regulated clinical research domain, (2) adaptation of graph traversal algorithms to make them capable of identifying traceability gaps and validating traceability across the clinical research data lifecycle, and (3) development of a traceability query capability for retrieval and visualization of traceability information. PMID:28815125

  15. Deciding to Adopt Requirements Traceability in Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauboer, F.A.; Blaauboer, Floris; Sikkel, Nicolaas; Aydin, M.N.

    2007-01-01

    The use of requirements traceability for information systems development (ISD) projects is not very common in practice despite its often mentioned advantages in the literature. We conducted a case study in a large IT company to identify the factors that are relevant for the decision whether or not

  16. 75 FR 33576 - Animal Traceability; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    ...: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: This is a notice to inform the public of upcoming meetings in Salt... Bryce Ballroom, Sheraton Salt Lake City Hotel, 150 West 500 South, Salt Lake City, UT 84101. The public... Manager, Animal Disease Traceability, VS, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 46, Riverdale, MD 20737-1231; (301...

  17. Metrological traceability of holmium oxide solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, D. E. F.; Gomes, J. F. S.; Alvarenga, A. P. D.; Borges, P. P.; Araujo, T. O.

    2018-03-01

    Holmium oxide solution was prepared as a candidate of certified reference material for spectrophotometer wavelength scale calibration. Here is presented the necessary steps for evaluation of the uncertainty and the establishment of metrological traceability for the production of this material. Preliminary results from the first produced batch are shown.

  18. Traceability of On-Machine Tool Measurement: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unai Mutilba

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, errors during the manufacturing process of high value components are not acceptable in driving industries such as energy and transportation. Sectors such as aerospace, automotive, shipbuilding, nuclear power, large science facilities or wind power need complex and accurate components that demand close measurements and fast feedback into their manufacturing processes. New measuring technologies are already available in machine tools, including integrated touch probes and fast interface capabilities. They provide the possibility to measure the workpiece in-machine during or after its manufacture, maintaining the original setup of the workpiece and avoiding the manufacturing process from being interrupted to transport the workpiece to a measuring position. However, the traceability of the measurement process on a machine tool is not ensured yet and measurement data is still not fully reliable enough for process control or product validation. The scientific objective is to determine the uncertainty on a machine tool measurement and, therefore, convert it into a machine integrated traceable measuring process. For that purpose, an error budget should consider error sources such as the machine tools, components under measurement and the interactions between both of them. This paper reviews all those uncertainty sources, being mainly focused on those related to the machine tool, either on the process of geometric error assessment of the machine or on the technology employed to probe the measurand.

  19. Traceability of On-Machine Tool Measurement: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutilba, Unai; Gomez-Acedo, Eneko; Kortaberria, Gorka; Olarra, Aitor; Yagüe-Fabra, Jose A

    2017-07-11

    Nowadays, errors during the manufacturing process of high value components are not acceptable in driving industries such as energy and transportation. Sectors such as aerospace, automotive, shipbuilding, nuclear power, large science facilities or wind power need complex and accurate components that demand close measurements and fast feedback into their manufacturing processes. New measuring technologies are already available in machine tools, including integrated touch probes and fast interface capabilities. They provide the possibility to measure the workpiece in-machine during or after its manufacture, maintaining the original setup of the workpiece and avoiding the manufacturing process from being interrupted to transport the workpiece to a measuring position. However, the traceability of the measurement process on a machine tool is not ensured yet and measurement data is still not fully reliable enough for process control or product validation. The scientific objective is to determine the uncertainty on a machine tool measurement and, therefore, convert it into a machine integrated traceable measuring process. For that purpose, an error budget should consider error sources such as the machine tools, components under measurement and the interactions between both of them. This paper reviews all those uncertainty sources, being mainly focused on those related to the machine tool, either on the process of geometric error assessment of the machine or on the technology employed to probe the measurand.

  20. Rollout Strategy to Implement Interoperable Traceability in the Seafood Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooch, Martin; Dent, Benjamin; Sylvia, Gilbert; Cusack, Christopher

    2017-08-01

    Verifying the accuracy and rigor of data exchanged within and between businesses for the purposes of traceability rests on the existence of effective and efficient interoperable information systems that meet users' needs. Interoperability, particularly given the complexities intrinsic to the seafood industry, requires that the systems used by businesses operating along the supply chain share a common technology architecture that is robust, resilient, and evolves as industry needs change. Technology architectures are developed through engaging industry stakeholders in understanding why an architecture is required, the benefits provided to the industry and individual businesses and supply chains, and how the architecture will translate into practical results. This article begins by reiterating the benefits that the global seafood industry can capture by implementing interoperable chain-length traceability and the reason for basing the architecture on a peer-to-peer networked database concept versus more traditional centralized or linear approaches. A summary of capabilities that already exist within the seafood industry that the proposed architecture uses is discussed; and a strategy for implementing the architecture is presented. The 6-step strategy is presented in the form of a critical path. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  1. Working Environment and Software Configuration Management Assimiliation using Traceability Enhancement Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, H.; Javed, A.; Majeed, M. N.

    2015-01-01

    Software Configuration Management (SCM) Systems are very useful in coordinating group effort in large and complex software systems. As a result of change in user requirement, market needs, tools, technology or new business goals emanate out, changes are continuously induced while developing the software product. For change management, Traceability technique and SCM are two prominent practices in the software development process. SCM helps in managing configuration items while traceability helps in tracing the knowledge about the configuration items. In this paper we propose a model of the SCM system with the working environment when changes are introduced in multiple artifacts and by which high quality products are developed. (author)

  2. Wine Traceability: A Data Model and Prototype in Albanian Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreshnik Vukatana

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Vine traceability is a critical issue that has gained interest internationally. Quality control programs and schemes are mandatory in many countries including EU members and the USA. Albania has transformed most of the EU regulations on food into laws. Regarding the vine sector, the obligation of wine producers to keep traceability data is part of the legislation. The analysis on the interviews conducted with Albanian winemakers show that these data are actually recorded only in hard copy. Another fact that emerges from the interviews is that only two producers have implemented the ISO (International Organization for Standardization standards on food. The purpose of this paper is to develop an agile and automated traceability system based on these standards. We propose a data model and system prototype that are described in the second and third section of this work. The data model is an adaption along the lines of the GS1 (Global Standards One specifications for a wine supply chain. The proposed prototype has a key component that is mobile access to the information about wine through barcode technology. By using this mechanism the consumer obtains transparency on his expectations concerning the quality criteria. Another important component of the proposed system in this paper is a real-time notification module that works as an alert system when a risk is identified. This can help producers and authorities to have a rapid identification of a contaminated product. It is important in cases when recalling the product from the market or preventing it from reaching the consumer.

  3. Reference materials and measurement traceability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingham, C.D.

    1980-01-01

    Nuclear materials safeguards within the U.S.A. are accomplished by the integration of activities involving physical protection, material control and material accountability. Material accountability requires both sound measurement technology and well-defined accounting procedures to provide final evidence that physical protection and materials control have achieved their purpose. 5 refs

  4. Towards traceable size determination of extracellular vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Zoltán; Yuana, Yuana; Grootemaat, Anita E; van der Pol, Edwin; Gollwitzer, Christian; Krumrey, Michael; Nieuwland, Rienk

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have clinical importance due to their roles in a wide range of biological processes. The detection and characterization of EVs are challenging because of their small size, low refractive index, and heterogeneity. In this manuscript, the size distribution of an erythrocyte-derived EV sample is determined using state-of-the-art techniques such as nanoparticle tracking analysis, resistive pulse sensing, and electron microscopy, and novel techniques in the field, such as small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and size exclusion chromatography coupled with dynamic light scattering detection. The mode values of the size distributions of the studied erythrocyte EVs reported by the different methods show only small deviations around 130 nm, but there are differences in the widths of the size distributions. SAXS is a promising technique with respect to traceability, as this technique was already applied for traceable size determination of solid nanoparticles in suspension. To reach the traceable measurement of EVs, monodisperse and highly concentrated samples are required.

  5. Towards traceable size determination of extracellular vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Varga

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extracellular vesicles (EVs have clinical importance due to their roles in a wide range of biological processes. The detection and characterization of EVs are challenging because of their small size, low refractive index, and heterogeneity. Methods: In this manuscript, the size distribution of an erythrocyte-derived EV sample is determined using state-of-the-art techniques such as nanoparticle tracking analysis, resistive pulse sensing, and electron microscopy, and novel techniques in the field, such as small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS and size exclusion chromatography coupled with dynamic light scattering detection. Results: The mode values of the size distributions of the studied erythrocyte EVs reported by the different methods show only small deviations around 130 nm, but there are differences in the widths of the size distributions. Conclusion: SAXS is a promising technique with respect to traceability, as this technique was already applied for traceable size determination of solid nanoparticles in suspension. To reach the traceable measurement of EVs, monodisperse and highly concentrated samples are required.

  6. Blockchain protocols in clinical trials: Transparency and traceability of consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchoufi, Mehdi; Porcher, Raphael; Ravaud, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Clinical trial consent for protocols and their revisions should be transparent for patients and traceable for stakeholders. Our goal is to implement a process allowing for collection of patients' informed consent, which is bound to protocol revisions, storing and tracking the consent in a secure, unfalsifiable and publicly verifiable way, and enabling the sharing of this information in real time. For that, we build a consent workflow using a trending technology called Blockchain. This is a distributed technology that brings a built-in layer of transparency and traceability. From a more general and prospective point of view, we believe Blockchain technology brings a paradigmatical shift to the entire clinical research field. We designed a Proof-of-Concept protocol consisting of time-stamping each step of the patient's consent collection using Blockchain, thus archiving and historicising the consent through cryptographic validation in a securely unfalsifiable and transparent way. For each protocol revision, consent was sought again.  We obtained a single document, in an open format, that accounted for the whole consent collection process: a time-stamped consent status regarding each version of the protocol. This document cannot be corrupted and can be checked on any dedicated public website. It should be considered a robust proof of data. However, in a live clinical trial, the authentication system should be strengthened to remove the need for third parties, here trial stakeholders, and give participative control to the peer users. In the future, the complex data flow of a clinical trial could be tracked by using Blockchain, which core functionality, named Smart Contract, could help prevent clinical trial events not occurring in the correct chronological order, for example including patients before they consented or analysing case report form data before freezing the database. Globally, Blockchain could help with reliability, security, transparency and could be a

  7. Comparison Between NIST and AF Laser Energy Standards Using High Power Lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyu; Scott Retired, Thomas; Cromer, Chris; Cooper, David; Comisford, Steven

    2007-01-01

    We report the results of a high-energy laser calorimeter comparison conducted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, Colorado and the U.S. Air Force Primary Standards laboratory (AFPSL), Heath, Ohio. A laser power meter, used as a transfer standard, was calibrated at each laboratory, sequentially, and the measurement results were compared. These measurements were performed at a nominal power of 800 W and a wavelength of 10.6 μm using CO2 lasers. Excellent measurement agreement (1.02 %) was demonstrated, which was well within each of the expanded uncertainties from the two laboratories involved in this comparison.

  8. Speaker adaptation in the NIST Speaker Recognition Evaluation 2004

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, D.A. van

    2005-01-01

    New in the 2004 edition of the NIST Speaker Recognition Evaluation (SRE) was the condition where unsupervised adaptation of speaker models is allowed. Despite the promising results on development test material, hardly any beneficial results were obtained in the Evaluation itself. An analysis is made

  9. Augmented halal food traceability system: analysis and design using UML

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Y. V.; Fauzi, A. M.; Irawadi, T. T.; Djatna, T.

    2018-04-01

    Augmented halal food traceability is expanding the range of halal traceability in food supply chain where currently only available for tracing from the source of raw material to the industrial warehouse or inbound logistic. The halal traceability system must be developed in the integrated form that includes inbound and outbound logistics. The objective of this study was to develop a reliable initial model of integrated traceability system of halal food supply chain. The method was based on unified modeling language (UML) such as use case, sequence, and business process diagram. A goal programming model was formulated considering two objective functions which include (1) minimization of risk of halal traceability failures happened potentially during outbound logistics activities and (2) maximization of quality of halal product information. The result indicates the supply of material is the most important point to be considered in minimizing the risk of failure of halal food traceability system whereas no risk observed in manufacturing and distribution.

  10. A traceability process assessment model for the medical device domain

    OpenAIRE

    Regan, Gilbert; Biro, Miklos; Mc Caffery, Fergal; McDaid, Kevin; Flood, Derek

    2014-01-01

    peer-reviewed Traceability of requirements through the software development lifecycle (including supporting processes such as risk management and change management) is a difficult and expensive task. The implementation of effective traceability allows organizations to leverage its many advantages, such as im-pact analysis, product verification and validation, and facilitation of code maintenance. Traceability is conducive to producing quality software. Within the medical device domain, ...

  11. Resolving traceability issues of product derivation for software product lines

    OpenAIRE

    Abid, Saad bin

    2009-01-01

    peer-reviewed Dealing with traceability management issues during model based product derivation in large complex industrial SPL is error prone due to the lack of tool support. As a result traceability management between connected models emerges as an important research topic. In this position paper, we discuss research challenges as scenarios from developed example product line and give recommendations on resolving traceability issues during product derivation. We also discuss initial idea...

  12. Traceability of radiation measurements: musings of a user

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathren, R.L.

    1980-04-01

    Although users of radiation desire measurement traceability for a number of reasons, including legal, regulatory, contractual, and quality assurance requirements, there exists no real definition of the term in the technical literature. Definitions are proposed for both traceability and traceability to the National Bureau of Standards. The hierarchy of radiation standards is discussed and allowable uncertainties are given for each level. Areas of need with respect to radiation standards are identified, and a system of secondary radiation calibration laboratories is proposed as a means of providing quality calibrations and traceability on a routine basis

  13. Traceability of radiation measurements: musings of a user

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathren, R.L.

    1980-04-01

    Although users of radiation desire measurement traceability for a number of reasons, including legal, regulatory, contractual, and quality assurance requirements, there exists no real definition of the term in the technical literature. Definitions are proposed for both traceability and traceability to the National Bureau of Standards. The hierarchy of radiation standards is discussed and allowable uncertainties are given for each level. Areas of need with respect to radiation standards are identified, and a system of secondary radiation calibration laboratories is proposed as a means of providing quality calibrations and traceability on a routine basis.

  14. The spectral irradiance traceability chain at PTB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sperfeld, P.; Pape, S.; Nevas, S.

    2013-01-01

    Spectral irradiance is a fundamental radiometric unit. Its application to measurement results requires qualified traceability to basic units of the international system of units (Système international d’unités, SI). The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) is amongst other national metrological institutes (NMIs) responsible for the realization, maintenance and dissemination of various radiometric and photometric units based on and traceable to national standards. The unit of spectral irradiance is realized and represented by a blackbody-radiator as the national primary standard of the PTB. Based on Planck’s radiation law, the irradiance is calculated and realized for any wavelength taking into account the exact knowledge of the radiation temperature and the geometrical parameters. Using a double-monochromator-based spectroradiometer system, secondary standard lamps can be calibrated by direct comparison to the blackbody-radiator (substitution method). These secondary standard lamps are then used at the PTB to calibrate standard lamps of customers. The customers themselves use these so-called transfer standards to calibrate their working standard lamps. These working standards are then used to calibrate own spectroradiometers or sources. This rather complex calibration chain is a common procedural method that for the customers generally leads to satisfying measurement results on site. Nevertheless, the standard lamps in use have to fulfill highest requirements concerning stability and reproducibility. Only this allows achieving comparably low transfer measurement uncertainties, which occur at each calibration step. Thus, the PTB is constantly investigating the improvement and further development of transfer standards and measurement methods for various spectral regions. The realization and dissemination of the spectral irradiance using the blackbody-radiator at the PTB is accomplished with worldwide approved minimized measurement uncertainties confirmed

  15. TRACEABILITY OF PRECISION MEASUREMENTS ON COORDINATE MEASURING MACHINES – TRACEABILITY, CALIBRATION AND PERFORMANCE VERIFICATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bariani, Paolo; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Tosello, Guido

    This document is used in connection with an exercise of 1 hour duration as a part of the course VISION ONLINE – One week course on Precision & Nanometrology. The exercise concerns establishment of traceability of measurements with optical coordinate machine by mean of using two different calibrated...

  16. Dissemination of 3D Visualizations of Complex Function Data for the NIST Digital Library of Mathematical Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiming Wang

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST is developing a digital library to replace the widely used National Bureau of Standards Handbook of Mathematical Functions published in 1964. The NIST Digital Library of Mathematical Functions (DLMF will include formulas, methods of computation, references, and links to software for over forty functions. It will be published both in hardcopy format and as a website featuring interactive navigation, a mathematical equation search, 2D graphics, and dynamic interactive 3D visualizations. This paper focuses on the development and accessibility of the 3D visualizations for the digital library. We examine the techniques needed to produce accurate computations of function data, and through a careful evaluation of several prototypes, we address the advantages and disadvantages of using various technologies, including the Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML, interactive embedded graphics, and video capture to render and disseminate the visualizations in an environment accessible to users on various platforms.

  17. Wine Traceability with Rare Earth Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Aceto

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The traceability of foodstuffs is now a relevant aspect of the food market. Scientific research has been devoted to addressing this issue by developing analytical protocols in order to find the link between soil and food items. In this view, chemical parameters that can act as soil markers are being sought. In this work, the role of rare earth elements (REEs as geochemical markers in the traceability of red wine is discussed. The REE distribution in samples from each step of the wine making process of Primitivo wine (produced in Southern Italy was determined using the highly sensitive inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS technique. Samples analyzed include grapes, must, and wine samples after every step in the vinification process. The resulting data were compared to the REE distribution in the soil, revealing that the soil fingerprint is maintained in the intermediate products up to and including grape must. Fractionation occurs thereafter as a consequence of further external interventions, which tends to modify the REE profile.

  18. Method for traceable measurement of LTE signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunder Dash, Soumya; Pythoud, Frederic; Leuchtmann, Pascal; Leuthold, Juerg

    2018-04-01

    This contribution presents a reference setup to measure the power of the cell-specific resource elements present in downlink long term evolution (LTE) signals in a way that the measurements are traceable to the international system of units. This setup can be used to calibrate the LTE code-selective field probes that are used to measure the radiation of base stations for mobile telephony. It can also be used to calibrate LTE signal generators and receivers. The method is based on traceable scope measurements performed directly at the output of a measuring antenna. It implements offline digital signal processing demodulation algorithms that consider the digital down-conversion, timing synchronization, frequency synchronization, phase synchronization and robust LTE cell identification to produce the downlink time-frequency LTE grid. Experimental results on conducted test scenarios, both single-input-single-output and multiple-input-multiple-output antenna configuration, show promising results confirming measurement uncertainties of the order of 0.05 dB with a coverage factor of 2.

  19. Traceability system for radioactivity standards in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hino, Yoshio

    2000-01-01

    The electrotechnical laboratory (ETL) is the one of the largest national research institute, affiliated with the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI). The ETL has a role to maintain the national standards of electricity, acoustics, visible light, ionizing radiation and radioactivity. The primary radioactivity standards have been established in ETL mainly with the 4πβ-γ coincidence method. The liquid scintillation counters and multi-wire proportional counters are also used for pure-beta and surface emission rate standards, respectively. As for the traceability, the primary standard sources are transferred to the Japan Radio Isotope Association (JRIA), and the JRIA measure these sources to calibrate their secondary standard equipments such as high pressurized 4π ionization chambers, high pore Ge and Nal (Tl) gamma spectrometers. The primary sources are also sent to the BIPM and neighboring countries for the intercomparisons to keep the consistency of the national standards. In this paper, these measurement techniques for the primary standardization and transfer system will be introduced, and some results of comparisons for certificate the traceability system will be described. (author)

  20. Traceability system for radioactivity standards in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hino, Yoshio [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-10-01

    The electrotechnical laboratory (ETL) is the one of the largest national research institute, affiliated with the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI). The ETL has a role to maintain the national standards of electricity, acoustics, visible light, ionizing radiation and radioactivity. The primary radioactivity standards have been established in ETL mainly with the 4{pi}{beta}-{gamma} coincidence method. The liquid scintillation counters and multi-wire proportional counters are also used for pure-beta and surface emission rate standards, respectively. As for the traceability, the primary standard sources are transferred to the Japan Radio Isotope Association (JRIA), and the JRIA measure these sources to calibrate their secondary standard equipments such as high pressurized 4{pi} ionization chambers, high pore Ge and Nal (Tl) gamma spectrometers. The primary sources are also sent to the BIPM and neighboring countries for the intercomparisons to keep the consistency of the national standards. In this paper, these measurement techniques for the primary standardization and transfer system will be introduced, and some results of comparisons for certificate the traceability system will be described. (author)

  1. Heavy subgraph pairs for traceability of block-chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Binlong; Li, Binlong; Broersma, Haitze J.; Zhang, Shenggui

    2014-01-01

    A graph is called traceable if it contains a Hamilton path, i.e., a path containing all its vertices. Let G be a graph on n vertices. We say that an induced subgraph of G is o-1-heavy if it contains two nonadjacent vertices which satisfy an Ore-type degree condition for traceability, i.e., with

  2. Characterization of sampling behavior for multielements in NIST SRM 2703

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Donghui; Sun Hongchao; Ni Bangfa; Tian Weizhi; Wang Pingsheng; Liu CunXiong; Zhang Guiying; Xiao Caijin; Zhang Haiqing; Zhao Changjun; Zhang Yuanxun

    2011-01-01

    Sampling behavior of multielements for NIST SRM 2703, a marine sediment, was studied with sample sizes from 1 mg down to ng level by a combination of INAA, PIXE and SRXRF. On 1 mg sample size level, sampling behavior for multielements in NIST SRM 2703 and its parent SRM 2702 were comparatively characterized by using INAA combining with Ingamells model. Results showed that sampling uncertainties for 12 elements of both materials were found to be better than 1%, and those of four other elements in SRM 2703 better than in SRM 2702. At sample sizes not able to be accurately weighed (<1 mg), PIXE and SRXRF were used and the effective sample sizes estimated. Sampling uncertainties for nine elements were found to be better than 1% at sample sizes of tenth mg level, and those for six elements better than 10% on ng levels. (author)

  3. Corrections of the NIST Statistical Test Suite for Randomness

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Song-Ju; Umeno, Ken; Hasegawa, Akio

    2004-01-01

    It is well known that the NIST statistical test suite was used for the evaluation of AES candidate algorithms. We have found that the test setting of Discrete Fourier Transform test and Lempel-Ziv test of this test suite are wrong. We give four corrections of mistakes in the test settings. This suggests that re-evaluation of the test results should be needed.

  4. The liquid hydrogen moderator at the NIST research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Robert E.; Rowe, J. Michael; Kopetka, Paul

    1997-09-01

    In 1995, the NIST research reactor was shut down for a number of modifications, including the replacement of the D 2 O cold neutron source with a liquid hydrogen moderator. When the liquid hydrogen source began operating, the flux of cold neutrons increased by a factor of six over the D 2 O source. The design and operation of the hydrogen source are described, and measurements of its performance are compared with the Monte Carlo simulations used in the design. (auth)

  5. Proceedings of the August 2011 Traceability Research Summit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Tejas; Buckley, Greg; McEntire, Jennifer C

    2013-12-01

    IFT's Traceability Improvement Initiative aims to advance work in the area of food product tracing through several means including hosted events where thought leaders exchange knowledge and ideas. In August 2011, the Initiative, in collaboration with GS1 US, convened a group of 50 product tracing stakeholders, as a follow-on to a successful event the month prior. Representatives conducting pilots or implementation studies in produce, seafood, dairy, and other industries discussed the objectives, challenges and learnings. Some of the learnings from on-going initiatives included the sense that better information management provides a return of investment; data often exist but may not necessarily be appropriately linked through the supply chain; and enhanced product tracing enables better accountability and quality control. Challenges identified in enabling traceability throughout the supply chain were the distribution complexity; the need for training, communication, and collaboration; improving the reliability, quality and security of data captured, stored and shared as well as the importance of standards in data and interoperability of technology. Several approaches to overcoming these challenges were discussed. The first approach incrementally improves upon the current "one up/one down" system by requiring electronic records and tracking internal as well as external critical tracking events. The benefits of this approach are its similarity to existing regulatory requirements and low cost of implementation; resulting in a higher probability of adoption. The major disadvantage to this process is the longer response time required during a trace (back or forward). The second approach is similar to a "pedigree" approach where historical information about the food travels with it through the value chain. A major advantage of this approach is the quickest response time during a trace. Some of the disadvantages of this approach are potential for misuse of data, the volume

  6. Glance traceability – Web system for equipment traceability and radiation monitoring for the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ramos de Azevedo Evora, L H; Pommes, K; Galvão, K K; Maidantchik, C

    2010-01-01

    During the operation, maintenance, and dismantling periods of the ATLAS Experiment, the traceability of all detector equipment must be guaranteed for logistic and safety matters. The running of the Large Hadron Collider will expose the ATLAS detector to radiation. Therefore, CERN must follow specific regulations from both the French and Swiss authorities for equipment removal, transport, repair, and disposal. GLANCE Traceability, implemented in C++ and Java/Java3D, has been developed to fulfill the requirements. The system registers and associates each equipment part to either a functional position in the detector or a zone outside the underground area through a 3D graphical user interface. Radiation control of the equipment is performed using a radiation monitor connected to the system: the local background gets stored and the threshold is automatically calculated. The system classifies the equipment as non radioactive if its radiation dose does not exceed that limit value. History for both location traceabi...

  7. Traceability in Model-Based Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew George

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The growing complexities of software and the demand for shorter time to market are two important challenges that face today’s IT industry. These challenges demand the increase of both productivity and quality of software. Model-based testing is a promising technique for meeting these challenges. Traceability modeling is a key issue and challenge in model-based testing. Relationships between the different models will help to navigate from one model to another, and trace back to the respective requirements and the design model when the test fails. In this paper, we present an approach for bridging the gaps between the different models in model-based testing. We propose relation definition markup language (RDML for defining the relationships between models.

  8. Traceability of biopharmaceuticals in spontaneous reporting systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeer, Niels S; Straus, Sabine M J M; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K

    2013-01-01

    , including spontaneous reporting systems (SRSs), in which reports of ADRs are collected. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the current status of traceability of biopharmaceuticals in the US and the EU up to patient level in SRSs. DESIGN AND SETTING: A cross-sectional study was conducted over......BACKGROUND: Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) of biopharmaceuticals can be batch or product specific, resulting from small differences in the manufacturing process. Detailed exposure information should be readily available in systems for postmarketing safety surveillance of biopharmaceuticals...... the period 2004-2010, including ADR reports from two major SRSs: the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) in the US and EudraVigilance (EV) in the EU. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The availability of batch numbers was determined for biopharmaceuticals, and compared with small molecule drugs...

  9. Rfid Based Traceability System For Sheepbreeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yan; Li, Hui; Zhang, Jian; Fu, Zetian

    As China's meat production is growing, the quality safety of meat food as an important human food sources has increasingly become a major issue which related to the national economy and people's livelihood. Using early warning technique, tracking and tracing techniques and so on in the key link of meat food production in order to fulfill quality control is an important method which can effectively guarantee the food quality and safety. The use of RFID techniques and handhelds can automatically collect information about sheep breeding. Meanwhile this information could be inquired conveniently through Internet. This study uses C/S (Client/Server) model structure, and builds the sheep breeding traceability system based on RFID.

  10. Techniques and methods in nuclear materials traceability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persiani, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    The nonproliferation community is currently addressing concerns that the access to special nuclear materials may increase the illicit trafficking in weapons-usable materials from civil and/or weapons material stores and/or fuel cycles systems. Illicit nuclear traffic usually involves reduced quantities of nuclear materials perhaps as samplings of a potential protracted diversionary flow from sources to users. To counter illicit nuclear transactions requires the development of techniques and methods in nuclear material traceability as an important phase of a broad forensic analysis capability. This report discusses how isotopic signatures and correlation methods were applied to determine the origins of Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) and Plutonium samples reported as illicit trafficking in nuclear materials

  11. Strain and Magnetic-Field Characterization of a Bronze-Route Nb3Sn ITER Wire: Benchmarking of Strain Measurements Facilities at NIST and University of Twente

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheggour, N.; Nijhuis, Arend; Krooshoop, Hendrikus J.G.; Lu, X.F.; Splett, J.; Stauffer, T.C.; Goodrich, L.; Jewell, M.C.; Devred, A.; Nabara, Y.

    2012-01-01

    A benchmarking experiment was conducted to compare strain measurement facilities at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the University of Twente. The critical current of a bronze-route Nb3Sn wire, which was fabricated for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor

  12. RISIKO RANTAI PASOK MINUMAN SARI APEL DALAM PERSPEKTIF SISTEM TRACEABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Iryaning Handayani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Risiko merupakan faktor-faktor yang menghambat operasional pada rantai pasok makanan yang tidak dapat dihindari akan tetapi dapat diminimalisir atau dihilangkan dengan melakukan penanganan risiko yang tepat. Salah satu penanganan risiko dengan menggunakan sistem traceability. Oleh karena itu penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melakukan penaksiran risiko yang terjadi pada rantai pasok minuman sari apel berdasarkan informasi sistem traceability. Dalam penelitian ini menggunakan metode SCOR (Supply Chain Operation Reference. Sedangkan  penilaian risiko rantai pasok menggunakan teknik FMEA (Failure Mode and Effects Analysis. Upaya yang dilakukan dalam mengetahui risiko yang dapat ditangani dengan sistem traceability menggunakan metode House of Risk (HOR. Terdapat 1 risiko ekstrime yaitu risiko terjadinya kekurangan barang dan bahan baku digudang. Sedangkan risiko sedang sebanyak lima. Risiko yang berkatagori rendah sejumlah tujuh. Risiko yang terjadi disebabkan tidak ada prosedur yang jelas, kurang memperhatikan prosedur penyimpanan, inspeksi dilakukan di akhir proses dan kesalahan komposisi bahan baku, Sedangkan penyebab risiko yang bisa ditangani dengan traceability sebanyak 75% dari semua penyebab risiko yang terjadi. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa peran traceability pada rantai pasok makanan dapat mereduksi risiko yang terjadi. Kata kunci:  risiko, traceability, rantai pasok   Abstract Risks are factors that hinder operations in the food supply chain that can not be avoided but can be minimized or eliminated by appropriate risk management . One risk management using a traceability system . Therefore, this study aims to conduct a risk assessment that occurs in apple juice supply chain traceability system based on information . In this study using the SCOR ( Supply Chain Operations Reference . While supply chain risk assessment using the technique of FMEA ( Failure Mode and Effects Analysis . Efforts are made to know the risks that can be addressed by

  13. Optimal Product Quality of Supply Chain Based on Information Traceability in Fashion and Textiles Industry: An Adverse Logistics Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaolin Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates and compares two quality control methods, that is, inspection control and traceability control, to optimize supply chain quality in fashion and textiles industry. The objective is to maximize the supply chain participants’ expected profits and to achieve a Pareto improvement of supply chain product quality. With quality as a controllable variable indicating the level of opportunistic behavior, the return is interpreted as a function of quality: the higher the quality, the lower the return. Taking into account both quality and inventory quantity, we propose and compare the optimal decision-making models for three control methods of supply chain, respectively: decentralized (no control, inspection, and traceability. Further, we use a numerical example to illustrate the relationships among quality, profits, and quality-control cost coefficients (i.e., inspection-related cost and traceability-related cost. We then analyze and discuss the differences in the applications and scopes of the two control methods. On the one hand, given the poor standardization of fashion and textiles industry in the current practice (especially in China market, the cost of sampling inspection is relatively lower as compared to that of the traceability control method. On the other hand, with the improved industrial standardization and technology, traceability control tends to gain increasing advantages in cost and popularity.

  14. Findings and Recommendations from the NIST Workshop on Alternative Fuels and Materials: Biocorrosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Elisabeth; Sowards, Jeffrey W; Crookes-Goodson, Wendy J

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, the Applied Chemicals and Materials Division of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) hosted a workshop to identify and prioritize research needs in the area of biocorrosion. Materials used to store and distribute alternative fuels have experienced an increase in corrosion due to the unique conditions caused by the presence of microbes and the chemistry of biofuels and biofuel precursors. Participants in this workshop, including experts from the microbiological, fuel, and materials communities, delved into the unique materials and chemical challenges that occur with production, transport, and storage of alternative fuels. Discussions focused on specific problems including: a) the changing composition of "drop-in" fuels and the impact of that composition on materials; b) the influence of microbial populations on corrosion and fuel quality; and c) state-of-the-art measurement technologies for monitoring material degradation and biofilm formation.

  15. THE NEED OF THE TRACEABILITY OF THE ORIGIN OF A PRODUCT AS A DEMAND OF PROVIDING FOOD SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Gębski

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research study is to present and analyse the principles of the functioning of the traceability in the food chain including the used methods of identifi cation. Analysis of the literature shows that risk sources identifi cation via food movement and its origin tracking reduces the potential risks possibility and infl uences the food safety level. The development of information technology allows to support traceability process by advanced computer systems. Used in the enterprise ERP systems using tools such as barcodes to identify whether the RFID create traceability of products throughout the production process and distribution. In case of detection any threat to allow for quick response in order to halt the production, distribution and withdrawal of defective products from the market.

  16. Quality transitivity and traceability system of herbal medicine products based on quality markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changxiao; Guo, De-An; Liu, Liang

    2018-03-06

    Due to a variety of factors to affect the herb quality, the existing quality management model is unable to evaluate the process control. The development of the concept of "quality marker" (Q-marker) lays basis for establishing an independent process quality control system for herbal products. To ensure the highest degree of safety, effectiveness and quality process control of herbal products, it is aimed to establish a quality transitivity and traceability system of quality and process control from raw materials to finished herbal products. Based on the key issues and challenges of quality assessment, the current status of quality and process controls from raw materials to herbal medicinal products listed in Pharmacopoeia were analyzed and the research models including discovery and identification of Q-markers, analysis and quality management of risk evaluation were designed. Authors introduced a few new technologies and methodologies, such as DNA barcoding, chromatographic technologies, fingerprint analysis, chemical markers, bio-responses, risk management and solution for quality process control. The quality and process control models for herbal medicinal products were proposed and the transitivity and traceability system from raw materials to the finished products was constructed to improve the herbal quality from the entire supply and production chain. The transitivity and traceability system has been established based on quality markers, especially on how to control the production process under Good Engineering Practices, as well as to implement the risk management for quality and process control in herbal medicine production. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Cattle traceability system in Japan for bovine spongiform encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuaki Sugiura

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available To promote consumer confidence in the safety of beef and to ensure the proper implementation of eradication measures against bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, the Cattle Traceability Law was approved by the Diet in June 2003 and a cattle traceability system has been in operation in Japan since December 2003. The system enables tracing the cohort and offspring animals of a BSE case within 24 h of its detection. The traceability database system also provides distributors, restaurants and consumers with information on the cattle from which the beef that they sell, serve and consume originate.

  18. PHYSICS AND SAFETY ANALYSIS FOR THE NIST RESEARCH REACTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CHENG, L.; HANSON, A.; DIAMOND, D.; XU, J.; CAREW, J.; RORER, D.

    2004-01-01

    Detailed reactor physics and safety analyses have been performed for the 20 MW D 2 O moderated research reactor (NBSR) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The analyses provide an update to the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) and employ state-of-the-art calculational methods. Three-dimensional Monte Carlo neutron and photon transport calculations were performed with the MCNP code to determine the safety parameters for the NBSR. The core depletion and determination of the fuel compositions were performed with MONTEBURNS. MCNP calculations were performed to determine the beginning, middle, and end-of-cycle power distributions, moderator temperature coefficient, and shim safety arm, beam tube and void reactivity worths. The calculational model included a plate-by-plate description of each fuel assembly, axial mid-plane water gap, beam tubes and the tubular geometry of the shim safety arms. The time-dependent analysis of the primary loop was determined with a RELAP5 transient analysis model that includes the pump, heat exchanger, fuel element geometry, and flow channels for both the six inner and twenty-four outer fuel elements. The statistical analysis used to assure protection from critical heat flux (CHF) was performed using a Monte Carlo simulation of the uncertainties contributing to the CHF calculation. The power distributions used to determine the local fuel conditions and margin to CHF were determined with MCNP. Evaluations were performed for the following accidents: (1) the control rod withdrawal startup accident, (2) the maximum reactivity insertion accident, (3) loss-of-flow resulting from loss of electrical power, (4) loss-of-flow resulting from a primary pump seizure, (5) loss-of-flow resulting from inadvertent throttling of a flow control valve, (6) loss-of-flow resulting from failure of both shutdown cooling pumps and (7) misloading of a fuel element. In both the startup and maximum reactivity insertion accidents, the core

  19. Elicitation and validation of requirements-to-code traceability

    OpenAIRE

    Ghabi, Achraf

    2015-01-01

    eingereicht von: Achraf Ghabi Zusammenfassung in deutscher Sprache Parallelt. [Übers. des Autors]: Elicitation and validation of requirements-to-code traceability Universität Linz, Univ., Dissertation, 2015 OeBB

  20. Improving Traceability of Requirements Through Qualitative Data Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufmann, Andreas; Riehle, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Traceability is an important quality aspect in modern software development. It facilitates the documentation of decisions and helps identifying conflicts regarding the conformity of one artifact to another. We propose a new approach to requirements engineering that utilizes qualitative research methods, which have been well established in the domain of social science. Our approach integrates traceability between the original documentation and the requirements specification and the domain m...

  1. Forbidden subgraph pairs for traceability of block-chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Binlong; Li, Binlong; Broersma, Haitze J.; Zhang, Shenggui

    2013-01-01

    A block-chain is a graph whose block graph is a path, i.e. it is either a P1, a P2, or a 2-connected graph, or a graph of connectivity 1 with exactly two end-blocks. A graph is called traceable if it contains a Hamilton path. A traceable graph is clearly a block-chain, but the reverse does not hold

  2. Tool-based requirement traceability between requirement and design artifacts

    CERN Document Server

    Turban, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Processes for developing safety-critical systems impose special demands on ensuring requirements traceability. Achieving valuable traceability information, however, is especially difficult concerning the transition from requirements to design. Bernhard Turban analyzes systems and software engineering theories cross-cutting the issue (embedded systems development, systems engineering, software engineering, requirements engineering and management, design theory and processes for safety-critical systems). As a solution, the author proposes a new tool approach to support designers in their thinkin

  3. Traceability in hardness measurements: from the definition to industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germak, Alessandro; Herrmann, Konrad; Low, Samuel

    2010-04-01

    The measurement of hardness has been and continues to be of significant importance to many of the world's manufacturing industries. Conventional hardness testing is the most commonly used method for acceptance testing and production quality control of metals and metallic products. Instrumented indentation is one of the few techniques available for obtaining various property values for coatings and electronic products in the micrometre and nanometre dimensional scales. For these industries to be successful, it is critical that measurements made by suppliers and customers agree within some practical limits. To help assure this measurement agreement, a traceability chain for hardness measurement traceability from the hardness definition to industry has developed and evolved over the past 100 years, but its development has been complicated. A hardness measurement value not only requires traceability of force, length and time measurements but also requires traceability of the hardness values measured by the hardness machine. These multiple traceability paths are needed because a hardness measurement is affected by other influence parameters that are often difficult to identify, quantify and correct. This paper describes the current situation of hardness measurement traceability that exists for the conventional hardness methods (i.e. Rockwell, Brinell, Vickers and Knoop hardness) and for special-application hardness and indentation methods (i.e. elastomer, dynamic, portables and instrumented indentation).

  4. RELAP-7 Code Assessment Plan and Requirement Traceability Matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Junsoo; Choi, Yong-joon; Smith, Curtis L.

    2016-10-01

    The RELAP-7, a safety analysis code for nuclear reactor system, is under development at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Overall, the code development is directed towards leveraging the advancements in computer science technology, numerical solution methods and physical models over the last decades. Recently, INL has also been putting an effort to establish the code assessment plan, which aims to ensure an improved final product quality through the RELAP-7 development process. The ultimate goal of this plan is to propose a suitable way to systematically assess the wide range of software requirements for RELAP-7, including the software design, user interface, and technical requirements, etc. To this end, we first survey the literature (i.e., international/domestic reports, research articles) addressing the desirable features generally required for advanced nuclear system safety analysis codes. In addition, the V&V (verification and validation) efforts as well as the legacy issues of several recently-developed codes (e.g., RELAP5-3D, TRACE V5.0) are investigated. Lastly, this paper outlines the Requirement Traceability Matrix (RTM) for RELAP-7 which can be used to systematically evaluate and identify the code development process and its present capability.

  5. AUTOMATION OF TRACEABILITY PROCESS AT GRAIN TERMINAL LLC “ UKRTRANSAGRO"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. TRISHYN

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A positive trend of growth in both grain production and export is indicated. In the current marketing year the export potential of the Ukrainian grain market is close to the record level. However, the high positions in the rating of world exporters are achieved not only due to the high export potential, but also because of higher quality and logistics. These factors depend directly on the quality of enterprise management and all processes occurring at it. One of the perspective ways of enterprise development is the implementation of the traceability system and further automation of the traceability process. European integration laws are obliging Ukrainian enterprises to have a traceability system. Traceability is an ability to follow the movement of a feed or food through specified stages of production, processing and distribution. The process of traceability is managing by people, which implies a human factor. Automation will allow, in a greater extent, to exclude the human factor that will mean decreasing of errors in documentation and will speed up the process of grain transshipment. Research work on the process was carried out on the most modern grain terminal - LLC “UkrTransAgro”. The terminal is located in the Ukrainian water area of the Azov Sea (Mariupol, Ukraine. Characteristics of the terminal: capacity of a simultaneous storage - 48,120 thousand tons, acceptance of crops from transport - 4,500 tons / day; acceptance of crops from railway transport - 3000 tons / day, transshipment capacity - up to 1.2 million tons per year, shipment to the sea vessels - 7000 tons / day. The analysis of the automation level of the grain terminal is carried out. The company uses software from 1C - «1C: Enterprise 8. Accounting for grain elevator, mill, and feed mill for Ukraine». This software is used for quantitative and qualitative registration at the elevator in accordance with industry guidelines and standards. The software product has many

  6. MACS—a new high intensity cold neutron spectrometer at NIST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, J A; Adler, D M; Brand, P C; Cook, J C; Brocker, C; Huang, Z; Hundertmark, P; Lynn, J W; Maliszewskyj, N C; Moyer, J; Pierce, D; Pike, T D; Vilaseca, R; Broholm, C; Hammond, R; Orndorff, J; Scharfstein, G; Smee, S A

    2008-01-01

    We describe a novel cold neutron spectrometer under development at NIST optimized for wave vector resolved spectroscopy with incident energies between 2.1 meV and 20 meV and energy resolution from 0.05 meV (E i = 2.1 meV) to 3.0 meV (E i = 20 meV). By using a 1428 cm 2 double focusing PG (0 0 2) monochromator close to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) cold neutron source the instrument provides up to 5 × 10 8 neutrons cm −2 s −1 on a 8 cm 2 sample area. The measured performance is consistent with Monte Carlo simulations. The monochromating system, which includes radial collimators, three filters and a variable beam aperture, offers considerable flexibility in optimizing Q-resolution, energy resolution and intensity. The detector system will consist of an array of 20 channels which combined will subtend a solid angle of 0.2 sr. This is approximately a factor of 40 more than a conventional triple axis spectrometer. Each detector channel contains a vertically focusing double crystal analyzer system (DXAL) actuated by a single stepping motor. We find identical integrated reflectivity at approximately 10% coarser energy resolution for the 130' mosaic double bounce analyzer as compared to a conventional 25' analyzer at the same energy. The vertical focusing of the DXAL allows for smaller detectors for enhanced signal to noise with 8° vertical acceptance. Options for post sample collimators and filters provide flexibility in the choice of scattered beam energy and wavevector resolution

  7. 76 FR 58248 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; NIST Three-Year Generic Request for Customer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ... Collection; Comment Request; NIST Three-Year Generic Request for Customer Service-Related Data Collections... customers want and expect, as well as their satisfaction with and awareness of existing products, services, and information. In addition, NIST proposes other customer service satisfaction data collections that...

