WorldWideScience

Sample records for technology motion

  1. Motion sensor technologies in education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bratitsis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to raise a discussion regarding motion sensor technologies, mainly seen as peripherals of contemporary video game consoles, by examining their exploitation within educational context. An overview of the existing literature is presented, while attempting to categorize the educational approaches which involve motion sensor technologies, in two parts. The first one concerns the education of people with special needs. The utilization of motion sensor technologies, incorporated by game consoles, in the education of such people is examined. The second one refers to various educational approaches in regular education, under which not so many research approaches, but many teaching ideas can be found. The aim of the paper is to serve as a reference point for every individual/group, willing to explore the Sensor-Based Games Based Learning (SBGBL research area, by providing a complete and structured literature review.

  2. Optical Measurement System for Motion Characterization of Surface Mount Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Song; AN Bing; ZHANG Tong-jun; XIE Yong-jun

    2006-01-01

    Advanced testing methods for the dynamics of mechanical microdevices are necessary to develop reliable,marketable microelectromechanical systems. A system for measuring the nanometer motions of microscopic structures has been demonstrated. Stop-action images of a target have been obtained with computer microvision,microscopic interferometry,and stroboscopic illuminator. It can be developed for measuring the in-plane-rigid-body motions,surface shapes,out-of-plane motions and deformations of microstructures. A new algorithm of sub-pixel step length correlation template matching is proposed to extract the in-plane displacement from vision images. Hariharan five-step phase-shift interferometry algorithm and unwrapping algorithms are adopted to measure the out-of-plane motions. It is demonstrated that the system can measure the motions of solder wetting in surface mount technology(SMT).

  3. Portable sensor technology for rotational ground motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernauer, Felix; Wassermann, Joachim; Guattari, Frédéric; Igel, Heiner

    2016-04-01

    In this contribution we present performance characteristics of a single component interferometric fiber-optic gyroscope (IFOG). The prototype sensor is provided by iXBlue, France. It is tested in the framework of the European Research Council Project, ROMY (Rotational motions - a new observable for seismology), on its applicability as a portable and field-deployable sensor for rotational ground motions. To fully explore the benefits of this new seismic observable especially in the fields of vulcanology, ocean generated noise and geophysical exploration, such a sensor has to fulfill certain requirements regarding portability, power consumption, time stamping stability and dynamic range. With GPS-synchronized time stamping and miniseed output format, data acquisition is customized for the use in seismology. Testing time stamping accuracy yields a time shift of less than 0.0001 s and a correlation coefficient of 0.99 in comparison to a commonly used data acquisition system, Reftek 120. Sensor self-noise is below 5.0 ṡ 10-8 rads-1Hz-1/2 for a frequency band from 0.001 Hz to 5.0 Hz. Analysis of Allan deviation shows an angle random walk of 3.5 ṡ 10-8 rads-1Hz-1/2. Additionally, the operating range diagram is shown and ambient noise analysis is performed. The sensitivity of sensor self-noise to variations in surrounding temperature and magnetic field is tested in laboratory experiments. With a power consumption of less than 10 W, the whole system (single component sensor + data acquisition) is appropriate for field use with autonomous power supply.

  4. A Virtual Reality Dance Training System Using Motion Capture Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, J. C. P.; Leung, H.; Tang, J. K. T.; Komura, T.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a new dance training system based on the motion capture and virtual reality (VR) technologies is proposed. Our system is inspired by the traditional way to learn new movements-imitating the teacher's movements and listening to the teacher's feedback. A prototype of our proposed system is implemented, in which a student can imitate…

  5. A Virtual Reality Dance Training System Using Motion Capture Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, J. C. P.; Leung, H.; Tang, J. K. T.; Komura, T.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a new dance training system based on the motion capture and virtual reality (VR) technologies is proposed. Our system is inspired by the traditional way to learn new movements-imitating the teacher's movements and listening to the teacher's feedback. A prototype of our proposed system is implemented, in which a student can imitate…

  6. Improving truck safety: Potential of weigh-in-motion technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Jacob

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Trucks exceeding the legal mass limits increase the risk of traffic accidents and damage to the infrastructure. They also result in unfair competition between transport modes and companies. It is therefore important to ensure truck compliance to weight regulation. New technologies are being developed for more efficient overload screening and enforcement. Weigh-in-Motion (WIM technologies allow trucks to be weighed in the traffic flow, without any disruption to operations. Much progress has been made recently to improve and implement WIM systems, which can contribute to safer and more efficient operation of trucks.

  7. Inertial Motion-Tracking Technology for Virtual 3-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    In the 1990s, NASA pioneered virtual reality research. The concept was present long before, but, prior to this, the technology did not exist to make a viable virtual reality system. Scientists had theories and ideas they knew that the concept had potential, but the computers of the 1970s and 1980s were not fast enough, sensors were heavy and cumbersome, and people had difficulty blending fluidly with the machines. Scientists at Ames Research Center built upon the research of previous decades and put the necessary technology behind them, making the theories of virtual reality a reality. Virtual reality systems depend on complex motion-tracking sensors to convey information between the user and the computer to give the user the feeling that he is operating in the real world. These motion-tracking sensors measure and report an object s position and orientation as it changes. A simple example of motion tracking would be the cursor on a computer screen moving in correspondence to the shifting of the mouse. Tracking in 3-D, necessary to create virtual reality, however, is much more complex. To be successful, the perspective of the virtual image seen on the computer must be an accurate representation of what is seen in the real world. As the user s head or camera moves, turns, or tilts, the computer-generated environment must change accordingly with no noticeable lag, jitter, or distortion. Historically, the lack of smooth and rapid tracking of the user s motion has thwarted the widespread use of immersive 3-D computer graphics. NASA uses virtual reality technology for a variety of purposes, mostly training of astronauts. The actual missions are costly and dangerous, so any opportunity the crews have to practice their maneuvering in accurate situations before the mission is valuable and instructive. For that purpose, NASA has funded a great deal of virtual reality research, and benefited from the results.

  8. Advances in Inertial Measurement Technology for Marine Motion Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Håndlykken

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the function of an inertial "strap down" attitude sensor based on solid state Coriolis force rate gyros, accelerometers and magnetic sensor. Performance is analyzed taking into account the typical excitations in attitude and linear motion seen in marine applications. The use is for control of fast crafts, ROV and AUV heading, roll, pitch and heave control. The influence on performance given by utilization of external information from velocity log and more accurate heading devices is also analyzed. Typical performance of this low cost type of technology is shown.

  9. Bridge Damage Detection Using Weigh-In-Motion Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Cantero, Daniel; González, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a new level I damage detection technique for short to medium span road bridges using weigh-in-motion (WIM) technology. The technique is based on the input provided by two different WIM systems: (a) a pavement-based WIM station located prior to the bridge (which gives vehicle weight estimates without the influence of the bridge) and (b) a bridge-based WIM system which estimates vehicle weights based on the deformation of the bridge. It is shown that the ratio of estimations...

  10. Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Take the mystery out of motion. Our resource gives you everything you need to teach young scientists about motion. Students will learn about linear, accelerating, rotating and oscillating motion, and how these relate to everyday life - and even the solar system. Measuring and graphing motion is easy, and the concepts of speed, velocity and acceleration are clearly explained. Reading passages, comprehension questions, color mini posters and lots of hands-on activities all help teach and reinforce key concepts. Vocabulary and language are simplified in our resource to make them accessible to str

  11. System analysis of sagittal plane human motion wearing an exoskeleton using marker technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatsun Sergey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses various methods of obtaining time functions for joint angle that describe a exoskeleton’s motion during sit-to-stand motion. This article demonstrates that functions obtained by solving the inverse kinematics problem can be effectively used as inputs to the control system of the robot. Comparison with experimentally data obtained using marker technology is done.

  12. Innovative technologies to accurately model waves and moored ship motions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    van der Molen, W

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Late in 2009 CSIR Built Environment in Stellenbosch was awarded a contract to carry out extensive physical and numerical modelling to study the wave conditions and associated moored ship motions, for the design of a new iron ore export jetty for BHP...

  13. A Typology of Communication Dynamics in Families Living a Slow-Motion Technological Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orom, Heather; Cline, Rebecca J. W.; Hernandez, Tanis; Berry-Bobovski, Lisa; Schwartz, Ann G.; Ruckdeschel, John C.

    2012-01-01

    With increasing numbers of communities harmed by exposures to toxic substances, greater understanding of the psychosocial consequences of these technological disasters is needed. One community living the consequences of a slow-motion technological disaster is Libby, Montana, where, for nearly 70 years, amphibole asbestos-contaminated vermiculite…

  14. Reflections on Students’ Projects with Motion Sensor Technologies in a Problem-Based Learning Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantafyllou, Eva; Timcenko, Olga; Triantafyllidis, George

    2014-01-01

    Game-based learning (GBL) has been applied in many fields to enhance learning motivations. In recent years, motion sensor technologies have been also introduced in GBL with the aim of using active, physical modalities to facilitate the learning process, while fostering social development...... and collaboration (when these activities involve more than one student at a time). The approaches described in literature, which used motion sensors in GBL, cover a broad spectrum of educational fields. These approaches investigated the effect of learning games using motion sensors on the development of specific...... skills or on the learning experience. This paper presents our experiences on the educational use of motion sensor technologies. Our research was conducted at the department of Medialogy in Aalborg University Copenhagen. Aalborg University applies a problem-based, project-organized model of teaching...

  15. The development of human factors experimental evaluation technology - 3-dimensional measurement system for motion analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyung Soo; Pan, Young Hwan; Lee, Ahn Jae; Lee, Kyung Tae; Lim, Chi Hwan; Chang, Pil Sik; Lee, Seok Woo; Han, Sung Wook; Park, Chul Wook [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-07-01

    Measurement of human motion is important in the application of ergonomics. We developed a system which can measure body movement, especially= hand movement using advanced direct video measurement technology. This system has as dynamic accuracy with 1% error and the sampling rate to 6 - 10 Hz, and can analyse the trajectory and speed of the marker. The use of passive marker obviates the need for a marker telemetry system and minimize motion disruption. 18 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs. (author)

  16. The lucky image-motion prediction for simple scene observation based soft-sensor technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Su, Yun; Hu, Bin

    2015-08-01

    High resolution is important to earth remote sensors, while the vibration of the platforms of the remote sensors is a major factor restricting high resolution imaging. The image-motion prediction and real-time compensation are key technologies to solve this problem. For the reason that the traditional autocorrelation image algorithm cannot meet the demand for the simple scene image stabilization, this paper proposes to utilize soft-sensor technology in image-motion prediction, and focus on the research of algorithm optimization in imaging image-motion prediction. Simulations results indicate that the improving lucky image-motion stabilization algorithm combining the Back Propagation Network (BP NN) and support vector machine (SVM) is the most suitable for the simple scene image stabilization. The relative error of the image-motion prediction based the soft-sensor technology is below 5%, the training computing speed of the mathematical predication model is as fast as the real-time image stabilization in aerial photography.

  17. Empowering Technology and POETRY Supporting Scientific Inquiry: Investigating the Motion of a Rebounding Trolley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban-Woldron, Hildegard

    2012-03-01

    The recent implementation of technology in the classroom is probably one of the most challenging innovations that many teachers are having to confront today. Teachers have to develop a knowledge base that goes beyond technology proficiency, into learning about how technology, for example, can be used for various forms of representations of subject matters. This article aims to report on the investigation of the motion of a rebounding trolley, bringing together physics content, pedagogy, and technology to enhance student thinking and construction of knowledge. The activity, called "Rebounding Trolley," uses data logging and helps to emphasize the idea that velocity and acceleration can be in opposite directions.

  18. Exploiting wearable goniometer technology for motion sensing gloves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonaro, Nicola; Dalle Mura, Gabriele; Lorussi, Federico; Paradiso, Rita; De Rossi, Danilo; Tognetti, Alessandro

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents an innovative wearable kinesthetic glove realized with knitted piezoresistive fabric (KPF) sensor technology. The glove is conceived to capture hand movement and gesture by using KPF in a double-layer configuration working as angular sensors (electrogoniometers). The sensing glove prototype is endowed by three KPF goniometers, used to track flexion and extension movement of metacarpophalangeal joint of thumb, index, and middle fingers. The glove is devoted to the continuous monitoring of patients during their daily-life activities, in particular for stroke survivors during their rehabilitation. The prototype performances have been evaluated in comparison with an optical tracking system considered as a gold standard both for relieving static and dynamic posture and gesture of the hand. The introduced prototype has shown very interesting figures of merit. The angular error, evaluated through the standard Bland Altman analysis, has been estimated in ±3° which is slightly less accurate than commercial electrogoniometers. Moreover, a new conceptual prototype design, preliminary evaluated within this study, is presented and discussed in order to solve actual limitations in terms of number and type of sensor connections, avoiding mechanical constraints given by metallic inextensible wires and improving user comfort.

  19. The electronic image stabilization technology research based on improved optical-flow motion vector estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Ji, Ming; Zhang, Ying; Jiang, Wentao; Lu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Jiaoying; Yang, Heng

    2016-01-01

    The electronic image stabilization technology based on improved optical-flow motion vector estimation technique can effectively improve the non normal shift, such as jitter, rotation and so on. Firstly, the ORB features are extracted from the image, a set of regions are built on these features; Secondly, the optical-flow vector is computed in the feature regions, in order to reduce the computational complexity, the multi resolution strategy of Pyramid is used to calculate the motion vector of the frame; Finally, qualitative and quantitative analysis of the effect of the algorithm is carried out. The results show that the proposed algorithm has better stability compared with image stabilization based on the traditional optical-flow motion vector estimation method.

  20. A performance study of live VM migration technologies: VMotion vs XenMotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiujie; Tang, Jianxiong; Luo, Xuan; Jin, Yaohui

    2011-12-01

    Due to the growing demand of flexible resource management for cloud computing services, researches on live virtual machine migration have attained more and more attention. Live migration of virtual machine across different hosts has been a powerful tool to facilitate system maintenance, load balancing, fault tolerance and so on. In this paper, we use a measurement-based approach to compare the performance of two major live migration technologies under certain network conditions, i.e., VMotion and XenMotion. The results show that VMotion generates much less data transferred than XenMotion when migrating identical VMs. However, in network with moderate packet loss and delay, which are typical in a VPN (virtual private network) scenario used to connect the data centers, XenMotion outperforms VMotion in total migration time. We hope that this study can be helpful in choosing suitable virtualization environments for data center administrators and optimizing existing live migration mechanisms.

  1. The development of advanced robotic technology - A study on the development of Motion capturing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Kim, Ki Ho; Lee, Yong Woo; Park, Soo Il; Choi, Jin Sung; Kim, Hae Dong; Park, Chan Yong [System Engineering Research Institute, Taejon= (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-07-01

    Robots are used to perform jobs where the performer are exposed to the radioactivity. Good human-robot-interface is required to operate the robots easily and smoothly. It is believed that virtual reality and 3D graphics technology will be the beat solution for the good human-robot-interface. Using 3D computer graphics, complex human motions can be captured and displayed on the screen. The captured motion data can be used as the input to= control the remote robots using virtual reality technologies. Thus good human-robot-interface can be constructed. The motion capturing system developed in this study are very convenient and easy to be used to operate the robot. And the required time to operate the robot with the developed system is much shorter than to operate the robots without our motion capturing system. Therefore, efficient usage of the robot and related facilities will prolong the life time of them and reduce the manpower of the operators. The 3D data produced by our system will be used to generate commands to control the robot. 6 refs., 60 figs. (author)

  2. Genre, technology and embodied interaction: The evolution of digital game genres and motion gaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Gregersen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Technology has been given relatively little attention in genre theory, but this article argues that material technologies can be important components in genre development. The argument is based on a historically informed analysis of digital games, with special attention paid to home console video games and recent genre developments within this domain commonly referred to as motion gaming. The main point is that digital game genres imply structured embodied activity. A constitutive element of digital game mediation is a control interface geared to player embodiment, and I propose the concept of ‘interaction modes’ to describe the coupling of technology and player embodiment and show how this can be integrated with genre theory. The resulting framework allows for increased attention to continuity and change in game and communication genres, material and digital technologies, and the related interaction modes.

  3. Driving technology for improving motion quality of active-matrix organic light-emitting diode display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongbin; Kim, Minkoo; Kim, Jong-Man; Kim, Seung-Ryeol; Lee, Seung-Woo

    2014-09-01

    This paper reports transient response characteristics of active-matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) displays for mobile applications. This work reports that the rising responses look like saw-tooth waveform and are not always faster than those of liquid crystal displays. Thus, a driving technology is proposed to improve the rising transient responses of AMOLED based on the overdrive (OD) technology. We modified the OD technology by combining it with a dithering method because the conventional OD method cannot successfully enhance all the rising responses. Our method can improve all the transitions of AMOLED without modifying the conventional gamma architecture of drivers. A new artifact is found when OD is applied to certain transitions. We propose an optimum OD selection method to mitigate the artifact. The implementation results show the proposed technology can successfully improve motion quality of scrolling texts as well as moving pictures in AMOLED displays.

  4. Development of a Motion Sensing and Automatic Positioning Universal Planisphere Using Augmented Reality Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wernhuar Tarng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study combines the augmented reality technology and the sensor functions of GPS, electronic compass, and 3-axis accelerometer on mobile devices to develop a motion sensing and automatic positioning universal planisphere. It can create local star charts according to the current date, time, and position and help users locate constellations on the planisphere easily through motion sensing operation. By holding the mobile device towards the target constellation in the sky, the azimuth and elevation angles are obtained automatically for mapping to its correct position on the star chart. The proposed system combines observational activities with physical operation and spatial cognition for developing correct astronomical concepts, thus making learning more effective. It contains a built-in 3D virtual starry sky to enable observation in classroom for supporting teaching applications. The learning process can be shortened by setting varying observation date, time, and latitude. Therefore, it is a useful tool for astronomy education.

  5. Development of a body motion interactive system with a weight voting mechanism and computer vision technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chern-Sheng; Chen, Chia-Tse; Shei, Hung-Jung; Lay, Yun-Long; Chiu, Chuang-Chien

    2012-09-01

    This study develops a body motion interactive system with computer vision technology. This application combines interactive games, art performing, and exercise training system. Multiple image processing and computer vision technologies are used in this study. The system can calculate the characteristics of an object color, and then perform color segmentation. When there is a wrong action judgment, the system will avoid the error with a weight voting mechanism, which can set the condition score and weight value for the action judgment, and choose the best action judgment from the weight voting mechanism. Finally, this study estimated the reliability of the system in order to make improvements. The results showed that, this method has good effect on accuracy and stability during operations of the human-machine interface of the sports training system.

  6. High-precision, three-dimensional tracking of mouse whisker movements with optical motion capture technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snigdha eRoy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The mystacial vibrissae or whiskers in rodents are sensitive tactile hairs emerging from both sides of the face. Rats and mice actively move these whiskers during exploration. The neuronal mechanisms controlling whisker movements and the sensory representation of whisker tactile information are widely studied as a model for sensorimotor processing in mammals. Studies of the natural whisker movement patterns during exploration and tactile examination are still in their early stages. Tracking the movements of whiskers is technically challenging as they move relatively fast and are very thin, particularly in mice. Existing systems detect light-beam interruptions by the whiskers or use high-speed video to track whisker movements in one or two dimensions. Here we describe a method for tracking the movements of mouse whiskers in 3 dimensions (3D using using optical motion capture technology. Optical motion capture technology tracks the movements of small retro-reflective markers attached to whiskers of a head-fixed mouse with a spatial resolution of <0.5mm in all three dimensions and a temporal resolution of 5msec (200 fps. The system stores the 3D coordinates of the marker’s trajectories onto hard disk allowing a detailed analysis of movement trajectories bilateral coordination.

  7. Coupling Electric Vehicles and Power Grid through Charging-In-Motion and Connected Vehicle Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jan-Mou [ORNL; Jones, Perry T [ORNL; Onar, Omer C [ORNL; Starke, Michael R [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    A traffic-assignment-based framework is proposed to model the coupling of transportation network and power grid for analyzing impacts of energy demand from electric vehicles on the operation of power distribution. Although the reverse can be investigated with the proposed framework as well, electricity flowing from a power grid to electric vehicles is the focus of this paper. Major variables in transportation network (including link flows) and power grid (including electricity transmitted) are introduced for the coupling. Roles of charging-in-motion technology and connected vehicle technology have been identified in the framework of supernetwork. A linkage (i.e. individual energy demand) between the two networks is defined to construct the supernetwork. To determine equilibrium of the supernetwork can also answer how many drivers are going to use the charging-in-motion services, in which locations, and at what time frame. An optimal operation plan of power distribution will be decided along the determination simultaneously by which we have a picture about what level of power demand from the grid is expected in locations during an analyzed period. Caveat of the framework and possible applications have also been discussed.

  8. Evaluation of artifact reduction in optical coherence tomography angiography with real-time tracking and motion correction technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camino, Acner; Zhang, Miao; Gao, Simon S; Hwang, Thomas S; Sharma, Utkarsh; Wilson, David J; Huang, David; Jia, Yali

    2016-10-01

    Artifacts introduced by eye motion in optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) affect the interpretation of images and the quantification of parameters with clinical value. Eradication of such artifacts in OCTA remains a technical challenge. We developed an algorithm that recognizes five different types of motion artifacts and used it to evaluate the performance of three motion removal technologies. On en face maximum projection of flow images, the summed flow signal in each row and column and the correlation between neighboring rows and columns were calculated. Bright line artifacts were recognized by large summed flow signal. Drifts, distorted lines, and stretch artifacts exhibited abnormal correlation values. Residual lines were simultaneously a local maximum of summed flow and a local minimum of correlation. Tracking-assisted scanning integrated with motion correction technology (MCT) demonstrated higher performance than tracking or MCT alone in healthy and diabetic eyes.

  9. The Use of Motion-Based Technology for People Living With Dementia or Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, Erica; Astell, Arlene J

    2017-01-11

    The number of people living with dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is increasing substantially. Although there are many research efforts directed toward the prevention and treatment of dementia and MCI, it is also important to learn more about supporting people to live well with dementia or MCI through cognitive, physical, and leisure means. While past research suggests that technology can be used to support positive aging for people with dementia or MCI, the use of motion-based technology has not been thoroughly explored with this population. The aim of this study was to identify and synthesize the current literature involving the use of motion-based technology for people living with dementia or MCI by identifying themes while noting areas requiring further research. A systematic review of studies involving the use of motion-based technology for human participants living with dementia or MCI was conducted. A total of 31 articles met the inclusion criteria. Five questions are addressed concerning (1) context of use; (2) population included (ie, dementia, MCI, or both); (3) hardware and software selection; (4) use of motion-based technology in a group or individual setting; and (5) details about the introduction, teaching, and support methods applied when using the motion-based technology with people living with dementia or MCI. The findings of this review confirm the potential of motion-based technology to improve the lives of people living with dementia or MCI. The use of this technology also spans across several contexts including cognitive, physical, and leisure; all of which support multidimensional well-being. The literature provides evidence that people living with dementia or MCI can learn how to use this technology and that they enjoy doing so. However, there is a lack of information provided in the literature regarding the introduction, training, and support methods applied when using this form of technology with this population. Future research

  10. The Use of Motion-Based Technology for People Living With Dementia or Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astell, Arlene J

    2017-01-01

    Background The number of people living with dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is increasing substantially. Although there are many research efforts directed toward the prevention and treatment of dementia and MCI, it is also important to learn more about supporting people to live well with dementia or MCI through cognitive, physical, and leisure means. While past research suggests that technology can be used to support positive aging for people with dementia or MCI, the use of motion-based technology has not been thoroughly explored with this population. Objective The aim of this study was to identify and synthesize the current literature involving the use of motion-based technology for people living with dementia or MCI by identifying themes while noting areas requiring further research. Methods A systematic review of studies involving the use of motion-based technology for human participants living with dementia or MCI was conducted. Results A total of 31 articles met the inclusion criteria. Five questions are addressed concerning (1) context of use; (2) population included (ie, dementia, MCI, or both); (3) hardware and software selection; (4) use of motion-based technology in a group or individual setting; and (5) details about the introduction, teaching, and support methods applied when using the motion-based technology with people living with dementia or MCI. Conclusions The findings of this review confirm the potential of motion-based technology to improve the lives of people living with dementia or MCI. The use of this technology also spans across several contexts including cognitive, physical, and leisure; all of which support multidimensional well-being. The literature provides evidence that people living with dementia or MCI can learn how to use this technology and that they enjoy doing so. However, there is a lack of information provided in the literature regarding the introduction, training, and support methods applied when using this form of

  11. Validation of Software Gating: A Practical Technology for Respiratory Motion Correction in PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesner, Adam Leon; Chung, Jonathan Hero; Lind, Kimberly Erin; Kwak, Jennifer Jihyang; Lynch, David; Burckhardt, Darrell; Koo, Phillip Jahhyung

    2016-10-01

    Purpose To assess the performance of hardware- and software-gating technologies in terms of qualitative and quantitative characteristics of respiratory motion in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. Materials and Methods Between 2010 and 2013, 219 fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose PET examinations were performed in 116 patients for assessment of pulmonary nodules. All patients provided informed consent in this institutional review board-approved study. Acquisitions were reconstructed as respiratory-gated images by using hardware-derived respiratory triggers and software-derived signal (via an automated postprocessing method). Asymmetry was evaluated in the joint distribution of reader preference, and linear mixed models were used to evaluate differences in outcomes according to gating type. Results In blind reviews of reconstructed gated images, software was selected as superior 16.9% of the time (111 of 657 image sets; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 14.0%, 19.8%), and hardware was selected as superior 6.2% of the time (41 of 657 image sets; 95% CI: 4.4%, 8.1%). Of the image sets, 76.9% (505 of 657; 95% CI: 73.6%, 80.1%) were judged as having indistinguishable motion quality. Quantitative analysis demonstrated that the two gating strategies exhibited similar performance, and the performance of both was significantly different from that of nongated images. The mean increase ± standard deviation in lesion maximum standardized uptake value was 42.2% ± 38.9 between nongated and software-gated images, and lesion full width at half maximum values decreased by 9.9% ± 9.6. Conclusion Compared with vendor-supplied respiratory-gating hardware methods, software gating performed favorably, both qualitatively and quantitatively. Fully automated gating is a feasible approach to motion correction of PET images. (©) RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  12. Computer vision-based technologies and commercial best practices for the advancement of the motion imagery tradecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Marja; Capel, David; Srinivasan, James

    2014-06-01

    Motion imagery capabilities within the Department of Defense/Intelligence Community (DoD/IC) have advanced significantly over the last decade, attempting to meet continuously growing data collection, video processing and analytical demands in operationally challenging environments. The motion imagery tradecraft has evolved accordingly, enabling teams of analysts to effectively exploit data and generate intelligence reports across multiple phases in structured Full Motion Video (FMV) Processing Exploitation and Dissemination (PED) cells. Yet now the operational requirements are drastically changing. The exponential growth in motion imagery data continues, but to this the community adds multi-INT data, interoperability with existing and emerging systems, expanded data access, nontraditional users, collaboration, automation, and support for ad hoc configurations beyond the current FMV PED cells. To break from the legacy system lifecycle, we look towards a technology application and commercial adoption model course which will meet these future Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) challenges. In this paper, we explore the application of cutting edge computer vision technology to meet existing FMV PED shortfalls and address future capability gaps. For example, real-time georegistration services developed from computer-vision-based feature tracking, multiple-view geometry, and statistical methods allow the fusion of motion imagery with other georeferenced information sources - providing unparalleled situational awareness. We then describe how these motion imagery capabilities may be readily deployed in a dynamically integrated analytical environment; employing an extensible framework, leveraging scalable enterprise-wide infrastructure and following commercial best practices.

  13. Drag-free Spacecraft Technologies: criticalities in the initialization of geodesic motion

    CERN Document Server

    Zanoni, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Present and future space missions rely on systems of increasingly demanding performance for being successful. Drag-free technology is one of the technologies that is fundamental for LISA-Pathfinder, an ESA mission whose launch is planned for the end of September 2015. A purely drag-free object is defined by the absence of all external forces other than gravity. This is not a natural condition and thus requires a proper design of a spacecraft, whose core is an object in free-fall, called test mass (TM). The purity of the drag-free orbit depends on the spacecraft capability of protecting the TM from disturbances, which indeed has limitations. According to a NASA study, such a concept provides substantial economies for LEO satellites. At the same time, a drag-free motion is required in many missions of fundamental physics. eLISA is an ESA concept mission aimed at opening a new window to the universe, black holes, and massive binary systems by means of gravitational waves. LISA-Pathfinder is in charge of proving ...

  14. Sapc - Application for Adapting Scanned Analogue Photographs to Use Them in Structure from Motion Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salach, A.

    2017-05-01

    The documentary value of analogue scanned photographs is invaluable. A large and rich collection of archival photographs is often the only source of information about past of the selected area. This paper presents a method of adaptation of scanned, analogue photographs to suitable form allowing to use them in Structure from Motion technology. For this purpose, an automatic algorithm, implemented in the application called SAPC (Scanned Aerial Photographs Correction), which transforms scans to a form, which characteristic similar to the images captured by a digital camera, was invented. Images, which are created in the applied program as output data, are characterized by the same principal point position in each photo and the same resolution through cutting out the black photo frame. Additionally, SAPC generates a binary image file, which can mask areas of fiducial marks. In the experimental section, scanned, analogue photographs of Warsaw, which had been captured in 1986, were used in two variants: unprocessed and processed in SAPC application. An insightful analysis was conducted on the influence of transformation in SAPC on quality of spatial orientation of photographs. Block adjustment through aerial triangulation was calculated using two SfM software products: Agisoft PhotoScan and Pix4d and their results were compared with results obtained from professional photogrammetric software - Trimble Inpho. The author concluded that pre-processing in SAPC application had a positive impact on a quality of block orientation of scanned, analogue photographs, using SfM technology.

  15. Motion control report

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Please note this is a short discount publication. In today's manufacturing environment, Motion Control plays a major role in virtually every project.The Motion Control Report provides a comprehensive overview of the technology of Motion Control:* Design Considerations* Technologies* Methods to Control Motion* Examples of Motion Control in Systems* A Detailed Vendors List

  16. Comparison of ankle and subtalar joint complex range of motion during barefoot walking and walking in Masai Barefoot Technology sandals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birch Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Masai Barefoot Technology (MBT, Switzerland produce footwear which they claim simulate walking barefoot on soft undulating ground. This paper reports an investigation into the effect of MBT sandals on the motion of the ankle and subtalar joint complex during walking. Methods Range of motion data was collected in the sagittal, frontal and transverse plane from the ankle and subtalar joint complex from 32 asymptomatic subjects using the CODA MPX30 motion analysis system during both barefoot walking and walking in the MBT sandal. Shod and un-shod data were compared using the Wilcoxon signed ranks test. Results A significantly greater range of motion in the frontal and sagittal planes was recorded when walking in the MBT sandal (p = 0.031, and p = 0.015 respectively. In the transverse plane, no significant difference was found (p = 0.470. Conclusions MBT sandals increase the range of motion of the ankle and subtalar joint complex in the frontal and sagittal planes. MBT footwear could therefore have a role to play in the management of musculoskeletal disorders where an increase in frontal and sagittal plane range of motion is desirable.

  17. Surface kinematics of periglacial sorted circles using Structure-from-Motion technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kääb

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sorted soil circles are a conspicuous form of periglacial patterned ground. Numerical modelling suggests that these features develop from a convection-like circulation of material in the active layer of permafrost. The related iterative burying and resurfacing of material is believed to play an important role in the soil carbon cycle of high latitudes. The connection of sorted circles to permafrost conditions and its changes over time make these ground forms to a potential paleoclimatic indicator. In this study we apply the photogrammetric Structure-from-Motion technology (SfM to large sets of overlapping terrestrial photos taken in Augusts 2007 and 2010 over three sorted circles at Kvadehuksletta, Western Spitsbergen. We retrieve repeat digital elevation models (DEMs and orthoimages with millimetre-resolution and accuracy. Changes in microrelief over the three years are obtained from DEM-differencing and horizontal displacement fields from tracking features between the orthoimages. In the inner domains of the circles, consisting of fines, material moves radially outside with horizontal surface speeds of up to 2 cm yr−1. The outer circle ridges consist of coarse stones that displace towards the inner circle domain at similar rates. A number of substantial deviations from this overall radial symmetry, both in horizontal displacements and in microrelief, shed new light on the potential spatio-temporal evolution of sorted soil circles, and periglacial patterned ground in general.

  18. Seismic design technology for breeder reactor structures. Volume 1. Special topics in earthquake ground motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, D.P.

    1983-04-01

    This report is divided into twelve chapters: seismic hazard analysis procedures, statistical and probabilistic considerations, vertical ground motion characteristics, vertical ground response spectrum shapes, effects of inclined rock strata on site response, correlation of ground response spectra with intensity, intensity attenuation relationships, peak ground acceleration in the very mean field, statistical analysis of response spectral amplitudes, contributions of body and surface waves, evaluation of ground motion characteristics, and design earthquake motions. (DLC)

  19. Effects of interactive technology, teacher scaffolding and feedback on university students' conceptual development in motion and force concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecklein, Jason Jeffrey

    The utilization of interactive technologies will affect learning in science classrooms of the future. And although these technologies have improved in form and function, their effective employment in university science classrooms has lagged behind the rapid development of new constructivist pedagogies and means of instruction. This dissertation examines the enlistment of instructional technologies, in particular tablet PCs and DyKnow Interactive Software, in a technologically enhanced, university-level, introductory physics course. Results of this qualitative case study of three university students indicate that (1) the use of interactive technology positively affects both student learning within force and motion and self-reported beliefs about physics, (2) ad hoc use of instructional technologies may not sufficient for effective learning in introductory physics, (3) student learners dictate the leveraging of technology in any classroom, and (4) that purposeful teacher structuring of classroom activities with technologies are essential for student construction of knowledge. This includes designing activities to elicit attention and make knowledge visible for low-level content, while augmenting student interactions and modelling procedural steps for higher-level content.

  20. A low cost real-time motion tracking approach using webcam technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Chandramouli; Washabaugh, Edward P; Seetharaman, Yogesh

    2015-02-01

    Physical therapy is an important component of gait recovery for individuals with locomotor dysfunction. There is a growing body of evidence that suggests that incorporating a motor learning task through visual feedback of movement trajectory is a useful approach to facilitate therapeutic outcomes. Visual feedback is typically provided by recording the subject's limb movement patterns using a three-dimensional motion capture system and displaying it in real-time using customized software. However, this approach can seldom be used in the clinic because of the technical expertise required to operate this device and the cost involved in procuring a three-dimensional motion capture system. In this paper, we describe a low cost two-dimensional real-time motion tracking approach using a simple webcam and an image processing algorithm in LabVIEW Vision Assistant. We also evaluated the accuracy of this approach using a high precision robotic device (Lokomat) across various walking speeds. Further, the reliability and feasibility of real-time motion-tracking were evaluated in healthy human participants. The results indicated that the measurements from the webcam tracking approach were reliable and accurate. Experiments on human subjects also showed that participants could utilize the real-time kinematic feedback generated from this device to successfully perform a motor learning task while walking on a treadmill. These findings suggest that the webcam motion tracking approach is a feasible low cost solution to perform real-time movement analysis and training.

  1. Accurate band-to-band registration of AOTF imaging spectrometer using motion detection technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Pengwei; Zhao, Huijie; Jin, Shangzhong; Li, Ningchuan

    2016-05-01

    This paper concerns the problem of platform vibration induced band-to-band misregistration with acousto-optic imaging spectrometer in spaceborne application. Registrating images of different bands formed at different time or different position is difficult, especially for hyperspectral images form acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) imaging spectrometer. In this study, a motion detection method is presented using the polychromatic undiffracted beam of AOTF. The factors affecting motion detect accuracy are analyzed theoretically, and calculations show that optical distortion is an easily overlooked factor to achieve accurate band-to-band registration. Hence, a reflective dual-path optical system has been proposed for the first time, with reduction of distortion and chromatic aberration, indicating the potential of higher registration accuracy. Consequently, a spectra restoration experiment using additional motion detect channel is presented for the first time, which shows the accurate spectral image registration capability of this technique.

  2. Object Motion Detection System Using Passive UHF RFID Technology For A Trauma Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Ho Lee

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available There has been demands of context-aware systems in a hospital domain and several types of sensors have been applied as sources of medical activities. Unlike the previous passive RFID use of simply identifying objects this paper presents a system for motion detection of medical objects in a trauma bay by ranging the received signal strength indication RSSI using UHF passive RFID tags as one of those sensors that provide information on medical activities. To use passive RFID RSSI for motion detection Three different types of RSSI estimators are evaluated to process noisy RSSI and the adaptive threshold is proposed in the system to improve the resolution of detecting motion. Our system has been tested with recorded RSSI values in a laboratory and an actual trauma bay during simulated resuscitations performed by trauma teams. The proposed system has achieved 85.9 - 92.1 accuracies for most passive items that are used in a trauma bay.

  3. Upper Limb Portable Motion Analysis System Based on Inertial Technology for Neurorehabilitation Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique J. Gómez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Here an inertial sensor-based monitoring system for measuring and analyzing upper limb movements is presented. The final goal is the integration of this motion-tracking device within a portable rehabilitation system for brain injury patients. A set of four inertial sensors mounted on a special garment worn by the patient provides the quaternions representing the patient upper limb’s orientation in space. A kinematic model is built to estimate 3D upper limb motion for accurate therapeutic evaluation. The human upper limb is represented as a kinematic chain of rigid bodies with three joints and six degrees of freedom. Validation of the system has been performed by co-registration of movements with a commercial optoelectronic tracking system. Successful results are shown that exhibit a high correlation among signals provided by both devices and obtained at the Institut Guttmann Neurorehabilitation Hospital.

  4. DLP technology application: 3D head tracking and motion correction in medical brain imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Oline Vinter; Wilm, Jakob; Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel sensing system, robust Near-infrared Structured Light Scanning (NIRSL) for three-dimensional human model scanning application. Human model scanning due to its nature of various hair and dress appearance and body motion has long been a challenging task. Previous...... surfaces, such as hair, dark jeans and black shoes under visible illumination. Moreover, successful structured light scan relies on the assumption that the subject is static during scanning. Due to the nature of body motion, it is very time sensitive to keep this assumption in the case of human model scan...... structured light scanning methods typically emitted visible coded light patterns onto static and opaque objects to establish correspondence between a projector and a camera for triangulation. In the success of these methods rely on scanning objects with proper reflective surface for visible light...

  5. Evaluation of a Gait Assessment Module Using 3D Motion Capture Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskwill, Amanda J.; Belli, Patricia; Kelleher, Leila

    2017-01-01

    Background Gait analysis is the study of human locomotion. In massage therapy, this observation is part of an assessment process that informs treatment planning. Massage therapy students must apply the theory of gait assessment to simulated patients. At Humber College, the gait assessment module traditionally consists of a textbook reading and a three-hour, in-class session in which students perform gait assessment on each other. In 2015, Humber College acquired a three-dimensional motion capture system. Purpose The purpose was to evaluate the use of 3D motion capture in a gait assessment module compared to the traditional gait assessment module. Participants Semester 2 massage therapy students who were enrolled in Massage Theory 2 (n = 38). Research Design Quasi-experimental, wait-list comparison study. Intervention The intervention group participated in an in-class session with a Qualisys motion capture system. Main Outcome Measure(s) The outcomes included knowledge and application of gait assessment theory as measured by quizzes, and students’ satisfaction as measured through a questionnaire. Results There were no statistically significant differences in baseline and post-module knowledge between both groups (pre-module: p = .46; post-module: p = .63). There was also no difference between groups on the final application question (p = .13). The intervention group enjoyed the in-class session because they could visualize the content, whereas the comparison group enjoyed the interactivity of the session. The intervention group recommended adding the assessment of gait on their classmates to their experience. Both groups noted more time was needed for the gait assessment module. Conclusions Based on the results of this study, it is recommended that the gait assessment module combine both the traditional in-class session and the 3D motion capture system. PMID:28293329

  6. Integrated Motion Planning and Autonomous Control Technology for Autonomous ISR Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SSCI and MIT propose to design, implement and test a comprehensive Integrated Mission Planning & Autonomous Control Technology (IMPACT) for Autonomous ISR...

  7. Comparison of markerless and marker-based motion capture technologies through simultaneous data collection during gait: proof of concept.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ceseracciu

    Full Text Available During the last decade markerless motion capture techniques have gained an increasing interest in the biomechanics community. In the clinical field, however, the application of markerless techniques is still debated. This is mainly due to a limited number of papers dedicated to the comparison with the state of the art of marker based motion capture, in term of repeatability of the three dimensional joints' kinematics. In the present work the application of markerless technique to data acquired with a marker-based system was investigated. All videos and external data were recorded with the same motion capture system and included the possibility to use markerless and marker-based methods simultaneously. Three dimensional markerless joint kinematics was estimated and compared with the one determined with traditional marker based systems, through the evaluation of root mean square distance between joint rotations. In order to compare the performance of markerless and marker-based systems in terms of clinically relevant joint angles estimation, the same anatomical frames of reference were defined for both systems. Differences in calibration and synchronization of the cameras were excluded by applying the same wand calibration and lens distortion correction to both techniques. Best results were achieved for knee flexion-extension angle, with an average root mean square distance of 11.75 deg, corresponding to 18.35% of the range of motion. Sagittal plane kinematics was estimated better than on the other planes also for hip and ankle (root mean square distance of 17.62 deg e.g. 44.66%, and 7.17 deg e.g. 33.12%, meanwhile estimates for hip joint were the most incorrect. This technique enables users of markerless technology to compare differences with marker-based in order to define the degree of applicability of markerless technique.

  8. High Speed and Slow Motion: The Technology of Modern High Speed Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Michael; Mollmann, Klaus-Peter

    2011-01-01

    The enormous progress in the fields of microsystem technology, microelectronics and computer science has led to the development of powerful high speed cameras. Recently a number of such cameras became available as low cost consumer products which can also be used for the teaching of physics. The technology of high speed cameras is discussed,…

  9. Science and Technology Teachers' Opinions about Problems Faced While Teaching 8th Grade Science Unit "Force and Motion" and Suggestions for Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozdogan, Aykut Emre; Uzoglu, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the problems encountered while teaching force and motion unit in 8th grade science and technology course from teachers' perspectives and offer solutions to eliminate these problems. The study was conducted with 248 science and technology teachers working in 7 regions in Turkey in 2012-2013 academic year.…

  10. A Novel Technology for Motion Capture Using Passive UHF RFID Tags

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krigslund, Rasmus; Popovski, Petar; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2013-01-01

    Although there are several existing methods for human motion capture, they all have important limitations and hence there is the need to explore fundamentally new approaches. Here we present a method based on a Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) system with passive Ultra High Frequency (UHF...... walking. The reference joint angles for the validation were obtained by an optoelectronic system. Although the method is in its initial phase of development, the results of the validation are promising and show that the movement information can be extracted from the RFID response signals....

  11. A novel technology for motion capture using passive UHF RFID tags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krigslund, R; Dosen, S; Popovski, P; Dideriksen, J L; Pedersen, G F; Farina, D

    2013-05-01

    Although there are several existing methods for human motion capture, they all have important limitations and hence there is the need to explore fundamentally new approaches. Here, we present a method based on a radio frequency identification (RFID) system with passive ultra high frequency (UHF) tags placed on the body segments whose kinematics is to be captured. Dual polarized antennas are used to estimate the inclination of each tag based on the polarization of the tag responses. The method has been validated experimentally for the shank and thigh in the sagittal plane during treadmill walking. The reference segment angles for the validation were obtained by an optoelectronic system. Although the method is in its initial phase of development, the results of the validation are promising and show that the movement information can be extracted from the RFID response signals.

  12. Broaden Engineering Technology students' knowledge through hands-on with motion robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The skills and knowledge that employers value most are not always well-aligned with undergraduate engineering technology programs. With the support of a federal grant, we identify and propose to broaden the undergraduate student experience to include training in transferable skills with agricultura...

  13. [Research on the range of motion measurement system for spine based on LabVIEW image processing technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaofang; Deng, Linhong; Lu, Hu; He, Bin

    2014-08-01

    A measurement system based on the image processing technology and developed by LabVIEW was designed to quickly obtain the range of motion (ROM) of spine. NI-Vision module was used to pre-process the original images and calculate the angles of marked needles in order to get ROM data. Six human cadaveric thoracic spine segments T7-T10 were selected to carry out 6 kinds of loads, including left/right lateral bending, flexion, extension, cis/counterclockwise torsion. The system was used to measure the ROM of segment T8-T9 under the loads from 1 Nm to 5 Nm. The experimental results showed that the system is able to measure the ROM of the spine accurately and quickly, which provides a simple and reliable tool for spine biomechanics investigators.

  14. [Research on the range of motion measurement system for spine based on LabVIEW image processing technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaofang; Deng, Linhong; Lu, Hu; He, Bin

    2014-08-01

    A measurement system based on the image processing technology and developed by LabVIEW was designed to quickly obtain the range of motion (ROM) of spine. NI-Vision module was used to pre-process the original images and calculate the angles of marked needles in order to get ROM data. Six human cadaveric thoracic spine segments T7-T10 were selected to carry out 6 kinds of loads, including left/right lateral bending, flexion, extension, cis/counterclockwise torsion. The system was used to measure the ROM of segment T8-T9 under the loads from 1 Nm to 5 Nm. The experimental results showed that the system is able to measure the ROM of the spine accurately and quickly, which provides a simple and reliable tool for spine biomechanics investigators.

  15. Highly flexible self-powered sensors based on printed circuit board technology for human motion detection and gesture recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuh, Yiin-Kuen; Ho, Hsi-Chun

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a new integration of printed circuit board (PCB) technology-based self-powered sensors (PSSs) and direct-write, near-field electrospinning (NFES) with polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) micro/nano fibers (MNFs) as source materials. Integration with PCB technology is highly desirable for affordable mass production. In addition, we systematically investigate the effects of electrodes with intervals in the range of 0.15 mm to 0.40 mm on the resultant PSS output voltage and current. The results show that at a strain of 0.5% and 5 Hz, a PSS with a gap interval 0.15 mm produces a maximum output voltage of 3 V and a maximum output current of 220 nA. Under the same dimensional constraints, the MNFs are massively connected in series (via accumulation of continuous MNFs across the gaps ) and in parallel (via accumulation of parallel MNFs on the same gap) simultaneously. Finally, encapsulation in a flexible polymer with different interval electrodes demonstrated that electrical superposition can be realized by connecting MNFs collectively and effectively in serial/parallel patterns to achieve a high current and high voltage output, respectively. Further improvement in PSSs based on the effect of cooperativity was experimentally realized by rolling-up the device into a cylindrical shape, resulting in a 130% increase in power output due to the cooperative effect. We assembled the piezoelectric MNF sensors on gloves, bandages and stockings to fabricate devices that can detect different types of human motion, including finger motion and various flexing and extensions of an ankle. The firmly glued PSSs were tested on the glove and ankle respectively to detect and harvest the various movements and the output voltage was recorded as ∼1.5 V under jumping movement (one PSS) and ∼4.5 V for the clenched fist with five fingers bent concurrently (five PSSs). This research shows that piezoelectric MNFs not only have a huge impact on harvesting various external

  16. Highly flexible self-powered sensors based on printed circuit board technology for human motion detection and gesture recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuh, Yiin-Kuen; Ho, Hsi-Chun

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a new integration of printed circuit board (PCB) technology-based self-powered sensors (PSSs) and direct-write, near-field electrospinning (NFES) with polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) micro/nano fibers (MNFs) as source materials. Integration with PCB technology is highly desirable for affordable mass production. In addition, we systematically investigate the effects of electrodes with intervals in the range of 0.15 mm to 0.40 mm on the resultant PSS output voltage and current. The results show that at a strain of 0.5% and 5 Hz, a PSS with a gap interval 0.15 mm produces a maximum output voltage of 3 V and a maximum output current of 220 nA. Under the same dimensional constraints, the MNFs are massively connected in series (via accumulation of continuous MNFs across the gaps ) and in parallel (via accumulation of parallel MNFs on the same gap) simultaneously. Finally, encapsulation in a flexible polymer with different interval electrodes demonstrated that electrical superposition can be realized by connecting MNFs collectively and effectively in serial/parallel patterns to achieve a high current and high voltage output, respectively. Further improvement in PSSs based on the effect of cooperativity was experimentally realized by rolling-up the device into a cylindrical shape, resulting in a 130% increase in power output due to the cooperative effect. We assembled the piezoelectric MNF sensors on gloves, bandages and stockings to fabricate devices that can detect different types of human motion, including finger motion and various flexing and extensions of an ankle. The firmly glued PSSs were tested on the glove and ankle respectively to detect and harvest the various movements and the output voltage was recorded as ∼1.5 V under jumping movement (one PSS) and ∼4.5 V for the clenched fist with five fingers bent concurrently (five PSSs). This research shows that piezoelectric MNFs not only have a huge impact on harvesting various external

  17. Smartphone viewing distance and sleep: an experimental study utilizing motion capture technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Michitaka; Kitazawa, Momoko; Maeda, Yasuhiro; Mimura, Masaru; Tsubota, Kazuo; Kishimoto, Taishiro

    2017-01-01

    There are studies reporting the negative impact of smartphone utilization on sleep. It is considered that reduction of melatonin secretion under the blue light exposure from smart-phone displays is one of the causes. The viewing distance may cause sleep disturbance, because the viewing distance determines the screen illuminance and/or asthenopia. However, to date, there has been no study closely investigating the impact of viewing distance on sleep; therefore, we sought to determine the relationship between smartphone viewing distance and subjective sleep status. Twenty-three nursing students (mean age ± standard deviation of 19.7±3.1 years) participated in the study. Subjective sleep status was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, morningness–eveningness questionnaire, and the Epworth sleepiness scale. We used the distance between the head and the hand while holding a smartphone to measure the viewing distance while using smartphones in sitting and lying positions. The distance was calculated using the three-dimensional coordinates obtained by a noncontact motion-sensing device. The viewing distance of smartphones in the sitting position ranged from 13.3 to 32.9 cm among participants. In the lying position, it ranged from 9.9 to 21.3cm. The viewing distance was longer in the sitting position than in the lying position (mean ± standard deviation: 20.3±4.7 vs 16.4±2.7, respectively, P<0.01). We found that the short viewing distance in the lying position had a positive correlation to a poorer sleep state (R2=0.27, P<0.05), lower sleep efficiency (R2=0.35, P<0.05), and longer sleep latency (R2=0.38, P<0.05). Moreover, smartphone viewing distances in lying position correlated negatively with subjective sleep status. Therefore, when recommending ideal smartphone use in lying position, one should take into account the viewing distances. PMID:28331379

  18. Smartphone viewing distance and sleep: an experimental study utilizing motion capture technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Michitaka; Kitazawa, Momoko; Maeda, Yasuhiro; Mimura, Masaru; Tsubota, Kazuo; Kishimoto, Taishiro

    2017-01-01

    There are studies reporting the negative impact of smartphone utilization on sleep. It is considered that reduction of melatonin secretion under the blue light exposure from smart-phone displays is one of the causes. The viewing distance may cause sleep disturbance, because the viewing distance determines the screen illuminance and/or asthenopia. However, to date, there has been no study closely investigating the impact of viewing distance on sleep; therefore, we sought to determine the relationship between smartphone viewing distance and subjective sleep status. Twenty-three nursing students (mean age ± standard deviation of 19.7±3.1 years) participated in the study. Subjective sleep status was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, morningness-eveningness questionnaire, and the Epworth sleepiness scale. We used the distance between the head and the hand while holding a smartphone to measure the viewing distance while using smartphones in sitting and lying positions. The distance was calculated using the three-dimensional coordinates obtained by a noncontact motion-sensing device. The viewing distance of smartphones in the sitting position ranged from 13.3 to 32.9 cm among participants. In the lying position, it ranged from 9.9 to 21.3cm. The viewing distance was longer in the sitting position than in the lying position (mean ± standard deviation: 20.3±4.7 vs 16.4±2.7, respectively, Psmartphone viewing distances in lying position correlated negatively with subjective sleep status. Therefore, when recommending ideal smartphone use in lying position, one should take into account the viewing distances.