  8. 49V Standardization by the CIEMAT/NIST LSC method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Barquero, L.; Los Arcos, J.M.; Jimenez, A.; Ortiz, F.

    1998-01-01

    The sample preparation procedure for LSC standardization of a solution of 49 VCl 5 is described and the time stability of samples is analyzed in four commercial scintillators, HiSafe II, HiSafe III, Ultima-Gold and Insta-Gel Plus. Acceptable stability was obtained in HiSafe III and Ultima-Gold. A self-consistent procedure was developed and successfully applied to the determination of the activity concentration of 49 V. The samples were standardized by the CIEMAT/NIST method to a combined uncertainty of 3.4% in the interval of figure of merit 1.2-2.5 ( 3 H equivalent efficiency 40%-20%)

  9. Neutron depth profiling: Overview and description of NIST facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downing, R.G.; Lamaze, G.P.; Langland, J.K.; Hwang, S.T.

    1993-01-01

    The Cold Neutron Depth Profiling (CNDP) instrument at the NIST Cold Neutron Research Facility (CNRF) is now operational. The neutron beam originates from a 16 L D 2 O ice cold source and passes through a filter of 135mm of single crystal sapphire. The neutron energy spectrum may be described by a 65 K Maxwellian distribution. The sample chamber configuration allows for remote controlled scanning of 150 x 150 mm sample areas including the varying of both sample and detector angle. The improved sensitivity over the current thermal depth profiling instrument has permitted the first nondestructive measurements of 17 O profiles. This paper describes the CNDP instrument, illustrates the neutron depth profiling (NDP) technique with examples, and gives a separate bibliography of NDP publications

  10. Ground vehicle control at NIST: From teleoperation to autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Karl N.; Juberts, Maris; Legowik, Steven A.; Nashman, Marilyn; Schneiderman, Henry; Scott, Harry A.; Szabo, Sandor

    1994-01-01

    NIST is applying their Real-time Control System (RCS) methodology for control of ground vehicles for both the U.S. Army Researh Lab, as part of the DOD's Unmanned Ground Vehicles program, and for the Department of Transportation's Intelligent Vehicle/Highway Systems (IVHS) program. The actuated vehicle, a military HMMWV, has motors for steering, brake, throttle, etc. and sensors for the dashboard gauges. For military operations, the vehicle has two modes of operation: a teleoperation mode--where an operator remotely controls the vehicle over an RF communications network; and a semi-autonomous mode called retro-traverse--where the control system uses an inertial navigation system to steer the vehicle along a prerecorded path. For the IVHS work, intelligent vision processing elements replace the human teleoperator to achieve autonomous, visually guided road following.

  11. Cold Neutron Research Facility begins operating at NIST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeman, E.J.

    1991-01-01

    Steady-state neutron beams are generally produced by fission in a nuclear reactor, whereas pulsed beams come from spallation neutron sources. Beams from a reactor have a distribution of wavelengths that is roughly Maxwellian, with a peak wavelength that depends on the temperature of the moderator that surrounds the fuel. Cold neutrons can be selected from the low-energy tail of the distribution, but the flux drops as 1/λ 4 . However, by shifting the whole spectrum to longer wavelengths one can dramatically increase the cold neutron flux. This is achieved by replacing part of the core moderator with a cold moderator, or 'cold source,' such as liquid deuterium (at about 30 K) or D 2 O ice (at about 40 K). Neutrons lose energy to the moderator through collisions, producing a shifted spectrum from which one can select lower-energy neutrons with a roughly ten-fold improvement in the flux. Neutrons exhibit optical behavior such as refraction and total reflection. Thus one can use neutron guides - analogous to optical fibers - to conduct intense beams of neutrons from the reactor into a large experimental hall, dubbed a 'guide hall,' where background radiation is low. The Cold Neutron Research Facility was finally funded in 1987 and opened its doors this past June. CNRF is located at the 20-MW NIST research reactor, which began continuous operation in 1969. With some foresight, the designers of the original reactor allowed space for the addition of a cryogenic moderator, which is only now being exploited. NIST will develop 10 experimental stations for use by the research science community. Additional help in financing the facility comes from participating research teams made up of groups from industry, academe and government

  12. A Model of Traceability for Equipments Using RFID Tehnologies within an Integrated System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu LIXANDROIU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Radio Frequency Identification (RFID is an automatic identification method, relying on storing and remotely retrieving data using devices called RFID tagss or transponders. An advanced automatic identification technology such as the Auto-ID system based on the Radio Frequency Identification (RFID technology has two values for inventory systems. First, the visibility provided by this technology allows an accurate knowledge on the inventory level by eliminating the discrepancy between inventory record and physical inventory. Second, the RFID technology can prevent or reduce the sources of errors. Benefits of using RFID include the reduction of labor costs, the simplification of business processes and the reduction of inventory inaccuracies. Also, RFID technology allows an knowledge on the traceability of equipments in a organization.

  13. Making traceability work across the entire food supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Tejas; Buckley, Greg; McEntire, Jennifer C; Lothian, Paul; Sterling, Brian; Hickey, Caitlin

    2013-12-01

    The Institute of Food Technologists held Traceability Research Summits on July 14, August 22, and November 1, 2011, to address how to meet the growing requirement for agriculture and food traceability. Each meeting had a group of about 50 individuals who came from food companies, trade associations, local, state, and federal governments, 3rd-party traceability solution providers, not-for-profit corporations, consultants, and consumer groups. They discussed and deliberated the objectives of traceability and the means to develop product tracing in the food system. A total of 70 people participated in the 3 summits. These individuals were invited to participate in a small workgroup responsible for considering the details related to product tracing and presenting draft concepts to the larger group on November 1, 2011, in Chicago. During this meeting, the larger assembly further refined the concepts and came to an agreement on the basic principles and overall design of the desired approach to traceability. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Breed traceability of buffalo meat using microsatellite genotyping technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannur, Bheemashankar H; Fairoze, Md Nadeem; Girish, P S; Karabasanavar, Nagappa; Rudresh, B H

    2017-02-01

    Although buffalo has emerged as a major meat producing animal in Asia, major research on breed traceability has so far been focused on cattle (beef). This research gap on buffalo breed traceability has impelled development and validation of buffalo breed traceability using a set of eight microsatellite (STR) markers in seven Indian buffalo breeds (Bhadawari, Jaffaarabadi, Murrah, Mehsana, Nagpuri, Pandharpuri and Surti). Probability of sharing same profile by two individuals at a specific locus was computed considering different STR numbers, allele pooling in breed and population. Match probabilities per breed were considered and six most polymorphic loci were genotyped. Out of eight microsatellite markers studied, markers CSSMO47, DRB3 and CSSM060 were found most polymorphic. Developed technique was validated with known and unknown, blood and meat samples; wherein, samples were genetically traced in 24 out of 25 samples tested. Results of this study showed potential applications of the methodology and encourage other researchers to address the problem of buffalo traceability so as to create a world-wide archive of breed specific genotypes. This work is the first report of breed traceability of buffalo meat utilizing microsatellite genotyping technique.

  15. New SI-traceable reference gas mixtures for fluorinated gases at atmospheric concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillevic, Myriam; Wyss, Simon A.; Pascale, Céline; Vollmer, Martin K.; Niederhauser, Bernhard; Reimann, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    In order to better support the monitoring of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, we develop a method to produce reference gas mixtures for fluorinated gases (F-gases, i.e. gases containing fluorine atoms) in a SI-traceable way, meaning that the amount of substance fraction in mole per mole is traceable to SI-units. These research activities are conducted in the framework of the HIGHGAS and AtmoChem-ECV projects. First, single-component mixtures in synthetic air at ~85 nmol/mol (ppb) are generated for HFC-125 (pentafluoroethane, a widely used HFC) and HFC-1234yf (2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene, a car air conditioner fluid of growing importance). These mixtures are first dynamically produced by permeation: a permeator containing the pure substance loses mass linearly over time under a constant gas flow, in the permeation chamber of a magnetic suspension balance, which is regularly calibrated. This primary mixture is then pressurised into Silconert2000-coated stainless steel cylinders by cryo-filling. In a second step these mixtures are dynamically diluted using 2 subsequent dilution steps piloted by mass flow controllers (MFC) and pressure controllers. The assigned mixture concentration is calculated mostly based on the permeator mass loss, on the carrier gas purity and on the MFCs flows. An uncertainty budget is presented, resulting in an expanded uncertainty of 2% for the HFC-125 reference mixture and of 2.5% for the HFC-1234yf mixture (95% confidence interval). The final gas, with near-atmospheric concentration (17.11 pmol/mol for HFC-125, 2.14 pmol/mol for HFC-1234yf) is then measured with Medusa-GC/MS technology against standards calibrated on existing reference scales. The assigned values of the dynamic standards are in excellent agreement with measurements vs the existing reference scales, SIO-14 from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography for HFC-125 and Empa-2013 for HFC-1234yf. Moreover, the Medusa-GC/MS measurements show the excellent purity of the SI-traceable

  16. Traceability: a demand of agro industrial chain for special products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Verissimo Foggiatto Silveira

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The inclusion of agricultural products with different nutritional features has altered the relationship, the upstream and the downstream of enterprises that produce and commercialize them. Coordination in the Agro Industrial System is demanded, including traceability as a way to guarantee the conformity of products, attending external clients and agricultural industries that require quality certification. This quality tool enables the identification of some details in the productive chain, such as seeds, farming, harvesting, storage, transportation and industrialization of products. Thus, this essay describes the concept of traceability and provides information of special products from a cooperative from Paraná, which has controlled process in the productive chain, demanded by contractual partnerships done with enterprises that provide fertilizers and food processors. It was identified that this cooperative commercializes three products that need traceability: two special kinds of corn and the regular kind of soybean.

  17. Current tools and technologies for the identification and traceability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogewerf, P.H.

    2013-01-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) systems were introduced in the 1970ies mainly for farm management purposes. They were followed in the 1990ies by the use of injectable transponders for companion animals. Since the beginning of this age, many countries have introduced animal identification

  18. Traceability of Software Safety Requirements in Legacy Safety Critical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Janice L.

    2007-01-01

    How can traceability of software safety requirements be created for legacy safety critical systems? Requirements in safety standards are imposed most times during contract negotiations. On the other hand, there are instances where safety standards are levied on legacy safety critical systems, some of which may be considered for reuse for new applications. Safety standards often specify that software development documentation include process-oriented and technical safety requirements, and also require that system and software safety analyses are performed supporting technical safety requirements implementation. So what can be done if the requisite documents for establishing and maintaining safety requirements traceability are not available?

  19. Traceability in the fish sector from research to commercial business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erling

    The last twenty years, the focus on traceability has grown from total obscurity to full attention of the European Parliament legislation activities. Due to the latest legislation the fish sector has been introduced to more strict legislation than the rest of the food sector. To meet these demands...... it was decided by the Danish Government four years ago, to create a consortium with representatives from research, applied research, private innovative companies, the sectorial branch organizations and the authorities to meet the future challenges. The result of the work with traceability are solutions that have...

  20. Characterization of NIST human mitochondrial DNA SRM-2392 and SRM-2392-I standard reference materials by next generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riman, Sarah; Kiesler, Kevin M; Borsuk, Lisa A; Vallone, Peter M

    2017-07-01

    Standard Reference Materials SRM 2392 and 2392-I are intended to provide quality control when amplifying and sequencing human mitochondrial genome sequences. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) offers these SRMs to laboratories performing DNA-based forensic human identification, molecular diagnosis of mitochondrial diseases, mutation detection, evolutionary anthropology, and genetic genealogy. The entire mtGenome (∼16569bp) of SRM 2392 and 2392-I have previously been characterized at NIST by Sanger sequencing. Herein, we used the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy offered by next generation sequencing (NGS) to: (1) re-sequence the certified values of the SRM 2392 and 2392-I; (2) confirm Sanger data with a high coverage new sequencing technology; (3) detect lower level heteroplasmies (sequencing communities in the adoption of NGS methods. To obtain a consensus sequence for the SRMs as well as identify and control any bias, sequencing was performed using two NGS platforms and data was analyzed using different bioinformatics pipelines. Our results confirm five low level heteroplasmy sites that were not previously observed with Sanger sequencing: three sites in the GM09947A template in SRM 2392 and two sites in the HL-60 template in SRM 2392-I. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Incentives for the Quality and Safety Traceability System of Agricultural Products

    OpenAIRE

    Bai, Shizhen; Li, Meng

    2014-01-01

    The quality and safety traceability system of agricultural products is an important measure to protect the quality and safety of agricultural products. Farmers and food enterprises are main operators of the traceability system. If they are effectively encouraged to practice traceability system, food safety can be guaranteed from the source. This paper studies the incentive problem of agricultural product traceability system from two aspects—vertical contract coordination and government exte...

  2. Traceable measurement of soft magnetic materials at high frequencies

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, M J; Henderson, L C A

    2000-01-01

    Whilst written EN standards already exist for traceable magnetic measurements at low and medium frequencies, extending these to frequencies up to 100 kHz and higher requires rigorous investigation of various additional factors. These are considered in this paper and results showing the importance of the winding configuration and the difficulty in defining the temperature of measurement presented.

  3. Defining acceptable limits for the metrological traceability of specific measurands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bais, Renze; Armbruster, Dave; Jansen, Rob T P; Klee, George; Panteghini, Mauro; Passarelli, Joseph; Sikaris, Ken A

    2013-05-01

    Although manufacturers are compelled by the European IVD Directive, 98/79/EC, to have traceability of the values assigned to their calibrators if suitable higher order reference materials and/or procedures are available, there is still no equivalence of results for many measurands determined in clinical laboratories. The adoption of assays with metrological traceable results will have a significant impact on laboratory medicine in that results will be equivalent across different laboratories and different analytical platforms. The IFCC WG on Allowable Errors for Traceable Results has been formed to define acceptable limits for metrological traceability chains for specific measurands in order to promote the equivalence of patient results. These limits are being developed based on biological variation for the specific measurands. Preliminary investigations have shown that for some measurands, it is possible for manufacturers to assign values to assay calibrators with a measurement uncertainty that allows the laboratory enough combined uncertainty for their routine measurements. However, for other measurands, e.g., plasma sodium, current assays are too imprecise to fulfil limits based on biological variation. Although an alternative approach based on probability theory is being investigated, the most desirable approach would be for industry to improve measurement methods so that they meet clinical requirements.

  4. Implementing farm-to-fork traceability in Tanzania

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Dyk, FE

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the concerns for the safety of consumers, in relation to phytosanitary issues; residues of crop protection products and bio-terrorism. Traceability gives the ability to trace and follow a food, feed, food-producing animal...

  5. Traceability in the pharmaceutical industry: application to radiopharmaceutical production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanette, Camila; Melero, Laura T.U.H.; Araujo, Elaine B. de; Mengatti, Jair; Silva, Katia S. de S., E-mail: czanette@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The development of tools to promote the traceability of the drugs in the pharmaceutical industry during all the production chain is a necessary requisite. The traceability system is applied to enable the identification of the origin, destination and exact location of the drug. Traceability optimizes the process chain, reduces errors, is a requirement for quality process, promotes safety for the user and assists in pharmacovigilance. The health regulatory agency in Brazil (ANVISA) will implement a tracking system for medicaments with RDC no. 59 of 2009, to control distribution since the producer until the patients in order to prevent the traffic and adulteration of drugs. Thus, this study discusses the importance and impact of the new traceability system proposed by ANVISA in the production and distribution of radiopharmaceuticals from the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN-CNEN). The radiopharmaceuticals have a difference track when compared with another drug classes. In this context, this RDC would increase the price of the medicines by up to 10%, since it provides deployment of a single stamp supplied by the Mint. Considering that radiopharmaceuticals are not sold to the final consumer (patients), but only for accredited medical clinics and nuclear medicine physicians, and the transport of radiopharmaceuticals is performed by specialized companies licensed by CNEN (National Nuclear Energy Commission), the use of the stamp to ensure authenticity and prevent falsification should not be appropriated and represents and additional cost for the radiopharmaceuticals. (author)

  6. 76 FR 62313 - Traceability for Livestock Moving Interstate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... establish minimum national official identification and documentation requirements for the traceability of...://www.regulations.gov/#!documentDetail ;D=APHIS-2009-0091-0001. Postal Mail/Commercial Delivery: Send...-2009-0091) a proposal to establish minimum national official identification and documentation...

  7. Consumer needs and requirements for food and ingredient traceability information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijswijk, van W.; Frewer, L.J.

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of improved food traceability systems has aimed to restore consumer confidence in food safety and quality, in part by being able to provide consumers with more information about the origins of foods and food ingredients. However, little is known about consumers’ opinions and beliefs

  8. Experts' perspectives on the implementation of traceability in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kher, S.V.; Frewer, L.J.; Jonge, J.de; Wentholt, M.; Davies, O.H.; Luijckx, N.B.L.; Cnossen, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The research presented in this paper aims at understanding the views of European food risk management experts on food traceability implementation, implementation of the general food law, and the advantages the system can offer for effective risk mitigation. Design/methodology/approach:

  9. Traceability in the pharmaceutical industry: application to radiopharmaceutical production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanette, Camila; Melero, Laura T.U.H.; Araujo, Elaine B. de; Mengatti, Jair; Silva, Katia S. de S.

    2011-01-01

    The development of tools to promote the traceability of the drugs in the pharmaceutical industry during all the production chain is a necessary requisite. The traceability system is applied to enable the identification of the origin, destination and exact location of the drug. Traceability optimizes the process chain, reduces errors, is a requirement for quality process, promotes safety for the user and assists in pharmacovigilance. The health regulatory agency in Brazil (ANVISA) will implement a tracking system for medicaments with RDC no. 59 of 2009, to control distribution since the producer until the patients in order to prevent the traffic and adulteration of drugs. Thus, this study discusses the importance and impact of the new traceability system proposed by ANVISA in the production and distribution of radiopharmaceuticals from the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN-CNEN). The radiopharmaceuticals have a difference track when compared with another drug classes. In this context, this RDC would increase the price of the medicines by up to 10%, since it provides deployment of a single stamp supplied by the Mint. Considering that radiopharmaceuticals are not sold to the final consumer (patients), but only for accredited medical clinics and nuclear medicine physicians, and the transport of radiopharmaceuticals is performed by specialized companies licensed by CNEN (National Nuclear Energy Commission), the use of the stamp to ensure authenticity and prevent falsification should not be appropriated and represents and additional cost for the radiopharmaceuticals. (author)

  10. Traceability for Model Driven, Software Product Line Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anquetil, N.; Grammel, B.; Galvao, I.; Noppen, J.A.R.; Shakil Khan, S.; Arboleda, H.; Rashid, A.; Garcia, A.

    Traceability is an important challenge for software organizations. This is true for traditional software development and even more so in new approaches that introduce more variety of artefacts such as Model Driven development or Software Product Lines. In this paper we look at some aspect of the

  11. Analysis of crosscutting across software development phases based on traceability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Klaas; Conejero, J.M.; Hernández, J.

    2006-01-01

    Traceability of requirements and concerns enhances the quality of software development. We use trace relations to define crosscutting. As starting point, we set up a dependency matrix to capture the relationship between elements at two levels, e.g. concerns and representations of concerns. The

  12. Reconstructing Requirements Traceability in Design and Test Using Latent Semantic Indexing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lormans, M.; Van Deursen, A.

    2007-01-01

    Managing traceability data is an important aspect of the software development process. In this paper we define a methodology, consisting of six steps, for reconstructing requirements views using traceability data. One of the steps concerns the reconstruction of the traceability data. We investigate

  13. Traceable X,Y self-calibration at single nm level of an optical microscope used for coherence scanning interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekberg, Peter; Mattsson, Lars

    2018-03-01

    Coherence scanning interferometry used in optical profilers are typically good for Z-calibration at nm-levels, but the X,Y accuracy is often left without further notice than typical resolution limits of the optics, i.e. of the order of ~1 µm. For the calibration of metrology tools we rely on traceable artefacts, e.g. gauge blocks for traditional coordinate measurement machines, and lithographically mask made artefacts for microscope calibrations. In situations where the repeatability and accuracy of the measurement tool is much better than the uncertainty of the traceable artefact, we are bound to specify the uncertainty based on the calibration artefact rather than on the measurement tool. This is a big drawback as the specified uncertainty of a calibrated measurement may shrink the available manufacturing tolerance. To improve the uncertainty in X,Y we can use self-calibration. Then, we do not need to know anything more than that the artefact contains a pattern with some nominal grid. This also gives the opportunity to manufacture the artefact in-house, rather than buying a calibrated and expensive artefact. The self-calibration approach we present here is based on an iteration algorithm, rather than the traditional mathematical inversion, and it leads to much more relaxed constrains on the input measurements. In this paper we show how the X,Y errors, primarily optical distortions, within the field of view (FOV) of an optical coherence scanning interferometry microscope, can be reduced with a large factor. By self-calibration we achieve an X,Y consistency in the 175  ×  175 µm2 FOV of ~2.3 nm (1σ) using the 50×  objective. Besides the calibrated coordinate X,Y system of the microscope we also receive, as a bonus, the absolute positions of the pattern in the artefact with a combined uncertainty of 6 nm (1σ) by relying on a traceable 1D linear measurement of a twin artefact at NIST.

  14. EVALUASI PENDEKATAN PEMBANGUNAN TRACEABILITY LINK DALAM EVOLUSI PERANGKAT LUNAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Fitria A.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Traceability merupakan hal penting pada proyek perangkat lunak, terutama pada proyek skala besar. Traceability berfungsi untuk mengetahui ketelusuran antar artefak dalam fase-fase yang berbeda (analisis kebutuhan, analisis desain, dan analisis implementasi maupun antara artefak dan pihak pengembang yang terlibat. Sistem traceability otomatis diperlukan untuk membangun ketelusuran antar artefak. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengeksplorasi sejumlah literatur pendekatan terbaru yang digunakan untuk membangun traceability link. Eksplorasi literatur mengacu pada taksonomi berbasis evolusi perangkat lunak terhadap sejumlah mekanisme karakterisasi perubahan dan faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi mekanisme. Hasil penelitian dapat digunakan untuk mengidentifikasi bagaimana pendekatan tersebut dapat mendukung evolusi perangkat lunak serta memberikan garis besar dari kriteria yang dibutuhkan untuk membangun metode traceability yang lebih baik. Kesimpulan dari penelitian ini adalah variasi faktor suatu pendekatan tidak berbeda jauh dengan pendekatan lainnya kecuali jika terdapat perbedaan pada faktor temporal.

  15. Coordinate Metrology by Traceable Computed Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Pavel

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) is a measuring technique which has become an important technology in the production environment over the last years. Due to a number of advantages of CT compared to, e.g., coordinate measuring machines (CMMs), CT has been recently spread in the field of manufacturin...

  16. A re-evaluation of the relativistic redshift on frequency standards at NIST, Boulder, Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlis, Nikolaos K.; Weiss, Marc A.

    2017-08-01

    We re-evaluated the relativistic redshift correction applicable to the frequency standards at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Boulder, Colorado, USA, based on a precise GPS survey of three benchmarks on the roof of the building where these standards had been previously housed, and on global and regional geoid models supported by data from the GRACE and GOCE missions, including EGM2008, USGG2009, and USGG2012. We also evaluated the redshift offset based on the published NAVD88 geopotential number of the leveling benchmark Q407 located on the side of Building 1 at NIST, Boulder, Colorado, USA, after estimating the bias of the NAVD88 datum at our specific location. Based on these results, our current best estimate of the relativistic redshift correction, if frequency standards were located at the height of the leveling benchmark Q407 outside the second floor of Building 1, with respect to the EGM2008 geoid whose potential has been estimated to be {{W}0}=62 636 855.69 {{m}2} {{s}-2} , is equal to (-1798.50  ±  0.06)  ×  10-16. The corresponding value, with respect to an equipotential surface defined by the International Astronomical Union’s (IAU) adopted value of {{W}0}=62 636 856.0 {{m}2} {{s}-2} , is (-1798.53  ±  0.06)  ×  10-16. These values are comparable to the value of (-1798.70  ±  0.30)  ×  10-16, estimated by Pavlis and Weiss in 2003, with respect to an equipotential surface defined by {{W}0}=62 636 856.88 {{m}2} {{s}-2} . The minus sign implies that clocks run faster in the laboratory in Boulder than a corresponding clock located on the geoid. Contribution of US government, not subject to Copyright.

  17. Analysis of LOCA Scenarios in the NIST Research Reactor Before and After Fuel Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, J. S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Cheng, L. Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Diamond, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-08-30

    An analysis has been done of hypothetical loss-of-coolant-accidents (LOCAs) in the research reactor (NBSR) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The purpose of the analysis is to determine if the peak clad temperature remains below the Safety Limit, which is the blister temperature for the fuel. The configuration of the NBSR considered in the analysis is that projected for the future when changes will be made so that shutdown pumps do not operate when a LOCA signal is detected. The analysis was done for the present core with high-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel and with the proposed low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel that would be used when the NBSR is converted from one to the other. The analysis consists of two parts. The first examines how the water would drain from the primary system following a break and the possibility for the loss of coolant from within the fuel element flow channels. This work is performed using the TRACE system thermal-hydraulic code. The second looks at the fuel clad temperature as a function of time given that the water may have drained from many of the flow channels and the water in the vessel is in a quasi-equilibrium state. The temperature behavior is investigated using the three-dimensional heat conduction code HEATING7.3. The results in all scenarios considered for both HEU and LEU fuel show that the peak clad temperature remains below the blister temperature.

  18. JY1 time scale: a new Kalman-filter time scale designed at NIST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Jian; Parker, Thomas E; Levine, Judah

    2017-01-01

    We report on a new Kalman-filter hydrogen-maser time scale (i.e. JY1 time scale) designed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The JY1 time scale is composed of a few hydrogen masers and a commercial Cs clock. The Cs clock is used as a reference clock to ease operations with existing data. Unlike other time scales, the JY1 time scale uses three basic time-scale equations, instead of only one equation. Also, this time scale can detect a clock error (i.e. time error, frequency error, or frequency drift error) automatically. These features make the JY1 time scale stiff and less likely to be affected by an abnormal clock. Tests show that the JY1 time scale deviates from the UTC by less than  ±5 ns for ∼100 d, when the time scale is initially aligned to the UTC and then is completely free running. Once the time scale is steered to a Cs fountain, it can maintain the time with little error even if the Cs fountain stops working for tens of days. This can be helpful when we do not have a continuously operated fountain or when the continuously operated fountain accidentally stops, or when optical clocks run occasionally. (paper)

  19. Development and evaluation of an intelligent traceability system for frozen tilapia fillet processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xinqing; Fu, Zetian; Qi, Lin; Mira, Trebar; Zhang, Xiaoshuan

    2015-10-01

    The main export varieties in China are brand-name, high-quality bred aquatic products. Among them, tilapia has become the most important and fast-growing species since extensive consumer markets in North America and Europe have evolved as a result of commodity prices, year-round availability and quality of fresh and frozen products. As the largest tilapia farming country, China has over one-third of its tilapia production devoted to further processing and meeting foreign market demand. Using by tilapia fillet processing, this paper introduces the efforts for developing and evaluating ITS-TF: an intelligent traceability system integrated with statistical process control (SPC) and fault tree analysis (FTA). Observations, literature review and expert questionnaires were used for system requirement and knowledge acquisition; scenario simulation was applied to evaluate and validate ITS-TF performance. The results show that traceability requirement is evolved from a firefighting model to a proactive model for enhancing process management capacity for food safety; ITS-TF transforms itself as an intelligent system to provide functions on early warnings and process management by integrated SPC and FTA. The valuable suggestion that automatic data acquisition and communication technology should be integrated into ITS-TF was achieved for further system optimization, perfection and performance improvement. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Application of Stable Isotope Signatures in Food Traceability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazaratul Ashifa Abdullah Salim; Roslanzairi Mostapha; Zainon Othman; Nor Afiqah Harun; Mohd Suhaimi Hamzah; Shamsiah Abdul Rahman; Md Suhaimi Elias; Salmah Moosa

    2015-01-01

    Stable isotope analysis has widely been used to trace the origin of organic materials in various fields, such as geochemistry, biochemistry, archaeology and petroleum. In past a decade, it has also become an important tool for food traceability study. The globalization of food markets and the relative ease with which food commodities are transported through and between countries and continents, means that consumers are increasingly concerned about the origin of the foods they eat. The natural abundance isotope variation such as carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen and oxygen are use as geographic tracers or marker to determine the geographic origin of fruits, crop, vegetables and food products from animal. The isotopic compositions of plant materials reflect various factors such as isotopic compositions of source materials and their assimilation processes as well as growth environments. This paper will discuss on stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions in rice, advantages, limitations and potential of other analysis applications that can be incorporated in food traceability system. (author)

  1. Implementing traceability using particle randomness-based textile printed tags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, T. K.; Koehl, L.; Campagne, C.

    2017-10-01

    This article introduces a random particle-based traceability tag for textiles. The proposed tag not only act as a unique signature for the corresponding textile product but also possess the features such as easy to manufacture and hard to copy. It seeks applications in brand authentication and traceability in textile and clothing (T&C) supply chain. A prototype has been developed by screen printing process, in which micron-scale particles were mixed with the printing paste and printed on cotton fabrics to attain required randomness. To encode the randomness, the image of the developed tag was taken and analyzed using image processing. The randomness of the particles acts as a product key or unique signature which is required to decode the tag. Finally, washing and abrasion resistance tests were conducted to check the durability of the printed tag.

  2. The Development and Validation of a Traceability Assessment Model

    OpenAIRE

    Regan, Gilbert; McCaffery, Fergal; McDaid, Kevin; Flood, Derek

    2014-01-01

    Regulation normally requires critical systems to be certified before entering service. This involves submission of a safety case - a reasoned argument and supporting evidence that stringent requirements have been met and that the system is acceptably safe. A good safety case encompasses an effective risk mitigation process which is highly dependent on requirements traceability. However despite its many benefits and regulatory requirements, most existing software systems lack explicit traceabi...

  3. TRACEABILITY OF REQUIREMENTS IN SCRUM SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Kodali, Manvisha

    2015-01-01

    Incomplete and incorrect requirements might lead to sub-optimal software products, which might not satisfy customers’ needs and expectations. Software verification and validation is one way to ensure that the software products meets the customers’ expectations while delivering the correct functionality. In this direction, the establishment and the maintenance of traceability links between requirements and test cases have been appointed as promising technique towards a more efficient software ...

  4. Traceability and Demand Sensitiveness: Evidences from Italian Fresh Potatoes Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Caracciolo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available When a traceability system takes place, either when mandatory or voluntary, many questions arise that need to be addressed and answered. One of the firsts concerns whether it introduces new costs with no gain in efficiency or, on the contrary, the system efficiency increases lowering costs and, as a consequence, market price of the good in hand. Among others, another issue that only rarely is addressed regards the effect of a price change on the final market. The objective of this paper was to simulate the effect on fresh Italian vegetables market of prices change due to a newer traceability procedure, focusing on early potato. Reasons why early potato was the main object of our study will be explained in detail later in the paper. Moreover, this study concerns a demand system estimation that has, as main goal, the measurement of own and cross price elasticities as well as expenditure elasticities. Such estimations are not strictly related with traceability because they measure any change in quantity demanded due to price changes due to any market perturbation. However, since early potato is experiencing a peculiar market and chain change in Italy, our simulation is meant to reason in terms of a “what if” approach, formally simulating the effect of any change in price due to an hypothesis of traceability system involved. In order to estimate a demand system, real household consumption data (3,000 observations of a statistically representative sample of the Italian population of households was taken into account. Relevant measures of market variables were estimated by means of a Linear Almost Ideal Demand System implementing a large set of fresh vegetables: potato split in early and late, cabbage, salad, mushrooms, fruits vegetables, roots, asparagus, onion, tomatoes, peppers, cucumbers, beans, zucchinis and others.

  5. A Traceability-based Method to Support Conceptual Model Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Carmona, Luz Marcela

    2014-01-01

    Renewing software systems is one of the most cost-effective ways to protect software investment, which saves time, money and ensures uninter- rupted access to technical support and product upgrades. There are several mo- tivations to promote investment and scientific effort for specifying systems by means of conceptual models and supporting its evolution. As an example, the software engineering community is addressing solutions for supporting model traceability, continuous improvement of busi...

  6. Building traceable Event-B models from requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Alkhammash, Eman; Butler, Michael; Fathabadi, Asieh Salehi; Cîrstea, Corina

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Bridging the gap between informal requirements and formal specifications is a key challenge in systems engineering. Constructing appropriate abstractions in formal models requires skill and managing the complexity of the relationships between requirements and formal models can be difficult. In this paper we present an approach that aims to address the twin challenges of finding appropriate abstractions and managing traceability between requirements and models. Our approach is based o...

  7. Measurement of step height by traceable interference microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y L; Wang, C Y

    2005-01-01

    A Traceable Interference Microscope (TIM) to calibrate the step height standards is presented. The construction of the TIM includes an interference microscope, a stabilized He-Ne laser, and a rotated ground glass. The instrument's original white light source is replaced by the stabilized laser through an optical fiber. The step height is measured by calculating the phase difference of two fringe patterns both on the upper and lower surfaces of the specimen. A new methodology called Double-Tilt Imaging (DTI) method is proposed to determine the Numerical Aperture Correction Factor (NACF). The wavelength of the light source and the difference both in angles and in spatial frequencies between the positive and negative tilts would reveal sufficient information to allow for the determination of the NACF directly. The light source used is a stabilized He-Ne laser traceable to the definition of the meter and the angle measurement to the angle standards by an autocollimator. The calculation of the aperture correction factor for the interference microscope with a 10x Mirau-type objective lens yields a traceable average value of 1.01936 with a relative standard uncertainty of about 5.74 x 10 -4 . The expanded uncertainty of this step height calibration system is determined to be approximately 3 nm

  8. Traceability and measurement uncertainty in sample preparation (W5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegscheider, W.; Walner, U.; Moser, J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Very few chemical measurements are being made directly on the object of interest and sample preparation is thus the rule rather than the exception in daily practice. Unfortunately the operations undertaken in the course of sample preparation are prone to rendering a sample useless for the purpose of interpreting a measurement performed on it, as it might not represent the original and relevant status any longer. Sample preparation along with sampling itself constitutes therefore a procedure that leads to a loss of representation of the original specimen or population. On the other hand it is also not sufficient to confine aspects of traceability and measurement uncertainty to the ultimate measurement, as the key purpose of measuring is to supply adequate data for some kind of decision, be it in production, in health, in the environment, or indeed in any other circumstance. These considerations have led to severe confusion in the community as to what traceability really means in chemistry. CITAC and EURACHEM have only recently issued a preliminary document that clarifies these issues and gives a firm handle on the future development of quality assurance in analytical chemistry. In this talk it will be attempted to outline the general ideas and procedures that lead to traceability of analytical chemical results accompanied by valid statements of their uncertainty. It will be argued that the central element in achieving these goals is a well-designed validation study that frequently goes beyond those requirements currently laid out in official documents. (author)

  9. Traceability and quality control in mammography: measurements and models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peixoto, Jose Guilherme Pereira

    2002-10-01

    The success of a treatment or diagnosis using radiation, depends on the optimization of the dose determination to be administered for the patient and on the beam radiation quality. It is recognized by the international guidelines that it is necessary to improve calibration services for mammography beams in order to improve the quality of clinical diagnosis. Major efforts have been made by several laboratories in order to establish an appropriate and traceable calibration infrastructure and to provide the basis for a quality control program in mammography. The contribution of the radiation metrology network to the mammography services is reviewed in this work. Steps required for the implementation of a mammography calibration system using a constant potential x-ray and a clinical mammography x-ray machine are presented. The various qualities of mammography radiation discussed in this work are in accordance with the IEC 61674 and the AAPM recommendations. This work also presents the methodology and the procedures to maintain and to disseminate the traceability at the x-ray mammography range, describing the interlaboratory comparison performed at LNMRI/IRD/CNEN and at the IPEN/CNEN using the secondary standard ionization chambers traceable with the international standard. It assesses the inter-laboratory comparison consistency and decides whether a questionable value should or not be accepted, using the residual method. This thesis discusses the uncertainties involved in all steps of the calibration chain in accord once with the ISO recommendations. (author)

  10. SU-F-I-13: Correction Factor Computations for the NIST Ritz Free Air Chamber for Medium-Energy X Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergstrom, P

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses 3 free-air chambers to establish primary standards for radiation dosimetry at x-ray energies. For medium-energy × rays, the Ritz free-air chamber is the main measurement device. In order to convert the charge or current collected by the chamber to the radiation quantities air kerma or air kerma rate, a number of correction factors specific to the chamber must be applied. Methods: We used the Monte Carlo codes EGSnrc and PENELOPE. Results: Among these correction factors are the diaphragm correction (which accounts for interactions of photons from the x-ray source in the beam-defining diaphragm of the chamber), the scatter correction (which accounts for the effects of photons scattered out of the primary beam), the electron-loss correction (which accounts for electrons that only partially expend their energy in the collection region), the fluorescence correction (which accounts for ionization due to reabsorption ffluorescence photons and the bremsstrahlung correction (which accounts for the reabsorption of bremsstrahlung photons). We have computed monoenergetic corrections for the NIST Ritz chamber for the 1 cm, 3 cm and 7 cm collection plates. Conclusion: We find good agreement with other’s results for the 7 cm plate. The data used to obtain these correction factors will be used to establish air kerma and it’s uncertainty in the standard NIST x-ray beams.

  11. Aplicación del NFIS (Nist Fingerprint Image Software para la Extracción de Características de Huellas Dactilares Aplicación del NFIS (Nist Fingerprint Image Software para la Extracción de Características de Huellas Dactilares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noé Mosqueda Valadez

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta una descripción acerca de las huellas dactilares y sus características, así como la extracción de puntos característicos de la misma por medio del programa NFIS desarrollado por el NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology en conjunción con el FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation, descripción de algunas herramientas, así como un panorama general de un sistema AFAS (Automatic Fingerprint Authentification System y de un sistema AFIS (Automatic Fingerprint Identification System. This paper presents a description about the fingerprints and its characteristics, as well as the extraction of their characteristic points by means of the application of the program NFIS (NIST Fingerprint Image Software developed by the NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology in conjunction with the FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation, the description of some tools, as well as a general view of a system AFAS (Automatic Fingerprint Authentification System and of a system AFIS (Automatic Fingerprint Identification System.

  12. Traceable Determination of the Absolute Neutron Emission Yields of UO2F2 Working Reference Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaFleur, A.M.; Swinhoe, M.T.; Mayo, D.R.; Sapp, B.A.; Croft, S.; Mayer, R.L.

    2013-06-01

    The nuclear material contained in the process equipment of a uranium enrichment plant (referred to as holdup) is an important component of the overall nuclear material inventory for the plant. Accurate quantification and verification of holdup is needed to improve international safeguards and nuclear material accountancy. This is also needed for criticality safety and waste disposition. Passive neutron and gamma-ray nondestructive assay (NDA) methods are used to measure the holdup in process equipment. A key advantage of neutron measurements is that neutrons are highly penetrating and can be measured through thick walled equipment. The dominant source of neutrons in the UO 2 F 2 holdup is from the 19 F(α, n) 22 Na reaction resulting from 234 U alpha decay when uranium is enriched. There is a considerable spread between different historic determinations of the 19 F(α, n) yield from uranium which limits the accuracy of modeling and the calibration of NDA instruments. Furthermore, the compound form and presence of water also significantly affects the neutron emission rate from the holdup. This paper describes a series of experimental measurements performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to determine the absolute neutron emission yield from 10 different UO 2 F 2 working reference materials (WRMs) fabricated at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). The Mini Epithermal Neutron Multiplicity Counter (Mini ENMC) and a NIST certified 252 Cf neutron source were used for these measurements. The high efficiency and short die-away time of the Mini ENMC provides the high measurement precision needed to certify the neutron emission yield. The experiment was designed to achieve sub 1% accuracy in the net counting rate on each item and to provide assurance that important factors such as instrument stability, item placement and background were well understood. The traceable neutron yields measured from the WRMs were used to determine a more accurate neutron yield

  13. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT): Manufacturing Initiative Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA supports the Advanced Manufacturing National Program Office (AMNPO). Hosted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) the AMNPO is...

  14. Delivering on seafood traceability under the new U.S. import monitoring program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willette, Demian A; Cheng, Samantha H

    2018-02-01

    The United States is the world's largest fish importer. Recent reports, however, indicate that 25-30% of wild-caught seafood imported into the US is illegally caught, heightening concerns over the country's significant role in driving Illegal, Unreported, and Unregulated (IUU) fishing. In January 2017, NOAA enacted the Seafood Import Monitoring Program in an effort to combat IUU fishing through mandating improved seafood traceability requirements. This program requires reporting of fisheries data from harvest to arrival at the US border. Given the role of the US as a major global importer of seafood, this regulation could be a transformative action on fisheries worldwide if implementation includes two key components-(1) applying best available and most appropriate technologies and (2) building monitoring and enforcement capacity among trading nations. This paper provides insightful commentary on the potential for this US policy to lead by example and improve an essential natural resource that over a billion people worldwide depend on for nutrition and livelihoods.

  15. SI-Traceable Water Content Measurements in Solids, Bulks, and Powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østergaard, Peter; Nielsen, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Methods such as Karl Fischer titration and Loss-on-Drying, commonly used for estimating moisture content in samples, have been in existence for many years, but have difficulties obtaining a direct calibration chain toward water content. In recognition of this challenge, the joint research project, METefnet, was funded by the European Metrology Research Programme in 2012. The goal of METefnet is to establish a European metrology infrastructure for water content measurement and to develop primary standards for unambiguous determination of water mass fraction in materials. Here, we describe the primary standard developed by Danish Technological Institute in METefnet. This standard establishes traceability of the water content of a sample to dewpoint temperature. The standard only measures water, and the measurement result is not affected by other components.

  16. RFID to improve traceability in continuous granular flows:an experimental case study

    OpenAIRE

    Kvarnström, Björn; Bergquist, Bjarne; Vännman, Kerstin

    2011-01-01

    Traceability is important for identifying the root-causes of production related quality problems. Traceability can often be reached by adding identification markers on products, but this is not a solution when the value of the individual product is much lower than the incurred cost of a marking system. This is the case for continuous production of granular media. The use of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technique to achieve traceability in continuous granular flows has been proposed i...

  17. Eroded Coffee Traceability and Its Impact on Export Coffee Prices for Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard Leung

    2014-01-01

    In December 2008, the Ethiopian Commodity Exchange (ECX) opened a new coffee platform that has transformed Ethiopia’s coffee trade. The way ECX handles coffee in a commodity fashion has eroded traceability, a characteristic sought after by overseas coffee buyers. This paper traces the forces that give rise to the commoditization of coffee. An empirical analysis using a dataset on export coffee transactions supports the view that eroded traceability suppresses the export price of non-traceable...

  18. Consumers' Acceptability and Rejection of Food Traceability Systems, a French-German Cross-Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Halawany, Rafia; Bauer, Caroline; Giraud, Georges; Schaer, Burkhard

    2007-01-01

    Food traceability is mandatory since 1st January 2005 in the EU. Traceability of products and activities in the food supply chain is a new factor of competitiveness in agribusiness that connects producers to consumers and is deemed to be an important criterion of perception of food product quality and safety for consumers. Within the food industry, traceability is absolutely essential to provide consumer assurance about the sources and safety of food, to allow identification of the source of ...

  19. Tailoring NIST Security Controls for the Ground System: Selection and Implementation -- Recommendations for Information System Owners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamura, Eduardo; Mangum, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    . Certain protective measures for the general enterprise may not be as efficient within the ground segment. This is what the authors have concluded through observations and analysis of patterns identified from the various security assessments performed on NASA missions such as MAVEN, OSIRIS-REx, New Horizons and TESS, to name a few. The security audits confirmed that the framework for managing information system security developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for the federal government, and adopted by NASA, is indeed effective. However, the selection of the technical, operational and management security controls offered by the NIST model - and how they are implemented - does not always fit the nature and the environment where the ground system operates in even though there is no apparent impact on mission success. The authors observed that unfit controls, that is, controls that are not necessarily applicable or sufficiently effective in protecting the mission systems, are often selected to facilitate compliance with security requirements and organizational expectations even if the selected controls offer minimum or non-existent protection. This paper identifies some of the standard security controls that can in fact protect the ground system, and which of them offer little or no benefit at all. It offers multiple scenarios from real security audits in which the controls are not effective without, of course, disclosing any sensitive information about the missions assessed. In addition to selection and implementation of controls, the paper also discusses potential impact of recent legislation such as the Federal Information Security Modernization Act (FISMA) of 2014 - aimed at the enterprise - on the ground system, and offers other recommendations to Information System Owners (ISOs).

  20. Development of Halal Pharmaceuticals Traceability Systems for Used with Mobile Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Jalil Abd Hamid

    2014-01-01

    From early times, the pharmaceutical industry has had simple traceability systems, but with the increasing implementation of quality management in pharmaceutical manufacture, traceability systems have become more advanced covering more information and more steps in the production chain. Pork and its byproducts are not considered permissible (non-halal) and are forbidden for muslims to consume, along with alcohol and meat from animals not slaughtered according to Islamic law. Recently, the porcine DNA crisis and debates about non-halal substances have drawn new attention to production chain traceability. Existing guidelines on halal products, especially those issued by Jakim, and the halal standard MS2424, were insufficient to overcome the heaping problems of non-halal pharmaceuticals. An effective traceability system is essential to mitigate the risks associated with non-halal pharmaceutical and also as a tool for communication making information available along the production and supply chain. Traceability in pharmaceutical manufacturing can range from in-house traceability in production plants to traceability in whole or part of the production chain from raw material to consumer, and descriptors of the product and its history can be few or many as decided. This study is written to discuss on the approaches towards development of halal pharmaceuticals traceability systems for used with mobile devices for fulfilling muslims consumer demands. Specifically, this study discusses the conceptual architecture on halal traceability system for halal pharmaceutical product in Malaysia. (author)

  1. Phenolic Profiling for Traceability of Vanilla ×tahitensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busconi, Matteo; Lucini, Luigi; Soffritti, Giovanna; Bernardi, Jamila; Bernardo, Letizia; Brunschwig, Christel; Lepers-Andrzejewski, Sandra; Raharivelomanana, Phila; Fernandez, Jose A.

    2017-01-01

    Vanilla is a flavoring recovered from the cured beans of the orchid genus Vanilla. Vanilla ×tahitensis is traditionally cultivated on the islands of French Polynesia, where vanilla vines were first introduced during the nineteenth century and, since the 1960s, have been introduced to other Pacific countries such as Papua New Guinea (PNG), cultivated and sold as “Tahitian vanilla,” although both sensory properties and aspect are different. From an economic point of view, it is important to ensure V. ×tahitensis traceability and to guarantee that the marketed product is part of the future protected designation of the origin “Tahitian vanilla” (PDO), currently in progress in French Polynesia. The application of metabolomics, allowing the detection and simultaneous analysis of hundreds or thousands of metabolites from different matrices, has recently gained high interest in food traceability. Here, metabolomics analysis of phenolic compounds profiles was successfully applied for the first time to V. ×tahitensis to deepen our knowledge of vanilla metabolome, focusing on phenolics compounds, for traceability purposes. Phenolics were screened through a quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometer coupled to a UHPLC liquid chromatography system, and 260 different compounds were clearly evidenced and subjected to different statistical analysis in order to enable the discrimination of the samples based on their origin. Eighty-eight and twenty three compounds, with a prevalence of flavonoids, resulted to be highly discriminant through ANOVA and Orthogonal Projections to Latent Structures Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA) respectively. Volcano plot analysis and pairwise comparisons were carried out to determine those compounds, mainly responsible for the differences among samples as a consequence of either origin or cultivar. The samples from PNG were clearly different from the Tahitian samples that were further divided in two different groups based on the different

  2. Phenolic Profiling for Traceability of Vanilla ×tahitensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Busconi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Vanilla is a flavoring recovered from the cured beans of the orchid genus Vanilla. Vanilla ×tahitensis is traditionally cultivated on the islands of French Polynesia, where vanilla vines were first introduced during the nineteenth century and, since the 1960s, have been introduced to other Pacific countries such as Papua New Guinea (PNG, cultivated and sold as “Tahitian vanilla,” although both sensory properties and aspect are different. From an economic point of view, it is important to ensure V. ×tahitensis traceability and to guarantee that the marketed product is part of the future protected designation of the origin “Tahitian vanilla” (PDO, currently in progress in French Polynesia. The application of metabolomics, allowing the detection and simultaneous analysis of hundreds or thousands of metabolites from different matrices, has recently gained high interest in food traceability. Here, metabolomics analysis of phenolic compounds profiles was successfully applied for the first time to V. ×tahitensis to deepen our knowledge of vanilla metabolome, focusing on phenolics compounds, for traceability purposes. Phenolics were screened through a quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometer coupled to a UHPLC liquid chromatography system, and 260 different compounds were clearly evidenced and subjected to different statistical analysis in order to enable the discrimination of the samples based on their origin. Eighty-eight and twenty three compounds, with a prevalence of flavonoids, resulted to be highly discriminant through ANOVA and Orthogonal Projections to Latent Structures Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA respectively. Volcano plot analysis and pairwise comparisons were carried out to determine those compounds, mainly responsible for the differences among samples as a consequence of either origin or cultivar. The samples from PNG were clearly different from the Tahitian samples that were further divided in two different groups based on

  3. Phenolic Profiling for Traceability of Vanilla ×tahitensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busconi, Matteo; Lucini, Luigi; Soffritti, Giovanna; Bernardi, Jamila; Bernardo, Letizia; Brunschwig, Christel; Lepers-Andrzejewski, Sandra; Raharivelomanana, Phila; Fernandez, Jose A

    2017-01-01

    Vanilla is a flavoring recovered from the cured beans of the orchid genus Vanilla . Vanilla × tahitensis is traditionally cultivated on the islands of French Polynesia, where vanilla vines were first introduced during the nineteenth century and, since the 1960s, have been introduced to other Pacific countries such as Papua New Guinea (PNG), cultivated and sold as "Tahitian vanilla," although both sensory properties and aspect are different. From an economic point of view, it is important to ensure V . × tahitensis traceability and to guarantee that the marketed product is part of the future protected designation of the origin "Tahitian vanilla" (PDO), currently in progress in French Polynesia. The application of metabolomics, allowing the detection and simultaneous analysis of hundreds or thousands of metabolites from different matrices, has recently gained high interest in food traceability. Here, metabolomics analysis of phenolic compounds profiles was successfully applied for the first time to V . × tahitensis to deepen our knowledge of vanilla metabolome, focusing on phenolics compounds, for traceability purposes. Phenolics were screened through a quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometer coupled to a UHPLC liquid chromatography system, and 260 different compounds were clearly evidenced and subjected to different statistical analysis in order to enable the discrimination of the samples based on their origin. Eighty-eight and twenty three compounds, with a prevalence of flavonoids, resulted to be highly discriminant through ANOVA and Orthogonal Projections to Latent Structures Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA) respectively. Volcano plot analysis and pairwise comparisons were carried out to determine those compounds, mainly responsible for the differences among samples as a consequence of either origin or cultivar. The samples from PNG were clearly different from the Tahitian samples that were further divided in two different groups based on the different

  4. 75 FR 14128 - Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology Postdoctoral Researcher and Visiting Fellow...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... (NIST) Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology (CNST) is establishing a financial assistance program... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Institute of Standards and Technology [Docket Number: 100311136-0140-01] Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology Postdoctoral Researcher and Visiting Fellow...

  5. A mixing method for traceable air velocity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sillanpää, S; Heinonen, M

    2008-01-01

    A novel and quite simple method to establish a traceability link between air velocity and the national standards of mass and time is presented in this paper. The method is based on the humidification of flowing air before the blower of a wind tunnel with a known mass flow of water. Then air velocity can be calculated as a function of humidification water flow. The method is compared against a Pitot-tube-based velocity measurement in a wind tunnel at the MIKES. The results of these two different methods agreed well, with a maximum difference of 0.7%

  6. Portable radiation instrumentation traceability of standards and measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiserman, A.; Walke, M.

    1995-01-01

    Portable radiation measuring instruments are used to estimate and control doses for workers. Calibration of these instruments must be sufficiently accurate to ensure that administrative and legal dose limits are not likely to be exceeded due to measurement uncertainties. An instrument calibration and management program is established which permits measurements made with an instrument to be traced to a national standard. This paper describes the establishment and maintenance of calibration standards for gamma survey instruments and an instrument management program which achieves traceability of measurement for uniquely identified field instruments. (author)

  7. A Middleware Architecture for RFID-enabled traceability of air baggage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouhouche T.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available 1980 marked the start of a boom in radiofrequency identification (RFID technology, initially associated with a growing need for traceability. In view of the technological progress and lower costs, RFID’s area of application became much broader and, today, multiple business sectors take advantage of this technology. However, in order to achieve the maximum benefits of RFID technology, the data collected should be delivered in the best conditions to the whole applications that have need of its exploitation. For that, a dedicated middleware solution is required to ensure the collection of RFID data and their integration in information systems. The issues and key points of this integration as the description of the RFID technology will be summarized in the present paper, with a new middleware architecture. We focus mainly on components and the design of our middleware MedRFID, solution developed in our Lab, and which integrates mobility and provides extensibility, scalability, abstraction, ease of deployment and compatibility with IATA standards and EPCglobal standards. Moreover, we have developed an application (FindLuggage allowing a real time tracking of luggage in the airport, based on the proposed middleware MedRFID.

  8. Exploring a Black Body Source as an Absolute Radiometric Calibration Standard and Comparison with a NIST Traced Lamp Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert O.; Chrien, Thomas; Sarture, Chuck

    2001-01-01

    Radiometric calibration of the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) is required for the scientific research and application objectives pursued with the spectroscopic measurements. Specifically calibration is required for: inter-comparison of AVIRIS data measured at different locations and at different times; analysis of AVIRIS data with data measured by other instruments; and analysis of AVIRIS data in conjunction with computer models. The primary effect of radiometric calibration is conversion of AVIRIS instrument response values (digitized numbers, or DN) to units of absolute radiance. For example, a figure shows the instrument response spectrum measured by AVIRIS over a portion of Rogers Dry Lake, California, and another figure shows the same spectrum calibrated to radiance. Only the calibrated spectrum may be quantitatively analyzed for science research and application objectives. Since the initial development of the AVIRIS instrument-radiometric calibration has been based upon a 1000-W irradiance lamp with a calibration traced to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). There are several advantages to this irradiance-lamp calibration approach. First, the considerable effort of NIST backs up the calibration. Second, by changing the distance to the lamp, the output can closely span the radiance levels measured by AVIRIS. Third, this type of standard is widely used. Fourth, these calibrated lamps are comparatively inexpensive. Conversely, there are several disadvantages to this approach as well. First, the lamp is not a primary standard. Second, the lamp output characteristics may change in an unknown manner through time. Third, it is difficult to assess, constrain, or improve the calibration uncertainty delivered with the lamp. In an attempt to explore the effect and potentially address some of these disadvantages a set of analyses and measurements comparing an irradiance lamp with a black-body source have been completed

  9. Contents of selected B vitamins in NIST SRM 3280 multivitamin/multielement tablets by liquid chromatography isotope dilution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pei; Ozcan, Mustafa; Wolf, Wayne R

    2007-09-01

    There is increased interest in accurately assessing the total dietary intake of vitamins from all sources, including foods and dietary supplements. Consequently, a Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID), based upon analytical values, is being established by USDA with support of the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS), NIH. The DSID necessitated the development of a new SRM, 3280--Multivitamin/Multimineral Tablets, by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), with support from the ODS. As a continuation of a long-term project to develop and validate new methods of determining water-soluble B vitamins in foods and dietary supplements, and as part of a collaborative effort with NIST to characterize SRM 3280, values for the vitamin contents of SRM 3280 have been generated by a liquid chromatographic isotope dilution mass spectrometric (LC/IDMS) method. Isotope-labeled ((13)C and/or (2)H) B vitamins (B1-thiamine, B6-pyridoxine, B3-nicotinamide, and B5-pantothenic acid) were obtained from commercial sources, with the support of the ODS/NIH. Our LC/IDMS method uses a C18 reversed phase column, an Agilent 1100 HPLC system, and a Quattro Micro triple-quad mass spectrometer (MS). B vitamin determination was achieved using a gradient LC profile combined with MS/MS detection in multiple reaction monitoring mode. Stock solutions of the isotope-labeled vitamins were calibrated against USP standard solutions. The SRM tablets, with added amounts of the four isotope-labeled B vitamins, were extracted and the vitamins simultaneously determined in a single LC run, in contrast with the single-component determinations performed via IDMS. Unknown vitamin concentrations were calculated by comparing the ratios of the integrated LC peaks at the different masses of the unlabeled and labeled vitamins.

  10. Application of RFID in the area of agricultural products quality traceability and tracking and the anti-collision algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zu-liang; Zhang, Ting; Xie, Shi-yang

    2017-01-01

    In order to improve the agricultural tracing efficiency and reduce tracking and monitoring cost, agricultural products quality tracking and tracing based on Radio-Frequency Identification(RFID) technology is studied, then tracing and tracking model is set up. Three-layer structure model is established to realize the high quality of agricultural products traceability and tracking. To solve the collision problems between multiple RFID tags and improve the identification efficiency a new reservation slot allocation mechanism is proposed. And then we analyze and optimize the parameter by numerical simulation method.

  11. Pasture quality and cheese traceability index of Ragusano PDO cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venera Copani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Iblei plateau (Sicily, Southern Italy the native dairy cattle breed Modicana during the spring season grazes exclusively on natural pastures for the production of the Ragusano protected denomination of origin cheese. Along the grazing season, herbage undergoes to changes on protein, fibre and moisture content, affecting quality parameters such as plant carotenoids concentration, involved in the colour and nutritional characteristics of dairy products and potential biomarkers for authenticating fed green pasture-based diets. The aim of this work was to assess whether the cheese traceability index, based on the carotenoids spectra data elaboration, could be related to seasonal variations of floral composition and pasture quality. Four herbage and cheese samples were collected every two weeks in two representative farms of this area, from March to May 2013. Pasture characteristics as pastoral vegetation composition and pastoral value were analysed using the methodology developed for pastoral resources studies. Traceability index showed a significant positive correlation with pasture moisture and crude protein content (r=0.729* and 0.853**, respectively, while it was negatively correlated with fibre content (r=–0.719*.

  12. Processing Uncertain RFID Data in Traceability Supply Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Xie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Radio Frequency Identification (RFID is widely used to track and trace objects in traceability supply chains. However, massive uncertain data produced by RFID readers are not effective and efficient to be used in RFID application systems. Following the analysis of key features of RFID objects, this paper proposes a new framework for effectively and efficiently processing uncertain RFID data, and supporting a variety of queries for tracking and tracing RFID objects. We adjust different smoothing windows according to different rates of uncertain data, employ different strategies to process uncertain readings, and distinguish ghost, missing, and incomplete data according to their apparent positions. We propose a comprehensive data model which is suitable for different application scenarios. In addition, a path coding scheme is proposed to significantly compress massive data by aggregating the path sequence, the position, and the time intervals. The scheme is suitable for cyclic or long paths. Moreover, we further propose a processing algorithm for group and independent objects. Experimental evaluations show that our approach is effective and efficient in terms of the compression and traceability queries.

  13. Processing uncertain RFID data in traceability supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dong; Xiao, Jie; Guo, Guangjun; Jiang, Tong

    2014-01-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is widely used to track and trace objects in traceability supply chains. However, massive uncertain data produced by RFID readers are not effective and efficient to be used in RFID application systems. Following the analysis of key features of RFID objects, this paper proposes a new framework for effectively and efficiently processing uncertain RFID data, and supporting a variety of queries for tracking and tracing RFID objects. We adjust different smoothing windows according to different rates of uncertain data, employ different strategies to process uncertain readings, and distinguish ghost, missing, and incomplete data according to their apparent positions. We propose a comprehensive data model which is suitable for different application scenarios. In addition, a path coding scheme is proposed to significantly compress massive data by aggregating the path sequence, the position, and the time intervals. The scheme is suitable for cyclic or long paths. Moreover, we further propose a processing algorithm for group and independent objects. Experimental evaluations show that our approach is effective and efficient in terms of the compression and traceability queries.

  14. Application of Stable Isotope Signatures in Food Traceability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazaratul Ashifa Abdullah Salim; Roslanzairi Mostapha; Zainon Othman

    2016-01-01

    Stable isotope analysis has widely been used to trace the origin of organic materials in various fields, such as geochemistry, biochemistry, archaeology and petroleum. In past a decade, it has also become an important tool for food traceability study. The globalisation of food markets and the relative ease which food commodities are transported through and between countries and continents means that consumers are increasingly concerned about the origin of the foods they eat. The natural abundance of stable isotope variation such as carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen and oxygen are used as geographic tracers or marker to determine the geographic origin of fruits, crop, vegetables and food products from animal. The isotopic compositions of plant materials reflect various factors such as isotopic compositions of source materials and their assimilation processes as well as growth environments. This paper will discuss on stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions in rice that been determined by Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry, advantages, limitations and potential of other analysis applications that can be incorporated in food traceability system. (author)

  15. The Traceable Radiometry Underpinning Terrestrial and Helio Studies (TRUTHS) mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Paul D.; Fox, Nigel P.; Lobb, Daniel; Friend, Jonathan

    2015-10-01

    TRUTHS (Traceable Radiometry Underpinning Terrestrial- and Helio-Studies) is a proposed small satellite mission to enable a space-based climate observing system capable of delivering data of the quality needed to provide the information needed by policy makers to make robust mitigation and adaptation decisions. This is achieved by embedding trust and confidence in the data and derived information (tied to international standards) from both its own measurements and by upgrading the performance and interoperability of other EO platforms, such as the Sentinels by in-flight reference calibration. TRUTHS would provide measurements of incoming (total and spectrally resolved) and global reflected spectrally and spatially (50 m) solar radiation at the 0.3% uncertainty level. These fundamental climate data products can be convolved into the building blocks for many ECVs and EO applications as envisaged by the 2015 ESA science strategy; in a cost effective manner. We describe the scientific drivers for the TRUTHS mission and how the requirements for the climate benchmarking and cross-calibration reference sensor are both complementary and simply implemented, with a small additional complexity on top of heritage calibration schemes. The calibration scheme components and the route to SI-traceable Earth-reflected solar spectral radiance and solar spectral irradiance are described.

  16. Metrological traceability of carbon dioxide measurements in atmosphere and seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolle, F.; Pessana, E.; Sega, M.

    2017-05-01

    The accurate determination of gaseous pollutants is fundamental for the monitoring of the trends of these analytes in the environment and the application of the metrological concepts to this field is necessary to assure the reliability of the measurement results. In this work, an overview of the activity carried out at Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica to establish the metrological traceability of the measurements of gaseous atmospheric pollutants, in particular of carbon dioxide (CO2), is presented. Two primary methods, the gravimetry and the dynamic dilution, are used for the preparation of reference standards for composition which can be used to calibrate sensors and analytical instrumentation. At present, research is carried out to lower the measurement uncertainties of the primary gas mixtures and to extend their application to the oceanic field. The reason of such investigation is due to the evidence of the changes occurring in seawater carbonate chemistry, connected to the rising level of CO2 in the atmosphere. The well established activity to assure the metrological traceability of CO2 in the atmosphere will be applied to the determination of CO2 in seawater, by developing suitable reference materials for calibration and control of the sensors during their routine use.

  17. DNA Barcoding for Minor Crops and Food Traceability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Galimberti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This outlook paper addresses the problem of the traceability of minor crops. These kinds of cultivations consist in a large number of plants locally distributed with a modest production in terms of cultivated acreage and quantity of final product. Because of globalization, the diffusion of minor crops is increasing due to their benefit for human health or their use as food supplements. Such a phenomenon implies a major risk for species substitution or uncontrolled admixture of manufactured plant products with severe consequences for the health of consumers. The need for a reliable identification system is therefore essential to evaluate the quality and provenance of minor agricultural products. DNA-based techniques can help in achieving this mission. In particular, the DNA barcoding approach has gained a role of primary importance thanks to its universality and versatility. Here, we present the advantages in the use of DNA barcoding for the characterization and traceability of minor crops based on our previous or ongoing studies at the ZooPlantLab (Milan, Italy. We also discuss how DNA barcoding may potentially be transferred from the laboratory to the food supply chain, from field to table.

  18. Improving iodine homogeneity in NIST SRM 1548a Typical Diet by cryogenic grinding

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kučera, Jan; Kameník, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 3 (2015), s. 189-194 ISSN 0949-1775 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA MŠk LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Iodine * reference material * NIST SRM 1548a * cryogenic grinding * homogeneity Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.010, year: 2015

  19. DELAMINATION AND XRF ANALYSIS OF NIST LEAD IN PAINT FILM STANDARDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this protocol were to remove the laminate coating from lead paint film standards acquired from NIST by means of surface heating. The average XRF value did not change after removal of the polymer coating suggesting that this protocol is satisfactory for renderin...

  20. Small-Angle Neutron Scattering study of the NIST mAb reference material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Maria Monica; Liu, Yun; Krueger, Susan; Curtis, Joseph

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are of great interest to the biopharmaceutical industry because they can be engineered to target specific antigens. Due to their importance, the biomanufacturing initiative at NIST is developing an IgG1 mAb reference material `NIST mAb', which can be used by industry, academia, and regulatory authorities. As part of this collaborative effort, we aim at characterizing the reference material using neutron scattering techniques. We have studied the small-angle scattering profile of the NIST mAb in a histidine buffer at 0 and 150 mM NaCl. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we generate an ensemble of structures and calculate their theoretical scattering profile, which can be directly compared with experimental data. Moreover, we analyze the structure factor to understand the effect of solution conditions on the protein-protein interactions. Finally, we have measured the solution scattering of the NIST mAb, while simultaneously performing freeze/thaw cycles, in order to investigate if the solution structure was affected upon freezing. The results from neutron scattering not only support the development of the reference material, but also provide insights on its stability and guide efforts for its development under different formulations.

  1. Guidance on meeting DOE order requirements for traceable nondestructive assay measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    Purpose of this guide is to facilitate accuracy and precision of nondestructive assay measurements through improvement of the materials and process of traceability. This document provides DOE and its contractor facilities with guidance to establish traceability to the national measurement base for site-prepared NDA working reference materials

  2. Developing a Framework for Traceability Implementation in the Textile Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Traceability has recently gained considerable attention in the textile industry. Traceability stands for information sharing about a product including the product history, specification, or location. With the involvement of globally dispersed actors in the textile supply chain, ensuring appropriate product quality with timely supplies is crucial for surviving in this industry with ever increasing competition. Hence it is of paramount importance for a supply chain actor to track every product and trace its history in the supply chain. In this context, this paper presents a framework to implement traceability in the textile supply chain. A system approach has been followed, where firstly the usage requirement of traceability is defined, and then a framework for implementing intra-actor or internal traceability and inter-actor or external traceability is discussed. This article further presents a sequential diagram to demonstrate the interaction and information exchange between the actors in the supply chain, when the traceability information is requested. An example is also illustrated for data storage using a relational database management system and information exchange using XML for the textile weaver. Finally, the article discusses challenges and future studies required to implement traceability in the textile supply chain.

  3. The role of traceability in transforming seafood governance in the global South

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bailey, M.L.; Bush, S.R.; Miller, A.; Kochen, M.

    2016-01-01

    Business-to-business traceability has historically played an important role in coordinating value chain activities and helping businesses to manage reputational risk. Its use and value, however, have recently extended beyond industry value chain actors alone, and traceability information may now

  4. The Expanding Role of Traceability in Seafood: Tools and Key Initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Sara G; Boyle, Mariah

    2017-08-01

    In the last decade, a range of drivers within the seafood sector have incentivized the application of traceability to issues beyond food safety and inventory management. Some of the issues motivating the expanded use of traceability within the global seafood sector include: increased media attention on the legal and social risks within some seafood supply chains, governmental traceability requirements, private-sector sustainability commitments, and others. This article begins with an overview of these topics in the seafood industry, and why many nongovernment organizations (NGOs), companies, and government actors have turned to traceability as a tool to address them. We discuss how traceability connects to key requirements of environmental sustainability and social responsibility. Later, we review the range of traceability services, tools, software solutions, and the due diligence measures that are currently being leveraged within the seafood sector. The paper concludes with a discussion of several NGO- and industry-led traceability initiatives that are examples of seafood traceability improvements. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  5. Black Box Traceable Ciphertext Policy Attribute-Based Encryption Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingbing Fu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the existing attribute-based encryption (ABE scheme, the authority (i.e., private key generator (PKG is able to calculate and issue any user’s private key, which makes it completely trusted, which severely influences the applications of the ABE scheme. To mitigate this problem, we propose the black box traceable ciphertext policy attribute-based encryption (T-CP-ABE scheme in which if the PKG re-distributes the users’ private keys for malicious uses, it might be caught and sued. We provide a construction to realize the T-CP-ABE scheme in a black box model. Our scheme is based on the decisional bilinear Diffie-Hellman (DBDH assumption in the standard model. In our scheme, we employ a pair (ID, S to identify a user, where ID denotes the identity of a user and S denotes the attribute set associated with her.

  6. Ethical Traceability for Improved Transparency in the Food Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian Eyde

    2010-01-01

    the ethical aspects of a food’s production history. It offers a mechanism for communicating more comprehensively and reliably the information about food production practices that consumers need in order to be able to make food choices consistent with their values. Used imaginatively, it could also provide......Some practices in the agri-food sector worry consumers. Consumers might for instance be concerned about animal welfare, health, environmental issues, transparency of the food chain and so forth.A question, which confronts consumers today, is how they can become capable of acting upon such ethical....... Much of the information available is superficial, conflicting or partial, and it is hard for consumers seeking to make informed food choices on ethical matters to know which information to trust. Food traceability, which provides a record of the history and journey of a given food, and which...

  7. Towards Provenance and Traceability in CRISTAL for HEP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamdasani, Jetendr; Branson, Andrew; McClatchey, Richard

    2014-06-01

    This paper discusses the CRISTAL object lifecycle management system and its use in provenance data management and the traceability of system events. This software was initially used to capture the construction and calibration of the CMS ECAL detector at CERN for later use by physicists in their data analysis. Some further uses of CRISTAL in different projects (CMS, neuGRID and N4U) are presented as examples of its flexible data model. From these examples, applications are drawn for the High Energy Physics domain and some initial ideas for its use in data preservation HEP are outlined in detail in this paper. Currently investigations are underway to gauge the feasibility of using the N4U Analysis Service or a derivative of it to address the requirements of data and analysis logging and provenance capture within the HEP long term data analysis environment.

  8. Towards Provenance and Traceability in CRISTAL for HEP

    CERN Document Server

    Shamdasani, Jetendr; McClatchey, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the CRISTAL object lifecycle management system and its use in provenance data management and the traceability of system events. This software was initially used to capture the construction and calibration of the CMS ECAL detector at CERN for later use by physicists in their data analysis. Some further uses of CRISTAL in different projects (CMS, neuGRID and N4U) are presented as examples of its flexible data model. From these examples, applications are drawn for the High Energy Physics domain and some initial ideas for its use in data preservation HEP are outlined in detail in this paper. Currently investigations are underway to gauge the feasibility of using the N4U Analysis Service or a derivative of it to address the requirements of data and analysis logging and provenance capture within the HEP long term data analysis environment.

  9. Traceable measurements of the activity concentration in air

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, A; Forkel-Wirth, Doris; Müller, A; Marcos, A

    2002-01-01

    The nuclear reactions induced by high energetic protons in heavy targets such as UC/sub 2/ and ThC cause a particular, complex radiation protection task at facilities like ISOLDE: the measurement of a mixture of different isotopes of the radioactive noble gas radon and the radon progenies in air. The knowledge of their respective activity concentration is fundamental for exposure assessments. Due to the complex mixture of activity concentrations in air, its precise determination is quite difficult. Therefore, a new procedure for taking reference samples was developed and implemented for the traceable measurement of the activity concentration of radioactive ions (e.g., radon progenies) in air. This technique is combined by measuring alpha -particles with a multi-wire ionization chamber for the parallel on-line determination of the activity concentration of different radon isotopes. (10 refs).

  10. Proposal of genetic traceability for Cinta Senese products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Franci

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cinta Senese is a white belted pig breed native of Italy. This breed is characterized by an high quality meat whereas its productive and reproductive performances are poor. The breed currently produces fresh and cured products with high market price. One of the factors associated with this high price is the quality of the raw material but consumers require that Cinta Senese be the only breed involved. There are some Cinta Senese products which are currently in the process of being recognized by European Union (PDO. Nevertheless the deceitful use of more fruitful breeds is anyhow possible, therefore the institution of a protocol for a DNA-based traceability of Cinta Senese products would be desirable. Traditionally breeds were classified by their colour or type so that over time a Standard of Excellence (phenotypic conformity was developed to define phenotype and supplemented by pedigree information. One of the main distinguishing features for pig breeds is coat colour and pattern. Two loci, Extension and Dominant White have a major influence on coat colour. The genes involved have been identified (MC1R and KIT respectively, variants have been described and associations with breed and colour determined (Giuffra et al., 2002, Johansson Moller et al., 1996, Kijas et al., 1998, 2001, Marklund et al., 1998, Pielberg et al., 2002. All the assayed mutations are causal of the investigated phenomena. These polymorphisms could play an important role in Quality Assurance programmes and maintenance of brand identity. The aim of this work was the study of these polymorphisms in Cinta Senese breed and the final purpose was the establishment of a DNA-based traceability protocol of Cinta Senese products.

  11. Characterization of a traceable profiler instrument for areal roughness measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomsen-Schmidt, P

    2011-01-01

    A two-dimensional profiler instrument was designed and realized at the PTB (Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt). The main function of the instrument is to provide traceable results in the field of roughness measurement. It is equipped with a linear moving stylus which is guided by precision air bearings. The moving part of the stylus has weight around 1 g and is carried by a magnetic field. The contacting force of the tip onto the surface under test is controlled by a small voice coil actuator in a closed control loop. Vertical movements of the stylus are captured by two different, completely independent measurement systems, covering a range of 100 µm. The first one is an interferometer, which provides a traceable signal, and the second one is an inductive measurement system. The signal from the inductive measurement system is calibrated by the interferometer. The sample under test is carried within the x–y-plane by a linear guided table with low noise air bearings. These air bearings are preloaded by vacuum and a constant gap is achieved by gas pressure controllers. Both axes of the table are driven by linear voice coil actuators and their movement in the plane is measured by linear encoders. The sample carrier is equipped with two axes tilt compensation, by which the sample under test can be levelled automatically using the measurement system of the stylus. Real-time data acquisition, manual handling and automated procedures are managed by a programmable controller and proprietary software written in LabVIEW. After measurement, data from the system can be directly transferred into the smd- or sdf-format. Results of measurements on different samples to characterize the metrological behaviour of the instrument will be reported. To characterize the uncertainty of the instrument, a model is applied, which is in accordance with approved rules for contact stylus instruments

  12. Development of a traceability analysis method based on case grammar for NPP requirement documents written in Korean language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Yeong Jae; Seong, Poong Hyun; Kim, Man Cheol

    2004-01-01

    Software inspection is widely believed to be an effective method for software verification and validation (V and V). However, software inspection is labor-intensive and, since it uses little technology, software inspection is viewed upon as unsuitable for a more technology-oriented development environment. Nevertheless, software inspection is gaining in popularity. KAIST Nuclear I and C and Information Engineering Laboratory (NICIEL) has developed software management and inspection support tools, collectively named 'SIS-RT.' SIS-RT is designed to partially automate the software inspection processes. SIS-RT supports the analyses of traceability between a given set of specification documents. To make SIS-RT compatible for documents written in Korean, certain techniques in natural language processing have been studied. Among the techniques considered, case grammar is most suitable for analyses of the Korean language. In this paper, we propose a methodology that uses a case grammar approach to analyze the traceability between documents written in Korean. A discussion regarding some examples of such an analysis will follow

  13. Calibrating NIST SRM 683 as A New International Reference Standard for Zn Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Zhang, X.; Yu, H.; Huang, F.

    2017-12-01

    Zinc isotopes have been widely applied in the cosmochemical, geochemical, and environmental studies (Moynier et al. 2017). Obtaining precise Zn isotopic data for inter-laboratory comparison is a prerequisite to these applications. Currently, the JMC3-0749L is the primary reference standard for Zn isotopes (Albarède 2004), but it is not commercially available now. Thus, it is necessary to calibrate a new international primary reference standard for Zn isotopic analysis. Chen et al. (2016) showed that NIST SRM 683 (a pure Zn metal nugget of 140 grams) has a δ66ZnJMC of 0.12‰, which is falling within the range of natural Zn isotopic compositions, and it may a good candidate for the next generation of international reference standard (Chen et al. 2016). In order to further examine whether NIST SRM 683 has a homogeneous Zn isotopic composition, we measured more NIST SRM 683 by double-spike methods using MC-ICPMS (Conway et al. 2013). The metal nuggets of NIST SRM 683 were intensively sampled by micro-drilling. Zinc isotope analyses for two nuggets show that they have δ66Zn of 0.14 ± 0.02‰ (2SD, N = 32) and 0.13 ± 0.02‰ (2SD, N = 33), respectively. These values are similar to those of two Zn metal nuggets (0.11 ± 0.02‰ vs. 0.12 ± 0.02‰) reported previously by Chen et al. (2016). We fully dissolved one nugget, producing pure Zn solution with identical Zn isotopic composition with the drilling samples. All results strongly support that NIST SRM 683 is homogeneous in Zn isotopic compositions which could be an ideal candidate for the next reference for Zn isotopes. Tests on more metal nuggets will be performed in a few months for further confirming the Zn isotope compositions and homogeneity. Reference: Albarède et al., 2004. 'The stable isotope geochemistry of copper and zinc', Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 55: 409-27. Chen et al., 2016. 'Zinc Isotopic Compositions of NIST SRM 683 and Whole-Rock Reference Materials', Geostandards and

  14. Traceable calibration of hospital 192Ir HDR sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govinda Rajan, K.N.; Bhatt, B.C.; Pendse, A.M.; Kannan, V.

    2002-01-01

    Presently, no primary standard exists for the standardization of remote afterloading 192 Ir HDR sources. These sources are, therefore, being standardized by a few Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs), in terms of Air Kerma Strength (AKS) or Reference Air Kerma Rate (RAKR) using a 0.6 cc Farmer type chamber, set up as an Interim Standard. These SSDLs offer calibration to well type of ionization chambers that are normally used by the hospitals for calibrating the 192 lr HDR source. Presently, in many countries, including India, well chambers are not commercially available. Nor do these countries offer any calibration service for 192 lr HDR source. With the result users make use of well chambers imported from different countries with their calibration traceable to the country of origin. Since no intercomparisons between these countries have been reported, the measurement consistency between hospitals becomes questionable. The problem is compounded by the fact that these chambers are used for several years without re-calibration since no calibration service is locally available. For instance, in India, the chambers have been in use in hospitals, since 1994, without a second calibration. Not all hospitals use the well chamber for the calibration of the 192 lr HDR source. Many hospitals make use of 0.6 cc chambers, in air, at short source to chamber distances, for measuring the AKS of the source. The latter method is prone to much larger inaccuracy due to the use of very short source to chamber distances without proper calibration jigs, use of 60 Co calibration factor for 192 Ir HDR source calibrations, neglecting correction factors for room scatter, fluence non-uniformity, use of arbitrary buildup factors for the buildup cap of the chamber etc. A comparison of the procedures used at hospitals revealed that various arbitrary methods are in use at hospitals. An indigenously developed well chamber was calibrated against a Reference Standard traceable to the

  15. Proceedings of the November 2011 Traceability Research Summit: this report is the third in a series on Traceability Summits sponsored by IFT beginning in July 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Caitlin; Bhatt, Tejas

    2013-12-01

    Fifty thought leaders in the area of food traceability met for a 3rd time to discuss methodologies and finalize the principles that define their vision for traceability. Participants in the summit included representatives from industry, trade associations, government, academia, consumer groups, and more. One main focus of this summit included a discussion on the current regulations and voluntary initiatives in place regarding traceability. Overall, it was recognized that the recommendations from this summit group would be more specific and stringent in comparison to these current regulations and initiatives. The participants sought to be leaders in the traceability arena, with their recommendations leading the industry to optimal traceability systems and methods. Participants agreed on many principles for their vision of traceability, emphasizing the importance of access to traceability data. They discussed having industry be asked for "basic" tracing data prior to the need for a large-scale investigation, having standards for sharing data, and having the data in electronic form. Participants foresaw the importance of capturing data electronically in the future, although they recognized that many firms do not currently do this. The group also saw a need for a transition period to implement changes, and to provide implementation training and resource aid to small businesses. Summit participants discussed specific definitions and examples for key data elements and critical tracking events that could be used by industry to capture tracing data at specific points within the supply chain. Overall, participants refined the goals of the summit group and started to identify specific ways to achieve those goals. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Retrospective Analysis of NIST Standard Reference Material 1450, Fibrous Glass Board, for Thermal Insulation Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarr, Robert R; Heckert, N Alan; Leigh, Stefan D

    2014-01-01

    Thermal conductivity data acquired previously for the establishment of Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1450, Fibrous Glass Board, as well as subsequent renewals 1450a, 1450b, 1450c, and 1450d, are re-analyzed collectively and as individual data sets. Additional data sets for proto-1450 material lots are also included in the analysis. The data cover 36 years of activity by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in developing and providing thermal insulation SRMs, specifically high-density molded fibrous-glass board, to the public. Collectively, the data sets cover two nominal thicknesses of 13 mm and 25 mm, bulk densities from 60 kg·m−3 to 180 kg·m−3, and mean temperatures from 100 K to 340 K. The analysis repetitively fits six models to the individual data sets. The most general form of the nested set of multilinear models used is given in the following equation: λ(ρ,T)=a0+a1ρ+a2T+a3T3+a4e−(T−a5a6)2where λ(ρ,T) is the predicted thermal conductivity (W·m−1·K−1), ρ is the bulk density (kg·m−3), T is the mean temperature (K) and ai (for i = 1, 2, … 6) are the regression coefficients. The least squares fit results for each model across all data sets are analyzed using both graphical and analytic techniques. The prevailing generic model for the majority of data sets is the bilinear model in ρ and T. λ(ρ,T)=a0+a1ρ+a2T One data set supports the inclusion of a cubic temperature term and two data sets with low-temperature data support the inclusion of an exponential term in T to improve the model predictions. Physical interpretations of the model function terms are described. Recommendations for future renewals of SRM 1450 are provided. An Addendum provides historical background on the origin of this SRM and the influence of the SRM on external measurement programs. PMID:26601034

  17. The perceived value of dairy product traceability in modern society: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlebois, Sylvain; Haratifar, Sanaz

    2015-05-01

    The current study assessed the perceived value of food traceability in modern society by young consumers. After experiencing numerous recalls and food safety-related incidences, consumers are increasingly aware of the tools available to mitigate risks. Food traceability has been associated with food safety procedures for many years, but recent high-profile cases of food fraud around the world have given traceability a different strategic purpose. Focusing solely on dairy products, our survey results offer a glimpse of consumer perceptions of traceability as a means to preserve food integrity and authenticity. This study explored the various influences that market-oriented traceability has had on dairy consumers. For example, results show that if the dairy sector could guarantee that their product is in fact organic, 53.8% of respondents who often purchase organic milk would consider always purchasing traceable organic milk. This research produced a quantitative set of information related to the perceived value of food traceability, which could be useful for the creation and development of improved guidelines and better education for consumers. We discuss limitations and suggest areas for new research. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Geant4 simulations of NIST beam neutron lifetime experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valete, Daniel; Crawford, Bret; BL2 Collaboration Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    A free neutron is unstable and its decay is described by the Standard Model as the transformation of a down quark into an up quark through the weak interaction. Precise measurements of the neutron lifetime test the validity of the theory of the weak interaction and provide useful information for the predictions of the theory of Big Bang nucleosynthesis of the primordial helium abundance in the universe and the number of different types of light neutrinos Nν. The predominant experimental methods for determination of the neutron lifetime are commonly called `beam' and `bottle' methods, and the most recent uses of each method do not agree with each other within their stated uncertainties. An improved experiment of the beam technique, which uses magnetic and electric fields to trap and guide the decay protons of a beam of cold neutrons to a detector, is in progress at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD with a precision goal of 0.1. I acknowledge the support of the Cross-Diciplinary Institute at Gettysburg College.

  19. Update of NIST half-life results corrected for ionization chamber source-holder instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unterweger, M.P.; Fitzgerald, R.

    2014-01-01

    As reported at the ICRM 2011, it was discovered that the source holder used for calibrations in the NIST 4πγ ionization chamber (IC) was not stable. This has affected a large number of half-life measurement results previously reported and used in compilations of nuclear data. Corrections have been made on all of the half-life data based on the assumption that the changes to the ionization chamber response were gradual. The corrections are energy dependent and therefore radionuclide specific. This presentation will review our results and present the recommended changes in half-life values and/or uncertainties. - Highlights: • The NIST half-life data is corrected for sample positioning variations and refitted. • These results are reported and increased errors in the reported values are given. • Longer lived radionuclides are discussed

  20. An Atomic Abacus: Trapped ion quantum computing experiments at NIST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarco, Brian

    2003-03-01

    Trapped atomic ions are an ideal system for exploring quantum information science because deterministic state preparation and efficient state detection are possible and coherent manipulation of atomic systems is relatively advanced. In our experiment, a few singly charged Be ions are confined by static and radio-frequency electric fields in a micro-machined linear Paul trap. The internal and motional states of the ions are coherently manipulated using applied laser light. Our current work focuses on demonstrating the necessary ingredients to produce a scalable quantum computing scheme and on simplifying and improving quantum logic gates. I will speak about a new set of experiments that was made possible by recent improvements in trap technology. A novel trap with multiple trapping regions was used to demonstrate the first steps towards a fully scalable quantum computing scheme. Single ions were ``shuttled" between trapping regions without disturbing the ion's motional and internal state, and two ions were separated from a single to two different trapping zones. Improvements in the trap manufacturing process has led to a reduction of nearly two orders of magnitude in the ion's motional heating rate, making possible two new improved logic gates. The first gate utilizes the wave-packet nature of the ions to tune the laser-atom interaction and achieve a controlled-NOT gate between a single ion's spin and motional states. The second, a two-ion phase gate, uses phase-space dynamics to produce a state-sensitive geometric phase. I will end with a quick look at experiments using a Mg ion to sympathetically cool a simultaneously trapped Be ion and a glimpse of the next generation of ions traps currently under construction.