  19. Smartphone viewing distance and sleep: an experimental study utilizing motion capture technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimura M

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Michitaka Yoshimura,1,* Momoko Kitazawa,1–3,* Yasuhiro Maeda,2 Masaru Mimura,4 Kazuo Tsubota,1 Taishiro Kishimoto,4,5 1Department of Ophthalmology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, 2RIKEN Center for Advanced Photonics, Wako, Saitama, 3Department of Nursing, Aino University Junior College, 4Department of Neuropsychiatry, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 5Department of Psychiatry, Hofstra Northwell School of Medicine, NY, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: There are studies reporting the negative impact of smartphone utilization on sleep. It is considered that reduction of melatonin secretion under the blue light exposure from smartphone displays is one of the causes. The viewing distance may cause sleep disturbance, because the viewing distance determines the screen illuminance and/or asthenopia. However, to date, there has been no study closely investigating the impact of viewing distance on sleep; therefore, we sought to determine the relationship between smartphone viewing distance and subjective sleep status. Twenty-three nursing students (mean age ± standard deviation of 19.7±3.1 years participated in the study. Subjective sleep status was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, morningness–eveningness questionnaire, and the Epworth sleepiness scale. We used the distance between the head and the hand while holding a smartphone to measure the viewing distance while using smartphones in sitting and lying positions. The distance was calculated using the three-dimensional coordinates obtained by a noncontact motion-sensing device. The viewing distance of smartphones in the sitting position ranged from 13.3 to 32.9 cm among participants. In the lying position, it ranged from 9.9 to 21.3cm. The viewing distance was longer in the sitting position than in the lying position (mean ± standard deviation: 20.3±4.7 vs 16.4±2.7, respectively, P<0.01. We found that the short viewing

  20. The Development of the Technology of Stop Motion Animation%定格动画技术的发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小琳

    2013-01-01

    定格动画技术的发展一波三折,随着科学技术的发展而走向巅峰或停滞不前。由于定格动画的特殊性,制作的过程几乎不可逆,一个环节出错,很可能会导致之后的工作完全报废。定格动画片的制作方式决定了动画的创作及过程中必须将出现错误的可能性降到最低,工作中的各个细节都必须做到准确无误,严格的偶形制作完毕之后,动画摄制几乎不容许出现任何错误,精准的偶形操作,娴熟的摄制技巧,巨大的毅力和耐心,宏观和细节的把控,借助数字化的后期制作技术,展现最终的完美动画。定格动画在历史的长河中,一步一步地发展起来,成就了今天的定格动画技术。%Based on the development of scientific technology ,the development of stop motion animation has met a serious of frustrations . Its technology goes to the forefront for sometime and stops moving for the others . With special features , the production of stop motion animation is nonreversible .One mistake will damage the whole work .So in the process of creation ,we must work precisely all the time and try our best to avoid any er-rors .Especially in animation photography after the making of puppets ,any mistake is unbearable .To produce perfect animation ,accurate puppet operation ,skillful photography ,great persistence and patience ,good grasp of macro and details and digital -aided post -production techniques are all needed . Today ’ s success has been achieved step by step in the long history .

  1. OFSETH: optical technologies embedded in smart medical textile for continuous monitoring of respiratory motions under magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narbonneau, F.; De Jonckheere, J.; Jeanne, M.; Kinet, D.; Witt, J.; Krebber, K.; Paquet, B.; Depré, A.; D'Angelo, L. T.; Thiel, T.; Logier, R.

    2010-04-01

    The potential impact of optical fiber sensors embedded into medical textiles for the continuous monitoring of the patient during Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is now proved. We report how two pure optical technologies can successfully sense textile elongation between, 0% and 3%, while maintaining the stretching properties of the textile substrates for a good comfort of the patient. Investigating influence of different patients' morphology as well as textile integration issues to let free all vitals organs for medical staff actions, the OFSETH harness allows a continuous measurement of respiration movements. For example, anaesthesia for MRI examination uses the same drugs as for any surgical procedure. Even if spontaneous respiration can be preserved most of the time, spontaneous respiration is constantly at risk of being impaired by anaesthetic drugs or by upper airway obstruction. Monitoring of the breathing activity is needed to assess adequate ventilation or to detect specific obstruction patterns. Moreover artefacts due to physiological motions induce a blooming effect on the MRI result. The use of synchronisation devices allows reducing these effects. Positioned at certain strategic places according to the investigated organ, the presented sensors could constitute an efficient and adapted solution for respiratory synchronisation of the MRI acquisition.

  2. User Experiences While Playing Dance-Based Exergames and the Influence of Different Body Motion Sensing Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alasdair G. Thin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dance Dance Revolution is a pioneering exergame which has attracted considerable interest for its potential to promote regular exercise and its associated health benefits. The advent of a range of different consumer body motion tracking video game console peripherals raises the question whether their different technological affordances (i.e., variations in the type and number of body limbs that they can track influence the user experience while playing dance-based exergames both in terms of the level of physical exertion and the nature of the play experience. To investigate these issues a group of subjects performed a total of six comparable dance routines selected from commercial dance-based exergames (two routines from each game on three different consoles. The subjects’ level of physical exertion was assessed by measuring oxygen consumption and heart rate. They also reported their perceived level of exertion, difficulty, and enjoyment ratings after completing each dance routine. No differences were found in the physiological measures of exertion between the peripherals/consoles. However, there were significant variations in the difficulty and enjoyment ratings between peripherals. The design implications of these results are discussed including the tension between helping to guide and coordinate player movement versus offering greater movement flexibility.

  3. Dual System for Enhancing Cognitive Abilities of Children with ADHD Using Leap Motion and eye-Tracking Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Zapirain, Begoña; de la Torre Díez, Isabel; López-Coronado, Miguel

    2017-07-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a brain disorder marked by an ongoing pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that affects with development or functioning. It affects 3-5% of all American and European children. The objective of this paper is to develop and test a dual system for the rehabilitation of cognitive functions in children with ADHD. A technological platform has been developed using the ". NET framework", which makes use of two physiological sensors, -an eye-tracker and a hand gesture recognition sensor- in order to provide children with the opportunity to develop their learning and attention skills. The two physiological sensors we utilized for the development are the Tobii X1 Light Eye Tracker and the Leap Motion. SUS and QUIS questionnaires have been carried out. 19 users tested the system and the average age was 10.88 years (SD = 3.14). The results obtained after tests were performed were quite positive and hopeful. The learning of the users caused by the system and the interfaces item got a high punctuation with a mean of 7.34 (SD = 1.06) for SUS questionnaire and 7.73 (SD = 0.6) for QUIS questionnaire. We didn't find differences between boys and girls. The developed multimodal rehabilitation system can help to children with attention deficit and learning issues. Moreover, the teachers may utilize this system to track the progression of their students and see their behavior.

  4. BLADE technology to eliminate MRI of knee joint motion artifacts%BLADE技术在消除MRI膝关节运动伪影方面的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾勇坚; 郑建刚; 许建兴; 刘良卿; 周鸿雁

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨刀锋伪影校正(BLADE)技术在消除MRI膝关节运动伪影的应用价值.方法 32例膝关节常规MRI检查中出现运动伪影的患者,改用BLADE技术扫描(PD矢状位、T2矢状位),以是否能够清晰显示膝关节结构、半月板及交叉韧带为标准,与常规序列对比评估BLADE技术对消除膝关节运动伪影的应用价值.结果 膝关节常规序列扫描中出现运动伪影,改用BLADE技术扫描后,图像运动伪影消除,图像质量明显改善.结论 BLADE技术对膝关节常规扫描中产生的运动伪影有明显的校正作用,可广泛用于产生运动伪影的膝关节MRI检查中.%Objective To investigate the value of the blade artifact correction (BLADE) technology in eliminating the knee joint motion artifacts in the MR examination. Methods 32 patients with motion artifacts in the knee conventional MR examination were added standard BLADE technology to scan (PD sagittal, T2 sagittal), compared with conventional sequence, assessed the value of the BLADE technology to eliminate motion artifacts of the knee with a standard of clear display of the structure of the knee, meniscus and cruciate ligament. Results Switching to BLADE technology scanning, the image motion artifacts produced in the knee conventional examination was disappeared, and the image quality was improved significantly. Conclusion BLADE technology with significant role in correction the motion artifacts produced in the conventional scanning of the knee can be widely used to produce motion artifacts knee MRI examination.

  5. Motion Detection Real Time 3D Walkthrough in Limkokwing University of Creative Technology (Modet-Walk using Kinect XBox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrang Parhizkar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This research intends to give an interactive communication by implementing the kinect into the 3D walkthrough. The project is based on motion detection which is interacted with virtual 3D walkthrough in the real environment. Now the possibility of combining 3D walkthrough with the kinect Xbox seems to be a success. This paper is simply to emphasize on combining 3D virtual walkthrough with Kinect Xbox to detect the motion. The research is based on how the implementation of motion detection using kinect can help people in understanding/translating and give meaning to the environment displayed around them ubiquitously.

  6. Structural motion engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Connor, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    This innovative volume provides a systematic treatment of the basic concepts and computational procedures for structural motion design and engineering for civil installations. The authors illustrate the application of motion control to a wide spectrum of buildings through many examples. Topics covered include optimal stiffness distributions for building-type structures, the role of damping in controlling motion, tuned mass dampers, base isolation systems, linear control, and nonlinear control. The book's primary objective is the satisfaction of motion-related design requirements, such as restrictions on displacement and acceleration. The book is ideal for practicing engineers and graduate students. This book also: ·         Broadens practitioners' understanding of structural motion control, the enabling technology for motion-based design ·         Provides readers the tools to satisfy requirements of modern, ultra-high strength materials that lack corresponding stiffness, where the motion re...

  7. 体感交互技术在教育中的应用现状述评%Motion Sensing Technology in Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李青; 王青

    2015-01-01

    Motion sensing technology, a revolution in the history of human-computer interaction, can manipulate multimedia equipments by means of body movements, sounds and other natural languages, which is a revolutionary experience to us. Now, the researches on motion sensing technology focus on sensing accuracy and depth, and its application in education. This technology has attracted many people’s attention with the development of motion sensing game, which can be divided into inertial sensor, optical sensor and combination of inertial sensor and optical sensor. Kinect of Microsoft adopted inertial sensor technology and acoustic sensor technology. Motion sensing game has made some achievements when it is applied into many fields such as language, mathematics, science, physics and special education. In the paper, three specific examples with detailed teaching process are analyzed. When motion sensing technology is applied into education, it has some characteristics of teaching/learning tools, teaching content and teaching environment, which can be used in situated learning, personalized learning and game learning. Motion sensing technology has some advantages of good experience, multi sensory, student-centered teaching and cooperative learning when applied into education, while some problems arise from teaching plan, teaching methods and assessment.%体感技术是人机交互历史上的一次革命,它以躯体动作、声音等自然语言来操纵多媒体设备,提供了革命性的体验。目前,体感技术研究集中在感应精度与深度方面,在教育应用领域也有一些前沿探索和实验。该技术自体感游戏开始之际便进入了大众视野,在实现技术上可分为惯性感测、光学感测以及惯性及光学联合感测三类,微软的Kinect采用了光学测感和声学感知技术。在教育应用方面,体感游戏开始进入课堂,就取得了较好的影响。它在语言、数学、科学、物理、特殊

  8. 仿生推进水翼协同技术%Cooperative Motion Technology of Bionic Propulsion Hydrofoils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张铭钧; 刘晓白; 郭绍波; 徐建安; 闫娜

    2011-01-01

    The cooperative motion principle and trailing vortex structure of sea turtle hydrofoils are studied while turtle is adopting the hydrofoil propulsion method. A continuous aggregated vortex rope in hydrofoil trailing vortex will be caused by the cooperative motion of hydrofoils' stroke spin and azimuth spin, the aggregated vortex interference of hydrofoils' trailing vortex and the jumping phenomena of vortex rings shedding frequency can be eliminated by the cooperative motion of left and right hydrofoils. The control system of hydrofoil propulsion experimental prototype is developed for the hydrofoils cooperation motion. The subsection control method of hydrofoils' two spin cooperative motion and the angular velocity on-line adjustment method of double hydrofoils cooperative motion are proposed. And the pool experiments of experimental prototype are conducted. Results show that, under the subsection control, straight-line navigation speed of the hydrofoils' two spin cooperative motion with cooperation value 0.5 and 1 can be increased 0.45 times and 0.82 times respectively, while navigation efficiency is increased 1.01 times and 2.49 times, comparing with the two spin alternative motion. And the angular velocity on-line adjustment method not only makes the motion coincidence degree of double hydrofoils comes to 95.2%, but also boosts 43.6% longitudinal thrust for the prototype when double hydrofoils doing cooperative motion rather than non-cooperative motion.%研究基于水翼法推进的海龟水翼协同运动机理及其尾涡结构,发现水翼双旋协同运动可使水翼尾涡产生一条连续的聚集涡涡带,而双翼协同则可消除水翼尾涡聚集涡干扰和涡环脱泻频率跳跃现象.研究水翼法推进实验样机的水翼协同运动控制系统,提出水翼双旋协同分段式控制方法和双翼协同角速度在线调节方法,进行了样机水池实验.实验结果表明,分段式控制方法使协同值为0.5和1的水翼双旋协

  9. A Technique to Measure Focal Length of a Lens with no Bulk Motion using Tunable Optics and Optical MEMS Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Reza, Syed Azer

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a motion-free technique for characterizing the focal length of any spherical convex or concave lens. The measurement system uses a Gaussian Beam from a Laser Source (LS), an Electronically Controlled Variable Focus Lens (ECVFL), a Digital Micromirror Device (DMD) and a Photo-Detector (PD). As the proposed method does not involve any motion-stages or other moving components, the focal length is measured without requiring any mechanical motion of bulk components. The method requires measuring the spot size of the Gaussian Beam at the DMD plane for various settings of the ECVFL focal length. These beam spot size measurements, are used to estimate the focal length of a lens sample by employing standard polynomial-fitting techniques. Due to the inherent motion-free nature of the proposed setup, the measurements are fast, repeatable, reliable and ideal for use in industrial lens production, manufacturing of imaging systems and sensitive laboratory experiments. Using a DMD and an ECVFL also allow...

  10. Classifying Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duzen, Carl; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents a series of activities that utilizes a leveling device to classify constant and accelerated motion. Applies this classification system to uniform circular motion and motion produced by gravitational force. (MDH)

  11. Several methods of smoothing motion capture data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jingjing; Miao, Zhenjiang; Wang, Zhifei; Zhang, Shujun

    2011-06-01

    Human motion capture and editing technologies are widely used in computer animation production. We can acquire original motion data by human motion capture system, and then process it by motion editing system. However, noise embed in original motion data maybe introduced by extracting the target, three-dimensional reconstruction process, optimizing algorithm and devices itself in human motion capture system. The motion data must be modified before used to make videos, otherwise the animation figures will be jerky and their behavior is unnatural. Therefore, motion smoothing is essential. In this paper, we compare and summarize three methods of smoothing original motion capture data.

  12. Using motion-sensor camera technology to infer seasonal activity and thermal niche of the desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Mickey; Augustine, Benjamin; Lovich, Jeffrey E; Delaney, David; Sinervo, Barry; Murphy, Mason O; Ennen, Joshua R; Briggs, Jessica R; Cooper, Robert; Price, Steven J

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the relationships between environmental variables and wildlife activity is an important part of effective management. The desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii), an imperiled species of arid environments in the southwest US, may have increasingly restricted windows for activity due to current warming trends. In summer 2013, we deployed 48 motion sensor cameras at the entrances of tortoise burrows to investigate the effects of temperature, sex, and day of the year on the activity of desert tortoises. Using generalized estimating equations, we found that the relative probability of activity was associated with temperature (linear and quadratic), sex, and day of the year. Sex effects showed that male tortoises are generally more active than female tortoises. Temperature had a quadratic effect, indicating that tortoise activity was heightened at a range of temperatures. In addition, we found significant support for interactions between sex and day of the year, and sex and temperature as predictors of the probability of activity. Using our models, we were able to estimate air temperatures and times (days and hours) that were associated with maximum activity during the study. Because tortoise activity is constrained by environmental conditions such as temperature, it is increasingly vital to conduct studies on how tortoises vary their activity throughout the Sonoran Desert to better understand the effects of a changing climate.

  13. ALPHABET SIGN LANGUAGE RECOGNITION USING LEAP MOTION TECHNOLOGY AND RULE BASED BACKPROPAGATION-GENETIC ALGORITHM NEURAL NETWORK (RBBPGANN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijayanti Nurul Khotimah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sign Language recognition was used to help people with normal hearing communicate effectively with the deaf and hearing-impaired. Based on survey that conducted by Multi-Center Study in Southeast Asia, Indonesia was on the top four position in number of patients with hearing disability (4.6%. Therefore, the existence of Sign Language recognition is important. Some research has been conducted on this field. Many neural network types had been used for recognizing many kinds of sign languages. However, their performance are need to be improved. This work focuses on the ASL (Alphabet Sign Language in SIBI (Sign System of Indonesian Language which uses one hand and 26 gestures. Here, thirty four features were extracted by using Leap Motion. Further, a new method, Rule Based-Backpropagation Genetic Al-gorithm Neural Network (RB-BPGANN, was used to recognize these Sign Languages. This method is combination of Rule and Back Propagation Neural Network (BPGANN. Based on experiment this pro-posed application can recognize Sign Language up to 93.8% accuracy. It was very good to recognize large multiclass instance and can be solution of overfitting problem in Neural Network algorithm.

  14. Using motion-sensor camera technology to infer seasonal activity and thermal niche of the desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Mickey; Augustine, Benjamin; Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Delaney, David F.; Sinervo, Barry; Murphy, Mason O.; Ennen, Joshua R.; Briggs, Jessica R.; Cooper, Robert J.; Price, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the relationships between environmental variables and wildlife activity is an important part of effective management. The desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii), an imperiled species of arid environments in the southwest US, may have increasingly restricted windows for activity due to current warming trends. In summer 2013, we deployed 48 motion sensor cameras at the entrances of tortoise burrows to investigate the effects of temperature, sex, and day of the year on the activity of desert tortoises. Using generalized estimating equations, we found that the relative probability of activity was associated with temperature (linear and quadratic), sex, and day of the year. Sex effects showed that male tortoises are generally more active than female tortoises. Temperature had a quadratic effect, indicating that tortoise activity was heightened at a range of temperatures. In addition, we found significant support for interactions between sex and day of the year, and sex and temperature as predictors of the probability of activity. Using our models, we were able to estimate air temperatures and times (days and hours) that were associated with maximum activity during the study. Because tortoise activity is constrained by environmental conditions such as temperature, it is increasingly vital to conduct studies on how tortoises vary their activity throughout the Sonoran Desert to better understand the effects of a changing climate.

  15. Vehicle Perception and Motion State Forecasting Technology%车辆姿态感知与运动状态预测技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛如海; 管军; 虞小波; 石存杰

    2013-01-01

    Currently most automotive active safety warning system which has been put into use is expensive,but stays in the vehicle motion posture monitoring and alarm functions,lacking of further prediction of the vehicle' s own motion attitude for future time.Considering these shortcomings,launching vehicle motion prediction and predicting vehicle motion posture for future time in advance,can play a very important role to improve the vehicle' s active safety and reduce road traffic accidents.The latest 6-axis Motion Processing Unit (MPU) MPU-6050 can realize vehicle posture parameters online perception.The Kalman filter is designed,through signal fusion processing we can get the optimal estimate of the vehicle motion posture parameters,using multi-level recursive model to carry out the prediction research.Finally,taking vertical speed,roll angle and yaw angle for example,we carry on perception and prediction.A good prediction effect is got by road test,which shows the feasibility and exploratory of the vehicle perception and prediction technology.%目前大多数已投入使用的汽车主动安全预警系统价格昂贵,而且停留在对汽车运动姿态的监测和报警功能上,缺乏对汽车未来时刻自身运动姿态作进一步预测.针对这些不足性,本文进行汽车运动姿态在线预测的研究,提前预测汽车未来时刻可能的行驶运行状态,对提高汽车的主动安全性,减少道路交通事故将起到十分重要的作用.采用最新的6轴运动处理组件MPU-6050实现汽车运动姿态参数的在线感知,设计卡尔曼滤波器,通过信号融合处理,获取汽车运动姿态参数的最优估计值,采用多层递阶模型来开展汽车运动姿态参数的预测.最后以纵向车速、侧倾角和横摆角为例开展感知与预测,进行实车道路试验,取得了很好的预测效果.实验结果表明所开展的汽车感知与预测技术的可行性和探索性.

  16. Evaluation of DSMs generated from multi-temporal aerial photographs using emerging structure from motion-multi-view stereo technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiguro, Satoshi; Yamano, Hiroya; Oguma, Hiroyuki

    2016-09-01

    An accuracy assessment of digital surface models (DSMs) generated from archived aerial photographs using the structure from motion-multi-view stereo (SfM-MVS) technique was carried out. A four-step accuracy-assessment procedure was adopted using aerial photography from eight periods, as follows. Step 1: generate a DSM and orthophoto from digital aerial photographs taken in 2013 and ground control points (GCPs) measured by GNSS. Step 2: assess the accuracy of the DSM by comparison with altitude measured by leveling survey. Step 3: generate other historical DSMs and orthophotos from historical aerial photographs using GCPs extracted from the DSM of 2013. Step 4: assess the accuracy of all historical DSMs by comparing with the leveling survey. Then re-calculate the accuracy of historical DSMs by reducing the inherent error in the 2013 DSM. The DSM based on the aerial photographs taken in 2013 was generated with a resolution of 48.2 cm. The residual height error of the GCPs was 15.4 cm. Validation against the altitudes of 171 points revealed that this DSM has a height root-mean-square-error (RMSE) of 24.1 cm and is 9.2 cm lower than the leveling data on average. Even using US military photos with unconfirmed detailed specifications, the model can measure the altitude with an RMSE value of 121.5 cm. It appears therefore that analysis by SfM-MVS can give comparable measurement accuracy to traditional aerial photogrammetry. The low cost and high accuracy obtained with archived aerial photographs are worthy of special mention.

  17. Fractional motions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliazar, Iddo I., E-mail: eliazar@post.tau.ac.il [Holon Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 305, Holon 58102 (Israel); Shlesinger, Michael F., E-mail: mike.shlesinger@navy.mil [Office of Naval Research, Code 30, 875 N. Randolph St., Arlington, VA 22203 (United States)

    2013-06-10

    Brownian motion is the archetypal model for random transport processes in science and engineering. Brownian motion displays neither wild fluctuations (the “Noah effect”), nor long-range correlations (the “Joseph effect”). The quintessential model for processes displaying the Noah effect is Lévy motion, the quintessential model for processes displaying the Joseph effect is fractional Brownian motion, and the prototypical model for processes displaying both the Noah and Joseph effects is fractional Lévy motion. In this paper we review these four random-motion models–henceforth termed “fractional motions” –via a unified physical setting that is based on Langevin’s equation, the Einstein–Smoluchowski paradigm, and stochastic scaling limits. The unified setting explains the universal macroscopic emergence of fractional motions, and predicts–according to microscopic-level details–which of the four fractional motions will emerge on the macroscopic level. The statistical properties of fractional motions are classified and parametrized by two exponents—a “Noah exponent” governing their fluctuations, and a “Joseph exponent” governing their dispersions and correlations. This self-contained review provides a concise and cohesive introduction to fractional motions.

  18. Weigh - in - motion (WIM)

    OpenAIRE

    Todorović Neven B.; Subotić Marko M.

    2014-01-01

    The biggest wealth of every country lies in its transportation infrastructure so the protection of negative impacts on infrastructure must be provided. The progress of sensor technology proposes today several types of weigh-in-motion systems, which have been tested for their efficiency, accuracy and cost-effectiveness. Technologies of piezoelectric sensors, bending plates and load cells are used for a number of applications comprising weigh enforcement, traffic data collection, bridge and tol...

  19. Markerless Motion Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Anthony Lewis; Czarowicz, Alex

    2012-01-01

    This contribution focuses on the Associated Technologies aspect of the ICDVRAT event. Two industry leading markerless motion capture systems are examined that offer advancement in the field of rehabilitation. Residing at each end of the cost continuum, technical differences such as 3D versus 360 ...

  20. Wiimote Experiments: Circular Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouh, Minjoon; Holz, Danielle; Kawam, Alae; Lamont, Mary

    2013-01-01

    The advent of new sensor technologies can provide new ways of exploring fundamental physics. In this paper, we show how a Wiimote, which is a handheld remote controller for the Nintendo Wii video game system with an accelerometer, can be used to study the dynamics of circular motion with a very simple setup such as an old record player or a…

  1. Markerless Motion Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Anthony Lewis; Czarowicz, Alex

    2012-01-01

    This contribution focuses on the Associated Technologies aspect of the ICDVRAT event. Two industry leading markerless motion capture systems are examined that offer advancement in the field of rehabilitation. Residing at each end of the cost continuum, technical differences such as 3D versus 360 ...

  2. Leap Motion development essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Spiegelmock, Mischa

    2013-01-01

    This book is a fast-paced guide with practical examples that aims to help you understand and master the Leap Motion SDK.This book is for developers who are either involved in game development or who are looking to utilize Leap Motion technology in order to create brand new user interaction experiences to distinguish their products from the mass market. You should be comfortable with high-level languages and object-oriented development concepts in order to get the most out of this book.

  3. Real-time monitoring for detection of retained surgical sponges and team motion in the surgical operation room using radio-frequency-identification (RFID) technology: a preclinical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranzfelder, Michael; Zywitza, Dorit; Jell, Thomas; Schneider, Armin; Gillen, Sonja; Friess, Helmut; Feussner, Hubertus

    2012-06-15

    Technical progress in the surgical operating room (OR) increases constantly, facilitating the development of intelligent OR systems functioning as "safety backup" in the background of surgery. Precondition is comprehensive data retrieval to identify imminent risky situations and inaugurate adequate security mechanisms. Radio-frequency-identification (RFID) technology may have the potential to meet these demands. We set up a pilot study investigating feasibility and appliance reliability of a stationary RFID system for real-time surgical sponge monitoring (passive tagged sponges, position monitoring: mayo-stand/abdominal situs/waste bucket) and OR team tracking (active transponders, position monitoring: right/left side of OR table). In vitro: 20/20 sponges (100%) were detected on the mayo-stand and within the OR-phantom, however, real-time detection accuracy declined to 7/20 (33%) when the tags were moved simultaneously. All retained sponges were detected correctly. In vivo (animal): 7-10/10 sterilized sponges (70%-100%) were detected correctly within the abdominal cavity. OR-team: detection accuracy within the OR (surveillance antenna) and on both sides of the OR table (sector antenna) was 100%. Mean detection time for position change (left to right side and contrariwise) was 30-60 s. No transponder failure was noted. This is the first combined RFID system that has been developed for stationary use in the surgical OR. Preclinical evaluation revealed a reliable sponge tracking and correct detection of retained textiles (passive RFID) but also demonstrated feasibility of comprehensive data acquisition of team motion (active RFID). However, detection accuracy needs to be further improved before implementation into the surgical OR. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Dynamical Systems and Motion Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    TASK Artificial Inteligence Laboratory AREA I WORK UNIT NUMBERS 545 Technology Square . Cambridge, MA 02139 C\\ II. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME ANO0 ADDRESS...INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LABORATORY A.I.Memo No. 1037 April, 1988 Dynamical Systems and Motion Vision Joachim Heel Abstract: In this... Artificial Intelligence L3 Laboratory of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Support for the Laboratory’s [1 Artificial Intelligence Research is

  5. Adaptive Motion Compensation in Radiotherapy

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Martin J

    2011-01-01

    External-beam radiotherapy has long been challenged by the simple fact that patients can (and do) move during the delivery of radiation. Recent advances in imaging and beam delivery technologies have made the solution--adapting delivery to natural movement--a practical reality. Adaptive Motion Compensation in Radiotherapy provides the first detailed treatment of online interventional techniques for motion compensation radiotherapy. This authoritative book discusses: Each of the contributing elements of a motion-adaptive system, including target detection and tracking, beam adaptation, and pati

  6. Weigh - in - motion (WIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Neven B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The biggest wealth of every country lies in its transportation infrastructure so the protection of negative impacts on infrastructure must be provided. The progress of sensor technology proposes today several types of weigh-in-motion systems, which have been tested for their efficiency, accuracy and cost-effectiveness. Technologies of piezoelectric sensors, bending plates and load cells are used for a number of applications comprising weigh enforcement, traffic data collection, bridge and toll control systems and so on. Advantages of using WIM technology are various and its benefits affects all road users (transport companies, public, public transport authorities. Potential of WIM application has been recognized in the leading EU countries, so the existence of the numerous WIM projects.

  7. THE COMBINATION OF LASER SCANNING AND STRUCTURE FROM MOTION TECHNOLOGY FOR CREATION OF ACCURATE EXTERIOR AND INTERIOR ORTHOPHOTOS OF ST. NICHOLAS BAROQUE CHURCH

    OpenAIRE

    B. Koska; Křemen, T.

    2013-01-01

    Terrestrial laser scanning technology is used for creation of building documentation and 3D building model from its emerging at the turn of the millennium. Photogrammetry has even longer tradition in this field. Both technologies have some technical limitations if they are used for creation of a façade or even an interior orthophoto, but combination of both technologies seems profitable. Laser scanning can be used for creation of an accurate 3D model and photogrammetry for consequent...

  8. Motion Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    MOOG, Inc. supplies hydraulic actuators for the Space Shuttle. When MOOG learned NASA was interested in electric actuators for possible future use, the company designed them with assistance from Marshall Space Flight Center. They also decided to pursue the system's commercial potential. This led to partnership with InterActive Simulation, Inc. for production of cabin flight simulators for museums, expositions, etc. The resulting products, the Magic Motion Simulator 30 Series, are the first electric powered simulators. Movements are computer-guided, including free fall to heighten the sense of moving through space. A projection system provides visual effects, and the 11 speakers of a digital laser based sound system add to the realism. The electric actuators are easier to install, have lower operating costs, noise, heat and staff requirements. The U.S. Space & Rocket Center and several other organizations have purchased the simulators.

  9. Research on Application of Kinect Motion Capture Technology in Health Care%Kinect运动捕获技术在健康医疗中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗章; 谭海波; 李晓风; 赵赫

    2016-01-01

    体感交互技术在人机交互领域具有跨时代的意义,实现了不需要任何手持设备就可进行人机交互的全新体验。Kinect作为最新的人机交互技术,如何利用自身的运动捕获技术与健康医疗进行结合并开展相关应用成为当下的研究重点。通过调研Kinect运动捕获技术在健康医疗中的应用,为课题组利用Kinect开发针对青少年的康复训练系统提供理论指导和技术支持,并探索新的应用模式。通过调研国内外文献,并对第二代Kinect体感产品进行研究,探讨了Kinect for Windows SDK的数据源和编程模型,分析了基于Kinect的人体运动捕获技术在健康医疗领域中的应用方式和前景。%Somatosensory interactive technology has a big significance in the field of human-computer interaction. It realizes the new ex-perience without any handled device. As the latest interactive technology,how to combine Kinect motion capture and health care has been the focus of the current study. It can provide theoretical guidance and technical support for the group to develop rehabilitation training sys-tem for teenagers through researching the application of health care with Kinect motion capture technology and explore new application. Studying the documents in domestic and foreign and researching the Kinect V2 of somatosensary technology,the data source and pro-grammable model for Kinect for Windows SDK are discussed,and the application and prospect of human motion capture technology based on Kinect in health care field are analyzed.

  10. Auditory Motion Elicits a Visual Motion Aftereffect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher C. Berger

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The visual motion aftereffect is a visual illusion in which exposure to continuous motion in one direction leads to a subsequent illusion of visual motion in the opposite direction. Previous findings have been mixed with regard to whether this visual illusion can be induced cross-modally by auditory stimuli. Based on research on multisensory perception demonstrating the profound influence auditory perception can have on the interpretation and perceived motion of visual stimuli, we hypothesized that exposure to auditory stimuli with strong directional motion cues should induce a visual motion aftereffect. Here, we demonstrate that horizontally moving auditory stimuli induced a significant visual motion aftereffect—an effect that was driven primarily by a change in visual motion perception following exposure to leftward moving auditory stimuli. This finding is consistent with the notion that visual and auditory motion perception rely on at least partially overlapping neural substrates.

  11. Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,…

  12. Patient-centered applications: use of information technology to promote disease management and wellness. A white paper by the AMIA knowledge in motion working group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiris, George; Afrin, Lawrence B; Speedie, Stuart; Courtney, Karen L; Sondhi, Manu; Vimarlund, Vivian; Lovis, Christian; Goossen, William; Lynch, Cecil

    2008-01-01

    Advances in information technology (IT) enable a fundamental redesign of health care processes based on the use and integration of electronic communication at all levels. New communication technologies can support a transition from institution centric to patient-centric applications. This white paper defines key principles and challenges for designers, policy makers, and evaluators of patient-centered technologies for disease management and prevention. It reviews current and emerging trends; highlights challenges related to design, evaluation, reimbursement and usability; and reaches conclusions for next steps that will advance the domain.

  13. Collective motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicsek, Tamás; Zafeiris, Anna

    2012-08-01

    We review the observations and the basic laws describing the essential aspects of collective motion - being one of the most common and spectacular manifestation of coordinated behavior. Our aim is to provide a balanced discussion of the various facets of this highly multidisciplinary field, including experiments, mathematical methods and models for simulations, so that readers with a variety of background could get both the basics and a broader, more detailed picture of the field. The observations we report on include systems consisting of units ranging from macromolecules through metallic rods and robots to groups of animals and people. Some emphasis is put on models that are simple and realistic enough to reproduce the numerous related observations and are useful for developing concepts for a better understanding of the complexity of systems consisting of many simultaneously moving entities. As such, these models allow the establishing of a few fundamental principles of flocking. In particular, it is demonstrated, that in spite of considerable differences, a number of deep analogies exist between equilibrium statistical physics systems and those made of self-propelled (in most cases living) units. In both cases only a few well defined macroscopic/collective states occur and the transitions between these states follow a similar scenario, involving discontinuity and algebraic divergences.

  14. Curvature Gradient Driving Droplets in Fast Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Lv, Cunjing; Yin, Yajun; Tseng, Fan-gang; Zheng, Quanshui

    2011-01-01

    Earlier works found out spontaneous directional motion of liquid droplets on hydrophilic conical surfaces, however, not hydrophobic case. Here we show that droplets on any surface may take place spontaneous directional motion without considering contact angle property. The driving force is found to be proportional to the curvature gradient of the surface. Fast motion can be lead at surfaces with small curvature radii. The above discovery can help to create more effective transportation technology of droplets, and better understand some observed natural phenomena.

  15. The Combination of Laser Scanning and Structure from Motion Technology for Creation of Accurate Exterior and Interior Orthophotos of ST. Nicholas Baroque Church

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koska, B.; Křemen, T.

    2013-02-01

    Terrestrial laser scanning technology is used for creation of building documentation and 3D building model from its emerging at the turn of the millennium. Photogrammetry has even longer tradition in this field. Both technologies have some technical limitations if they are used for creation of a façade or even an interior orthophoto, but combination of both technologies seems profitable. Laser scanning can be used for creation of an accurate 3D model and photogrammetry for consequent application of high quality colour information. Both technologies were used in synergy to create the building plans, 2D drawing documentation of facades and interior views and the orthophotos of St. Nicholas Baroque church in Prague. The case study is described in details in the paper.

  16. Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional answer card reading method using OMR (Optical Mark Reader, most commonly, OMR special card special use, less versatile, high cost, aiming at the existing problems proposed a method based on pattern recognition of the answer card identification method. Using the method based on Line Segment Detector to detect the tilt of the image, the existence of tilt image rotation correction, and eventually achieve positioning and detection of answers to the answer sheet .Pattern recognition technology for automatic reading, high accuracy, detect faster

  17. Understanding Motion Capture for Computer Animation

    CERN Document Server

    Menache, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    The power of today's motion capture technology has taken animated characters and special effects to amazing new levels of reality. And with the release of blockbusters like Avatar and Tin-Tin, audiences continually expect more from each new release. To live up to these expectations, film and game makers, particularly technical animators and directors, need to be at the forefront of motion capture technology. In this extensively updated edition of Understanding Motion Capture for Computer Animation and Video Games, an industry insider explains the latest research developments in digital design

  18. End of the chain? Rugosity and fine-scale bathymetry from existing underwater digital imagery using structure-from-motion (SfM) technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storlazzi, Curt D.; Dartnell, Peter; Hatcher, Gerald A.; Gibbs, Ann E.

    2016-09-01

    The rugosity or complexity of the seafloor has been shown to be an important ecological parameter for fish, algae, and corals. Historically, rugosity has been measured either using simple and subjective manual methods such as `chain-and-tape' or complicated and expensive geophysical methods. Here, we demonstrate the application of structure-from-motion (SfM) photogrammetry to generate high-resolution, three-dimensional bathymetric models of a fringing reef from existing underwater video collected to characterize the seafloor. SfM techniques are capable of achieving spatial resolution that can be orders of magnitude greater than large-scale lidar and sonar mapping of coral reef ecosystems. The resulting data provide finer-scale measurements of bathymetry and rugosity that are more applicable to ecological studies of coral reefs than provided by the more expensive and time-consuming geophysical methods. Utilizing SfM techniques for characterizing the benthic habitat proved to be more effective and quantitatively powerful than conventional methods and thus might portend the end of the `chain-and-tape' method for measuring benthic complexity.

  19. End of the chain? Rugosity and fine-scale bathymetry from existing underwater digital imagery using structure-from-motion (SfM) technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storlazzi, Curt; Dartnell, Peter; Hatcher, Gerry; Gibbs, Ann E.

    2016-01-01

    The rugosity or complexity of the seafloor has been shown to be an important ecological parameter for fish, algae, and corals. Historically, rugosity has been measured either using simple and subjective manual methods such as ‘chain-and-tape’ or complicated and expensive geophysical methods. Here, we demonstrate the application of structure-from-motion (SfM) photogrammetry to generate high-resolution, three-dimensional bathymetric models of a fringing reef from existing underwater video collected to characterize the seafloor. SfM techniques are capable of achieving spatial resolution that can be orders of magnitude greater than large-scale lidar and sonar mapping of coral reef ecosystems. The resulting data provide finer-scale measurements of bathymetry and rugosity that are more applicable to ecological studies of coral reefs than provided by the more expensive and time-consuming geophysical methods. Utilizing SfM techniques for characterizing the benthic habitat proved to be more effective and quantitatively powerful than conventional methods and thus might portend the end of the ‘chain-and-tape’ method for measuring benthic complexity.

  20. Development of posture-specific computational phantoms using motion capture technology and application to radiation dose-reconstruction for the 1999 Tokai-Mura nuclear criticality accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Justin A.; Caracappa, Peter F.; Xu, X. George

    2014-09-01

    The majority of existing computational phantoms are designed to represent workers in typical standing anatomical postures with fixed arm and leg positions. However, workers found in accident-related scenarios often assume varied postures. This paper describes the development and application of two phantoms with adjusted postures specified by data acquired from a motion capture system to simulate unique human postures found in a 1999 criticality accident that took place at a JCO facility in Tokai-Mura, Japan. In the course of this accident, two workers were fatally exposed to extremely high levels of radiation. Implementation of the emergent techniques discussed produced more accurate and more detailed dose estimates for the two workers than were reported in previous studies. A total-body dose of 6.43 and 26.38 Gy was estimated for the two workers, who assumed a crouching and a standing posture, respectively. Additionally, organ-specific dose estimates were determined, including a 7.93 Gy dose to the thyroid and 6.11 Gy dose to the stomach for the crouching worker and a 41.71 Gy dose to the liver and a 37.26 Gy dose to the stomach for the standing worker. Implications for the medical prognosis of the workers are discussed, and the results of this study were found to correlate better with the patient outcome than previous estimates, suggesting potential future applications of such methods for improved epidemiological studies involving next-generation computational phantom tools.

  1. Motion in radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korreman, Stine Sofia

    2012-01-01

    This review considers the management of motion in photon radiation therapy. An overview is given of magnitudes and variability of motion of various structures and organs, and how the motion affects images by producing artifacts and blurring. Imaging of motion is described, including 4DCT and 4DPET...

  2. Quantitative assessment of human motion using video motion analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probe, John D.

    1993-01-01

    In the study of the dynamics and kinematics of the human body a wide variety of technologies has been developed. Photogrammetric techniques are well documented and are known to provide reliable positional data from recorded images. Often these techniques are used in conjunction with cinematography and videography for analysis of planar motion, and to a lesser degree three-dimensional motion. Cinematography has been the most widely used medium for movement analysis. Excessive operating costs and the lag time required for film development, coupled with recent advances in video technology, have allowed video based motion analysis systems to emerge as a cost effective method of collecting and analyzing human movement. The Anthropometric and Biomechanics Lab at Johnson Space Center utilizes the video based Ariel Performance Analysis System (APAS) to develop data on shirtsleeved and space-suited human performance in order to plan efficient on-orbit intravehicular and extravehicular activities. APAS is a fully integrated system of hardware and software for biomechanics and the analysis of human performance and generalized motion measurement. Major components of the complete system include the video system, the AT compatible computer, and the proprietary software.

  3. 减少头部运动伪影及磁敏感伪影的propller技术应用价值评价%To Reduce the Head Motion Artifact and Magnetic Sensitive Artifacts Propller Technology Application Value Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海博

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨 Propl er 技术对减少头部运动伪影及磁敏感伪影的应用价值。方法我院于2010年3月至2013年对55例磁共振头颅检查时躁动或难以自控的患者,进行常规 FRFSE T2WI 和 Propel er T2WI 轴位扫描;对33例磁敏感伪影明显者行常规扩散加权图像(DWI)和Propel er DWI 扫描。观察并对照分析 FRFSE T2WI 和 Propel er T2WI 以及 DWI 与 Propel er DWI 的图像质量状况。结果通过 T2WI 检查55例,对存在明显运动伪影的患者行 Propel er T2WI 扫描后明显减少或消除了运动伪影,与 T2WI 检查结果相比差异明显,具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。DWI 检查33例患者有显著磁敏感伪影,采用 ProDel er DWI 后,与 DWI 检查结果相比差异明显,具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论应用 Propel er 技术能够明显减少或消除 T2WI 及 DWI 上运动伪影及磁敏感伪影,值得推广应用。%Objective To study the Propl er technology to reduce the head motion artifact and the application value of the magnetic sensitive artifact. Methods Our hospital from March 2010 to 2013, 55 cases of MRI head check agitation or patients with difficult to control, for regular FRFSE T2WI and Propel er T2WI axial scanning; 33 cases of magnetic sensitive artifact obvious line of conventional diffusion weighted image (DWI) can and Propel er DWI scan can. Observation and contrast analysis FRFSE T2WI and Propel er T2WI and DWI and Propel er can DWI image quality can. Results Through T2WI check 55 cases of patients with obvious motion artifact line Propel er T2WI scan significantly reduce or eliminate the motion artifacts, clear difference compared with T2WI results, with statistical significance (P < 0.05). DWI examination can 33 patients had significant magnetic sensitive artifacts, adopting ProDeller DWI, can clear difference compared with DWI results can, with statistical significance (P < 0.05). Conclusion Application of Propel er technology

  4. Dizziness and Motion Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Dizziness and Motion Sickness Dizziness and Motion Sickness Patient ... vision or speech, or hearing loss. What is dizziness? Dizziness can be described in many ways, such ...

  5. Objects in Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    One thing scientists study is how objects move. A famous scientist named Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) spent a lot of time observing objects in motion and came up with three laws that describe how things move. This explanation only deals with the first of his three laws of motion. Newton's First Law of Motion says that moving objects will continue…

  6. The Eigenmode Analysis of Human Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Juyong; Gonzalez, Marta C

    2016-01-01

    Rapid advances in modern communication technology are enabling the accumulation of large-scale, high-resolution observational data of spatiotemporal movements of humans. Classification and prediction of human mobility based on the analysis of such data carry great potential in applications such as urban planning as well as being of theoretical interest. A robust theoretical framework is therefore required to study and properly understand human motion. Here we perform the eigenmode analysis of human motion data gathered from mobile communication records, which allows us to explore the scaling properties and characteristics of human motion.

  7. The eigenmode analysis of human motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Juyong; Lee, Deok-Sun; González, Marta C.

    2010-11-01

    Rapid advances in modern communication technology are enabling the accumulation of large-scale, high-resolution observational data of the spatiotemporal movements of humans. Classification and prediction of human mobility based on the analysis of such data has great potential in applications such as urban planning in addition to being a subject of theoretical interest. A robust theoretical framework is therefore required to study and properly understand human motion. Here we perform the eigenmode analysis of human motion data gathered from mobile communication records, which allows us to explore the scaling properties and characteristics of human motion.

  8. Smoothing Motion Estimates for Radar Motion Compensation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Simple motion models for complex motion environments are often not adequate for keeping radar data coherent. Eve n perfect motion samples appli ed to imperfect models may lead to interim calculations e xhibiting errors that lead to degraded processing results. Herein we discuss a specific i ssue involving calculating motion for groups of pulses, with measurements only available at pulse-group boundaries. - 4 - Acknowledgements This report was funded by General A tomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc. (GA-ASI) Mission Systems under Cooperative Re search and Development Agre ement (CRADA) SC08/01749 between Sandia National Laboratories and GA-ASI. General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc. (GA-ASI), an affilia te of privately-held General Atomics, is a leading manufacturer of Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) systems, radars, and electro-optic and rel ated mission systems, includin g the Predator(r)/Gray Eagle(r)-series and Lynx(r) Multi-mode Radar.

  9. Rolling Shutter Motion Deblurring

    KAUST Repository

    Su, Shuochen

    2015-06-07

    Although motion blur and rolling shutter deformations are closely coupled artifacts in images taken with CMOS image sensors, the two phenomena have so far mostly been treated separately, with deblurring algorithms being unable to handle rolling shutter wobble, and rolling shutter algorithms being incapable of dealing with motion blur. We propose an approach that delivers sharp and undis torted output given a single rolling shutter motion blurred image. The key to achieving this is a global modeling of the camera motion trajectory, which enables each scanline of the image to be deblurred with the corresponding motion segment. We show the results of the proposed framework through experiments on synthetic and real data.

  10. Modeling for Deformable Body and Motion Analysis: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailang Pan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper surveys the modeling methods for deformable human body and motion analysis in the recent 30 years. First, elementary knowledge of human expression and modeling is introduced. Then, typical human modeling technologies, including 2D model, 3D surface model, and geometry-based, physics-based, and anatomy-based approaches, and model-based motion analysis are summarized. Characteristics of these technologies are analyzed. The technology accumulation in the field is outlined for an overview.