  1. Liquid Scintillation Counting Standardization of 22NaCl by te CIEMAT/NIST method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Barquero, L.; Grau Carles, A.; Grau Malonda, A.

    1995-01-01

    We describe a procedure for preparing a stable solution of ''22NaCl for liquid scintillation counting and its counting stability and spectral evolution in Insta-Gel''R is studied. The solution has been standardised in terms of activity concentration by the CIEMAT/NIST method with discrepancies between experimental and computed efficiencies lower than 0.4 % and an overall uncertainty of 0.35 %. (Author) 4 refs

  2. Liquid Scintillation counting Standardization of 22 NaCl by the CIEMAT/NIST method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Barquero, L.; Grau Carles, A.; Grau Malonda, A.

    1995-09-01

    We describe a procedure for preparing a stable solution of ''22 NaCl for liquid scintillation counting and its counting stability and spectral evolution in Insta-Gel''R is studied. The solution has been standardised in terms of activity concentration by the CIEMAT/NIST method with discrepancies between experimental and computed efficiencies lower than 0.4/% and an overall uncertainty of 0.35%

  3. NIST Accelerator Facilities And Programs In Support Of Industrial Radiation Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, F.B.; Desrosiers, M.F.; Hudson, L.T.; Coursey, B.M.; Bergstrom, P.M. Jr.; Seltzer, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    NIST's Ionizing Radiation Division maintains and operates three electron accelerators used in a number of applications including waste treatment and sterilization, radiation hardness testing, detector calibrations and materials modification studies. These facilities serve a large number of governmental, academic and industrial users as well as an active intramural research program. They include a 500 kV cascaded-rectifier accelerator, a 2.5 MV electron Van de Graaff accelerator and a 7 to 32 MeV electron linac, supplying beams ranging in energy from a few keV up to 32 MeV. In response to the recent anthrax incident, NIST along with the US Postal Service and the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (AFRRI) are working to develop protocols and testing procedures for the USPS mail sanitization program. NIST facilities and personnel are being employed in a series of quality-assurance measurements for both electron- and photon-beam sanitization. These include computational modeling, dose verification and VOC (volatile organic compounds) testing using megavoltage electron and photon sources

  4. Journal of research of the national institute of standards and technology, January-February 1993. Volume 98, Number 1. Special issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Contents: The NIST Cold Neutron Research Facility; Outline of Neutron Scattering Formalism; Small Angle Neutron Scattering at the National Institute of Standards and Technology; Neutron Reflectivity and Grazing Angle Diffraction; The Triple Axis and SPINS Spectrometers; Neutron Time-of-Flight Spectroscopy; Ultra-High Resolution Inelastic Neutron Scattering; Neutron Depth Profiling: Overview and Description of NIST Facilities; Prompt-Gamma Activation Analysis; Facilities for Fundamental Neutron Physics Research at the NIST Cold Neutron Research Facility

  5. Si-Traceable Scale for Measurements of Radiocarbon Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Joseph T.; Fleisher, Adam J.; Liu, Qingnan; Long, David A.

    2017-06-01

    Radiocarbon (^{14}C) dating of organic materials is based on measuring the ^{14}C/^{12}C atomic fraction relative to the nascent value that existed when the material was formed by photosynthetic conversion of carbon dioxide present in the atmosphere. This field of measurement has numerous applications including source apportionment of anthropogenic and biogenic fuels and combustion emissions, carbon cycle dynamics, archaeology, and forensics. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is the most widely used method for radiocarbon detection because it can measure extremely small amounts of radiocarbon (background of nominally 1.2 parts-per-trillion) with high relative precision (0.4 %). AMS measurements of radiocarbon are typically calibrated by reference to standard oxalic-acid (C_2H_2O_4) samples of known radiocativity that are derived from plant matter. Specifically, the internationally accepted absolute dating reference for so-called "modern-equivalent" radiocarbon is 95 % of the specific radioactivity in AD 1950 of the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) oxalic acid standard reference material and normalized to δ^{13}C_{VPDB} = 19 per mil. With this definition, a "modern-equivalent" corresponds to 1.176(70) parts-per-trillion of ^{14}C relative to total carbon content. As an alternative radiocarbon scale, we propose an SI-traceable method to determine ^{14}C absolute concentration which is based on linear Beer-Lambert-law absorption measurements of selected ^{14}C^{16}O_2 ν_3-band line areas. This approach is attractive because line intensities of chosen radiocarbon dioxide transitions can be determined by ab initio calculations with relative uncertainties below 0.5 %. This assumption is justified by the excellent agreement between theoretical values of line intensities and measurements for stable isotopologues of CO_2. In the case of cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) measurements of ^{14}C^{16}O_2 peak areas, we show that absolute, SI-traceable concentrations of

  6. Knowledge representation in safety assessment: improving transparency and traceability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos, F.L. de; Sullivan, T.; Ross, T.; Guimaraes, L.N.F.

    2011-01-01

    Transparency and traceability are key factors for confidence building, acceptability, and quality enhancement of the safety assessment, and safety case for a radioactive waste disposal facility. In order to facilitate analysis and promote discussions, all of the information used to make decisions should be readily available to stake holders. The information should convey a good understanding of the intermediate decisions processes, allowing examination of alternatives and 'what if questions'. In an ideal situation all stake holders, including scientists and the public, should be able to follow the path of a certain parameter, from the beginning where it was defined, its assumptions and uncertainties, throughout the calculations until the final results of the safety assessment. One of the main challenges, to achieving such a transparency and traceability, is that stake holders are a very diverse audience, with very different backgrounds. This could require preparation of various versions of the same documentation, which would be impractical. While the linguistic information is of crucial importance to understanding the reasoning, it is very difficult to convey the supporting conditions, and consequent uncertainties for the selection of parameters values. Even scientists involved in the process can become confused due to the overwhelming amount of information that is used to support parameter value selection. The amount of details makes it difficult to track the decisions, which lead to the selection of a certain parameter, throughout the calculations. This paper presents a methodology to represent the linguistic information used in the safety assessment in terms of mathematical expressions by using the fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic tools. This methodology aims to help information to be readily available while keeping, as much as possible, the original meaning of the linguistic expressions and, consequently, to be available at any time as a quick reference. This would

  7. A PetriNet-Based Approach for Supporting Traceability in Cyber-Physical Manufacturing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiwei Huang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available With the growing popularity of complex dynamic activities in manufacturing processes, traceability of the entire life of every product has drawn significant attention especially for food, clinical materials, and similar items. This paper studies the traceability issue in cyber-physical manufacturing systems from a theoretical viewpoint. Petri net models are generalized for formulating dynamic manufacturing processes, based on which a detailed approach for enabling traceability analysis is presented. Models as well as algorithms are carefully designed, which can trace back the lifecycle of a possibly contaminated item. A practical prototype system for supporting traceability is designed, and a real-life case study of a quality control system for bee products is presented to validate the effectiveness of the approach.

  8. Detection and traceability of genetically modified organisms in the food production chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miraglia, M.; Berdal, K.G.; Brera, C.; Corbisier, P.; Holst - Jensen, A.; Kok, E.J.; Marvin, H.J.P.; Schimmel, H.; Rentsch, J.; Rie, van J.P.P.F.; Zagon, J.

    2004-01-01

    Both labelling and traceability of genetically modified organisms are current issues that are considered in trade and regulation. Currently, labelling of genetically modified foods containing detectable transgenic material is required by EU legislation. A proposed package of legislation would extend

  9. Importance of Requirements Analysis & Traceability to Improve Software Quality and Reduce Cost and Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Manju M.; Mehta, Manju

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to emphasize the importance of developing complete and unambiguous requirements early in the project cycle (prior to Preliminary Design Phase). Having a complete set of requirements early in the project cycle allows sufficient time to generate a traceability matrix. Requirements traceability and analysis are the key elements in improving verification and validation process, and thus overall software quality. Traceability can be most beneficial when the system changes. If changes are made to high-level requirements it implies that low-level requirements need to be modified. Traceability ensures that requirements are appropriately and efficiently verified at various levels whereas analysis ensures that a rightly interpreted set of requirements is produced.

  10. MICROSATELLITES ANALISIS FOR THE STUDY OF BIODIVERSITY AND TRACEABILITY OF THE PIG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IUDITH IPATE

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Traceability of animals and animal products has a priority for governments of the European countries. The great development reached by the molecular genetic in last decades, has determined a high knowledge of the genome of the different species. The Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA of each animal is different (with the exceptions of monozygotic twins and clones. Since the genome of each animal contains approximately three billion DNA units, the range for variation among the DNA sequences of animals is enormous, consequently DNA markers analysis allows assuring a traceability of 100% in the meat industry. A methodology using 17 ISAG (International Society for Animal Genetics DNA microsatellite markers is proposed for meat traceability. Principal methods used to reveal DNA polymorphism are described as their applicability in species identification and meat traceability. The objective it was analysis the DNA profile of pig with 10 microsatellite markers and results of meat identity control.

  11. Magnetic field measurements of the CEBAF (NIST) wiggler using the pulsed wire method. Master's thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    The Free Electron Laser (FEL) has proven to be a versatile photon source for many applications in science, industry and defense. It is capable of providing wide tunability and high efficiency, but has yet to yield high average power required as a weapon system. The proposed infrared and ultraviolet FELs at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) have been projected to provide high average power. The first section of this thesis will study the necessity of a FEL for shipboard defense, and state the advantages over other defense systems. The remainder will focus on use of the pulsed wire method for measuring the magnetic field errors of the CEBAF/National Institute of Science and Technology (NIST) wiggler. Data analysis indicates the wiggler will have a net electron beam deflection of x=5.2mm, which is much greater than the electron beam radius of re=0.4mm and the optical mode waist of wo=1mm... Free Electron Laser (FEL), Pulsed Wire Method, High Energy Laser (HEL), Shipboard High Energy Laser, Theater Ballistic Missile Defense (TBMD).

  12. General Framework for Animal Food Safety Traceability Using GS1 and RFID

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Weizhu; Zheng, Limin; Zhu, Hong; Wu, Ping

    2009-01-01

    International audience; GS1 is global traceability standard, which is composed by the encoding system (EAN/UCC, EPC), the data carriers identified automatically (bar codes, RFID), electronic data interchange standards (EDI, XML). RFID is a non-contact, multi-objective automatic identification technique. Tracing of source food, standardization of RFID tags, sharing of dynamic data are problems to solve urgently for recent traceability systems. The paper designed general framework for animal fo...

  13. Re-thinking Traceability: A Prototype to Record and Revisit the Evolution of Design Artefacts

    OpenAIRE

    Gutierrez Lopez, Marisela; Rovelo Ruiz, Gustavo; Luyten, Kris; Haesen, Mieke; Coninx, Karin

    2018-01-01

    Keeping track of design processes is a cumbersome task due to the apparently unconstrained and unstructured nature of creative work. Traceability is fundamental to revisit and reflect on the design narratives that describe artefact evolution. In this paper, we aim to identify what characteristics are necessary to facilitate traceability of creative design processes. For this end, we use a functional prototype to connect artefacts, design rationale, and decisions in a s...

  14. Application of the concept of traceability to the management of nuclear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furnari, J.C.; Cohen, I.M.

    1998-01-01

    The connotations of the quality of nuclear data in the quality of experimental results are discussed. The authors show the analogies existent between metrological standards and literature data and propose the adoption of the concept of traceability of nuclear data. The conditions to be fulfilled for the publication of nuclear data, concerning the establishment of traceability, are discussed. Criteria for renormalization are presented. The requirements of nuclear data in neutron activation analysis and the role of the analyst are discussed

  15. Reference micro-objects and procedures to establish traceability in micro metrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasparin, Stefania; Tosello, Guido; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2011-01-01

    The report presents methods and procedure to establish the traceability of measurements at both micro and sub-micro dimensional scales. Reference artefacts and new methodologies to ensure traceability of dimensional and geometrical 3D measurements (absolute dimensions below 3 mm, micro features...... with critical dimensions below 100 μm, roughness lower than 100 nm) have been developed to allow validation and verification of product and process tolerances as developed within the COTECH project....

  16. Open problems in traceability: from raw materials to finished food products

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzo Comba; Fabrizio Dabbene; Paolo Gay; Cristina Tortia

    2013-01-01

    Even though the main EU regulations concerning food traceability have already entered to force since many years, we still remark very wide and impacting product recalls, which often involve simultaneously large territories and many countries. This is a clear sign that current traceability procedures and systems, when implemented with the only aim of respecting mandatory policies, are not effective, and that there are some aspects that are at present underestimated, and therefore should be att...

  17. Integrated analytical approaches for food traceability and pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-11-01

    It developed in the laboratory of Food Science of the Montevideo commissariat a regional workshop with the following aims:To evaluate the effect of vegetable matrices on the determination of pesticides through analysis by GC / M S. For the implementation and application of these tests, it was applied the Laboratory s protocol which it was distributed to all members of the working group. It worked with a matrix lettuce, chard and a mix of green leafy vegetables , evaluating the matrix effect in the following pesticides: chloropyrifos, procimidione, L-cyhalothrin, azoxystrobin, trifluralin and fenbuconazole, using heptachlor as internal standard.They carried out in five concentration levels, in triplicate tests, applying the techniques of extraction by QuEChERS (kit agile nt). Prepared samples are injected into the GC / M S equipment, an analysis of the results were evaluated by the working group. Furthermore this regional workshop was about nuclear techniques role in agricultural practice, the traceability and pollution control, laboratory services and farmers relationships, environmental, economic, social and political impact, pest prevention and animal diseases, risk, the human health, environment protection in the agricultural and the pesticides uses.

  18. ePedigree Traceability System for the Agricultural Food Supply Chain to Ensure Consumer Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar Farooq

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability relies on the environmental, social and economical systems: the three pillars of sustainability. The social sustainability mostly advocates the people’s welfare, health, safety, and quality of life. In the agricultural food industry, the aspects of social sustainability, such as consumer health and safety have gained substantial attention due to the frequent cases of food-borne diseases. The food-borne diseases due to the food degradation, chemical contamination and adulteration of food products pose a serious threat to the consumer’s health, safety, and quality of life. To ensure the consumer’s health and safety, it is essential to develop an efficient system which can address these critical social issues in the food distribution networks. This research proposes an ePedigree (electronic pedigree traceability system based on the integration of RFID and sensor technology for real-time monitoring of the agricultural food to prevent the distribution of hazardous and adulterated food products. The different aspects regarding implementation of the proposed system in food chains are analyzed and a feasible integrated solution is proposed. The performance of the proposed system is evaluated and finally, a comprehensive analysis of the proposed ePedigree system’s impact on the social sustainability in terms of consumer health and safety is presented.

  19. Geodecision system for traceability and sustainable production of beef cattle in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoria, D. D.; Andrade, R. G.; Bolfe, L.; Batistella, M.; Pires, P. P.; Vicente, L. E.; Visoli, M. C.

    2011-12-01

    Beef cattle production sustainability depends on incorporating innovative tools and technologies which are easy to comprehend, economically viable, and spatially explicit into the registration of precise, reliable data about production practices. This research developed from the needs and demands of food safety and food quality in extensive beef cattle production within the scope of the policies of Southern Cone and European Union's countries. Initially, the OTAG project (Operational Management and Geodecisional Prototype to Track and Trace Agricultural Production) focused on the development of a prototype traceability of cattle. The aim for the project's next phase is to enhance the electronic devices used in the identification and positioning of the animals, and the incorporation of more management and sanitary information. Besides, we intend to structure a database that enables the inclusion of greater amount of geospatial information linked to environmental aspects, such as water deficit, vegetation vigour, degradation indices of pasture areas, among others. For the extraction of knowledge, and the presentation of the results, we propose the development of a friendly interface to facilitate the exploration of the textual, tabular and geospatial information useful for the user.

  20. Application of the reference method isotope dilution gas chromatography mass spectrometry (ID/GC/MS) to establish metrological traceability for calibration and control of blood glucose test systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreis, Elisabeth; Küllmer, Kai; Appel, Matthias

    2014-05-01

    Self-monitoring of blood glucose (BG) by means of handheld BG systems is a cornerstone in diabetes therapy. The aim of this article is to describe a procedure with proven traceability for calibration and evaluation of BG systems to guarantee reliable BG measurements. Isotope dilution gas chromatography mass spectrometry (ID/GC/MS) is a method that fulfills all requirements to be used in a higher-order reference measurement procedure. However, this method is not applicable for routine measurements because of the time-consuming sample preparation. A hexokinase method with perchloric acid (PCA) sample pretreatment is used in a measurement procedure for such purposes. This method is directly linked to the ID/GC/MS method by calibration with a glucose solution that has an ID/GC/MS-determined target value. BG systems are calibrated with whole blood samples. The glucose levels in such samples are analyzed by this ID/GC/MS-linked hexokinase method to establish traceability to higher-order reference material. For method comparison, the glucose concentrations in 577 whole blood samples were measured using the PCA-hexokinase method and the ID/GC/MS method; this resulted in a mean deviation of 0.1%. The mean deviation between BG levels measured in >500 valid whole blood samples with BG systems and the ID/GC/MS was 1.1%. BG systems allow a reliable glucose measurement if a true reference measurement procedure, with a noninterrupted traceability chain using ID/GC/MS linked hexokinase method for calibration of BG systems, is implemented. Systems should be calibrated by means of a traceable and defined measurement procedure to avoid bias. © 2014 Diabetes Technology Society.

  1. Certification of NIST Room Temperature Low-Energy and High-Energy Charpy Verification Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucon, Enrico; McCowan, Chris N; Santoyo, Ray L

    2015-01-01

    The possibility for NIST to certify Charpy reference specimens for testing at room temperature (21 °C ± 1 °C) instead of -40 °C was investigated by performing 130 room-temperature tests from five low-energy and four high-energy lots of steel on the three master Charpy machines located in Boulder, CO. The statistical analyses performed show that in most cases the variability of results (i.e., the experimental scatter) is reduced when testing at room temperature. For eight out of the nine lots considered, the observed variability was lower at 21 °C than at -40 °C. The results of this study will allow NIST to satisfy requests for room-temperature Charpy verification specimens that have been received from customers for several years: testing at 21 °C removes from the verification process the operator's skill in transferring the specimen in a timely fashion from the cooling bath to the impact position, and puts the focus back on the machine performance. For NIST, it also reduces the time and cost for certifying new verification lots. For one of the low-energy lots tested with a C-shaped hammer, we experienced two specimens jamming, which yielded unusually high values of absorbed energy. For both specimens, the signs of jamming were clearly visible. For all the low-energy lots investigated, jamming is slightly more likely to occur at 21 °C than at -40 °C, since at room temperature low-energy samples tend to remain in the test area after impact rather than exiting in the opposite direction of the pendulum swing. In the evaluation of a verification set, any jammed specimen should be removed from the analyses.

  2. Proceedings of the July 2011 Traceability Research Summit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, Rosetta L; Bhatt, Tejas; McEntire, Jennifer C

    2013-12-01

    At a discussion-based forum of 50 leaders in the area of food product tracing, participants recognized the need for the development of a common vision for a simple, low cost and implementable traceability approach. A key theme that emerged during the day's discussions revolved around not reinventing the wheel: there are many efforts underway, including numerous pilots, and these efforts should be collaborative. The group sought more information on current initiatives and felt that learning from the experiences of others could help form a realistic vision for the future. Although any forthcoming actions from the US FDA are unknown, industry fully expects that improvements in product tracing will be necessary, and expects that industry itself (through the "demand" side) will enact requirements that may surpass regulatory mandates. A chief concern is uniform adoption, which will require outreach to and support from the global community as well as small firms that may lack the resources and education to keep up. Ultimately, an approach that is global, economical, scalable, and inclusive of firms of all sizes who handles all types of food products, will have the greatest likelihood of success. While the ability to rapidly link products across the supply chain serves as an ideal goal, there are still substantial concerns to be addressed, particularly regarding confidentiality of data, and who will have access to what information under what circumstances, which was woven into virtually every discussion topic. Who will spearhead the development of the visions is a question, but there was general agreement that a joint partnership which includes all stakeholders is a necessity. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Genetic Traceability of Black Pig Meats Using Microsatellite Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Don Oh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Pork from Jeju black pig (population J and Berkshire (population B has a unique market share in Korea because of their high meat quality. Due to the high demand of this pork, traceability of the pork to its origin is becoming an important part of the consumer demand. To examine the feasibility of such a system, we aim to provide basic genetic information of the two black pig populations and assess the possibility of genetically distinguishing between the two breeds. Muscle samples were collected from slaughter houses in Jeju Island and Namwon, Chonbuk province, Korea, for populations J and B, respectively. In total 800 Jeju black pigs and 351 Berkshires were genotyped at thirteen microsatellite (MS markers. Analyses on the genetic diversity of the two populations were carried out in the programs MS toolkit and FSTAT. The population structure of the two breeds was determined by a Bayesian clustering method implemented in structure and by a phylogenetic analysis in Phylip. Population J exhibited higher mean number of alleles, expected heterozygosity and observed heterozygosity value, and polymorphism information content, compared to population B. The FIS values of population J and population B were 0.03 and −0.005, respectively, indicating that little or no inbreeding has occurred. In addition, genetic structure analysis revealed the possibility of gene flow from population B to population J. The expected probability of identify value of the 13 MS markers was 9.87×10−14 in population J, 3.17×10−9 in population B, and 1.03×10−12 in the two populations. The results of this study are useful in distinguishing between the two black pig breeds and can be used as a foundation for further development of DNA markers.

  4. TACO - a framework for traceability and communication of requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivertsen, Terje; Fredriksen, Rune; Thunem, Atoosa P-J.; Valkonen, Janne; Holmberg, Jan-Erik; Ventae, Olli; Andersson, Jan-Ove

    2005-06-01

    Several cases from the nuclear industry indicate the importance of clear, complete, and stable requirements from the beginning of the system development project. Since the safety of digital I and C is a property of the system in which it is embedded, the requirements specification of the I and C also plays an important role in the safety assessment of the whole system. In the development of NPP digital I and C systems, it is important to be able to trace the requirements backwards to the safety analysis report and forwards to the implementation (for development and quality control). A practical problem to perform such a trace relates to large amounts of documentation that must be read to produce the requirements specification of the safety systems. An important research task is therefore to identify, develop, or improve techniques that simplify the development and use of the requirement specification. These and related concerns motivated the initiation of the TACO project, and have provided guidance to three years of Nordic collaborative research within the NKS-R programme. The present report summarises the project and its deliverables, first of all the TACO common approach to requirements handling, called the TACO Shell. The overall objective of the TACO project was to improve the knowledge on principles and best practices related to the issues concretised in the preproject. On the basis of experiences in the Nordic countries, the project aimed at identifying the best practices and most important criteria for ensuring effective communication in relation to requirements elicitation and analysis, understandability of requirements to all parties, and traceability of requirements through the different design phases. It is expected that the project will provide important input to the development of guidelines and establishment of recommended practices related to activities involving the requirement specification. (Author)

  5. TDCR and CIEMAT/NIST liquid scintillation methods applied to the radionuclide metrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Paulo A.L. da; Silva, Carlos J. da; Iwahara, Akira; Loureiro, Jamir S.; Oliveira, Antonio E. de; Tauhata, Luiz, E-mail: palcruz@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lopes, Ricardo T. [Coordenacao de Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    In this work are presented TDCR and CIEMAT/NIST methods of liquid scintillation implemented in National Institutes of Metrology for activity standardization of radionuclides which decay by beta emission and electron capture. The computer codes to calculate the detection efficiency take into account: decay schemes, beta decay theory, quenching parameter evaluation, Poisson statistic model and Monte Carlo simulation for photon and particle interactions in the detection system. Measurements were performed for {sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 99}Tc pure beta emitters in a large energy range, and {sup 68}Ge/{sup 68}Ga which decay by electron capture and positron emission, with uncertainties smaller than 1% (k = 1). (author)

  6. Update of NIST half-life results corrected for ionization chamber source-holder instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterweger, M P; Fitzgerald, R

    2014-05-01

    As reported at the ICRM 2011, it was discovered that the source holder used for calibrations in the NIST 4πγ ionization chamber (IC) was not stable. This has affected a large number of half-life measurement results previously reported and used in compilations of nuclear data. Corrections have been made on all of the half-life data based on the assumption that the changes to the ionization chamber response were gradual. The corrections are energy dependent and therefore radionuclide specific. This presentation will review our results and present the recommended changes in half-life values and/or uncertainties. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Reflective Optical Chopper Used in NIST High-Power Laser Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cromer, Chris

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available For the past ten years, NIST has used high-reflectivity, optical choppers as beamsplitters and attenuators when calibrating the absolute responsivity and response linearity of detectors used with high-power CW lasers. The chopper-based technique has several advantages over the use of wedge-shaped transparent materials (usually crystals often used as beam splitters in this type of measurement system. We describe the design, operation and calibration of these choppers. A comparison between choppers and transparent wedge beampslitters is also discussed.

  8. Improved Metrological Traceability of Particle Size Values Measured with Line-Start Incremental Centrifugal Liquid Sedimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kestens, Vikram; Coleman, Victoria A; De Temmerman, Pieter-Jan; Minelli, Caterina; Woehlecke, Holger; Roebben, Gert

    2017-08-22

    Line-start incremental centrifugal liquid sedimentation (disc-CLS) is a powerful method to determine particle size based on the principles of Stokes' law. Because several of the input quantities of the Stokes equation cannot be easily determined for this case of a rotating disc, the disc-CLS approach relies on calibrating the sedimentation time scale with reference particles. To use these calibrant particles for establishing metrological traceability, they must fulfill the same requirements as those imposed on a certified reference material, i.e., their certified Stokes diameter and density value must come with a realistic measurement uncertainty and with a traceability statement. As is the case for several other techniques, the calibrants do not always come with uncertainties for the assigned modal diameter and effective particle density. The lack of such information and the absence of a traceability statement make it difficult for the end-user to estimate the uncertainty of the measurement results and to compare them with results obtained by others. We present the results of a collaborative study that aimed at demonstrating the traceability of particle size results obtained with disc-CLS. For this purpose, the particle size and effective particle density of polyvinyl chloride calibrants were measured using different validated methods, and measurement uncertainties were estimated according to the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement. The results indicate that the modal Stokes diameter and effective particle density that are assigned to the calibrants are accurate within 5% and 3.5%, respectively, and that they can be used to establish traceability of particle size results obtained with disc-CLS. This conclusion has a great impact on the traceability statement of certified particle size reference materials, for which the traceability is limited to the size and density values of the calibrant particles.

  9. [Traceability of labile blood products in Morocco: experience of the Ibn-Sina hospital of Rabat between 1999 and 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouadghiri, S; Atouf, O; Brick, C; Benseffaj, N; Essakalli, M

    2012-02-01

    The blood transfusion and haemovigilance service of the Ibn-Sina hospital in Rabat (Morocco) was created 1997. This unit manages the pretransfusional tests, distribution of blood products, traceability and haemovigilance. The objective of this study was to analyze, over a period of 12years, the traceability of blood products delivered in our hospital and the measures used to improve feedback information. This is a retrospective study conducted between 1999 and 2010. Traceability rate was calculated from the feedback of traceability forms supplied with blood products (number of blood products noted on traceability forms on the total number of delivered product). To improve traceability rate, several actions were undertaken: one-time training, awareness campaigns and call phones asking for feedback information. Between 1999 and 2010, the service has delivered 173,858 blood products. The average rate of traceability during this period was 13.4 %. Traceability rate varies widely over time (5.2 % in 1999, 15.5 % in 2010) and shows a maximum value of 27.2 % in 2005. Feedback information is lower in emergency departments than in medical and surgical services. Feedback information about traceability in Ibn-Sina hospital remains very poor despite the measures used. Other actions, such as continuous education courses, low enforcement and informatisation should be considered. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Past and Present Crystallographic Work at the NBS/NIST Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, A.

    2001-01-01

    Neutron diffraction at NBS/NIST started soon after the NBS reactor became operational in the summer of 1969. Since that time, literally hundreds of crystal structures have been determined and refined using single crystal and powder neutron diffraction data, collected with a variety of instruments. This work has been usually done in collaboration with other NBS/NIST divisions and/or universities and industrial laboratories. In parallel with the technical developments and the experimental work, also theoretical aspects of crystal geometry have been clarified, and significant improvements in the techniques of profile refinements have been made. It is therefore understandable that a comprehensive description of all the crystallographic studies carried out up to the present is impossible under the constraints of space and time imposed by a review of this type, and, in the following sections, we will limit ourselves to give, only a brief account of the topics which, in our opinion, represent the highlights of the work carried out at the reactor. PMID:27500055

  11. Establishment of a sensor testbed at NIST for plant productivity monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, D. W.; Hutyra, L.; Reinmann, A.; Trlica, A.; Marrs, J.; Jones, T.; Whetstone, J. R.; Logan, B.; Reblin, J.

    2017-12-01

    Accurate assessments of biogenic carbon fluxes is challenging. Correlating optical signatures to plant activity allows for monitoring large regions. New methods, including solar-induced fluorescence (SIF), promise to provide more timely and accurate estimate of plant activity, but we are still developing a full understanding of the mechanistic leakage between plant assimilation of carbon and SIF. We have initiated a testbed to facilitate the evaluation of sensors and methods for remote monitoring of plant activity at the NIST headquarters. The test bed utilizes a forested area of mature trees in a mixed urban environment. A 1 hectare plot within the 26 hectare forest has been instrumented for ecophysiological measurements with an edge (100 m long) that is persistently monitored with multimodal optical sensors (SIF spectrometers, hyperspectral imagers, thermal infrared imaging, and lidar). This biological testbed has the advantage of direct access to the national scales maintained by NIST of measurements related to both the physical and optical measurements of interest. We offer a description of the test site, the sensors, and preliminary results from the first season of observations for ecological, physiological, and remote sensing based estimates of ecosystem productivity.

  12. Optimization of traceable coaxial RF reflection standards with 7-mm-N-connector using genetic algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Schrader

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A new coaxial device with 7-mm-N-connector was developed providing calculable complex reflection coefficients for traceable calibration of vector network analyzers (VNA. It was specifically designed to fill the gap between 0 Hz (DC, direct current and 250MHz, though the device was tested up to 10GHz. The frequency dependent reflection coefficient of this device can be described by a model, which is characterized by traceable measurements. It is therefore regarded as a “traceable model". The new idea of using such models for traceability has been verified, found to be valid and was used for these investigations. The DC resistance value was extracted from RF measurements up to 10 GHz by means of Genetic Algorithms (GA. The GA was used to obtain the elements of the model describing the reflection coefficient Γ of a network of SMD resistors. The DC values determined with the GA from RF measurements match the traceable value at DC within 3·10-3, which is in good agreement with measurements using reference air lines at GHz frequencies.

  13. Establishing Food Traceability System Using Nuclear and Related Techniques in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainon Othman; Nazaratul Ashifa Abdullah Salim; Salmah Moosa; Roslanzairi Mostapha

    2015-01-01

    Determination of food traceability is important in quality control and safety of food. The dramatic increase in the volume of global trade and complexity of supply chains has caused a number of issues concerning food authenticity and safety. Commodities that attract premium prices are subject to fraud such as adulteration and counterfeit. This poses serious health risks due to unknown origin of the counterfeit. In addition to safety concern, the capability to certify food origin is becoming significant economic importance. In several countries, the use of geographical indications allows producers to obtain market recognition and often a premium price. In addressing food safety issues in Malaysia, the Food Hygiene Regulations (2009) has provision for traceability but mechanism on how traceability can be achieved is not prescribed. Present mechanism is mainly paper-based system that passes information along with the commodity. However, such system is subject to failure either inadvertently or deliberately (fraud). Thus there is a need to establish a science-based traceability system to support the food safety surveillance program in Malaysia. This paper presents the concept and use of nuclear and related techniques involving isotopic and elemental fingerprinting in determining the geographical origin of various food products and its potential application for traceability of Malaysian agricultural produce. (author)

  14. A REVIEW ON LEGAL TRACEABILITY OF GNSS MEASUREMENTS IN THE MALAYSIAN CADASTRAL PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gill

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available As the dependency on Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS in surveying has been growing over the years, the need for legal traceability of GNSS measurements has become a significant matter. In Malaysia, with the advent of the Malaysia Real-time Kinematic Network (MyRTKnet, GNSS surveying has revolutionised land survey and mapping. Correspondingly, the Department of Survey and Mapping Malaysia (DSMM amended and published standard regulations and guidelines concerning cadastral survey, i.e., Cadastral Survey Regulations 2009, to include GNSS measurements. However, these regulations and guidelines has not comprehensively incorporated legal traceability of GNSS measurements; which is a prerequisite for cadastral surveys as it requires reliable and conclusive evidence for issues such as boundary disputes. The first objective of this paper is to review and discuss the legal traceability of GNSS measurements. Secondly, it will highlight the current practice and issues, i.e., with regard to legal traceability, within the present Malaysian cadastral regulation and guidelines, in relation to the prevalently adopted Network RTK (N-RTK technique, GNSS instrument calibrations, and reference stations’ accuracy. Lastly, a rudimentary best practice guideline for GNSS surveying in cadastral survey for Malaysia is proposed. It is expected that this paper will contribute to the implementation of a best practice guideline, which is inclusive of legal traceability of GNSS measurements, for the Malaysian cadastral practice.

  15. SI-traceable standards for atmospheric monitoring of halogenated gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillevic, Myriam; Wyss, Simon A.; Pascale, Céline; Vollmer, Martin K.; Niederhauser, Bernhard; Reimann, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    To support atmospheric monitoring of greenhouse gases and in particular halogenated gases, we have developed a method to produce reference gas mixtures at nmol/mol (ppb) to pmol/mol levels (ppt). This method is dynamic and SI-traceable. This work is conducted in the framework of the EMRP projects HIGHGAS and KEY-VOCs as well as METAS' AtmoChemECV project. The method has been already applied to HFC-125 (pentafluoroethane, widely used in air conditioners), HFC-1234yf (2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene, a car air conditioner fluid of growing importance) and SF6 (insulant in electric switch-gears). It is currently being extended to HCFC-132b and CFC-13. It is particularly suitable for gas species and/or concentration ranges that are not stable in cylinders and it can be applied to a large variety of molecules related to air pollution and climate change (e.g., NO2, volatile organic compounds such as BTEX, NH3, water vapour at ppm level, CFCs, HCFCs, HFCs). The expanded uncertainty is less than 3 % (95 % confidence interval or k=2). The generation process is composed of four successive steps. In the first step the matrix gas, nitrogen or synthetic air is purified. Then this matrix gas is spiked with the pure substance, using a permeation device which contains a few grams of the pure substance (e.g., HFC-125) in the liquid form and loses it linearly over time by permeation through a membrane. This mass loss is precisely calibrated in our lab in Bern, using a magnetic suspension balance. In a third step the desired concentration is reached by dilution of the high concentration mixture exiting the permeation chamber with a chosen flow of the matrix gas in one or two subsequent dilution steps. All flows are piloted by mass flow controllers. All parts in contact with the gas mixture - including the balance - are passivated using coated surfaces, to reduce adsorption/desorption processes as much as possible. In the last step the mixture can be i) directly used to calibrate an

  16. 76 FR 22673 - Technology Innovation Program Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Institute of Standards and Technology Technology Innovation... the Technology Innovation Program Advisory Board. NIST is issuing this notice to correct the day of... Technology Innovation Program (TIP) Advisory Board is composed of ten members appointed by the Director of...

  17. Low-noise X-band Oscillator and Amplifier Technologies: Comparison and Status

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Howe, D. A; Hati, A

    2005-01-01

    .... Best-in-class results are presented based on recent measurements at NIST. In particular, comparisons are made between mature technologies of multiplied quartz, sapphire dielectric in whispering gallery mode (WGM...

  18. Standardization in clinical enzymology: a challenge for the theory of metrological traceability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infusino, Ilenia; Schumann, Gerhard; Ceriotti, Ferruccio; Panteghini, Mauro

    2010-03-01

    The goal of standardization for measurement of the catalytic concentration of enzymes is to achieve comparable results in human samples, independent of the reagent kits, instruments, and laboratory where the assay is performed. To pursue this objective, the IFCC has established reference systems for the most important clinical enzymes. These systems are based on the following requirements: a) reference methods, well described and evaluated extensively; b) suitable reference materials; and c) reference laboratories operating in a highly controlled manner. When these reference systems are used appropriately, the diagnostic industry can assign traceable values to commercial calibrators. Clinical laboratories that use procedures with validated calibrators to measure human specimens can now obtain values that are traceable to higher-order reference procedures. These reference systems constitute the structure of the traceability chain to which the routine methods can be linked via an appropriate calibration process, provided that they have a comparable specificity (i.e., they are measuring the same catalytic quantity).

  19. TF4SM: A Framework for Developing Traceability Solutions in Small Manufacturing Companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordel Sánchez, Borja; Alcarria, Ramón; Martín, Diego; Robles, Tomás

    2015-11-20

    Nowadays, manufacturing processes have become highly complex. Besides, more and more, governmental institutions require companies to implement systems to trace a product's life (especially for foods, clinical materials or similar items). In this paper, we propose a new framework, based on cyber-physical systems, for developing traceability systems in small manufacturing companies (which because of their size cannot implement other commercial products). We propose a general theoretical framework, study the requirements of these companies in relation to traceability systems, propose a reference architecture based on both previous elements and build the first minimum functional prototype, to compare our solution to a traditional tag-based traceability system. Results show that our system reduces the number of inefficiencies and reaction time.

  20. General Framework for Animal Food Safety Traceability Using GS1 and RFID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Weizhu; Zheng, Limin; Zhu, Hong; Wu, Ping

    GS1 is global traceability standard, which is composed by the encoding system (EAN/UCC, EPC), the data carriers identified automatically (bar codes, RFID), electronic data interchange standards (EDI, XML). RFID is a non-contact, multi-objective automatic identification technique. Tracing of source food, standardization of RFID tags, sharing of dynamic data are problems to solve urgently for recent traceability systems. The paper designed general framework for animal food safety traceability using GS1 and RFID. This framework uses RFID tags encoding with EPCglobal tag data standards. Each information server has access tier, business tier and resource tier. These servers are heterogeneous and distributed, providing user access interfaces by SOAP or HTTP protocols. For sharing dynamic data, discovery service and object name service are used to locate dynamic distributed information servers.

  1. TF4SM: A Framework for Developing Traceability Solutions in Small Manufacturing Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borja Bordel Sánchez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, manufacturing processes have become highly complex. Besides, more and more, governmental institutions require companies to implement systems to trace a product’s life (especially for foods, clinical materials or similar items. In this paper, we propose a new framework, based on cyber-physical systems, for developing traceability systems in small manufacturing companies (which because of their size cannot implement other commercial products. We propose a general theoretical framework, study the requirements of these companies in relation to traceability systems, propose a reference architecture based on both previous elements and build the first minimum functional prototype, to compare our solution to a traditional tag-based traceability system. Results show that our system reduces the number of inefficiencies and reaction time.

  2. Optimization of PIXE quantitative system to assist the traceability of pearl and other gemstones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murao, S.; Sera, K.; Goto, S.; Takahashi, C.; Cartier, L.; Nakashima, K.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: A recent rise of social attention towards ethical consumerism, ethical jewellery, blood diamonds and the traceability of gemstones has challenged scientists to construct analytical systems to deliver in line with such expectations by offering traceability solutions. It is important to develop traceability protocols for gemstones and pearls that are ethically traded, as this will further encourage members of the trade to engage in ethical and fair trade practices. Of various kinds of available methods, Proton/particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) seems to be robust and promising in this context because of its trace element analysis capabilities without destruction. The authors conducted both vacuum and in-air experiments to optimize conditions to identify important peaks and to quantify the signals that correspond to gemstone materials from specific geographic origins. PIXE results for cultured pearls from Micronesia and commercial-quality crystals from Pakistan, both sources of fair trade gemstone materials, will be presented. (author)

  3. Optimization of PIXE quantitative system to assist the traceability of pearl and other gemstones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murao, S., E-mail: s.murao@aist.go.jp [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, (Japan); Sera, K. [Cyclotron Research Center, Iwate Medical University, Takizawa, Iwate (Japan); Goto, S.; Takahashi, C. [Takizawa Laboratory, Japan Radioisotope Association, Takizawa, Iwate (Japan); Cartier, L. [Department of Environmental Science, University of Basel (Switzerland); Nakashima, K. [Yamagata University, Yamagata, (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: A recent rise of social attention towards ethical consumerism, ethical jewellery, blood diamonds and the traceability of gemstones has challenged scientists to construct analytical systems to deliver in line with such expectations by offering traceability solutions. It is important to develop traceability protocols for gemstones and pearls that are ethically traded, as this will further encourage members of the trade to engage in ethical and fair trade practices. Of various kinds of available methods, Proton/particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) seems to be robust and promising in this context because of its trace element analysis capabilities without destruction. The authors conducted both vacuum and in-air experiments to optimize conditions to identify important peaks and to quantify the signals that correspond to gemstone materials from specific geographic origins. PIXE results for cultured pearls from Micronesia and commercial-quality crystals from Pakistan, both sources of fair trade gemstone materials, will be presented. (author)

  4. Traceability and communication of requirements in digital and I and C systems development - Project report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivertsen, T.; Frederiksen, R.; Thunem, A.P.J.; Holmberg, J.E.; Valkonen, J.; Ventae, O.

    2004-03-01

    The overall objective of the TACO project is to improve the knowledge on principles and best practices related to the issues concretised in the preproject. On basis of experiences in the Nordic countries, the project aims at identifying the best practices and most important criteria for ensuring effective communication in relation to requirements elicitation and analysis, understandability of requirements to all parties, and traceability of requirements through the different design phases. It is expected that the project will provide important input to the development of guidelines and establishment of recommended practices related to these activities. In the year 2003, the TACO-project concentrated on four central issues: 1) Representation of requirements origins. 2) Traceability techniques. 3) Configuration management and the traceability of requirements. 4) Identification and categorisation of system aspects and their models The work was presented at the first TACO Industrial Seminar, which took place in Stockholm on the 12th of December 2003. The seminar was hosted by SKI. (au)

  5. Post hoc interlaboratory comparison of single particle ICP-MS size measurements of NIST gold nanoparticle reference materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro Bustos, Antonio R; Petersen, Elijah J; Possolo, Antonio; Winchester, Michael R

    2015-09-01

    Single particle inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (spICP-MS) is an emerging technique that enables simultaneous measurement of nanoparticle size and number quantification of metal-containing nanoparticles at realistic environmental exposure concentrations. Such measurements are needed to understand the potential environmental and human health risks of nanoparticles. Before spICP-MS can be considered a mature methodology, additional work is needed to standardize this technique including an assessment of the reliability and variability of size distribution measurements and the transferability of the technique among laboratories. This paper presents the first post hoc interlaboratory comparison study of the spICP-MS technique. Measurement results provided by six expert laboratories for two National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) gold nanoparticle reference materials (RM 8012 and RM 8013) were employed. The general agreement in particle size between spICP-MS measurements and measurements by six reference techniques demonstrates the reliability of spICP-MS and validates its sizing capability. However, the precision of the spICP-MS measurement was better for the larger 60 nm gold nanoparticles and evaluation of spICP-MS precision indicates substantial variability among laboratories, with lower variability between operators within laboratories. Global particle number concentration and Au mass concentration recovery were quantitative for RM 8013 but significantly lower and with a greater variability for RM 8012. Statistical analysis did not suggest an optimal dwell time, because this parameter did not significantly affect either the measured mean particle size or the ability to count nanoparticles. Finally, the spICP-MS data were often best fit with several single non-Gaussian distributions or mixtures of Gaussian distributions, rather than the more frequently used normal or log-normal distributions.