  11. Measurement of visual motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildreth, E.C.

    1984-01-01

    This book examines the measurement of visual motion and the use of relative movement to locate the boundaries of physical objects in the environment. It investigates the nature of the computations that are necessary to perform this analysis by any vision system, biological or artificial. Contents: Introduction. Background. Computation of the Velocity Field. An Algorithm to Compute the Velocity Field. The Computation of Motion Discontinuities. Perceptual Studies of Motion Measurement. The Psychophysics of Discontinuity Detection. Neurophysiological Studies of Motion. Summary and Conclusions. References. Author and Subject Indexes.

  12. Brain Image Motion Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Ramsbøl; Benjaminsen, Claus; Larsen, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    The application of motion tracking is wide, including: industrial production lines, motion interaction in gaming, computer-aided surgery and motion correction in medical brain imaging. Several devices for motion tracking exist using a variety of different methodologies. In order to use such devices...... offset and tracking noise in medical brain imaging. The data are generated from a phantom mounted on a rotary stage and have been collected using a Siemens High Resolution Research Tomograph for positron emission tomography. During acquisition the phantom was tracked with our latest tracking prototype...

  13. Motion/imagery secure cloud enterprise architecture analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, John L.

    2012-06-01

    Cloud computing with storage virtualization and new service-oriented architectures brings a new perspective to the aspect of a distributed motion imagery and persistent surveillance enterprise. Our existing research is focused mainly on content management, distributed analytics, WAN distributed cloud networking performance issues of cloud based technologies. The potential of leveraging cloud based technologies for hosting motion imagery, imagery and analytics workflows for DOD and security applications is relatively unexplored. This paper will examine technologies for managing, storing, processing and disseminating motion imagery and imagery within a distributed network environment. Finally, we propose areas for future research in the area of distributed cloud content management enterprises.

  14. Motion compensator for holographic motion picture camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    When reference beam strikes target it undergoes Doppler shift dependent upon target velocity. To compensate, object beam is first reflected from rotating cylinder that revolves in direction opposite to target but at same speed. When beam strikes target it is returned to original frequency and is in phase with reference beam. Alternatively this motion compensator may act on reference beam.

  15. EDITORIAL: Nanotechnology in motion Nanotechnology in motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2012-02-01

    development of the electron microscope, which aimed to exceed the resolving power of diffraction-limited optical microscopes. Since the diffraction limit is proportional to the incident wavelength, the shorter wavelength electron beam allows smaller features to be resolved than optical light. Ernst Ruska shared the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1986 for his work in developing the transmission electron microscope [5]. The technique continues to provide an invaluable tool in nanotechnology studies, as demonstrated recently by a collaboration of researchers in the US, Singapore and Korea used electron and atomic force microscopy in their investigation of the deposition of gold nanoparticles on graphene and the enhanced conductivity of the doped film [6]. The other half of the 1986 Nobel Prize was awarded jointly to Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer 'for their design of the scanning tunnelling microscope'. The scanning tunnelling microscope offered the first glimpses of atomic scale features, galvanizing research in nanoscale science and technology into a burst of fruitful activity that persists to this day. Instead of using the diffraction and scattering of beams to 'see' nanoscale structures, the atomic force microscope developed by Binnig, Quate and Gerber in the 1980s [1] determines the surface topology 'by touch'. The device uses nanoscale changes in the forces exerted on a tip as it scans the sample surface to generate an image. As might be expected, innovations on the original atomic force microscope have now been developed achieving ever greater sensitivities for imaging soft matter without destroying it. Recent work by collaborators at the University of Bristol and the University of Glasgow used a cigar-shaped nanoparticle held in optical tweezers as the scanning tip. The technique is not diffraction limited, imparts less force on samples than contact scanning probe microscopy techniques, and allows highly curved and strongly scattering samples to be imaged [7]. In this issue

  16. Body Motion and Graphing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemirovsky, Ricardo; Tierney, Cornelia; Wright, Tracy

    1998-01-01

    Analyzed two children's use of a computer-based motion detector to make sense of symbolic expressions (Cartesian graphs). Found three themes: (1) tool perspectives, efforts to understand graphical responses to body motion; (2) fusion, emergent ways of talking and behaving that merge symbols and referents; and (3) graphical spaces, when changing…

  17. Teaching Projectile Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, M. K.

    1977-01-01

    Described is a novel approach to the teaching of projectile motion of sixth form level. Students are asked to use an analogue circuit to observe projectile motion and to graph the experimental results. Using knowledge of basic dynamics, students are asked to explain the shape of the curves theoretically. (Author/MA)

  18. Motion control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sabanovic, Asif

    2011-01-01

    "Presents a unified approach to the fundamental issues in motion control, starting from the basics and moving through single degree of freedom and multi-degree of freedom systems In Motion Control Systems, Šabanovic and Ohnishi present a unified approach to very diverse issues covered in motion control systems, offering know-how accumulated through work on very diverse problems into a comprehensive, integrated approach suitable for application in high demanding high-tech products. It covers material from single degree of freedom systems to complex multi-body non-redundant and redundant systems. The discussion of the main subject is based on original research results and will give treatment of the issues in motion control in the framework of the acceleration control method with disturbance rejection technique. This allows consistent unification of different issues in motion control ranging from simple trajectory tracking to topics related to haptics and bilateral control without and with delay in the measure...

  19. Stochastic ground motion simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeian, Sanaz; Xiaodan, Sun; Beer, Michael; Kougioumtzoglou, Ioannis A.; Patelli, Edoardo; Siu-Kui Au, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Strong earthquake ground motion records are fundamental in engineering applications. Ground motion time series are used in response-history dynamic analysis of structural or geotechnical systems. In such analysis, the validity of predicted responses depends on the validity of the input excitations. Ground motion records are also used to develop ground motion prediction equations(GMPEs) for intensity measures such as spectral accelerations that are used in response-spectrum dynamic analysis. Despite the thousands of available strong ground motion records, there remains a shortage of records for large-magnitude earthquakes at short distances or in specific regions, as well as records that sample specific combinations of source, path, and site characteristics.

  20. Patterns of Change: Forces and Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Marianne; Jeffery, Tonya D.

    2016-01-01

    Patterns of Change: Forces and Motion is an integrated science lesson that uses the 5E lesson cycle to tie together science with language arts, mathematics, literature, technology, engineering and social studies in an engaging format applicable for young learners. This lesson has been uniquely designed for the purpose of providing elementary…

  1. Patterns of Change: Forces and Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Marianne; Jeffery, Tonya D.

    2016-01-01

    Patterns of Change: Forces and Motion is an integrated science lesson that uses the 5E lesson cycle to tie together science with language arts, mathematics, literature, technology, engineering and social studies in an engaging format applicable for young learners. This lesson has been uniquely designed for the purpose of providing elementary…

  2. Human motion sensing and recognition a fuzzy qualitative approach

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Honghai; Ji, Xiaofei; Chan, Chee Seng; Khoury, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces readers to the latest exciting advances in human motion sensing and recognition, from the theoretical development of fuzzy approaches to their applications. The topics covered include human motion recognition in 2D and 3D, hand motion analysis with contact sensors, and vision-based view-invariant motion recognition, especially from the perspective of Fuzzy Qualitative techniques. With the rapid development of technologies in microelectronics, computers, networks, and robotics over the last decade, increasing attention has been focused on human motion sensing and recognition in many emerging and active disciplines where human motions need to be automatically tracked, analyzed or understood, such as smart surveillance, intelligent human-computer interaction, robot motion learning, and interactive gaming. Current challenges mainly stem from the dynamic environment, data multi-modality, uncertain sensory information, and real-time issues. These techniques are shown to effectively address the ...

  3. Scalable motion vector coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarien, Joeri; Munteanu, Adrian; Verdicchio, Fabio; Andreopoulos, Yiannis; Cornelis, Jan P.; Schelkens, Peter

    2004-11-01

    Modern video coding applications require transmission of video data over variable-bandwidth channels to a variety of terminals with different screen resolutions and available computational power. Scalable video coding is needed to optimally support these applications. Recently proposed wavelet-based video codecs employing spatial domain motion compensated temporal filtering (SDMCTF) provide quality, resolution and frame-rate scalability while delivering compression performance comparable to that of the state-of-the-art non-scalable H.264-codec. These codecs require scalable coding of the motion vectors in order to support a large range of bit-rates with optimal compression efficiency. Scalable motion vector coding algorithms based on the integer wavelet transform followed by embedded coding of the wavelet coefficients were recently proposed. In this paper, a new and fundamentally different scalable motion vector codec (MVC) using median-based motion vector prediction is proposed. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that the proposed MVC systematically outperforms the wavelet-based state-of-the-art solutions. To be able to take advantage of the proposed scalable MVC, a rate allocation mechanism capable of optimally dividing the available rate among texture and motion information is required. Two rate allocation strategies are proposed and compared. The proposed MVC and rate allocation schemes are incorporated into an SDMCTF-based video codec and the benefits of scalable motion vector coding are experimentally demonstrated.

  4. The Motion Picture in Science Education: "One Hundred Percent Efficiency."

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Kenneth P.

    1999-01-01

    Provides an historical overview of the development of the motion picture as a tool within the context of science education. Examines the use of technology as a teaching tool in terms of scientific literacy and the means by which the motion picture helped to accomplish scientific literacy goals. (Author/CCM)

  5. Kinematics and Dynamics of Motion Control Based on Acceleration Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohishi, Kiyoshi; Ohba, Yuzuru; Katsura, Seiichiro

    The first IEEE International Workshop on Advanced Motion Control was held in 1990 pointed out the importance of physical interpretation of motion control. The software servoing technology is now common in machine tools, robotics, and mechatronics. It has been intensively developed for the numerical control (NC) machines. Recently, motion control in unknown environment will be more and more important. Conventional motion control is not always suitable due to the lack of adaptive capability to the environment. A more sophisticated ability in motion control is necessary for compliant contact with environment. Acceleration control is the key technology of motion control in unknown environment. The acceleration control can make a motion system to be a zero control stiffness system without losing the robustness. Furthermore, a realization of multi-degree-of-freedom motion is necessary for future human assistance. A human assistant motion will require various control stiffness corresponding to the task. The review paper focuses on the modal coordinate system to integrate the various control stiffness in the virtual axes. A bilateral teleoperation is a good candidate to consider the future human assistant motion and integration of decentralized systems. Thus the paper reviews and discusses the bilateral teleoperation from the control stiffness and the modal control design points of view.

  6. Inflation and Cyclotron Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Greensite, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    We consider, in the context of a braneworld cosmology, the motion of the universe coupled to a four-form gauge field, with constant field strength, defined in higher dimensions. It is found, under rather general initial conditions, that in this situation there is a period of exponential inflation combined with cyclotron motion in the inflaton field space. The main effect of the cyclotron motion is that conditions on the flatness of the inflaton potential, which are typically necessary for exponential inflation, can be evaded. There are Landau levels associated with the four-form gauge field, and these correspond to quantum excitations of the inflaton field.

  7. Applying Motion Constraints Based on Test Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlone, Michael

    2014-01-01

    MSC ADAMS is a simulation software that is used to analyze multibody dynamics. Using user subroutines, it is possible to apply motion constraints to the rigid bodies so that they match the motion profile collected from test data. This presentation describes the process of taking test data and passing it to ADAMS using user subroutines, and uses the Morpheus free-flight 4 test as an example of motion data used for this purpose. Morpheus is the name of a prototype lander vehicle built by NASA that serves as a test bed for various experimental technologies (see backup slides for details) MSC.ADAMS"TM" is used to play back telemetry data (vehicle orientation and position) from each test as the inputs to a 6-DoF general motion constraint (details in backup slides) The MSC.ADAMS"TM" playback simulations allow engineers to examine and analyze flight trajectory as well as observe vehicle motion from any angle and at any playback speed. This facilitates the development of robust and stable control algorithms, increasing reliability and reducing development costs of this developmental engine The simulation also incorporates a 3D model of the artificial hazard field, allowing engineers to visualize and measure performance of the developmental autonomous landing and hazard avoidance technology ADAMS is a multibody dynamics solver. It uses forces, constraints, and mass properties to numerically integrate equations of motion. The ADAMS solver will ask the motion subroutine for position, velocity, and acceleration values at various time steps. Those values must be continuous over the whole time domain. Each degree of freedom in the telemetry data can be examined separately; however, linear interpolation of the telemetry data is invalid, since there will be discontinuities in velocity and acceleration.

  8. Projectile Motion Details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnick, Jeffrey W.

    1994-01-01

    Presents an exercise that attempts to correct for the common discrepancies between theoretical and experimental predictions concerning projectile motion using a spring-loaded projectile ball launcher. Includes common correction factors for student use. (MVL)

  9. Projectile Motion with Mathematica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Alwis, Tilak

    2000-01-01

    Describes how to use the computer algebra system (CAS) Mathematica to analyze projectile motion with and without air resistance. These experiments result in several conjectures leading to theorems. (Contains 17 references.) (Author/ASK)

  10. A Projectile Motion Bullseye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, William G.

    1985-01-01

    Explains a projectile motion experiment involving a bow and arrow. Procedures to measure "muzzle" velocity, bow elastic potential energy, range, flight time, wind resistance, and masses are considered. (DH)

  11. Mathisson's helical motions demystified

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, L Filipe O; Zilhão, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    The motion of spinning test particles in general relativity is described by Mathisson-Papapetrou-Dixon equations, which are undetermined up to a spin supplementary condition, the latter being today still an open question. The Mathisson-Pirani (MP) condition is known to lead to rather mysterious helical motions which have been deemed unphysical, and for this reason discarded. We show that these assessments are unfounded and originate from a subtle (but crucial) misconception. We discuss the kinematical explanation of the helical motions, and dynamically interpret them through the concept of hidden momentum, which has an electromagnetic analogue. We also show that, contrary to previous claims, the frequency of the helical motions coincides exactly with the zitterbewegung frequency of the Dirac equation for the electron.

  12. Travelers' Health: Motion Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Directory Resources Resources for Travelers Adventure Travel Animal Safety Blood Clots Bug Bites Business Travel Cold ... motion sickness. Adding distractions—controlling breathing, listening to music, or using aromatherapy scents such as mint or ...

  13. Toying with Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galus, Pamela J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a variety of activities that support the development of an understanding of Newton's laws of motion. Activities use toy cars, mobile roads, and a seat-of-nails. Includes a scoring rubric. (DDR)

  14. Vision and Motion Pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grambo, Gregory

    1998-01-01

    Presents activities on persistence of vision that involve students in a hands-on approach to the study of early methods of creating motion pictures. Students construct flip books, a Zoetrope, and an early movie machine. (DDR)

  15. Coupled transverse motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teng, L.C.

    1989-01-01

    The magnetic field in an accelerator or a storage ring is usually so designed that the horizontal (x) and the vertical (y) motions of an ion are uncoupled. However, because of imperfections in construction and alignment, some small coupling is unavoidable. In this lecture, we discuss in a general way what is known about the behaviors of coupled motions in two degrees-of-freedom. 11 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Perpetual Motion Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tsaousis

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ever since the first century A.D. there have been relative descriptions of known devices as well as manufactures for the creation of perpetual motion machines. Although physics has led, with two thermodynamic laws, to the opinion that a perpetual motion machine is impossible to be manufactured, inventors of every age and educational level appear to claim that they have invented something «entirely new» or they have improved somebody else’s invention, which «will function henceforth perpetually»! However the fact of the failure in manufacturing a perpetual motion machine till now, it does not mean that countless historical elements for these fictional machines become indifferent. The discussion on every version of a perpetual motion machine on the one hand gives the chance to comprehend the inventor’s of each period level of knowledge and his way of thinking, and on the other hand, to locate the points where this «perpetual motion machine» clashes with the laws of nature and that’s why it is impossible to have been manufactured or have functioned. The presentation of a new «perpetual motion machine» has excited our interest to locate its weak points. According to the designer of it the machine functions with the work produced by the buoyant force

  17. Virtual Dance and Motion-Capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Boucher

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A general view of various ways in which virtual dance can be understood is presented in the first part of this article. It then appraises the uses of the term “virtual” in previous studies of digital dance. A more in-depth view of virtual dance as it relates to motion-capture is offered, and key issues are discussed regarding computer animation, digital imaging, motion signature, virtual reality and interactivity. The paper proposes that some forms of virtual dance be defined in relation to both digital technologies and contemporary theories of virtuality.

  18. Molecular Electric Transducers as Motion Sensors: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Yu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the development of a new category of motion sensors including linear and angular accelerometers and seismometers based on molecular electronic transducer (MET technology. This technology utilizes a liquid not only as an inertial mass, but also as one of the main elements in the conversion of mechanical motion into electric current. The amplification process is similar to that in a vacuum triode. Therefore, it is possible to achieve signal amplification close to 108. Motion sensors demonstrating wide frequency and dynamic range and sensitivity that are one to two orders of magnitude better than MEMS devices of the same size have been developed.

  19. PROMOTIONS: PROper MOTION Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caleb Wherry, John; Sahai, R.

    2009-05-01

    We report on the development of a software tool (PROMOTIONS) to streamline the process of measuring proper motions of material in expanding nebulae. Our tool makes use of IDL's widget programming capabilities to design a unique GUI that is used to compare images of the objects from two epochs. The software allows us to first orient and register the images to a common frame of reference and pixel scale, using field stars in each of the images. We then cross-correlate specific morphological features in order to determine their proper motions, which consist of the proper motion of the nebula as a whole (PM-neb), and expansion motions of the features relative to the center. If the central star is not visible (quite common in bipolar nebulae with dense dusty waists), point-symmetric expansion is assumed and we use the average motion of high-quality symmetric pairs of features on opposite sides of the nebular center to compute PM-neb. This is then subtracted out to determine the individual movements of these and additional features relative to the nebular center. PROMOTIONS should find wide applicability in measuring proper motions in astrophysical objects such as the expanding outflows/jets commonly seen around young and dying stars. We present first results from using PROMOTIONS to successfully measure proper motions in several pre-planetary nebulae (transition objects between the red giant and planetary nebula phases), using images taken 7-10 years apart with the WFPC2 and ACS instruments on board HST. The authors are grateful to NASA's Undergradute Scholars Research Program (USRP) for supporting this research.

  20. Motion Belts: Visualization of Human Motion Data on a Timeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Hiroshi; Kaihara, Ryota; Saito, Suguru; Nakajima, Masayuki

    Because motion capture system enabled us to capture a number of human motions, the demand for a method to easily browse the captured motion database has been increasing. In this paper, we propose a method to generate simple visual outlines of motion clips, for the purpose of efficient motion data browsing. Our method unfolds a motion clip into a 2D stripe of keyframes along a timeline that is based on semantic keyframe extraction and the best view point selection for each keyframes. With our visualization, timing and order of actions in the motions are clearly visible and the contents of multiple motions are easily comparable. In addition, because our method is applicable for a wide variety of motions, it can generate outlines for a large amount of motions fully automatically.

  1. Motional Cable Harness Physical Characteristic Oriented Modeling and Kinetic Simulation Technology in Virtual Environment%虚拟环境下的活动线缆物理特性建模与运动仿真技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘检华; 赵涛; 王春生; 唐承统

    2011-01-01

    针对活动线缆的布线工艺可靠性差的问题,提出一种基于弹性细杆力学模型的活动线缆物性建模与运动仿真方法.该方法针对活动线缆的柔性及连续性特性,通过建立固定的惯性坐标系、与活动线缆微元固连的Ftenet坐标系和主轴坐标系等三套坐标系,并对活动线缆微元进行平衡状态下的受力分析,得到活动线缆在平衡状态下的Kirchhoff方程,进而建立活动线缆物理特性模型.在此基础上,给出基于该物理特性模型的活动线缆运动仿真方法,同时提出与活动线缆运动仿真方法相适应的数据结构,通过"路径关键点"和"路径"两个层面对线缆运动过程中的位姿在空间及时间两个维度上进行表达和记录.建立相关试验验证系统,通过试验对相关模型和算法进行了有效验证.%To deal with the poor reliability of motional cable harness layout, a new physical characteristic oriented modeling and kinetic simulation method of motional cable harness based on thin elastic rod mechanical model is proposed. For the flexible and continuous characteristic of motional cable harness, three coordinate systems are established, including inertial coordinate system,Frenet coordinate system and main-axis coordinate system which is connected with microelement of motional cable harness. The force of microelement of motional cable harness in equilibrium is analyzed, and the Kirchhoff equation and physical characteristic oriented model of motional cable harness is established. Based on the model, the kinetic simulation method of motional cable harness is proposed. A data structure to suit for the kinetic simulation method is proposed. Through two levels-"path key points" and "path",the pose of cable in the motion process is expressed and recorded in space and time dimensions. A testing validation system is established, and the related model and algorithm are validated through tests.

  2. Motion Evaluation Of A Wheelchair Prototype For Disabled People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geonea, Ionut Daniel; Dumitru, Nicolae; Margine, Alexandru

    2015-09-01

    In this paper is presented the design solution and experimental prototype of a wheelchair for disabled people. Design solution proposed to be implemented uses two reduction gears motors and a mechanical transmission with chains. It's developed a motion controller based on a PWM technology, which allows the user to control the wheelchair motion. The wheelchair has the ability of forward - backward motion and steering. The design solution is developed in Solid Works, and it's implemented to a wheelchair prototype model. Wheelchair design and motion makes him suitable especially for indoor use. It is made a study of the wheelchair kinematics, first using a kinematic simulation in Adams. Are presented the wheelchair motion trajectory and kinematics parameters. The experimental prototype is tested with a motion analysis system based on ultra high speed video cameras recording. The obtained results from simulation and experimentally tests, demonstrate the efficiency of wheelchair proposed solution.

  3. Body and Face Animation Based on Motion Capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoting Wang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the motion capture technology and its use in computer animation. Motion capture is a powerful aid in computer animation and a supplement to the traditional key-frame animation. We use professional cameras to record the body motion and facial expression of the actor and then manipulate the data in software to eliminate some occlusion and confusion errors. As to data that is still not satisfying, we use data filter to smooth the motion by cutting some awry frames. Then we import the captured data into Motionbuilder to adjust the motion and preview the real-time animation. At last in Maya we combine the motion data and character model, let the captured data drive the character and add the scene model and music to export the whole animation. In the course of computer animation, we use this method to design the animation of military boxing, basketball playing, folk dancing and facial expression.

  4. MACHINE MOTION EQUATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Ion Tiberiu Petrescu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the dynamic, original, machine motion equations. The equation of motion of the machine that generates angular speed of the shaft (which varies with position and rotation speed is deduced by conservation kinetic energy of the machine. An additional variation of angular speed is added by multiplying by the coefficient dynamic D (generated by the forces out of mechanism and or by the forces generated by the elasticity of the system. Kinetic energy conservation shows angular speed variation (from the shaft with inertial masses, while the dynamic coefficient introduces the variation of w with forces acting in the mechanism. Deriving the first equation of motion of the machine one can obtain the second equation of motion dynamic. From the second equation of motion of the machine it determines the angular acceleration of the shaft. It shows the distribution of the forces on the mechanism to the internal combustion heat engines. Dynamic, the velocities can be distributed in the same way as forces. Practically, in the dynamic regimes, the velocities have the same timing as the forces. Calculations should be made for an engine with a single cylinder. Originally exemplification is done for a classic distribution mechanism, and then even the module B distribution mechanism of an Otto engine type.

  5. The Particle--Motion Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demana, Franklin; Waits, Bert K.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses solutions to real-world linear particle-motion problems using graphing calculators to simulate the motion and traditional analytic methods of calculus. Applications include (1) changing circular or curvilinear motion into linear motion and (2) linear particle accelerators in physics. (MDH)

  6. Muscle Motion Solenoid Actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obata, Shuji

    It is one of our dreams to mechanically recover the lost body for damaged humans. Realistic humanoid robots composed of such machines require muscle motion actuators controlled by all pulling actions. Particularly, antagonistic pairs of bi-articular muscles are very important in animal's motions. A system of actuators is proposed using the electromagnetic force of the solenoids with the abilities of the stroke length over 10 cm and the strength about 20 N, which are needed to move the real human arm. The devised actuators are based on developments of recent modern electro-magnetic materials, where old time materials can not give such possibility. Composite actuators are controlled by a high ability computer and software making genuine motions.

  7. Ship Roll Motion Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Tristan; Blanke, Mogens

    2010-01-01

    The technical feasibility of roll motion control devices has been amply demonstrated for over 100 years. Performance, however, can still fall short of expectations because of deciencies in control system designs, which have proven to be far from trivial due to fundamental performance limitations....... This tutorial paper presents an account of the development of various ship roll motion control systems and the challenges associated with their design. The paper discusses how to assess performance, the applicability of dierent models, and control methods that have been applied in the past....

  8. Method through motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steijn, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary scenography often consists of video-projected motion graphics. The field is lacking in academic methods and rigour: descriptions and models relevant for the creation as well as in the analysis of existing works. In order to understand the phenomenon of motion graphics in a scenographic...... construction as a support to working systematically practice-led research project. The design model is being developed through design laboratories and workshops with students and professionals who provide feedback that lead to incremental improvements. Working with this model construction-as-method reveals...

  9. Perpetual Motion Machine

    OpenAIRE

    D. Tsaousis

    2008-01-01

    Ever since the first century A.D. there have been relative descriptions of known devices as well as manufactures for the creation of perpetual motion machines. Although physics has led, with two thermodynamic laws, to the opinion that a perpetual motion machine is impossible to be manufactured, inventors of every age and educational level appear to claim that they have invented something «entirely new» or they have improved somebody else’s invention, which «will function henceforth perpetuall...

  10. Hand in motion reveals mind in motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan eFreeman

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, researchers have measured hand movements en route to choices on a screen to understand the dynamics of a broad range of psychological processes. We review this growing body of research and explain how manual action exposes the real-time unfolding of underlying cognitive processing. We describe how simple hand motions may be used to continuously index participants’ tentative commitments to different choice alternatives during the evolution of a behavioral response. As such, hand-tracking can provide unusually high-fidelity, real-time motor traces of the mind. These motor traces cast novel theoretical and empirical light onto a wide range of phenomena and serve as a potential bridge between far-reaching areas of psychological science—from language, to high-level cognition and learning, to social cognitive processes.

  11. GPU-based video motion magnification

    Science.gov (United States)

    DomŻał, Mariusz; Jedrasiak, Karol; Sobel, Dawid; Ryt, Artur; Nawrat, Aleksander

    2016-06-01

    Video motion magnification (VMM) allows people see otherwise not visible subtle changes in surrounding world. VMM is also capable of hiding them with a modified version of the algorithm. It is possible to magnify motion related to breathing of patients in hospital to observe it or extinguish it and extract other information from stabilized image sequence for example blood flow. In both cases we would like to perform calculations in real time. Unfortunately, the VMM algorithm requires a great amount of computing power. In the article we suggest that VMM algorithm can be parallelized (each thread processes one pixel) and in order to prove that we implemented the algorithm on GPU using CUDA technology. CPU is used only to grab, write, display frame and schedule work for GPU. Each GPU kernel performs spatial decomposition, reconstruction and motion amplification. In this work we presented approach that achieves a significant speedup over existing methods and allow to VMM process video in real-time. This solution can be used as preprocessing for other algorithms in more complex systems or can find application wherever real time motion magnification would be useful. It is worth to mention that the implementation runs on most modern desktops and laptops compatible with CUDA technology.

  12. A Harmonic Motion Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluck, P.; Krakower, Zeev

    2010-01-01

    We present a unit comprising theory, simulation and experiment for a body oscillating on a vertical spring, in which the simultaneous use of a force probe and an ultrasonic range finder enables one to explore quantitatively and understand many aspects of simple and damped harmonic motions. (Contains 14 figures.)

  13. Projectile Motion Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucie, Pierre

    1979-01-01

    Analyzes projectile motion using symmetry and simple geometry. Deduces the direction of velocity at any point, range, time of flight, maximum height, safety parabola, and maximum range for a projectile launched upon a plane inclined at any angle with respect to the horizontal. (Author/GA)

  14. MotionsFloorball

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorup, Jacob; Seidelin, Kåre

    Med denne "opskriftsbog" er I nu klar til at begynde med MotionsFloorball. Ingen vellykket middagsret tilbereder som bekendt sig selv - de vigtigste ingredienser til et succesfuldt forløb er vilje og handlingskraft. Tilsættes værktøjerne og vidensdelen fra denne bog, er der dog ikke langt fra tanke...

  15. Nuclear motion is classical

    CERN Document Server

    Frank, Irmgard

    2016-01-01

    The notion from ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations that nuclear motion is best described by classical Newton dynamics instead of the time-dependent Schr{\\"o}dinger equation is substantiated. In principle a single experiment should bring clarity. Caution is however necessary, as temperature dependent effects must be eliminated when trying to determine the existence of a zero-point energy.

  16. Noncommutative Brownian motion

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Willien O; Souza, Andre M C

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the Brownian motion of a particle in a two-dimensional noncommutative (NC) space. Using the standard NC algebra embodied by the sympletic Weyl-Moyal formalism we find that noncommutativity induces a non-vanishing correlation between both coordinates at different times. The effect itself stands as a signature of spatial noncommutativity and offers further alternatives to experimentally detect the phenomena.

  17. Motion Planning with Six Degrees of Freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    required for the implementation. Michael Erdmann, John Canny, and Steve Buckley showed me shorter proofs and better friendship than I probably deserved...U is called a chart (for - the atlas Ut), or a coordinate system for U. For a good introduction to differential geometry, see, for example, ( Spivak ...Erdmann, Michael On Motion Planning with Uncertainty, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

  18. Motion Imagery Processing and Exploitation (MIPE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Modernization and Employment; Manpower, Personnel, and Training; Resource Management; and Strategy and Doctrine. Additional information about PAF...retrieving motion imagery. Examples are TiVo and YouTube, which deliver streaming video on demand,33 and Google, Netflix , and iTunes, which can tailor...comprehensive. They are, rather, a few examples of what we think should be part of a comprehensive investment strategy for MIPE technologies and

  19. Wearable sensors for 3D upper limb motion modeling and ubiquitous estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Human motion capture technologies are widely used in interactive game and learning, animation, film special effects, health care, and navigation. Because of the agility, upper limb motion estimation is the most difficult problem in human motion capture. Traditional methods always assume that the movements of upper arm and forearm are independent and then estimate their movements separately; therefore, the estimated motion are always with serious distortion. In this paper, we propose a novel ubiquitous upper...

  20. Animating with Stop Motion Pro

    CERN Document Server

    Sawicki, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Animating with Stop Motion Pro is comprehensive, hands-on guide to achieving professional results with Stop Motion Pro 7.0 software. Gone are the days of stop motion guesswork and waiting to see the finalized result of your meticulous, labor intensive animations. With the push of a mouse button and the Stop Motion Pro software, animators have ten times the capability of simple camera stop motion capture. Re-visualize stop motion character movements, graph these movements and composite characters into a flawless animations with the techniques and step by step tutorials featured in Animating wit

  1. Frame by frame stop motion non-traditional approaches to stop motion animation

    CERN Document Server

    Gasek, Tom

    2011-01-01

    In a world that is dominated by computer images, alternative stop motion techniques like pixilation, time-lapse photography and down-shooting techniques combined with new technologies offer a new, tangible and exciting approach to animation. With over 25 years professional experience, industry veteran, Tom Gasek presents a comprehensive guide to stop motion animation without the focus on puppetry or model animation. With tips, tricks and hands-on exercises, Frame by Frame will help both experienced and novice filmmakers get the most effective results from this underutilized branch of animation

  2. 4D-CT motion estimation using deformable image registration and 5D respiratory motion modeling

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) imaging technology has been developed for radiation therapy to provide tumor and organ images at the different breathing phases. In this work, a procedure is proposed for estimating and modeling the respiratory motion field from acquired 4D-CT imaging data and predicting tissue motion at the different breathing phases. The 4D-CT image data consist of series of multislice CT volume segments acquired in ciné mode. A modified optical flow deformable i...

  3. Motion segmentation method for hybrid characteristic on human motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Newman; Wong, Ben; Chow, Daniel

    2009-03-11

    Motion segmentation and analysis are used to improve the process of classification of motion and information gathered on repetitive or periodic characteristic. The classification result is useful for ergonomic and postural safety analysis, since repetitive motion is known to be related to certain musculoskeletal disorders. Past studies mainly focused on motion segmentation on particular motion characteristic with certain prior knowledge on static or periodic property of motion, which narrowed method's applicability. This paper attempts to introduce a method to tackle human joint motion without having prior knowledge. The motion is segmented by a two-pass algorithm. Recursive least square (RLS) is firstly used to estimate possible segments on the input human-motion set. Further, period identification and extra segmentation process are applied to produce meaningful segments. Each of the result segments is modeled by a damped harmonic model, with frequency, amplitude and duration produced as parameters for ergonomic evaluation and other human factor studies such as task safety evaluation and sport analysis. Experiments show that the method can handle periodic, random and mixed characteristics on human motion, which can also be extended to the usage in repetitive motion in workflow and irregular periodic motion like sport movement.

  4. Negotiation in Motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2010-01-01

    related to interaction, mobility, and transit that focus on notions of the “mobile with,” “negotiation in motion,” “mobile sense making,” and “temporary congregations.” The theoretical approach aims at seeing public transit spaces as sites where cars, pedestrians, mopeds, and bikes on a regular basis...... “negotiate” not only routes in and across the space but also express dynamic flows of interaction in motion. The claim is that what seems like ordinary urban movement patterns are more than this. By moving in the city among buildings, objects, and people, one interacts with the “environment,” making sense...

  5. Motion of Confined Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, David E

    2016-01-01

    We carry out numerical evaluations of the motion of classical particles in Minkowski Space $\\mathbb{M}^{4}$ which are confined to the inside of a bag. In particular, we analyze the structure of the paths evolving from the breaking of the dilatation symmetry, the conformal symmetry and the combination of both together. The confining forces arise directly from the corresponding nonconserved currents. We demonstrate in our evaluations that these particles under certain initial conditions move toward the interior of the bag.

  6. Force and motion

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2002-01-01

    Intimidated by inertia? Frightened by forces? Mystified by Newton s law of motion? You re not alone and help is at hand. The stop Faking It! Series is perfect for science teachers, home-schoolers, parents wanting to help with homework all of you who need a jargon-free way to learn the background for teaching middle school physical science with confidence. With Bill Roberton as your friendly, able but somewhat irreverent guide, you will discover you CAN come to grips with the basics of force and motion. Combining easy-to-understand explanations with activities using commonly found equipment, this book will lead you through Newton s laws to the physics of space travel. The book is as entertaining as it is informative. Best of all, the author understands the needs of adults who want concrete examples, hands-on activities, clear language, diagrams and yes, a certain amount of empathy. Ideas For Use Newton's laws, and all of the other motion principles presented in this book, do a good job of helping us to underst...

  7. Motion and gravity effects in the precision of quantum clocks

    CERN Document Server

    Lindkvist, Joel; Johansson, Göran; Fuentes, Ivette

    2014-01-01

    We show that motion and gravity affect the precision of quantum clocks. We consider a localised quantum field as a fundamental model of a quantum clock moving in spacetime and show that its state is modified due to changes in acceleration. By computing the quantum Fisher information we determine how relativistic motion modifies the ultimate bound in the precision of the measurement of time. While in the absence of motion the squeezed vacuum is the ideal state for time estimation, we find that it is highly sensitive to the motion-induced degradation of the quantum Fisher information. We show that coherent states are generally more resilient to this degradation and that in the case of very low initial number of photons, the optimal precision can be even increased by motion. These results can be tested with current technology by using superconducting resonators with tunable boundary conditions.

  8. MOTION STUDY OF A WHEELCHAIR PROTOTYPE FOR DISABLED PEOPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionut GEONEA

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is presented the design and experimental prototype of a wheelchair for disabled people. Design solution proposed to be implemented uses two reduction gears motors and a mechanical transmission with chains. The motion controller developed uses PWM technology (pulse wave modulation. The wheelchair has the ability of forward – backward motion and steering. The design solution is developed in Solid Works, and it’s implemented to a wheelchair prototype model. Wheelchair design and motion makes him suitable especially for indoor use. It is made a study of the wheelchair kinematics, first using a kinematic simulation in Adams. Are presented the wheelchair motion trajectory and kinematics parameters. The experimental prototype is tested with a motion analysis system based on ultra high speed video recording. The obtained results from simulation and experimentally tests, demonstrate the efficiency of wheelchair proposed solution.

  9. Recent developments in motion planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overmars, M.H.

    2002-01-01

    Motion planning is becoming an important topic in many application areas, ranging from robotics to virtual environments and games. In this paper I review some recent results in motion planning, concentrating on the probabilistic roadmap approach that has proven to be very successful for many motion

  10. Gesture Tracking and Motion Recognition Algorithm Based on Vision Technology%基于视觉技术的手势跟踪与动作识别算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊俊涛; 刘梓健; 孙宝霞; 俞守华; 陈建国

    2014-01-01

    对工业生产线上规程化操作动作进行手势跟踪与动作识别研究。首先选取YCbCr颜色模型进行手部区域识别,获得完整手部区域;然后利用Euclidean距离变换计算相邻2个手部运动轨迹点之间的距离和各帧图像的手部运动速度;再利用扩展有限状态机模型实现手部运动的分割,将分割的多个动作与建立的动作模板匹配,利用Hausdorff距离匹配法判断匹配结果的准确性,实现手部动作的识别。实验结果表明:该手部动作识别算法对背景干扰和摄像头轻微震动具有一定的抗噪能力,有较高的动作识别正确率,能够满足现实工作环境下的应用需求。%The gesture tracking and motion recognition of production line disciplined operational motion in industrial engineering was researched in this paper .Through the color analysis of hands skin , the YCbCr color model was used to recognize the hand ar-ea, the pretreatment so as threshold segmentation for video image was used in YCbCr color model to obtain the complete hand are -a;the Euclidean distance transform method was used to calculate the distance between the adjacent two hand trajectory points and speed of each frame image ’ s hand movements , then the extended finite state machine model was used to realize the segmentation of hand movements , matching the segmented motions and established motion templates , and the Hausdorff distance matching method was used to determine the accuracy of the matching results , the recognition of hand gesture was realized .Experimental re-sults show that the hand gesture recognition algorithm has certain anti-noise ability for background interference and camera vibra-tions, and has higher recognition accuracy , can satisfy the application requirements of real work environment .

  11. NUMERICAL STUDY OF THE PITCHING MOTIONS OF SUPERCAVITATING VEHICLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Kai-ping; ZHANG Guang; ZHOU Jing-jun; ZOU Wang; LI Zhen-wang

    2012-01-01

    The pitching motions of supercavitating vehicles could not be avoided due to the lost water buoyancy.In order to have some insight for the design of the supercavitating vehicles,the fixed frequency and free pitching motions are investigated.A numerical predicting method based on the relative motion principle and the non-inertia coordinate system is proposed to simulate the free pitching motions of supercavitating vehicles in the longitudinal plane.Homogeneous and two fluid multiphase models are used to predict the natural and the ventilated supercavitating flows.In the fixed frequency pitching motions,a variety of working conditions are considered,including the pitching angular velocities and the supercavity scales and the results are found to be consistent with the available experimental results in literature.The mesh deformation technology controlled by the moment of momentum equation is adopted to study the free pitching motions and finally to obtain the planing states proposed by Savchenko.The numerical method is validated for predicting the pitching motions of supercavitating vehicles and is found to enjoy better calculation efficiency as comparing with the mesh regeneration technology.

  12. Human motion simulation predictive dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Abdel-Malek, Karim

    2013-01-01

    Simulate realistic human motion in a virtual world with an optimization-based approach to motion prediction. With this approach, motion is governed by human performance measures, such as speed and energy, which act as objective functions to be optimized. Constraints on joint torques and angles are imposed quite easily. Predicting motion in this way allows one to use avatars to study how and why humans move the way they do, given specific scenarios. It also enables avatars to react to infinitely many scenarios with substantial autonomy. With this approach it is possible to predict dynamic motion without having to integrate equations of motion -- rather than solving equations of motion, this approach solves for a continuous time-dependent curve characterizing joint variables (also called joint profiles) for every degree of freedom. Introduces rigorous mathematical methods for digital human modelling and simulation Focuses on understanding and representing spatial relationships (3D) of biomechanics Develops an i...

  13. Nonuniform stretch processing for the range profile of a target with micro-motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hangyong; JIANG Weidong; LIU Yongxiang; LI Xiang; GUO Guirong

    2006-01-01

    Complex motions such as micro-motions induce complex range-Doppler coupling effect in radar imaging. Hence, it is a challenge to reconstruct a clear range profile of a target with micro-motion. Stretch processing with fine motion compensation cannot perform well while it ties to eliminate the distortion of range profile caused by Doppler effect, because it is difficult to accurately estimate each scattering center velocity during coherent processing interval. Based on nonuniform stretch processing (NSP), a new technology is proposed to decouple range, time and Doppler and then achieve range profile of target with micro-motion. The new technology uses a new synthetic wide-hand waveform and has an innovative mathematic interpretation. Statistical properties of the new approach are primarily examined. Typical models of target with micro-motion for high resolution radar are presented. Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate the performance of the new technology and the simulation results confirm our expectations.

  14. Motion analysis report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badler, N. I.

    1985-01-01

    Human motion analysis is the task of converting actual human movements into computer readable data. Such movement information may be obtained though active or passive sensing methods. Active methods include physical measuring devices such as goniometers on joints of the body, force plates, and manually operated sensors such as a Cybex dynamometer. Passive sensing de-couples the position measuring device from actual human contact. Passive sensors include Selspot scanning systems (since there is no mechanical connection between the subject's attached LEDs and the infrared sensing cameras), sonic (spark-based) three-dimensional digitizers, Polhemus six-dimensional tracking systems, and image processing systems based on multiple views and photogrammetric calculations.

  15. Motion dynamics of submersibles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalske, Seppo

    1991-04-01

    A literature survey of motion dynamics of subsea vehicles of a general shape was performed. Hydrodynamic tests were carried out with an existing tethered remotely operated vehicle and with its full scale model. The experiments give data of maneuvering capabilities, and of hydrodynamic characteristics of small subsea vehicles. A simulation method was developed on this basis to compute the vehicle trajectory in the time domain as a function of different control commands. The method can be applied to any subsea vehicle controlled by thruster units.

  16. Evaporation in motion

    CERN Document Server

    Machrafi, Hatim; Colinet, Pierre; Dauby, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    This work presents fluid dynamics videos obtained via numerical (CFD) calculations using ComSol (finite elements method) software, showing the evaporation of HFE7100 (3M company refrigerant) into a nitrogen gas flow along the liquid interface. The overall temperature evolution and liquid motion, which is caused by surface-tension (Marangoni) and buoyancy (Rayleigh) instability mechanisms, are shown as well. Flow behavior in the liquid caused by the aforementioned instability mechanisms can be nicely seen. Finally, these observations are made for three liquid thicknesses in order to appreciate the qualitative influence of confinement.

  17. Infrasonic induced ground motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ting-Li

    On January 28, 2004, the CERI seismic network recorded seismic signals generated by an unknown source. Our conclusion is that the acoustic waves were initiated by an explosive source near the ground surface. The meteorological temperature and effective sound speed profiles suggested existence of an efficient near-surface waveguide that allowed the acoustic disturbance to propagate to large distances. An explosion occurring in an area of forest and farms would have limited the number of eyewitnesses. Resolution of the source might be possible by experiment or by detailed analysis of the ground motion data. A seismo-acoustic array was built to investigate thunder-induced ground motions. Two thunder events with similar N-wave waveforms but different horizontal slownesses are chosen to evaluate the credibility of using thunder as a seismic source. These impulsive acoustic waves excited P and S reverberations in the near surface that depend on both the incident wave horizontal slowness and the velocity structure in the upper 30 meters. Nineteen thunder events were chosen to further investigate the seismo-acoustic coupling. The consistent incident slowness differences between acoustic pressure and ground motions suggest that ground reverberations were first initiated somewhat away from the array. Acoustic and seismic signals were used to generate the time-domain transfer function through the deconvolution technique. Possible non-linear interaction for acoustic propagation into the soil at the surface was observed. The reverse radial initial motions suggest a low Poisson's ratio for the near-surface layer. The acoustic-to-seismic transfer functions show a consistent reverberation series of the Rayleigh wave type, which has a systematic dispersion relation to incident slownesses inferred from the seismic ground velocity. Air-coupled Rayleigh wave dispersion was used to quantitatively constrain the near-surface site structure with constraints afforded by near-surface body

  18. Electromechanical motion devices

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, Paul C; Pekarek, Steven D

    2012-01-01

    This text provides a basic treatment of modern electric machine analysis that gives readers the necessary background for comprehending the traditional applications and operating characteristics of electric machines-as well as their emerging applications in modern power systems and electric drives, such as those used in hybrid and electric vehicles. Through the appropriate use of reference frame theory, Electromagnetic Motion Devices, Second Edition introduces readers to field-oriented control of induction machines, constant-torque, and constant-power control of dc, permanent-magnet ac

  19. Robust global motion estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A global motion estimation method based on robust statistics is presented in this paper. By using tracked feature points instead of whole image pixels to estimate parameters the process speeds up. To further speed up the process and avoid numerical instability, an alterative description of the problem is given, and three types of solution to the problem are compared. By using a two step process, the robustness of the estimator is also improved. Automatic initial value selection is an advantage of this method. The proposed approach is illustrated by a set of examples, which shows good results with high speed.

  20. Ubiquitous human upper-limb motion estimation using wearable sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Qiang; Wong, Wai-Choong; Wu, Jian-Kang

    2011-07-01

    Human motion capture technologies have been widely used in a wide spectrum of applications, including interactive game and learning, animation, film special effects, health care, navigation, and so on. The existing human motion capture techniques, which use structured multiple high-resolution cameras in a dedicated studio, are complicated and expensive. With the rapid development of microsensors-on-chip, human motion capture using wearable microsensors has become an active research topic. Because of the agility in movement, upper-limb motion estimation has been regarded as the most difficult problem in human motion capture. In this paper, we take the upper limb as our research subject and propose a novel ubiquitous upper-limb motion estimation algorithm, which concentrates on modeling the relationship between upper-arm movement and forearm movement. A link structure with 5 degrees of freedom (DOF) is proposed to model the human upper-limb skeleton structure. Parameters are defined according to Denavit-Hartenberg convention, forward kinematics equations are derived, and an unscented Kalman filter is deployed to estimate the defined parameters. The experimental results have shown that the proposed upper-limb motion capture and analysis algorithm outperforms other fusion methods and provides accurate results in comparison to the BTS optical motion tracker.

  1. Instant RubyMotion app development

    CERN Document Server

    Laborde, Gant

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. This book is a practical, task-based, step-by-step tutorial that will get you started with using RubyMotion to quickly and efficiently write iOS apps.To make the most of this book, you should understand the basics of programming concepts and have a basic understanding of a language similar to Ruby. If you are an Objective-C programmer, you'll learn the advantages of RubyMotion which can access the benefits of Cocoapods, but takes everything a st

  2. Research on the technology of projectile synchronized photography based on motion compensation for rotating mirror%基于转镜运动补偿的弹丸同步摄影技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡荣立; 陈瑞; 卢岩涛

    2012-01-01

    弹丸的空间飞行姿态是武器性能的一项重要指标.为了使数字摄影相机实现对高速运动弹丸运行轨迹的成像,设计了一种基于转镜运动补偿的弹丸同步摄影装置.在高速数字相机前设置一面反射转镜,当弹丸进入跟踪视场时,利用转镜的旋转补偿弹丸的空间运动,使得由转镜反射到相机像面的弹丸图像偏移在许可范围内,实现同步摄影过程.实验证明该方法能够满足常规弹丸同步摄影的需求.%The flight attitude of projectile in space is a very important performance evaluation indicator of weapons in target range test. In order to obtain images of fast-moving projectiles with a digtial camera, a projectile synchronous camera system is designed based on rotary mirror moving compensation. A reflection rotary mirror is set in front of a high speed digtal camera, and when the projectile passes the field, the camera image obtained from the reflection rotary mirror is appropriated by using rotary mirror to compensate the projectile moving in space controlled by a servo system, and the synchronized photographic process is finally achieved. With this method as the theoretical basis to establish mirror equation of motion, the tracking data discretization mathematical model is obtained through the analysis of the imaging error. The method provides theoretical basis for the system of projectile synchronized photography based on motion compensation for rotating mirror.

  3. Motion Simulation of 3-TPT Virtual-axis Machine Based on ActiveX Technology%基于ActiveX技术的3-TPT并联虚轴机床运动仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛忠起; 孙奕澎; 蔡光起

    2001-01-01

    根据最新研制的3-TPT并联虚轴机床的机构组成,对其进行了运动分析,建立了虚轴机床的运动模型,并得到了并联机构的运动学逆解表达式,同时还得到了该并联机构的运动学正解表达式利用MDT提供的ActiveX操作机制,应用面向对象方法和ActiveX技术,进行了3-TPT并联虚轴机床的运动仿真,提出了运动仿真的具体实施方法和过程*在Visual Basic开发环境下,完成了仿真程序编制工作通过实际仿真证明:该并联机构具有运动学正反计算简单、易于实现实时控制及工作空间大等优点%The kinematics character of the 3-TPT in-parallel mechanism of virtual-axis machine was analyzed. The kinematics model of virtual-axis machine was given. Based on the model,the explicit kinematics reverse formula and forward formula were obtained together. Using the ActiveX operation mechanism provided by MDT and object oriented-based method,the motion simulation method of 3-TPT virtual-axis machine was studied and the specific procedure was given. The procedure is programmed in Visual Basic environment. By simulation analysis this kind of 3-TPT in-parallel mechanism proves to be simple and has explicit forward & reverse kinematics formula,by which real-time motion control can be realized easily.

  4. Stochastic Blind Motion Deblurring

    KAUST Repository

    Xiao, Lei

    2015-05-13

    Blind motion deblurring from a single image is a highly under-constrained problem with many degenerate solutions. A good approximation of the intrinsic image can therefore only be obtained with the help of prior information in the form of (often non-convex) regularization terms for both the intrinsic image and the kernel. While the best choice of image priors is still a topic of ongoing investigation, this research is made more complicated by the fact that historically each new prior requires the development of a custom optimization method. In this paper, we develop a stochastic optimization method for blind deconvolution. Since this stochastic solver does not require the explicit computation of the gradient of the objective function and uses only efficient local evaluation of the objective, new priors can be implemented and tested very quickly. We demonstrate that this framework, in combination with different image priors produces results with PSNR values that match or exceed the results obtained by much more complex state-of-the-art blind motion deblurring algorithms.

  5. Fast and Simple Motion Tracking Unit with Motion Estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hyeon-cheol YANG; Yoon-sup KIM; Seong-soo LEE; Sang-keun OH; Sung-hwa KIM; Doo-won CHOI

    2010-01-01

    Surveillance system using active tracking camera has no distance limitation of surveillance range compared to supersonic or sound sensors. However, complex motion tracking algorithm requires huge amount of computation, and it often requires expensive DSPs or embedded processors. This paper proposes a novel motion tracking unit based on different image for fast and simple motion tracking. It uses configuration factor to avoid noise and inaccuracy. It reduces the required computation significantly, so as to be implemented on Field Programmable Gate Array(FPGAs) instead of expensive Digital Signal Processing(DSPs). It also performs calculation for motion estimation in video compression, so it can be easily combined with surveillance system with video recording functionality based on video compression. The proposed motion tracking system implemented on Xilinx Vertex-4 FPGA can process 48 frames per second, and operating frequency of motion tracking unit is 100 MHz.

  6. Research on Motion Trajectory Control Technology of Agricutural Robot-Based on Genetic Algorithm RBF Network Optimization%农业机器人运动轨迹控制仿真分析-基于遗传算法优化和RBF 网络逼近

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李璞; 冯博

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid development of China's science and technology industry , the rapid development of science and technology industry , machinery automation , computer control system and the continuous development of the measurement industry , making the research of mobile robot has reached an unprecedented level , the robot has been widely used in ag-ricultural production ,industrial production ,National security ,life services and higher research design and other aspects of the design .As a part of the robot ,the mobile robot has concentrated the research results of intelligent sensing technology , mechanical manufacturing ,electronic communication technology ,intelligent instrument and automation control engineering . It is one of the most advanced technology research and design .In this paper , based on genetic algorithm to optimize the RBF network approximation algorithm , based on the characteristics of the robot motion trajectory , the robot motion trajec-tory control technology is studied .Through the real-time sensor online perception system , the robot can plan a trajectory without collision and route .The experimental results show that the design and research of the robot motion trajectory opti-mization technology , with good control effect , which can effectively avoid the obstacles in the course of the road , its reli-ability , good stability , the application prospect is very broad .%随着国力的不断增长,我国科技产业发展突飞猛进,机械自动化、计算机控制系统和测试计量行业的不断发展,使得移动机器人的研究也达到了一个前所未有的高度,机器人已经被广泛地应用到农业生产、工业生产、国家安全、生活服务和高等研究设计等领域的各个方面。移动机器人作为机器人的一部分,集中了智能传感技术、机械制造、电子无线通信技术、智能仪器和自动化控制工程等多学科的研究成果,是当前科技研究与设计最前沿

  7. New motion illusion caused by pictorial motion lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Takahiro; Miura, Kayo

    2008-01-01

    Motion lines (MLs) are a pictorial technique used to represent object movement in a still picture. This study explored how MLs contribute to motion perception. In Experiment 1, we reported the creation of a motion illusion caused by MLs: random displacements of objects with MLs on each frame were perceived as unidirectional global motion along the pictorial motion direction implied by MLs. In Experiment 2, we showed that the illusory global motion in the peripheral visual field captured the perceived motion direction of random displacement of objects without MLs in the central visual field, and confirmed that the results in Experiment 1 did not stem simply from response bias, but resulted from perceptual processing. In Experiment 3, we showed that the spatial arrangement of orientation information rather than ML length is important for the illusory global motion. Our results indicate that the ML effect is based on perceptual processing rather than response bias, and that comparison of neighboring orientation components may underlie the determination of pictorial motion direction with MLs.

  8. Digital Watermarking Applied To MEPG-2 Coded Video Sequences Exploiting Motion Vector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Yuan-jun; ZHANG Li-he; YANG Yi-xian

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a video watermarking technology to hide copyright information by a slight modification of the motion vector in MPEG-2 video bitstream. In this method, the watermark is embedded in the motion residual of the large value motion vector, then the motion residual is regularized into a modified bitstream, from which the watermark information can be retrieved easily and exactly. From the experimental results, this technology has the advantage of little influence on the MPEG decoding speed, degrading the perceptive effect little, and the capability to embed watermark in a short video sequence, and can be used to watermark directly on the compressed and uncompressed video sequence.

  9. Cosmology as geodesic motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Townsend, Paul K [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Wohlfarth, Mattias N R [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2004-12-07

    For gravity coupled to N scalar fields, with arbitrary potential V, it is shown that all flat (homogeneous and isotropic) cosmologies correspond to geodesics in an (N + 1)-dimensional 'augmented' target space of Lorentzian signature (1, N), timelike if V > 0, null if V = 0 and spacelike if V < 0. Accelerating cosmologies correspond to timelike geodesics that lie within an 'acceleration subcone' of the 'lightcone'. Non-flat (k = {+-}1) cosmologies are shown to evolve as projections of geodesic motion in a space of dimension N + 2, of signature (1, N + 1) for k = -1 and signature (2, N) for k = +1. This formalism is illustrated by cosmological solutions of models with an exponential potential, which are comprehensively analysed; the late-time behaviour for other potentials of current interest is deduced by comparison.

  10. Cosmology as Geodesic Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Townsend, P K; Townsend, Paul K.; Wohlfarth, Mattias N.R.

    2004-01-01

    For gravity coupled to N scalar fields with arbitrary potential V, it is shown that all flat (homogeneous and isotropic) cosmologies correspond to geodesics in an (N+1)-dimensional `extended target space' of Lorentzian signature (1,N), timelike if V>0 and spacelike if V<0. Accelerating cosmologies correspond to timelike geodesics that lie within an `acceleration subcone' of the `lightcone'. Non-flat (k=-1,+1) cosmologies are shown to evolve as projections of geodesic motion in a space of dimension N+2, of signature (1,N+1) for k=-1 and signature (2,N) for k=+1. We illustrate these results for various potentials of current interest, including exponential and inverse power potentials.

  11. Multivariate respiratory motion prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dürichen, R.; Wissel, T.; Ernst, F.; Schlaefer, A.; Schweikard, A.

    2014-10-01

    In extracranial robotic radiotherapy, tumour motion is compensated by tracking external and internal surrogates. To compensate system specific time delays, time series prediction of the external optical surrogates is used. We investigate whether the prediction accuracy can be increased by expanding the current clinical setup by an accelerometer, a strain belt and a flow sensor. Four previously published prediction algorithms are adapted to multivariate inputs—normalized least mean squares (nLMS), wavelet-based least mean squares (wLMS), support vector regression (SVR) and relevance vector machines (RVM)—and evaluated for three different prediction horizons. The measurement involves 18 subjects and consists of two phases, focusing on long term trends (M1) and breathing artefacts (M2). To select the most relevant and least redundant sensors, a sequential forward selection (SFS) method is proposed. Using a multivariate setting, the results show that the clinically used nLMS algorithm is susceptible to large outliers. In the case of irregular breathing (M2), the mean root mean square error (RMSE) of a univariate nLMS algorithm is 0.66 mm and can be decreased to 0.46 mm by a multivariate RVM model (best algorithm on average). To investigate the full potential of this approach, the optimal sensor combination was also estimated on the complete test set. The results indicate that a further decrease in RMSE is possible for RVM (to 0.42 mm). This motivates further research about sensor selection methods. Besides the optical surrogates, the sensors most frequently selected by the algorithms are the accelerometer and the strain belt. These sensors could be easily integrated in the current clinical setup and would allow a more precise motion compensation.

  12. Cinematic Motion by Hand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graca, Marina Estela

    2006-01-01

    if we could ascertain a specific ontology for animation within technology that would explain how its marginality is rooted to its essence at least in one of its forms? In this paper I will try to argue that, by overwhelming the cinematic technical standard workings with their hand, authors exposed its...... functional scheme to contingency, thus opening the production process to new unpredictable expressive and communicative possibilities. I will attempt to explain how this corresponds to a renewed way of comprehending technology by, simultaneously, revealing the human reality it contains and physiologically...

  13. Quantification and clinical relevance of head motion during computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Arne; Schicho, Kurt; Kainberger, Franz; Birkfellner, Wolfgang; Grampp, Stephan; Ewers, Rolf

    2003-11-01

    To quantify the 3-dimensional translation and rotation components of head motion during computed tomography and to analyze the influence of such motion on perceptible artifacts and distortion of volume image data sets. Using high-precision optoelectronic motion-capture technology, changes in patient head position during axial CT scanning were registered in 20 cases and 2 phantoms with a spatial relative resolution better than 0.003 cm. Statistical analysis was performed on a base of 6-dimensional measurement-vectors, each with 3 translation and 3 rotation values. Because of the recording frequency of the tracking system, more than 80000 values were included in a statistical analysis. All 20 patients had head motion during the CT scanning, with only 4 of 20 patients showing perceptible motion artifacts. The frequency, the extent, and the direction of the movements did not correlate with either the observations made by the radiologic staff or with the patient's subjective estimation of comfort. Translation movements of the head during CT accounted for a maximum of 0.5 cm and rotations of more than 2 degrees without perceptible motion artifacts. The extent of positional changes of the head was found to correlate with the duration of scanning (Pearson's correlation coefficient: 0.647 for translation shifts, 0.453 for rotation shifts). The mean direction of head motion could be characterized predominantly as a rotation around the longitudinal axis of the body (xy plane) at a significance level of 0.01. Computed tomography evaluations of the head performed without rigid fixation suffer a spatial distortion of the volume image data sets, caused by interimage motion. The absence of motion artifacts is not correlated with the absence of motion.

  14. Error Reduction for Weigh-In-Motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hively, Lee M [ORNL; Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Scudiere, Matthew B [ORNL; Sheldon, Frederick T [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Federal and State agencies need certifiable vehicle weights for various applications, such as highway inspections, border security, check points, and port entries. ORNL weigh-in-motion (WIM) technology was previously unable to provide certifiable weights, due to natural oscillations, such as vehicle bouncing and rocking. Recent ORNL work demonstrated a novel filter to remove these oscillations. This work shows further filtering improvements to enable certifiable weight measurements (error < 0.1%) for a higher traffic volume with less effort (elimination of redundant weighing).

  15. Respiratory impact on motion sickness induced by linear motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mert, A.; Klöpping-Ketelaars, I.; Bles, W.

    2009-01-01

    Motion sickness incidence (MSI) for vertical sinusoidal motion reaches a maximum at 0.167 Hz. Normal breathing frequency is close to this frequency. There is some evidence for synchronization of breathing with this stimulus frequency. If this enforced breathing takes place over a larger frequency ra

  16. Method of manufacturing a motion simulator, and a motion simulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukers, A.; Van Baten, T.; Advani, S.K.

    1996-01-01

    A method of manufacturing a motion simulator, which motion simulator has a deck and a number of deck-supporting legs (2) that are pivotally connected with the deck in first pivot points (4), the legs being actively and continuously length-adjustable, such that the deck is capable of describing a mot

  17. Research on Digital Display System Based on Somatosensory Control Technology of Leap Motion%基于Leap Motion体感控制技术的数字化展示系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林德江; 井志胜; 王国德; 秦国伟; 时华峰

    2015-01-01

    针对大型复杂装备"模型展示"中采用"平面+鼠标"方式缺乏真实立体感和自然交互性的问题,提出了基于Leap Motion体感控制技术的数字化展示系统.设计完成了系统的硬件结构和软件架构,研究了Leap Motion到Unity 3D引擎环境的坐标转换、手势交互控制任务等系统实现的关键技术.在此基础上,结合Leap Motion SDK的Unity插件,在Unity 3D引擎中完成了场景配置和场景驱动,实现该系统.实际应用结果表明,该系统沉浸感更强,手势跟踪稳定精准,解决了装备模型立体展示和自然交互的问题,同时也为Leap Motion这种精准的、近距离手势追踪技术的探索应用提供了一定借鉴.

  18. Poetry in motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Christiansen, Ellen Tove

    2012-01-01

    Motivation This study was motivated by an interest in understanding the new opportunities brought to use by App technologies available on mobile devices. In our qualitative analysis of interview data we used the concept of 'appropriation', and in doing so we realized that we needed to address bot...

  19. Coping with Continual Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutsche, Betha

    2010-01-01

    In the face of seismic shifts in technology and social organization, librarians and library staff face changing roles. A focus on competencies--the skills, knowledge, behaviors, and attitudes that are involved in a job--can help the library profession keep its footing as well as help librarians stick to values. When well done, they can define a…

  20. Droplet motion driven by electro-elasto-capillary effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Jaymeen; Yang, Xin; Sun, Ying

    2013-11-01

    The motion of droplets on natural and synthetic fibers underlines many technological applications including flexible displays, insulation, and smart filters. However, there is a lack of fundamental understanding of the coupled electrical, elastic, and capillary forces on droplets in fiber networks. In the present study, the motion of a water droplet suspended between two electrically insulated fibers of different Young's modulus, lengths and diameters are examined under electric fields. The results on rigid fibers reveal a critical voltage, under which the droplet remain stationary. Above this critical voltage, droplet self-propulsion is observed as a result of the interplay of electro, elasto and capillary forces on the droplet. The effects of the inter-fiber distance and Young's modulus on droplet motion are also discussed. The controllable motion of droplets can be used to manipulate or transport liquid at small scales.

  1. Intelligent Mobile Robot Motion Control in Unstructured Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyula Mester

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the intelligent wheeled mobile robot motion control inunstructured environments. The fuzzy control of a wheeled mobile robot motion inunstructured environments with obstacles and slopes is proposed. Outputs of the fuzzycontroller are the angular speed difference between the left and right wheels of the mobilerobot and the mobile robot velocity. The simulation results show the effectiveness and thevalidity of the obstacle avoidance behavior in an unstructured environment and the velocitycontrol of a wheeled mobile robot motion of the proposed fuzzy control strategy. Wirelesssensor-based remote control of mobile robots motion in unstructured environments usingthe Sun SPOT technology is proposed. The proposed method has been implemented on theminiature mobile robot Khepera that is equipped with sensors. Finally, the effectivenessand efficiency of the proposed sensor-based remote control strategy are demonstrated byexperimental studies and good experimental results.

  2. Approximations of fractional Brownian motion

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yuqiang; 10.3150/10-BEJ319

    2012-01-01

    Approximations of fractional Brownian motion using Poisson processes whose parameter sets have the same dimensions as the approximated processes have been studied in the literature. In this paper, a special approximation to the one-parameter fractional Brownian motion is constructed using a two-parameter Poisson process. The proof involves the tightness and identification of finite-dimensional distributions.

  3. Recent developments in motion planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overmars, M.H.

    2002-01-01

    Motion planning is becoming an important topic in many application areas, ranging from robotics to virtual environments and games. In this paper I review some recent results in motion planning, concentrating on the probabilistic roadmap approach that has proven to be very successful for many

  4. Algorithmic Issues in Modeling Motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, P. K; Guibas, L. J; Edelsbrunner, H.

    2003-01-01

    This article is a survey of research areas in which motion plays a pivotal role. The aim of the article is to review current approaches to modeling motion together with related data structures and algorithms, and to summarize the challenges that lie ahead in producing a more unified theory...

  5. Research of Point to Point Motion Control Technology for Super Rice Precision Seeding%超级稻精密播种点位控制技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁秋艳; 周海波; 马晓君; 朱世伟; 李洪波

    2016-01-01

    设计了机械臂式点位控制补种机构,并基于 LabVIEW 提取空穴坐标,确定空穴位置。对种头运动轨迹进行组合优化算法研究,对穷举法、最近邻点策略及最短链接策略3种算法进行了3种轨迹优化试验。试验结果表明:3种算法各自绘制出的运动图形轨迹与给出的空穴位置相吻合,均能够完成精密播种的点位控制;且穷举法运行时间短,编程简单,结果精确,输出距离短,确定为最优运动轨迹算法。%Designing of mechanical arm point to point motion control reseeding mechanism , and extracts the cavity coor-dinates successfully use LabVIEW to determine the location of cavities .Doing combination optimization algorithm research for seeding head trail , applying exhaustive method、nearest neighbor points strategy and the shortest link strategy for three trail optimization experiments and completed the algorithm programming based on LabVIEW software .Experimental re-sults show that the movement trail graphics which plotted by each of the three algorithms can match the given cavities po -sition, they are able to complete the point to point control of precision seeding , but the method of exhaustion has deter-mined the optimal trail algorithm because of its advantages of simple programming , accurate results , and the running time is short , the output distance is short .

  6. Maglev trains key underlying technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Zhigang; Li, Xiaolong

    2015-01-01

    The motion of the train depends on the traction of linear motors in the vehicle. This book describes a number of essential technologies that can ensure the safe operation of Maglev trains, such as suspension and orientation technologies, network control and diagnosis technologies. This book is intended for researchers, scientists, engineers and graduate students involved in the rail transit industry, train control and diagnosis, and Maglev technology.

  7. Motion-corrected Fourier ptychography

    CERN Document Server

    Bian, Liheng; Guo, Kaikai; Suo, Jinli; Yang, Changhuei; Chen, Feng; Dai, Qionghai

    2016-01-01

    Fourier ptychography (FP) is a recently proposed computational imaging technique for high space-bandwidth product imaging. In real setups such as endoscope and transmission electron microscope, the common sample motion largely degrades the FP reconstruction and limits its practicability. In this paper, we propose a novel FP reconstruction method to efficiently correct for unknown sample motion. Specifically, we adaptively update the sample's Fourier spectrum from low spatial-frequency regions towards high spatial-frequency ones, with an additional motion recovery and phase-offset compensation procedure for each sub-spectrum. Benefiting from the phase retrieval redundancy theory, the required large overlap between adjacent sub-spectra offers an accurate guide for successful motion recovery. Experimental results on both simulated data and real captured data show that the proposed method can correct for unknown sample motion with its standard deviation being up to 10% of the field-of-view scale. We have released...

  8. Brownian Motion Theory and Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, K; Basu, Kasturi; Baishya, Kopinjol

    2003-01-01

    Brownian motion is the perpetual irregular motion exhibited by small particles immersed in a fluid. Such random motion of the particles is produced by statistical fluctuations in the collisions they suffer with the molecules of the surrounding fluid. Brownian motion of particles in a fluid (like milk particles in water) can be observed under a microscope. Here we describe a simple experimental set-up to observe Brownian motion and a method of determining the diffusion coefficient of the Brownian particles, based on a theory due to Smoluchowski. While looking through the microscope we focus attention on a fixed small volume, and record the number of particles that are trapped in that volume, at regular intervals of time. This gives us a time-series data, which is enough to determine the diffusion coefficient of the particles to a good degree of accuracy.

  9. Entropic forces in Brownian motion

    CERN Document Server

    Roos, Nico

    2013-01-01

    The interest in the concept of entropic forces has risen considerably since E. Verlinde proposed to interpret the force in Newton s second law and Gravity as entropic forces. Brownian motion, the motion of a small particle (pollen) driven by random impulses from the surrounding molecules, may be the first example of a stochastic process in which such forces are expected to emerge. In this note it is shown that at least two types of entropic motion can be identified in the case of 3D Brownian motion (or random walk). This yields simple derivations of known results of Brownian motion, Hook s law and, applying an external (nonradial) force, Curie s law and the Langevin-Debye equation.

  10. The INGV Real Time Strong Motion Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Marco; D'Alema, Ezio; Mascandola, Claudia; Lovati, Sara; Scafidi, Davide; Gomez, Antonio; Carannante, Simona; Franceschina, Gianlorenzo; Mirenna, Santi; Augliera, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    The INGV real time strong motion data sharing is assured by the INGV Strong Motion Database. ISMD (http://ismd.mi.ingv.it) was designed in the last months of 2011 in cooperation among different INGV departments, with the aim to organize the distribution of the INGV strong-motion data using standard procedures for data acquisition and processing. The first version of the web portal was published soon after the occurrence of the 2012 Emilia (Northern Italy), Mw 6.1, seismic sequence. At that time ISMD was the first European real time web portal devoted to the engineering seismology community. After four years of successfully operation, the thousands of accelerometric waveforms collected in the archive need necessary a technological improvement of the system in order to better organize the new data archiving and to make more efficient the answer to the user requests. ISMD 2.0 was based on PostgreSQL (www.postgresql.org), an open source object- relational database. The main purpose of the web portal is to distribute few minutes after the origin time the accelerometric waveforms and related metadata of the Italian earthquakes with ML≥3.0. Data are provided both in raw SAC (counts) and automatically corrected ASCII (gal) formats. The web portal also provide, for each event, a detailed description of the ground motion parameters (i.e. Peak Ground Acceleration, Velocity and Displacement, Arias and Housner Intensities) data converted in velocity and displacement, response spectra up to 10.0 s and general maps concerning the recent and the historical seismicity of the area together with information about its seismic hazard. The focal parameters of the events are provided by the INGV National Earthquake Center (CNT, http://cnt.rm.ingv.it). Moreover, the database provides a detailed site characterization section for each strong motion station, based on geological, geomorphological and geophysical information. At present (i.e. January 2017), ISMD includes 987 (121

  11. Motion Planning for Nonholonomic Vehicles with Space Exploration Guided Heuristic Search

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The development of the modern sensing, actuation, communication, and computation technology unfolds a promising future of intelligent mobile robots, especially for autonomous automobiles. Motion planning for mobile robots is one of the most important software components in an autonomous system, as it is responsible for a maneuver strategy or a motion trajectory while considering the prior knowledge of the world, real-time perception, and domain specific rules. Particularly, a motion planning ...

  12. Motion Model Employment using interacting Motion Model Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar

    2006-01-01

    model being correct is computed through a likelihood function for each model.  The study presented a simple technique to introduce additional models into the system using deterministic acceleration which basically defines the dynamics of the system.  Therefore, based on this value more motion models can...... be employed to increase the coverage.  Finally, the combined estimate is obtained using posteriori probabilities from different filter models.   The implemented approach provides an adaptive scheme for selecting various number of motion models.  Motion model description is important as it defines the kind...

  13. Marker-Free Human Motion Capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grest, Daniel

    Human Motion Capture is a widely used technique to obtain motion data for animation of virtual characters. Commercial optical motion capture systems are marker-based. This book is about marker-free motion capture and its possibilities to acquire motion from a single viewing direction. The focus...

  14. On transcending the impasse of respiratory motion correction applications in routine clinical imaging - a consideration of a fully automated data driven motion control framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesner, Adam L; Schleyer, Paul J; Büther, Florian; Walter, Martin A; Schäfers, Klaus P; Koo, Phillip J

    2014-12-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is increasingly used for the detection, characterization, and follow-up of tumors located in the thorax. However, patient respiratory motion presents a unique limitation that hinders the application of high-resolution PET technology for this type of imaging. Efforts to transcend this limitation have been underway for more than a decade, yet PET remains for practical considerations a modality vulnerable to motion-induced image degradation. Respiratory motion control is not employed in routine clinical operations. In this article, we take an opportunity to highlight some of the recent advancements in data-driven motion control strategies and how they may form an underpinning for what we are presenting as a fully automated data-driven motion control framework. This framework represents an alternative direction for future endeavors in motion control and can conceptually connect individual focused studies with a strategy for addressing big picture challenges and goals.

  15. Muon motion in titanium hydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, J. R.; Petzinger, K. G.; Kossler, W. J.; Schone, H. E.; Hitti, B. S.; Stronach, C. E.; Adu, N.; Lankford, W. F.; Reilly, J. J.; Seymour, E. F. W.

    1988-01-01

    Motional narrowing of the transverse-field muon spin rotation signal was observed in gamma-TiH(x) for x = 1.83, 1.97, and 1.99. An analysis of the data for TiH1.99 near room temperature indicates that the mechanism responsible for the motion of the muon out of the octahedral site is thermally activated diffusion with an attempt frequency comparable to the optical vibrations of the lattice. Monte Carlo calculations to simulate the effect of muon and proton motion upon the muon field-correlation time were used to interpret the motional narrowing in TiH1.97 near 500 K. The interpretation is dependent upon whether the Bloembergen, Purcell, and Pound (BPP) theory or an independent spin-pair relaxation model is used to obtain the vacancy jump rate from proton NMR T1 measurements. Use of BPP theory shows that the field-correction time can be obtained if the rate of motion of the muon with respect to the rate of the motion for the protons is decreased. An independent spin-pair relaxation model indicates that the field-correlation time can be obtained if the rate of motion for the nearest-neighbor protons is decreased.

  16. Analytical Analysis of Motion Separability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Hadian Jazi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Motion segmentation is an important task in computer vision and several practical approaches have already been developed. A common approach to motion segmentation is to use the optical flow and formulate the segmentation problem using a linear approximation of the brightness constancy constraints. Although there are numerous solutions to solve this problem and their accuracies and reliabilities have been studied, the exact definition of the segmentation problem, its theoretical feasibility and the conditions for successful motion segmentation are yet to be derived. This paper presents a simplified theoretical framework for the prediction of feasibility, of segmentation of a two-dimensional linear equation system. A statistical definition of a separable motion (structure is presented and a relatively straightforward criterion for predicting the separability of two different motions in this framework is derived. The applicability of the proposed criterion for prediction of the existence of multiple motions in practice is examined using both synthetic and real image sequences. The prescribed separability criterion is useful in designing computer vision applications as it is solely based on the amount of relative motion and the scale of measurement noise.

  17. Motion Model Employment using interacting Motion Model Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents a simulation study to track a maneuvering target using a selective approach in choosing Interacting Multiple Models (IMM) algorithm to provide a wider coverage to track such targets.  Initially, there are two motion models in the system to track a target.  Probability of each...... model being correct is computed through a likelihood function for each model.  The study presented a simple technique to introduce additional models into the system using deterministic acceleration which basically defines the dynamics of the system.  Therefore, based on this value more motion models can...... be employed to increase the coverage.  Finally, the combined estimate is obtained using posteriori probabilities from different filter models.   The implemented approach provides an adaptive scheme for selecting various number of motion models.  Motion model description is important as it defines the kind...

  18. From fractional Brownian motion to multifractional and multistable motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, Kenneth

    2015-03-01

    Fractional Brownian motion, introduced by Benoit Mandelbrot and John Van Ness in 1968, has had a major impact on stochastic processes and their applications. We survey a few of the many developments that have stemmed from their ideas. In particular we discuss the local structure of fractional and multifractional Brownian, stable and multistable processes, emphasising the `diagonal' construction of such processes. In all this, the ubiquity and centrality of fractional Brownian motion is striking.

  19. Video-Based Motion Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Paul; Peterson, Joel; Arrighi, Julie

    2005-04-01

    Video-based motion analysis has recently become very popular in introductory physics classes. This paper outlines general recommendations regarding equipment and software; videography issues such as scaling, shutter speed, lighting, background, and camera distance; as well as other methodological aspects. Also described are the measurement and modeling of the gravitational, drag, and Magnus forces on 1) a spherical projectile undergoing one-dimensional motion and 2) a spinning spherical projectile undergoing motion within a plane. Measurement and correction methods are devised for four common, major sources of error: parallax, lens distortion, discretization, and improper scaling.

  20. Sparse MRI for motion correction

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Zai; Xie, Lihua

    2013-01-01

    MR image sparsity/compressibility has been widely exploited for imaging acceleration with the development of compressed sensing. A sparsity-based approach to rigid-body motion correction is presented for the first time in this paper. A motion is sought after such that the compensated MR image is maximally sparse/compressible among the infinite candidates. Iterative algorithms are proposed that jointly estimate the motion and the image content. The proposed method has a lot of merits, such as no need of additional data and loose requirement for the sampling sequence. Promising results are presented to demonstrate its performance.

  1. AN ANALYTICAL SOLUTION FOR CALCULATING THE INITIATION OF SEDIMENT MOTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thomas LUCKNER; Ulrich ZANKE

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical solution for calculating the initiation of sediment motion and the risk of river bed movement. It thus deals with a fundamental problem in sediment transport, for which no complete analytical solution has yet been found. The analytical solution presented here is based on forces acting on a single grain in state of initiation of sediment motion. The previous procedures for calculating the initiation of sediment motion are complemented by an innovative combination of optical surface measurement technology for determining geometrical parameters and their statistical derivation as well as a novel approach for determining the turbulence effects of velocity fluctuations. This two aspects and the comparison of the solution functions presented here with the well known data and functions of different authors mainly differ the presented solution model for calculating the initiation of sediment motion from previous approaches. The defined values of required geometrical parameters are based on hydraulically laboratory tests with spheres. With this limitations the derivated solution functions permit the calculation of the effective critical transport parameters of a single grain, the calculation of averaged critical parameters for describing the state of initiation of sediment motion on the river bed, the calculation of the probability density of the effective critical velocity as well as the calculation of the risk of river bed movement. The main advantage of the presented model is the closed analytical solution from the equilibrium of forces on a single grain to the solution functions describing the initiation of sediment motion.

  2. ALGORITHMS FOR TENNIS RACKET ANALYSIS BASED ON MOTION DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Skublewska-Paszkowska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Modern technologies, such as motion capture systems (both optical and markerless, are more and more frequently used for athlete performance analysis due to their great precision. Optical systems based on the retro-reflective markers allow for tracking motion of multiple objects of various types. These systems compute human kinetic and kinematic parameters based on biomechanical models. Tracking additional objects like a tennis racket is also a very important aspect for analysing the player’s technique and precision. The motion data gathered by motion capture systems may be used for analysing various aspects that may not be recognised by the human eye or a video camera. This paper presents algorithms for analysis of a tennis racket motion during two of the most important tennis strokes: forehand and backhand. An optical Vicon system was used for obtaining the motion data which was the input for the algorithms. They indicate: the velocity of a tennis racket’s head and the racket’s handle based on the trajectories of attached markers as well as the racket’s orientation. The algorithms were implemented and tested on the data obtained from a professional trainer who participated in the research and performed a series of ten strikes, separately for: 1 forehand without a ball, 2 backhand without a ball, 3 forehand with a ball and 4 backhand with a ball. The computed parameters are gathered in tables and visualised in a graph.

  3. Dance notations and robot motion

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, Naoko

    2016-01-01

    How and why to write a movement? Who is the writer? Who is the reader? They may be choreographers working with dancers. They may be roboticists programming robots. They may be artists designing cartoons in computer animation. In all such fields the purpose is to express an intention about a dance, a specific motion or an action to perform, in terms of intelligible sequences of elementary movements, as a music score that would be devoted to motion representation. Unfortunately there is no universal language to write a motion. Motion languages live together in a Babel tower populated by biomechanists, dance notators, neuroscientists, computer scientists, choreographers, roboticists. Each community handles its own concepts and speaks its own language. The book accounts for this diversity. Its origin is a unique workshop held at LAAS-CNRS in Toulouse in 2014. Worldwide representatives of various communities met there. Their challenge was to reach a mutual understanding allowing a choreographer to access robotics ...

  4. Weigh-in-Motion Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The data included in the GIS Traffic Stations Version database have been assimilated from station description files provided by FHWA for Weigh-in-Motion (WIM), and...

  5. Projectile Motion in Special Relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddy, Cory J.; Dudley, Scott C.; Haaland, Ryan K.

    2000-01-01

    Explains the motion that occurs when a particle with an initial velocity to the right is acted upon by a constant downward force. Considers what happens when the speed of the particle approaches the speed of light in particular. (WRM)

  6. Rolling motion in moving droplets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sumesh P Thampi; Rama Govindarajan

    2015-03-01

    Drops moving on a substrate under the action of gravity display both rolling and sliding motions. The two limits of a thin sheet-like drop in sliding motion on a surface, and a spherical drop in roll, have been extensively studied. We are interested in intermediate shapes. We quantify the contribution of rolling motion for any intermediate shape, and recently obtained a universal curve for the amount of roll as a function of a shape parameter using hybrid lattice Boltzmann simulations. In this paper, we discuss the linear relationship which is expected between the Capillary and Bond numbers, and provide detailed confirmation by simulations. We also show that the viscosity of the surrounding medium can qualitatively affect dynamics. Our results provide an answer to a natural question of whether drops roll or slide on a surface and carry implications for various applications where rolling motion may or may not be preferred.

  7. Molecular motion in restricted geometries

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Siddharth Gautam; S Mitra; R Mukhopadhyay

    2008-10-01

    Molecular dynamics in restricted geometries is known to exhibit anomalous behaviour. Diffusion, translational or rotational, of molecules is altered significantly on confinement in restricted geometries. Quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) offers a unique possibility of studying molecular motion in such systems. Both time scales involved in the motion and the geometry of motion can be studied using QENS. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation not only provides insight into the details of the different types of motion possible but also does not suffer limitations of the experimental set-up. Here we report the effect of confinement on molecular dynamics in various restricted geometries as studied by QENS and MD simulations: An example where the QENS technique provided direct evidence of phase transition associated with change in the dynamical behaviour of the molecules is also discussed.

  8. Brownian Motion, "Diverse and Undulating"

    CERN Document Server

    Duplantier, Bertrand

    2016-01-01

    We describe in detail the history of Brownian motion, as well as the contributions of Einstein, Sutherland, Smoluchowski, Bachelier, Perrin and Langevin to its theory. The always topical importance in physics of the theory of Brownian motion is illustrated by recent biophysical experiments, where it serves, for instance, for the measurement of the pulling force on a single DNA molecule. In a second part, we stress the mathematical importance of the theory of Brownian motion, illustrated by two chosen examples. The by-now classic representation of the Newtonian potential by Brownian motion is explained in an elementary way. We conclude with the description of recent progress seen in the geometry of the planar Brownian curve. At its heart lie the concepts of conformal invariance and multifractality, associated with the potential theory of the Brownian curve itself.

  9. Video summarization using motion descriptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divakaran, Ajay; Peker, Kadir A.; Sun, Huifang

    2001-01-01

    We describe a technique for video summarization that uses motion descriptors computed in the compressed domain to speed up conventional color based video summarization technique. The basic hypothesis of the work is that the intensity of motion activity of a video segment is a direct indication of its 'summarizability.' We present experimental verification of this hypothesis. We are thus able to quickly identify easy to summarize segments of a video sequence since they have a low intensity of motion activity. Moreover, the compressed domain extraction of motion activity intensity is much simpler than the color-based calculations. We are able to easily summarize these segments by simply choosing a key-frame at random from each low- activity segment. We can then apply conventional color-based summarization techniques to the remaining segments. We are thus able to speed up color-based summarization techniques by reducing the number of segments on which computationally more expensive color-based computation is needed.

  10. Is Diaphragm Motion a Good Surrogate for Liver Tumor Motion?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Juan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); School of Information Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong (China); Cai, Jing [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Wang, Hongjun [School of Information Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong (China); Chang, Zheng; Czito, Brian G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Bashir, Mustafa R. [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Palta, Manisha [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Yin, Fang-Fang, E-mail: fangfang.yin@duke.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the relationship between liver tumor motion and diaphragm motion. Methods and Materials: Fourteen patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (10 of 14) or liver metastases (4 of 14) undergoing radiation therapy were included in this study. All patients underwent single-slice cine–magnetic resonance imaging simulations across the center of the tumor in 3 orthogonal planes. Tumor and diaphragm motion trajectories in the superior–inferior (SI), anterior–posterior (AP), and medial–lateral (ML) directions were obtained using an in-house-developed normalized cross-correlation–based tracking technique. Agreement between the tumor and diaphragm motion was assessed by calculating phase difference percentage, intraclass correlation coefficient, and Bland-Altman analysis (Diff). The distance between the tumor and tracked diaphragm area was analyzed to understand its impact on the correlation between the 2 motions. Results: Of all patients, the mean (±standard deviation) phase difference percentage values were 7.1% ± 1.1%, 4.5% ± 0.5%, and 17.5% ± 4.5% in the SI, AP, and ML directions, respectively. The mean intraclass correlation coefficient values were 0.98 ± 0.02, 0.97 ± 0.02, and 0.08 ± 0.06 in the SI, AP, and ML directions, respectively. The mean Diff values were 2.8 ± 1.4 mm, 2.4 ± 1.1 mm, and 2.2 ± 0.5 mm in the SI, AP, and ML directions, respectively. Tumor and diaphragm motions had high concordance when the distance between the tumor and tracked diaphragm area was small. Conclusions: This study showed that liver tumor motion had good correlation with diaphragm motion in the SI and AP directions, indicating diaphragm motion in the SI and AP directions could potentially be used as a reliable surrogate for liver tumor motion.

  11. Poetry in motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Christiansen, Ellen Tove

    2012-01-01

    Motivation This study was motivated by an interest in understanding the new opportunities brought to use by App technologies available on mobile devices. In our qualitative analysis of interview data we used the concept of 'appropriation', and in doing so we realized that we needed to address both...... and in collaboration with others, people make the iPhone and its App-world their own to the extent that they use the phone as a port to exercising personal interests like poetry, Italian novels, planning and cookbooks; hence the title of this paper. A closer look shows that in doing so, the interviewees have expanded...... their scope of what activity is enabled by their iPhone. Research limitations/Implications Despite being an explorative study addressing only Danish users of iPhones and Apps, our findings suggest to take seriously the expansion of users' scope of activity and abandon the idea that use can be predicted...

  12. Analytical Analysis of Motion Separability

    OpenAIRE

    Marjan Hadian Jazi; Alireza Bab-Hadiashar; Reza Hoseinnezhad

    2013-01-01

    Motion segmentation is an important task in computer vision and several practical approaches have already been developed. A common approach to motion segmentation is to use the optical flow and formulate the segmentation problem using a linear approximation of the brightness constancy constraints. Although there are numerous solutions to solve this problem and their accuracies and reliabilities have been studied, the exact definition of the segmentation problem, its theoretical feasibility an...

  13. Solar Radiation and Asteroidal Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Klacka, J

    2000-01-01

    Effects of solar wind and solar electromagnetic radiation on motion of asteroids are discussed. The results complete the statements presented in Vokrouhlick\\'{y} and Milani (2000). As for the effect of electromagnetic radiation, the complete equation of motion is presented to the first order in $v/c$ -- the shape of asteroid (spherical body is explicitly presented) and surface distribution of albedo should be taken into account. Optical quantities must be calculated in proper frame of reference.

  14. Neural Basis of Motion Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-31

    Oxford University, England. 11. Interviewed on BBC television ("Antenna"). Debate with Daniel C. Dennett . Aired on August 8, 1992. 12. Interviewed on PBS...integrated approach to vision. We have had two goals in mind: (1) To develoN~onceptual links between neurophysiology and perception ; (2) Fo develop specific...range of new "natural constraints" that govern the perception of shape-from shading structure from motion and motion correspondence. Also, we have

  15. On the Crab Proper Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Caraveo, P A; Caraveo, Patrizia A; Mignani, Roberto

    1998-01-01

    Owing to the dramatic evolution of telescopes as well as optical detectors in the last 20 yrs, we are now able to measure anew the proper motion of the Crab pulsar, after the classical result of Wyckoff and Murray (1977) in a time span 40 times shorter. The proper motion is aligned with the axis of symmetry of the inner Crab nebula and, presumably, with the pulsar spin axis.

  16. The use of dual vacuum stabilization device to reduce kidney motion for stereotactic radiotherapy planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Daniel; Kron, Tomas; Styles, Colin; Whitaker, May; Bressel, Mathias; Foroudi, Farshad; Schneider, Michal; Devereux, Thomas; Dang, Kim; Siva, Shankar

    2015-04-01

    Abdominal stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy is aided by motion management strategies to ensure accurate dose delivery as targets such as the kidney are easily influenced by breathing motion. Commercial devices such as compression plates and dual vacuum technology have been demonstrated to reduce the motion of lung and liver tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a dual vacuum system in reducing kidney motion as well to investigate any relationship between abdominal wall motions with kidney motion. Ten healthy volunteers were set up with and without vacuum compression (Elekta BodyFIX(TM)) to simulate free and dampened breathing. Ultrasound imaging was used to visualize kidney motion at the same time an abdominal surface marker was monitored using infrared imaging (Varian, Real Time Position Management). The resulting kidney and abdominal motion tracks were imported into motion analysis (Physmo(TM)) and custom built software (Matlab) to calculate amplitude of motion independent of shifting baselines. Thirty-four kidney datasets were available for analysis, with six datasets unable to be retrieved. With vacuum compression six out of nine participants showed a mean reduction of kidney motion ranging between 1.6 and 8 mm (p vacuum compression. Two participants showed no significant change (Vacuum compression reduced kidney motion in the majority of participants; however larger breathing motion can also result from its use. No pattern emerged regarding which patients may benefit from vacuum immobilization as abdominal wall motion was not found to be an adequate surrogate for kidney motion. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Emergent Property in Macromolecular Motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴嘉麟

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the model of inverse cascade fractal super-blocks along one direction (in the positive or negative) in the 3-dimensional space is developed to describe the self-similar motion in macromolecular system. Microscopically the cohesive and dispersed states of the motion blocks are co-existent states with vastly different probability of occurrence.Experimental results and theoretical analysis show that the microscopic cohesive state energy and dispersed state energy of each motion block are respectively equal to the macroscopic glassy state energy kT8 and molten state energy kTm of the system. This singularity unveils topologically the nonintegrability, mathematically the anholonomy, and macroscopically the emergent property. This singularity also reveals that the glass, viscoelastic and melt states are three distinct emergent properties of macromolecular motion from a macroscopic viewpoint. The fractal concept of excluded volume is introduced to depict the random motion at various scales in the system. The Hausdorff dimensions of the excluded volune and the motion blocks are both found equal to 3/2.

  18. Golf Blue-e-Motion. The electric Volkswagen; Golf Blue-e-Motion. Der elektrische Volkswagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadler, Jens; Neusser, Heinz-Jakob; Jelden, Hanno; Lueck, Peter; Tousen, Jonas [Volkswagen AG, Wolfsburg (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    The particular challenges of our time require a consistent focus on the development activities of powertrain technologies with continuously reduced fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. The past years have seen many technological milestones by Volkswagen's Powertrain Development as illustrated by the exceptional success of the TSI and TDI engines as well as the double clutch transmissions. As a part of this comprehensive list of powertrain strategy, the development of drivetrains for alternative fuels, such as CNG, has also been included. With particular emphasis Volkswagen is pressing forward the electrification of the drivetrain with the goal of appealing to more customers through these new technologies. A milestone of the electrification activity is the Golf Blue-e-Motion, in which the comfort and especially the city driving performance are improved compared with the conventional vehicle. This driving performance is achieved by an electric drivetrain which consists of a permanent magnet synchronous electric motor together with associated power electronics and a Li-Ion battery. This presentation will pay particular attention to the characteristics of the drivetrain system and its components. The efficient powertrain including the recovering of braking energy (recuperation) as well as the attention paid on optimising all system components, has increased the driving range of the vehicle. Environmental awareness and driving pleasure - the electric drivetrain of the Golf Blue-e-Motion shows that these both requirements are possible to be realised by an electric drivetrain. (orig.)

  19. Recurrence plots and recurrence quantification analysis of human motion data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josiński, Henryk; Michalczuk, Agnieszka; Świtoński, Adam; Szczesna, Agnieszka; Wojciechowski, Konrad

    2016-06-01

    The authors present exemplary application of recurrence plots, cross recurrence plots and recurrence quantification analysis for the purpose of exploration of experimental time series describing selected aspects of human motion. Time series were extracted from treadmill gait sequences which were recorded in the Human Motion Laboratory (HML) of the Polish-Japanese Academy of Information Technology in Bytom, Poland by means of the Vicon system. Analysis was focused on the time series representing movements of hip, knee, ankle and wrist joints in the sagittal plane.

  20. WAVE - A European Research Project on Weigh-in-Motion

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob, Bernard; O'Brien, Eugene J.

    1996-01-01

    WAVE (Weigh-in-motion of Axles and Vehicles for Europe) is a research project, part-funded by the European Commission, with the objective of improving the accuracy and performance of Weigh-in-Motion (WIM) technology. It has a budget of the order of $ 2 million and will run from mid 1996 to mid 1998. It has close links and a substantial overlap of membership with COST323, a pan-European group with representatives from about 20 countries which coordinates nationally funded activi...

  1. The "motion silencing" illusion results from global motion and crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turi, Marco; Burr, David

    2013-04-18

    Suchow and Alvarez (2011) recently devised a striking illusion, where objects changing in color, luminance, size, or shape appear to stop changing when they move. They refer to the illusion as "motion silencing of awareness to visual change." Here we present evidence that the illusion results from two perceptual processes: global motion and crowding. We adapted Suchow and Alvarez's stimulus to three concentric rings of dots, a central ring of "target dots" flanked on either side by similarly moving flanker dots. Subjects had to identify in which of two presentations the target dots were continuously changing (sinusoidally) in size, as distinct from the other interval in which size was constant. The results show: (a) Motion silencing depends on target speed, with a threshold around 0.2 rotations per second (corresponding to about 10°/s linear motion). (b) Silencing depends on both target-flanker spacing and eccentricity, with critical spacing about half eccentricity, consistent with Bouma's law. (c) The critical spacing was independent of stimulus size, again consistent with Bouma's law. (d) Critical spacing depended strongly on contrast polarity. All results imply that the "motion silencing" illusion may result from crowding.

  2. Acromioclavicular motion after surgical reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Pierorazio; Bruno, Laura; Maderni, Alberto; Tosco, Piermario; Mariotti, Umberto

    2012-06-01

    A retrospective long-term study was carried out to determine whether there was any correlation between the clinical motion of the acromioclavicular joint evaluated by a test we set up using 90° of abduction and 0° of external rotation against resistance [90°/0°RTest] and the cross arm test (compared to the healthy side) and full return to everyday activities after surgical repair. A clinical and radiographic evaluation was carried out on 51/80 subjects at a 5.4-year mean follow-up, treated for acromioclavicular joint dislocation with an extra-articular artificial loop, between 2000 and 2006. The 25 subjects with ossifications obtained a normal acromioclavicular joint motion, on both the horizontal and vertical planes. There was a correlation between the normal motion of the reconstructed acromioclavicular joint (compared to the healthy side) in these 25 patients and full clinical recovery, whilst there was no correlation between the Constant score, the simple shoulder test, the radiographic evaluation on one hand and the clinical motion of the joint on the other. Two patients had recurrent dislocation. Three had mobilization of the screws without reduction loss, or negative clinical outcome. A postoperative radiographic evaluation should be correlated with a clinical evaluation of the acromioclavicular joint motion (normal, hypermobile, unstable). Normal acromioclavicular joint motion was observed in subjects who developed significant ossifications. The study shows that the clinical evaluation of acromioclavicular joint motion is a simple and trustworthy method to assess the clinical result of a surgical repair. Diagnostic study investigating a diagnostic test, Level III.

  3. Clinically acceptable agreement between the ViMove wireless motion sensor system and the Vicon motion capture system when measuring lumbar region inclination motion in the sagittal and coronal planes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mjøsund, Hanne Leirbekk; Boyle, Eleanor; Kjær, Per

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Wireless, wearable, inertial motion sensor technology introduces new possibilities for monitoring spinal motion and pain in people during their daily activities of work, rest and play. There are many types of these wireless devices currently available but the precision in measurement...... patterns in a clinical population, a sample of 34 people were included - 18 with low back pain and 16 without low back pain. ViMove sensors were attached to each participant's skin at spinal levels T12 and S2, and Vicon surface markers were attached to the ViMove sensors. Three repetitions of end...... and the magnitude of measurement error from such devices is often unknown. This study investigated the concurrent validity of one inertial motion sensor system (ViMove) for its ability to measure lumbar inclination motion, compared with the Vicon motion capture system. METHODS: To mimic the variability of movement...

  4. TU-F-BRB-03: Clinical Implementation of MR-Based Motion Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glide-Hurst, C. [Henry Ford Health System (United States)

    2015-06-15

    The current clinical standard of organ respiratory imaging, 4D-CT, is fundamentally limited by poor soft-tissue contrast and imaging dose. These limitations are potential barriers to beneficial “4D” radiotherapy methods which optimize the target and OAR dose-volume considering breathing motion but rely on a robust motion characterization. Conversely, MRI imparts no known radiation risk and has excellent soft-tissue contrast. MRI-based motion management is therefore highly desirable and holds great promise to improve radiotherapy of moving cancers, particularly in the abdomen. Over the past decade, MRI techniques have improved significantly, making MR-based motion management clinically feasible. For example, cine MRI has high temporal resolution up to 10 f/s and has been used to track and/or characterize tumor motion, study correlation between external and internal motions. New MR technologies, such as 4D-MRI and MRI hybrid treatment machines (i.e. MR-linac or MR-Co60), have been recently developed. These technologies can lead to more accurate target volume determination and more precise radiation dose delivery via direct tumor gating or tracking. Despite all these promises, great challenges exist and the achievable clinical benefit of MRI-based tumor motion management has yet to be fully explored, much less realized. In this proposal, we will review novel MR-based motion management methods and technologies, the state-of-the-art concerning MRI development and clinical application and the barriers to more widespread adoption. Learning Objectives: Discuss the need of MR-based motion management for improving patient care in radiotherapy. Understand MR techniques for motion imaging and tumor motion characterization. Understand the current state of the art and future steps for clinical integration. Henry Ford Health System holds research agreements with Philips Healthcare. Research sponsored in part by a Henry Ford Health System Internal Mentored Grant.