  6. Lidar profilers in the context of wind energy–a verification procedure for traceable measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottschall, Julia; Courtney, Michael; Wagner, Rozenn

    2012-01-01

    for lidar profilers that enables us to achieve the required traceability. The procedure is based on a direct comparison of the measurements from the lidar and reference sensors mounted on a mast at various height levels. First, the data are corrected and filtered to obtain a representative data set ensuring......, the existing standards only permit the use of cup anemometers as standard instruments. The main issue preventing the use of remote sensors in such standards is the need to maintain the traceability of the measurements in the international standard system. In this paper, we describe a verification procedure...

  7. A Systematic Mapping on Supporting Approaches for Requirements Traceability in the Context of Software Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MALCHER, P R.C.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Requirements Traceability is seen as a quality factor with regard to software development, being present in standards and quality models. In this context, several techniques, models, frameworks and tools have been used to support it. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to present a systematic mapping carried out in order to find in the literature approaches to support the requirements traceability in the context of software projects and make the categorization of the data found in order to demonstrate, by means of a reliable, accurate and auditable method, how this area has developed and what are the main approaches are used to implement it.

  8. Comparative physicochemical and biological characterization of NIST Interim Reference Material PM2.5 and SRM 1648 in human A549 and mouse RAW264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitkus, Robert J; Powell, Jan L; Zeisler, Rolf; Squibb, Katherine S

    2013-12-01

    The epidemiological association between exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and adverse health effects is well-known. Here we report the size distribution, metals content, endotoxin content, and biological activity of National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Interim Reference Material (RM) PM2.5. Biological activity was measured in vitro by effects on cell viability and the release of four inflammatory immune mediators, from human A549 alveolar epithelial cells or murine RAW264.7 monocytes. A dose range covering three orders of magnitude (1-1000μg/mL) was tested, and biological activity was compared to an existing Standard Reference Material (SRM) for urban PM (NIST SRM 1648). Robust release of IL-8 and MCP-1 from A549 cells was observed in response to IRM PM2.5 exposures. Significant TNF-α, but not IL-6, secretion from RAW264.7 cells was observed in response to both IRM PM2.5 and SRM 1648 particle types. Cytokine or chemokine release at high doses often occurred in the presence of cytotoxicity, likely as a result of externalization of preformed mediator. Our results are consistent with a local cytotoxic and pro-inflammatory mechanism of response to exposure to inhaled ambient PM2.5 and reinforce the continued relevance of in vitro assays for mechanistic research in PM toxicology. Our study furthers the goal of developing reference samples of environmentally relevant particulate matter of various sizes that can be used for hypothesis testing by multiple investigators. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. UTA versus line emission for EUVL: studies on xenon emission at the NIST EBIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahy, K; Dunne, P; McKinney, L; O'Sullivan, G; Sokell, E; White, J; Aguilar, A; Pomeroy, J M; Tan, J N; Blagojevic, B; LeBigot, E-O; Gillaspy, J D

    2004-01-01

    Spectra from xenon ions have been recorded at the NIST electron beam ion trap (EBIT) and the emission into a 2% bandwidth at 13.5 nm arising from 4d → 5p transitions compared with those from 4d → 4f and 4p → 4d transitions in Xe XI and also with that obtained from the unresolved transition array (UTA) observed to peak just below 11 nm. It was found that an improvement of a factor of 5 could be gained in photon yield using the UTA rather than the 4d → 5p emission. The results are compared with atomic structure calculations and imply that a significant gain in efficiency should be obtained using tin, in which the emission at 13.5 nm comes from a similar UTA, rather than xenon, as an EUVL source material

  10. NIST ThermoData Engine: Extension to Solvent Design and Propagation of Uncertainties for Process Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diky, Vladimir; Chirico, Robert D.; Muzny, Chris

    ThermoData Engine (TDE, NIST Standard Reference Databases 103a and 103b) is the first product that implements the concept of Dynamic Data Evaluation in the fields of thermophysics and thermochemistry, which includes maintaining the comprehensive and up-to-date database of experimentally measured...... property values and expert system for data analysis and generation of recommended property values at the specified conditions along with uncertainties on demand. The most recent extension of TDE covers solvent design and multi-component process stream property calculations with uncertainty analysis....... Selection is made by best efficiency (depending on the task, solubility, selectivity, or distribution coefficient, etc.) and matching other requirements requested by the user. At user’s request, efficiency criteria are evaluated based on experimental data for binary mixtures or predictive models (UNIFAC...

  11. An advanced liquid hydrogen cold source for the NIST research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.E.; Kopetka, P.; Rowe, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    A second-generation liquid hydrogen cold neutron source is currently being fabricated and will be installed in the NIST reactor early next year. The existing source has operated very successfully over the last four years, providing a six-fold increase in the cold neutron yield compared to the previous heavy ice source. The design of the new source is based on our operating experience with the existing LH 2 source and extensive neutron transport calculations using improved MCNP modeling and computational capabilities. Enhanced mechanical design and manufacturing tools are exploited in the fabrication of the advanced source, which is expected to nearly double the yield of the existing LH 2 source. (author)

  12. Preparation and LSC standardization of ''89 Sr (DNP) using the CIEMAT/NIST method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Barquero, L.; Arcos Merino, J.M. Los; Grau Malonda, A.

    1994-01-01

    A procedure for preparation of liquid scintillation counting samples of the strontium DNP complex, labelled with ''89 Sr, is described. The chemical quench, the counting stability and spectral evolution of this compound is studied in six scintillators, Toluene, Toluene-alcohol, Dioxane-naphthalene, HiSafe II, Ultima-Gold and Instagel. The liquid scintillation standardization of ''89Sr-DNP by the CIEMAT/NIST method, using Hisafe II and Ultima-Gold scintillators, has been carried out. The discrepancies between experimental and computed efficiencies are lower than 0.38% and 0.48%, respectively. The solution has been standardized in terms of activity concentration to an overall uncertainty of 0.38%. (Author)

  13. Preparation and LSC Standardization of ''89Sr (DNP) Using the CIEMAT/NIST Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Barquero, L.; Los Arcos Merino, J. M.; Grau Malonda, A.

    1994-01-01

    A procedure for preparation of liquid scintillation counting samples of the strontium DNP complex, labelled with ''89Sr, is described, the chemical quench, the counting stability and spectral evolution of this compound is studied in six scintillators, Toluene, Toluene-alcohol, Dioxane-naphthalene, HiSafe II, Ultima- Gold and Instagel. The liquid scintillation standardization of 89Sr-DNP by the CIEMAT/NIST method, using HiSafe II and Ultima-Gold scintillators, has been carried out. The discrepancies between experimental and computed efficiencies are lower than 0.38% and 0.48%, respectively. The solution has been standardized in terms of activity concentration to an overall uncertainty of 0,38%. (Author) 10 refs

  14. ReactorHealth Physics operations at the NIST center for neutron research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Thomas P

    2015-02-01

    Performing health physics and radiation safety functions under a special nuclear material license and a research and test reactor license at a major government research and development laboratory encompasses many elements not encountered by industrial, general, or broad scope licenses. This article reviews elements of the health physics and radiation safety program at the NIST Center for Neutron Research, including the early history and discovery of the neutron, applications of neutron research, reactor overview, safety and security of radiation sources and radioactive material, and general health physics procedures. These comprise precautions and control of tritium, training program, neutron beam sample processing, laboratory audits, inventory and leak tests, meter calibration, repair and evaluation, radioactive waste management, and emergency response. In addition, the radiation monitoring systems will be reviewed including confinement building monitoring, ventilation filter radiation monitors, secondary coolant monitors, gaseous fission product monitors, gas monitors, ventilation tritium monitor, and the plant effluent monitor systems.

  15. Continued Analysis of the NIST Neutron Lifetime Measurement Using Ultracold Neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffer, Craig; Huffman, P. R.; Schelhammer, K. W.; Dewey, M. S.; Huber, M. G.; Hughes, P. P.; Mumm, H. P.; Thompson, A. K.; Coakley, K.; Yue, A. T.; O'Shaughnessy, C. M.; Yang, L.

    2013-10-01

    The neutron lifetime is an important parameter for constraining the Standard Model and providing input for Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. The current disagreement in the most recent generation of lifetime experiments suggests unknown or underestimated systematics and motivates the need for alternative measurement methods as well as additional investigations into potential systematics. Our measurement was performed using magnetically trapped Ultracold Neutrons in a 3.1 T Ioffe type trap configuration. The decay rate of the neutron population is recorded in real time by monitoring visible light resulting from beta decay. Data collected in late 2010 and early 2011 is being analyzed and systematic effects are being investigated. An overview of our current work on the analysis, Monte Carlo simulations, and systematic effects will be provided. This work was supported by the NSF and NIST.

  16. Homogeneity and evaluation of the new NIST leaf certified reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    The NIST has produced and is in the process of certifying two new leaf CRMs, SRM1515 Apple Leaves and SRM 1547 Peach Leaves, as replacements for the no longer available NBS Orchard Leaves and the almost depleted Citrus Leaves. These two new materials have been processed and are being thoroughly evaluated and should provide the most advanced natural matrix botanical trace-element reference materials available. Caution should be used in determining a basis weight (drying) for these CRMs because of their very fine particle size. Homogeneity has been established by instrumental neutron activation analysis on both leaf materials for five elements, to date, to better than 1.5% (1 s) for 100-mg sample sizes

  17. IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series. 95. Alkaline Earth Carbonates in Aqueous Systems. Part 2. Ca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Visscher, Alex; Vanderdeelen, Jan

    2012-01-01

    The alkaline earth carbonates are an important class of minerals. This article is part of a volume in the IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series that compiles and critically evaluates solubility data of the alkaline earth carbonates in water and in simple aqueous electrolyte solutions. Part 1 outlined the procedure adopted in this volume, and presented the beryllium and magnesium carbonates. Part 2, the current paper, compiles and critically evaluates the solubility data of calcium carbonate. The chemical forms included are the anhydrous CaCO 3 types calcite, aragonite, and vaterite, the monohydrate monohydrocalcite (CaCO 3 · H 2 O), the hexahydrate ikaite (CaCO 3 ·6H 2 O), and an amorphous form. The data were analyzed with two model variants, and thermodynamic data of each form consistent with each of the models and with the CODATA key values for thermodynamics are presented.

  18. The NIST Real-Time Control System (RCS): A Reference Model Architecture for Computational Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albus, James S.

    1996-01-01

    The Real-time Control System (RCS) developed at NIST and elsewhere over the past two decades defines a reference model architecture for design and analysis of complex intelligent control systems. The RCS architecture consists of a hierarchically layered set of functional processing modules connected by a network of communication pathways. The primary distinguishing feature of the layers is the bandwidth of the control loops. The characteristic bandwidth of each level is determined by the spatial and temporal integration window of filters, the temporal frequency of signals and events, the spatial frequency of patterns, and the planning horizon and granularity of the planners that operate at each level. At each level, tasks are decomposed into sequential subtasks, to be performed by cooperating sets of subordinate agents. At each level, signals from sensors are filtered and correlated with spatial and temporal features that are relevant to the control function being implemented at that level.

  19. RFID-enabled traceability system for consignment and high value products: a case study in the healthcare sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendavid, Ygal; Boeck, Harold; Philippe, Richard

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents a case study of a hospital operating room that evaluated a Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID)-enabled traceability system for the management of consignment and high value products requiring item level traceability. Results indicate that the traceability system in conjunction with the redesign of replenishment processes facilitates item level traceability, improves financial controls and case costing, upgrades service levels and reduces inventory shrinkage. Other benefits include time saved from non-value-added activities that can be transferred to patient care activities. The solution can be considered (i) as an alternative to RFID-enabled cabinets used in the replenishment of consignment and high value supplies in certain operating rooms, cardiac catheterization laboratories and interventional radiology departments, or (ii) as a complementary solution facilitating the tracking of medical devices removed from RFID-enabled cabinets. In short, the end-to-end traceability of medical products in the healthcare supply chain can be significantly enhanced.

  20. Fusion of heterogeneous speaker recognition systems in the STBU submission for the NIST Speaker Recognition Evaluation 2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brümmer, N.; Burget, L.; Černocký, J.H.; Glembek, O.; Grézl, F.; Karafiát, M.; Leeuwen, D.A. van; Matějka, P.; Schwarz, P.; Strasheim, A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes and discusses the "STBU" speaker recognition system, which performed well in the NIST Speaker Recognition Evaluation 2006 (SRE). STBU is a consortium of four partners: Spescom DataVoice (Stellenbosch, South Africa), TNO (Soesterberg, The Netherlands), BUT (Brno, Czech Republic),

  1. An Overview of Traceability: Towards a general multi-domain model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Souali

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Traceability for some people, is merely a tool to keep a history over something important that happened in the past. For others, is has no added value to their actual processes or products. In fact, it is becoming more and more valued. Traceability is still a vast area of research and an undiscovered field that if it is well used and managed, can provide a set of critical information or lead to something bigger. Many researches are still working to enhance its use and its integration by providing solutions to help users better manage and control their different elements (products, source code, documents, requirements, specifications, etc.. Nowadays, it is used in almost all domains as it can provide reliable information and helps improve efficiency and productivity. In this paper, we first present the state of the art on traceability and its use, through several examples. Then we provide a list of major techniques used in this field and propose our own traceability definition models.

  2. Traceability and communication of requirements in digital I and C systems development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivertsen, T.; Fredriksen, Rune; Thunem, A.P.J. [Inst. for Energy Technology, Halden (Norway); Holmberg, J.E.; Valkonen, J.; Ventae, O. [VTT (Finland); Andersson, J.O. [Ringhals AB (Sweden)

    2005-10-01

    The overall objective of the TACO project has been to improve the knowledge on principles and best practices related to the traceability and communication of requirements in digital I and C systems development. On the basis of experiences in the Nordic countries, the project has aimed at identifying the best practices and most important criteria for ensuring effective communication in relation to requirements elicitation and analysis, understandability of requirements to all parties, and traceability of requirements through the different design phases. It is expected that the project will provide important input to the development of guidelines and establishment of recommended practices related to these activities. The report provides a summary of the project activities and deliverables, discusses possible application areas, and provides a link to its utilization in the project 'Management of Requirements in NPP Modernization Projects' (NKS-R-2005-47). In the preparation of the final report, a number of application areas have been identified where the TACO deliverables, first of all the TACO Shell and the TACO Traceability Model, can be utilized. The report aims at facilitating such utilization, by defining the context and main issues, explaining the main aspects of the deliverables, discussing the challenges experienced in the different application domains with respect requirements management, traceability and communication and how can the TACO results contribute to solving these challenges. (au)

  3. Software Tag : Empirical Software Engineering Data for Traceability and Transparency of Software Project

    OpenAIRE

    Inoue, Katsuro

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a scheme, named Software Tag, of software trade and development for improvement of traceability and transparency. Empirical data is collected during development, and processed into two types, open tag and secret tag, composing a software tag which is finally delivered to software purchaser.

  4. Traceability and communication of requirements in digital I and C systems development. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivertsen, T.; Fredriksen, Rune; Thunem, A.P.J.; Holmberg, J.E.; Valkonen, J.; Ventae, O.; Andersson, J.O.

    2005-10-01

    The overall objective of the TACO project has been to improve the knowledge on principles and best practices related to the traceability and communication of requirements in digital I and C systems development. On the basis of experiences in the Nordic countries, the project has aimed at identifying the best practices and most important criteria for ensuring effective communication in relation to requirements elicitation and analysis, understandability of requirements to all parties, and traceability of requirements through the different design phases. It is expected that the project will provide important input to the development of guidelines and establishment of recommended practices related to these activities. The report provides a summary of the project activities and deliverables, discusses possible application areas, and provides a link to its utilization in the project 'Management of Requirements in NPP Modernization Projects' (NKS-R-2005-47). In the preparation of the final report, a number of application areas have been identified where the TACO deliverables, first of all the TACO Shell and the TACO Traceability Model, can be utilized. The report aims at facilitating such utilization, by defining the context and main issues, explaining the main aspects of the deliverables, discussing the challenges experienced in the different application domains with respect requirements management, traceability and communication and how can the TACO results contribute to solving these challenges. (au)

  5. Metrological Traceability in the Social Sciences: A Model from Reading Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenner, A. Jackson; Fisher, William P., Jr.

    2013-09-01

    The central importance of reading ability in learning makes it the natural place to start in formative and summative assessments in education. The Lexile Framework for Reading constitutes a commercial metrological traceability network linking books, test results, instructional materials, and students in elementary and secondary English and Spanish language reading education in the U.S., Canada, Mexico, and Australia.

  6. Traceability and communication of requirements in digital I and C systems development - Project report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivertsen, T.; Fredrikson, R.; Thunem, A.P.J. [Institute for Energy Technology, Halden (Norway); Holmberg, J.E.; Valkonen, J.; Ventae, O. [VTT (Finland); Andersson, J.O. [Ringhals AB (Sweden)

    2005-04-01

    In 2004, the work has focused on providing a unified exposition on the issues studied and thereby facilitating a common approach to requirements handling, from their origins and through the different development phases. Emphasis has been put on the development of the TACO Traceability Model. The model supports understandability, communication and traceability by providing a common basis, in the form of a requirements change history, for different kinds of analysis and presentation of different requirements perspectives. Traceability is facilitated through the representation of requirements changes in terms of a change history tree built up by composition of instances of a number of change types, and by providing analysis on the basis of this representation. Much of the strength of the TACO Traceability Model is that it aims at forming the logic needed for formalising the activities related to change management and hence their further automation. The work was presented at the second TACO Industrial Seminar, which took place in Helsinki on the 8th of December 2004. Minutes of the seminar are included in appendix B. (au)

  7. Metrological Traceability in the Social Sciences: A Model from Reading Measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenner, A Jackson; Fisher, William P Jr

    2013-01-01

    The central importance of reading ability in learning makes it the natural place to start in formative and summative assessments in education. The Lexile Framework for Reading constitutes a commercial metrological traceability network linking books, test results, instructional materials, and students in elementary and secondary English and Spanish language reading education in the U.S., Canada, Mexico, and Australia

  8. Application of microsatellite markers as potential tools for traceability of Girgentana goat breed dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardina, Maria Teresa; Tortorici, Lina; Mastrangelo, Salvatore; Di Gerlando, Rosalia; Tolone, Marco; Portolano, Baldassare

    2015-08-01

    In livestock, breed assignment may play a key role in the certification of products linked to specific breeds. Traceability of farm animals and authentication of their products can contribute to improve breed profitability and sustainability of animal productions with significant impact on the rural economy of particular geographic areas and on breed and biodiversity conservation. With the goal of developing a breed genetic traceability system for Girgentana dairy products, the aim of this study was to identify specific microsatellite markers able to discriminate among the most important Sicilian dairy goat breeds, in order to detect possible adulteration in Girgentana dairy products. A total of 20 microsatellite markers were analyzed on 338 individual samples from Girgentana, Maltese, and Derivata di Siria goat breeds. Specific microsatellite markers useful for traceability of dairy products were identified. Eight microsatellite markers showed alleles present at the same time in Maltese and Derivata di Siria and absent in Girgentana and, therefore, they were tested on DNA pools of the three breeds. Considering the electropherograms' results, only FCB20, SRCRSP5, and TGLA122 markers were tested on DNA samples extracted from cheeses of Girgentana goat breed. These three microsatellite markers could be applied in a breed genetic traceability system of Girgentana dairy products in order to detect adulteration due to Maltese and Derivata di Siria goat breeds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Testing improvements in the chocolate traceability system: Impact on product recalls and production efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saltini, Rolando; Akkerman, Renzo

    2012-01-01

    hypothetical improvements of the traceability system within the chocolate production system and supply chain and we illustrate the resulting benefits by using a case study. Based on the case study, we quantify the influence of these improvements on production efficiency and recall size in case of a safety...

  10. Technical notes: A detailed study for the provision of measurement uncertainty and traceability for goniospectrometers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peltoniemi, J.I.; Hakala, T.; Suomalainen, J.M.; Honkavaara, E.; Markelin, L.; Gritsevich, M.; Eskelinen, J.; Jaanson, P.; Ikonen, E.

    2014-01-01

    The measurement uncertainty and traceability of the Finnish Geodetic Institutes¿s field gonio-spectro-polarimeter FIGIFIGO have been assessed. First, the reference standard (Spectralon sample) was measured at the National Standard Laboratory of MIKES-Aalto. This standard was transferred to FGI¿s

  11. Detection and traceability of genetically modified organisms in the food production chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miraglia, M; Berdal, K G; Brera, C; Corbisier, P; Holst-Jensen, A; Kok, E J; Marvin, H J P; Schimmel, H; Rentsch, J; van Rie, J P P F; Zagon, J

    2004-07-01

    Both labelling and traceability of genetically modified organisms are current issues that are considered in trade and regulation. Currently, labelling of genetically modified foods containing detectable transgenic material is required by EU legislation. A proposed package of legislation would extend this labelling to foods without any traces of transgenics. These new legislations would also impose labelling and a traceability system based on documentation throughout the food and feed manufacture system. The regulatory issues of risk analysis and labelling are currently harmonised by Codex Alimentarius. The implementation and maintenance of the regulations necessitates sampling protocols and analytical methodologies that allow for accurate determination of the content of genetically modified organisms within a food and feed sample. Current methodologies for the analysis of genetically modified organisms are focused on either one of two targets, the transgenic DNA inserted- or the novel protein(s) expressed- in a genetically modified product. For most DNA-based detection methods, the polymerase chain reaction is employed. Items that need consideration in the use of DNA-based detection methods include the specificity, sensitivity, matrix effects, internal reference DNA, availability of external reference materials, hemizygosity versus homozygosity, extrachromosomal DNA, and international harmonisation. For most protein-based methods, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with antibodies binding the novel protein are employed. Consideration should be given to the selection of the antigen bound by the antibody, accuracy, validation, and matrix effects. Currently, validation of detection methods for analysis of genetically modified organisms is taking place. In addition, new methodologies are developed, including the use of microarrays, mass spectrometry, and surface plasmon resonance. Challenges for GMO detection include the detection of transgenic material in materials

  12. Open problems in traceability: from raw materials to finished food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Comba

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Even though the main EU regulations concerning food traceability have already entered to force since many years, we still remark very wide and impacting product recalls, which often involve simultaneously large territories and many countries. This is a clear sign that current traceability procedures and systems, when implemented with the only aim of respecting mandatory policies, are not effective, and that there are some aspects that are at present underestimated, and therefore should be attentively reconsidered. In particular, the sole adoption of the so-called “one step back-one step forward traceability” to comply the EC Regulation 178/2002, where every actor in the chain handles merely the data coming from his supplier and those sent to his client, is in fact not sufficient to control and to limit the impact of a recall action after a risk notification. Recent studies on lots dispersion and routing demonstrate that each stakeholder has to plan his activities (production, transformation or distribution according to specific criteria that allow pre-emptively estimating and limiting the range action of a possible recall. Moreover, these new and very recently proposed techniques still present some limits; first of all the problem of traceability of bulk products (e.g. liquids, powders, grains, crystals during production phases that involve mixing operations of several lots of different/same materials. In fact, current traceability practices are in most cases unable to deal efficiently with this kind of products, and, in order to compensate the lack of knowledge about lot composition, typically resort to the adoption of very large lots, based for instance on a considered production period. Aim of this paper is to present recent advances in the design of supply chain traceability systems, discussing problems that are still open and are nowadays subject of research.

  13. [Techniques and possibilities of traceability of food: genotyping of the domestic animal population as an innovative contribution to food safety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brem, G

    2004-07-01

    Traceability of meat has become a very important aspect of quality assurance of food. DNA analyses could be used for identification and verification of farm animals and animal derived products. A prerequisite is the collection of qualified samples from entire populations of production animals or from regionally or specially characterised animal populations. The expenditure for conventional carrying out collection, preservation, cataloguing, and storage would be enormous. Therefore we have developed a simple, reliable, and inexpensive method for the collection using the ear tagging process and for preservation of samples at room temperature. A similar collection technology can also be used for sampling of carcasses, meat and meat products. Isolation of DNA from these tissue samples can be preformed using a new single step technology. For identifying individuals microsatellites and single nucleotide polymorphisms are analysed. Comparison of DNA fingerprints or SNP signatures allows to traceback samples collected from products to the animals they are coming from. If the system will be established on a nationwide basis the total costs would be less than 0.05 EUR per kilogram meat sold.

  14. A Study on Pig Slaughter Traceability Solution Based on RFID

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Qingyao; Xiong, Benhai; Geng, Zhi; Yang, Liang; Pan, Jiayi

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Due to an assembly line production and poor environment conditions in pig slaughterhouses, collection of slaughter tracing information is not a simple thing. Based on the UHF radio frequency identification (RFID) technologies, this study designed a RFID tag for carcass, a RS232-PS2 data conversion line and some data norms such as the RFID carcass tag and partition meat label norm, and developed online reading and writing system for RFID tags, accomplished RFID identifi...

  15. Charpy impact test results on five materials and NIST verification specimens using instrumented 2-mm and 8-mm strikers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanstad, R.K.; Sokolov, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    The Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is involved in two cooperative projects, with international participants, both of which involve Charpy V-notch impact tests with instrumented strikers of 2mm and 8mm radii. Two heats of A 533 grade B class I pressure vessel steel and a low upper-shelf (LUS) submerged-arc (SA) weld were tested on the same Charpy machine, while one heat of a Russian Cr-Mo-V forging steel and a high upper-shelf (HUS) SA weld were tested on two different machines. The number of replicate tests at any one temperature ranged from 2 to 46 specimens. Prior to testing with each striker, verification specimens at the low, high, and super high energy levels from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) were tested. In the two series of verification tests, the tests with the 2mm striker met the requirements at the low and high energy levels but not at the super high energy. For one plate, the 2mm striker showed somewhat higher average absorbed energies than those for the 8-mm striker at all three test temperatures. For the second plate and the LUS weld, however, the 2mm striker showed somewhat lower energies at both test temperatures. For the Russian forging steel and the HUS weld, tests were conducted over a range of temperatures with tests at one laboratory using the 8mm striker and tests at a second laboratory using the 2mm striker. Lateral expansion was measured for all specimens and the results are compared with the absorbed energy results. The overall results showed generally good agreement (within one standard deviation) in energy measurements by the two strikers. Load-time traces from the instrumented strikers were also compared and used to estimate shear fracture percentage. Four different formulas from the European Structural Integrity Society draft standard for instrumented Charpy test are compared and a new formula is proposed for estimation of percent shear from the force-time trace

  16. Liquid Scintillation Counting Standardization of {sup 2}2NaCl by te CIEMAT/NIST method; Calibracion por Centelleo Liquido del ''22NaCl, mediante el metodo CIEMAT/NIST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Barquero, L.; Grau Carles, A.; Grau Malonda, A.

    1995-07-01

    We describe a procedure for preparing a stable solution of ''22NaCl for liquid scintillation counting and its counting stability and spectral evolution in Insta-Gel''R is studied. The solution has been standardised in terms of activity concentration by the CIEMAT/NIST method with discrepancies between experimental and computed efficiencies lower than 0.4 % and an overall uncertainty of 0.35 %. (Author) 4 refs.

  17. Seafood Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børresen, Torger

    This presentation will fill the total picture of this conference between fisheries and aquaculture, blue biotech and bioconservation, by considering the optimal processing technology of marine resources from the raw material until the seafood reaches the plate of the consumer. The situation today...... must be performed such that total traceability and authenticity of the final products can be presented on demand. The most important aspects to be considered within seafood technology today are safety, healthy products and high eating quality. Safety can be divided into microbiological safety...... and not presenting any safety risk per se. Seafood is healthy due to the omega-3 fatty acids and the nutritional value of vitamins, peptides and proteins. The processing technology must however be performed such that these valuable features are not lost during production. The same applies to the eating quality. Any...

  18. A comparative study of 129I content in environmental standard materials IAEA-375, NIST SRM 4354 and NIST SRM 4357 by Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry and Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, John; Adamic, Mary; Snyder, Darin; Brookhart, Jacob; Hahn, Paula; Watrous, Matthew

    2016-11-01

    Iodine environmental measurements have consistently been backed up in the literature by standard materials like IAEA-375, Chernobyl Soil. There are not many other sources of a certified reference material for 129I content for mass spectrometry measurements. Some that have been found in the literature include NIST-4354 and NIST-4357. They are still available at the time of this writing. They don’t have certified content or isotopic values. There has been some work in the literature to show that iodine is present, but there hasn’t been enough to establish a consensus value. These materials have been analyzed at INL through two separate mass spectrometry techniques. They involve a combustion method of the starting material in oxygen, followed by TIMS analysis and a leaching preparation analyzed by accelerator mass spectrometry. Combustion/TIMS preparation of NIST SRM-4354 resulted in a 129I/127I ratio of 1.92 x 10-6 which agrees with AMS measurements which measured the 129I/127I ratio to be 1.93 x 10-6.

  19. Analysis of Loss-of-Coolant Accidents in the NIST Research Reactor - Early Phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Joo S.; Diamond, David

    2016-12-06

    A study of the fuel temperature during the early phase of a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) in the NIST research reactor (NBSR) was completed. Previous studies had been reported in the preliminary safety analysis report for the conversion of the NBSR from high-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low-enriched (LEU) fuel. Those studies had focused on the most vulnerable LOCA situation, namely, a double-ended guillotine break in the time period after reactor trip when water is drained from either the coolant channels inside the fuel elements or the region outside the fuel elements. The current study fills in a gap in the analysis which is the early phase of the event when there may still be water present but the reactor is at power or immediately after reactor trip and pumps have tripped. The calculations were done, for both the current HEU-fueled core and the proposed LEU core, with the TRACE thermal-hydraulic systems code. Several break locations and different break sizes were considered. In all cases the increase in the clad (or fuel meat) temperature was relatively small so that a large margin to the temperature threshold for blistering (the Safety Limit for the NBSR) remained.

  20. 75 FR 33268 - Technology Innovation Program (TIP) Notice of Availability of Funds; Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ...-0225-02] Technology Innovation Program (TIP) Notice of Availability of Funds; Amendment AGENCY... fiscal year 2010 Technology Innovation Program (TIP) competition. NIST is issuing this notice to correct... Technology, Technology Innovation Program, 100 Bureau Drive, Stop 4750, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-4750...

  1. Liquid scintillation counting standardization of 125I in organic and inorganic samples by the CIEMAT/NIST method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Barquero, L.; Grau Malonda, A.; Los Arcos Merino, J. M.; Grau Carles, A.

    1994-01-01

    The liquid scintillation counting standardization of organic and inorganic samples of ''I25I by the CIEMAT/NIST method using five different scintillators is described. The discrepancies between experimental and computed efficiencies are lower than 1.4% and 1.7%, for inorganic and organic samples, respectively, in the interval 421-226 of quenching parameter. Both organic and inorganic solutions have been standardized in terms of activity concentration to an overall uncertainty of 0.76%. (Author) 14 refs

  2. Liquid scintillation counting standardization of ''125 I in organic and inorganic samples by the CIEMAT/NIST method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Barquero, L.; Grau Malonda, A.; Los Arcos Merino, J.M.; Grau Carles, A.

    1994-01-01

    The liquid scintillation counting standardization of organic and inorganic samples of ''125 I by the CIEMAT/NIST method using five different scintillators is described. The discrepancies between experimental and computed efficiencies are lower than 1.4% and 1.7%, for inorganic and organic samples, respectively, in the interval 421-226 of quenching parameter. Both organic and inorganic solutions have been standardized in terms of activity concentration to an overall uncertainty of 0.76%

  3. Meeting the measurement uncertainty and traceability requirements of ISO/AEC standard 17025 in chemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, B

    2001-11-01

    The new laboratory accreditation standard, ISO/IEC 17025, reflects current thinking on good measurement practice by requiring more explicit and more demanding attention to a number of activities. These include client interactions, method validation, traceability, and measurement uncertainty. Since the publication of the standard in 1999 there has been extensive debate about its interpretation. It is the author's view that if good quality practices are already in place and if the new requirements are introduced in a manner that is fit for purpose, the additional work required to comply with the new requirements can be expected to be modest. The paper argues that the rigour required in addressing the issues should be driven by customer requirements and the factors that need to be considered in this regard are discussed. The issues addressed include the benefits, interim arrangements, specifying the analytical requirement, establishing traceability, evaluating the uncertainty and reporting the information.

  4. Geotraceability: an innovative concept to enhance conventional traceability in the agri-food chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oger, R.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available With the globalization of trade, people have become enlightened and demanding consumers as regards the origin of their food and the environment in which it is produced. The concept of geotraceability described in this article responds to that requirement by combining geographical information with conventional traceability data. The inclusion of geographical information relating to the environment of the production plots is based not only on exploiting some functionalities of spatial analysis tools that exist in geographical information systems (GIS but also on developing specific tools such as a geoidentifier and geoindicators. This article also describes the characteristics and methods of implementing a geographical information management system linked with traceability information. Lastly, the potential for using geotraceability systems in supply chains is analyzed, in particular for consumer warnings in cases of food crisis and assistance for certification of differentiated quality agricultural products.

  5. Traceability in stem cell research: from participant sample to induced pluripotent stem cell and back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Michael; Moraia, Linda Briceño; Steele, Jane C

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a traceability system developed for the Stem cells for Biological Assays of Novel drugs and prediCtive toxiCology consortium. The system combines records and labels that to biological material across geographical locations and scientific processes from sample donation to induced pluripotent stem cell line. The labeling system uses a unique identification number to link every aliquot of sample at every stage of the reprogramming pathway back to the original donor. Only staff at the clinical recruitment site can reconnect the unique identification number to the identifying details of a specific donor. This ensures the system meets ethical and legal requirements for protecting privacy while allowing full traceability of biological material. The system can be adapted to other projects and for use with different primary sample types.

  6. A new simplex chemometric approach to identify olive oil blends with potentially high traceability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semmar, N; Laroussi-Mezghani, S; Grati-Kamoun, N; Hammami, M; Artaud, J

    2016-10-01

    Olive oil blends (OOBs) are complex matrices combining different cultivars at variable proportions. Although qualitative determinations of OOBs have been subjected to several chemometric works, quantitative evaluations of their contents remain poorly developed because of traceability difficulties concerning co-occurring cultivars. Around this question, we recently published an original simplex approach helping to develop predictive models of the proportions of co-occurring cultivars from chemical profiles of resulting blends (Semmar & Artaud, 2015). Beyond predictive model construction and validation, this paper presents an extension based on prediction errors' analysis to statistically define the blends with the highest predictability among all the possible ones that can be made by mixing cultivars at different proportions. This provides an interesting way to identify a priori labeled commercial products with potentially high traceability taking into account the natural chemical variability of different constitutive cultivars. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Microfluidic-assisted fabrication of flexible and location traceable organo-motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Kyoung Duck; Kwak, Byung Kook; Sanchez, Samuel; Kim, Dong Sung

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we fabricate a flexible and location traceable micromotor, called organo-motor, assisted by microfluidic devices and with high throughput. The organo-motors are composed of organic hydrogel material, poly (ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA), which can provide the flexibility of their structure. For spatial and temporal traceability of the organo-motors under magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION; Fe3O4) were incorporated into the PEGDA microhydrogels. Furthermore, a thin layer of platinum (Pt) was deposited onto one side of the SPION-PEGDA microhydrogels providing geometrical asymmetry and catalytic propulsion in aqueous fluids containing hydrogen peroxide solution, H2O2. Furthermore, the motion of the organo-motor was controlled by a small external magnet enabled by the presence of SPION in the motor architecture.

  8. Decision Model for Planning and Scheduling of Seafood Product Considering Traceability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustin; Mawengkang, Herman; Mathelinea, Devy

    2018-01-01

    Due to the global challenges, it is necessary for an industrial company to integrate production scheduling and distribution planning, in order to be more efficient and to get more economics advantages. This paper presents seafood production planning and scheduling of a seafood manufacture company which produces simultaneously multi kind of seafood products, located at Aceh Province, Indonesia. The perishability nature of fish highly restricts its storage duration and delivery conditions. Traceability is a tracking requirement to check whether the quality of the product is satisfied. The production and distribution planning problem aims to meet customer demand subject to traceability of the seafood product and other restrictions. The problem is modeled as a mixed integer linear program, and then it is solved using neighborhood search approach.

  9. Practice and experience in traceability of radioactivity measurements of environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zhijian

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses some aspects on radioactivity measurement traceability and summarizes the work on quality assurance of radioactivity measurements of environmental samples in the laboratory, including transfer of standards, preparation of reference materials, and calibration of efficiency for volumse surces with Ge(Li) spectrometer. Some practical activitis regarding intercomparison of radioactivity measurements and other traceabillity-related activities are also described. Some sugestions relating to performing quality assurance are made

  10. Traceability in food supply chains Exploring governmental authority and industrial effects

    OpenAIRE

    Ringsberg, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Traceability in food supply chains has received increased attention in the last decade. The efforts of governmental authorities have also increased to regulate and control food supply chains and product characteristics related to information to ensure safety, quality, and preservation of living resources. Previous studies in the area take an industrial focus and exclude the governmental authority focus. This thesis thus focuses on exploring governmental authority and industrial effects on tra...

  11. Evaluation of surface contamination based on certifiably traceable, internationally accreditable measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitlock, G.D.

    1992-01-01

    National Accreditation and Measurement Service (NAMAS) adopted by the EUROMET agreement requires that the calibration of monitoring instruments be traceable internationally with the objective that radiation hazard assessment be improved. This objective is achieved for Tritium surface contamination by employing calibration sources and evaluation methods which comply with ISO standards including the measurement of activity removable by Volatilization as well as dust. Consideration should be given to organic binding of tritium in the skin with its implications in the event of litigation. (author)

  12. TRACEABILITY OF ON COORDINATE MEASURING MACHINES – CALIBRATION AND PERFORMANCE VERIFICATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Savio, Enrico; Bariani, Paolo

    This document is used in connection with three exercises each of 45 minutes duration as a part of the course GEOMETRICAL METROLOGY AND MACHINE TESTING. The exercises concern three aspects of coordinate measurement traceability: 1) Performance verification of a CMM using a ball bar; 2) Calibration...... of an optical coordinate measuring machine; 3) Uncertainty assessment using the ISO 15530-3 “Calibrated workpieces” procedure....

  13. Traceable calibration and demonstration of a portable dynamic force transfer standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlajic, Nicholas; Chijioke, Ako

    2017-08-01

    In general, the dynamic sensitivity of a force transducer depends upon the mechanical system in which it is used. This dependence serves as motivation to develop a dynamic force transfer standard, which can be used to calibrate an application transducer in situ. In this work, we SI-traceably calibrate a hand-held force transducer, namely an impact hammer, by using a mass suspended from a thin line which is cut to produce a known dynamic force in the form of a step function. We show that this instrument is a promising candidate as a transfer standard, since its dynamic response has small variance between different users. This calibrated transfer standard is then used to calibrate a secondary force transducer in an example application setting. The combined standard uncertainty (k  =  2) in the calibration of the transfer standard was determined to be 2.1% or less, up to a bandwidth of 5 kHz. The combined standard uncertainty (k  =  2) in the performed transfer calibration was less than 4%, up to 3 kHz. An advantage of the transfer calibration framework presented here, is that the transfer standard can be used to transfer SI-traceable calibrations without the use of any SI-traceable voltage metrology instrumentation.

  14. Implementing Traceability Systems in Specific Supply Chain Management (SCM through Critical Success Factors (CSFs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahbaz Khan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Traceability plays a vital role in the success of Halal Supply Chain (HSC. HSC revolve around the essential dimension of Halal Integrity (HI, whereas traceability is seemed to be medium to assure integrity. Thus, a need is felt to identify the factors which are critical to the successful implementation of traceability in Halal Supply Chain Management (HSCM. Identified Twelve Critical Success Factors (CSFs through an extensive review of literature and opinion of experts. Further, a contextual relationship among the CSFs is developed using Total Interpretive Structure Modelling (TISM approach and derived a model. The structural model is analyzed using Fuzzy MICMAC (Matrice d’Impacts Croises-Multipication Applique and Classment-cross-impact matrix multiplication applied to classification approach to identify the importance of CSFs by driving and dependence power. The primary result indicates towards; that improving the HSCM with the higher level of Halal awareness. Assuring HI will enhance the consumer satisfaction which leads to a competitive advantage for the organization. Academic researchers, industrial practitioners and Supply Chain executives can understand the complex interrelationship of CSFs by visualizing the TISM. It can help the management, lobbies and government to develop the policies regarding the implementation.

  15. Development of the management for parenteral nutrition traceability in a standard hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Bernabeu Soria

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to develop the traceability control and the hazard analysis in the processes of parenteral nutrients (PN. Method: a standardized graphical notation was generated, describing in detail each of the stages in the overall process. The presence of hazards was analysed by sequencing decisions. The existence of Control Points (CP or Critical Control Points (CCP was estimated by Criticality Index (CI for each hazard taking into account the probability of occurrence and the severity of the damage. The threshold for the IC was set in 6. Results: a specific flow chart for the management and traceability of PN was obtained, defining each of the stages in CPs (validation and transcription of the prescription and administration or CCPs (preparation, storage and infusion pump –flow and filter-. Stages regarding the delivery, the recovery and the recycle of the packing material of PNs are not considered CPs and, therefore, they were not included in the dashboard. Conclusions: PN must be dealt with in the frame of a standardized management system in order to improve patient safety, clinical relevance, maximize resource efficiency and minimize procedural issues. The proposed system provides a global management model whose steps are fully defined, allowing monitoring and verification of PN. It would be convenient to make use of a software application to support the monitoring of the traceability management and to store the historical records in order to evaluate the system.