  5. TU-F-BRB-02: Motion Artifacts and Suppression in MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, X. [Siemens (Germany)

    2015-06-15

    The current clinical standard of organ respiratory imaging, 4D-CT, is fundamentally limited by poor soft-tissue contrast and imaging dose. These limitations are potential barriers to beneficial “4D” radiotherapy methods which optimize the target and OAR dose-volume considering breathing motion but rely on a robust motion characterization. Conversely, MRI imparts no known radiation risk and has excellent soft-tissue contrast. MRI-based motion management is therefore highly desirable and holds great promise to improve radiotherapy of moving cancers, particularly in the abdomen. Over the past decade, MRI techniques have improved significantly, making MR-based motion management clinically feasible. For example, cine MRI has high temporal resolution up to 10 f/s and has been used to track and/or characterize tumor motion, study correlation between external and internal motions. New MR technologies, such as 4D-MRI and MRI hybrid treatment machines (i.e. MR-linac or MR-Co60), have been recently developed. These technologies can lead to more accurate target volume determination and more precise radiation dose delivery via direct tumor gating or tracking. Despite all these promises, great challenges exist and the achievable clinical benefit of MRI-based tumor motion management has yet to be fully explored, much less realized. In this proposal, we will review novel MR-based motion management methods and technologies, the state-of-the-art concerning MRI development and clinical application and the barriers to more widespread adoption. Learning Objectives: Discuss the need of MR-based motion management for improving patient care in radiotherapy. Understand MR techniques for motion imaging and tumor motion characterization. Understand the current state of the art and future steps for clinical integration. Henry Ford Health System holds research agreements with Philips Healthcare. Research sponsored in part by a Henry Ford Health System Internal Mentored Grant.

  6. TU-F-BRB-01: Resolving and Characterizing Breathing Motion for Radiotherapy with MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tryggestad, E. [Mayo Clinic (United States)

    2015-06-15

    The current clinical standard of organ respiratory imaging, 4D-CT, is fundamentally limited by poor soft-tissue contrast and imaging dose. These limitations are potential barriers to beneficial “4D” radiotherapy methods which optimize the target and OAR dose-volume considering breathing motion but rely on a robust motion characterization. Conversely, MRI imparts no known radiation risk and has excellent soft-tissue contrast. MRI-based motion management is therefore highly desirable and holds great promise to improve radiotherapy of moving cancers, particularly in the abdomen. Over the past decade, MRI techniques have improved significantly, making MR-based motion management clinically feasible. For example, cine MRI has high temporal resolution up to 10 f/s and has been used to track and/or characterize tumor motion, study correlation between external and internal motions. New MR technologies, such as 4D-MRI and MRI hybrid treatment machines (i.e. MR-linac or MR-Co60), have been recently developed. These technologies can lead to more accurate target volume determination and more precise radiation dose delivery via direct tumor gating or tracking. Despite all these promises, great challenges exist and the achievable clinical benefit of MRI-based tumor motion management has yet to be fully explored, much less realized. In this proposal, we will review novel MR-based motion management methods and technologies, the state-of-the-art concerning MRI development and clinical application and the barriers to more widespread adoption. Learning Objectives: Discuss the need of MR-based motion management for improving patient care in radiotherapy. Understand MR techniques for motion imaging and tumor motion characterization. Understand the current state of the art and future steps for clinical integration. Henry Ford Health System holds research agreements with Philips Healthcare. Research sponsored in part by a Henry Ford Health System Internal Mentored Grant.

  7. TU-F-BRB-00: MRI-Based Motion Management for RT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-06-15

    The current clinical standard of organ respiratory imaging, 4D-CT, is fundamentally limited by poor soft-tissue contrast and imaging dose. These limitations are potential barriers to beneficial “4D” radiotherapy methods which optimize the target and OAR dose-volume considering breathing motion but rely on a robust motion characterization. Conversely, MRI imparts no known radiation risk and has excellent soft-tissue contrast. MRI-based motion management is therefore highly desirable and holds great promise to improve radiotherapy of moving cancers, particularly in the abdomen. Over the past decade, MRI techniques have improved significantly, making MR-based motion management clinically feasible. For example, cine MRI has high temporal resolution up to 10 f/s and has been used to track and/or characterize tumor motion, study correlation between external and internal motions. New MR technologies, such as 4D-MRI and MRI hybrid treatment machines (i.e. MR-linac or MR-Co60), have been recently developed. These technologies can lead to more accurate target volume determination and more precise radiation dose delivery via direct tumor gating or tracking. Despite all these promises, great challenges exist and the achievable clinical benefit of MRI-based tumor motion management has yet to be fully explored, much less realized. In this proposal, we will review novel MR-based motion management methods and technologies, the state-of-the-art concerning MRI development and clinical application and the barriers to more widespread adoption. Learning Objectives: Discuss the need of MR-based motion management for improving patient care in radiotherapy. Understand MR techniques for motion imaging and tumor motion characterization. Understand the current state of the art and future steps for clinical integration. Henry Ford Health System holds research agreements with Philips Healthcare. Research sponsored in part by a Henry Ford Health System Internal Mentored Grant.

  8. Motion perception modelling in flight simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, E.L.; Hosman, R.J.A.W.; Bos, J.E.; Dominicus, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Motion cueing algorithms are indispensable to transform aircraft motions into simulator motions. Usually, such algorithms apply to the whole flight envelope. Since a motion base should stay within its six degrees of freedom workspace, the parameter settings necessarily involve concessions, which may

  9. Estimation of visual motion in image sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus

    1994-01-01

    The problem of estimation of visual motion from sequences of images has been considered within a framework consisting of three stages of processing. First the extraction of motion invariants, secondly a local measurement of visual motion, and third integration of local measurements in conjunction...... satellite images based on the estimated motion field is shown....

  10. Rotorcraft Research at the NASA Vertical Motion Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aponso, Bimal Lalith; Tran, Duc T.; Schroeder, Jeffrey A.

    2009-01-01

    In the 1970 s the role of the military helicopter evolved to encompass more demanding missions including low-level nap-of-the-earth flight and operation in severely degraded visual environments. The Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) at the NASA Ames Research Center was built to provide a high-fidelity simulation capability to research new rotorcraft concepts and technologies that could satisfy these mission requirements. The VMS combines a high-fidelity large amplitude motion system with an adaptable simulation environment including interchangeable and configurable cockpits. In almost 30 years of operation, rotorcraft research on the VMS has contributed significantly to the knowledge-base on rotorcraft performance, handling qualities, flight control, and guidance and displays. These contributions have directly benefited current rotorcraft programs and flight safety. The high fidelity motion system in the VMS was also used to research simulation fidelity. This research provided a fundamental understanding of pilot cueing modalities and their effect on simulation fidelity.

  11. Scanning Motion; Opto-Mechanical Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Roger S.

    1988-11-01

    The field of electro-optics has grown enormously in the last 25 years. As a consequence, both optics and optical engineering have mushroomed. The mechanical engineer, during this period, has been patiently providing the necessary support technology to achieve precision instrument design. Within the last 5 years, the discipline of opto-mechanical engineering has been emerging as a driving force to channel information to the precision mechanical engineer. In an overview article, "Opto-Mechanical Instrument Design", one of the key subtopics is "Scanning Motion." This paper is about that subtopic, specifically directed to the precision mechanical engineer and his involvement with Mirror Scanning Motion Systems. The purpose of this paper is to inform the mechanical engineer as to the many considerations necessary during the design and development of a precision instrument. The logical starting point will be the fundamentals for opto-mechanical engineering as established by Dan Vukobratovich. The glossary at the end is an attempt to define many of the terms in his notes, plus any others that have arisen. These definitions are not for the physicist, electrical engineer, or mathematician, but for the mechanical engineer. The body of this paper covers over fifty papers which can be located by using the key words "mirror" and "scanning" and limiting the search to the past 5 years.

  12. Hybrid Motion Graphs for Character Animation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalouache Saida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many works in the literature have improved the performance of motion graphs for synthesis the humanlike results in limited domains that necessity few constraints like dance, navigation in small game like environments or in games by the gesture of feedback on a snowboard tutorial. The humanlike cannot exist in an environment without interacting with the world surrounding them; the naturalness of the entire motion extremely depends on the animation of the walking character, the chosen path and the interaction motions. Addressing exact position of end-effectors is the main disadvantage of motion graphs which cause less importance expended to the search for motions with no collision in complex environments or manipulating motions. This fact motivates this approach which is the proposition of an hybrid motion graphs taking advantages of motion graphs to synthesis a natural locomotion and overcoming their limitations in synthesis manipulation motions by combined it with an inverse kinematic method for synthesis the upper-body motions.

  13. Types of diaphragmatic motion during hepatic angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuda, T; Kuroda, C; Fujita, M

    1997-01-01

    To determine the types and causes of diaphragmatic motion during hepatic angiography, the authors used transarterial cut-film portography (TAP) to study movement of the diaphragm during breath-holding. Thirty-three TAP sequences were studied, and the patients' diaphragmatic motions were classified into four categories according to the distance their diaphragms moved. Results showed that the diaphragm was stationary in 33% of the TAP studies, while perpetual motion occurred in 15% of the studies, early-phase motion occurred in 12% and late-phase motion occurred in 40%. Ten sequences showed diaphragmatic motion of more than 10 mm, with eight sequences showing caudal motion and two showing cranial motion. This article discusses the cause of diaphragmatic motion during breath-holding for hepatic angiography and presents suggestions to reduce motion artifacts during the exam.

  14. Prediction and classification of respiratory motion

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Suk Jin

    2014-01-01

    This book describes recent radiotherapy technologies including tools for measuring target position during radiotherapy and tracking-based delivery systems. This book presents a customized prediction of respiratory motion with clustering from multiple patient interactions. The proposed method contributes to the improvement of patient treatments by considering breathing pattern for the accurate dose calculation in radiotherapy systems. Real-time tumor-tracking, where the prediction of irregularities becomes relevant, has yet to be clinically established. The statistical quantitative modeling for irregular breathing classification, in which commercial respiration traces are retrospectively categorized into several classes based on breathing pattern are discussed as well. The proposed statistical classification may provide clinical advantages to adjust the dose rate before and during the external beam radiotherapy for minimizing the safety margin. In the first chapter following the Introduction  to this book, we...

  15. Theoretical motions of hydrofoil systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imlay, Frederick H

    1948-01-01

    Results are presented of an investigation that has been undertaken to develop theoretical methods of treating the motions of hydrofoil systems and to determine some of the important parameters. Variations of parameters include three distributions of area between the hydrofoils, two rates of change of downwash angle with angle of attack, three depths of immersion, two dihedral angles, two rates of change of lift with immersion, three longitudinal hydrofoil spacings, two radii of gyration in pitching, and various horizontal and vertical locations of the center of gravity. Graphs are presented to show locations of the center of gravity for stable motion, values of the stability roots, and motions following the sudden application of a vertical force or a pitching moment to the hydrofoil system for numerous sets of values of the parameters.

  16. Robot Motion and Control 2011

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Robot Motion Control 2011 presents very recent results in robot motion and control. Forty short papers have been chosen from those presented at the sixth International Workshop on Robot Motion and Control held in Poland in June 2011. The authors of these papers have been carefully selected and represent leading institutions in this field. The following recent developments are discussed: • Design of trajectory planning schemes for holonomic and nonholonomic systems with optimization of energy, torque limitations and other factors. • New control algorithms for industrial robots, nonholonomic systems and legged robots. • Different applications of robotic systems in industry and everyday life, like medicine, education, entertainment and others. • Multiagent systems consisting of mobile and flying robots with their applications The book is suitable for graduate students of automation and robotics, informatics and management, mechatronics, electronics and production engineering systems as well as scientists...

  17. Piezoelectric step-motion actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentesana; Charles P.

    2006-10-10

    A step-motion actuator using piezoelectric material to launch a flight mass which, in turn, actuates a drive pawl to progressively engage and drive a toothed wheel or rod to accomplish stepped motion. Thus, the piezoelectric material converts electrical energy into kinetic energy of the mass, and the drive pawl and toothed wheel or rod convert the kinetic energy of the mass into the desired rotary or linear stepped motion. A compression frame may be secured about the piezoelectric element and adapted to pre-compress the piezoelectric material so as to reduce tensile loads thereon. A return spring may be used to return the mass to its resting position against the compression frame or piezoelectric material following launch. Alternative embodiment are possible, including an alternative first embodiment wherein two masses are launched in substantially different directions, and an alternative second embodiment wherein the mass is eliminated in favor of the piezoelectric material launching itself.

  18. Mental imagery of gravitational motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravano, Silvio; Zago, Myrka; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    2017-10-01

    There is considerable evidence that gravitational acceleration is taken into account in the interaction with falling targets through an internal model of Earth gravity. Here we asked whether this internal model is accessed also when target motion is imagined rather than real. In the main experiments, naïve participants grasped an imaginary ball, threw it against the ceiling, and caught it on rebound. In different blocks of trials, they had to imagine that the ball moved under terrestrial gravity (1g condition) or under microgravity (0g) as during a space flight. We measured the speed and timing of the throwing and catching actions, and plotted ball flight duration versus throwing speed. Best-fitting duration-speed curves estimate the laws of ball motion implicit in the participant's performance. Surprisingly, we found duration-speed curves compatible with 0g for both the imaginary 0g condition and the imaginary 1g condition, despite the familiarity with Earth gravity effects and the added realism of performing the throwing and catching actions. In a control experiment, naïve participants were asked to throw the imaginary ball vertically upwards at different heights, without hitting the ceiling, and to catch it on its way down. All participants overestimated ball flight durations relative to the durations predicted by the effects of Earth gravity. Overall, the results indicate that mental imagery of motion does not have access to the internal model of Earth gravity, but resorts to a simulation of visual motion. Because visual processing of accelerating/decelerating motion is poor, visual imagery of motion at constant speed or slowly varying speed appears to be the preferred mode to perform the tasks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Alpha motion based on a motion detector, but not on the Müller-Lyer illusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masahiro

    2014-07-01

    This study examined the mechanism of alpha motion, the apparent motion of the Müller-Lyer figure's shaft that occurs when the arrowheads and arrow tails are alternately presented. The following facts were found: (a) reduced exposure duration decreased the amount of alpha motion, and this phenomenon was not explainable by the amount of the Müller-Lyer illusion; (b) the motion aftereffect occurred after adaptation to alpha motion; (c) occurrence of alpha motion became difficult when the temporal frequency increased, and this characteristic of alpha motion was similar to the characteristic of a motion detector that motion detection became difficult when the temporal frequency increased from the optimal frequency. These findings indicated that alpha motion occurs on the basis of a motion detector but not on the Müller-Lyer illusion, and that the mechanism of alpha motion is the same as that of general motion perception.

  20. Biological Motion Perception in Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Cusack

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Typically developing adults can readily recognize human actions, even when conveyed to them via point-like markers placed on the body of the actor (Johansson, 1973. Previous research has suggested that children affected by autism spectrum disorder (ASD are not equally sensitive to this type of visual information (Blake et al, 2003, but it remains unknown why ASD would impact the ability to perceive biological motion. We present evidence which looks at how adolescents and adults with autism are affected by specific factors which are important in biological motion perception, such as (eg, inter-agent synchronicity, upright/inverted, etc.

  1. Wave motion in elastic solids

    CERN Document Server

    Graff, Karl F

    1991-01-01

    This highly useful textbook presents comprehensive intermediate-level coverage of nearly all major topics of elastic wave propagation in solids. The subjects range from the elementary theory of waves and vibrations in strings to the three-dimensional theory of waves in thick plates. The book is designed not only for a wide audience of engineering students, but also as a general reference for workers in vibrations and acoustics. Chapters 1-4 cover wave motion in the simple structural shapes, namely strings, longitudinal rod motion, beams and membranes, plates and (cylindrical) shells. Chapter

  2. STORYBOARD DALAM PEMBUATAN MOTION GRAPHIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satrya Mahardhika

    2013-09-01

    screenplay, character, environment design and storyboards. The storyboard will be determined through camera angles, blocking, sets, and many supporting roles involved in a scene. Storyboard is also useful as a production reference in recording or taping each scene in sequence or as an efficient priority. The example used is an ad creation using motion graphic animation storyboard which has an important role as a blueprint for every scene and giving instructions to make the transition movement, layout, blocking, and defining camera movement that everything should be done periodically in animation production. Planning before making the animation or motion graphic will make the job more organized, presentable, and more efficient in the process.

  3. A Countermeasure for Space Motion Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke, M. F.; Somers, J. T.; Leigh, R. J.; Jones, G. Melvill

    2006-01-01

    Overall, the results obtained in both the U.S. and the Russian space programs indicate that most space crews will experience some symptoms of motion sickness (MS) causing significant impact on the operational objectives that must be accomplished to assure mission success. At this time the primary countermeasure for MS requires the administration of Promethazine. Promethazine is not a benign drug, and is most frequently administered just prior to the sleep cycle to prevent its side effects from further compromising mission objectives. Clearly other countermeasures for SMS must be developed. Currently the primary focus is on two different technologies: (1) developing new and different pharmacological compounds with less significant side effects, (2) preflight training. The primary problem with all of these methods for controlling MS is time. New drugs that may be beneficial are years from testing and development, and preflight training requires a significant investment of crew time during an already intensive pre-launch schedule. Granted, motion sickness symptoms can be minimized with either of the two methods detailed above, however, it may be possible to develop a countermeasure that does not require either extensive adaptation time or exposure to motion sickness. Approximately 25 years ago Professor Geoffrey Melvill Jones presented his work on adaptation of the vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) using optically reversed vision (left-right prisms) during head rotations in the horizontal plane. It was of no surprise that most subjects experienced motion sickness while wearing the optically reversing prisms. However, a serendipitous finding emerged during this research showing that the same subjects did not experience motion sickness symptoms when wearing the reversing prisms under stroboscopic illumination. The mechanism, by which this side-effect was believed to have occurred, is not clearly understood. However, the fact that no motion sickness was ever noted, suggests

  4. Inquiry style interactive virtual experiments: a case on circular motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Shaona; Wang Xiaojun; Xiao Hua [School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Han Jing; Pelz, Nathaniel; Peng Liangyu; Bao Lei, E-mail: xiaoh@scnu.edu.cn, E-mail: lbao@mps.ohio-state.edu [Department of Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Interest in computer-based learning, especially in the use of virtual reality simulations is increasing rapidly. While there are good reasons to believe that technologies have the potential to improve teaching and learning, how to utilize the technology effectively in teaching specific content difficulties is challenging. To help students develop robust understandings of correct physics concepts, we have developed interactive virtual experiment simulations that have the unique feature of enabling students to experience force and motion via an analogue joystick, allowing them to feel the applied force and simultaneously see its effects. The simulations provide students learning experiences that integrate both scientific representations and low-level sensory cues such as haptic cues under a single setting. In this paper, we introduce a virtual experiment module on circular motion. A controlled study has been conducted to evaluate the impact of using this virtual experiment on students' learning of force and motion in the context of circular motion. The results show that the interactive virtual experiment method is preferred by students and is more effective in helping students grasp the physics concepts than the traditional education method such as problem-solving practices. Our research suggests that well-developed interactive virtual experiments can be useful tools in teaching difficult concepts in science.

  5. Intraventricular flow alterations due to dyssynchronous wall motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Audrey M.; Lai, Hong Kuan; Samaee, Milad; Santhanakrishnan, Arvind

    2015-11-01

    Roughly 30% of patients with systolic heart failure suffer from left ventricular dyssynchrony (LVD), in which mechanical discoordination of the ventricle walls leads to poor hemodynamics and suboptimal cardiac function. There is currently no clear mechanistic understanding of how abnormalities in septal-lateral (SL) wall motion affects left ventricle (LV) function, which is needed to improve the treatment of LVD using cardiac resynchronization therapy. We use an experimental flow phantom with an LV physical model to study mechanistic effects of SL wall motion delay on LV function. To simulate mechanical LVD, two rigid shafts were coupled to two segments (apical and mid sections) along the septal wall of the LV model. Flow through the LV model was driven using a piston pump, and stepper motors coupled to the above shafts were used to locally perturb the septal wall segments relative to the pump motion. 2D PIV was used to examine the intraventricular flow through the LV physical model. Alterations to SL delay results in a reduction in the kinetic energy (KE) of the flow field compared to synchronous SL motion. The effect of varying SL motion delay from 0% (synchronous) to 100% (out-of-phase) on KE and viscous dissipation will be presented. This research was supported by the Oklahoma Center for Advancement of Science and Technology (HR14-022).

  6. Options for assessing and measuring chest wall motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Assessing chest wall motion is a basic and vital component in managing the child with respiratory problems, whether these are due to pathology in the lungs, airways, chest wall or muscles. Since the 1960s, clinical assessment has been supplemented with an ever-growing range of technological options for measuring chest wall motion, each with unique advantages and disadvantages. Measurements of chest wall motion can be used to: (1) Assess respiratory airflow and volume change, as a non-invasive alternative to measurement at the airway opening, (2) Monitor breathing over long periods of time, to identify apnoea and other types of sleep-disordered breathing, (3)Identify and quantify patterns of abnormal chest wall movement, whether between ribcage and abdominal components (thoracoabdominal asynchrony) or between different regions of the ribcage (eg in scoliosis and pectus excavatum). Measuring chest wall motion allows us to do things which simply cannot be done by more mainstream respiratory function techniques measuring flow at the airway opening: it allows respiratory airflow to be measured when it would otherwise be impossible, and it tells us how the different parts of the chest wall (eg ribcage vs abdomen, right vs left) are moving in order to generate that airflow. The basis of the different techniques available to assess and measure chest wall motion will be reviewed and compared, and their relevance to paediatric respiratory practice assessed.

  7. Fluids in motion: Contemporary artScience- inspiration and realization

    CERN Document Server

    Zabusky, Norman

    2013-01-01

    I examine contemporary work in fluids in motion to demonstrate strong connections between art, science and technology. In one burgeoning domain, falling liquid drops impacting solid substrates or pools it is valuable to compare how artists and scientists describe their goals and their use of high speed digital photography to capture and measure events. I also examine the use of devices beyond paint brushes to create pictures and views, including installations and projections from computer simulations. In particular, Ned Kahn whose installations in the public domain show various fluids in motion - water, sand, fog, fire as turbulent boundary layers, vortex rings, whirlpools, waterfalls, etc. Finally, I examine aspects of the role of digital technology and its utilization by artists, museums and galleries for innovative displays.

  8. How Does Force Affect Motion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    Whether playing soccer at recess, walking to lunch, or sitting at their desk, children encounter forces every moment of their lives. The connection between force and motion is absolutely amazing to children, so anyone working with them better be prepared for the battery of tough questions they ask: "What made the ball move that way? Why does a…

  9. Pendulum Motion and Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Thomas F.; King, Stephen C.

    2009-01-01

    A common example of real-world motion that can be modeled by a differential equation, and one easily understood by the student, is the simple pendulum. Simplifying assumptions are necessary for closed-form solutions to exist, and frequently there is little discussion of the impact if those assumptions are not met. This article presents a…

  10. Projectile Motion Gets the Hose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, John Eric; Liyanage, Chinthaka

    2011-01-01

    Students take a weekly quiz in our introductory physics course. During the week in which material focused on projectile motion, we not-so-subtly suggested what problem the students would see on the quiz. The quiz problem was an almost exact replica of a homework problem we worked through in the class preceding the quiz. The goal of the problem is…

  11. Motion psychophysics: 1985-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, David; Thompson, Peter

    2011-07-01

    This review traces progress made in the field of visual motion research from 1985 through to 2010. While it is certainly not exhaustive, it attempts to cover most of the major achievements during that period, and speculate on where the field is heading. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Novice Rules for Projectile Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, David P.

    1988-01-01

    Investigates several aspects of undergraduate students' rules for projectile motion including general patterns; rules for questions about time, distance, solids and liquids; and changes in rules when asked to ignore air resistance. Reports approach differences by sex and high school physics experience, and that novice rules are situation…

  13. VVV High Proper Motion Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Gromadzki, M; Folkes, S; Beamin, J C; Ramirez, K Pena; Borissova, J; Pinfield, D; Jones, H; Minniti, D; Ivanov, V D

    2013-01-01

    Here we present survey of proper motion stars towards the Galactic Bulge and an adjacent plane region base on VISTA-VVV data. The searching method based on cross-matching photometric Ks-band CASU catalogs. The most interesting discoveries are shown.

  14. Broadband Synthetic Ground Motion Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The dataset contains broadband synthetic ground motion records for three events: 1) 1994 M6.7 Northridge, CA, 2) 1989 M7.0 Loma Prieta, CA, and 3) 1999 M7.5 Izmit,...

  15. Pendulum Motion and Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Thomas F.; King, Stephen C.

    2009-01-01

    A common example of real-world motion that can be modeled by a differential equation, and one easily understood by the student, is the simple pendulum. Simplifying assumptions are necessary for closed-form solutions to exist, and frequently there is little discussion of the impact if those assumptions are not met. This article presents a…

  16. Estimation of Motion Vector Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to the estimation of 2-D motion vector fields from time varying image sequences. We use a piecewise smooth model based on coupled vector/binary Markov random fields. We find the maximum a posteriori solution by simulated annealing. The algorithm generate sample...

  17. Radiation camera motion correction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffer, P.B.

    1973-12-18

    The device determines the ratio of the intensity of radiation received by a radiation camera from two separate portions of the object. A correction signal is developed to maintain this ratio at a substantially constant value and this correction signal is combined with the camera signal to correct for object motion. (Official Gazette)

  18. Storyboard dalam Pembuatan Motion Graphic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satrya Mahardhika

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Motion graphics is one category in the animation that makes animation with lots of design elements in each component. Motion graphics needs long process including preproduction, production, and postproduction. Preproduction has an important role so that the next stage may provide guidance or instructions for the production process or the animation process. Preproduction includes research, making the story, script, screenplay, character, environment design and storyboards. The storyboard will be determined through camera angles, blocking, sets, and many supporting roles involved in a scene. Storyboard is also useful as a production reference in recording or taping each scene in sequence or as an efficient priority. The example used is an ad creation using motion graphic animation storyboard which has an important role as a blueprint for every scene and giving instructions to make the transition movement, layout, blocking, and defining camera movement that everything should be done periodically in animation production. Planning before making the animation or motion graphic will make the job more organized, presentable, and more efficient in the process.  

  19. Methods for Structure from Motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanæs, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    the factorization approach, relaxing the rigidity constrains, and in considering alternative ways of solving the surface estimation problem. In Danish: Structure from motion problematikken beskæftiger sig med at estimere 3D struktur fra 2D afbildninger heraf. Denne problemstilling er en af de mest populære og...

  20. Faraday's Law and Seawater Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, R.

    2010-01-01

    Using Faraday's law, one can illustrate how an electromotive force generator, directly utilizing seawater motion, works. The conceptual device proposed is rather simple in its components and can be built in any high school or college laboratory. The description of the way in which the device generates an electromotive force can be instructive not…

  1. Modeling and synthesis of strong ground motion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S T G Raghu Kanth

    2008-11-01

    Success of earthquake resistant design practices critically depends on how accurately the future ground motion can be determined at a desired site. But very limited recorded data are available about ground motion in India for engineers to rely upon. To identify the needs of engineers, under such circumstances, in estimating ground motion time histories, this article presents a detailed review of literature on modeling and synthesis of strong ground motion data. In particular, modeling of seismic sources and earth medium, analytical and empirical Green’s functions approaches for ground motion simulation, stochastic models for strong motion and ground motion relations are covered. These models can be used to generate realistic near-field and far-field ground motion in regions lacking strong motion data. Numerical examples are shown for illustration by taking Kutch earthquake-2001 as a case study.

  2. Modal-Power-Based Haptic Motion Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, Yusuke; Shimono, Tomoyuki; Kuwahara, Hiroaki; Sato, Masataka; Ohnishi, Kouhei

    Motion recognition based on sensory information is important for providing assistance to human using robots. Several studies have been carried out on motion recognition based on image information. However, in the motion of humans contact with an object can not be evaluated precisely by image-based recognition. This is because the considering force information is very important for describing contact motion. In this paper, a modal-power-based haptic motion recognition is proposed; modal power is considered to reveal information on both position and force. Modal power is considered to be one of the defining features of human motion. A motion recognition algorithm based on linear discriminant analysis is proposed to distinguish between similar motions. Haptic information is extracted using a bilateral master-slave system. Then, the observed motion is decomposed in terms of primitive functions in a modal space. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  3. Technologies for Medical Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Tavares, João; Barbosa, Marcos; Slade, AP

    2012-01-01

    This book presents novel and advanced technologies for medical sciences in order to solidify knowledge in the related fields and define their key stakeholders.   The fifteen papers included in this book were written by invited experts of international stature and address important technologies for medical sciences, including: computational modeling and simulation, image processing and analysis, medical imaging, human motion and posture, tissue engineering, design and development medical devices, and mechanic biology. Different applications are treated in such diverse fields as biomechanical studies, prosthesis and orthosis, medical diagnosis, sport, and virtual reality.   This book is of interest to researchers, students and manufacturers from  a wide range of disciplines related to bioengineering, biomechanics, computational mechanics, computational vision, human motion, mathematics, medical devices, medical image, medicine and physics.

  4. Visual Technology Research Simulator, Visual and Motion System Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    Flow ...... ................... ... 33 111-3 Platform Pitch Software...35 111-4 Pitch Gravity Align Due to Aircraft Longitudinal *..... 35 Acceleration...Step Input. ......... ..... ... 35 II1-5 Pitch Gravity Align Due to Aircraft Longitudinal Acceleration Step Input ..... .................. ... 36 111...limiting during conditions of excessive pitch. e. Aircraft longitudinal acceleration - This parameter drives the gravity align term by generating a

  5. Harmonic functions on Walsh's Brownian motion

    OpenAIRE

    Jehring, Kristin Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    In this dissertation we examine a variation of two- dimensional Brownian motion introduced in 1978 by Walsh. Walsh's Brownian motion can be described as a Brownian motion on the spokes of a (rimless) bicycle wheel. We will construct such a process by randomly assigning an angle to the excursions of a reflecting Brownian motion from 0. With this construction we see that Walsh's Brownian motion in R² behaves like one-dimensional Brownian motion away from the origin, but at the origin behaves di...

  6. A Motion Planning Approach to Studying Molecular Motions

    KAUST Repository

    Amato, Nancy M.

    2010-01-01

    While structurally very different, protein and RNA molecules share an important attribute. The motions they undergo are strongly related to the function they perform. For example, many diseases such as Mad Cow disease or Alzheimer\\'s disease are associated with protein misfolding and aggregation. Similarly, RNA folding velocity may regulate the plasmid copy number, and RNA folding kinetics can regulate gene expression at the translational level. Knowledge of the stability, folding, kinetics and detailed mechanics of the folding process may help provide insight into how proteins and RNAs fold. In this paper, we present an overview of our work with a computational method we have adapted from robotic motion planning to study molecular motions. We have validated against experimental data and have demonstrated that our method can capture biological results such as stochastic folding pathways, population kinetics of various conformations, and relative folding rates. Thus, our method provides both a detailed view (e.g., individual pathways) and a global view (e.g., population kinetics, relative folding rates, and reaction coordinates) of energy landscapes of both proteins and RNAs. We have validated these techniques by showing that we observe the same relative folding rates as shown in experiments for structurally similar protein molecules that exhibit different folding behaviors. Our analysis has also been able to predict the same relative gene expression rate for wild-type MS2 phage RNA and three of its mutants.

  7. Two-character motion analysis and synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Taesoo; Cho, Young-Sang; Park, Sang Il; Shin, Sung Yong

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we deal with the problem of synthesizing novel motions of standing-up martial arts such as Kickboxing, Karate, and Taekwondo performed by a pair of human-like characters while reflecting their interactions. Adopting an example-based paradigm, we address three non-trivial issues embedded in this problem: motion modeling, interaction modeling, and motion synthesis. For the first issue, we present a semi-automatic motion labeling scheme based on force-based motion segmentation and learning-based action classification. We also construct a pair of motion transition graphs each of which represents an individual motion stream. For the second issue, we propose a scheme for capturing the interactions between two players. A dynamic Bayesian network is adopted to build a motion transition model on top of the coupled motion transition graph that is constructed from an example motion stream. For the last issue, we provide a scheme for synthesizing a novel sequence of coupled motions, guided by the motion transition model. Although the focus of the present work is on martial arts, we believe that the framework of the proposed approach can be conveyed to other two-player motions as well.

  8. Inertial motion capture system for biomechanical analysis in pressure suits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Capua, Massimiliano

    . The focus of these evaluations was to quantify the reduction in mobility when operating in any of the evaluated pressure suits. This data should be of value in defining new low cost alternatives for pressure suit performance verification and evaluation. This work demonstrates that the BPMS technology is a viable alternative or companion to optical motion capture; while BPMS is the first motion capture system that has been designed specifically to measure the kinematics of a human in a pressure suit, its capabilities are not constrained to just being a measurement tool. The last section of the manuscript is devoted to future possible uses for the system, with a specific focus on pressure suit applications such in the use of BPMS as a master control interface for robot teleoperation, as well as an input interface for future robotically augmented pressure suits.

  9. Deficient Biological Motion Perception in Schizophrenia: Results from a Motion Noise Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jejoong eKim

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Schizophrenia patients exhibit deficient processing of perceptual and cognitive information. However, it is not well understood how basic perceptual deficits contribute to higher level cognitive problems in this mental disorder. Perception of biological motion, a motion-based cognitive recognition task, relies on both basic visual motion processing and social cognitive processing, thus providing a useful paradigm to evaluate the potentially hierarchical relationship between these two levels of information processing. Methods: In this study, we designed a biological motion paradigm in which basic visual motion signals were manipulated systematically by incorporating different levels of motion noise. We measured the performances of schizophrenia patients (n=21 and healthy controls (n=22 in this biological motion perception task, as well as in coherent motion detection, theory of mind, and a widely used biological motion recognition task. Results: Schizophrenia patients performed the biological motion perception task with significantly lower accuracy than healthy controls when perceptual signals were moderately degraded by noise. A more substantial degradation of perceptual signals, through using additional noise, impaired biological motion perception in both groups. Performance levels on biological motion recognition, coherent motion detection and theory of mind tasks were also reduced in patients. Conclusion: The results from the motion-noise biological motion paradigm indicate that in the presence of visual motion noise, the processing of biological motion information in schizophrenia is deficient. Combined with the results of poor basic visual motion perception (coherent motion task and biological motion recognition, the association between basic motion signals and biological motion perception suggests a need to incorporate the improvement of visual motion perception in social cognitive remediation.

  10. Motion-Adaptive Depth Superresolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamilov, Ulugbek S; Boufounos, Petros T

    2017-04-01

    Multi-modal sensing is increasingly becoming important in a number of applications, providing new capabilities and processing challenges. In this paper, we explore the benefit of combining a low-resolution depth sensor with a high-resolution optical video sensor, in order to provide a high-resolution depth map of the scene. We propose a new formulation that is able to incorporate temporal information and exploit the motion of objects in the video to significantly improve the results over existing methods. In particular, our approach exploits the space-time redundancy in the depth and intensity using motion-adaptive low-rank regularization. We provide experiments to validate our approach and confirm that the quality of the estimated high-resolution depth is improved substantially. Our approach can be a first component in systems using vision techniques that rely on high-resolution depth information.

  11. Energy Conservation Equations of Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Vinokurov, Nikolay A

    2015-01-01

    A conventional derivation of motion equations in mechanics and field equations in field theory is based on the principle of least action with a proper Lagrangian. With a time-independent Lagrangian, a function of coordinates and velocities that is called energy is constant. This paper presents an alternative approach, namely derivation of a general form of equations of motion that keep the system energy, expressed as a function of generalized coordinates and corresponding velocities, constant. These are Lagrange equations with addition of gyroscopic forces. The important fact, that the energy is defined as the function on the tangent bundle of configuration manifold, is used explicitly for the derivation. The Lagrangian is derived from a known energy function. A development of generalized Hamilton and Lagrange equations without the use of variational principles is proposed. The use of new technique is applied to derivation of some equations.

  12. Brownian Motion and General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    O'Hara, Paul

    2013-01-01

    We construct a model of Brownian Motion on a pseudo-Riemannian manifold associated with general relativity. There are two aspects of the problem: The first is to define a sequence of stopping times associated with the Brownian "kicks" or impulses. The second is to define the dynamics of the particle along geodesics in between the Brownian kicks. When these two aspects are taken together, we can associate various distributions with the motion. We will find that the statistics of space-time events will obey a temperature dependent four dimensional Gaussian distribution defined over the quaternions which locally can be identified with Minkowski space. Analogously, the statistics of the 4-velocities will obey a kind of Maxwell-Juttner distribution. In contrast to previous work, our processes are characterized by two independent proper time variables defined with respect to the laboratory frame: a discrete one corresponding to the stopping times when the impulses take place and a continuous one corresponding to th...

  13. Perpetual Motion with Maxwell's Demon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Lyndsay G. M.

    2002-11-01

    A method for producing a temperature gradient by Brownian motion in an equilibrated isolated system composed of two fluid compartments and a separating adiabatic membrane is discussed. This method requires globular protein molecules, partially embedded in the membrane, to alternate between two conformations which lie on opposite sides of the membrane. The greater part of each conformer is bathed by one of the fluids and rotates in Brownian motion around its axis, perpendicular to the membrane. Rotational energy is transferred through the membrane during conformational changes. Angular momentum is conserved during the transitions. The energy flow becomes asymmetrical when the conformational changes of the protein are sterically hindered by two of its side-chains, the positions of which are affected by the angular velocity of the rotor. The heat flow increases the temperature gradient in contravention of the Second Law. A second hypothetical model which illustrates solute transfer at variance with the Second Law is also discussed.

  14. Wheelchair control by head motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajkanović Aleksandar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric wheelchairs are designed to aid paraplegics. Unfortunately, these can not be used by persons with higher degree of impairment, such as quadriplegics, i.e. persons that, due to age or illness, can not move any of the body parts, except of the head. Medical devices designed to help them are very complicated, rare and expensive. In this paper a microcontroller system that enables standard electric wheelchair control by head motion is presented. The system comprises electronic and mechanic components. A novel head motion recognition technique based on accelerometer data processing is designed. The wheelchair joystick is controlled by the system’s mechanical actuator. The system can be used with several different types of standard electric wheelchairs. It is tested and verified through an experiment performed within this paper.

  15. Radiation Reaction on Brownian Motions

    CERN Document Server

    Seto, Keita

    2016-01-01

    Tracking the real trajectory of a quantum particle is one of the interpretation problem and it is expressed by the Brownian (stochastic) motion suggested by E. Nelson. Especially the dynamics of a radiating electron, namely, radiation reaction which requires us to track its trajectory becomes important in the high-intensity physics by PW-class lasers at present. It has been normally treated by the Furry picture in non-linear QED, but it is difficult to draw the real trajectory of a quantum particle. For the improvement of this, I propose the representation of a stochastic particle interacting with fields and show the way to describe radiation reaction on its Brownian motion.

  16. 32 CFR 150.23 - Motions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CRIMINAL APPEALS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE § 150.23 Motions. (a) Content. All motions, unless made... documents containing language other than English shall have, attached, a certified English translation....

  17. Hyperventilation in a motion sickness desensitization program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mert, A.; Bles, W.; Nooij, S.A.E.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: In motion sickness desensitization programs, the motion sickness provocative stimulus is often a forward bending of the trunk on a rotating chair, inducing Coriolis effects. Since respiratory relaxation techniques are applied successfully in these courses, we investigated whether these

  18. Motion correction in thoracic positron emission tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Gigengack, Fabian; Dawood, Mohammad; Schäfers, Klaus P

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory and cardiac motion leads to image degradation in Positron Emission Tomography (PET), which impairs quantification. In this book, the authors present approaches to motion estimation and motion correction in thoracic PET. The approaches for motion estimation are based on dual gating and mass-preserving image registration (VAMPIRE) and mass-preserving optical flow (MPOF). With mass-preservation, image intensity modulations caused by highly non-rigid cardiac motion are accounted for. Within the image registration framework different data terms, different variants of regularization and parametric and non-parametric motion models are examined. Within the optical flow framework, different data terms and further non-quadratic penalization are also discussed. The approaches for motion correction particularly focus on pipelines in dual gated PET. A quantitative evaluation of the proposed approaches is performed on software phantom data with accompanied ground-truth motion information. Further, clinical appl...

  19. Magnetic fields for fluid motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Melissa C; Gerner, Matthew D; Fritsch, Ingrid

    2010-05-01

    Three forces induced by magnetic fields offer unique control of fluid motion and new opportunities in microfluidics. This article describes magnetoconvective phenomena in terms of the theory and controversy, tuning by redox processes at electrodes, early-stage applications in analytical chemistry, mature applications in disciplines far afield, and future directions for micro total analysis systems. (To listen to a podcast about this article, please go to the Analytical Chemistry multimedia page at pubs.acs.org/page/ancham/audio/index.html .).

  20. Tropical Cyclone Structure and Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    rotational motion of the storm due to storm tilt that was identified in dry simulations is reduced in simulations that include parameterizations of convective...right of the zero-shear storm track. Currently, the model resolution is being increased to 5 km with a third inner mesh and all convective processes...that were previously parameterized on the 15- and 45-km meshes are calculated using an explicit physical representation of convection scheme. Because

  1. Male Spine Motion During Coitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorkewicz, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Study Design. Repeated measures design. Objective. To describe male spine movement and posture characteristics during coitus and compare these characteristics across 5 common coital positions. Summary of Background Data. Exacerbation of pain during coitus due to coital movements and positions is a prevalent issue reported by low back pain patients. A biomechanical analysis of spine movements and postures during coitus has never been conducted. Methods. Ten healthy males and females engaged in coitus in the following preselected positions and variations: QUADRUPED, MISSIONARY, and SIDELYING. An optoelectronic motion capture system was used to measure 3-dimensional lumbar spine angles that were normalized to upright standing. To determine whether each coital position had distinct spine kinematic profiles, separate univariate general linear models, followed by Tukey's honestly significant difference post hoc analysis were used. The presentation of coital positions was randomized. Results. Both variations of QUADRUPED, mQUAD1 and mQUAD2, were found to have a significantly higher cycle speed than mSIDE (P = 0.043 and P = 0.034, respectively), mMISS1 (P = 0.003 and P = 0.002, respectively), and mMISS2 (P = 0.001 and P spine movement varied depending on the coital position; however, across all positions, the majority of the range of motion used was in flexion. Based on range of motion, the least-to-most recommended positions for a male flexion-intolerant patient are mSIDE, mMISS2, mQUAD2, mMISS1, and mQUAD1. Conclusion. Initial recommendations—which include specific coital positions to avoid, movement strategies, and role of the partner—were developed for male patients whose low back pain is exacerbated by specific motions and postures. Level of Evidence: N/A PMID:25208042

  2. Global motion estimation with Gabor wavelet transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A novel algorithm of global motion estimation is proposed. First, through Gabor wavelet transform (GWT), a kind of energy distribution of image is obtained and checkpoints are selected according to a probability decision approach proposed. Then, the initialized motion vectors are obtained via a hierarchal block-matching based on these checkpoints.Finally, by employing a 3-parameter motion model, precise parameters of global motion are found. From the experiment, the algorithm is reliable and robust.

  3. Clinically acceptable agreement between the ViMove wireless motion sensor system and the Vicon motion capture system when measuring lumbar region inclination motion in the sagittal and coronal planes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mjøsund, Hanne Leirbekk; Boyle, Eleanor; Kjaer, Per

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Wireless, wearable, inertial motion sensor technology introduces new possibilities for monitoring spinal motion and pain in people during their daily activities of work, rest and play. There are many types of these wireless devices currently available but the precision in measurement......-range flexion inclination, extension inclination and lateral flexion inclination to both sides while standing were measured by both systems concurrently with short rest periods in between. Measurement agreement through the whole movement range was analysed using a multilevel mixed-effects regression model....... CONCLUSIONS: We found a clinically acceptable level of agreement between these two methods for measuring standing lumbar inclination motion in these two cardinal movement planes. Further research should investigate the ViMove system's ability to measure lumbar motion in more complex 3D functional movements...

  4. Influence of Visual Motion, Suggestion, and Illusory Motion on Self-Motion Perception in the Horizontal Plane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven David Rosenblatt

    Full Text Available A moving visual field can induce the feeling of self-motion or vection. Illusory motion from static repeated asymmetric patterns creates a compelling visual motion stimulus, but it is unclear if such illusory motion can induce a feeling of self-motion or alter self-motion perception. In these experiments, human subjects reported the perceived direction of self-motion for sway translation and yaw rotation at the end of a period of viewing set visual stimuli coordinated with varying inertial stimuli. This tested the hypothesis that illusory visual motion would influence self-motion perception in the horizontal plane. Trials were arranged into 5 blocks based on stimulus type: moving star field with yaw rotation, moving star field with sway translation, illusory motion with yaw, illusory motion with sway, and static arrows with sway. Static arrows were used to evaluate the effect of cognitive suggestion on self-motion perception. Each trial had a control condition; the illusory motion controls were altered versions of the experimental image, which removed the illusory motion effect. For the moving visual stimulus, controls were carried out in a dark room. With the arrow visual stimulus, controls were a gray screen. In blocks containing a visual stimulus there was an 8s viewing interval with the inertial stimulus occurring over the final 1s. This allowed measurement of the visual illusion perception using objective methods. When no visual stimulus was present, only the 1s motion stimulus was presented. Eight women and five men (mean age 37 participated. To assess for a shift in self-motion perception, the effect of each visual stimulus on the self-motion stimulus (cm/s at which subjects were equally likely to report motion in either direction was measured. Significant effects were seen for moving star fields for both translation (p = 0.001 and rotation (p0.1 for both. Thus, although a true moving visual field can induce self-motion, results of this

  5. Motion sickness: a negative reinforcement model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowins, Brad

    2010-01-15

    Theories pertaining to the "why" of motion sickness are in short supply relative to those detailing the "how." Considering the profoundly disturbing and dysfunctional symptoms of motion sickness, it is difficult to conceive of why this condition is so strongly biologically based in humans and most other mammalian and primate species. It is posited that motion sickness evolved as a potent negative reinforcement system designed to terminate motion involving sensory conflict or postural instability. During our evolution and that of many other species, motion of this type would have impaired evolutionary fitness via injury and/or signaling weakness and vulnerability to predators. The symptoms of motion sickness strongly motivate the individual to terminate the offending motion by early avoidance, cessation of movement, or removal of oneself from the source. The motion sickness negative reinforcement mechanism functions much like pain to strongly motivate evolutionary fitness preserving behavior. Alternative why theories focusing on the elimination of neurotoxins and the discouragement of motion programs yielding vestibular conflict suffer from several problems, foremost that neither can account for the rarity of motion sickness in infants and toddlers. The negative reinforcement model proposed here readily accounts for the absence of motion sickness in infants and toddlers, in that providing strong motivation to terminate aberrant motion does not make sense until a child is old enough to act on this motivation.

  6. 39 CFR 955.6 - Motions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motions. 955.6 Section 955.6 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE BEFORE THE POSTAL SERVICE BOARD OF CONTRACT APPEALS § 955.6 Motions. (a) Any motion addressed to the jurisdiction of the Board shall be promptly filed...

  7. Human motion perception: Higher-order organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Proffitt, Dennis R.

    1990-01-01

    An overview is given of higher-order motion perception and organization. It is argued that motion is sufficient to fully specify a number of environmental properties, including: depth order, three-dimensional form, object displacement, and dynamics. A grammar of motion perception is proposed; applications of this work for display design are discussed.

  8. Motion Sickness Induced by Optokinetic Drums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.E.; Bles, W.

    2004-01-01

    Motion sickness is not only elicited by certain kinds of self-motion, but also by motion of a visual scene. In case of the latter, optokinetic drums are often used and a visual-vestibular conflict is assumed to cause the sickness. When the rotation axis is Earth vertical however, different studies s

  9. Motion Factors in Flight Simulation. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klier, Sol; Gage, Howard

    The effect of different simulator motion conditions on pilot performance was investigated, and the cuing function of simulator motion was explored. Subjects were required to perform a simulated air-to-air gunnery task under four conditions of motion. While treatment effects did not meet the predetermined level of statistical significance,…

  10. Motion Analysis during Sabot Opening Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Acharya

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available For FSAPDS projectile, the trajectory and stability are dependent on different forces indifferent phases of the motion. During the first phase gravity, aerodynamic drag along withpropellant gas force affect the motion. The motion is influenced by shock wave and mechanicalforce in sabot opening phase and the effect of time lag during opening of sabots also forms partof this work.

  11. An Inexpensive Mechanical Model for Projectile Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, David

    2011-01-01

    As experienced physicists, we see the beauty and simplicity of projectile motion. It is merely the superposition of uniform linear motion along the direction of the initial velocity vector and the downward motion due to the constant acceleration of gravity. We see the kinematic equations as just the mathematical machinery to perform the…

  12. Sunspots and Their Simple Harmonic Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, C. I.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper an example of a simple harmonic motion, the apparent motion of sunspots due to the Sun's rotation, is described, which can be used to teach this subject to high-school students. Using real images of the Sun, students can calculate the star's rotation period with the simple harmonic motion mathematical expression.