  16. Traceability of Boletaceae mushrooms using data fusion of UV-visible and FTIR combined with chemometrics methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Sen; Li, Tao; Liu, HongGao; Li, JieQing; Wang, YuanZhong

    2018-04-01

    Boletaceae mushrooms are wild-grown edible mushrooms that have high nutrition, delicious flavor and large economic value distributing in Yunnan Province, China. Traceability is important for the authentication and quality assessment of Boletaceae mushrooms. In this study, UV-visible and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies were applied for traceability of 247 Boletaceae mushroom samples in combination with chemometrics. Compared with a single spectroscopy technique, data fusion strategy can obviously improve the classification performance in partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and grid-search support vector machine (GS-SVM) models, for both species and geographical origin traceability. In addition, PLS-DA and GS-SVM models can provide 100.00% accuracy for species traceability and have reliable evaluation parameters. For geographical origin traceability, the accuracy of prediction in the PLS-DA model by data fusion was just 64.63%, but the GS-SVM model based on data fusion was 100.00%. The results demonstrated that the data fusion strategy of UV-visible and FTIR combined with GS-SVM could provide a higher synergic effect for traceability of Boletaceae mushrooms and have a good generalization ability for the comprehensive quality control and evaluation of similar foods. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. A Re-Evaluation of the Relativistic Redshift on Frequency Standards at NIST, Boulder, Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlis, N. K.; Weiss, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Primary frequency standards that realize the definition of the second based on the Caesium (Cs) atom are used to steer International Atomic Time. According to the theory of relativity, their frequency should be adjusted to that at which these would operate, if located on the geoid. Current best standards for the current definition of the second are approaching uncertainties of one part in 1016. Optical frequency standards however are now reaching uncertainties of few parts in 1018 and are expected to lead to a new definition of the second. Their performance requires centimetre-level geoid accuracy, in order to calculate accurately the redshift frequency offset necessary for their inter-comparison. We re-evaluated the relativistic redshift of the frequency standards at NIST in Boulder, Colorado, USA, based on a recent precise GPS survey of several benchmarks on the roof of the building where these are housed, and on global and local geoid models supported by data from the GRACE and GOCE missions, including EGM2008, USGG2009, and USGG2012. We also evaluated the redshift offset based on the published NAVD88 geopotential number of the levelling benchmark Q407, after estimating the bias of the NAVD88 datum at our specific location. We present and discuss the results that we obtained using different methods, and provide our current estimate of the redshift offset and of its accuracy, considering the main error sources contributing to the total error budget. We compare our current estimates to those published by Pavlis and Weiss in 2003, using the data and models that were available at that time. We also discuss the prospects of using inter-connected ultra-precise frequency standards for the direct determination of geoid height differences, which may provide in the not-too-distant future an alternative approach for the establishment of vertical datums and the independent verification of the accuracy of global and local geoid models.

  18. A Coordinated Research Project on the Implementation of Nuclear Techniques to Improve Food Traceability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, Russell; Cannavan, Andrew; Zandric, Zora; Maestroni, Britt; Abrahim, Aiman

    2013-04-01

    Traceability systems play a key role in assuring a safe and reliable food supply. Analytical techniques harnessing the spatial patterns in distribution of stable isotope and trace element ratios can be used for the determination of the provenance of food. Such techniques offer the potential to enhance global trade by providing an independent means of verifying "paper" traceability systems and can also help to prove authenticity, to combat fraudulent practices, and to control adulteration, which are important issues for economic, religious or cultural reasons. To address some of the challenges that developing countries face in attempting to implement effective food traceability systems, the IAEA, through its Joint FAO/IAEA Division on Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, has initiated a 5-year coordinated research project involving institutes in 15 developing and developed countries (Austria, Botswana, Chile, China, France, India, Lebanon, Morocco, Portugal, Singapore, Sweden, Thailand, Uganda, UK, USA). The objective is to help in member state laboratories to establish robust analytical techniques and databases, validated to international standards, to determine the provenance of food. Nuclear techniques such as stable isotope and multi-element analysis, along with complementary methods, will be applied for the verification of food traceability systems and claims related to food origin, production, and authenticity. This integrated and multidisciplinary approach to strengthening capacity in food traceability will contribute to the effective implementation of holistic systems for food safety and control. The project focuses mainly on the development of techniques to confirm product authenticity, with several research partners also considering food safety issues. Research topics encompass determination of the geographical origin of a variety of commodities, including seed oils, rice, wine, olive oil, wheat, orange juice, fish, groundnuts, tea, pork, honey and

  19. Blockchain protocols in clinical trials: Transparency and traceability of consent [version 4; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations, 2 not approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Benchoufi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Clinical trial consent for protocols and their revisions should be transparent for patients and traceable for stakeholders. Our goal is to implement a process allowing for collection of patients’ informed consent, which is bound to protocol revisions, storing and tracking the consent in a secure, unfalsifiable and publicly verifiable way, and enabling the sharing of this information in real time. For that, we build a consent workflow using a trending technology called Blockchain. This is a distributed technology that brings a built-in layer of transparency and traceability. From a more general and prospective point of view, we believe Blockchain technology brings a paradigmatical shift to the entire clinical research field. We designed a Proof-of-Concept protocol consisting of time-stamping each step of the patient’s consent collection using Blockchain, thus archiving and historicising the consent through cryptographic validation in a securely unfalsifiable and transparent way. For each protocol revision, consent was sought again.  We obtained a single document, in an open format, that accounted for the whole consent collection process: a time-stamped consent status regarding each version of the protocol. This document cannot be corrupted and can be checked on any dedicated public website. It should be considered a robust proof of data. However, in a live clinical trial, the authentication system should be strengthened to remove the need for third parties, here trial stakeholders, and give participative control to the peer users. In the future, the complex data flow of a clinical trial could be tracked by using Blockchain, which core functionality, named Smart Contract, could help prevent clinical trial events not occurring in the correct chronological order, for example including patients before they consented or analysing case report form data before freezing the database. Globally, Blockchain could help with reliability, security

  20. Blockchain protocols in clinical trials: Transparency and traceability of consent [version 3; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations, 1 not approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Benchoufi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Clinical trial consent for protocols and their revisions should be transparent for patients and traceable for stakeholders. Our goal is to implement a process allowing the collection of patients’ informed consent, which is bound to protocol revisions, storing and tracking the consent in a secure, unfalsifiable and publicly verifiable way, and enabling the sharing of this information in real time. For that, we will built a consent workflow using a rising technology called Blockchain. This is a distributed technology that brings a built-in layer of transparency and traceability. From a more general and prospective point of view, we believe Blockchain technology brings a paradigmatical shift to the entire clinical research field. We designed a Proof-of-Concept protocol consisting of time-stamping each step of the patient’s consent collection using Blockchain; thus archiving and historicising the consent through cryptographic validation in a securely unfalsifiable and transparent way. For each revision of the protocol, consent was sought again. We obtained a single document, in a standard open format, that accounted for the whole consent collection process: timestamped consent status with regards to each version of the protocol. This document cannot be corrupted, and can be checked on any dedicated public website. It should be considered as a robust proof of data. However, in a live clinical trial, the authentication system should be strengthened in order to remove the need for third parties, here the trial stakeholders, and give participative control to the peer-to-peer users. In the future, we think that the complex data flow of a clinical trial can be tracked using Blockchain, that a blockchain core functionality, named Smart Contract, could help prevent clinical trial events not to happen in the right chronological order: for example including patients before they consented or analysing case report forms data before freezing the database

  1. Blockchain protocols in clinical trials: Transparency and traceability of consent [version 5; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations, 2 not approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Benchoufi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Clinical trial consent for protocols and their revisions should be transparent for patients and traceable for stakeholders. Our goal is to implement a process allowing for collection of patients’ informed consent, which is bound to protocol revisions, storing and tracking the consent in a secure, unfalsifiable and publicly verifiable way, and enabling the sharing of this information in real time. For that, we build a consent workflow using a trending technology called Blockchain. This is a distributed technology that brings a built-in layer of transparency and traceability. From a more general and prospective point of view, we believe Blockchain technology brings a paradigmatical shift to the entire clinical research field. We designed a Proof-of-Concept protocol consisting of time-stamping each step of the patient’s consent collection using Blockchain, thus archiving and historicising the consent through cryptographic validation in a securely unfalsifiable and transparent way. For each protocol revision, consent was sought again.  We obtained a single document, in an open format, that accounted for the whole consent collection process: a time-stamped consent status regarding each version of the protocol. This document cannot be corrupted and can be checked on any dedicated public website. It should be considered a robust proof of data. However, in a live clinical trial, the authentication system should be strengthened to remove the need for third parties, here trial stakeholders, and give participative control to the peer users. In the future, the complex data flow of a clinical trial could be tracked by using Blockchain, which core functionality, named Smart Contract, could help prevent clinical trial events not occurring in the correct chronological order, for example including patients before they consented or analysing case report form data before freezing the database. Globally, Blockchain could help with reliability, security

  2. Comprehensive protocol of traceability during IVF: the result of a multicentre failure mode and effect analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienzi, L; Bariani, F; Dalla Zorza, M; Albani, E; Benini, F; Chamayou, S; Minasi, M G; Parmegiani, L; Restelli, L; Vizziello, G; Costa, A Nanni

    2017-08-01

    Can traceability of gametes and embryos be ensured during IVF? The use of a simple and comprehensive traceability system that includes the most susceptible phases during the IVF process minimizes the risk of mismatches. Mismatches in IVF are very rare but unfortunately possible with dramatic consequences for both patients and health care professionals. Traceability is thus a fundamental aspect of the treatment. A clear process of patient and cell identification involving witnessing protocols has to be in place in every unit. To identify potential failures in the traceability process and to develop strategies to mitigate the risk of mismatches, previously failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) has been used effectively. The FMEA approach is however a subjective analysis, strictly related to specific protocols and thus the results are not always widely applicable. To reduce subjectivity and to obtain a widespread comprehensive protocol of traceability, a multicentre centrally coordinated FMEA was performed. Seven representative Italian centres (three public and four private) were selected. The study had a duration of 21 months (from April 2015 to December 2016) and was centrally coordinated by a team of experts: a risk analysis specialist, an expert embryologist and a specialist in human factor. Principal investigators of each centre were first instructed about proactive risk assessment and FMEA methodology. A multidisciplinary team to perform the FMEA analysis was then formed in each centre. After mapping the traceability process, each team identified the possible causes of mistakes in their protocol. A risk priority number (RPN) for each identified potential failure mode was calculated. The results of the FMEA analyses were centrally investigated and consistent corrective measures suggested. The teams performed new FMEA analyses after the recommended implementations. In each centre, this study involved: the laboratory director, the Quality Control & Quality

  3. Temperature measurements at the National Institute of Standards and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangum, B. W.

    The high-precision and high-accuracy measurements involved in the calibrations of various types of thermometers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) are described. The responsibilities of the NIST Thermometry Group include not only calibration of the standard instruments of the scales but also the calibration of base-metal and noble-metal thermocouples, industrial platinum resistance thermometers, liquid in-glass thermometers, thermistor thermometers, and digital thermometers. General laboratory thermometer calibrations are described. Also, a Measurement Assurance Program is described which provides a direct assessment of a customer's technological competence in thermometry.

  4. Mercury Continuous Emmission Monitor Calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Schabron; Eric Kalberer; Ryan Boysen; William Schuster; Joseph Rovani

    2009-03-12

    Mercury continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMs) are being implemented in over 800 coal-fired power plant stacks throughput the U.S. Western Research Institute (WRI) is working closely with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to facilitate the development of the experimental criteria for a NIST traceability protocol for dynamic elemental mercury vapor calibrators/generators. These devices are used to calibrate mercury CEMs at power plant sites. The Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) which was published in the Federal Register on May 18, 2005 and vacated by a Federal appeals court in early 2008 required that calibration be performed with NIST-traceable standards. Despite the vacature, mercury emissions regulations in the future will require NIST traceable calibration standards, and EPA does not want to interrupt the effort towards developing NIST traceability protocols. The traceability procedures will be defined by EPA. An initial draft traceability protocol was issued by EPA in May 2007 for comment. In August 2007, EPA issued a conceptual interim traceability protocol for elemental mercury calibrators. The protocol is based on the actual analysis of the output of each calibration unit at several concentration levels ranging initially from about 2-40 {micro}g/m{sup 3} elemental mercury, and in the future down to 0.2 {micro}g/m{sup 3}, and this analysis will be directly traceable to analyses by NIST. The EPA traceability protocol document is divided into two separate sections. The first deals with the qualification of calibrator models by the vendors for use in mercury CEM calibration. The second describes the procedure that the vendors must use to certify the calibrators that meet the qualification specifications. The NIST traceable certification is performance based, traceable to analysis using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma

  5. Advances in traceability of solar ultraviolet radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leszczynski, K.

    2002-10-01

    Measurements of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) at STUK (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Finland) commenced in 1989, five years after the alarming observation of the ozone depletion in the Antarctic and in association with the establishment of the solar UV monitoring network of the Finnish Meteorological Institute. It was soon realised that the instrumentation for solar UVR measurements was far from adequate for the challenging task of measuring the solar UV spectrum. In addition, the intercomparison of lamps used as secondary standards of UV irradiance between the National Standard Laboratories revealed significant discrepancies. In the course of this study, a national lamp-based scale for UV irradiance was established by STUK and subsequently was confirmed with the detector-based scale of the Helsinki University of Technology (HUT). Methods for (i) radiometric testing, (ii) calibration and (iii) data correction were developed for solar UV spectroradiometers and for broadband erythemally weighted (EW) solar UV radiometers. A common opinion in the early 1990s was that EW radiometers were not good enough for solar UV monitoring; spectroradiometers or multi-channel narrow band radiometers were seen as the only option for reliable solar UV radiometry. Later on, several intercomparisons revealed that, without stringent methods of quality control (QC) and quality assurance (QA), even high precision spectroradiometers easily yield UV data erroneous by 20% or more. The reliability of the spectroradiometric solar UVR measurements made by STUK was verified in the Nordic solar UV radiometer intercomparisons in 1993 and 1996 and in the largest European intercomparison of solar UV spectroradiometers in 1997. At STUK, it was considered that the low cost and easy-to-operate EW radiometers also had a role in solar UV monitoring. After developing the calibration methods for EW radiometers and gaining experience in testing of 16 EW radiometers, STUK organised the first

  6. Liquid scintillation counting standardization of 125I in organic and inorganic samples by the CIEMAT/NIST method; Calibracion por centelleo liquido del 125I en muestras inorganicas y organicas, mediante el metodo CIEMAT/NIST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Barquero, L.; Grau Malonda, A.; Los Arcos Merino, J. M.; Grau Carles, A.

    1994-07-01

    The liquid scintillation counting standardization of organic and inorganic samples of ''I25I by the CIEMAT/NIST method using five different scintillators is described. The discrepancies between experimental and computed efficiencies are lower than 1.4% and 1.7%, for inorganic and organic samples, respectively, in the interval 421-226 of quenching parameter. Both organic and inorganic solutions have been standardized in terms of activity concentration to an overall uncertainty of 0.76%. (Author) 14 refs.

  7. Fluorescent graphene quantum dots as traceable, pH-sensitive drug delivery systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu J

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Jichuan Qiu,1 Ruibin Zhang,2 Jianhua Li,1 Yuanhua Sang,1 Wei Tang,3 Pilar Rivera Gil,4 Hong Liu1,51Center of Bio and Micro/Nano Functional Materials, State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, 2Blood Purification Center, Jinan Central Hospital, 3Department of Pathogenic Biology, Shandong University School of Medicine, Jinan, People’s Republic of China; 4Institute of Chemistry, Rovira i Virgili University, Tarragona, Spain; 5Beijing Institute of Nanoenergy and Nanosystems, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: Graphene quantum dots (GQDs were rationally fabricated as a traceable drug delivery system for the targeted, pH-sensitive delivery of a chemotherapeutic drug into cancer cells. The GQDs served as fluorescent carriers for a well-known anticancer drug, doxorubicin (Dox. The whole system has the capacity for simultaneous tracking of the carrier and of drug release. Dox release is triggered upon acidification of the intracellular vesicles, where the carriers are located after their uptake by cancer cells. Further functionalization of the loaded carriers with targeting moieties such as arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD peptides enhanced their uptake by cancer cells. DU-145 and PC-3 human prostate cancer cell lines were used to evaluate the anticancer ability of Dox-loaded RGD-modified GQDs (Dox-RGD-GQDs. The results demonstrated the feasibility of using GQDs as traceable drug delivery systems with the ability for the pH-triggered delivery of drugs into target cells.Keywords: graphene quantum dots, drug delivery, pH-sensitive, controlled release, traceable

  8. The role of psychological determinants and demographic factors in consumer demand for farm-to-fork traceability systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myae, Aye Chan; Goddard, Ellen; Aubeeluck, Ashwina

    2011-01-01

    Traceability systems are an important tool (1) for tracking, monitoring, and managing product flows through the supply chain for better efficiency and profitability of suppliers, and (2) to improve consumer confidence in the face of serious food safety incidents. After the global bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) crisis affected producers, consumers, trade, and the health status of animals and humans, new systems to help confirm the status of cattle products along the supply chain from farm to fork were implemented in many countries (Trautman et al. 2008 ). In this study, people's overall food safety beliefs are explored with the main objective of measuring the link between their food safety beliefs and their attitudes toward traceability. A comparison is made among English-speaking Canadians, French-speaking Canadians, and Japanese consumers. In the study, an Internet-based survey was used to collect data from nationally representative samples of the population in Canada-English (1275), Canada-French (343), and Japanese (1940) in the summer of 2009. Respondents' interests in traceability systems are clearly linked to their sense that the industry is primarily responsible for any food safety outbreaks. Moreover, it is clear that certain segments of the population in all samples feel strongly about the importance of farm to fork traceability in beef; thus, policymakers may wish to consider extending traceability beyond the point of slaughter as a way of encouraging beef sales in Canada.

  9. Traceability of a panoramic gamma irradiator using different TLD systems as transfer instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, A.M.; Saez, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    This work shows the calibration in terms of the new operational radiological quantities Hp(10) and H*(10) for different TLD systems (Harshaw TLD-100 and Panasonic UD-802) used in personal and environmental monitoring. The irradiations were performed in the Spanish Reference Laboratory in radiation protection levels, managed by the CIEMAT Metrology of ionizing radiations Unit. With these data, different calibrations of a panoramic gamma irradiator in terms of the radiological quantity for unit of time were established, providing the traceability of the irradiator to the Reference Laboratory using the corresponding TLD systems as transfer instruments. (Author) 9 refs

  10. Traceability of a panoramic gamma irradiator using different TLD systems as transfer Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, A. M.; Saez, J. C

    1994-01-01

    This work shows the calibration in terms of the new operational radiological quantities Hp (10) and H(10) for different TLD systems (Harshaw TLD-100 and Panasonic UD-002) used in personal and environmental monitoring. The irradiations were performed in the Spanish Reference Laboratory in radiation protection levels, managed by the CIEMAT Metrology of ionizing radiations Unit. With those data, different calibrations of a panoramic gamma irradiator in terms of the radiological quantity for unit of time were established, providing the traceability of the irradiator to the Reference Laboratory using the corresponding TLD systems as transfer instruments. (Author) 9 refs

  11. Case studies on the impact of poor traceability in testing and measurement

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Marais, EL

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available -2142 Wingate Park 0153 Pretoria Telephone: +27(12) 349 1500 Fax: +27 (12) 349 1501 Email: maggier@nla.org.za Internet: http://www.nla.org.za 2006 Test and Measurement Conference Case Studies on the Impact of Poor Traceability in Testing... and Measurement Speaker / Author: E.L. Marais Co-authors: E.P. Tarnow, S.B. Sidney CSIR National Metrology Laboratory PO Box 395, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa Email: elmarais@csir.co.za Phone: 012 841 3013 Fax: 012 841 2131 Abstract The importance...

  12. Mercury CEM Calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani; Susan S. Sorini

    2007-03-31

    The Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) which was published in the Federal Register on May 18, 2005, requires that calibration of mercury continuous emissions monitors (CEMs) be performed with NIST-traceable standards. Western Research Institute (WRI) is working closely with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to facilitate the development of the experimental criteria for a NIST traceability protocol for dynamic elemental mercury vapor generators. The traceability protocol will be written by EPA. Traceability will be based on the actual analysis of the output of each calibration unit at several concentration levels ranging from about 2-40 ug/m{sup 3}, and this analysis will be directly traceable to analyses by NIST using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ID ICP/MS) through a chain of analyses linking the calibration unit in the power plant to the NIST ID ICP/MS. Prior to this project, NIST did not provide a recommended mercury vapor pressure equation or list mercury vapor pressure in its vapor pressure database. The NIST Physical and Chemical Properties Division in Boulder, Colorado was subcontracted under this project to study the issue in detail and to recommend a mercury vapor pressure equation that the vendors of mercury vapor pressure calibration units can use to calculate the elemental mercury vapor concentration in an equilibrium chamber at a particular temperature. As part of this study, a preliminary evaluation of calibration units from five vendors was made. The work was performed by NIST in Gaithersburg, MD and Joe Rovani from WRI who traveled to NIST as a Visiting Scientist.

  13. Produção segura e rastreabilidade de hortaliças Safe production and traceability of vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonora M Mattos

    2009-12-01

    haja perda de seu valor nutritivo e com qualidade sensorial ótima.Consumers all over the world are aware about the strict relation among health and the necessity of a balanced diet, based on safe products. Nevertheless, interest in food functional properties and, especially, in its antioxidant activity has been increasing. However, the consumption of in natura food may present some risks, which are mainly related to chemical and microbiological contamination during the crop growing season. Considering the high competitiveness of the different productive chains, growers are working to offer products with superior value and quality, with emphasis in food safety and traceability. The hazards in food chain can be managed by monitoring the whole process, from production to distribution, so, in order to minimize the possibility of contamination, ,the implementation of traceability systems and procedures of quality assurance, such as HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points is necessary,. The application of Good Agricultural Practices (GAP to the fruit and vegetable production is a prerequisite for the success of HACCP and, in this context, the Integrated Production Program main objective is to increase quality and competitiveness of Brazilian agribusiness in order to reach the levels required by international market. Its main focus are the preservation of vegetable functional properties and the utilization of techniques that ensure food safety and traceability, ensuring the previously guaranteed quality levels. The present work focuses on technologies that allow consumers to have a safe and traceable product, to prevent nutritional content wastes and to ensure maximum food sensory quality.

  14. Traceability and communication of requirements in digital and I and C systems development - Project report 2003[TACO. Reactor safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivertsen, T.; Frederiksen, R.; Thunem, A.P.J. [Institute for Energy Technology (IFE), Kjeller (Norway); Holmberg, J.E.; Valkonen, J.; Ventae, O. [VTT, Espoo (Finland)

    2004-03-01

    The overall objective of the TACO project is to improve the knowledge on principles and best practices related to the issues concretised in the preproject. On basis of experiences in the Nordic countries, the project aims at identifying the best practices and most important criteria for ensuring effective communication in relation to requirements elicitation and analysis, understandability of requirements to all parties, and traceability of requirements through the different design phases. It is expected that the project will provide important input to the development of guidelines and establishment of recommended practices related to these activities. In the year 2003, the TACO-project concentrated on four central issues: 1) Representation of requirements origins. 2) Traceability techniques. 3) Configuration management and the traceability of requirements. 4) Identification and categorisation of system aspects and their models The work was presented at the first TACO Industrial Seminar, which took place in Stockholm on the 12th of December 2003. The seminar was hosted by SKI. (au)

  15. The mediated influence of a traceability label on consumer’s willingness to buy the labelled product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bradu, Cosmina; Orquin, Jacob Lund; Thøgersen, John

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the effectiveness of a new traceability label on consumer willingness to buy the labelled product and whether the effect is mediated by moral affective evaluations of the product. A betweensubjects factorial design was used to test (a) the effect of a new traceability label...... on willingness to buy a chocolate bar, while controlling for different product features (health disclaimer, product quality) and (b) whether this effect was mediated through the consumer’s moral affective evaluations of the product. A broad sample of 1,064 ordinary Danish consumers was recruited for the study...... from the panel of an online sample provider (667 women, 397 men), age range 18–80 (M = 46.39, SD = 13.17). We found that the traceability label has a significant impact on consumer willingness to buy a chocolate bar. This impact is mediated by moral affective evaluations of the chocolate bar. Based...

  16. Ensuring the Visibility and Traceability of Items through Logistics Chain of Automotive Industry Based on AutoEPCNet Using

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Stasa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traceability in logistics is the capability of the participants to trace the products throughout the supply chain by means of either the product and/or container identifiers in a forward and/or backward direction. In today's competitive economic environment, traceability is a key concept related to all products and all types of supply chains. The goal of this paper is to describe development of application that enables to create and share information about the physical movement and status of products as they travel throughout the supply chain. The main purpose of this paper is to describe the development of RFID based track and trace system for ensuring the visibility and traceability of items in logistics chain especially in automotive industry. The proposed solution is based on EPCglobal Network Architecture.

  17. Traceability System for Improved Utilization of Solid Biofuel from Agricultural Prunings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Techane Bosona

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass production and supply for renewable energy generation should be managed well and carried out in a sustainable manner. An effective traceability system (TS is required to provide sufficient information and assure the quality of the biomass. The objective of this study is to define and develop a TS to assure the pruning biomass quality for the production of solid biofuels and to provide guarantee to the final user that the biomass is in good condition according to recommended quality criteria. It is designed for an agricultural pruning supply chain in which farmers, biomass traders, transporters, and end users are major actors. It is based on the biofuel quality requirements required by final users and other standards such as the new European standards EN 14961-1, EN15234:1-2011, and EN14961-1:2010, which describe solid fuel quality parameters. Traceable quality parameters include origin and source of product, traded form, bale dimension, chips size distribution, moisture content, ash content, and density of biomass. In this TS, a unique product label is introduced and integrated into a smart logistics system (SLS. The TS uses information captured at different stages of the product supply chain. It enables the management of the whole pruning biomass supply chain with the support of a centralized web-based information platform, an integral part of the SLS.

  18. A Verification-Driven Approach to Traceability and Documentation for Auto-Generated Mathematical Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denney, Ewen W.; Fischer, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    Model-based development and automated code generation are increasingly used for production code in safety-critical applications, but since code generators are typically not qualified, the generated code must still be fully tested, reviewed, and certified. This is particularly arduous for mathematical and control engineering software which requires reviewers to trace subtle details of textbook formulas and algorithms to the code, and to match requirements (e.g., physical units or coordinate frames) not represented explicitly in models or code. Both tasks are complicated by the often opaque nature of auto-generated code. We address these problems by developing a verification-driven approach to traceability and documentation. We apply the AUTOCERT verification system to identify and then verify mathematical concepts in the code, based on a mathematical domain theory, and then use these verified traceability links between concepts, code, and verification conditions to construct a natural language report that provides a high-level structured argument explaining why and how the code uses the assumptions and complies with the requirements. We have applied our approach to generate review documents for several sub-systems of NASA s Project Constellation.

  19. PGI chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) traceability by means of HRMAS-NMR spectroscopy: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritota, Mena; Casciani, Lorena; Valentini, Massimiliano

    2013-05-01

    Analytical traceability of PGI and PDO foods (Protected Geographical Indication and Protected Denomination Origin respectively) is one of the most challenging tasks of current applied research. Here we proposed a metabolomic approach based on the combination of (1)H high-resolution magic angle spinning-nuclear magnetic resonance (HRMAS-NMR) spectroscopy with multivariate analysis, i.e. PLS-DA, as a reliable tool for the traceability of Italian PGI chicories (Cichorium intybus L.), i.e. Radicchio Rosso di Treviso and Radicchio Variegato di Castelfranco, also known as red and red-spotted, respectively. The metabolic profile was gained by means of HRMAS-NMR, and multivariate data analysis allowed us to build statistical models capable of providing clear discrimination among the two varieties and classification according to the geographical origin. Based on Variable Importance in Projection values, the molecular markers for classifying the different types of red chicories analysed were found accounting for both the cultivar and the place of origin. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Traceable calibration for a digital real-time oscilloscope with time interleaving architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongju; Lee, Joo-Gwang; Lee, Dong-Joon; Cho, Chihyun

    2018-01-01

    Impairments of analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) used in digital real-time oscilloscopes (DRTO) have caused inevitable signal distortions in measurements. To calibrate these errors with traceability, we propose a novel method that consists of two steps. First, each transfer function of the ADCs is measured using pulse trains from a photodiode calibrated up to 110 GHz. Each data set of the ADCs is superimposed to convert the repetitive pulse to a single pulse to solve the under-sampling problem of the separated data depending on each ADC. Then, the signals of the device under test (DUT) are also separated and superimposed depending on the ADCs, and they are calibrated in the frequency domain based on the measured transfer functions. After a calibration process, the data set is reconverted to the time domain to achieve traceable calibration. To verify our method, we have measured the output of another 70 GHz photodiode with a calibrated DRTO. In terms of results, time-interleaved errors are suppressed by more than 24 dB up to the bandwidth of the DRTO.

  1. Authenticity and traceability of vanilla flavors by analysis of stable isotopes of carbon and hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Anne-Mette Sølvbjerg; Fromberg, Arvid; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    2014-10-22

    Authenticity and traceability of vanilla flavors were investigated using gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS). Vanilla flavors produced by chemical synthesis (n = 2), fermentation (n = 1), and extracted from two different species of the vanilla orchid (n = 79) were analyzed. The authenticity of the flavor compound vanillin was evaluated on the basis of measurements of ratios of carbon stable isotopes (δ(13)C). It was found that results of δ(13)C for vanillin extracted from Vanilla planifolia and Vanilla tahitensis were significantly different (t test) and that it was possible to differentiate these two groups of natural vanillin from vanillin produced otherwise. Vanilla flavors were also analyzed for ratios of hydrogen stable isotopes (δ(2)H). A graphic representation of δ(13)C versus δ(2)H revealed that vanillin extracted from pods grown in adjacent geographic origins grouped together. Accordingly, values of δ(13)C and δ(2)H can be used for studies of authenticity and traceability of vanilla flavors.

  2. Traceability of small force measurements and the future international system of units (SI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khelifa Naceur-Eddine

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The unit of force is connected to the international prototype of the kilogramme, unit of mass in the international system of units (SI, via dead weight machines using calibrated masses. However, forces below 10 μN, ubiquitous in nature and in some devices cannot be measured with a traceability to the SI. The measurement, with the uncertainty of these forces has implications for both basic and applied science. Today, many emerging sectors in micro/nanotechnology and biotechnology have started producing and using systems to implement low forces that, for various reasons, require them to be traceable. Also, the revision of the SI, scheduled for 2018 year, of linking the definitions of the kilogramme, the ampere, the kelvin and the mole to fixed numerical values of fundamental constants, has aroused particular interest in the measurement and calibration of small forces. In this paper, we will give some indications of the state of the art on the small force with a focus on the development of a force sensor using a photoelastic crystal as a monolithic solid-state laser. Basically, the force to be measured is applied to the crystal induces a birefringence in the laser medium which in turn manifests itself by the appearance of a splitting between the frequencies associated with the two polarization components of the oscillating laser mode. This difference is then exploited because, within the elastic limit of the crystal, it is proportional to the force acting on the laser.

  3. Traceability and Quality Control in Traditional Chinese Medicine: From Chemical Fingerprint to Two-Dimensional Barcode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Cai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical fingerprinting is currently a widely used tool that enables rapid and accurate quality evaluation of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM. However, chemical fingerprints are not amenable to information storage, recognition, and retrieval, which limit their use in Chinese medicine traceability. In this study, samples of three kinds of Chinese medicines were randomly selected and chemical fingerprints were then constructed by using high performance liquid chromatography. Based on chemical data, the process of converting the TCM chemical fingerprint into two-dimensional code is presented; preprocess and filtering algorithm are also proposed aiming at standardizing the large amount of original raw data. In order to know which type of two-dimensional code (2D is suitable for storing data of chemical fingerprints, current popular types of 2D codes are analyzed and compared. Results show that QR Code is suitable for recording the TCM chemical fingerprint. The fingerprint information of TCM can be converted into data format that can be stored as 2D code for traceability and quality control.

  4. Chemometrics Methods for Specificity, Authenticity and Traceability Analysis of Olive Oils: Principles, Classifications and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messai, Habib; Farman, Muhammad; Sarraj-Laabidi, Abir; Hammami-Semmar, Asma; Semmar, Nabil

    2016-11-17

    Olive oils (OOs) show high chemical variability due to several factors of genetic, environmental and anthropic types. Genetic and environmental factors are responsible for natural compositions and polymorphic diversification resulting in different varietal patterns and phenotypes. Anthropic factors, however, are at the origin of different blends' preparation leading to normative, labelled or adulterated commercial products. Control of complex OO samples requires their (i) characterization by specific markers; (ii) authentication by fingerprint patterns; and (iii) monitoring by traceability analysis. These quality control and management aims require the use of several multivariate statistical tools: specificity highlighting requires ordination methods; authentication checking calls for classification and pattern recognition methods; traceability analysis implies the use of network-based approaches able to separate or extract mixed information and memorized signals from complex matrices. This chapter presents a review of different chemometrics methods applied for the control of OO variability from metabolic and physical-chemical measured characteristics. The different chemometrics methods are illustrated by different study cases on monovarietal and blended OO originated from different countries. Chemometrics tools offer multiple ways for quantitative evaluations and qualitative control of complex chemical variability of OO in relation to several intrinsic and extrinsic factors.

  5. Chemometrics Methods for Specificity, Authenticity and Traceability Analysis of Olive Oils: Principles, Classifications and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Messai

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Olive oils (OOs show high chemical variability due to several factors of genetic, environmental and anthropic types. Genetic and environmental factors are responsible for natural compositions and polymorphic diversification resulting in different varietal patterns and phenotypes. Anthropic factors, however, are at the origin of different blends’ preparation leading to normative, labelled or adulterated commercial products. Control of complex OO samples requires their (i characterization by specific markers; (ii authentication by fingerprint patterns; and (iii monitoring by traceability analysis. Methods. These quality control and management aims require the use of several multivariate statistical tools: specificity highlighting requires ordination methods; authentication checking calls for classification and pattern recognition methods; traceability analysis implies the use of network-based approaches able to separate or extract mixed information and memorized signals from complex matrices. Results. This chapter presents a review of different chemometrics methods applied for the control of OO variability from metabolic and physical-chemical measured characteristics. The different chemometrics methods are illustrated by different study cases on monovarietal and blended OO originated from different countries. Conclusion. Chemometrics tools offer multiple ways for quantitative evaluations and qualitative control of complex chemical variability of OO in relation to several intrinsic and extrinsic factors.

  6. DYNAMIC MODEL FOR THE ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF THE TRACEABILITY OF MEXICAN BEEF MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucila Herrera Ayala

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to point out the importance of the implementation of a traceability system in economic terms in the beef meat production activity, for the 2011-2016 period, a dynamic model was created in order to estimate the real value of the cattle inventory and to make projections of the gains and losses obtained in the implementation or not of this system with two possible plausible scenarios that affect the exports and imports. The results indicate that if the exports were increased by 53%, just like it happened in Uruguay with the implementation of this system, gains would increase 8.21% in the yearly average. In the absence of this system and considering the 80% decrease of the exports in the United States, in the presence of the Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE losses would increase 9.97% in a yearly average. In both scenarios a change ± of 20% in the imports was considered. Due to the results obtained and in the face of foreseeable conduct of trade, the cost of opportunity of a traceability system results positive.

  7. Metrologically Traceable Determination of the Water Content in Biopolymers: INRiM Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolle, F.; Beltramino, G.; Fernicola, V.; Sega, M.; Verdoja, A.

    2017-03-01

    Water content in materials is a key factor affecting many chemical and physical properties. In polymers of biological origin, it influences their stability and mechanical properties as well as their biodegradability. The present work describes the activity carried out at INRiM on the determination of water content in samples of a commercial starch-derived biopolymer widely used in shopping bags (Mater-Bi^{circledR }). Its water content, together with temperature, is the most influencing parameter affecting its biodegradability, because of the considerable impact on the microbial activity which is responsible for the biopolymer degradation in the environment. The main scope of the work was the establishment of a metrologically traceable procedure for the determination of water content by using two electrochemical methods, namely coulometric Karl Fischer (cKF) titration and evolved water vapour (EWV) analysis. The obtained results are presented. The most significant operational parameters were considered, and a particular attention was devoted to the establishment of metrological traceability of the measurement results by using appropriate calibration procedures, calibrated standards and suitable certified reference materials. Sample homogeneity and oven-drying temperature were found to be the most important influence quantities in the whole water content measurement process. The results of the two methods were in agreement within the stated uncertainties. Further development is foreseen for the application of cKF and EWV to other polymers.

  8. Recent developments in application of stable isotope analysis on agro-product authenticity and traceability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Bin; Chen, Gang; Chen, Ailiang; Yang, Shuming; Ye, Zhihua

    2014-02-15

    With the globalisation of agro-product markets and convenient transportation of food across countries and continents, the potential for distribution of mis-labelled products increases accordingly, highlighting the need for measures to identify the origin of food. High quality food with identified geographic origin is a concern not only for consumers, but also for agriculture farmers, retailers and administrative authorities. Currently, stable isotope ratio analysis in combination with other chemical methods gradually becomes a promising approach for agro-product authenticity and traceability. In the last five years, a growing number of research papers have been published on tracing agro-products by stable isotope ratio analysis and techniques combining with other instruments. In these reports, the global variety of stable isotope compositions has been investigated, including light elements such as C, N, H, O and S, and heavy isotopes variation such as Sr and B. Several factors also have been considered, including the latitude, altitude, evaporation and climate conditions. In the present paper, an overview is provided on the authenticity and traceability of the agro-products from both animal and plant sources by stable isotope ratio analysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. About “SI” Traceability of Micromasses And/or Microforces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vâlcu, Adriana; Ştefănescu, Dan Mihai

    Over the last period, increasing attention has been paid to measurement of small forces which play a more important role in nanotechnology and other significant areas such as MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) and NEMS (nano-electro-mechanical systems) which can be found into everyday products (mobile phones, MP3 players, PCs, cars). In this respect, the development of mass standards and measurement techniques below the current limit of 1 milligram is vital to provide traceability to the SI for such measurements. In Romania, the Mass laboratory of INM considered it necessary to extend the dissemination of the mass unit below 1 mg, in order to meet current needs. Using the subdivision method and starting from the national prototype kilogram No. 2, all necessary experiments were performed for the first time in Romania to extend mass unit traceability till 100 μg. This extension also supports the provision of mass calibrations for low force measurements. The associated measurement procedure and measurement uncertainty results obtained in the calibration are described. In the article are also presented some of the worldwide methods currently used for measuring small forces.

  10. Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,…

  11. Primary Standardization of 152Eu by 4πβ(LS) – γ (Nal) coincidence counting and CIEMAT-NIST method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzzarin, A.; da Cruz, P. A. L.; Ferreira Filho, A. L.; Iwahara, A.

    2018-03-01

    The 4πβ-γ coincidence counting and CIEMAT/NIST liquid scintillation method were used in the standardization of a solution of 152Eu. In CIEMAT/NIST method, measurements were performed in a Liquid Scintillation Counter model Wallac 1414. In the 4πβ-γ coincidence counting, the solution was standardized using a coincidence method with ‘‘beta-efficiency extrapolation”. A simple 4πβ-γ coincidence system was used, with acrylic scintillation cell coupled to two coincident photomultipliers at 180° each other and NaI(Tl) detector. The activity concentrations obtained were 156.934 ± 0.722 and 157.403 ± 0.113 kBq/g, respectively, for CIEMAT/NIST and 4πβ-γ coincidence counting measurement methods.

  12. Progresses in Applications of Stable Isotope Technology to Determining Geographical Origins of Traditional Chinese Medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Li-ming

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Identification of proper geographical origin of traditional Chinese medicine is critical for guaranteeing the quality and efficacy of the medicine, safeguarding the market order, and reducing the medical negligence rate due to fake products. Stable isotope technology, as one of the most efficient methods to determine agricultural products authenticity and traceability, have great advantages and theoretical basis for determining geo-origin of traditional Chinese medicine, and it has been applied to many expensive herbs. In this review, the basic principles of isotopic traceability were firstly introduced. We then elaborate in details the frequently-used isotopic indicators in the geo origin studies of traditional Chinese medicine. We also provide a summary of current research progresses and point out some directions for future research. The purpose of this paper is to promote the applications of stable isotopes to traditional Chinese medicine traceability studies and the establishment of the isotopic database and the improvement of the medicine traceability.

  13. Experimental characterization of the Advanced Liquid Hydrogen Cold Neutron Source spectrum of the NBSR reactor at the NIST Center for Neutron Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, J. C.; Barker, J. G.; Rowe, J. M.; Williams, R. E.; Gagnon, C.; Lindstrom, R. M.; Ibberson, R. M.; Neumann, D. A.

    2015-08-01

    The recent expansion of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Center for Neutron Research facility has offered a rare opportunity to perform an accurate measurement of the cold neutron spectrum at the exit of a newly-installed neutron guide. Using a combination of a neutron time-of-flight measurement, a gold foil activation measurement, and Monte Carlo simulation of the neutron guide transmission, we obtain the most reliable experimental characterization of the Advanced Liquid Hydrogen Cold Neutron Source brightness to date. Time-of-flight measurements were performed at three distinct fuel burnup intervals, including one immediately following reactor startup. Prior to the latter measurement, the hydrogen was maintained in a liquefied state for an extended period in an attempt to observe an initial radiation-induced increase of the ortho (o)-hydrogen fraction. Since para (p)-hydrogen has a small scattering cross-section for neutron energies below 15 meV (neutron wavelengths greater than about 2.3 Å), changes in the o- p hydrogen ratio and in the void distribution in the boiling hydrogen influence the spectral distribution. The nature of such changes is simulated with a continuous-energy, Monte Carlo radiation-transport code using 20 K o and p hydrogen scattering kernels and an estimated hydrogen density distribution derived from an analysis of localized heat loads. A comparison of the transport calculations with the mean brightness function resulting from the three measurements suggests an overall o- p ratio of about 17.5(±1) % o- 82.5% p for neutron energies<15 meV, a significantly lower ortho concentration than previously assumed.

  14. Preparation and LSC Standardization of ''89Sr (DNP) Using the CIEMAT/NIST Method; Preparacion del ''89Sr(DNP) y calibracion por centelleo liquido, mediante el metodo CIEMAT/NIST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Barquero, L.; Los Arcos Merino, J. M.; Grau Malonda, A.

    1994-07-01

    A procedure for preparation of liquid scintillation counting samples of the strontium DNP complex, labelled with ''89Sr, is described, the chemical quench, the counting stability and spectral evolution of this compound is studied in six scintillators, Toluene, Toluene-alcohol, Dioxane-naphthalene, HiSafe II, Ultima- Gold and Instagel. The liquid scintillation standardization of 89Sr-DNP by the CIEMAT/NIST method, using HiSafe II and Ultima-Gold scintillators, has been carried out. The discrepancies between experimental and computed efficiencies are lower than 0.38% and 0.48%, respectively. The solution has been standardized in terms of activity concentration to an overall uncertainty of 0,38%. (Author) 10 refs.