  13. Ground motion input in seismic evaluation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sewell, R.T.; Wu, S.C.

    1996-07-01

    This report documents research pertaining to conservatism and variability in seismic risk estimates. Specifically, it examines whether or not artificial motions produce unrealistic evaluation demands, i.e., demands significantly inconsistent with those expected from real earthquake motions. To study these issues, two types of artificial motions are considered: (a) motions with smooth response spectra, and (b) motions with realistic variations in spectral amplitude across vibration frequency. For both types of artificial motion, time histories are generated to match target spectral shapes. For comparison, empirical motions representative of those that might result from strong earthquakes in the Eastern U.S. are also considered. The study findings suggest that artificial motions resulting from typical simulation approaches (aimed at matching a given target spectrum) are generally adequate and appropriate in representing the peak-response demands that may be induced in linear structures and equipment responding to real earthquake motions. Also, given similar input Fourier energies at high-frequencies, levels of input Fourier energy at low frequencies observed for artificial motions are substantially similar to those levels noted in real earthquake motions. In addition, the study reveals specific problems resulting from the application of Western U.S. type motions for seismic evaluation of Eastern U.S. nuclear power plants.

  14. Visualization of Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Meishu; Su, Jun; Wang, Weiguo; Lu, Jianlong

    2017-01-01

    For this article, we use a 3D printer to print a surface similar to universal gravitation for demonstrating and investigating Kepler's laws of planetary motion describing the motion of a small ball on the surface. This novel experimental method allows Kepler's laws of planetary motion to be visualized and will contribute to improving the…

  15. Enhanced motion coding in MC-EZBC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junhua; Zhang, Wenjun; Wang, Yingkun

    2005-07-01

    Since hierarchical variable size block matching and bidirectional motion compensation are used in the motioncompensated embedded zero block coding (MC-EZBC), the motion information consists of motion vector quadtree map and motion vectors. In the conventional motion coding scheme, the quadtree structure is coded directly, the motion vector modes are coded with Huffman codes, and the motion vector differences are coded by an m-ary arithmetic coder with 0-order models. In this paper we propose a new motion coding scheme which uses an extension of the CABAC algorithm and new context modeling for quadtree structure coding and mode coding. In addition, we use a new scalable motion coding method which scales the motion vector quadtrees according to the rate-distortion slope of the tree nodes. Experimental results show that the new coding scheme increases the efficiency of the motion coding by more than 25%. The performance of the system is improved accordingly, especially in low bit rates. Moreover, with the scalable motion coding, the subjective and objective coding performance is further enhanced in low bit rate scenarios.

  16. 32 CFR 705.8 - Motion pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motion pictures. 705.8 Section 705.8 National... OFFICIAL RECORDS PUBLIC AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.8 Motion pictures. (a) The rules and procedures given in the preceding for TV will also apply to cooperation with commercial motion picture producers. (b)...

  17. Rotational motion control of a spacecraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Kulczycki, P.

    2003-01-01

    The paper adopts the energy shaping method to control of rotational motion. A global representation of the rigid body motion is given in the canonical form by a quaternion and its conjugate momenta. A general method for motion control on a cotangent bundle to the 3-sphere is suggested. The design...

  18. Motion of polar cap arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, K.; Moen, J. I.; Shiokawa, K.; Otsuka, Y.

    2011-01-01

    A statistics of motion of polar cap arcs is conducted by using 5 years of optical data from an all-sky imager at Resolute Bay, Canada (74.73°N, 265.07°E). We identified 743 arcs by using an automated arc detection algorithm and statistically examined their moving velocities as estimated by the method of Hosokawa et al. (2006). The number of the arcs studied is about 5 times larger than that in the previous statistics of polar cap arcs by Valladares et al. (1994); thus, we could expect to obtain more statistically significant results. Polar cap arcs are found to fall into two distinct categories: the By-dependent and By-independent arcs. The motion of the former arcs follows the rule reported by Valladares et al. (1994), who showed that stable polar cap arcs move in the direction of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) By. About two thirds of the arcs during northward IMF conditions belong to this category. The latter arcs always move poleward irrespective of the sign of the IMF By, which possibly correspond to the poleward moving arcs in the morning side reported by Shiokawa et al. (1997). At least one third of the arcs belong to this category. The By-dependent arcs tend to move faster when the magnitude of the IMF By is larger, suggesting that the transport of open flux by lobe reconnection from one polar cap compartment to the other controls their motion. In contrast, the speed of the By-independent arcs does not correlate with the magnitude of the By. The motions of both the By-dependent and By-independent arcs are most probably caused by the magnetospheric convection. Convection in the region of By-dependent arcs is affected by the IMF By, which indicates that their sources may be on open field lines or in the closed magnetosphere adjacent to the open-closed boundary, whereas By-independent arcs seem to be well on closed field lines. Hence, the magnetospheric source of the two types of arc may be different. This implies that the mechanisms causing the

  19. Investigation of the effects of air temperature and speed on performance of piezoelectric weigh-in-motion systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vaziri, Shahram Hashemi; Haas, Carl T; Rothenburg, Leo; Haas, Ralph C; Jiang, Xiaohua

    2013-01-01

    Weigh-in-motion (WIM) systems differ in terms of sensing technology, sensing element, installation procedure, structural design, and material, which make them respond differently to equivalent loading conditions...

  20. Characterization of Non-Linearized Spacecraft Relative Motion using Nonlinear Normal Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-20

    Non-Linearized Spacecraft Relative Motion using Nonlinear Normal Modes 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62601F...AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2015-0182 TR-2015-0182 CHARACTERIZATION OF NON-LINEARIZED SPACECRAFT RELATIVE MOTION USING NONLINEAR NORMAL MODES Eric...STATEMENT. THOMAS LOVELL PAUL HAUSGEN, Ph.D. Program Manager Technical Advisor, Spacecraft Component Technology JOHN BEAUCHEMIN Chief Engineer

  1. Motion in images is essential to cause motion sickness symptoms, but not to increase postural sway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubeck, A.J.A.; Bos, J.E.; Stins, J.F.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective It is generally assumed that motion in motion images is responsible for increased postural sway as well as for visually induced motion sickness (VIMS). However, this has not yet been tested. To that end, we studied postural sway and VIMS induced by motion and still images. Method

  2. Vision Servo Motion Control and Error Analysis of a Coplanar XXY Stage for Image Alignment Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hau-Wei Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, as there is demand for smart mobile phones with touch panels, the alignment/compensation system of alignment stage with vision servo control has also increased. Due to the fact that the traditional stacked-type XYθ stage has cumulative errors of assembly and it is heavy, it has been gradually replaced by the coplanar stage characterized by three actuators on the same plane with three degrees of freedom. The simplest image alignment mode uses two cameras as the equipments for feedback control, and the work piece is placed on the working stage. The work piece is usually engraved/marked. After the cameras capture images and when the position of the mark in the camera is obtained by image processing, the mark can be moved to the designated position in the camera by moving the stage and using alignment algorithm. This study used a coplanar XXY stage with 1 μm positioning resolution. Due to the fact that the resolution of the camera is about 3.75 μm per pixel, thus a subpixel technology is used, and the linear and angular alignment repeatability of the alignment system can achieve 1 μm and 5 arcsec, respectively. The visual servo motion control for alignment motion is completed within 1 second using the coplanar XXY stage.

  3. Covariance, Curved Space, Motion and Quantization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostol M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Weak external forces and non-inertial motion are equivalent with thefree motion in a curved space. The Hamilton-Jacobi equation is derivedfor such motion and the effects of the curvature upon the quantizationare analyzed, starting from a generalization of the Klein-Gordon equation in curved spaces. It is shown that the quantization is actually destroyed, in general, by a non-inertial motion in the presence of external forces, in the sense that such a motion may produce quantum transitions. Examples are given for a massive scalar field and for photons.

  4. Probabilistic Motion Estimation Based on Temporal Coherence

    CERN Document Server

    Burgi, Pierre-Yves; Grzywacz, Norberto M; 10.1162/089976600300015169

    2012-01-01

    We develop a theory for the temporal integration of visual motion motivated by psychophysical experiments. The theory proposes that input data are temporally grouped and used to predict and estimate the motion flows in the image sequence. This temporal grouping can be considered a generalization of the data association techniques used by engineers to study motion sequences. Our temporal-grouping theory is expressed in terms of the Bayesian generalization of standard Kalman filtering. To implement the theory we derive a parallel network which shares some properties of cortical networks. Computer simulations of this network demonstrate that our theory qualitatively accounts for psychophysical experiments on motion occlusion and motion outliers.

  5. Estimation of visual motion in image sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus

    1994-01-01

    The problem of estimation of visual motion from sequences of images has been considered within a framework consisting of three stages of processing. First the extraction of motion invariants, secondly a local measurement of visual motion, and third integration of local measurements in conjunction...... with a priori knowledge. We have surveyed a series of attempts to extract motion invariants. Specifically we have illustrate the use of local Fourier phase. The Fourier phase is shown to define the local shape of the signal, thus accurately localizing an event. Different strategies for local measurement...... satellite images based on the estimated motion field is shown....

  6. Range of motion after thoracolumbar corpectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehrchen, Poul Martin; Hegde, Sajan K; Moldavsky, Mark

    2017-01-01

    ; (2) ATLP with one cross-connector and spacer; (3) ATLP with spacer. Data were normalized to intact (100 %) and statistical analysis was used to determine between-group significances. RESULTS: Both constructs reduced motion compared to intact in flexion-extension and lateral bending. Axial rotation...... motion became unstable after the corpectomy and motion was greater than intact, even with two cross-connectors with both systems. Relative to their respective intact groups, LP DRS significantly reduced motion compared to analogous DRS in flexion-extension. The addition of cross-connectors reduced motion...

  7. Respiratory Motion Prediction in Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedam, Sastry

    Active respiratory motion management has received increasing attention in the past decade as a means to reduce the internal margin (IM) component of the clinical target volume (CTV)—planning target volume (PTV) margin typically added around the gross tumor volume (GTV) during radiation therapy of thoracic and abdominal tumors. Engineering and technical developments in linear accelerator design and respiratory motion monitoring respectively have made the delivery of motion adaptive radiation therapy possible through real-time control of either dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC) motion (gantry based linear accelerator design) or robotic arm motion (robotic arm mounted linear accelerator design).

  8. A Global Correction to PPMXL Proper Motions

    CERN Document Server

    Vickers, John J; Grebel, Eva K

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we notice that extragalactic sources seem to have non-zero proper motions in the PPMXL proper motion catalog. We collect a large, all-sky sample of extragalactic objects and fit their reported PPMXL proper motions to an ensemble of spherical harmonics in magnitude shells. A magnitude dependent proper motion correction is thus constructed. This correction is applied to a set of fundamental radio sources, quasars, and is compared to similar corrections to assess its utility. We publish, along with this paper, code which may be used to correct proper motions in the PPMXL catalog over the full sky which have 2 Micron All Sky Survey photometry.

  9. PCA-based lung motion model

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Ruijiang; Jia, Xun; Zhao, Tianyu; Lamb, James; Yang, Deshan; Low, Daniel A; Jiang, Steve B

    2010-01-01

    Organ motion induced by respiration may cause clinically significant targeting errors and greatly degrade the effectiveness of conformal radiotherapy. It is therefore crucial to be able to model respiratory motion accurately. A recently proposed lung motion model based on principal component analysis (PCA) has been shown to be promising on a few patients. However, there is still a need to understand the underlying reason why it works. In this paper, we present a much deeper and detailed analysis of the PCA-based lung motion model. We provide the theoretical justification of the effectiveness of PCA in modeling lung motion. We also prove that under certain conditions, the PCA motion model is equivalent to 5D motion model, which is based on physiology and anatomy of the lung. The modeling power of PCA model was tested on clinical data and the average 3D error was found to be below 1 mm.

  10. Motion Analysis Based on Invertible Rapid Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Turan

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a study on the use of invertible rapid transform (IRT for the motion estimation in a sequence of images. Motion estimation algorithms based on the analysis of the matrix of states (produced in the IRT calculation are described. The new method was used experimentally to estimate crowd and traffic motion from the image data sequences captured at railway stations and at high ways in large cities. The motion vectors may be used to devise a polar plot (showing velocity magnitude and direction for moving objects where the dominant motion tendency can be seen. The experimental results of comparison of the new motion estimation methods with other well known block matching methods (full search, 2D-log, method based on conventional (cross correlation (CC function or phase correlation (PC function for application of crowd motion estimation are also presented.

  11. Sensing Movement: Microsensors for Body Motion Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansong Zeng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of body posture and motion is an important physiological function that can keep the body in balance. Man-made motion sensors have also been widely applied for a broad array of biomedical applications including diagnosis of balance disorders and evaluation of energy expenditure. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art sensing components utilized for body motion measurement. The anatomy and working principles of a natural body motion sensor, the human vestibular system, are first described. Various man-made inertial sensors are then elaborated based on their distinctive sensing mechanisms. In particular, both the conventional solid-state motion sensors and the emerging non solid-state motion sensors are depicted. With their lower cost and increased intelligence, man-made motion sensors are expected to play an increasingly important role in biomedical systems for basic research as well as clinical diagnostics.

  12. Design of motion compensation mechanism of satellite remote sensing camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Song; Yan, Yong; Xu, Kai; Jin, Guang

    2011-08-01

    With the development of aerospace remote sensing technology, the ground resolution of remote sensing camera enhances continuously. Since there is relative motion between camera and ground target when taking pictures, the target image recorded in recording media is moved and blurred. In order to enhance the imaging quality and resolution of the camera, the image motion had to be compensated. In order to abate the effect of image motion to image quality of space camera and improve the resolution of the camera, the compensation method of image motion to space camera is researched. First, the reason of producing drift angle and adjustment principle are analyzed in this paper. This paper introduce the composition and transmission principle of image motion compensation mechanism. Second, the system adopts 80C31 as controller of drift angle, and adopts stepping motor for actuators, and adopts absolute photoelectric encoder as the drift Angle measuring element. Then the control mathematical model of the image motion compensation mechanism are deduced, and it achieve the closed-loop control of the drift angle position. At the last, this paper analyses the transmission precision of the mechanism. Through the experiment, we measured the actual precision of the image motion compensation mechanism, and compared with the theoretical analysis.There are two major contributions in this paper. First, the traditional image motion compensation mechanism is big volume and quality heavy. This has not fit for the development trend of space camera miniaturization and lightweight. But if reduce the volume and quality of mechanism, it will bring adverse effects for the precision and stiffness of mechanism. For this problem, This paper designed a image motion compensation that have some advantages such as small size, light weight at the same time, high precision, stiffness and so on. This image motion compensation can be applicable to the small optics cameras with high resolution. Second

  13. Action Recognition using Motion Primitives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeslund, Thomas B.; Fihl, Preben; Holte, Michael Boelstoft

    The number of potential applications has made automatic recognition of human actions a very active research area. Different approaches have been followed based on trajectories through some state space. In this paper we also model an action as a trajectory through a state space, but we represent...... the actions as a sequence of temporal isolated instances, denoted primitives. These primitives are each defined by four features extracted from motion images. The primitives are recognized in each frame based on a trained classifier resulting in a sequence of primitives. From this sequence we recognize...

  14. Brownian motion of helical flagella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshikawa, H; Saito, N

    1979-07-01

    We develops a theory of the Brownian motion of a rigid helical object such as bacterial flagella. The statistical properties of the random forces acting on the helical object are discussed and the coefficients of the correlations of the random forces are determined. The averages , and are also calculated where z and theta are the position along and angle around the helix axis respectively. Although the theory is limited to short time interval, direct comparison with experiment is possible by using the recently developed cinematography technique.

  15. Analysis of Piston Slap Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan S.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Piston slap is the major force contibuting towards noise levels in combustion engines.This type of noise depends upon a number of factors such as the piston-liner gap, type of lubricant used, number of piston pins as well as geometry of the piston. In this work the lateral and rotary motion of the piston in the gap between the cylinder liner and piston has been analyzed. A model that can predict the forces and response of the engine block due to slap has been dicussed. The parameters such as mass, spring and damping constant have been predicted using a vibrational mobility model.

  16. Motion Control along Relative Equilibria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordkvist, Nikolaj

    2008-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is control of mechanical systems as they evolve along the steady motions called relative equilibria. These trajectories are of interest in theory and applications and have the characterizing property that the system's body-fixed velocity is constant. For example, constant...... on a Lie group is locally controllable along a relative equilibrium. These conditions subsume the well-known local controllability conditions for equilibrium points. Second, for systems that have fewer controls than degrees of freedom, we present a novel algorithm to control simple mechanical control...

  17. Analysis of Piston Slap Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, S.

    2015-05-01

    Piston slap is the major force contibuting towards noise levels in combustion engines.This type of noise depends upon a number of factors such as the piston-liner gap, type of lubricant used, number of piston pins as well as geometry of the piston. In this work the lateral and rotary motion of the piston in the gap between the cylinder liner and piston has been analyzed. A model that can predict the forces and response of the engine block due to slap has been dicussed. The parameters such as mass, spring and damping constant have been predicted using a vibrational mobility model.

  18. Visual motion detection sensitivity is enhanced by an orthogonal motion aftereffect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Hiromasa; Murakami, Ikuya

    2010-09-09

    A recent study (H. Takemura & I. Murakami, 2010) showed enhancement of motion detection sensitivity by an orthogonal induced motion, suggesting that a weak motion component can combine with an orthogonal motion component to generate stronger oblique motion perception. Here we examined how an orthogonal motion aftereffect (MAE) affects motion detection sensitivity. After adaptation to vertical motion, a Gabor patch barely moving leftward or rightward was presented. As a result of an interaction between horizontal physical motion and a vertical MAE, subjects perceived the stimulus as moving obliquely. Subjects were asked to judge the horizontal direction of motion irrespective of the vertical MAE. The performance was enhanced when the Gabor patch was perceived as moving obliquely as the result of a weak MAE. The enhancement effect depended on the strength of the MAE for each subject rather than on the temporal frequency of the adapting stimulus. These results suggest that weak motion information that is hard to detect can interact with orthogonal adaptation and yield stronger oblique motion perception, making directional judgment easier. Moreover, the present results indicate that the enhancement effect of orthogonal motion involves general motion integration mechanisms rather than a specific mechanism only applicable to a particular type of illusory motion.

  19. Adaptation to real motion reveals direction-selective interactions between real and implied motion processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorteije, Jeannette A M; Kenemans, J Leon; Jellema, Tjeerd; van der Lubbe, Rob H J; Lommers, Marjolein W; van Wezel, Richard J A

    2007-08-01

    Viewing static pictures of running humans evokes neural activity in the dorsal motion-sensitive cortex. To establish whether this response arises from direction-selective neurons that are also involved in real motion processing, we measured the visually evoked potential to implied motion following adaptation to static or moving random dot patterns. The implied motion response was defined as the difference between evoked potentials to pictures with and without implied motion. Interaction between real and implied motion was found as a modulation of this difference response by the preceding motion adaptation. The amplitude of the implied motion response was significantly reduced after adaptation to motion in the same direction as the implied motion, compared to motion in the opposite direction. At 280 msec after stimulus onset, the average difference in amplitude reduction between opposite and same adapted direction was 0.5 muV on an average implied motion amplitude of 2.0 muV. These results indicate that the response to implied motion arises from direction-selective motion-sensitive neurons. This is consistent with interactions between real and implied motion processing at a neuronal level.

  20. Concept verification of three dimensional free motion simulator for space robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Osamu; Nakaya, Teruomi; Pokines, Brett

    1994-01-01

    In the development of automatic assembling technologies for space structures, it is an indispensable matter to investigate and simulate the movements of robot satellites concerned with mission operation. The movement investigation and simulation on the ground will be effectively realized by a free motion simulator. Various types of ground systems for simulating free motion have been proposed and utilized. Some of these methods are a neutral buoyancy system, an air or magnetic suspension system, a passive suspension balance system, and a free flying aircraft or drop tower system. In addition, systems can be simulated by computers using an analytical model. Each free motion simulation method has limitations and well known problems, specifically, disturbance by water viscosity, limited number of degrees-of-freedom, complex dynamics induced by the attachment of the simulation system, short experiment time, and the lack of high speed super-computer simulation systems, respectively. The basic idea presented here is to realize 3-dimensional free motion. This is achieved by combining a spherical air bearing, a cylindrical air bearing, and a flat air bearing. A conventional air bearing system has difficulty realizing free vertical motion suspension. The idea of free vertical suspension is that a cylindrical air bearing and counter balance weight realize vertical free motion. This paper presents a design concept, configuration, and basic performance characteristics of an innovative free motion simulator. A prototype simulator verifies the feasibility of 3-dimensional free motion simulation.

  1. ModelSim/Simulink Cosimulation and FPGA Realization of a Multiaxis Motion Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Shieh Kung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is to implement a multiaxis servo controller and a motion trajectory planning within one chip. At first, SoPC (system on a programmable chip technology which is composed of an Altera FPGA (field programmable gate arrays chip and an embedded soft-core Nios II processor is taken as the development of a multiaxis motion control IC. The multiaxis motion control IC has two modules. The first module is Nios II processor which realizes the motion trajectory planning by software. It includes the step, circular, window, star, and helical motion trajectory. The second module presents a function of the multiaxis position/speed/current controller IP (intellectual property by hardware. And VHDL (VHSIC Hardware Description Language is applied to describe the multiaxis servo controller behavior. Before the FPGA realization, a cosimulation work by ModelSim/Simulink is applied to test the VHDL code. Then, this IP combined by Nios II processor will be downloaded to FPGA. Therefore, a fully digital multiaxis motion controller can be realized by a single FPGA chip. Finally, to verify the effectiveness and correctness of the proposed multiaxis motion control IP, a three-axis motion platform (XYZ table is constructed and some experimental results are presented.

  2. Real-Time Human Motion Capture Driven by a Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-zhan Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The motion of a real object model is reconstructed through measurements of the position, direction, and angle of moving objects in 3D space in a process called “motion capture.” With the development of inertial sensing technology, motion capture systems that are based on inertial sensing have become a research hot spot. However, the solution of motion attitude remains a challenge that restricts the rapid development of motion capture systems. In this study, a human motion capture system based on inertial sensors is developed, and the real-time movement of a human model controlled by real people’s movement is achieved. According to the features of the system of human motion capture and reappearance, a hierarchical modeling approach based on a 3D human body model is proposed. The method collects articular movement data on the basis of rigid body dynamics through a miniature sensor network, controls the human skeleton model, and reproduces human posture according to the features of human articular movement. Finally, the feasibility of the system is validated by testing of system properties via capture of continuous dynamic movement. Experiment results show that the scheme utilizes a real-time sensor network-driven human skeleton model to achieve the accurate reproduction of human motion state. The system also has good application value.

  3. Motion Planning of Kinematically Redundant 12-tetrahedral Rolling Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingbo Wang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The 12-tetrahedral robot is an addressable reconfigurable technology (ART-based variable geometry truss mechanism with 26 extensible struts and nine nodes arranged in a tetrahedral mesh. The robot has the capability of configuring its shape to adapt to environmental requirements, which makes it suitable for space exploration. This paper considers the motion planning problem for the robot in terms of gait planning and trajectory planning. First, a gait planning method is developed that limits the forward falling angles to only 25 degrees. Then, according to the given gait, the jerk-bounded method and inverse kinematics are utilized to calculate the trajectories of the nodes and the struts, respectively. A robot system model was built in ADAMS and simulations were conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of the motion planning method.

  4. FPGA Implementation of Real-Time Ethernet for Motion Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Youdong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an applicable implementation of real-time Ethernet named CASNET, which modifies the Ethernet medium access control (MAC to achieve the real-time requirement for motion control. CASNET is the communication protocol used for motion control system. Verilog hardware description language (VHDL has been used in the MAC logic design. The designed MAC serves as one of the intellectual properties (IPs and is applicable to various industrial controllers. The interface of the physical layer is RJ45. The other layers have been implemented by using C programs. The real-time Ethernet has been implemented by using field programmable gate array (FPGA technology and the proposed solution has been tested through the cycle time, synchronization accuracy, and Wireshark testing.

  5. Geometric decompositions of collective motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischiati, Matteo; Krishnaprasad, P. S.

    2017-04-01

    Collective motion in nature is a captivating phenomenon. Revealing the underlying mechanisms, which are of biological and theoretical interest, will require empirical data, modelling and analysis techniques. Here, we contribute a geometric viewpoint, yielding a novel method of analysing movement. Snapshots of collective motion are portrayed as tangent vectors on configuration space, with length determined by the total kinetic energy. Using the geometry of fibre bundles and connections, this portrait is split into orthogonal components each tangential to a lower dimensional manifold derived from configuration space. The resulting decomposition, when interleaved with classical shape space construction, is categorized into a family of kinematic modes-including rigid translations, rigid rotations, inertia tensor transformations, expansions and compressions. Snapshots of empirical data from natural collectives can be allocated to these modes and weighted by fractions of total kinetic energy. Such quantitative measures can provide insight into the variation of the driving goals of a collective, as illustrated by applying these methods to a publicly available dataset of pigeon flocking. The geometric framework may also be profitably employed in the control of artificial systems of interacting agents such as robots.

  6. Conditional replenishment using motion prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, D. N.; Jones, H. W., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Conditional replenishment is an interframe video compression method that uses correlation in time to reduce video transmission rates. This method works by detecting and sending only the changing portions of the image and by having the receiver use the video data from the previous frame for the non-changing portion. The amount of compression that can be achieved through this technique depends to a large extent on the rate of change within the image, and can vary from 10 to 1 to less than 2 to 1. An additional 3 to 1 reduction in rate is obtained by the intraframe coding of data blocks using a 2-dimensional variable rate Hadamard transform coder. A further additional 2 to 1 rate reduction is achieved by using motion prediction. Motion prediction works by measuring the relative displacements of a subpicture from one frame to the next. The subpicture can then be transmitted by sending only the value of the 2-dimensional displacement. Computer simulations have demonstrated that data rates of 2 to 4 Mega-bits/second can be achieved while still retaining good fidelity in the image.

  7. Biological motion distorts size perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veto, Peter; Einhäuser, Wolfgang; Troje, Nikolaus F.

    2017-02-01

    Visual illusions explore the limits of sensory processing and provide an ideal testbed to study perception. Size illusions - stimuli whose size is consistently misperceived - do not only result from sensory cues, but can also be induced by cognitive factors, such as social status. Here we investigate, whether the ecological relevance of biological motion can also distort perceived size. We asked observers to judge the size of point-light walkers (PLWs), configurations of dots whose movements induce the perception of human movement, and visually matched control stimuli (inverted PLWs). We find that upright PLWs are consistently judged as larger than inverted PLWs, while static point-light figures do not elicit the same effect. We also show the phenomenon using an indirect paradigm: observers judged the relative size of a disc that followed an inverted PLW larger than a disc following an upright PLW. We interpret this as a contrast effect: The upright PLW is perceived larger and thus the subsequent disc is judged smaller. Together, these results demonstrate that ecologically relevant biological-motion stimuli are perceived larger than visually matched control stimuli. Our findings present a novel case of illusory size perception, where ecological importance leads to a distorted perception of size.

  8. Quantization of Equations of Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kochan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Classical Newton-Lagrange equations of motion represent the fundamental physical law of mechanics. Their traditional Lagrangian and/or Hamiltonian precursors when available are essential in the context of quantization. However, there are situations that lack Lagrangian and/or Hamiltonian settings. This paper discusses a description of classical dynamics and presents some irresponsible speculations about its quantization by introducing a certain canonical two-form ?. By its construction ? embodies kinetic energy and forces acting within the system (not their potential. A new type of variational principle employing differential two-form ? is introduced. Variation is performed over “umbilical surfaces“ instead of system histories. It provides correct Newton-Lagrange equations of motion. The quantization is inspired by the Feynman path integral approach. The quintessence is to rearrange it into an “umbilical world-sheet“ functional integral in accordance with the proposed variational principle. In the case of potential-generated forces, the new approach reduces to the standard quantum mechanics. As an example, Quantum Mechanics with friction is analyzed in detail. 

  9. Wire Scanner Motion Control Card

    CERN Document Server

    Forde, S E

    2006-01-01

    Scientists require a certain beam quality produced by the accelerator rings at CERN. The discovery potential of LHC is given by the reachable luminosity at its interaction points. The luminosity is maximized by minimizing the beam size. Therefore an accurate beam size measurement is required for optimizing the luminosity. The wire scanner performs very accurate profile measurements, but as it can not be used at full intensity in the LHC ring, it is used for calibrating other profile monitors. As the current wire scanner system, which is used in the present CERN accelerators, has not been made for the required specification of the LHC, a new design of a wire scanner motion control card is part of the LHC wire scanner project. The main functions of this card are to control the wire scanner motion and to acquire the position of the wire. In case of further upgrades at a later stage, it is required to allow an easy update of the firmware, hence the programmable features of FPGAs will be used for this purpose. The...

  10. Multi-Directional Motion Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Patrick McGovern

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The direction aftereffect (DAE is a phenomenon whereby prolonged exposure to a moving stimulus biases the perceived direction of subsequent stimuli. It is believed to arise through a selective suppression of directionally tuned neurons in the visual cortex, causing shifts in the population response away from the adapted direction. Whereas most studies consider only unidirectional adaptation, here we examine how concurrent adaptation to multiple directions affects the DAE. Observers were required to judge whether a random dot kinematogram (RDK moved clockwise or counter-clockwise relative to upwards. In different conditions, observers adapted to a stimulus comprised of directions drawn from a distribution or to bidirectional motion. Increasing the variance of normally distributed directions reduced the magnitude of the peak DAE and broadened its tuning profile. Asymmetric sampling of Gaussian and uniform distributions resulted in shifts of DAE tuning profiles consistent with changes in the perceived global direction of the adapting stimulus. Discrimination thresholds were elevated by an amount that related to the magnitude of the bias. For bidirectional adaptors, adding dots in directions away from the adapting motion led to a pronounced reduction in the DAE. This reduction was observed when dots were added in opposite or orthogonal directions to the adaptor suggesting that it may arise via inhibition from a broadly tuned normalisation pool. Preliminary simulations with a population coding model, where the gain of a direction-selective neuron is inversely proportional to its response to the adapting stimulus, suggest that it provides a parsimonious account of these adaptation effects.

  11. Attentional Networks and Biological Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandramouli Chandrasekaran

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Our ability to see meaningful actions when presented with pointlight traces of human movement is commonly referred to as the perception of biological motion. While traditionalexplanations have emphasized the spontaneous and automatic nature of this ability, morerecent findings suggest that attention may play a larger role than is typically assumed. Intwo studies we show that the speed and accuracy of responding to point-light stimuli is highly correlated with the ability to control selective attention. In our first experiment we measured thresholds for determining the walking direction of a masked point-light figure, and performance on a range of attention-related tasks in the same set of observers. Mask-density thresholds for the direction discrimination task varied quite considerably from observer to observer and this variation was highly correlated with performance on both Stroop and flanker interference tasks. Other components of attention, such as orienting, alerting and visual search efficiency, showed no such relationship. In a second experiment, we examined the relationship between the ability to determine the orientation of unmasked point-light actions and Stroop interference, again finding a strong correlation. Our results are consistent with previous research suggesting that biological motion processing may requite attention, and specifically implicate networks of attention related to executive control and selection.

  12. Motion of a helical vortex

    CERN Document Server

    Fuentes, Oscar Velasco

    2015-01-01

    We study the motion of a single helical vortex in an unbounded, inviscid, incompressible fluid. The vortex is an infinite tube whose centerline is a helix and whose cross section is a circle of small radius (compared to the radius of curvature) where the vorticity is uniform and parallel to the centerline. Ever since Joukowsky (1912) deduced that this vortex translates and rotates steadily without change of form, numerous attempts have been made to compute these self-induced velocities. Here we use Hardin's (1982) solution for the velocity field to find new expressions for the vortex's linear and angular velocities. Our results, verified by numerically computing the Helmholtz integral and the Rosenhead-Moore approximation to the Biot-Savart law, are more accurate than previous results over the whole range of values of the vortex pitch and cross-section. We then use the new formulas to study the advection of passive particles near the vortex; we find that the vortex's motion and capacity to transport fluid dep...

  13. Biological motion distorts size perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veto, Peter; Einhäuser, Wolfgang; Troje, Nikolaus F.

    2017-01-01

    Visual illusions explore the limits of sensory processing and provide an ideal testbed to study perception. Size illusions – stimuli whose size is consistently misperceived – do not only result from sensory cues, but can also be induced by cognitive factors, such as social status. Here we investigate, whether the ecological relevance of biological motion can also distort perceived size. We asked observers to judge the size of point-light walkers (PLWs), configurations of dots whose movements induce the perception of human movement, and visually matched control stimuli (inverted PLWs). We find that upright PLWs are consistently judged as larger than inverted PLWs, while static point-light figures do not elicit the same effect. We also show the phenomenon using an indirect paradigm: observers judged the relative size of a disc that followed an inverted PLW larger than a disc following an upright PLW. We interpret this as a contrast effect: The upright PLW is perceived larger and thus the subsequent disc is judged smaller. Together, these results demonstrate that ecologically relevant biological-motion stimuli are perceived larger than visually matched control stimuli. Our findings present a novel case of illusory size perception, where ecological importance leads to a distorted perception of size. PMID:28205639

  14. Generalized functionals of Brownian motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. U. Ahmed

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss some recent developments in the theory of generalized functionals of Brownian motion. First we give a brief summary of the Wiener-Ito multiple Integrals. We discuss some of their basic properties, and related functional analysis on Wiener measure space. then we discuss the generalized functionals constructed by Hida. The generalized functionals of Hida are based on L2-Sobolev spaces, thereby, admitting only Hs, s∈R valued kernels in the multiple stochastic integrals. These functionals are much more general than the classical Wiener-Ito class. The more recent development, due to the author, introduces a much more broad class of generalized functionals which are based on Lp-Sobolev spaces admitting kernels from the spaces p,s, s∈R. This allows analysis of a very broad class of nonlinear functionals of Brownian motion, which can not be handled by either the Wiener-Ito class or the Hida class. For s≤0, they represent generalized functionals on the Wiener measure space like Schwarz distributions on finite dimensional spaces. In this paper we also introduce some further generalizations, and construct a locally convex topological vector space of generalized functionals. We also present some discussion on the applications of these results.

  15. Perception of biological motion in visual agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huberle, Elisabeth; Rupek, Paul; Lappe, Markus; Karnath, Hans-Otto

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 25 years, visual processing has been discussed in the context of the dual stream hypothesis consisting of a ventral ("what") and a dorsal ("where") visual information processing pathway. Patients with brain damage of the ventral pathway typically present with signs of visual agnosia, the inability to identify and discriminate objects by visual exploration, but show normal perception of motion perception. A dissociation between the perception of biological motion and non-biological motion has been suggested: perception of biological motion might be impaired when "non-biological" motion perception is intact and vice versa. The impact of object recognition on the perception of biological motion remains unclear. We thus investigated this question in a patient with severe visual agnosia, who showed normal perception of non-biological motion. The data suggested that the patient's perception of biological motion remained largely intact. However, when tested with objects constructed of coherently moving dots ("Shape-from-Motion"), recognition was severely impaired. The results are discussed in the context of possible mechanisms of biological motion perception.

  16. Standardized rendering from IR surveillance motion imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokoski, F. J.

    2014-06-01

    Government agencies, including defense and law enforcement, increasingly make use of video from surveillance systems and camera phones owned by non-government entities.Making advanced and standardized motion imaging technology available to private and commercial users at cost-effective prices would benefit all parties. In particular, incorporating thermal infrared into commercial surveillance systems offers substantial benefits beyond night vision capability. Face rendering is a process to facilitate exploitation of thermal infrared surveillance imagery from the general area of a crime scene, to assist investigations with and without cooperating eyewitnesses. Face rendering automatically generates greyscale representations similar to police artist sketches for faces in surveillance imagery collected from proximate locations and times to a crime under investigation. Near-realtime generation of face renderings can provide law enforcement with an investigation tool to assess witness memory and credibility, and integrate reports from multiple eyewitnesses, Renderings can be quickly disseminated through social media to warn of a person who may pose an immediate threat, and to solicit the public's help in identifying possible suspects and witnesses. Renderings are pose-standardized so as to not divulge the presence and location of eyewitnesses and surveillance cameras. Incorporation of thermal infrared imaging into commercial surveillance systems will significantly improve system performance, and reduce manual review times, at an incremental cost that will continue to decrease. Benefits to criminal justice would include improved reliability of eyewitness testimony and improved accuracy of distinguishing among minority groups in eyewitness and surveillance identifications.

  17. Controlled motion in an elastic world. Research project: Manipulation strategies for massive space payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Book, Wayne J.

    1992-01-01

    The flexibility of the drives and structures of controlled motion systems are presented as an obstacle to be overcome in the design of high performance motion systems, particularly manipulator arms. The task and the measure of performance to be applied determine the technology appropriate to overcome this obstacle. Included in the technologies proposed are control algorithms (feedback and feed forward), passive damping enhancement, operational strategies, and structural design. Modeling of the distributed, nonlinear system is difficult, and alternative approaches are discussed. The author presents personal perspectives on the history, status, and future directions in this area.

  18. A new adaptive fast motion estimation algorithm based on local motion similarity degree (LMSD)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Long; HAN Chongzhao; BAI Yan

    2005-01-01

    In the motion vector field adaptive search technique (MVFAST) and the predictive motion vector field adaptive search technique (PMVFAST), the size of the largest motion vector from the three adjacent blocks (left, top, top-right) is compared with the threshold to select different search scheme. But a suitable search center and search pattern will not be selected in the adaptive search technique when the adjacent motion vectors are not coherent in local region. This paper presents an efficient adaptive search algorithm. The motion vector variation degree (MVVD) is considered a reasonable factor for adaptive search selection. By the relationship between local motion similarity degree (LMSD) and the variation degree of motion vector (MVVD), the motion vectors are classified as three categories according to corresponding LMSD; then different proposed search schemes are adopted for motion estimation. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has a significant computational speedup compared with MVFAST and PMVFAST algorithms, and offers a similar, even better performance.

  19. Plate Motions Predicted from Global Dynamic Models and Seismic Tomography: The Problem of North American Plate Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S.; King, S. D.; Adam, C. M.

    2016-12-01

    Seismic tomography is a snapshot of the mantle convection system and provides important constraints on Earth's internal dynamics. An increasing number of global seismic tomography models along with various rheological structures have been used to compute mantle flow pattern and the resulting surface expressions, including dynamic topography and geoid. Accurately predicting the plate motion from the mantle dynamic models is a challenge particularly with the newest generation of seismic tomography models (e.g., S40RTS, SAVANI), especially for the North American plate which only has a little subduction along it's boundary. The difficulties include the uncertainty of the velocity-to-density scaling, discrepancies between different seismic tomography models, and the computational technology to solve for global mantle flow with observationally constrained high resolution models. We use the code ASPECT (Advanced Solver for Problems in Earth CovecTion) to make a series of tests to derive mantle flow pattern from different global seismic tomography models and rheological structures. We further make a quantitative statistical comparison between the modeled and observed plate motions in terms of flow magnitude, flow direction, and plateness within each plate area. We investigate how the velocity-to-density scaling, the features of seismic tomography models, and the lateral rheological structures of the lithosphere and upper mantle influence the modeled plate motions. We find that the velocity-to-density scaling mainly changes the flow magnitude and has little impact on the flow direction. The results of different seismic tomography models are similar broadly but can be quite different in some regions. The presence of lateral viscosity variations including stiff cratons, weak plate boundary zones, and high viscosity slabs along with density variations from seafloor age and subducting slabs can improve the fit to observed plate motions. With a very small fraction of subduction

  20. Robot motion control in mobile environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Iliya V Miroshnik; HUANG Xian-lin(黄显林); HE Jie(贺杰)

    2003-01-01

    With the problem of robot motion control in dynamic environment represented by mobile obstacles,working pieces and external mechanisms considered, a relevant control actions design procedure has been pro-posed to provide coordination of robot motions with respect to the moving external objects so that an extension ofrobot spatial motion techniques and active robotic strategies based on approaches of nonlinear control theory canbe achieved.

  1. Motion estimation techniques for digital video coding

    CERN Document Server

    Metkar, Shilpa

    2013-01-01

    The book deals with the development of a methodology to estimate the motion field between two frames for video coding applications. This book proposes an exhaustive study of the motion estimation process in the framework of a general video coder. The conceptual explanations are discussed in a simple language and with the use of suitable figures. The book will serve as a guide for new researchers working in the field of motion estimation techniques.

  2. Operator Fractional Brownian Motion and Martingale Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongshuai Dai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that martingale difference sequences are very useful in applications and theory. On the other hand, the operator fractional Brownian motion as an extension of the well-known fractional Brownian motion also plays an important role in both applications and theory. In this paper, we study the relation between them. We construct an approximation sequence of operator fractional Brownian motion based on a martingale difference sequence.

  3. Ambiguity in Tactile Apparent Motion Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Emanuela Liaci; Michael Bach; Ludger Tebartz Van Elst; Heinrich, Sven P; Jürgen Kornmeier

    2016-01-01

    Background In von Schiller’s Stroboscopic Alternative Motion (SAM) stimulus two visually presented diagonal dot pairs, located on the corners of an imaginary rectangle, alternate with each other and induce either horizontal, vertical or, rarely, rotational motion percepts. SAM motion perception can be described by a psychometric function of the dot aspect ratio (“AR”, i.e. the relation between vertical and horizontal dot distances). Further, with equal horizontal and vertical dot distances (A...

  4. Computer Vision Method in Human Motion Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Li; FANG Shuai; XU Xin-he

    2007-01-01

    Human motion detection based on computer vision is a frontier research topic and is causing an increasing attention in the field of computer vision research. The wavelet transform is used to sharpen the ambiguous edges in human motion image. The shadow's effect to the image processing is also removed. The edge extraction can be successfully realized.This is an effective method for the research of human motion analysis system.

  5. Dynamic signatures of driven vortex motion.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crabtree, G. W.; Kwok, W. K.; Lopez, D.; Olsson, R. J.; Paulius, L. M.; Petrean, A. M.; Safar, H.

    1999-09-16

    We probe the dynamic nature of driven vortex motion in superconductors with a new type of transport experiment. An inhomogeneous Lorentz driving force is applied to the sample, inducing vortex velocity gradients that distinguish the hydrodynamic motion of the vortex liquid from the elastic and-plastic motion of the vortex solid. We observe elastic depinning of the vortex lattice at the critical current, and shear induced plastic slip of the lattice at high Lorentz force gradients.

  6. General techniques for constrained motion planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Yong K.; Watterberg, P.A.; Chen, Pang, C.; Lewis, C.L.

    1997-02-01

    This report presents automatic motion planning algorithms for robotic manipulators performing a variety of tasks. Given a task and a robot manipulator equipped with a tool in its hand, the motion planners compute robot motions to complete the task while respecting manipulator kinematic constraints and avoiding collisions with objects in the robot`s work space. To handle the high complexity of the motion planning problem, a sophisticated search strategy called SANDROS is developed and used to solve many variations of the motion planning problem. To facilitate systematic development of motion planning algorithms, robotic tasks are classified into three categories according to the dimension of the manifold the robot tool has to travel: visit-point (0 dimensional), trace-curve (1 dimensional) and cover-surface (2 dimensional) tasks. The motion planner for a particular dimension is used as a sub-module by the motion planner for the next-higher dimension. This hierarchy of motion planners has led to a set of compact and systematic algorithms that can plan robot motions for many types of robotic operations. In addition, an algorithm is developed that determines the optimal robot-base configuration for minimum cycle time. The SANDROS search paradigm is complete in that it finds a solution path if one exists, up to a user specified resolution. Although its worst-case time complexity is exponential in the degrees of freedom of the manipulator, its average performance is commensurate with the complexity of the solution path. Since solution paths for most of motion planning problems consist of a few monotone segments, the motion planners based on SANDROS search strategy show approximately two-orders of magnitude improvements over existing complete algorithms.

  7. Combinatorial fractal Brownian motion model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱炬波; 梁甸农

    2000-01-01

    To solve the problem of how to determine the non-scaled interval when processing radar clutter using fractal Brownian motion (FBM) model, a concept of combinatorial FBM model is presented. Since the earth (or sea) surface varies diversely with space, a radar clutter contains several fractal structures, which coexist on all scales. Taking the combination of two FBMs into account, via theoretical derivation we establish a combinatorial FBM model and present a method to estimate its fractal parameters. The correctness of the model and the method is proved by simulation experiments and computation of practial data. Furthermore, we obtain the relationship between fractal parameters when processing combinatorial model with a single FBM model. Meanwhile, by theoretical analysis it is concluded that when combinatorial model is observed on different scales, one of the fractal structures is more obvious.

  8. Localised Plate Motion on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghail, R. C.

    1996-03-01

    The volcanic and tectonic features observed in Dali Vinculum, Parga Vinculum and Imdr Regio are concentrated at long, narrow, curvilinear zones, with relatively minor volcanism and tectonism between these zones. These zones, whilst more diffuse than terrestrial plate boundaries, nevertheless define the margins of tectonic plates. In contrast to Earth, however, it appears that venusian plates are neither created nor destroyed by lateral motion. Rather, plates are thinned and intruded at vincula plate boundaries, vertically accreted by small-scale intra-plate (planitia) volcanism and perhaps destroyed by delamination of thickened crust in tesserae and montane regions such as Thetis Regio and Ishtar Terra. The diversity in age both between and within these three areas together with the evidence for infrequent, small scale resurfacing in the planitiae are difficult to reconcile with a non-uniformitarian geological process.

  9. Motion Primitives for Action Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fihl, Preben; Holte, Michael Boelstoft; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2007-01-01

    The number of potential applications has made automatic recognition of human actions a very active research area. Different approaches have been followed based on trajectories through some state space. In this paper we also model an action as a trajectory through a state space, but we represent...... the actions as a sequence of temporal isolated instances, denoted primitives. These primitives are each defined by four features extracted from motion images. The primitives are recognized in each frame based on a trained classifier resulting in a sequence of primitives. From this sequence we recognize...... different temporal actions using a probabilistic Edit Distance method. The method is tested on different actions with and without noise and the results show recognition rates of 88.7% and 85.5%, respectively....

  10. Motion magnification in coronal seismology

    CERN Document Server

    Anfinogentov, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new method for the investigation of low-amplitude transverse oscillations of solar plasma non-uniformities, such as coronal loops, individual strands in coronal arcades, jets, prominence fibrils, polar plumes, and other contrast features, observed with imaging instruments. The method is based on the two-dimensional dual tree complex wavelet transform (DT$\\mathbb{C}$WT). It allows us to magnify transverse, in the plane-of-the-sky, quasi-periodic motions of contrast features in image sequences. The tests performed on the artificial data cubes imitating exponentially decaying, multi-periodic and frequency-modulated kink oscillations of coronal loops showed the effectiveness, reliability and robustness of this technique. The algorithm was found to give linear scaling of the magnified amplitudes with the original amplitudes provided they are sufficiently small. Also, the magnification is independent of the oscillation period in a broad range of the periods. The application of this technique to SDO/A...

  11. Collective motion of oscillatory walkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezaki, Takahiro; Nishi, Ryosuke; Yanagisawa, Daichi; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2013-07-01

    We study a system of interacting self-propelled particles whose walking velocity depends on the stage of the locomotion cycle. The model introduces a phase equation in the optimal velocity model for vehicular traffic. We find that the system exhibits novel types of flow: synchronized free flow, phase-anchoring free flow, orderly jam flow, and disordered jam flow. The first two flows are characterized by synchronization of the phase, while the others do not have the global synchronization. Among these, the disordered jam flow is very complex, although the underlying model is simple. This phenomenon implies that the crowd behavior of moving particles can be destabilized by coupling their velocity to the phase of their motion. We also focus on "phase-anchoring" phenomena. They strongly affect particle flow in the system, especially when the density of particles is high.

  12. Collective motion of oscillatory walkers

    CERN Document Server

    Ezaki, Takahiro; Yanagisawa, Daichi; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    We study a system of interacting self-propelled particles whose walking velocity depends on the stage of the locomotion cycle. The model introduces a phase equation in the optimal velocity model for vehicular traffic. We find that the system exhibits novel types of flow: synchronized free flow, phase-anchoring free flow, orderly jam flow, and disordered jam flow. The first two flows are characterized by synchronization of the phase, while the others do not have the global synchronization. Among these, the disordered jam flow is very complex, although the underlying model is simple. This phenomenon implies that the crowd behavior of moving particles can be destabilized by coupling their velocity to the phase of their motion. We also focus on "phase-anchoring" phenomena. They strongly affect particle flow in the system, especially when the density of particles is high.

  13. Charged gravastars admitting conformal motion

    CERN Document Server

    Usmani, A A; Ray, Saibal; Nandi, K K; Kuhfittig, Peter K F; Rakib, Sk A; Hasan, Z

    2010-01-01

    We propose a new model of a {\\it gravastar} admitting conformal motion. While retaining the framework of the Mazur-Mottola model, the gravastar is assumed to be internally charged, with an exterior defined by a Reissner-Nordstr{\\"o}m rather than a Schwarzschild line element. The solutions obtained involve (i) the interior region, (ii) the shell, and (iii) the exterior region of the sphere. Of these three cases the first case is of primary interest since the total gravitational mass vanishes for vanishing charge and turns the total gravitational mass into an {\\it electromagnetic mass} under certain conditions. This suggests that the interior de Sitter vacuum of a charged gravastar is essentially an electromagnetic mass model that must generate the gravitational mass. We have also analyzed various other aspects such as the stress energy tensor in the thin shell and the entropy of the system.