  15. NBS/NIST Botanical SRMs-Thirty-Two Years of Production and Analysis: 1968 to 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donald A. Becker; Robert R. Greenberg

    2000-01-01

    This report surveys the work of the National Bureau of Standards/National Institute of Standards and Technology that began in the 1960s on botanical standard reference materials (SRMs) for neutron activation analysis

  16. Radiometric inter-sensor cross-calibration uncertainty using a traceable high accuracy reference hyperspectral imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorroño, Javier; Banks, Andrew C.; Fox, Nigel P.; Underwood, Craig

    2017-08-01

    Optical earth observation (EO) satellite sensors generally suffer from drifts and biases relative to their pre-launch calibration, caused by launch and/or time in the space environment. This places a severe limitation on the fundamental reliability and accuracy that can be assigned to satellite derived information, and is particularly critical for long time base studies for climate change and enabling interoperability and Analysis Ready Data. The proposed TRUTHS (Traceable Radiometry Underpinning Terrestrial and Helio-Studies) mission is explicitly designed to address this issue through re-calibrating itself directly to a primary standard of the international system of units (SI) in-orbit and then through the extension of this SI-traceability to other sensors through in-flight cross-calibration using a selection of Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) recommended test sites. Where the characteristics of the sensor under test allows, this will result in a significant improvement in accuracy. This paper describes a set of tools, algorithms and methodologies that have been developed and used in order to estimate the radiometric uncertainty achievable for an indicative target sensor through in-flight cross-calibration using a well-calibrated hyperspectral SI-traceable reference sensor with observational characteristics such as TRUTHS. In this study, Multi-Spectral Imager (MSI) of Sentinel-2 and Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) is evaluated as an example, however the analysis is readily translatable to larger-footprint sensors such as Sentinel-3 Ocean and Land Colour Instrument (OLCI) and Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS). This study considers the criticality of the instrumental and observational characteristics on pixel level reflectance factors, within a defined spatial region of interest (ROI) within the target site. It quantifies the main uncertainty contributors in the spectral, spatial, and temporal domains. The resultant tool

  17. Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional answer card reading method using OMR (Optical Mark Reader, most commonly, OMR special card special use, less versatile, high cost, aiming at the existing problems proposed a method based on pattern recognition of the answer card identification method. Using the method based on Line Segment Detector to detect the tilt of the image, the existence of tilt image rotation correction, and eventually achieve positioning and detection of answers to the answer sheet .Pattern recognition technology for automatic reading, high accuracy, detect faster

  18. 75 FR 27708 - National Institute of Standards and Technology Performance Review Board Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ... equitable treatment of these individuals. This notice lists the membership of the NIST PRB and supersedes... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Institute of Standards and Technology National Institute of Standards and Technology Performance Review Board Membership The National Institute of Standards and...

  19. 76 FR 55880 - National Institute of Standards and Technology; Performance Review Board Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... equitable treatment of these individuals. This notice lists the membership of the NIST PRB and supersedes... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Institute of Standards and Technology National Institute of Standards and Technology; Performance Review Board Membership The National Institute of Standards and...

  20. RELAP-7 Software Verification and Validation Plan: Requirements Traceability Matrix (RTM) Part 1 – Physics and numerical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yong Joon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Yoo, Jun Soo [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, Curtis Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This INL plan comprehensively describes the Requirements Traceability Matrix (RTM) on main physics and numerical method of the RELAP-7. The plan also describes the testing-based software verification and validation (SV&V) process—a set of specially designed software models used to test RELAP-7.

  1. Selection and use of microsatellite markers for individual identification and meat traceability of six swine breeds in the Chinese market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jie; Li, Tingting; Zhu, Chao; Jiang, Xiaoling; Zhao, Yan; Xu, Zhenzhen; Yang, Shuming; Chen, Ailiang

    2017-01-01

    Meat traceability based on molecular markers is exerting a great influence on food safety and will enhance its key role in the future. This study aimed to investigate and verify the polymorphism of 23 microsatellite markers and select the most suitable markers for individual identification and meat traceability of six swine breeds in the Chinese market. The mean polymorphism information content value of these 23 loci was 0.7851, and each locus exhibited high polymorphism in the pooled population. There were 10 loci showing good polymorphism in each breed, namely, Sw632, S0155, Sw2406, Sw830, Sw2525, Sw72, Sw2448, Sw911, Sw122 and CGA. When six highly polymorphic loci were combined, the match probability value for two random individual genotypes among the pig breeds (Beijing Black, Sanyuan and Taihu) was lower than 1.151 E-06. An increasing number of loci indicated a gradually decreasing match probability value and therefore enhanced traceability accuracy. The validation results of tracing 18 blood and corresponding meat samples based on five highly polymorphic loci (Sw2525, S0005, Sw0107, Sw911 and Sw857) were successful, with 100% conformation probability, which provided a foundation for establishing a traceability system for pork in the Chinese market.

  2. Norman-based Isolated Data Systems allows users to surf the Internet with no traceable IP address

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    "Patented by Norman-based Isolated Data Systems, John Doe is an anonymous proxy server that allows users to surf the Internet exactly as before, with one exception - they are identifiable only as John Doe, with no traceable IP address, which means no tracking, no identification and no profile building" ( 1/2 page)

  3. 2016 NIST (133Xe) and Transfer (131mXe, 133mXe, 135Xe) Calibration Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Troy A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-03-01

    A significantly improved calibration of the High Purity Germanium detectors used by the Idaho National Laboratory Noble Gas Laboratory was performed during the annual NIST calibration. New sample spacers provide reproducible and secure support of samples at distances of 4, 12, 24, 50 and 100 cm. Bean, 15mL and 50mL Schlenk tube geometries were calibrated. Also included in this year’s calibration was a correlation of detector dead-time with sample activity that can be used to predict the schedule of counting the samples at each distance for each geometry. This schedule prediction will help staff members set calendar reminders so that collection of calibration data at each geometry will not be missed. This report also correlates the counting efficiencies between detectors, so that if the counting efficiency on one detector is not known, it can be estimated from the same geometry on another detector.

  4. The Development of an RFID Solution to Facilitate the Traceability of Patient and Pharmaceutical Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Pérez, María; Vázquez González, Guillermo

    2017-01-01

    One of the principal objectives of hospitals is to increase the quality of care of the patient. This is even more of a priority in Day Hospitals where certain medication requires special attention, from its preparation in the Pharmacy service to its delivery to the patient in the Day Hospital. In the case of expensive medicines, nursing staff have to comply with very detailed instructions in their administration to the patient (name of medicine, route, dosage, schedule, previous medication, conditions of conservation, etc.). This work focuses on the development of a multi-faceted hub application to facilitate the traceability of mixed intravenous medication from the beginning to the end of the process of prescription–validation–dosing–preparation–administration (PVD-PA) and be available to all health professionals involved: doctors, pharmacists, and the nursing staff of the Hospital Pharmacy and Day Hospital. PMID:28961207

  5. International Comparison of FTIR measurements traceable to HITRAN and Gravimetrically prepared Gas Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, F.; Joële, V.; Philippe, M.; Faraz, I.; Robert, W.

    2009-12-01

    An international comparison is being organised to compare measurement results of gas concentration that are traceable to the HITRAN database with SI traceable values based on gravimetrically prepared gas standards. The results of the comparison will allow potential biases for specific gas species in the HITRAN database to be identified. The comparison is being performed on nitrogen dioxide (NO2) but the developed methodology is applicable to the majority of gas species in the HITRAN database. There is a high international priority attached to activities which reduce NOx in the atmosphere. The current level of permitted emissions is typically between 50 μmol/mol and 100 μmol/mol, but lower values are expected in the future. Currently, ambient air quality monitoring regulations also require the measurement of NOx mole fractions of 0.2 μmol/mol. To determine accurately the NO2 mole fraction at ambient levels high quality primary gas references are desirable. However, since NO2 is a reactive gas, stability problems in the gas standards below mole fractions of 100 μmol/mol, and particularly below 10 μmol/mol, has been observed and studied at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures during the last years. An international comparison of NO2 measurement capabilities between National Metrology Institutes, coordinated by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, was initiated in June 2009. The comparison consists in two main protocols, the protocol CCQM-K74 and the protocol CCQM-P110. The procedure CCQM-K74 comparison is designed to evaluate the level of comparability of the laboratories’ measurement capabilities for NO2 at a nominal mole fraction of 10 μmol/mol based on their own measurement capabilities. The CCQM-P110 protocol, open only to laboratories maintaining Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy facilities, aims to evaluate the level of comparability of laboratories’ NO2 measurement capabilities based on FTIR spectroscopy traceable to primary

  6. The Development of an RFID Solution to Facilitate the Traceability of Patient and Pharmaceutical Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, María Martínez; González, Guillermo Vázquez; Dafonte, Carlos

    2017-09-29

    One of the principal objectives of hospitals is to increase the quality of care of the patient. This is even more of a priority in Day Hospitals where certain medication requires special attention, from its preparation in the Pharmacy service to its delivery to the patient in the Day Hospital. In the case of expensive medicines, nursing staff have to comply with very detailed instructions in their administration to the patient (name of medicine, route, dosage, schedule, previous medication, conditions of conservation, etc.). This work focuses on the development of a multi-faceted hub application to facilitate the traceability of mixed intravenous medication from the beginning to the end of the process of prescription-validation-dosing-preparation-administration (PVD-PA) and be available to all health professionals involved: doctors, pharmacists, and the nursing staff of the Hospital Pharmacy and Day Hospital.

  7. The Development of an RFID Solution to Facilitate the Traceability of Patient and Pharmaceutical Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Martínez Pérez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the principal objectives of hospitals is to increase the quality of care of the patient. This is even more of a priority in Day Hospitals where certain medication requires special attention, from its preparation in the Pharmacy service to its delivery to the patient in the Day Hospital. In the case of expensive medicines, nursing staff have to comply with very detailed instructions in their administration to the patient (name of medicine, route, dosage, schedule, previous medication, conditions of conservation, etc.. This work focuses on the development of a multi-faceted hub application to facilitate the traceability of mixed intravenous medication from the beginning to the end of the process of prescription–validation–dosing–preparation–administration (PVD-PA and be available to all health professionals involved: doctors, pharmacists, and the nursing staff of the Hospital Pharmacy and Day Hospital.

  8. New Primary Standards for Establishing SI Traceability for Moisture Measurements in Solid Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, M.; Bell, S.; Choi, B. Il; Cortellessa, G.; Fernicola, V.; Georgin, E.; Hudoklin, D.; Ionescu, G. V.; Ismail, N.; Keawprasert, T.; Krasheninina, M.; Aro, R.; Nielsen, J.; Oğuz Aytekin, S.; Österberg, P.; Skabar, J.; Strnad, R.

    2018-01-01

    A European research project METefnet addresses a fundamental obstacle to improving energy-intensive drying process control: due to ambiguous reference analysis methods and insufficient methods for estimating uncertainty in moisture measurements, the achievable accuracy in the past was limited and measurement uncertainties were largely unknown. This paper reports the developments in METefnet that provide a sound basis for the SI traceability: four new primary standards for realizing the water mass fraction were set up, analyzed and compared to each other. The operation of these standards is based on combining sample weighing with different water vapor detection techniques: cold trap, chilled mirror, electrolytic and coulometric Karl Fischer titration. The results show that an equivalence of 0.2 % has been achieved between the water mass fraction realizations and that the developed methods are applicable to a wide range of materials.

  9. Practical aspects of the uncertainty and traceability of spectrochemical measurement results by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duta, S.; Robouch, P.; Barbu, L.; Taylor, P.

    2007-01-01

    The determination of trace elements concentration in water by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) is a common and well established technique in many chemical testing laboratories. However, the evaluation of measurement uncertainty results is not systematically implemented. The paper presents an easy step-by-step example leading to the evaluation of the combined standard uncertainty of copper determination in water using ETAAS. The major contributors to the overall measurement uncertainty are identified due to amount of copper in water sample that mainly depends on the absorbance measurements, due to certified reference material and due to auto-sampler volume measurements. The practical aspects how the traceability of copper concentration in water can be established and demonstrated are also pointed out

  10. Determination of radionuclides in environmental test items at CPHR: Traceability and uncertainty calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrazana Gonzalez, J.; Fernandez, I.M.; Capote Ferrera, E.; Rodriguez Castro, G.

    2008-01-01

    Information about how the laboratory of Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones (CPHR), Cuba establishes its traceability to the International System of Units for the measurement of radionuclides in environmental test items is presented. A comparison among different methodologies of uncertainty calculation, including an analysis of the feasibility of using the Kragten-spreadsheet approach, is shown. In the specific case of the gamma spectrometric assay, the influence of each parameter, and the identification of the major contributor, in the relative difference between the methods of uncertainty calculation (Kragten and partial derivative) is described. The reliability of the uncertainty calculation results reported by the commercial software Gamma 2000 from Silena is analyzed

  11. Determination of radionuclides in environmental test items at CPHR: traceability and uncertainty calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrazana González, J; Fernández, I M; Capote Ferrera, E; Rodríguez Castro, G

    2008-11-01

    Information about how the laboratory of Centro de Protección e Higiene de las Radiaciones (CPHR), Cuba establishes its traceability to the International System of Units for the measurement of radionuclides in environmental test items is presented. A comparison among different methodologies of uncertainty calculation, including an analysis of the feasibility of using the Kragten-spreadsheet approach, is shown. In the specific case of the gamma spectrometric assay, the influence of each parameter, and the identification of the major contributor, in the relative difference between the methods of uncertainty calculation (Kragten and partial derivative) is described. The reliability of the uncertainty calculation results reported by the commercial software Gamma 2000 from Silena is analyzed.

  12. PCR-based assessment of shellfish traceability and sustainability in international Mediterranean seafood markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galal-Khallaf, Asmaa; Ardura, Alba; Borrell, Yaisel J; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2016-07-01

    Two mitochondrial markers (cytochrome oxidase COI and 16S rDNA) were employed for species identification of commercial shellfish from two Mediterranean countries. New COI Barcodes were generated for six species: Pleoticus robustus, Metapenaeopsis barbata, Parapenaeus fissuroides, Hymenopenaeus debilis, Metapenaeus affinis and Sepia aculeata. Biodiversity of the seafood species analyzed was greater in Egypt, with nine crustacean and two cephalopod species found compared with only three crustaceans and three cephalopods in Spain. In total, 17.2% and 15.2% products were mislabeled in Egypt and Spain, respectively. Population decline is a problem for some of the substitute species. Others were exotic and/or invasive in exporters' regions. This study offers the first comparable study of shellfish traceability in these Mediterranean markets. The PCR-based method used in this study proved to be reliable, effective and, therefore, could be employed for routine seafood analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Authenticity and Traceability of Vanilla Flavors by Analysis of Stable Isotopes of Carbon and Hydrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne-Mette Sølvbjerg; Fromberg, Arvid; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    2014-01-01

    Authenticity and traceability of vanilla flavors were investigated using gas chromatographyisotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS). Vanilla flavors produced by chemical synthesis (n = 2), fermentation (n = 1), and extracted from two different species of the vanilla orchid (n = 79) were analyzed....... The authenticity of the flavor compound vanillin was evaluated on the basis of measurements of ratios of carbon stable isotopes (delta C-13). It was found that results of delta C-13 for vanillin extracted from Vanilla planifolia and Vanilla tahitensis were significantly different (t test) and that it was possible...... to differentiate these two groups of natural vanillin from vanillin produced otherwise. Vanilla flavors were also analyzed for ratios of hydrogen stable isotopes (delta H-2). A graphic representation of delta C-13 versus delta H-2 revealed that vanillin extracted from pods grown in adjacent geographic origins...

  14. Perceived Traceability Costs and Benefits in the Italian Fisheries Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Asioli

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a model in which it is hypothesized that firm characteristics influence both costs and benefits of traceability. The proposed model differentiates between aggregate measures and specific categories, as well as between expected costs and benefits on the one hand and perceived actual outcomes on the other, and is tested in a series of regression analyses based on a survey sample of 60 Italian fish processors. The findings indicate that firm characteristics are not strongly associated with any specific cost or benefit measure. However, expected overall benefits are highly significantly impacted by firm size and the number of quality management systems certified, while actual overall benefits only by firm size. Finally, the study also finds considerable discrepancies between expected and actual costs and benefits. The managerial implications of the findings are discussed.

  15. Primary standardization of C-14 by means of CIEMAT/NIST, TDCR and 4πβ-γ methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsova, Maria

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the primary standardization of 14 C solution, which emits beta particles of maximum energy 156 keV, was made by means of three different methods: CIEMAT/NIST and TDCR (Triple To Double Coincidence Ratio) methods in liquid scintillation systems and the tracing method, in the 4πβ-γ coincidence system. TRICARB LSC (Liquid Scintillator Counting) system, equipped with two photomultipliers tubes, was used for CIEMAT/NIST method, using a 3 H standard that emits beta particles with maximum energy of 18.7 keV, as efficiency tracing. HIDEX 300SL LSC system, equipped with three photomultipliers tubes, was used for TDCR method. Samples of 14 C and 3 H, for the liquid scintillator system, were prepared using three commercial scintillation cocktails, UltimaGold, Optiphase Hisafe3 and InstaGel-Plus, in order to compare the performance in the measurements. All samples were prepared with 15 mL scintillators, in glass vials with low potassium concentration. Known aliquots of radioactive solution were dropped onto the cocktail scintillators. In order to obtain the quenching parameter curve, a nitro methane carrier solution and 1 mL of distilled water were used. For measurements in the 4πβ-γ system, 60 Co was used as beta gamma emitter. SCS (software coincidence system) was applied and the beta efficiency was changed by using electronic discrimination. The behavior of the extrapolation curve was predicted with code ESQUEMA, using Monte Carlo technique. The 14 C activity obtained by the three methods applied in this work was compared and the results showed to be in agreement, within the experimental uncertainty. (author)

  16. Repeatability of magnetic resonance fingerprinting T1and T2estimates assessed using the ISMRM/NIST MRI system phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yun; Ma, Dan; Keenan, Kathryn E; Stupic, Karl F; Gulani, Vikas; Griswold, Mark A

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate accuracy and repeatability of T 1 and T 2 estimates of a MR fingerprinting (MRF) method using the ISMRM/NIST MRI system phantom. The ISMRM/NIST MRI system phantom contains multiple compartments with standardized T 1 , T 2 , and proton density values. Conventional inversion-recovery spin echo and spin echo methods were used to characterize the T 1 and T 2 values in the phantom. The phantom was scanned using the MRF-FISP method over 34 consecutive days. The mean T 1 and T 2 values were compared with the values from the spin echo methods. The repeatability was characterized as the coefficient of variation of the measurements over 34 days. T 1 and T 2 values from MRF-FISP over 34 days showed a strong linear correlation with the measurements from the spin echo methods (R 2  = 0.999 for T 1 ; R 2  = 0.996 for T 2 ). The MRF estimates over the wide ranges of T 1 and T 2 values have less than 5% variation, except for the shortest T 2 relaxation times where the method still maintains less than 8% variation. MRF measurements of T 1 and T 2 are highly repeatable over time and across wide ranges of T 1 and T 2 values. Magn Reson Med 78:1452-1457, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  17. Neutron Metrology in the United States-Where We've Been, Where We Are Now and What We Need to Do Moving Forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, David A

    2017-11-01

    Neutron metrology in the United States must be based on traceability to standards maintained by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). This article reviews the history of NIST's neutron-metrology efforts, the loss of those capabilities, and attempts to restore them. Recommendations are made to ensure that neutron dosimetry performed in the United States meets the requirements set forth by the International Standards Organization and other international and national authorities.

  18. Traceability of Biologics in The Netherlands: An Analysis of Information-Recording Systems in Clinical Practice and Spontaneous ADR Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Kevin; Scholl, Joep H G; Vermeer, Niels S; Broekmans, André W; Van Puijenbroek, Eugène P; De Bruin, Marie L; Stolk, Pieter

    2016-02-01

    Pharmacovigilance requirements for biologics mandate that EU Member States shall ensure that any biologic that is the subject of a suspected adverse drug reaction (ADR) is identifiable by brand name and batch number. Recent studies showed that brand name identification is well established, whereas batch numbers are (still) poorly reported. We evaluated information-recording systems and practices in the Dutch hospital setting to identify determinants for brand name and batch number recording as well as success factors and bottlenecks for traceability. We surveyed Dutch hospital pharmacists with an online questionnaire on systems and practices in hospitals for recording brand names and batch numbers. Additionally, we performed an analysis of the traceability of recombinant biologics in spontaneous ADR reports (received between 2009 and 2014) from the Netherlands Pharmacovigilance Centre Lareb. The survey showed that brand names are not routinely recorded in the clinical practice of Dutch hospitals, whereas batch numbers are poorly recorded. Seventy-six percent of the 1523 ADR reports for recombinant biologics had a traceable brand name whereas 5% of these reports contained a batch number. The results suggest a possible relationship between the availability of brand and batch number information in clinical practice and the inclusion of this information in ADR reports for biologics. The limited traceability of brand names and batch numbers in ADR reports may be primarily caused by the shortcomings in the recording of information in clinical practice. We recommend efforts to improve information-recording systems as a first step to improve the traceability of biologics in ADR reporting.

  19. Discrepancy of sodium mass fraction determined by INAA in the NIST SRM1547 and SRM1515 reference materials and their certified values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamenik, Jan; Kucera, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Determination of sodium content in NIST standard reference materials (SRM) SRM 1547 and SRM 1515 in recent years yielded values higher than NIST certified values. Similarly, increased values were published for SRM 1547 by several laboratories, however, published sodium values SRM 1515 are in general in agreement with the certified value. Additional analysis of SRM 1547 and SRM 1515 using NIST SRM 3152a Sodium Standard Solution as a calibrator confirmed increased Na values. Inhomogeneity indicating external contamination of the stock material was not found. Moreover, increased Na value was also determined for freshly opened bottle of SRM 1547 material. Analysis of the historical material A-2 from our archive, which is identical with SRM 1515 and was distributed by NIST prior to the SRM 1515 certification and stored in a polyethylene vial, yielded a value in agreement with the certified value. A hypothesis was formulated that sodium in SRM 1547 and SRM 1515 materials could have been increasing after certification, perhaps due to the release of sodium from the glass bottle. (author)

  20. CERT (registered trademark) Resilience Management Model (CERT (registered trademark)-RMM) V1.1: NIST Special Publication Crosswalk Version 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    27000 series, COBIT, the British Standards Institution’s BS 25999, and ISO 24762  includes quantitative process measurements that can be used to...the NIST special publications 800 series, the International Organization for Standards ( ISO ) and International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC

  1. 40 CFR Appendix F to Part 60 - Quality Assurance Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of Standards and Technology (NIST) or EPA Traceability Protocol Materials (ETPM's) following the most..., exponential, and power). If the expanded data base and revised correlation meet PS-11 statistical criteria... source's flue gas stream may have changed such that your PM CEMS measurement technology is no longer...

  2. 75 FR 18819 - Second DRAFT NIST Interagency Report (NISTIR) 7628, Smart Grid Cyber Security Strategy and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... NISTIR 7628; the final version is scheduled to be posted in the spring of 2010. DATES: Comments must be...: * * * (1) Increased use of digital information and controls technology to improve reliability, security... addressed in the next version of the NISTIR. There were several topics that were not addressed in the second...

  3. 76 FR 93 - Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowships (SURF) NIST Gaithersburg and Boulder Programs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... engineering sciences and, as the lead Federal agency for technology transfer, it provides a strong interface... better, out of a possible 4.0); (3) A statement of motivation and commitment from each student to... statement of motivation and commitment from each student to participate in the 2011 SURF Program, including...

  4. Annual Performance of a Two-Speed, Dedicated Dehumidification Heat Pump in the NIST Net-Zero Energy Residential Test Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, W Vance

    2016-01-01

    A 2715 ft 2 (252 m 2 ), two story, residential home of the style typical of the Gaithersburg, Maryland area was constructed in 2012 to demonstrate technologies for net-zero energy (NZE) homes (or ZEH). The NIST Net-Zero Energy Residential Test Facility (NZERTF) functions as a laboratory to support the development and adoption of cost-effective NZE designs, technologies, construction methods, and building codes. The primary design goal was to meet the comfort and functional needs of the simulated occupants. The first annual test period began on July 1, 2013 and ended June 30, 2014. During the first year of operation, the home's annual energy consumption was 13039 kWh (4.8 kWh ft -2 , 51.7 kWh m -2 ), and the 10.2 kW solar photovoltaic system generated an excess of 484 kWh. During this period the heating and air conditioning of the home was performed by a novel air-source heat pump that utilized a reheat heat exchanger to allow hot compressor discharge gas to reheat the supply air during a dedicated dehumidification mode. During dedicated dehumidification, room temperature air was supplied to the living space until the relative humidity setpoint of 50% was satisfied. The heat pump consumed a total of 6225 kWh (2.3 kWh ft -2, 24.7 kWh m -2 ) of electrical energy for cooling, heating, and dehumidification. Annual cooling efficiency was 10.1 Btu W -1 h -1 (2.95 W W -1 ), relative to the rated SEER of the heat pump of 15.8 Btu W -1 h -1 (4.63 W W -1 ). Annual heating efficiency was 7.10 Btu W -1 h -1 (2.09 W W -1 ), compared with the unit's rated HSPF of 9.05 Btu W -1 h -1 (2.65 W W -1 ). These field measured efficiency numbers include dedicated dehumidification operation and standby energy use for the year. Annual sensible heat ratio was approximately 70%. Standby energy consumption was 5.2 % and 3.5 % of the total electrical energy used for cooling and heating, respectively.

  5. Calibration services for medical applications of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWerd, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    Calibration services for the medical community applications of radiation involve measuring radiation precisely and having traceability to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Radiation therapy applications involve the use of ionization chambers and electrometers for external beams and well-type ionization chamber systems as well as radioactive sources for brachytherapy. Diagnostic x-ray applications involve ionization chamber systems and devices to measure other parameters of the x-ray machine, such as non-invasive kVp meters. Calibration laboratories have been established to provide radiation calibration services while maintaining traceability to NIST. New radiation applications of the medical community spur investigation to provide the future calibration needs

  6. SURFing the Physics Laboratory at NIST: The Cold Atom Fountain Clock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebby, Jennifer

    1998-04-01

    The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology provides undergraduates with an excellent opportunity to work one-on-one with some of the nation's top research specialists. While this program is open to all qualifying undergraduates, it strongly encourages women and minority applicants. SURF students work on a variety of projects. Details will be given on one SURF student's participation in the building of the cold atom fountain clock. This next generation in atomic clocks uses the principles of laser cooling and trapping to develop a more accurate measurement of a second. This has many practical applications, including communications and the Global Positioning System.

  7. Traceable accounts of subjective probability judgments in the IPCC and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, P. G.

    2012-12-01

    One of the major sources of controversy surrounding the reports of the IPCC has been the characterization of uncertainty. Although arguably the IPCC has paid more attention to the process of uncertainty analysis and communication than any comparable assessment body, its efforts to achieve consistency have produced mixed results. In particular, the extensive use of subjective probability assessment has attracted widespread criticism. Statements such as "Average Northern Hemisphere temperatures during the second half of the 20th century were very likely higher than during any other 50-year period in the last 500 years" are ubiquitous (one online database lists nearly 3000 such claims), and indeed are the primary way in which its key "findings" are reported. Much attention is drawn to the precise quantitative definition of such statements (e.g., "very likely" means >90% probability, vs. "extremely likely" which means >95% certainty). But there is no process by which the decision regarding the choice of such uncertainty level for a given finding is formally made or reported, and thus they are easily by disputed by anyone, expert or otherwise, who disagrees with the assessment. In the "Uncertainty Guidance Paper" for the Third Assessment Report, Richard Moss and Steve Schneider defined the concept of a "traceable account," which gave exhaustive detail regarding how one ought to provide documentation of such an uncertainty assessment. But the guidance, while appearing straightforward and reasonable, in fact was an unworkable recipe, which would have taken near-infinite time if used for more than a few key results, and would have required a different structuring of the text than the conventional scientific assessment. And even then it would have left a gap when it came to the actual provenance of any such specific judgments, because there simply is no formal step at which individuals turn their knowledge of the evidence on some finding into a probability judgment. The

  8. Federal move to metric: Public Law, DoC and NIST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swyt, Dennis A.

    1992-12-01

    Since its initial development, the metric system of measurement has evolved to become the modern International System of Units (SI) and has been formally accepted by all the nations of the world save three and all the industralized nations save one, the United States. Recently, Congress passed the Metric Usage Act of 1988, requiring all Federal agencies, including the National Institute of Standards and Technology, to plan and implement conversion to use of metric in their business-related activities and assigned responsibility for coordination of Federal agency conversion to the Department of Commerce. This paper reviews briefly the Federal legislative history of metric use in the U.S., metric practice associated with the modernized system, and the policies and plans of the Federal government in its legislatively-mandated conversion to use of that system.

  9. Development of a Bolometer Detector System for the NIST High Accuracy Infrared Spectrophotometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Y.; Datla, R. U.

    1998-01-01

    A bolometer detector system was developed for the high accuracy infrared spectrophotometer at the National Institute of Standards and Technology to provide maximum sensitivity, spatial uniformity, and linearity of response covering the entire infrared spectral range. The spatial response variation was measured to be within 0.1 %. The linearity of the detector output was measured over three decades of input power. After applying a simple correction procedure, the detector output was found to deviate less than 0.2 % from linear behavior over this range. The noise equivalent power (NEP) of the bolometer system was 6 × 10−12 W/Hz at the frequency of 80 Hz. The detector output 3 dB roll-off frequency was 200 Hz. The detector output was stable to within ± 0.05 % over a 15 min period. These results demonstrate that the bolometer detector system will serve as an excellent detector for the high accuracy infrared spectrophotometer. PMID:28009364

  10. NGS tools for traceability in candies as high processed food products: Ion Torrent PGM versus conventional PCR-cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Colmenero, Marta; Martínez, Jose Luis; Roca, Agustín; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2017-01-01

    The Next Generation Sequencing methodologies are considered the next step within DNA-based methods and their applicability in different fields is being evaluated. Here, we tested the usefulness of the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM) in food traceability analyzing candies as a model of high processed foods, and compared the results with those obtained by PCR-cloning-sequencing (PCR-CS). The majority of samples exhibited consistency between methodologies, yielding more information and species per product from the PGM platform than PCR-CS. Significantly higher AT-content in sequences of the same species was also obtained from PGM. This together with some taxonomical discrepancies between methodologies suggest that the PGM platform is still pre-mature for its use in food traceability of complex highly processed products. It could be a good option for analysis of less complex food, saving time and cost per sample. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Investigation on the traceability of three dimensional scanning electron microscope measurements based on the stereo-pair technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bariani, Paolo; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2005-01-01

    -dimensional topography of the type C roughness standards showed good agreement with the nominal profile wavelength values. An investigation was carried out concerning the traceability of dimensional measurements performed with the scanning electron microscope (SEM) using reconstruction of surface topography through......An investigation was carried out concerning the traceability of dimensional measurements performed with the scanning electron microscope (SEM) using reconstruction of surface topography through stereo-photogrammetry. A theoretical description of the effects that the main instrumental variables...... in the vertical plane using two ISO 5436 type C roughness standards. Results from magnification calibration and tilt angle measurement were used for calculating the theoretical uncertainty on the vertical elevation. Experimental deviations measured on gauge-block steps showed slightly bigger values than those...

  12. Global trade statistics lack granularity to inform traceability and management of diverse and high-value fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawthorn, Donna-Mareè; Mariani, Stefano

    2017-10-09

    Illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing and seafood supply chain fraud are multifaceted problems that demand multifaceted solutions. Here, we investigate the extent to which global fisheries trade data analyses can support effective seafood traceability and promote sustainable seafood markets using one of the world's most highly prized, yet misunderstood, groups of fishes as a model: the snappers, family Lutjanidae. By collating and comparing production, import and export data from international and national statistical collections for the period 2006-2013, we show that official trade data severely lack the level of detail required to track snapper trade flows, uncover potential IUU activities and/or inform exploitation management of snappers and related species. Moreover, we contend that the lack of taxonomic granularity and use of vague generic names in trade records represent one of the most insidious impediments to seafood traceability, and suggest that widely used harmonised commodity classification systems should evolve to address these gaps.

  13. Toward fish and seafood traceability: anchovy species determination in fish products by molecular markers and support through a public domain database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jérôme, Marc; Martinsohn, Jann Thorsten; Ortega, Delphine; Carreau, Philippe; Verrez-Bagnis, Véronique; Mouchel, Olivier

    2008-05-28

    Traceability in the fish food sector plays an increasingly important role for consumer protection and confidence building. This is reflected by the introduction of legislation and rules covering traceability on national and international levels. Although traceability through labeling is well established and supported by respective regulations, monitoring and enforcement of these rules are still hampered by the lack of efficient diagnostic tools. We describe protocols using a direct sequencing method based on 212-274-bp diagnostic sequences derived from species-specific mitochondria DNA cytochrome b, 16S rRNA, and cytochrome oxidase subunit I sequences which can efficiently be applied to unambiguously determine even closely related fish species in processed food products labeled "anchovy". Traceability of anchovy-labeled products is supported by the public online database AnchovyID ( http://anchovyid.jrc.ec.europa.eu), which provided data obtained during our study and tools for analytical purposes.

  14. Mycochemical Characterization of Agaricus subrufescens considering Their Morphological and Physiological Stage of Maturity on the Traceability Process

    OpenAIRE

    Zied, Diego Cunha; Pardo, Jose E; Tomaz, Rafael Simões; Miasaki, Celso Tadao; Pardo-Giménez, Arturo

    2017-01-01

    Agaricus subrufescens Peck is a basidiomycete with immunomodulatory compounds and antitumor activities. This research evaluated the mycochemical composition of A. subrufescens, considering their morphological and physiological stage of maturity, with a particular focus on the development of a traceability process for the formulation of new nutritional products based on fungal foods. The stipes contained a high amount of dry matter (10.33%), total carbohydrate (69.56%), available carbohydrate ...

  15. Selection and Traceability of Parameters To Support Hanford-Specific RESRAD Analyses -- Fiscal Year 2008 Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Last, George V.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Murray, Christopher J.; Cantrell, Kirk J.

    2009-07-24

    In fiscal years 2007 and 2008, the Hanford Site Groundwater Remediation Project, formerly managed by Fluor Hanford, Inc., requested the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to support the development and initial implementation of a strategy to establish and maintain, under configuration control, a set of Hanford-specific flow and transport parameter estimates that can be used to support Hanford Site assessments. This document provides a summary of those efforts, culminating in a set of best-estimate Hanford-specific parameters for use in place of the default parameters used in the RESRAD code. The RESRAD code is a computer model designed to estimate radiation doses and risks from RESidual RADioactive materials. The long-term goals of the PNNL work are to improve the consistency, defensibility, and traceability of parameters and their ranges of variability, and to ensure a sound basis for assigning parameters for flow and transport models in the code. The strategy was to start by identifying the existing parameter data sets most recently used in site assessments, documenting these parameter data sets and the raw data sets on which they were based, and using the existing parameter sets to define best-estimate parameters for use in the RESRAD code. The Hanford-specific assessment parameters compiled for use in RESRAD are traceable back to the professional judgment of the authors of published documents. Within the references, parameters are often not directly traceable back to the raw data and analytical approaches used to derive the assessment parameters. Future activities will work to continuously improve the defensibility and traceability of the parameter data sets and to address limitations and technical issues associated with the existing assessment parameter data sets.

  16. TRACEABILITY OF PRECISION MEASUREMENTS ON COORDINATE MEASURING MACHINES – UNCERTAINTY ASSESSMENT BY USING CALIBRATED WORPIECES ON CMMs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    This document is used in connection with one exercise 30 minutes duration as a part of the course VISION ONLINE – One week course on Precision & Nanometrology. The exercise concerns establishment of traceability of precision measurements on coordinate measuring machines. This document contains...... a short description of each step in the exercise, the uncertainty budget as described in the ISO/TS 15530 part 3 and tables from the excel spreadsheets....

  17. Improved Traceability of Mission Concept to Requirements Using Model Based Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reil, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) has recently been gaining significant support as a means to improve the traditional document-based systems engineering (DBSE) approach to engineering complex systems. In the spacecraft design domain, there are many perceived and propose benefits of an MBSE approach, but little analysis has been presented to determine the tangible benefits of such an approach (e.g. time and cost saved, increased product quality). This thesis presents direct examples of how developing a small satellite system model can improve traceability of the mission concept to its requirements. A comparison of the processes and approaches for MBSE and DBSE is made using the NASA Ames Research Center SporeSat CubeSat mission as a case study. A model of the SporeSat mission is built using the Systems Modeling Language standard and No Magics MagicDraw modeling tool. The model incorporates mission concept and requirement information from the missions original DBSE design efforts. Active dependency relationships are modeled to analyze the completeness and consistency of the requirements to the mission concept. Overall experience and methodology are presented for both the MBSE and original DBSE design efforts of SporeSat.

  18. Traceable size determination of PMMA nanoparticles based on Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleber, G; Cibik, L; Mueller, P; Krumrey, M [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Abbestrasse 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Haas, S; Hoell, A, E-mail: gudrun.gleber@ptb.d [Helmholtz-Zentrum-Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie (HZB), Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2010-10-01

    The size and size distribution of PMMA nanoparticles has been investigated with SAXS (small angle X-ray scattering) using monochromatized synchrotron radiation. The uncertainty has contributions from the wavelength or photon energy of the radiation, the scattering angle and the fit procedure for the obtained scattering curves. The wavelength can be traced back to the lattice constant of silicon, and the scattering angle is traceable via geometric measurements of the detector pixel size and the distance between the sample and the detector. SAXS measurements and data evaluations have been performed at different distances and photon energies for two PMMA nanoparticle suspensions with low polydispersity and nominal diameters of 108 nm and 192 nm, respectively, as well as for a mixture of both. The relative variation of the diameters obtained for different experimental conditions was below {+-} 0.3 %. The determined number-weighted mean diameters of (109.0 {+-} 0.7) nm and (188.0 {+-} 1.3) nm, respectively, are close to the nominal values.

  19. Traceable size determination of PMMA nanoparticles based on Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleber, G.; Cibik, L.; Haas, S.; Hoell, A.; Müller, P.; Krumrey, M.

    2010-10-01

    The size and size distribution of PMMA nanoparticles has been investigated with SAXS (small angle X-ray scattering) using monochromatized synchrotron radiation. The uncertainty has contributions from the wavelength or photon energy of the radiation, the scattering angle and the fit procedure for the obtained scattering curves. The wavelength can be traced back to the lattice constant of silicon, and the scattering angle is traceable via geometric measurements of the detector pixel size and the distance between the sample and the detector. SAXS measurements and data evaluations have been performed at different distances and photon energies for two PMMA nanoparticle suspensions with low polydispersity and nominal diameters of 108 nm and 192 nm, respectively, as well as for a mixture of both. The relative variation of the diameters obtained for different experimental conditions was below ± 0.3 %. The determined number-weighted mean diameters of (109.0 ± 0.7) nm and (188.0 ± 1.3) nm, respectively, are close to the nominal values.

  20. Traceable size determination of PMMA nanoparticles based on Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleber, G; Cibik, L; Mueller, P; Krumrey, M; Haas, S; Hoell, A

    2010-01-01

    The size and size distribution of PMMA nanoparticles has been investigated with SAXS (small angle X-ray scattering) using monochromatized synchrotron radiation. The uncertainty has contributions from the wavelength or photon energy of the radiation, the scattering angle and the fit procedure for the obtained scattering curves. The wavelength can be traced back to the lattice constant of silicon, and the scattering angle is traceable via geometric measurements of the detector pixel size and the distance between the sample and the detector. SAXS measurements and data evaluations have been performed at different distances and photon energies for two PMMA nanoparticle suspensions with low polydispersity and nominal diameters of 108 nm and 192 nm, respectively, as well as for a mixture of both. The relative variation of the diameters obtained for different experimental conditions was below ± 0.3 %. The determined number-weighted mean diameters of (109.0 ± 0.7) nm and (188.0 ± 1.3) nm, respectively, are close to the nominal values.

  1. An analytical approach to Sr isotope ratio determination in Lambrusco wines for geographical traceability purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, Caterina; Baschieri, Carlo; Bertacchini, Lucia; Bertelli, Davide; Cocchi, Marina; Marchetti, Andrea; Manzini, Daniela; Papotti, Giulia; Sighinolfi, Simona

    2015-04-15

    Geographical origin and authenticity of food are topics of interest for both consumers and producers. Among the different indicators used for traceability studies, (87)Sr/(86)Sr isotopic ratio has provided excellent results. In this study, two analytical approaches for wine sample pre-treatment, microwave and low temperature mineralisation, were investigated to develop accurate and precise analytical method for (87)Sr/(86)Sr determination. The two procedures led to comparable results (paired t-test, with twine sample), processed during each sample batch (calculated Relative Standard Deviation, RSD%, equal to 0.002%. Lambrusco PDO (Protected Designation of Origin) wines coming from four different vintages (2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012) were pre-treated according to the best procedure and their isotopic values were compared with isotopic data coming from (i) soils of their territory of origin and (ii) wines obtained by same grape varieties cultivated in different districts. The obtained results have shown no significant variability among the different vintages of wines and a perfect agreement between the isotopic range of the soils and wines has been observed. Nevertheless, the investigated indicator was not enough powerful to discriminate between similar products. To this regard, it is worth to note that more soil samples as well as wines coming from different districts will be considered to obtain more trustworthy results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Improved Traceability of a Small Satellite Mission Concept to Requirements Using Model Based System Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reil, Robin L.

    2014-01-01

    Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) has recently been gaining significant support as a means to improve the "traditional" document-based systems engineering (DBSE) approach to engineering complex systems. In the spacecraft design domain, there are many perceived and propose benefits of an MBSE approach, but little analysis has been presented to determine the tangible benefits of such an approach (e.g. time and cost saved, increased product quality). This paper presents direct examples of how developing a small satellite system model can improve traceability of the mission concept to its requirements. A comparison of the processes and approaches for MBSE and DBSE is made using the NASA Ames Research Center SporeSat CubeSat mission as a case study. A model of the SporeSat mission is built using the Systems Modeling Language standard and No Magic's MagicDraw modeling tool. The model incorporates mission concept and requirement information from the mission's original DBSE design efforts. Active dependency relationships are modeled to demonstrate the completeness and consistency of the requirements to the mission concept. Anecdotal information and process-duration metrics are presented for both the MBSE and original DBSE design efforts of SporeSat.

  3. Metrological traceability in education: A practical online system for measuring and managing middle school mathematics instruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irribarra, D Torres; Freund, R; Fisher, W; Wilson, M

    2015-01-01

    Computer-based, online assessments modelled, designed, and evaluated for adaptively administered invariant measurement are uniquely suited to defining and maintaining traceability to standardized units in education. An assessment of this kind is embedded in the Assessing Data Modeling and Statistical Reasoning (ADM) middle school mathematics curriculum. Diagnostic information about middle school students' learning of statistics and modeling is provided via computer-based formative assessments for seven constructs that comprise a learning progression for statistics and modeling from late elementary through the middle school grades. The seven constructs are: Data Display, Meta-Representational Competence, Conceptions of Statistics, Chance, Modeling Variability, Theory of Measurement, and Informal Inference. The end product is a web-delivered system built with Ruby on Rails for use by curriculum development teams working with classroom teachers in designing, developing, and delivering formative assessments. The online accessible system allows teachers to accurately diagnose students' unique comprehension and learning needs in a common language of real-time assessment, logging, analysis, feedback, and reporting

  4. Metrological traceability in education: A practical online system for measuring and managing middle school mathematics instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres Irribarra, D.; Freund, R.; Fisher, W.; Wilson, M.

    2015-02-01

    Computer-based, online assessments modelled, designed, and evaluated for adaptively administered invariant measurement are uniquely suited to defining and maintaining traceability to standardized units in education. An assessment of this kind is embedded in the Assessing Data Modeling and Statistical Reasoning (ADM) middle school mathematics curriculum. Diagnostic information about middle school students' learning of statistics and modeling is provided via computer-based formative assessments for seven constructs that comprise a learning progression for statistics and modeling from late elementary through the middle school grades. The seven constructs are: Data Display, Meta-Representational Competence, Conceptions of Statistics, Chance, Modeling Variability, Theory of Measurement, and Informal Inference. The end product is a web-delivered system built with Ruby on Rails for use by curriculum development teams working with classroom teachers in designing, developing, and delivering formative assessments. The online accessible system allows teachers to accurately diagnose students' unique comprehension and learning needs in a common language of real-time assessment, logging, analysis, feedback, and reporting.