  14. Brownian motion from molecular dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Shin, Hyun Kyung; Talkner, Peter; Lee, Eok Kyun

    2010-01-01

    Brownian motion of single particles with various masses M and diameters D is studied by molecular dynamics simulations. Besides the momentum auto-correlation function of the Brownian particle the memory function and the fluctuating force which enter the generalized Langevin equation of the Brownian particle are determined and their dependence on mass and diameter are investigated for two different fluid densities. Deviations of the fluctuating force distribution from a Gaussian form are observed for small particle diameters. For heavy particles the deviations of the fluctuating force from the total force acting on the Brownian particle decrease linearly with the mass ratio m/M where m denotes the mass of a fluid particle.

  15. Machine learning in motion control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Renjeng; Kermiche, Noureddine

    1989-01-01

    The existing methodologies for robot programming originate primarily from robotic applications to manufacturing, where uncertainties of the robots and their task environment may be minimized by repeated off-line modeling and identification. In space application of robots, however, a higher degree of automation is required for robot programming because of the desire of minimizing the human intervention. We discuss a new paradigm of robotic programming which is based on the concept of machine learning. The goal is to let robots practice tasks by themselves and the operational data are used to automatically improve their motion performance. The underlying mathematical problem is to solve the problem of dynamical inverse by iterative methods. One of the key questions is how to ensure the convergence of the iterative process. There have been a few small steps taken into this important approach to robot programming. We give a representative result on the convergence problem.

  16. Machine learning in motion control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Renjeng; Kermiche, Noureddine

    1989-01-01

    The existing methodologies for robot programming originate primarily from robotic applications to manufacturing, where uncertainties of the robots and their task environment may be minimized by repeated off-line modeling and identification. In space application of robots, however, a higher degree of automation is required for robot programming because of the desire of minimizing the human intervention. We discuss a new paradigm of robotic programming which is based on the concept of machine learning. The goal is to let robots practice tasks by themselves and the operational data are used to automatically improve their motion performance. The underlying mathematical problem is to solve the problem of dynamical inverse by iterative methods. One of the key questions is how to ensure the convergence of the iterative process. There have been a few small steps taken into this important approach to robot programming. We give a representative result on the convergence problem.

  17. Amoeboid motion in confined geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Hao; Hu, Wei-Fan; Farutin, Alexander; Rafaï, Salima; Lai, Ming-Chih; Peyla, Philippe; Misbah, Chaouqi

    2015-01-01

    Cells of the immune system, as well as cancer cells, migrating in confined environment of tissues undergo frequent shape changes (described as amoeboid motion) that enable them to move forward through these porous media without the assistance of adhesion sites. In other words, they perform amoeboid swimming (AS) while using extracellular matrices and cells of tissues as support. We introduce a simple model of AS in a confined geometry solved by means of 2D numerical simulations. We find that confinement promotes AS, unless being so strong that it restricts shape change amplitude. A straight AS trajectory in the channel is found to be unstable, and ample lateral excursions of the swimmer prevail. For weak confinement, these excursions are symmetric, while they become asymmetric at stronger confinement, whereby the swimmer is located closer to one of the two walls. This is a spontaneous symmetry-breaking bifurcation. We find that there exists an optimal confinement for migration. We provide numerical results as...

  18. Brownian motion and stochastic calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Karatzas, Ioannis

    1998-01-01

    This book is designed as a text for graduate courses in stochastic processes. It is written for readers familiar with measure-theoretic probability and discrete-time processes who wish to explore stochastic processes in continuous time. The vehicle chosen for this exposition is Brownian motion, which is presented as the canonical example of both a martingale and a Markov process with continuous paths. In this context, the theory of stochastic integration and stochastic calculus is developed. The power of this calculus is illustrated by results concerning representations of martingales and change of measure on Wiener space, and these in turn permit a presentation of recent advances in financial economics (option pricing and consumption/investment optimization). This book contains a detailed discussion of weak and strong solutions of stochastic differential equations and a study of local time for semimartingales, with special emphasis on the theory of Brownian local time. The text is complemented by a large num...

  19. Handheld vibration effects shoulder motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, B L; Eberman, L E; Dwelly, P M

    2009-12-01

    We explored effects of handheld vibration on glenohumeral motion in competitive overhead-throwing athletes. We used a randomized, blinded pre-test post-test cross-over design. Each arm of each subject experienced 2 conditions (1-control, 1-experimental), each with pre-test and post-test measures; the order of which was randomized. Participants included Division-I baseball and softball players (n=35: age=20+/-2 yr, height=178+/-9 cm, mass=84+/-12 kg, years of sport participation=13+/-4 yrs). During the experimental condition, participants held a vibrating (2.2 mm, 15 Hz, 20 s), 2.55 kg (5.62 lbs) Mini-VibraFlex dumbbell (Orthometric, New York, NY) in neutral glenohumeral rotation. During the control condition, participants held the still dumbbell (0 mm, 0 Hz, 20 s). Participants rested one min after each trial (3). We used a digital protractor to assess range of motion bilaterally, employing a standard technique for measuring maximal internal (IR) and external rotation (ER). Repeated-measures analyses of variance indicated that range of dominant IR increased 6.8% ( P=0.001, ES=0.16) after handheld vibration. Handheld vibration did not affect range of dominant ER ( P>0.05, 1-beta=0.20), non-dominant IR ( P>0.05, 1-beta=0.41), or non-dominant ER ( P>0.05, 1-beta=0.05). Short bouts of handheld vibration increased dominant IR in collegiate baseball and softball athletes. These results suggest that handheld vibration may help maintain glenohumeral IR that is vital to the healthy and competitive throwing shoulder.

  20. Imaging electron motion in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Sagar; Westervelt, Robert M.

    2017-02-01

    A cooled scanning probe microscope (SPM) is an ideal tool to image electronic motion in graphene: the SPM tip acts as a scanning gate, which interacts with the electron gas below. We introduce the technique using our group’s previous work on imaging electron flow from a quantum point contact in a GaAs 2DEG and tuning an InAs quantum dot in an InAs/InP nanowire. Carriers in graphene have very different characteristics: electrons and holes travel at a constant speed with no bandgap, and they pass through potential barriers via Klein tunneling. In this paper, we review the extension of SPM imaging techniques to graphene. We image the cyclotron orbits passing between two narrow contacts in a single-atomic-layer graphene device in a perpendicular magnetic field. Magnetic focusing produces a peak in transmission between the contacts when the cyclotron diameter is equal to the contact spacing. The charged SPM tip deflects electrons passing from one contact to the other, changing the transmission when it interrupts the flow. By displaying the change in transmission as the tip is raster scanned above the sample, an image of flow is obtained. In addition, we have developed a complementary technique to image electronic charge using a cooled scanning capacitance microscope (SCM) that uses a sensitive charge preamplifier near the SPM tip to achieve a charge noise level 0.13 e Hz-1/2 with high spatial resolution 100 nm. The cooled SPM and SCM can be used to probe the motion of electrons on the nanoscale in graphene devices.

  1. The perception of object versus objectless motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, Howard S; Nichols, David F

    2013-05-01

    Wertheimer, M. (Zeitschrift für Psychologie und Physiologie der Sinnesorgane, 61:161-265, 1912) classical distinction between beta (object) and phi (objectless) motion is elaborated here in a series of experiments concerning competition between two qualitatively different motion percepts, induced by sequential changes in luminance for two-dimensional geometric objects composed of rectangular surfaces. One of these percepts is of spreading-luminance motion that continuously sweeps across the entire object; it exhibits shape invariance and is perceived most strongly for fast speeds. Significantly for the characterization of phi as objectless motion, the spreading luminance does not involve surface boundaries or any other feature; the percept is driven solely by spatiotemporal changes in luminance. Alternatively, and for relatively slow speeds, a discrete series of edge motions can be perceived in the direction opposite to spreading-luminance motion. Akin to beta motion, the edges appear to move through intermediate positions within the object's changing surfaces. Significantly for the characterization of beta as object motion, edge motion exhibits shape dependence and is based on the detection of oppositely signed changes in contrast (i.e., counterchange) for features essential to the determination of an object's shape, the boundaries separating its surfaces. These results are consistent with area MT neurons that differ with respect to speed preference Newsome et al (Journal of Neurophysiology, 55:1340-1351, 1986) and shape dependence Zeki (Journal of Physiology, 236:549-573, 1974).

  2. Modeling repetitive motions using structured light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yi; Aliaga, Daniel G

    2010-01-01

    Obtaining models of dynamic 3D objects is an important part of content generation for computer graphics. Numerous methods have been extended from static scenarios to model dynamic scenes. If the states or poses of the dynamic object repeat often during a sequence (but not necessarily periodically), we call such a repetitive motion. There are many objects, such as toys, machines, and humans, undergoing repetitive motions. Our key observation is that when a motion-state repeats, we can sample the scene under the same motion state again but using a different set of parameters; thus, providing more information of each motion state. This enables robustly acquiring dense 3D information difficult for objects with repetitive motions using only simple hardware. After the motion sequence, we group temporally disjoint observations of the same motion state together and produce a smooth space-time reconstruction of the scene. Effectively, the dynamic scene modeling problem is converted to a series of static scene reconstructions, which are easier to tackle. The varying sampling parameters can be, for example, structured-light patterns, illumination directions, and viewpoints resulting in different modeling techniques. Based on this observation, we present an image-based motion-state framework and demonstrate our paradigm using either a synchronized or an unsynchronized structured-light acquisition method.

  3. Animal models in motion sickness research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daunton, Nancy G.

    1990-01-01

    Practical information on candidate animal models for motion sickness research and on methods used to elicit and detect motion sickness in these models is provided. Four good potential models for use in motion sickness experiments include the dog, cat, squirrel monkey, and rat. It is concluded that the appropriate use of the animal models, combined with exploitation of state-of-the-art biomedical techniques, should generate a great step forward in the understanding of motion sickness mechanisms and in the development of efficient and effective approaches to its prevention and treatment in humans.

  4. Asymmetric gear rectifies random robot motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, He; Zhang, H. P.

    2013-06-01

    We experimentally study the dynamics of centimetric robots and their interactions with rotary gears through inelastic collisions. Under the impacts of self-propelled robots, a gear with symmetric teeth diffuses with no preferred direction of motion. An asymmetric gear, however, rectifies random motion of nearby robots which, in return, exert a torque on the gear and drive it into unidirectional motion. Rectification efficiency increases with the degree of gear asymmetry. Our work demonstrates that asymmetric environments can be used to rectify and extract energy from random motion of macroscopic self-propelled particles.

  5. Perception of biological motion in visual agnosia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth eHuberle

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the past twenty-five years, visual processing has been discussed in the context of the dual stream hypothesis consisting of a ventral (‘what' and a dorsal ('where' visual information processing pathway. Patients with brain damage of the ventral pathway typically present with signs of visual agnosia, the inability to identify and discriminate objects by visual exploration, but show normal perception of motion perception. A dissociation between the perception of biological motion and non-biological motion has been suggested: Perception of biological motion might be impaired when 'non-biological' motion perception is intact and vice versa. The impact of object recognition on the perception of biological motion remains unclear. We thus investigated this question in a patient with severe visual agnosia, who showed normal perception of non-biological motion. The data suggested that the patient's perception of biological motion remained largely intact. However, when tested with objects constructed of coherently moving dots (‘Shape-from-Motion’, recognition was severely impaired. The results are discussed in the context of possible mechanisms of biological motion perception.

  6. Perceptual interaction of local motion signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitzany, Eyal I; Loe, Maren E; Palmer, Stephanie E; Victor, Jonathan D

    2016-11-01

    Motion signals are a rich source of information used in many everyday tasks, such as segregation of objects from background and navigation. Motion analysis by biological systems is generally considered to consist of two stages: extraction of local motion signals followed by spatial integration. Studies using synthetic stimuli show that there are many kinds and subtypes of local motion signals. When presented in isolation, these stimuli elicit behavioral and neurophysiological responses in a wide range of species, from insects to mammals. However, these mathematically-distinct varieties of local motion signals typically co-exist in natural scenes. This study focuses on interactions between two kinds of local motion signals: Fourier and glider. Fourier signals are typically associated with translation, while glider signals occur when an object approaches or recedes. Here, using a novel class of synthetic stimuli, we ask how distinct kinds of local motion signals interact and whether context influences sensitivity to Fourier motion. We report that local motion signals of different types interact at the perceptual level, and that this interaction can include subthreshold summation and, in some subjects, subtle context-dependent changes in sensitivity. We discuss the implications of these observations, and the factors that may underlie them.

  7. Apsidal motion in eclipsing binary GG Orionis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilan, E.; Bulut, I.

    2016-03-01

    The study of apsidal motion in binary stars with eccentric orbit is well known as an important source of information for the stellar internal structure as well as the possibility of verification of general relativity. In this study, the apsidal motion of the eccentric eclipsing binary GG Ori (P = 6.631 days, e = 0.22) has been analyzed using the times of minimum light taken from the literature and databases and the elements of apsidal motion have been computed. The method described by Giménez and García-Pelayo (1983) has been used for the apsidal motion analysis.

  8. Droplet Motion on a Shape Gradient Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yanfen; Cheng, Jiang; Zhou, Cailong; Xing, Haiting; Wen, Xiufang; Pi, Pihui; Xu, Shouping

    2017-05-02

    We demonstrate a facile method to induce water droplet motion on an wedge-shaped superhydrophobic copper surface combining with a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) oil layer on it. The unbalanced interfacial tension from the shape gradient offers the actuating force. The superhydrophobicity critically eliminates the droplet contact line pinning and the slippery PDMS oil layer lubricates the droplet motion, which makes the droplet move easily. The maximum velocity and furthest position of droplet motion were recorded and found to be influenced by the gradient angle. The mechanism of droplet motion on the shape gradient surface is systematically discussed, and the theoretical model analysis is well matched with the experimental results.

  9. Lossless Compression of Video using Motion Compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bo; Forchhammer, Søren

    1998-01-01

    We investigate lossless coding of video using predictive coding andmotion compensation. The methods incorporate state-of-the-art lossless techniques such ascontext based prediction and bias cancellation, Golomb coding, high resolution motion field estimation,3d-dimensional predictors, prediction...... using one or multiple previous images, predictor dependent error modelling, and selection of motion field by code length. For slow pan or slow zoom sequences, coding methods that use multiple previous images are up to 20% better than motion compensation using a single previous image and up to 40% better...... than coding that does not utilize motion compensation....

  10. Unconscious local motion alters global image speed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sieu K Khuu

    Full Text Available Accurate motion perception of self and object speed is crucial for successful interaction in the world. The context in which we make such speed judgments has a profound effect on their accuracy. Misperceptions of motion speed caused by the context can have drastic consequences in real world situations, but they also reveal much about the underlying mechanisms of motion perception. Here we show that motion signals suppressed from awareness can warp simultaneous conscious speed perception. In Experiment 1, we measured global speed discrimination thresholds using an annulus of 8 local Gabor elements. We show that physically removing local elements from the array attenuated global speed discrimination. However, removing awareness of the local elements only had a small effect on speed discrimination. That is, unconscious local motion elements contributed to global conscious speed perception. In Experiment 2 we measured the global speed of the moving Gabor patterns, when half the elements moved at different speeds. We show that global speed averaging occurred regardless of whether local elements were removed from awareness, such that the speed of invisible elements continued to be averaged together with the visible elements to determine the global speed. These data suggest that contextual motion signals outside of awareness can both boost and affect our experience of motion speed, and suggest that such pooling of motion signals occurs before the conscious extraction of the surround motion speed.

  11. Neutron Star Motion in the Disk Galaxy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Ying-Chun; A.Taani; PAN Yuan-Yue; WANG Jing; CAI Yan; LIU Gao-Chao; LUO A-Li; ZHANG Hong-Bo; ZHAO Yong-Heng

    2010-01-01

    @@ The neutron star motions are based on the undisturbed finitely thick galactic disk gravitational potential model.Two initial conditions,I.e.the locations and velocities,are considered.The Monte Carlo method is employed to separate rich diversities of the orbits of neutron stars into several sorts.The Poincaré section has the potential to play an important role in the diagnosis of the neutron star motion.It has been observed that the increasing ratio of the motion range vertical to the galactic plane to that parallel to the galactic plane results in the irregularity of neutron star motion.

  12. Lossless Compression of Video using Motion Compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bo; Forchhammer, Søren

    1998-01-01

    Summary form only given. We investigate lossless coding of video using predictive coding and motion compensation. The new coding methods combine state-of-the-art lossless techniques as JPEG (context based prediction and bias cancellation, Golomb coding), with high resolution motion field estimation......-predictors and intra-frame predictors as well. As proposed by Ribas-Corbera (see PhD thesis, University of Michigan, 1996), we use bi-linear interpolation in order to achieve sub-pixel precision of the motion field. Using more reference images is another way of achieving higher accuracy of the match. The motion...

  13. Multisensory Contributions to Visual Motion Parsing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Soto-Faraco

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In humans, as well as most animal species, perception of object motion is critical to successful interaction with the surrounding environment. Yet, as the observer moves, the retinal projections of the various motion components add to each other and extracting accurate object motion becomes computationally challenging. Recent psychophysical studies have demonstrated that observers use a flow parsing mechanism to estimate and subtract self-motion from the optic flow field. We investigated whether concurrent acoustic cues for motion can facilitate visual flow parsing, thereby enhancing the detection of moving objects during simulated self-motion. Participants identified an object (the target that moved either forward or backward within a visual scene containing nine identical textured objects simulating forward observer translation. We found that spatially co-localized, directionally congruent, moving auditory stimuli enhanced object motion detection. Interestingly, subjects who performed poorly on the visual-only task benefited more from the addition of moving auditory stimuli. When auditory stimuli were not co-localized to the visual target, improvements in detection rates were weak. Taken together, these results suggest that the parsing object motion from self-motion induced optic flow can operate on multisensory object representations.

  14. Exoskeleton Motion Control for Children Walking Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ploscaru

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a quick method for motion control of an exoskeleton used on children walking rehabilitation with ages between four to seven years old. The exoskeleton used on this purpose has six servomotors which work independently and actuates each human lower limb joints (hips, knees and ankles. For obtaining the desired motion laws, a high-speed motion analysis equipment was used. The experimental rough data were mathematically modeled in order to obtain the proper motion equations for controlling the exoskeleton servomotors.

  15. Periodic Motion near the Surface of Asteroids

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Yu; Li, Hengnian

    2015-01-01

    We are interested in the periodic motion and bifurcations near the surface of an asteroid. The gravity field of an irregular asteroid and the equation of motion of a particle near the surface of an asteroid are studied. The periodic motions around the major body of triple asteroid 216 Kleopatra and the OSIRIS REx mission target asteroid 101955 Bennu are discussed. We find that motion near the surface of an irregular asteroid is quite different from the motion near the surface of a homoplastically spheroidal celestial body. The periodic motions around the asteroid 101955 Bennu and 216 Kleopatra indicate that the geometrical shapes of the orbits are probably very sophisticated. There exist both stable periodic motions and unstable periodic motions near the surface of the same irregular asteroid. This periodic motion which is unstable can be resonant or non resonant. The period doubling bifurcation and pseudo period doubling bifurcation of periodic orbits coexist in the same gravity field of the primary of the t...

  16. Multiple-stage ambiguity in motion perception reveals global computation of local motion directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rider, Andrew T; Nishida, Shin'ya; Johnston, Alan

    2016-12-01

    The motion of a 1D image feature, such as a line, seen through a small aperture, or the small receptive field of a neural motion sensor, is underconstrained, and it is not possible to derive the true motion direction from a single local measurement. This is referred to as the aperture problem. How the visual system solves the aperture problem is a fundamental question in visual motion research. In the estimation of motion vectors through integration of ambiguous local motion measurements at different positions, conventional theories assume that the object motion is a rigid translation, with motion signals sharing a common motion vector within the spatial region over which the aperture problem is solved. However, this strategy fails for global rotation. Here we show that the human visual system can estimate global rotation directly through spatial pooling of locally ambiguous measurements, without an intervening step that computes local motion vectors. We designed a novel ambiguous global flow stimulus, which is globally as well as locally ambiguous. The global ambiguity implies that the stimulus is simultaneously consistent with both a global rigid translation and an infinite number of global rigid rotations. By the standard view, the motion should always be seen as a global translation, but it appears to shift from translation to rotation as observers shift fixation. This finding indicates that the visual system can estimate local vectors using a global rotation constraint, and suggests that local motion ambiguity may not be resolved until consistencies with multiple global motion patterns are assessed.

  17. The 3D Human Motion Control Through Refined Video Gesture Annotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yohan; Suk, Myunghoon; Prabhakaran, B.

    In the beginning of computer and video game industry, simple game controllers consisting of buttons and joysticks were employed, but recently game consoles are replacing joystick buttons with novel interfaces such as the remote controllers with motion sensing technology on the Nintendo Wii [1] Especially video-based human computer interaction (HCI) technique has been applied to games, and the representative game is 'Eyetoy' on the Sony PlayStation 2. Video-based HCI technique has great benefit to release players from the intractable game controller. Moreover, in order to communicate between humans and computers, video-based HCI is very crucial since it is intuitive, easy to get, and inexpensive. On the one hand, extracting semantic low-level features from video human motion data is still a major challenge. The level of accuracy is really dependent on each subject's characteristic and environmental noises. Of late, people have been using 3D motion-capture data for visualizing real human motions in 3D space (e.g, 'Tiger Woods' in EA Sports, 'Angelina Jolie' in Bear-Wolf movie) and analyzing motions for specific performance (e.g, 'golf swing' and 'walking'). 3D motion-capture system ('VICON') generates a matrix for each motion clip. Here, a column is corresponding to a human's sub-body part and row represents time frames of data capture. Thus, we can extract sub-body part's motion only by selecting specific columns. Different from low-level feature values of video human motion, 3D human motion-capture data matrix are not pixel values, but is closer to human level of semantics.

  18. Motion Sickness: A Study of Its Effects on Human Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    SICKNESS: A STUDY OF ITS EFFECTS ON HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY THESIS Pierre J. Gaudreault Captain, USAF AFIT/GE/ENG/87D- 2 0 TO STEC TEo VN;FB 1 0 1988...ENG/87D-20 MOTION SICKNESS: A STUDY OF ITS EFFECTS ON HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY THESIS Pierre J. Gaudreault Captain, USAF AFIT/GE/ENG/87D-20 Approved for public...SICKNESS: A STUDY OF ITS EFFECTS ON HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY THESIS Presented to the Faculty of the School of Engineering of the Air Force Institute of Technology

  19. OFDM-ISAR Sparse Optimization Imaging and Motion Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Min

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM technology has been utilized in radar imaging to obtain high-resolution range profiles without inter-range cell interference. In this study, we establish a novel algorithm for Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR imaging of a non-cooperative target using OFDM waveforms. We also achieve motion compensation and image enhancement with sparse reconstruction optimization. Utilizing sparse reconstruction optimization, we can simultaneously achieve high-precision OFDM-ISAR imaging and also correct phase errors. Extensive experimentation confirms that the proposed method can effectively overcome range interference and phase errors in OFDM-ISAR imaging, providing optimal robustness and precision.

  20. Quantification of motion artifact in ECG electrode design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Kenneth; Thomas, Chris; McAdams, Eric

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a more accurate and reproducible method of quantifying motion artifact in ECG (electrocardiogram) electrodes to assist in electrode assessment and design. It uses an algorithm developed by Sensor Technology & Devices Ltd. to reliably overcome the variation in results due to differing skin types and other causes of spurious readings such as reproducibility of movements used. The method combines a clear, concise experimental protocol with a software package and DSP algorithm to produce a transferable result for one pair of electrodes that can be used for comparison.

  1. Active Damping of Vibrations in High-Precision Motion Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Babakhani, B.

    2012-01-01

    Technology advancements feed the need for ever faster and more accurate industrial machines. Vibration is a significant source of inaccuracy of such machines. A light-weight design in favor of the speed, and avoiding the use of energy-dissipating materials from the structure to omit any source of inaccuracy, contribute to a low structural damping. The goal of this research is to investigate the addition of damping to the rotational vibration mode of a linearly actuated motion system to •achie...

  2. Development of a web-based simulator for estimating motion errors in linear motion stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khim, G.; Oh, J.-S.; Park, C.-H.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a web-based simulator for estimating 5-DOF motion errors in the linear motion stages. The main calculation modules of the simulator are stored on the server computer. The clients uses the client software to send the input parameters to the server and receive the computed results from the server. By using the simulator, we can predict performances such as 5-DOF motion errors, bearing and table stiffness by entering the design parameters in a design step before fabricating the stages. Motion errors are calculated using the transfer function method from the rail form errors which is the most dominant factor on the motion errors. To verify the simulator, the predicted motion errors are compared to the actually measured motion errors in the linear motion stage.

  3. Strong Motion Earthquake Data Values of Digitized Strong-Motion Accelerograms, 1933-1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Strong Motion Earthquake Data Values of Digitized Strong-Motion Accelerograms is a database of over 15,000 digitized and processed accelerograph records from...

  4. Technological advances in radiotherapy for esophageal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Milan; Vosmik; Jiri; Petera; Igor; Sirak; Miroslav; Hodek; Petr; Paluska; Jiri; Dolezal; Marcela; Kopacova

    2010-01-01

    Radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy and surgery represent the main treatment modalities in esophageal cancer.The goal of modern radiotherapy approaches,based on recent technological advances,is to minimize post-treatment complications by improving the gross tumor volume definition (positron emission tomography-based planning),reducing interfraction motion (image-guided radiotherapy) and intrafraction motion (respiratory-gated radiotherapy),and by better dose delivery to the precisely defined planning ...

  5. Quantitative and qualitative comparison of continuous bed motion and traditional step and shoot PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Dustin R; Acuff, Shelley; Cruise, Sarah; Syed, Mumtaz; Neveu, Melissa; Stuckey, Alan; Bradley, Yong

    2015-01-01

    New developments in PET/CT technology have enabled the commercial availability of continuous bed motion (CBM) acquisition methods. This technology has some potential performance benefits compared to standard step and shoot (SS) imaging, however, this technology has not been assessed with regard to quantitative and image quality parameters compared to traditional SS techniques. This study seeks to compare clinically relevant quantitative and image quality parameters using CBM and SS data collection methods with the intent of providing assistance in making educated decisions regarding imaging protocol development when using CBM technology versus SS imaging.

  6. Advancement of motion psychophysics: review 2001-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Shin'ya

    2011-12-05

    This is a survey of psychophysical studies of motion perception carried out mainly in the last 10 years. It covers a wide range of topics, including the detection and interactions of local motion signals, motion integration across various dimensions for vector computation and global motion perception, second-order motion and feature tracking, motion aftereffects, motion-induced mislocalizations, timing of motion processing, cross-attribute interactions for object motion, motion-induced blindness, and biological motion. While traditional motion research has benefited from the notion of the independent "motion processing module," recent research efforts have been also directed to aspects of motion processing in which interactions with other visual attributes play critical roles. This review tries to highlight the richness and diversity of this large research field and to clarify what has been done and what questions have been left unanswered.

  7. Influence of Visual Motion on Tactile Motion Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensmaïa, S. J.; Killebrew, J. H.; Craig, J. C.

    2007-01-01

    Subjects were presented with pairs of tactile drifting sinusoids and made speed discrimination judgments. On some trials, a visual drifting sinusoid, which subjects were instructed to ignore, was presented simultaneously with one of the two tactile stimuli. When the visual and tactile gratings drifted in the same direction (i.e., from left to right), the visual distractors were found to increase the perceived speed of the tactile gratings. The effect of the visual distractors was proportional to their temporal frequency but not to their perceived speed. When the visual and tactile gratings drifted in opposite directions, the distracting effect of the visual distractors was either substantially reduced or, in some cases, reversed (i.e., the distractors slowed the perceived speed of the tactile gratings). This result suggests that the observed visual-tactile interaction is dependent on motion and not simply on the oscillations inherent in drifting sinusoids. Finally, we find that disrupting the temporal synchrony between the visual and tactile stimuli eliminates the distracting effect of the visual stimulus. We interpret this latter finding as evidence that the observed visual-tactile interaction operates at the sensory level and does not simply reflect a response bias. PMID:16723415

  8. The Motion Of A Spring Released From Uniform Circular Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Dooling, Thomas; Carnaghi, Matthew; Titus, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    A weak spring is connected at one end to a rotor turning at constant angular velocity. The spring extends to a stretched length as determined by the spring mass, rest length, spring constant, rotor radius and rotor angular velocity. When released from the rotor, the inner end of the spring pulls away as expected, causing a wave to travel down the spring as it collapses. During this time interval, the outer end of the spring continues to move along its original circular path in uniform circular motion, as if the spring were still connected to the rotor. This is analogous to the effect of a hanging Slinky released from rest whose bottom end remains at a fixed position above the ground until a wave from the top of the Slinky reaches the bottom of the Slinky. Values from a numerical model and measurements from video analysis show that upon release the inner end travels along a circle of similar radius as the outer end. The effect appears as a series of alternating semi-circles. In addition, the simulation and dat...

  9. Guaranteeing Isochronous Control of Networked Motion Control Systems Using Phase Offset Adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikhwan Kim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Guaranteeing isochronous transfer of control commands is an essential function for networked motion control systems. The adoption of real-time Ethernet (RTE technologies may be profitable in guaranteeing deterministic transfer of control messages. However, unpredictable behavior of software in the motion controller often results in unexpectedly large deviation in control message transmission intervals, and thus leads to imprecise motion. This paper presents a simple and efficient heuristic to guarantee the end-to-end isochronous control with very small jitter. The key idea of our approach is to adjust the phase offset of control message transmission time in the motion controller by investigating the behavior of motion control task. In realizing the idea, we performed a pre-runtime analysis to determine a safe and reliable phase offset and applied the phase offset to the runtime code of motion controller by customizing an open-source based integrated development environment (IDE. We also constructed an EtherCAT-based motion control system testbed and performed extensive experiments on the testbed to verify the effectiveness of our approach. The experimental results show that our heuristic is highly effective even for low-end embedded controller implemented in open-source software components under various configurations of control period and the number of motor drives.

  10. The case for 6-component ground motion observations in planetary seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Rakshit; van Driel, Martin; Donner, Stefanie; Nunn, Ceri; Wassermann, Joachim; Igel, Heiner

    2017-04-01

    The imminent INSIGHT mission will place a single seismic station on Mars to learn more about the structure of the Martian interior. Due to cost and difficulty, only single stations are currently feasible for planetary missions. We show that future single station missions should also measure rotational ground motions, in addition to the classic 3 components of translational motion. The joint, collocated, 6 component (6C) observations offer access to additional information that can otherwise only be obtained through seismic array measurements or are associated with large uncertainties. An example is the access to local phase velocity information from measurements of amplitude ratios of translations and rotations. When surface waves are available, this implies (in principle) that 1D velocity models can be estimated from Love wave dispersion curves. In addition, rotational ground motion observations can distinguish between Love and Rayleigh waves as well as S and P type motions. Wave propagation directions can be estimated by maximizing (or minimizing) coherence between translational and rotational motions. In combination with velocity-depth estimates, locations of seismic sources can be determined from a single station with little or no prior knowledge of the velocity structure. We demonstrate these points with both theoretical and real data examples using the vertical component of motion from ring laser recordings at Wettzell and all components of motion from the ROMY ring near Munich. Finally, we present the current state of technology concerning portable rotation sensors and discuss the relevance to planetary seismology.

  11. A PCA-based bio-motion generator to synthesize new patterns of human running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Baydal-Bertomeu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Synthesizing human movement is useful for most applications where the use of avatars is required. These movements should be as realistic as possible and thus must take into account anthropometric characteristics (weight, height, etc., gender, and the performance of the activity being developed. The aim of this study is to develop a new methodology based on the combination of principal component analysis and partial least squares regression model that can generate realistic motion from a set of data (gender, anthropometry and performance. A total of 18 volunteer runners have participated in the study. The joint angles of the main body joints were recorded in an experimental study using 3D motion tracking technology. A five-step methodology has been employed to develop a model capable of generating a realistic running motion. The described model has been validated for running motion, showing a highly realistic motion which fits properly with the real movements measured. The described methodology could be applied to synthesize any type of motion: walking, going up and down stairs, etc. In future work, we want to integrate the motion in realistic body shapes, generated with a similar methodology and from the same simple original data.

  12. Smart Sensor-Based Motion Detection System for Hand Movement Training in Open Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xinyao; Byrns, Simon; Cheng, Irene; Zheng, Bin; Basu, Anup

    2017-02-01

    We introduce a smart sensor-based motion detection technique for objective measurement and assessment of surgical dexterity among users at different experience levels. The goal is to allow trainees to evaluate their performance based on a reference model shared through communication technology, e.g., the Internet, without the physical presence of an evaluating surgeon. While in the current implementation we used a Leap Motion Controller to obtain motion data for analysis, our technique can be applied to motion data captured by other smart sensors, e.g., OptiTrack. To differentiate motions captured from different participants, measurement and assessment in our approach are achieved using two strategies: (1) low level descriptive statistical analysis, and (2) Hidden Markov Model (HMM) classification. Based on our surgical knot tying task experiment, we can conclude that finger motions generated from users with different surgical dexterity, e.g., expert and novice performers, display differences in path length, number of movements and task completion time. In order to validate the discriminatory ability of HMM for classifying different movement patterns, a non-surgical task was included in our analysis. Experimental results demonstrate that our approach had 100 % accuracy in discriminating between expert and novice performances. Our proposed motion analysis technique applied to open surgical procedures is a promising step towards the development of objective computer-assisted assessment and training systems.

  13. Brain-Machine Interfacing Control of Whole-Body Humanoid Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim eBouyarmane

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We propose to tackle in this paper the problem of controlling whole-body humanoid robot behavior through non-invasive brain-machine interfacing (BMI, motivated by the perspective of mapping human motor control strategies to human-like mechanical avatar. Our solution is based on the adequate reduction of the controllable dimensionality of a high-DOF humanoid motion in line with the state-of-the-art possibilities of non-invasive BMI technologies, leaving the complement subspace part of the motion to be planned and executed by an autonomous humanoid whole-body motion planning and control framework. The results are shown in full physics-based simulation of a 36-degree-of-freedom humanoid motion controlled by a user through EEG-extracted brain signals generated with motor imagery task.

  14. Current-driven magnetic domain wall motion and its real-time detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kab-Jin; Yoshimura, Yoko; Ono, Teruo

    2017-08-01

    Current-controlled magnetic domain wall motion has opened the possibility of a novel type of shift register memory device, which has been optimistically predicted to replace existing magnetic memories. Owing to this promising prospect, intensive work has been carried out during the last few decades. In this article, we first review the progress in the study of current-induced magnetic domain wall motion. Underlying mechanisms behind the domain wall motion, which have been discovered during last few decades, as well as technological achievements are presented. We then present our recent experimental results on the real-time detection of current-driven multiple magnetic domain wall motion, which directly demonstrates the operation of a magnetic domain wall shift register.

  15. Remo Dance Motion Estimation with Markerless Motion Capture Using The Optical Flow Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neny Kurniati

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Motion capture has been developed and applied in various fields, one of them is dancing. Remo dance is a dance from East Java that tells the struggle of a prince who fought on the battlefield. Remo dancer does not use body-tight costume. He wears a few costume pieces and accessories, so required a motion detection method that can detect limb motion which does not damage the beauty of the costumes and does not interfere motion of the dancer. The method is Markerless Motion Capture. Limbs motions are partial behavior. This means that all limbs do not move simultaneously, but alternately. It required motion tracking to detect parts of the body moving and where the direction of motion. Optical flow is a method that is suitable for the above conditions. Moving body parts will be detected by the bounding box. A bounding box differential value between frames can determine the direction of the motion and how far the object is moving. The optical flow method is simple and does not require a monochrome background. This method does not use complex feature extraction process so it can be applied to real-time motion capture. Performance of motion detection with optical flow method is determined by the value of the ratio between the area of the blob and the area of the bounding box. Estimate coordinates are not necessarily like original coordinates, but if the chart of estimate motion similar to the chart of the original motion, it means motion estimation it can be said to have the same motion with the original. Keywords: Motion Capture, Markerless, Remo Dance, Optical Flow

  16. CHP Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about CHP technologies, including reciprocating engines, combustion turbines, steam turbines, microturbines, fuel cells, and waste heat to power. Access the Catalog of CHP Technologies and the Biomass CHP Catalog of Technologies.

  17. Assistive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Page Resize Text Printer Friendly Online Chat Assistive Technology Assistive technology (AT) is any service or tool that helps ... be difficult or impossible. For older adults, such technology may be a walker to improve mobility or ...

  18. Direct Contribution of Auditory Motion Information to Sound-Induced Visual Motion Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souta Hidaka

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We have recently demonstrated that alternating left-right sound sources induce motion perception to static visual stimuli along the horizontal plane (SIVM: sound-induced visual motion perception, Hidaka et al., 2009. The aim of the current study was to elucidate whether auditory motion signals, rather than auditory positional signals, can directly contribute to the SIVM. We presented static visual flashes at retinal locations outside the fovea together with a lateral auditory motion provided by a virtual stereo noise source smoothly shifting in the horizontal plane. The flashes appeared to move in the situation where auditory positional information would have little influence on the perceived position of visual stimuli; the spatiotemporal position of the flashes was in the middle of the auditory motion trajectory. Furthermore, the auditory motion altered visual motion perception in a global motion display; in this display, different localized motion signals of multiple visual stimuli were combined to produce a coherent visual motion perception so that there was no clear one-to-one correspondence between the auditory stimuli and each visual stimulus. These findings suggest the existence of direct interactions between the auditory and visual modalities in motion processing and motion perception.

  19. Motion-sensitive cortex and motion semantics in American Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Stephen; Saygin, Ayse Pinar; Korpics, Franco; Emmorey, Karen

    2012-10-15

    Previous research indicates that motion-sensitive brain regions are engaged when comprehending motion semantics expressed by words or sentences. Using fMRI, we investigated whether such neural modulation can occur when the linguistic signal itself is visually dynamic and motion semantics is expressed by movements of the hands. Deaf and hearing users of American Sign Language (ASL) were presented with signed sentences that conveyed motion semantics ("The deer walked along the hillside.") or were static, conveying little or no motion ("The deer slept along the hillside."); sentences were matched for the amount of visual motion. Motion-sensitive visual areas (MT+) were localized individually in each participant. As a control, the Fusiform Face Area (FFA) was also localized for the deaf participants. The whole-brain analysis revealed static (locative) sentences engaged regions in left parietal cortex more than motion sentences, replicating previous results implicating these regions in comprehending spatial language for sign languages. Greater activation was observed in the functionally defined MT+ ROI for motion than static sentences for both deaf and hearing signers. No modulation of neural activity by sentence type was observed in the FFA. Deafness did not affect modulation of MT+ by motion semantics, but hearing signers exhibited stronger neural activity in MT+ for both sentence types, perhaps due to differences in exposure and/or use of ASL. We conclude that top down modulation of motion-sensitive cortex by linguistic semantics is not disrupted by the visual motion that is present in sign language sentences.

  20. Adaptation to real motion reveals direction-selective interactions between real and implied motion processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorteije, J.A.M.; Kenemans, J.L.; Jellema, T.; Lubbe, R.H.J. van der; Lommers, M.W.; Wezel, R.J.A. van

    2007-01-01

    Viewing static pictures of running humans evokes neural activity in the dorsal motion-sensitive cortex. To establish whether this response arises from direction-selective neurons that are also involved in real motion processing, we measured the visually evoked potential to implied motion following a

  1. Delayed response to animate implied motion in human motion processing areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorteije, J.A.M.; Kenemans, J.L.; Jellema, T.; Lubbe, R.H.J. van der; Heer, F. de; Wezel, R.J.A. van

    2006-01-01

    Viewing static photographs of objects in motion evokes higher fMRI activation in the human medial temporal complex (MT+) than looking at similar photographs without this implied motion. As MT+ is traditionally thought to be involved in motion perception (and not in form perception), this finding sug

  2. Delayed Response to Animate Implied Motion in Human Motion Processing Areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorteije, Jeannette A.M.; Kenemans, J. Leon; Jellema, Tjeerd; Lubbe, van der Rob H.J.; Heer, de Frederiek; Wezel, van Richard J.A.

    2006-01-01

    Viewing static photographs of objects in motion evokes higher fMRI activation in the human medial temporal complex (MT+) than looking at similar photographs without this implied motion. As MT+ is traditionally thought to be involved in motion perception (and not in form perception), this finding sug

  3. Adaptation to Real Motion Reveals Direction-selective Interactions between Real and Implied Motion Processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorteije, Jeannette A.M.; Kenemans, Leon; Jellema, Tjeerd; Lubbe, van der Rob H.J.; Lommers, Marjolein W.; Wezel, van Richard J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Viewing static pictures of running humans evokes neural activity in the dorsal motion-sensitive cortex. To establish whether this response arises from direction-selective neurons that are also involved in real motion processing, we measured the visually evoked potential to implied motion following a

  4. DSP applications in advanced, intelligent motion control: the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beierke, S. [Texas Instruments Deutschland GmBh, Freising (Germany); Vas, P. [Univ. of Aberdeen, Dept. of Engineering (United Kingdom)

    2000-08-01

    Recently there has been a rapid increase in the number of DSPs for various motion control applications. However, in the future, further significant increase is expected due to wider applications in existing and new areas (e.g. household appliances, automotive auxiliaries, micro-electromechanical systems, military applications, etc.). The present paper discusses the state-of-art Texas Instruments fixed point and floating point DSPs used in motion control applications and will also focus on future activities. Currently new chip technologies are being developed which involve copper interconnects, silicon-on-insulator wafers, insulators with- low dielectric constants, etc. It is expected that future single-chip DSPs for advanced intelligent motion control will have higher performance, reduced costs, simpler designs, will incorporate various sensors, different modules for optimised PWM generation, efficiency control, vector and direct torque control (sensorless and quasisensorless solutions as well), condition monitoring, selfcommissioning, artificial-intelligence-based control, etc. A manufacturer's task of implementing sensorless and/or quasisensorless torque control schemes for induction, synchronous and switched reluctance motor drives will be significantly reduced by the application of the newly developed DSPs. The paper will discuss these issues and will also show some implementation results in various sensorless (classical DTC; DTC with torque-ripple reduction schemes; vector) and quasisensorless ac drives (e.g. a vector controlled induction motor drive). (orig.)

  5. Structure from Motion using the Extended Kalman Filter

    CERN Document Server

    Civera, Javier; Martínez Montiel, José María

    2012-01-01

    The fully automated estimation of the 6 degrees of freedom camera motion and the imaged 3D scenario using as the only input the pictures taken by the camera has been a long term aim in the computer vision community. The associated line of research has been known as Structure from Motion (SfM). An intense research effort during the latest decades has produced spectacular advances; the topic has reached a consistent state of maturity and most of its aspects are well known nowadays. 3D vision has immediate applications in many and diverse fields like robotics, videogames and augmented reality; and technological transfer is starting to be a reality. This book describes one of the first systems for sparse point-based 3D reconstruction and egomotion estimation from an image sequence; able to run in real-time at video frame rate and assuming quite weak prior knowledge about camera calibration, motion or scene. Its chapters unify the current perspectives of the robotics and computer vision communities on the 3D visio...

  6. Imaging the motion of electrons across semiconductor heterojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Michael K. L.; Margiolakis, Athanasios; Deckoff-Jones, Skylar; Harada, Takaaki; Wong, E. Laine; Krishna, M. Bala Murali; Madéo, Julien; Winchester, Andrew; Lei, Sidong; Vajtai, Robert; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Dani, Keshav M.

    2017-01-01

    Technological progress since the late twentieth century has centred on semiconductor devices, such as transistors, diodes and solar cells. At the heart of these devices is the internal motion of electrons through semiconductor materials due to applied electric fields or by the excitation of photocarriers. Imaging the motion of these electrons would provide unprecedented insight into this important phenomenon, but requires high spatial and temporal resolution. Current studies of electron dynamics in semiconductors are generally limited by the spatial resolution of optical probes, or by the temporal resolution of electronic probes. Here, by combining femtosecond pump-probe techniques with spectroscopic photoemission electron microscopy, we imaged the motion of photoexcited electrons from high-energy to low-energy states in a type-II 2D InSe/GaAs heterostructure. At the instant of photoexcitation, energy-resolved photoelectron images revealed a highly non-equilibrium distribution of photocarriers in space and energy. Thereafter, in response to the out-of-equilibrium photocarriers, we observed the spatial redistribution of charges, thus forming internal electric fields, bending the semiconductor bands, and finally impeding further charge transfer. By assembling images taken at different time-delays, we produced a movie lasting a few trillionths of a second of the electron-transfer process in the photoexcited type-II heterostructure—a fundamental phenomenon in semiconductor devices such as solar cells. Quantitative analysis and theoretical modelling of spatial variations in the movie provide insight into future solar cells, 2D materials and other semiconductor devices.

  7. Body Motion and Graphing. Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemirovsky, Ricardo; Tierney, Cornelia; Wright, Tracey

    This paper explores children's efforts to make sense of graphs by analyzing two students' use of a computer-based motion detector. The analysis focuses on the students' growing understanding of the motion detector which enables them to plan their movements in order to create graphs and interpret them in terms of kinesthetic actions. Students…

  8. Conditional shape models for cardiac motion estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Metz, Coert; Baka, Nora; Kirisli, Hortense

    2010-01-01

    We propose a conditional statistical shape model to predict patient specific cardiac motion from the 3D end-diastolic CTA scan. The model is built from 4D CTA sequences by combining atlas based segmentation and 4D registration. Cardiac motion estimation is, for example, relevant in the dynamic...

  9. Structural principles governing domain motions in proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayward, S

    1999-01-01

    With the use of a recently developed method, twenty-four proteins for which two or more X-ray conformers are known have been analyzed to reveal structural principles that govern domain motions in proteins. In all 24 cases, the domain motion is a rotation about a physical axis created through local i

  10. Sound-contingent visual motion aftereffect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobayashi Maori

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After a prolonged exposure to a paired presentation of different types of signals (e.g., color and motion, one of the signals (color becomes a driver for the other signal (motion. This phenomenon, which is known as contingent motion aftereffect, indicates that the brain can establish new neural representations even in the adult's brain. However, contingent motion aftereffect has been reported only in visual or auditory domain. Here, we demonstrate that a visual motion aftereffect can be contingent on a specific sound. Results Dynamic random dots moving in an alternating right or left direction were presented to the participants. Each direction of motion was accompanied by an auditory tone of a unique and specific frequency. After a 3-minutes exposure, the tones began to exert marked influence on the visual motion perception, and the percentage of dots required to trigger motion perception systematically changed depending on the tones. Furthermore, this effect lasted for at least 2 days. Conclusions These results indicate that a new neural representation can be rapidly established between auditory and visual modalities.

  11. Teaching Projectile Motion to Eliminate Misconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Anne; Mitchelmore, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Student misconceptions of projectile motion are well documented, but their effect on the teaching and learning of the mathematics of motion under gravity has not been investigated. An experimental unit was designed that was intended to confront and eliminate misconceptions in senior secondary school students. The approach was found to be…

  12. Motion fidelity during a simulated takeoff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, E.L.; Hosman, R.J.A.W.; Dominicus, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    In this psychophysical study, seven airline pilots reported on their perceived self-motion in response to variations of motion filter gains during a simulated takeoff. Each pilot participated both as pilot flying and pilot non-flying. In order to vary the gains of the simulated linear acceleration

  13. Visual-vestibular interaction in motion perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosman, R.J.A.W.; Cardullo, F.M.; Bos, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Correct perception of self motion is of vital importance for both the control of our position and posture when moving around in our environment. With the development of human controlled vehicles as bicycles, cars and aircraft motion perception became of interest for the understanding of vehicle

  14. Branner-Hubbard Motions and attracting dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Carsten Lunde; Tan, Lei

    2006-01-01

    We introduce a new notion of attracting dynamics, which is related to polynomial-like mappings. Also we review the Branner-Hubbard Motion and study its action on attracting dynamics.......We introduce a new notion of attracting dynamics, which is related to polynomial-like mappings. Also we review the Branner-Hubbard Motion and study its action on attracting dynamics....

  15. Visual-vestibular interaction in motion perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosman, R.J.A.W.; Cardullo, F.M.; Bos, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Correct perception of self motion is of vital importance for both the control of our position and posture when moving around in our environment. With the development of human controlled vehicles as bicycles, cars and aircraft motion perception became of interest for the understanding of vehicle cont

  16. 12 CFR 308.527 - Motions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Motions. 308.527 Section 308.527 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Program Fraud Civil Remedies and Procedures § 308.527 Motions. (a) Any application to the ALJ for...

  17. Motion control of a population of Artemias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Fortuna

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the collective behavior of Artemia Salina is studied both experimentally and theoretically. Several experiments have been designed to investigate the Artemia motion under different environment conditions. From the results of such experiments, a strategy to control the direction of motion of an Artemia population, by exploiting their sensitivity to light, has been derived and then implemented.

  18. Structural principles governing domain motions in proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayward, S

    1999-01-01

    With the use of a recently developed method, twenty-four proteins for which two or more X-ray conformers are known have been analyzed to reveal structural principles that govern domain motions in proteins. In all 24 cases, the domain motion is a rotation about a physical axis created through local

  19. Ride Severity Profile for Evaluating Craft Motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    pitch and roll rates can lead to uncomfortable motions that result in whiplash -like dynamics, especially in the neck and spine regions. Motions in a...tolerable by another. For example, one individual may experience 1 to 2 hour limited performance after being exposed to A1/10 equal to 1.5 g while another

  20. Motion planning for gantry mounted manipulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anders Lau; Petersen, Henrik Gordon

    2007-01-01

    We present a roadmap based planner for finding robot motions for gantry mounted manipulators for a line welding application at Odense Steel Shipyard (OSS). The robot motions are planned subject to constraints on when the gantry may be moved. We show that random sampling of gantry configurations...