  5. Quantification of silane molecules on oxidized silicon: are there options for a traceable and absolute determination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, P M; Streeck, C; Glamsch, S; Ehlert, C; Lippitz, A; Nutsch, A; Kulak, N; Beckhoff, B; Unger, W E S

    2015-10-06

    Organosilanes are used routinely to functionalize various support materials for further modifications. Nevertheless, reliable quantitative information about surface functional group densities after layer formation is rarely available. Here, we present the analysis of thin organic nanolayers made from nitrogen containing silane molecules on naturally oxidized silicon wafers with reference-free total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). An areic density of 2-4 silane molecules per nm(2) was calculated from the layer's nitrogen mass deposition per area unit obtained by reference-free TXRF. Complementary energy and angle-resolved XPS (ER/AR-XPS) in the Si 2p core-level region was used to analyze the outermost surface region of the organic (silane layer)-inorganic (silicon wafer) interface. Different coexisting silicon species as silicon, native silicon oxide, and silane were identified and quantified. As a result of the presented proof-of-concept, absolute and traceable values for the areic density of silanes containing nitrogen as intrinsic marker are obtained by calibration of the XPS methods with reference-free TXRF. Furthermore, ER/AR-XPS is shown to facilitate the determination of areic densities in (mono)layers made from silanes having no heteroatomic marker other than silicon. After calibration with reference-free TXRF, these areic densities of silane molecules can be determined when using the XPS component intensity of the silane's silicon atom.

  6. Using DNA origami nanorulers as traceable distance measurement standards and nanoscopic benchmark structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Mario; Jusuk, Ija; Molle, Julia; Buhr, Egbert; Bodermann, Bernd; Bergmann, Detlef; Bosse, Harald; Tinnefeld, Philip

    2018-01-29

    In recent years, DNA origami nanorulers for superresolution (SR) fluorescence microscopy have been developed from fundamental proof-of-principle experiments to commercially available test structures. The self-assembled nanostructures allow placing a defined number of fluorescent dye molecules in defined geometries in the nanometer range. Besides the unprecedented control over matter on the nanoscale, robust DNA origami nanorulers are reproducibly obtained in high yields. The distances between their fluorescent marks can be easily analysed yielding intermark distance histograms from many identical structures. Thus, DNA origami nanorulers have become excellent reference and training structures for superresolution microscopy. In this work, we go one step further and develop a calibration process for the measured distances between the fluorescent marks on DNA origami nanorulers. The superresolution technique DNA-PAINT is used to achieve nanometrological traceability of nanoruler distances following the guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM). We further show two examples how these nanorulers are used to evaluate the performance of TIRF microscopes that are capable of single-molecule localization microscopy (SMLM).

  7. Evaluation of the implementation of new traceability and food safety requirements in the pig industry in eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Jover, M; Schembri, N; Toribio, J-A; Holyoake, P K

    2009-10-01

    To evaluate the implementation and barriers to adoption, among pig producers, of a newly introduced traceability and food safety system in Australia. Implementation of the PigPass national vendor declaration (NVD) linked to an on-farm quality assurance (QA) program was evaluated in May and December 2007 at saleyards and abattoirs in New South Wales, Victoria and Queensland. Four focus group discussions with saleyard producers were held between April and July 2007. Implementation of the PigPass system in terms of accurate completion of the form and QA accreditation was higher at the export abattoir than at the regional saleyard at the first audit (P 64%), and many vendors did not appear to be QA-accredited. During focus groups, producers expressed the view that PigPass implementation improved animal and product traceability. They identified the associated costs and a perceived lack of support by information providers as obstacles for adoption. Improvement in the implementation of PigPass among producers marketing pigs at export abattoirs was observed during the 8-month period of the study. There is a need for a more uniform message to producers from government agencies on the importance of the PigPass NVD and QA and extension and education targeted toward producers supplying pigs to saleyards and domestic abattoirs to ensure compliance with the traceability requirements.

  8. Product traceability and quality as applied to the united states transuranic and high-level waste repository programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickering, S.Y.; Orrell, S.A.

    2000-01-01

    As with any repository program, predictions of the performance of a site over very long time frames may often meet with skepticism from the public and decision-makers, such as regulatory and governmental agencies. Experience at the WIPP and the YMP indicate that demonstrating the defensibility of data, conceptual models, computer codes, and numerical analyses is critical. Five overarching principles have been found to be the basis of a technically and publicly acceptable repository. The principles are traceability, transparency, reproducibility, retrievability, and reviews. - Traceability allows one to understand the source and justification of data and other input that generate conclusions. - Transparency allows one to follow the logic, calculations, and other operations that produce results. - Reproducibility allows one to reconstruct the results without recourse to the originator of the information. - Retrievability allows one to retrieve documentation that demonstrate these overarching principles. - Reviews ensure that the work is technically acceptable, complete, and accurate. This paper discusses how these principles are applied to the WIPP and the YMP. By setting up quality assurance and management controls (e.g., procedures, audits, peer reviews) these principles are implemented. Without successfully applying these principles the WIPP would not have gone from research to industrial maturity. The YMP is ensuring that these are implemented for activities that support licensing. Any repository program concerned with demonstrating defensibility to the public and regulators would do well by incorporating traceability, transparency, reproducibility, retrievability, and reviews into their program. (authors)

  9. Glycan characterization of the NIST RM monoclonal antibody using a total analytical solution: From sample preparation to data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliard, Mark; Alley, William R; McManus, Ciara A; Yu, Ying Qing; Hallinan, Sinead; Gebler, John; Rudd, Pauline M

    Glycosylation is an important attribute of biopharmaceutical products to monitor from development through production. However, glycosylation analysis has traditionally been a time-consuming process with long sample preparation protocols and manual interpretation of the data. To address the challenges associated with glycan analysis, we developed a streamlined analytical solution that covers the entire process from sample preparation to data analysis. In this communication, we describe the complete analytical solution that begins with a simplified and fast N-linked glycan sample preparation protocol that can be completed in less than 1 hr. The sample preparation includes labelling with RapiFluor-MS tag to improve both fluorescence (FLR) and mass spectral (MS) sensitivities. Following HILIC-UPLC/FLR/MS analyses, the data are processed and a library search based on glucose units has been included to expedite the task of structural assignment. We then applied this total analytical solution to characterize the glycosylation of the NIST Reference Material mAb 8761. For this glycoprotein, we confidently identified 35 N-linked glycans and all three major classes, high mannose, complex, and hybrid, were present. The majority of the glycans were neutral and fucosylated; glycans featuring N-glycolylneuraminic acid and those with two galactoses connected via an α1,3-linkage were also identified.

  10. The multiple disk chopper neutron time-of-flight spectrometer at NIST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altorfer, F.B.; Cook, J.C.; Copley, J.R.D.

    1995-01-01

    A highly versatile multiple disk chopper neutron time-of-flight spectrometer is being installed at the Cold Neutron Research Facility of the National institute of Standards and Technology. This new instrument will fill an important gap in the portfolio of neutron inelastic scattering spectrometers in North America. It will be used for a wide variety of experiments such as studies of magnetic and vibrational excitations, tunneling spectroscopy, and quasielastic neutron scattering investigations of local and translational diffusion. The instrument uses disk choppers to monochromate and pulse the incident beam, and the energy changes of scattered neutrons are determined from their times-of-flight to a large array of detectors. The disks and the guide have been designed to make the instrument readily adaptable to the specific performance requirements of experimenters. The authors present important aspects of the design, as well as estimated values of the flux at the sample and the energy resolution for elastic scattering. The instrument should be operational in 1996

  11. Network Transfer of Control Data: An Application of the NIST SMART DATA FLOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Stanford

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Pervasive Computing environments range from basic mobile point of sale terminal systems, to rich Smart Spaces with many devices and sensors such as lapel microphones, audio and video sensor arrays and multiple interactive PDA acting as electronic brief cases, providing authentication, and user preference data to the environment. These systems present new challenges in distributed human-computer interfaces such as how to best use sensor streams, distribute interfaces across multiple devices, and dynamic network management as users come an go, and as devices are added or fail. The NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY SMART DATA FLOW system is a low overhead, high bandwidth transport mechanism for standardized multi-modal data streams. It is designed to allow integration of multiple sensors with distributed processing needed for the sense-recognize-respond cycle of multi modal user interfaces. Its core is a server/client architecture, allowing clients to produce or subscribe to data flows, and supporting steps toward scalable processing, distributing the computing requirements among many network connected computers and pervasive devices. This article introduces the communication broker and provides an example of an effective real time sensor fusion to track a speaker with a video camera using data captured from multi-channel microphone array.

  12. NIST mixed stain study 3: signal intensity balance in commercial short tandem repeat multiplexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duewer, David L; Kline, Margaret C; Redman, Janette W; Butler, John M

    2004-12-01

    Short-tandem repeat (STR) allelic intensities were collected from more than 60 forensic laboratories for a suite of seven samples as part of the National Institute of Standards and Technology-coordinated 2001 Mixed Stain Study 3 (MSS3). These interlaboratory challenge data illuminate the relative importance of intrinsic and user-determined factors affecting the locus-to-locus balance of signal intensities for currently used STR multiplexes. To varying degrees, seven of the eight commercially produced multiplexes used by MSS3 participants displayed very similar patterns of intensity differences among the different loci probed by the multiplexes for all samples, in the hands of multiple analysts, with a variety of supplies and instruments. These systematic differences reflect intrinsic properties of the individual multiplexes, not user-controllable measurement practices. To the extent that quality systems specify minimum and maximum absolute intensities for data acceptability and data interpretation schema require among-locus balance, these intrinsic intensity differences may decrease the utility of multiplex results and surely increase the cost of analysis.

  13. Nanotechnology Laboratory Continues Partnership with FDA and National Institute of Standards and Technology | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI-funded Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory (NCL)—a leader in evaluating promising nanomedicines to fight cancer—recently renewed its collaboration with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to continue its groundbreaking work on characterizing nanomedicines and moving them toward the clinic. In partnership with NIST and the FDA, NCL has laid a solid, scientific foundation for using the power of nanotechnology to increase the potency and target the delivery

  14. A Reload and Startup Plan for and #8233;Conversion of the NIST Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, D. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Varuttamaseni, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-09-30

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology operates a 20 MW research reactor for neutron-based research. The heavy-water moderated and cooled reactor is fueled with high-enriched uranium (HEU) but a program to convert the reactor to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel is underway. Among other requirements, a reload and startup test plan must be submitted to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for their approval. The NRC provides guidance for what should be in the plan to ensure that the licensee has sufficient information to operate the reactor safely. Hence, a plan has been generated consisting of two parts.The reload portion of the plan specifies the fuel management whereby initially only two LEU fuel elements are in the core for eight fuel cycles. This is repeated until a point when the optimum approach is to place four fresh LEU elements into the reactor each cycle. This final transition is repeated and after eight cycles the reactor is completely fueled with LEU. By only adding two LEU fuel elements initially, the plan allows for the consumption of HEU fuel elements that are expected to be in storage at the time of conversion and provides additional qualification of production LEU fuel under actual operating conditions. Because the reload is to take place over many fuel cycles, startup tests will be done at different stages of the conversion. The tests, to be compared with calculations to show that the reactor will operate as planned, are the measurement of critical shim arm position and shim arm and regulating rod reactivity worths. An acceptance criterion for each test is specified based on technical specifications that relate to safe operation. Additional tests are being considered that have less safety significance but may be of interest to bolster the validation of analysis tools.

  15. A reload and startup plan for conversion of the NIST research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, D. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-03-31

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology operates a 20 MW research reactor for neutron-based research. The heavy-water moderated and cooled reactor is fueled with high-enriched uranium (HEU) but a program to convert the reactor to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel is underway. Among other requirements, a reload and startup test plan must be submitted to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for their approval. The NRC provides guidance for what should be in the plan to ensure that the licensee has sufficient information to operate the reactor safely. Hence, a plan has been generated consisting of two parts. The reload portion of the plan specifies the fuel management whereby initially only two LEU fuel elements are in the core for eight fuel cycles. This is repeated until a point when the optimum approach is to place four fresh LEU elements into the reactor each cycle. This final transition is repeated and after eight cycles the reactor is completely fueled with LEU. By only adding two LEU fuel elements initially, the plan allows for the consumption of HEU fuel elements that are expected to be in storage at the time of conversion and provides additional qualification of production LEU fuel under actual operating conditions. Because the reload is to take place over many fuel cycles, startup tests will be done at different stages of the conversion. The tests, to be compared with calculations to show that the reactor will operate as planned, are the measurement of critical shim arm position and shim arm and regulating rod reactivity worths. An acceptance criterion for each test is specified based on technical specifications that relate to safe operation. Additional tests are being considered that have less safety significance but may be of interest to bolster the validation of analysis tools.

  16. 75 FR 66737 - Technology Innovation Program (TIP) Seeks Comments on White Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... white paper found on TIP's Web site at http://www.nist.gov/tip/wp/index.cfm . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... INFORMATION: Background Information: The Technology Innovation Program (TIP) at the National Institute of... magnitude of the problem is large and the associated societal challenges that need to be overcome are not...

  17. Technology Outlook for International Schools in Asia, 2014. An NMC Horizon Project Regional Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L.; Adams Becker, S.; Cummins, M.; Estrada, V.

    2014-01-01

    This report is a collaborative research effort between the New Media Consortium (NMC), Concordia International School Shanghai, and NIST International School in Bangkok, Thailand, to help inform international school leaders in Asia about significant developments in technologies supporting teaching, learning, and creative inquiry in primary and…

  18. A prototype, glassless densitometer traceable to primary optical standards for quantitative radiochromic film dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, B. S., E-mail: bsrosen@wisc.edu; Hammer, C. G.; Kunugi, K. A.; DeWerd, L. A. [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States); Soares, C. G. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: To evaluate a prototype densitometer traceable to primary optical standards and compare its performance to an EPSON Expression{sup ®} 10000XL flatbed scanner (the Epson) for quantitative radiochromic film (RCF) dosimetry. Methods: A prototype traceable laser densitometry system (LDS) was developed to mitigate common film scanning artifacts, such as positional scan dependence and high noise in low-dose regions, by performing point-based measurements of RCF suspended in free-space using coherent light. The LDS and the Epson optical absorbance scales were calibrated up to 3 AU, using reference materials calibrated at a primary standards laboratory and a scanner calibration factor (SCF). Calibrated optical density (OD) was determined for 96 Gafchromic{sup ®} EBT3 film segments before and after irradiation to one of 16 dose levels between 0 and 10 Gy, exposed to {sup 60}Co in a polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) phantom. The sensitivity was determined at each dose level and at two rotationally orthogonal readout orientations to obtain the sensitometric response of each RCF dosimetry system. LDS rotational scanning dependence was measured at nine angles between 0°and 180°, due to the expected interference between coherent light and polarizing EBT3 material. The response curves were fit to the analytic functions predicted by two physical response models: the two-parameter single-hit model and the four-parameter percolation model. Results: The LDS and the Epson absorbance measurements were linear to primary optical standards to within 0.2% and 0.3% up to 2 and 1 AU, respectively. At higher densities, the LDS had an over-response (2.5% at 3 AU) and the Epson an under-response (3.1% and 9.8% at 2 and 3 AU, respectively). The LDS and the Epson SCF over the applicable range were 0.968% ± 0.2% and 1.561% ± 0.3%, respectively. The positional scan dependence was evaluated on each digitizer and shown to be mitigated on the LDS, as compared to the Epson. Maximum EBT3

  19. Technical efficiency and economic viability of different cattle identification methods allowed by the Brazilian traceability system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Aurelio Lopes

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to evaluate the technical efficiency and economic viability of the implementation and use of four cattle identification methods allowed by the Brazilian traceability system. The study was conducted in a beef cattle production system located in the State of Mato Grosso, from January to June 2012. Four identification methods (treatments were compared: T1: ear tag in one ear and ear button in the other ear (eabu; T2: ear tag and iron brand on the right leg (eaib; T3: ear tag in one ear and tattoo on the other ear (eata; and T4: ear tag in one ear and electronic ear tag (eael on the other. Each treatment was applied to 60 Nelore animals, totaling 240 animals, divided equally into three life stages (calves, young cattle, adult cattle. The study had two phases: implementation (phase 1 and reading and transfer of identification numbers to an electronic database (phase 2. All operating expenses related to the two phases of the study were determined. The database was constructed, and the statistical analyses were performed using SPSS® 17.0 software. Regarding the time spent on implementation (phase 1, conventional ear tags and electronic ear tags produced similar results, which were lower than those of hot iron and tattoo methods, which differed from each other. Regarding the time required for reading the numbers on animals and their transcription into a database (phase 2, electronic ear-tagging was the fastest method, followed by conventional ear tag, hot iron and tattoo. Among the methods analyzed, the electronic ear tag had the highest technical efficiency because it required less time to implement identifiers and to complete the process of reading and transcription to an electronic database and because it did not exhibit any errors. However, the cost of using the electronic ear-tagging method was higher primarily due to the cost of the device.

  20. A calibration facility to provide traceable calibration to upper air humidity measuring sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuccaro, Rugiada; Rosso, Lucia; Smorgon, Denis; Beltramino, Giulio; Fernicola, Vito

    2017-04-01

    Accurate knowledge and high quality measurement of the upper air humidity and of its profile in atmosphere is essential in many areas of the atmospheric research, for example in weather forecasting, environmental pollution studies and research in meteorology and climatology. Moving from the troposphere to the stratosphere, the water vapour amount varies between some percent to few part per million. For this reason, through the years, several methods and instruments have been developed for the measurement of the humidity in atmosphere. Among the instruments used for atmospheric sounding, radiosondes, airborne and balloon-borne chilled mirror hygrometer (CMH) and tunable diode laser absorption spectrometers (TDLAS) play a key role. To avoid the presence of unknown biases and systematic errors and to obtain accurate and reliable humidity measurements, these instruments need a SI-traceable calibration, preferably carried out in conditions similar to those expected in the field. To satisfy such a need, a new calibration facility has been developed at INRIM. The facility is based on a thermodynamic-based frost-point generator designed to achieve a complete saturation of the carrier gas with a single passage through an isothermal saturator. The humidity generator covers the frost point temperature range between -98 °C and -20 °C and is able to work at any controlled pressure between 200 hPa and 1000 hPa (corresponding to a barometric altitude between ground level and approximately 12000 m). The paper reports the work carried out to test the generator performances, discusses the results and presents the evaluation of the measurement uncertainty. The present work was carried out within the European Joint Research Project "MeteoMet 2 - Metrology for Essential Climate Variables" co-funded by the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP). The EMRP is jointly funded by the EMRP participating countries within EURAMET and the European Union.

  1. Consistent retrieval of land surface radiation products from EO, including traceable uncertainty estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Thomas; Pinty, Bernard; Voßbeck, Michael; Lopatka, Maciej; Gobron, Nadine; Robustelli, Monica

    2017-05-01

    Earth observation (EO) land surface products have been demonstrated to provide a constraint on the terrestrial carbon cycle that is complementary to the record of atmospheric carbon dioxide. We present the Joint Research Centre Two-stream Inversion Package (JRC-TIP) for retrieval of variables characterising the state of the vegetation-soil system. The system provides a set of land surface variables that satisfy all requirements for assimilation into the land component of climate and numerical weather prediction models. Being based on a 1-D representation of the radiative transfer within the canopy-soil system, such as those used in the land surface components of advanced global models, the JRC-TIP products are not only physically consistent internally, but they also achieve a high degree of consistency with these global models. Furthermore, the products are provided with full uncertainty information. We describe how these uncertainties are derived in a fully traceable manner without any hidden assumptions from the input observations, which are typically broadband white sky albedo products. Our discussion of the product uncertainty ranges, including the uncertainty reduction, highlights the central role of the leaf area index, which describes the density of the canopy. We explain the generation of products aggregated to coarser spatial resolution than that of the native albedo input and describe various approaches to the validation of JRC-TIP products, including the comparison against in situ observations. We present a JRC-TIP processing system that satisfies all operational requirements and explain how it delivers stable climate data records. Since many aspects of JRC-TIP are generic, the package can serve as an example of a state-of-the-art system for retrieval of EO products, and this contribution can help the user to understand advantages and limitations of such products.

  2. Microfocus x-ray imaging of traceable pointlike {sup 22}Na sources for quality control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, T.; Oda, K.; Sato, Y.; Ito, H.; Masuda, S.; Yamada, T.; Matsumoto, M.; Murayama, H.; Takei, H. [Allied Health Sciences, Kitasato University Kitasato 1-15-1, Minami-ku, Sagamihara-shi, Kanagawa 252-0373 (Japan); Positron Medical Center, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Sakaecho 35-2, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-0015 (Japan); Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) Central 2, Umezono 1-1-1, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Kanagawa Industrial Technology Center (KITC) Shimoimazumi 705-1, Ebina-shi, Kanagawa 243-0435 (Japan); Japan Radioisotope Association (JRIA) Komagome 2-28-45, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8941 (Japan); Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kitasato University Kitasato 1-15-1, Minami-ku, Sagamihara-shi, Kanagawa 252-0373 (Japan)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to propose a microfocus x-ray imaging technique for observing the internal structure of small radioactive sources and evaluating geometrical errors quantitatively, and to apply this technique to traceable pointlike {sup 22}Na sources, which were designed for positron emission tomography calibration, for the purpose of quality control of the pointlike sources. Methods: A microfocus x-ray imaging system with a focus size of 0.001 mm was used to obtain projection x-ray images and x-ray CT images of five pointlike source samples, which were manufactured during 2009-2012. The obtained projection and tomographic images were used to observe the internal structure and evaluate geometrical errors quantitatively. Monte Carlo simulation was used to evaluate the effect of possible geometrical errors on the intensity and uniformity of 0.511 MeV annihilation photon pairs emitted from the sources. Results: Geometrical errors were evaluated with sufficient precision using projection x-ray images. CT images were used for observing the internal structure intuitively. As a result, four of the five examined samples were within the tolerance to maintain the total uncertainty below {+-}0.5%, given the source radioactivity; however, one sample was found to be defective. Conclusions: This quality control procedure is crucial and offers an important basis for using the pointlike {sup 22}Na source as a basic calibration tool. The microfocus x-ray imaging approach is a promising technique for visual and quantitative evaluation of the internal geometry of small radioactive sources.

  3. Uncertainty Source of Modeled Ecosystem Productivity in East Asian Monsoon Region: A Traceability Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, E.; Xia, J.; Huang, K.; Ito, A.; Arain, M. A.; Jain, A. K.; Poulter, B.; Peng, C.; Hayes, D. J.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Huntzinger, D. N.; Tian, H.; Mao, J.; Fisher, J.; Schaefer, K. M.; Huang, M.; Peng, S.; Wang, W.

    2017-12-01

    East Asian monsoon region, benefits from sufficient water-heat availability and increasing nitrogen deposition, represents significantly higher net ecosystem productivity than the same latitudes of Europe-Africa and North America. A better understanding of major contributions to the uncertainties of terrestrial carbon cycle in this region is greatly important for evaluating the global carbon balance. This study analyzed the key carbon processes and parameters derived from a series of terrestrial biosphere models. A wide range of inter-model disagreement on GPP was found in China's subtropical regions. Then, this large difference was traced to a few traceable components included in terrestrial carbon cycle. The increase in ensemble mean GPP over 1901-2010 was predominantly resulted from increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration and nitrogen deposition, while high frequent land-use change over this region showed a slightly negative effect on GPP. However, inter-model differences of GPP were mainly attributed to the baseline simulations without changes in external forcing. According to the variance decomposition, the large spread in simulated GPP was well explained by the differences in leaf area index (LAI) and specific leaf area (SLA) among models. In addition, the underlying errors in simulated GPP propagate through the model and introduce some additional errors to the simulation of NPP and biomass. By comparing the simulations with satellite-derived, data-oriented and observation-based datasets, we further found that GPP, vegetation carbon turn-over time, aboveground biomass, LAI and SLA were all overestimated in most of the models while biomass distribution in leaves was significantly underestimated. The results of this study indicate that model performance on ecosystem productivity in East Asian monsoon region can be improved by a more realistic representation of leaf functional traits.

  4. Two generators to produce SI-traceable reference gas mixtures for reactive compounds at atmospheric levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascale, C.; Guillevic, M.; Ackermann, A.; Leuenberger, D.; Niederhauser, B.

    2017-12-01

    To answer the needs of air quality and climate monitoring networks, two new gas generators were developed and manufactured at METAS in order to dynamically generate SI-traceable reference gas mixtures for reactive compounds at atmospheric concentrations. The technical features of the transportable generators allow for the realization of such gas standards for reactive compounds (e.g. NO2, volatile organic compounds) in the nmol · mol-1 range (ReGaS2), and fluorinated gases in the pmol ṡ mol-1 range (ReGaS3). The generation method is based on permeation and dynamic dilution. The transportable generators have multiple individual permeation chambers allowing for the generation of mixtures containing up to five different compounds. This mixture is then diluted using mass flow controllers, thus making the production process adaptable to generate the required amount of substance fraction. All parts of ReGaS2 in contact with the gas mixture are coated to reduce adsorption/desorption processes. Each input parameter required to calculate the generated amount of substance fraction is calibrated with SI-primary standards. The stability and reproducibility of the generated amount of substance fractions were tested with NO2 for ReGaS2 and HFC-125 for ReGaS3. They demonstrate stability over 1-4 d better than 0.4% and 0.8%, respectively, and reproducibility better than 0.7% and 1%, respectively. Finally, the relative expanded uncertainty of the generated amount of substance fraction is smaller than 3% with the major contributions coming from the uncertainty of the permeation rate and/or of the purity of the matrix gas. These relative expanded uncertainties meet then the needs of the data quality objectives fixed by the World Meteorological Organization.

  5. Principais dificuldades encontradas pelas certificadoras para rastrear bovinos Main difficulties found by certifiers of bovine traceability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Aurélio Lopes

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo realizar o levantamento das principais dificuldades encontradas pelas certificadoras para rastrear bovinos. Elaborou-se um questionário qualitativo semi-estruturado contendo 15 questões, sendo 14 de múltipla escolha e uma aberta, que foi enviado às 64 empresas certificadoras credenciadas pelo Ministério da Agricultura Pecuária e Abastecimento (MAPA. Destas, 40,68% (24 responderam o questionário. As principais dificuldades encontradas pelas certificadoras foram: mudança freqüente das normas, falta de conscientização dos pecuaristas e controle da movimentação dos animais. Os maiores entraves encontrados pelas certificadoras na rastreabilidade bovina foram a desconfiança dos pecuaristas e a falta de incentivo do governo.This research had the aim of verifying the main difficulties found by the certifiers to trace bovines. It was prepared a qualitative semi-structured questionnaire containing 15 questions, 14 of multiple choice and an open one, which was sent to the 64 certifiers companies credenced by "Ministério da Agricultura Pecuária e Abastecimento"(MAPA. Only 40,68% (24 of them answered. The main difficulties found by them were: frequent change of rules, lack of farmers conscientiousness and keeping track of the moving animals. The biggest impediments found by the certifiers, in the bovine traceability are: the distrust of the farmers and the lack of government incentive.

  6. Evaluation of the sensitivity of the 'Wiley registry of tandem mass spectral data, MSforID' with MS/MS data of the 'NIST/NIH/EPA mass spectral library'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberacher, Herbert; Whitley, Graeme; Berger, Bernd

    2013-04-01

    Tandem mass spectral libraries are versatile tools for small molecular identification finding application in forensic science, doping control, drug monitoring, food and environmental analysis, as well as metabolomics. Two important libraries are the 'Wiley Registry of Tandem Mass Spectral Data, MSforID' (Wiley Registry MSMS) and the collection of MS/MS spectra part of the 2011 edition of the 'NIST/NIH/EPA Mass Spectral Library' (NIST 11 MSMS). Herein, the sensitivity and robustness of the Wiley Registry MSMS were evaluated using spectra extracted from the NIST 11 MSMS library. The sample set was found to be heterogeneous in terms of mass spectral resolution, type of CID, as well as applied collision energies. Nevertheless, sensitive compound identification with a true positive identification rate ≥95% was possible using either the MSforID Search program or the NIST MS Search program 2.0g for matching. To rate the performance of the Wiley Registry MSMS, cross-validation experiments were repeated using subcollections of NIST 11 MSMS as reference library and spectra extracted from the Wiley Registry MSMS as positive controls. Unexpectedly, with both search algorithms tested, correct results were obtained in less than 88% of cases. We examined possible causes for the results of the cross validation study. The large number of precursor ions represented by a single tandem mass spectrum only was identified as the basic cause for the comparably lower sensitivity of the NIST library. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Traceability of Functional Bioactive Compounds in Fresh and Pasteurized Milk Obtained from Goats Fed with Orange Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Simona Chiş

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Traceability is the ability to identify and trace the history, distribution, location, and application of products, parts, and materials. A traceability system records and follows the trail as products, parts, and materials come from suppliers and are processed and ultimately distributed as end products (Prache et al, 2002. In this work, were studied the bioactive compounds (total vitamin C, ascorbic acid, total phenols, flavonoids, carotenoids, vitamin A and vitamin E and antioxidant activity of goat fresh milk and pasteurized one. The goats were fed with a standard diet (control diet and then with a diet that incorporates orange pulp. The control diet (CD corresponded with a standard ration (a ration wich provide the energetic and proteic values, daily food for milking animals. From that ration, the Department of Animal Science, from Politechnic University of Valencia replaced the different proportions of the ingredients for incorporating orange pulp diet (OPD. The results of the present study show that the citrus pulp silage mixture used can be fed to goats without any negative effects on the performance of the animals. Results of this study indicate that citrus pulp silage can replace part of the conventional ration of goats, thus lowering the cost of production. The first aim of this study was to compare the two types of goat diets: a standard diet and a diet with orange pulp, by analyzing the bioactive compounds in fresh and pasteurized milk. The results demonstrate that all the bioactive compounds are bigger in the orange pulp diet than in the control diet. The second objective of this study was to analyze the bioavailability and traceability of bioactive compounds in fresh milk. 

  8. Pet population management and public health: a web service based tool for the improvement of dog traceability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Villa, Paolo; Messori, Stefano; Possenti, Luigi; Barnard, Shanis; Cianella, Mara; Di Francesco, Cesare

    2013-05-01

    The risks associated with zoonotic infections transmitted by companion animals are a serious public health concern: the control of zoonoses incidence in domestic dogs, both owned and stray, is hence important to protect human health. Integrated dog population management (DPM) programs, based on the availability of information systems providing reliable data on the structure and composition of the existing dog population in a given area, are fundamental for making realistic plans for any disease surveillance and action system. Traceability systems, based on the compulsory electronic identification of dogs and their registration in a computerised database, are one of the most effective ways to ensure the usefulness of DPM programs. Even if this approach provides many advantages, several areas of improvement have emerged in countries where it has been applied. In Italy, every region hosts its own dog register but these are not compatible with one another. This paper shows the advantages of a web-based-application to improve data management of dog regional registers. The approach used for building this system was inspired by farm animal traceability schemes and it relies on a network of services that allows multi-channel access by different devices and data exchange via the web with other existing applications, without changing the pre-existing platforms. Today the system manages a database for over 300,000 dogs registered in three different Italian regions. By integrating multiple Web Services, this approach could be the solution to gather data at national and international levels at reasonable cost and creating a traceability system on a large scale and across borders that can be used for disease surveillance and development of population management plans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Validation of Ammonia Diffusive and Active Samplers in a Controlled Atmosphere Test Facility Using Traceable Primary Standard Gas Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, N. A.; Ferracci, V.; Cassidy, N.; Hook, J.; Battersby, R. M.; Tang, Y. S.; Stevens, A. C. M.; Jones, M. R.; Braban, C. F.; Gates, L.; Hangartner, M.; Sacco, P.; Pagani, D.; Hoffnagle, J.

    2016-12-01

    Intensive farming, the increased use of fertilizers, and certain industrial processes are believed to be responsible for increases in the amount fraction of ammonia (NH3) found in Europe. NH3 contributes to eutrophication and acidification of land and freshwater, leading to a loss of biodiversity, undesirable changes to the ecosystem, and to secondary particulate matter (PM) formation. Measurements of ambient ammonia over a wide geographical area, are principally carried out with low-cost diffusive samplers or by active sampling with denuders, with each technique delivering time-integrated values over the monitoring period. The goal of this work was to measure the NH3 diffusive sampling rates of five different designs of commercial diffusive samplers (FSM Radiello radial sampler, Gradko diffusion tube, Gradko DIFRAM-400, Passam ammonia sampler, and CEH ALPHA sampler), together with validation tests with a denuder sampler (CEH DELTA denuder). The would deliver validated improvements in the accuracy of ambient measurements of NH3 in the field through the establishment of metrological traceability using new stable ammonia Primary Standard Gas Mixtures (PSMs), developed by gravimetry at NPL. All devices were simultaneously exposed in a controlled atmosphere test facility (CATFAC) containing traceable amount fractions of ammonia applicable to a range of ambient monitoring conditions, with well-defined conditions of temperature, relative humidity and wind speed. Online continuous monitoring of the test atmospheres was carried out with a calibrated cavity ring-down spectrometer modified to account for cross interference by water. Exposed samplers were analysed by individual manufacturers for ammonium using traceable wet chemical techniques. The measured diffusive sampling rates were then applied to field measurements carried out at the Whim Bog experimental station in Scotland, where there is a facility in place for controlled releases of NH3 and also a background site.

  10. Report of the consultants' meeting on traceability of IAEA-AQCS reference materials to SI-units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the meeting was to discuss the present Agency's Analytical Quality Control Services (AQCS) procedure for the characterization of reference materials and to identify necessary improvements or changes needed to fulfill the requirements on traceability and uncertainty related to the property value of IAEA reference materials. This publication contains a summary of the discussions held at the meeting as well as specific recommendations made by the consultants. It also contains draft reports of two previous meetings and individual papers presented by the consultants at the meeting. These reports and papers have been provided with abstracts and indexed separately

  11. RELAP-7 Software Verification and Validation Plan - Requirements Traceability Matrix (RTM) Part 2: Code Assessment Strategy, Procedure, and RTM Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Jun Soo [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Choi, Yong Joon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, Curtis Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This document addresses two subjects involved with the RELAP-7 Software Verification and Validation Plan (SVVP): (i) the principles and plan to assure the independence of RELAP-7 assessment through the code development process, and (ii) the work performed to establish the RELAP-7 assessment plan, i.e., the assessment strategy, literature review, and identification of RELAP-7 requirements. Then, the Requirements Traceability Matrices (RTMs) proposed in previous document (INL-EXT-15-36684) are updated. These RTMs provide an efficient way to evaluate the RELAP-7 development status as well as the maturity of RELAP-7 assessment through the development process.

  12. Acceptance Factors Influencing Adoption of National Institute of Standards and Technology Information Security Standards: A Quantitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiriakou, Charles M.

    2012-01-01

    Adoption of a comprehensive information security governance model and security controls is the best option organizations may have to protect their information assets and comply with regulatory requirements. Understanding acceptance factors of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Risk Management Framework (RMF) comprehensive…

  13. [Innovative technology and blood safety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begue, S; Morel, P; Djoudi, R

    2016-11-01

    If technological innovations are not enough alone to improve blood safety, their contributions for several decades in blood transfusion are major. The improvement of blood donation (new apheresis devices, RFID) or blood components (additive solutions, pathogen reduction technology, automated processing of platelets concentrates) or manufacturing process of these products (by automated processing of whole blood), all these steps where technological innovations were implemented, lead us to better traceability, more efficient processes, quality improvement of blood products and therefore increased blood safety for blood donors and patients. If we are on the threshold of a great change with the progress of pathogen reduction technology (for whole blood and red blood cells), we hope to see production of ex vivo red blood cells or platelets who are real and who open new conceptual paths on blood safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. [Central sterile supply department management system design and implementation based on RFID technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei

    2012-03-01

    With the analysis of the requirements of sterilization and supply center of hospital(referred to as "supply room"), the management system of supply room was developed and integrated into the RFID technology. The?system has achieve disinfection materials circulation process traceability to improve the quality management of disinfection materials and reduce the management costs.

  15. Traceability of Opuntia ficus-indica L. Miller by ICP-MS multi-element profile and chemometric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottese, Antonio Francesco; Naccari, Clara; Vadalà, Rossella; Bua, Giuseppe Daniel; Bartolomeo, Giovanni; Rando, Rossana; Cicero, Nicola; Dugo, Giacomo

    2018-01-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica L. Miller fruits, particularly 'Ficodindia dell'Etna' of Biancavilla (POD), 'Fico d'india tradizionale di Roccapalumba' with protected brand and samples from an experimental field in Pezzolo (Sicily) were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in order to determine the multi-element profile. A multivariate chemometric approach, specifically principal component analysis (PCA), was applied to individuate how mineral elements may represent a marker of geographic origin, which would be useful for traceability. PCA has allowed us to verify that the geographical origin of prickly pear fruits is significantly influenced by trace element content, and the results found in Biancavilla PDO samples were linked to the geological composition of this volcanic areas. It was observed that two principal components accounted for 72.03% of the total variance in the data and, in more detail, PC1 explains 45.51% and PC2 26.52%, respectively. This study demonstrated that PCA is an integrated tool for the traceability of food products and, at the same time, a useful method of authentication of typical local fruits such as prickly pear. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Determination of total arsenic in fish by hydride-generation atomic absorption spectrometry: method validation, traceability and uncertainty evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraha, W. C.; Elishian, C.; Ketrin, R.

    2017-03-01

    Fish containing arsenic compound is one of the important indicators of arsenic contamination in water monitoring. The high level of arsenic in fish is due to absorption through food chain and accumulated in their habitat. Hydride generation (HG) coupled with atomic absorption spectrometric (AAS) detection is one of the most popular techniques employed for arsenic determination in a variety of matrices including fish. This study aimed to develop a method for the determination of total arsenic in fish by HG-AAS. The method for sample preparation from American of Analytical Chemistry (AOAC) Method 999.10-2005 was adopted for acid digestion using microwave digestion system and AOAC Method 986.15 - 2005 for dry ashing. The method was developed and validated using Certified Reference Material DORM 3 Fish Protein for trace metals for ensuring the accuracy and the traceability of the results. The sources of uncertainty of the method were also evaluated. By using the method, it was found that the total arsenic concentration in the fish was 45.6 ± 1.22 mg.Kg-1 with a coverage factor of equal to 2 at 95% of confidence level. Evaluation of uncertainty was highly influenced by the calibration curve. This result was also traceable to International Standard System through analysis of Certified Reference Material DORM 3 with 97.5% of recovery. In summary, it showed that method of preparation and HG-AAS technique for total arsenic determination in fish were valid and reliable.

  17. Development of departmental standard for traceability of measured activity for I-131 therapy capsules used in nuclear medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravichandran Ramamoorthy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available International Basic Safety Standards (International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA provide guidance levels for diagnostic procedures in nuclear medicine indicating the maximum usual activity for various diagnostic tests in terms of activities of injected radioactive formulations. An accuracy of ± 10% in the activities of administered radio-pharmaceuticals is being recommended, for expected outcome in diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine procedures. It is recommended that the long-term stability of isotope calibrators used in nuclear medicine is to be checked periodically for their performance using a long-lived check source, such as Cs-137, of suitable activity. In view of the un-availability of such a radioactive source, we tried to develop methods to maintain traceability of these instruments, for certifying measured activities for human use. Two re-entrant chambers [(HDR 1000 and Selectron Source Dosimetry System (SSDS] with I-125 and Ir-192 calibration factors in the Department of Radiotherapy were used to measure Iodine-131 (I-131 therapy capsules to establish traceability to Mark V isotope calibrator of the Department of Nuclear Medicine. Special nylon jigs were fabricated to keep I-131 capsule holder in position. Measured activities in all the chambers showed good agreement. The accuracy of SSDS chamber in measuring Ir-192 activities in the last 5 years was within 0.5%, validating its role as departmental standard for measuring activity. The above method is adopted because mean energies of I-131 and Ir-192 are comparable.

  18. Traceability of ground based air temperature measurements: a case study on the Meteorological Observatory of Moncalieri (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopardo, Giuseppina; Bertiglia, Fabio; Roggero, Guido; Merlone, Andrea; Mercalli, Luca

    2013-04-01

    Assessing climate change will depend crucially on the robustness of climate data and uncertainties associated with measurements. Measurement uncertainties can only be determined and hence minimized if proper consideration is given to the metrological traceability of the measurement results. The metrological traceability is the property of a measurement to be related to a SI (International System of Units) standard through an unbroken chain of calibrations each contributing to the measurement uncertainty [1]. This work illustrates the three principal steps to guarantee traceability to measurements of air temperature recorded by automatic weather stations: 1. The first step in traceability is related to the primary standards, which are maintained in each country by the National Institute of Metrology (NMI). The internationally agreed reference for the temperature is the International Temperature Scale (ITS-90). The fixed point cells and the transfer instruments, standard platinum resistance thermometers (SPRT), are here descried. 2. The second step is the calibration: the temperature sensors are compared directly with primary standards or through secondary standards, according to the target uncertainty and the procedure adopted or required. In this work we illustrate a procedure and a calibration facility manufactured for meteorological purpose by the Italian NMI [2]. The calibration facility is a chamber, with reduced dimensions, transportable for in situ calibrations. 3. Third requirement is the evaluation of the calibration uncertainties. To account in the uncertainty budget for this type B uncertainty, in addition to the usual type A, will allow to obtain more reliable temperature data. (Type A, as defined in the Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM) [3], is the component of uncertainty determined by means of statistical analysis, and type B by means other than statistical analysis). An application example of a complete traceability

  19. The new technologies in city waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marti, C.

    2016-01-01

    The new EU objectives included in its Circular Economy Package and the Spanish 2016-2022 Waste Plan define a new scenario of transformation of municipal solid waste management. They also define the hierarchization of waste treatment: reduction, reuse, recycling, energy valorization and, as a last resort, landfill. The use of new technologies is contributing to this transformation, including both separation at source and collection and treatment. Improved traceability of wastes via the use of sensors, technological innovation in management and the emergence of a fifth bin for selective collection of organic wastes are only some of the new elements that are increasingly common in Spanish cities. (Author)

  20. e-Calibrations: using the Internet to deliver calibration services in real time at lower cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desrosiers, Marc; Nagy, Vitaly; Puhl, James; Glenn, Robert; Densock, Robert; Stieren, David; Lang, Brian; Kamlowski, Andreas; Maier, Diether; Heiss, Arthur

    2002-01-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is expanding into a new frontier in the delivery of measurement services. The Internet will be employed to provide industry with electronic traceability to national standards. This is a radical departure from the traditional modes of traceability and presents many new challenges. The traditional mail-based calibration service relies on sending artifacts to the user, who then mails them back to NIST for evaluation. The new service will deliver calibration results to the industry customer on-demand, in real-time, at a lower cost. The calibration results can be incorporated rapidly into the production process to ensure the highest quality manufacturing. The service would provide the US radiation processing industry with a direct link to the NIST calibration facilities and its expertise, and provide an interactive feedback process between industrial processing and the national measurement standard. Moreover, an Internet calibration system should contribute to the removal of measurement-related trade barriers