  1. Integrability and the motion of curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Kazuaki; Segur, Harvey; Wadati, Miki

    1992-11-01

    Recently discovered connections between integrable evolution equations and the motion of curves are based on the following fact: The Serret-Frenet equations are equivalent to the Ablowitz-Kaup-Newell-Segur (AKNS) scattering problem at zero eigenvalue. This equivalence identifies those evolution equations, integrable or not, that can describe the motion of curves.

  2. Branner-Hubbard motions and attracting dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Carsten Lunde; Tan, Lei

    We introduce the new notion an aatracting dynamics, which is related to polynomial-likke mappings. Also we review the Branner-Hubbard motion and study its action on attracting dynamics.......We introduce the new notion an aatracting dynamics, which is related to polynomial-likke mappings. Also we review the Branner-Hubbard motion and study its action on attracting dynamics....

  3. A dynamic human motion: coordination analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pchelkin, Stepan; Shiriaev, Anton S; Freidovich, Leonid B; Mettin, Uwe; Gusev, Sergei V; Kwon, Woong; Paramonov, Leonid

    2015-02-01

    This article is concerned with the generic structure of the motion coordination system resulting from the application of the method of virtual holonomic constraints (VHCs) to the problem of the generation and robust execution of a dynamic humanlike motion by a humanoid robot. The motion coordination developed using VHCs is based on a motion generator equation, which is a scalar nonlinear differential equation of second order. It can be considered equivalent in function to a central pattern generator in living organisms. The relative time evolution of the degrees of freedom of a humanoid robot during a typical motion are specified by a set of coordination functions that uniquely define the overall pattern of the motion. This is comparable to a hypothesis on the existence of motion patterns in biomechanics. A robust control is derived based on a transverse linearization along the configuration manifold defined by the coordination functions. It is shown that the derived coordination and control architecture possesses excellent robustness properties. The analysis is performed on an example of a real human motion recorded in test experiments.

  4. Pulsar motions from VEP neutrino oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkovich, M.; Casini, H.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Montemayor, R.

    2002-07-01

    We show that a violation of the equivalence principle (VEP) can explain pulsar motions. We find that both the translational and rotational velocities can be accounted by VEP induced anisotropies in the linear and angular momentum of the neutrinos emitted by the protoneutron star. The violation needed to obtain the observed motions is compatible with existing boundaries.

  5. Personalised real-time idle motion synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egges, A.; Molet, T.; Magnenat-Thalmann, N.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an animation approach based on principal component analysis that allows generating two layers of subtle motions: small posture variations and personalised change of balance. Such a motion generator is needed in many cases when one attempts to create an animation sequence

  6. Simulating Biological and Non-Biological Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzzo, Angela; Gesierich, Benno; Wohlschlager, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the brain processes biological and non-biological movements in distinct neural circuits. Biological motion, in contrast to non-biological motion, refers to active movements of living beings. Aim of our experiment was to investigate the mechanisms underlying mental simulation of these two movement types. Subjects had to…

  7. Using Phun to Study "Perpetual Motion" Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kores, Jaroslav

    2012-01-01

    The concept of "perpetual motion" has a long history. The Indian astronomer and mathematician Bhaskara II (12th century) was the first person to describe a perpetual motion (PM) machine. An example of a 13th-century PM machine is shown in Fig. 1. Although the law of conservation of energy clearly implies the impossibility of PM construction, over…

  8. Repurposing video recordings for structure motion estimations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaloo, Ali; Lattanzi, David

    2016-04-01

    Video monitoring of public spaces is becoming increasingly ubiquitous, particularly near essential structures and facilities. During any hazard event that dynamically excites a structure, such as an earthquake or hurricane, proximal video cameras may inadvertently capture the motion time-history of the structure during the event. If this dynamic time-history could be extracted from the repurposed video recording it would become a valuable forensic analysis tool for engineers performing post-disaster structural evaluations. The difficulty is that almost all potential video cameras are not installed to monitor structure motions, leading to camera perspective distortions and other associated challenges. This paper presents a method for extracting structure motions from videos using a combination of computer vision techniques. Images from a video recording are first reprojected into synthetic images that eliminate perspective distortion, using as-built knowledge of a structure for calibration. The motion of the camera itself during an event is also considered. Optical flow, a technique for tracking per-pixel motion, is then applied to these synthetic images to estimate the building motion. The developed method was validated using the experimental records of the NEESHub earthquake database. The results indicate that the technique is capable of estimating structural motions, particularly the frequency content of the response. Further work will evaluate variants and alternatives to the optical flow algorithm, as well as study the impact of video encoding artifacts on motion estimates.

  9. Attitudes toward Motion Pictures among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Bruce A.

    Several reasons for studying motion pictures and patrons' attitudes toward them include the following: (1) current data show that motion pictures account for 53% of the total United States spectator amusement expenditures; (2) the average weekly United States movie attendance has plummeted by more than half since 1930; (3) despite this decline,…

  10. Motion in gauge theories of gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Tresguerres, Romualdo

    2012-01-01

    A description of motion is proposed, adapted to the composite bundle interpretation of Poincar\\'e Gauge Theory. Reference frames, relative positions and time evolution are characterized in gauge-theoretical terms. The approach is illustrated by an appropriate formulation of the familiar example of orbital motion induced by Schwarzschild spacetime.

  11. Electromagnetic Radiation and Motion of Real Particle

    CERN Document Server

    Klacka, J

    2000-01-01

    Relativistically covariant equation of motion for real dust particle under the action of electromagnetic radiation is derived. The particle is neutral in charge. Equation of motion is expressed in terms of particle's optical properties, standardly used in optics for stationary particles.

  12. Optimal Configuration of Human Motion Tracking Systems: A Systems Engineering Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Steve

    2005-01-01

    Human motion tracking systems represent a crucial technology in the area of modeling and simulation. These systems, which allow engineers to capture human motion for study or replication in virtual environments, have broad applications in several research disciplines including human engineering, robotics, and psychology. These systems are based on several sensing paradigms, including electro-magnetic, infrared, and visual recognition. Each of these paradigms requires specialized environments and hardware configurations to optimize performance of the human motion tracking system. Ideally, these systems are used in a laboratory or other facility that was designed to accommodate the particular sensing technology. For example, electromagnetic systems are highly vulnerable to interference from metallic objects, and should be used in a specialized lab free of metal components.

  13. Capturing Motion and Depth Before Cinematography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Nicholas J

    2016-01-01

    Visual representations of biological states have traditionally faced two problems: they lacked motion and depth. Attempts were made to supply these wants over many centuries, but the major advances were made in the early-nineteenth century. Motion was synthesized by sequences of slightly different images presented in rapid succession and depth was added by presenting slightly different images to each eye. Apparent motion and depth were combined some years later, but they tended to be applied separately. The major figures in this early period were Wheatstone, Plateau, Horner, Duboscq, Claudet, and Purkinje. Others later in the century, like Marey and Muybridge, were stimulated to extend the uses to which apparent motion and photography could be applied to examining body movements. These developments occurred before the birth of cinematography, and significant insights were derived from attempts to combine motion and depth.

  14. Coriolis effects and motion sickness modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bles, W

    1998-11-15

    Coriolis effects are notorious in relation to disorientation and motion sickness in aircrew. A review is provided of experimental data on these Coriolis effects, including the modulatory effects of adding visual or somatosensory rotatory motion information. A vector analysis of the consequences of head movements during somatosensory, visual and/or vestibular rotatory motion stimulation revealed that the more the sensed angular velocity vector after the head movements is aligned with the gravitoinertial force vector, the less nauseating effects are experienced. It is demonstrated that this is a special case of the subjective vertical conflict theory on motion sickness that assumes that motion sickness may be provoked if a discrepancy is detected between the subjective vertical and the sensed vertical as determined on the basis of incoming sensory information.

  15. Interactive inverse kinematics for human motion estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engell-Nørregård, Morten Pol; Hauberg, Søren; Lapuyade, Jerome

    2009-01-01

    We present an application of a fast interactive inverse kinematics method as a dimensionality reduction for monocular human motion estimation. The inverse kinematics solver deals efficiently and robustly with box constraints and does not suffer from shaking artifacts. The presented motion...... estimation system uses a single camera to estimate the motion of a human. The results show that inverse kinematics can significantly speed up the estimation process, while retaining a quality comparable to a full pose motion estimation system. Our novelty lies primarily in use of inverse kinematics...... to significantly speed up the particle filtering. It should be stressed that the observation part of the system has not been our focus, and as such is described only from a sense of completeness. With our approach it is possible to construct a robust and computationally efficient system for human motion estimation....

  16. Orbital Motion During Gravitational Lensing Events

    CERN Document Server

    Di Stefano, Rosanne

    2014-01-01

    Gravitational lensing events provide unique opportunities to discover and study planetary systems and binaries. Here we build on previous work to explore the role that orbital motion can play in both identifying and learning more about multiple-mass systems that serve as gravitational lenses. We find that a significant fraction of planet-lens and binary-lens light curves are influenced by orbital motion. Furthermore, the effects of orbital motion extend the range of binaries for which lens multiplicity can be discovered and studied. Orbital motion will play an increasingly important role as observations with sensitive photometry, such as those made by the space missions Kepler, Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite, (TESS), and WFIRST discover gravitational lensing events. Similarly, the excellent astrometric measurements made possible by GAIA will allow it to study the effects of orbital motion. Frequent observations, such as those made possible with the Korean Microlensing Telescope Network, KMTNet, will al...

  17. Spinning Particle Motion in a Kerr Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A.; Baker, W. M.; Staton, R.

    1999-12-01

    The physics of particle motion in a Kerr geometry has been extensively studied. The case of motion of particles with spin is not as well investigated. We have studied the case of the motion of a spinning particle by applying the Papapetrou equation, which includes a spin-curvature coupling term, and an equation that describes the evolution of the spin of the particle. The motion is considered for a Kerr geometry in the weak field limit. We have obtained numerical solutions to this system of equations. Our results suggest that spin orientation is important for particle trajectories in a manner that is similar to the Stern-Gerlach effect. This could be important for the study of the motion of very low mass neutrinos. Project funded by a grant from the South Carolina Independent Colleges and Universities, and the Furman Advantage Program.

  18. Supersonic Motions of Galaxies in Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Faltenbacher, A; Nagai, D; Gottlöber, S; Faltenbacher, Andreas; Kravtsov, Andrey V.; Nagai, Daisuke; Gottloeber, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    We study motions of galaxies in galaxy clusters formed in the concordance LCDM cosmology. We use high-resolution cosmological simulations that follow dynamics of dark matter and gas and include various physical processes critical for galaxy formation: gas cooling, heating and star formation. Analysing motions of galaxies and the properties of intracluster gas in the sample of eight simulated clusters at z=0, we study velocity dispersion profiles of the dark matter, gas, and galaxies. We measure the mean velocity of galaxy motions and gas sound speed as a function of radius and calculate the average Mach number of galaxy motions. The simulations show that galaxies, on average, move supersonically with the average Mach number of ~1.4, approximately independent of the cluster-centric radius. The supersonic motions of galaxies may potentially provide an important source of heating for the intracluster gas by driving weak shocks and via dynamical friction, although these heating processes appear to be inefficient ...

  19. LDR structural technology activities at JPL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Ben

    1988-01-01

    The status of the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) technology requirements and the availability of that technology in the next few years are summarized. The research efforts at JPL related to these technology needs are also discussed. LDR requires that a large and relatively stiff truss-type backup structure have a surface accurate to 100 microns in space (initial position with thermal distortions) and the dynamic characteristics predictable and/or measurable by on-orbit system identification for micron level motion. This motion may result from the excitation of the lower modes or from wave-type motions. It is also assumed that the LDR structure can be ground tested to validate its ability to meet mission requirements. No program manager will commit a structural design based solely on analysis, unless the analysis is backed by a validation test program.

  20. Stability of fluid motions I

    CERN Document Server

    Joseph, Daniel D

    1976-01-01

    The study of stability aims at understanding the abrupt changes which are observed in fluid motions as the external parameters are varied. It is a demanding study, far from full grown"whose most interesting conclusions are recent. I have written a detailed account of those parts of the recent theory which I regard as established. Acknowledgements I started writing this book in 1967 at the invitation of Clifford Truesdell. It was to be a short work on the energy theory of stability and if I had stuck to that I would have finished the writing many years ago. The theory of stability has developed so rapidly since 1967 that the book I might then have written would now have a much too limited scope. I am grateful to Truesdell, not so much for the invitation to spend endless hours of writing and erasing, but for the generous way he has supported my efforts and encouraged me to higher standards of good work. I have tried to follow Truesdell's advice to write this work in a clear and uncomplicated style. This is not ...

  1. Protein folding by motion planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Shawna; Song, Guang; Amato, Nancy M.

    2005-12-01

    We investigate a novel approach for studying protein folding that has evolved from robotics motion planning techniques called probabilistic roadmap methods (PRMs). Our focus is to study issues related to the folding process, such as the formation of secondary and tertiary structures, assuming we know the native fold. A feature of our PRM-based framework is that the large sets of folding pathways in the roadmaps it produces, in just a few hours on a desktop PC, provide global information about the protein's energy landscape. This is an advantage over other simulation methods such as molecular dynamics or Monte Carlo methods which require more computation and produce only a single trajectory in each run. In our initial studies, we obtained encouraging results for several small proteins. In this paper, we investigate more sophisticated techniques for analyzing the folding pathways in our roadmaps. In addition to more formally revalidating our previous results, we present a case study showing that our technique captures known folding differences between the structurally similar proteins G and L. This research was supported in part by NSF CAREER Award CCR-9624315, NSF Grants ACI-9872126, EIA-9975018, EIA-0103742, EIA-9805823, ACR-0113971, CCR-0113974, EIA-9810937, EIA-0079874 and the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board grant ATP-000512-0261-2001. ST was supported in part by an NSF Graduate Research Fellowship. GS was supported in part by an IBM PhD Fellowship.

  2. Wind-influenced projectile motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Reginald Christian; Perico Esguerra, Jose; Day Vallejos, Jazmine; Jerard Canda, Jeff

    2015-03-01

    We solved the wind-influenced projectile motion problem with the same initial and final heights and obtained exact analytical expressions for the shape of the trajectory, range, maximum height, time of flight, time of ascent, and time of descent with the help of the Lambert W function. It turns out that the range and maximum horizontal displacement are not always equal. When launched at a critical angle, the projectile will return to its starting position. It turns out that a launch angle of 90° maximizes the time of flight, time of ascent, time of descent, and maximum height and that the launch angle corresponding to maximum range can be obtained by solving a transcendental equation. Finally, we expressed in a parametric equation the locus of points corresponding to maximum heights for projectiles launched from the ground with the same initial speed in all directions. We used the results to estimate how much a moderate wind can modify a golf ball’s range and suggested other possible applications.

  3. Motion Magnification in Coronal Seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anfinogentov, Sergey; Nakariakov, Valery M.

    2016-11-01

    We introduce a new method for the investigation of low-amplitude transverse oscillations of solar plasma non-uniformities, such as coronal loops, individual strands in coronal arcades, jets, prominence fibrils, polar plumes, and other contrast features that have been observed with imaging instruments. The method is based on the two-dimensional dual-tree complex wavelet transform (DTℂWT). It allows us to magnify transverse, in the plane-of-the-sky, quasi-periodic motions of contrast features in image sequences. The tests performed on the artificial data cubes that imitated exponentially decaying, multi-periodic and frequency-modulated kink oscillations of coronal loops showed the effectiveness, reliability, and robustness of this technique. The algorithm was found to give linear scaling of the magnified amplitudes with the original amplitudes, provided these are sufficiently small. In addition, the magnification is independent of the oscillation period in a broad range of the periods. The application of this technique to SDO/AIA EUV data cubes of a non-flaring active region allowed for the improved detection of low-amplitude decay-less oscillations in the majority of loops.

  4. Horizontal versus vertical plate motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cuffaro

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available We review both present and past motions at major plate boundaries, which have the horizontal component in average 10 to 100 times faster (10–100 mm/yr than the vertical component (0.01–1 mm/yr in all geodynamic settings. The steady faster horizontal velocity of the lithosphere with respect to the upward or downward velocities at plate boundaries supports dominating tangential forces acting on plates. This suggests a passive role of plate boundaries with respect to far field forces determining the velocity of plates. The forces acting on the lithosphere can be subdivided in coupled and uncoupled, as a function of the shear at the lithosphere base. Higher the asthenosphere viscosity, more significant should be the coupled forces, i.e., the mantle drag and the trench suction. Lower the asthenosphere viscosity, more the effects of uncoupled forces might result determinant, i.e., the ridge push, the slab pull and the tidal drag. Although a combination of all forces acting on the lithosphere is likely, the decoupling between lithosphere and mantle suggests that a torque acts on the lithosphere independently of the mantle drag. Slab pull and ridge push are candidates for generating this torque, but, unlike these boundary forces, the advantage of the tidal drag is to be a volume force, acting simultaneously on the whole plates, and being the decoupling at the lithosphere base controlled by lateral variations in viscosity of the low-velocity layer.

  5. Analysis methods for facial motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuaki Mishima

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective techniques to evaluate a facial movement are indispensable for the contemporary treatment of patients with motor disorders such as facial paralysis, cleft lip, postoperative head and neck cancer, and so on. Recently, computer-assisted, video-based techniques have been devised and reported as measuring systems in which facial movements can be evaluated quantitatively. Commercially available motion analysis systems, in which a stereo-measuring technique with multiple cameras and markers to facilitate search of matching among images through all cameras, also are utilized, and are used in many measuring systems such as video-based systems. The key is how the problems of facial movement can be extracted precisely, and how useful information for the diagnosis and decision-making process can be derived from analyses of facial movement. Therefore, it is important to discuss which facial animations should be examined, and whether fixation of the head and markers attached to the face can hamper natural facial movement.

  6. Wind-induced ground motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderyan, Vahid; Hickey, Craig J.; Raspet, Richard

    2016-02-01

    Wind noise is a problem in seismic surveys and can mask the seismic signals at low frequency. This research investigates ground motions caused by wind pressure and shear stress perturbations on the ground surface. A prediction of the ground displacement spectra using the measured ground properties and predicted pressure and shear stress at the ground surface is developed. Field measurements are conducted at a site having a flat terrain and low ambient seismic noise. Triaxial geophones are deployed at different depths to study the wind-induced ground vibrations as a function of depth and wind velocity. Comparison of the predicted to the measured wind-induced ground displacement spectra shows good agreement for the vertical component but significant underprediction for the horizontal components. To validate the theoretical model, a test experiment is designed to exert controlled normal pressure and shear stress on the ground using a vertical and a horizontal mass-spring apparatus. This experiment verifies the linear elastic rheology and the quasi-static displacements assumptions of the model. The results indicate that the existing surface shear stress models significantly underestimate the wind shear stress at the ground surface and the amplitude of the fluctuation shear stress must be of the same order of magnitude as the normal pressure. Measurement results show that mounting the geophones flush with the ground provides a significant reduction in wind noise on all three components of the geophone. Further reduction in wind noise with depth of burial is small for depths up to 40 cm.

  7. Using Process and Inqury to Teach Content: Projectile Motion and Graphing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhea, Marilyn; Lucido, Patricia; Gregerson-Malm, Cheryl

    2005-01-01

    These series of lessons uses the process of student inquiry to teach the concepts of force and motion identified in the National Science Education Standards for grades 5-8. The lesson plan also uses technology as a teaching tool through the use of interactive Web sites. The lessons are built on the 5-E format and feature imbedded assessments.

  8. Animated Autoethnographies: Stop Motion Animation as a Tool for Self-Inquiry and Personal Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Jeremy Michael

    2014-01-01

    This article will present the autoethnographic animations and processes from three select preservice art educators that enrolled in the Applications of Technology in Art Education course. These students created stop motion animations using small objects, toys, and their bodies; accessing culturally constructed fears, investigating impactful…

  9. Embodied Semiotic Activities and Their Role in the Construction of Mathematical Meaning of Motion Graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botzer, Galit; Yerushalmy, Michal

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the relation between bodily actions, artifact-mediated activities, and semiotic processes that students experience while producing and interpreting graphs of two-dimensional motion in the plane. We designed a technology-based setting that enabled students to engage in embodied semiotic activities and experience two modes of…

  10. Hockey, iPads, and Projectile Motion in a Physics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hechter, Richard P.

    2013-01-01

    With the increased availability of modern technology and handheld probeware for classrooms, the iPad and the Video Physics application developed by Vernier are used to capture and analyze the motion of an ice hockey puck within secondary-level physics education. Students collect, analyze, and generate digital modes of representation of physics…

  11. Comparative evaluation of a novel measurement tool to assess lumbar spine posture and range of motion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Consmüller, Tobias; Rohlmann, Antonius; Weinland, Daniel; Druschel, Claudia; Duda, Georg N; Taylor, William R

    2012-01-01

    .... Epionics SPINE is an advanced strain-gauge measurement technology, based on the two sensor strips SpineDMS system, which allows the non-invasive assessment of lumbar and thoraco-lumbar motion for periods of up to 24 h...

  12. An Arduino Investigation of Simple Harmonic Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeriu, Calin; Edwards, Scott; Esper, Geoffrey

    2014-03-01

    We cannot hope for a new generation of scientists and engineers if we don't let our young students take ownership of their scientific and engineering explorations, if we don't let them enjoy the hands-on cycle of design and production, and if we don't let them implant their creativity into a technologically friendly environment. With this educational philosophy in mind, Massimo Banzi and his team have developed and popularized the open source Arduino microcontroller board. The Arduino board has helped countless people in their science, electronics, robotics, or engineering projects, allowing them to build things that we have not even dreamed of. Physics instructors have also realized the advantages of using Arduino boards for lab experiments. The schools are saving money because the homemade experimental equipment is much cheaper than the commercial alternatives. The students are thankful for an educational experience that is more interesting, more loaded with STEM content, and more fun. As further proof of this new trend in physics education, Vernier5 is now documenting the use of their probes with Arduino boards. This is why we have developed an Arduino-based physics investigation of the simple harmonic motion (SHM) of a mass on a spring. The experimental data are collected with the help of an ultrasonic distance sensor and an Arduino Uno board. The data are then graphed and analyzed using Origin 9. This rich cross-curricular STEM activity integrates electronics, computer programming, physics, and mathematics in a way that is both experimentally exciting and intellectually rewarding.

  13. Power capacity from earcanal dynamic motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carioli, Johan; Delnavaz, Aidin; Zednik, Ricardo J.; Voix, Jérémie

    2016-12-01

    In-ear devices, such as a hearing aids, electronic earplugs, and wearables, need electrical power to operate. Batteries are the current solution, but unfortunately they also create other problems. For example, several hundred million users, mostly elderly, must change their hearing aid batteries on a weekly basis, which represents not only significant financial costs but a negative environmental impact. A promising alternative involves harvesting energy by converting the dynamic jaw movements into electrical energy via the earcanal. The extent that jaw movements distort the earcanal is still unknown, making it difficult to design the appropriate energy harvesting system for the earplug. Moreover, the finite element methods are barely capable to model the behavior of the earcanal distortion because of the complexity of mechanisms that deform the earcanal. However, this paper presents an alternative method, based on analytical considerations, to understand in-ear mechanical quasi-static deformations using earcanal point clouds. This model quantifies the bending and compressive movements of the earcanal. It can therefore be used to select an appropriate deformation mode for harvesting energy from the earcanal's dynamic motion. The value of this approach was illustrated by calculating the obtainable mechanical energy from 12 human subjects. On average, the bending energy in a human earcanal was found to be three times greater than the radial compression energy. This key finding will need to be considered in the design of future in-ear energy harvesting devices. Such an energy harvesting device has the potential to revolutionize the market for in-ear wearable devices and hearing aids by complementing or replacing battery technology.

  14. Power capacity from earcanal dynamic motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Carioli

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In-ear devices, such as a hearing aids, electronic earplugs, and wearables, need electrical power to operate. Batteries are the current solution, but unfortunately they also create other problems. For example, several hundred million users, mostly elderly, must change their hearing aid batteries on a weekly basis, which represents not only significant financial costs but a negative environmental impact. A promising alternative involves harvesting energy by converting the dynamic jaw movements into electrical energy via the earcanal. The extent that jaw movements distort the earcanal is still unknown, making it difficult to design the appropriate energy harvesting system for the earplug. Moreover, the finite element methods are barely capable to model the behavior of the earcanal distortion because of the complexity of mechanisms that deform the earcanal. However, this paper presents an alternative method, based on analytical considerations, to understand in-ear mechanical quasi-static deformations using earcanal point clouds. This model quantifies the bending and compressive movements of the earcanal. It can therefore be used to select an appropriate deformation mode for harvesting energy from the earcanal’s dynamic motion. The value of this approach was illustrated by calculating the obtainable mechanical energy from 12 human subjects. On average, the bending energy in a human earcanal was found to be three times greater than the radial compression energy. This key finding will need to be considered in the design of future in-ear energy harvesting devices. Such an energy harvesting device has the potential to revolutionize the market for in-ear wearable devices and hearing aids by complementing or replacing battery technology.

  15. Respiratory-Induced Prostate Motion Using Wavelet Decomposition of the Real-Time Electromagnetic Tracking Signal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yuting [Tu and Yuen Center for Functional Onco-Imaging, Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, California (United States); Liu, Tian; Yang, Xiaofeng [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University Hospital, Winship Cancer Institute, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Wang, Yuenan [Center for Devices and Radiological Health, US Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland (United States); Khan, Mohammad K., E-mail: drkhurram2000@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University Hospital, Winship Cancer Institute, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: The objective of this work is to characterize and quantify the impact of respiratory-induced prostate motion. Methods and Materials: Real-time intrafraction motion is observed with the Calypso 4-dimensional nonradioactive electromagnetic tracking system (Calypso Medical Technologies, Inc. Seattle, Washington). We report the results from a total of 1024 fractions from 31 prostate cancer patients. Wavelet transform was used to decompose the signal to extract and isolate the respiratory-induced prostate motion from the total prostate displacement. Results: Our results show that the average respiratory motion larger than 0.5 mm can be observed in 68% of the fractions. Fewer than 1% of the patients showed average respiratory motion of less than 0.2 mm, whereas 99% of the patients showed average respiratory-induced motion ranging between 0.2 and 2 mm. The maximum respiratory range of motion of 3 mm or greater was seen in only 25% of the fractions. In addition, about 2% patients showed anxiety, indicated by a breathing frequency above 24 times per minute. Conclusions: Prostate motion is influenced by respiration in most fractions. Real-time intrafraction data are sensitive enough to measure the impact of respiration by use of wavelet decomposition methods. Although the average respiratory amplitude observed in this study is small, this technique provides a tool that can be useful if one moves to smaller treatment margins (≤5 mm). This also opens ups the possibility of being able to develop patient specific margins, knowing that prostate motion is not unpredictable.

  16. Perceptual shrinkage of a one-way motion path with high-speed motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Yutaka; Sakaguchi, Yutaka

    2016-07-28

    Back-and-forth motion induces perceptual shrinkage of the motion path, but such shrinkage is hardly perceived for one-way motion. If the shrinkage is caused by temporal averaging of stimulus position around the endpoints, it should also be induced for one-way motion at higher motion speeds. In psychophysical experiments with a high-speed projector, we tested this conjecture for a one-way motion stimulus at various speeds (4-100 deg/s) along a straight path. Results showed that perceptual shrinkage of the motion path was robustly observed in higher-speed motion (faster than 66.7 deg/s). In addition, the amount of the forwards shift at the onset position was larger than that of the backwards shift at the offset position. These results demonstrate that high-speed motion can induce shrinkage, even for a one-way motion path. This can be explained by the view that perceptual position is represented by the integration of the temporal average of instantaneous position and the motion representation.

  17. Diaphragm motion characterization using chest motion data for biomechanics-based lung tumor tracking during EBRT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Elham; Gaede, Stewart; Lee, Ting-Yim; Samani, Abbas

    2016-03-01

    Despite recent advances in image-guided interventions, lung cancer External Beam Radiation Therapy (EBRT) is still very challenging due to respiration induced tumor motion. Among various proposed methods of tumor motion compensation, real-time tumor tracking is known to be one of the most effective solutions as it allows for maximum normal tissue sparing, less overall radiation exposure and a shorter treatment session. As such, we propose a biomechanics-based real-time tumor tracking method for effective lung cancer radiotherapy. In the proposed algorithm, the required boundary conditions for the lung Finite Element model, including diaphragm motion, are obtained using the chest surface motion as a surrogate signal. The primary objective of this paper is to demonstrate the feasibility of developing a function which is capable of inputting the chest surface motion data and outputting the diaphragm motion in real-time. For this purpose, after quantifying the diaphragm motion with a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) model, correlation coefficient between the model parameters of diaphragm motion and chest motion data was obtained through Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR). Preliminary results obtained in this study indicate that the PCA coefficients representing the diaphragm motion can be obtained through chest surface motion tracking with high accuracy.

  18. Effects of auditory information on self-motion perception during simultaneous presentation of visual shearing motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanahashi, Shigehito; Ashihara, Kaoru; Ujike, Hiroyasu

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have found that self-motion perception induced by simultaneous presentation of visual and auditory motion is facilitated when the directions of visual and auditory motion stimuli are identical. They did not, however, examine possible contributions of auditory motion information for determining direction of self-motion perception. To examine this, a visual stimulus projected on a hemisphere screen and an auditory stimulus presented through headphones were presented separately or simultaneously, depending on experimental conditions. The participant continuously indicated the direction and strength of self-motion during the 130-s experimental trial. When the visual stimulus with a horizontal shearing rotation and the auditory stimulus with a horizontal one-directional rotation were presented simultaneously, the duration and strength of self-motion perceived in the opposite direction of the auditory rotation stimulus were significantly longer and stronger than those perceived in the same direction of the auditory rotation stimulus. However, the auditory stimulus alone could not sufficiently induce self-motion perception, and if it did, its direction was not consistent within each experimental trial. We concluded that auditory motion information can determine perceived direction of self-motion during simultaneous presentation of visual and auditory motion information, at least when visual stimuli moved in opposing directions (around the yaw-axis). We speculate that the contribution of auditory information depends on the plausibility and information balance of visual and auditory information.

  19. Can walking motions improve visually induced rotational self-motion illusions in virtual reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riecke, Bernhard E; Freiberg, Jacob B; Grechkin, Timofey Y

    2015-02-04

    Illusions of self-motion (vection) can provide compelling sensations of moving through virtual environments without the need for complex motion simulators or large tracked physical walking spaces. Here we explore the interaction between biomechanical cues (stepping along a rotating circular treadmill) and visual cues (viewing simulated self-rotation) for providing stationary users a compelling sensation of rotational self-motion (circular vection). When tested individually, biomechanical and visual cues were similarly effective in eliciting self-motion illusions. However, in combination they yielded significantly more intense self-motion illusions. These findings provide the first compelling evidence that walking motions can be used to significantly enhance visually induced rotational self-motion perception in virtual environments (and vice versa) without having to provide for physical self-motion or motion platforms. This is noteworthy, as linear treadmills have been found to actually impair visually induced translational self-motion perception (Ash, Palmisano, Apthorp, & Allison, 2013). Given the predominant focus on linear walking interfaces for virtual-reality locomotion, our findings suggest that investigating circular and curvilinear walking interfaces offers a promising direction for future research and development and can help to enhance self-motion illusions, presence and immersion in virtual-reality systems.

  20. Learning Motion Features for Example-Based Finger Motion Estimation for Virtual Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousas, Christos; Anagnostopoulos, Christos-Nikolaos

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents a methodology for estimating the motion of a character's fingers based on the use of motion features provided by a virtual character's hand. In the presented methodology, firstly, the motion data is segmented into discrete phases. Then, a number of motion features are computed for each motion segment of a character's hand. The motion features are pre-processed using restricted Boltzmann machines, and by using the different variations of semantically similar finger gestures in a support vector machine learning mechanism, the optimal weights for each feature assigned to a metric are computed. The advantages of the presented methodology in comparison to previous solutions are the following: First, we automate the computation of optimal weights that are assigned to each motion feature counted in our metric. Second, the presented methodology achieves an increase (about 17%) in correctly estimated finger gestures in comparison to a previous method.

  1. Bulgarian Verbs of Motion: Slavic Verbs in a Balkan Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Traci Speed

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the motion verb system of Bulgarian, focusing both on the structure of the Bulgarian motion verb itself, and on the information typically encoded in the Bulgarian verb of motion. It then compares the Bulgarian motion verb system with the motion verb systems of two other Slavic languages, Russian and Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian…

  2. Motion coherence and direction discrimination in healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilz, Karin S; Miller, Louisa; Agnew, Hannah C

    2017-01-01

    Perceptual functions change with age, particularly motion perception. With regard to healthy aging, previous studies mostly measured motion coherence thresholds for coarse motion direction discrimination along cardinal axes of motion. Here, we investigated age-related changes in the ability to discriminate between small angular differences in motion directions, which allows for a more specific assessment of age-related decline and its underlying mechanisms. We first assessed older (>60 years) and younger (discriminate coarse horizontal (left/right) and vertical (up/down) motion at 100% coherence and a stimulus duration of 400 ms. In a second step, we determined participants' motion coherence thresholds for vertical and horizontal coarse motion direction discrimination. In a third step, we used the individually determined motion coherence thresholds and tested fine motion direction discrimination for motion clockwise away from horizontal and vertical motion. Older adults performed as well as younger adults for discriminating motion away from vertical. Surprisingly, performance for discriminating motion away from horizontal was strongly decreased. Further analyses, however, showed a relationship between motion coherence thresholds for horizontal coarse motion direction discrimination and fine motion direction discrimination performance in older adults. In a control experiment, using motion coherence above threshold for all conditions, the difference in performance for horizontal and vertical fine motion direction discrimination for older adults disappeared. These results clearly contradict the notion of an overall age-related decline in motion perception, and, most importantly, highlight the importance of taking into account individual differences when assessing age-related changes in perceptual functions.

  3. 3D motion analysis via energy minimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedel, Andreas

    2009-10-16

    This work deals with 3D motion analysis from stereo image sequences for driver assistance systems. It consists of two parts: the estimation of motion from the image data and the segmentation of moving objects in the input images. The content can be summarized with the technical term machine visual kinesthesia, the sensation or perception and cognition of motion. In the first three chapters, the importance of motion information is discussed for driver assistance systems, for machine vision in general, and for the estimation of ego motion. The next two chapters delineate on motion perception, analyzing the apparent movement of pixels in image sequences for both a monocular and binocular camera setup. Then, the obtained motion information is used to segment moving objects in the input video. Thus, one can clearly identify the thread from analyzing the input images to describing the input images by means of stationary and moving objects. Finally, I present possibilities for future applications based on the contents of this thesis. Previous work in each case is presented in the respective chapters. Although the overarching issue of motion estimation from image sequences is related to practice, there is nothing as practical as a good theory (Kurt Lewin). Several problems in computer vision are formulated as intricate energy minimization problems. In this thesis, motion analysis in image sequences is thoroughly investigated, showing that splitting an original complex problem into simplified sub-problems yields improved accuracy, increased robustness, and a clear and accessible approach to state-of-the-art motion estimation techniques. In Chapter 4, optical flow is considered. Optical flow is commonly estimated by minimizing the combined energy, consisting of a data term and a smoothness term. These two parts are decoupled, yielding a novel and iterative approach to optical flow. The derived Refinement Optical Flow framework is a clear and straight-forward approach to

  4. Development of a 6DOF robotic motion phantom for radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belcher, Andrew H.; Liu, Xinmin; Grelewicz, Zachary; Pearson, Erik; Wiersma, Rodney D., E-mail: rwiersma@uchicago.edu [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637-1470 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Purpose: The use of medical technology capable of tracking patient motion or positioning patients along 6 degree-of-freedom (6DOF) has steadily increased in the field of radiation therapy. However, due to the complex nature of tracking and performing 6DOF motion, it is critical that such technology is properly verified to be operating within specifications in order to ensure patient safety. In this study, a robotic motion phantom is presented that can be programmed to perform highly accurate motion along any X (left–right), Y (superior–inferior), Z (anterior–posterior), pitch (around X), roll (around Y), and yaw (around Z) axes. In addition, highly synchronized motion along all axes can be performed in order to simulate the dynamic motion of a tumor in 6D. The accuracy and reproducibility of this 6D motion were characterized. Methods: An in-house designed and built 6D robotic motion phantom was constructed following the Stewart–Gough parallel kinematics platform archetype. The device was controlled using an inverse kinematics formulation, and precise movements in all 6 degrees-of-freedom (X, Y, Z, pitch, roll, and yaw) were performed, both simultaneously and separately for each degree-of-freedom. Additionally, previously recorded 6D cranial and prostate motions were effectively executed. The robotic phantom movements were verified using a 15 fps 6D infrared marker tracking system and the measured trajectories were compared quantitatively to the intended input trajectories. The workspace, maximum 6D velocity, backlash, and weight load capabilities of the system were also established. Results: Evaluation of the 6D platform demonstrated translational root mean square error (RMSE) values of 0.14, 0.22, and 0.08 mm over 20 mm in X and Y and 10 mm in Z, respectively, and rotational RMSE values of 0.16°, 0.06°, and 0.08° over 10° of pitch, roll, and yaw, respectively. The robotic stage also effectively performed controlled 6D motions, as well as reproduced

  5. Programmable motion of DNA origami mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marras, Alexander E; Zhou, Lifeng; Su, Hai-Jun; Castro, Carlos E

    2015-01-20

    DNA origami enables the precise fabrication of nanoscale geometries. We demonstrate an approach to engineer complex and reversible motion of nanoscale DNA origami machine elements. We first design, fabricate, and characterize the mechanical behavior of flexible DNA origami rotational and linear joints that integrate stiff double-stranded DNA components and flexible single-stranded DNA components to constrain motion along a single degree of freedom and demonstrate the ability to tune the flexibility and range of motion. Multiple joints with simple 1D motion were then integrated into higher order mechanisms. One mechanism is a crank-slider that couples rotational and linear motion, and the other is a Bennett linkage that moves between a compacted bundle and an expanded frame configuration with a constrained 3D motion path. Finally, we demonstrate distributed actuation of the linkage using DNA input strands to achieve reversible conformational changes of the entire structure on ∼ minute timescales. Our results demonstrate programmable motion of 2D and 3D DNA origami mechanisms constructed following a macroscopic machine design approach.

  6. Improved motion description for action classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihir eJain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Even though the importance of explicitly integrating motion characteristics in video descriptions has been demonstrated by several recent papers on action classification, our current work concludes that adequately decomposing visual motion into dominant and residual motions, i.e.: camera and scene motion, significantly improves action recognition algorithms. This holds true both for the extraction of the space-time trajectories and for computation of descriptors.We designed a new motion descriptor – the DCS descriptor – that captures additional information on local motion patterns enhancing results based on differential motion scalar quantities, divergence, curl and shear features. Finally, applying the recent VLAD coding technique proposed in image retrieval provides a substantial improvement for action recognition. These findings are complementary to each other and they outperformed all previously reported results by a significant margin on three challenging datasets: Hollywood 2, HMDB51 and Olympic Sports as reported in (Jain et al. (2013. These results were further improved by (Oneata et al. (2013; Wang and Schmid (2013; Zhu et al. (2013 through the use of the Fisher vector encoding. We therefore also employ Fisher vector in this paper and we further enhance our approach by combining trajectories from both optical flow and compensated flow. We as well provide additional details of DCS descriptors, including visualization. For extending the evaluation, a novel dataset with 101 action classes, UCF101, was added.

  7. LCD motion blur: modeling, analysis, and algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Stanley H; Nguyen, Truong Q

    2011-08-01

    Liquid crystal display (LCD) devices are well known for their slow responses due to the physical limitations of liquid crystals. Therefore, fast moving objects in a scene are often perceived as blurred. This effect is known as the LCD motion blur. In order to reduce LCD motion blur, an accurate LCD model and an efficient deblurring algorithm are needed. However, existing LCD motion blur models are insufficient to reflect the limitation of human-eye-tracking system. Also, the spatiotemporal equivalence in LCD motion blur models has not been proven directly in the discrete 2-D spatial domain, although it is widely used. There are three main contributions of this paper: modeling, analysis, and algorithm. First, a comprehensive LCD motion blur model is presented, in which human-eye-tracking limits are taken into consideration. Second, a complete analysis of spatiotemporal equivalence is provided and verified using real video sequences. Third, an LCD motion blur reduction algorithm is proposed. The proposed algorithm solves an l(1)-norm regularized least-squares minimization problem using a subgradient projection method. Numerical results show that the proposed algorithm gives higher peak SNR, lower temporal error, and lower spatial error than motion-compensated inverse filtering and Lucy-Richardson deconvolution algorithm, which are two state-of-the-art LCD deblurring algorithms.

  8. Analysis of motion in speed skating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Yuzo; Nishimura, Tetsu; Watanabe, Naoki; Okamoto, Kousuke; Wada, Yuhei

    1997-03-01

    A motion on sports has been studied by many researchers from the view of the medical, psychological and mechanical fields. Here, we try to analyze a speed skating motion dynamically for an aim of performing the best record. As an official competition of speed skating is performed on the round rink, the skating motion must be studied on the three phases, that is, starting phase, straight and curved course skating phase. It is indispensable to have a visual data of a skating motion in order to analyze kinematically. So we took a several subject's skating motion by 8 mm video cameras in order to obtain three dimensional data. As the first step, the movement of the center of gravity of skater (abbreviate to C. G.) is discussed in this paper, because a skating motion is very complicated. The movement of C. G. will give an information of the reaction force to a skate blade from the surface of ice. We discuss the discrepancy of several skating motion by studied subjects. Our final goal is to suggest the best skating form for getting the finest record.

  9. Ambiguity in Tactile Apparent Motion Perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Liaci

    Full Text Available In von Schiller's Stroboscopic Alternative Motion (SAM stimulus two visually presented diagonal dot pairs, located on the corners of an imaginary rectangle, alternate with each other and induce either horizontal, vertical or, rarely, rotational motion percepts. SAM motion perception can be described by a psychometric function of the dot aspect ratio ("AR", i.e. the relation between vertical and horizontal dot distances. Further, with equal horizontal and vertical dot distances (AR = 1 perception is biased towards vertical motion. In a series of five experiments, we presented tactile SAM versions and studied the role of AR and of different reference frames for the perception of tactile apparent motion.We presented tactile SAM stimuli and varied the ARs, while participants reported the perceived motion directions. Pairs of vibration stimulators were attached to the participants' forearms and stimulator distances were varied within and between forearms. We compared straight and rotated forearm conditions with each other in order to disentangle the roles of exogenous and endogenous reference frames.Increasing the tactile SAM's AR biased perception towards vertical motion, but the effect was weak compared to the visual modality. We found no horizontal disambiguation, even for very small tactile ARs. A forearm rotation by 90° kept the vertical bias, even though it was now coupled with small ARs. A 45° rotation condition with crossed forearms, however, evoked a strong horizontal motion bias.Existing approaches to explain the visual SAM bias fail to explain the current tactile results. Particularly puzzling is the strong horizontal bias in the crossed-forearm conditions. In the case of tactile apparent motion, there seem to be no fixed priority rule for perceptual disambiguation. Rather the weighting of available evidence seems to depend on the degree of stimulus ambiguity, the current situation and on the perceptual strategy of the individual

  10. Feasibility of Using Low-Cost Motion Capture for Automated Screening of Shoulder Motion Limitation after Breast Cancer Surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriya Gritsenko

    Full Text Available To determine if a low-cost, automated motion analysis system using Microsoft Kinect could accurately measure shoulder motion and detect motion impairments in women following breast cancer surgery.Descriptive study of motion measured via 2 methods.Academic cancer center oncology clinic.20 women (mean age = 60 yrs were assessed for active and passive shoulder motions during a routine post-operative clinic visit (mean = 18 days after surgery following mastectomy (n = 4 or lumpectomy (n = 16 for breast cancer.Participants performed 3 repetitions of active and passive shoulder motions on the side of the breast surgery. Arm motion was recorded using motion capture by Kinect for Windows sensor and on video. Goniometric values were determined from video recordings, while motion capture data were transformed to joint angles using 2 methods (body angle and projection angle.Correlation of motion capture with goniometry and detection of motion limitation.Active shoulder motion measured with low-cost motion capture agreed well with goniometry (r = 0.70-0.80, while passive shoulder motion measurements did not correlate well. Using motion capture, it was possible to reliably identify participants whose range of shoulder motion was reduced by 40% or more.Low-cost, automated motion analysis may be acceptable to screen for moderate to severe motion impairments in active shoulder motion. Automatic detection of motion limitation may allow quick screening to be performed in an oncologist's office and trigger timely referrals for rehabilitation.

  11. Research Situation and Key Technology Analysis on Motion Reliability Simulation of Space Folding-unfolding Mechanism%空间折叠展开机构运动可靠性仿真研究状况及关键技术分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡明; 刘东旭; 陈文华; 钱萍; 张虹; 周小红; 李伟

    2012-01-01

    基于空间折叠展开机构的应用背景,综述折叠展开机构运动可靠性及其仿真研究状况,分析其存在的关键问题和技术流程,确定空间折叠展开机构运动可靠性仿真分析的基本思路与方法.据此提出一种基于ADAMS/Insight的机构运动可靠性仿真分析方法,并以某折叠展开机构为对象进行了仿真验证,结果表明此折叠展开机构展开角位移可靠度为0.9972,满足其可靠性要求.%Based on the application background of space fold-unfolding mechanism, the reliability situations of such mechanism is introduced and the research situations between motion reliability and reliability simulation of such mechanism are reviewed. Key problems and technical processes on the mechanism motion reliability simulation are analyzed , and then the basic methods for the motion reliability simulation of the mechanism is detemined. An analysis way of the mechanism motion reliability based on the ADAMS/Insight is put forward, and a certain fold-unfolding mechanism is simulated and analyzed for verifing. The result shows that its angular displacement reliability is 0. 9972, which satisfies the demand of its reliability.

  12. Antagonistic formation motion of cooperative agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢婉婷; 代明香; 薛方正

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates a new formation motion problem of a class of first-order multi-agent systems with antagonis-tic interactions. A distributed formation control algorithm is proposed for each agent to realize the antagonistic formation motion. A sufficient condition is derived to ensure that all agents make an antagonistic formation motion in a distributed manner. It is shown that all agents can be spontaneously divided into several groups, and agents in the same group collab-orate while agents in different groups compete. Finally, a numerical simulation is included to demonstrate our theoretical results.

  13. University Students Alternative Conceptions On Circular Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Phil Canlas

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted to find out university students alternative conceptions on circular motion. An 18-item researcher-compiled and content-validated questionnaire was administered to twenty-six 26 students taking up a program in Bachelor in Secondary Education-Physical Science in their second year enrolled in a course on mechanics. Results revealed that majority of the students possess alternative conceptions on circular motion specifically along velocity acceleration and force. Moreover results showed the inconsistencies in the students understanding of circular motion concepts.

  14. Motion under the influence of large resistence

    OpenAIRE

    Croselli, David

    2014-01-01

    In the diploma thesis, the motion of free fall and the projectile motion have been recorded using a high-speed camera and analysed with the Tracker software, a suitable tool for checking physical laws. A theoretical description of the drag law, is given. The change in position and velocity of a projectile, subjected to a large drag force, are determined theoretically. In the practical part, the analysis of the video clip of the free fall and the projectile motion, where the object are a plast...

  15. Adaptive vehicle motion estimation and prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liang; Thorpe, Chuck E.

    1999-01-01

    Accurate motion estimation and reliable maneuver prediction enable an automated car to react quickly and correctly to the rapid maneuvers of the other vehicles, and so allow safe and efficient navigation. In this paper, we present a car tracking system which provides motion estimation, maneuver prediction and detection of the tracked car. The three strategies employed - adaptive motion modeling, adaptive data sampling, and adaptive model switching probabilities - result in an adaptive interacting multiple model algorithm (AIMM). The experimental results on simulated and real data demonstrate that our tracking system is reliable, flexible, and robust. The adaptive tracking makes the system intelligent and useful in various autonomous driving tasks.

  16. Muscle's Motion in an Overdamped Regime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AI Bao-Quan; WANG Xian-Ju; LIU Liang-Gang; M. Nakano; H. Matsuura

    2002-01-01

    Based on the stochastic inclined rods model proposed by H. Matsuura et al., we study the motion of actin myosin system in an overdamped regime. Our model is composed ofan inclined spring (rod), a myosin head and a myosin filament. The results of calculation show that the modelcan convert the random motion to one-directional motion, and the myosin head works as a resonator of random noise, which absorbs the energy through a stochastic resonance. The results show that the inclined rod and the intermolecular potential are very important for the system to move.

  17. Application of inertial sensors for motion analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferenc Soha

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents our results on the application of various inertial sensors for motion analysis. After the introduction of different sensor types (accelerometer, gyroscope, magnetic field sensor, we discuss the possible data collection and transfer techniques using embedded signal processing and wireless data communication methods [1,2]. Special consideration is given to the interpretation of accelerometer readings, which contains both the static and dynamic components, and is affected by the orientation and rotation of the sensor. We will demonstrate the possibility to decompose these components for quasiperiodic motions. Finally we will demonstrate the application of commercially available devices (Wii sensor, Kinect sensor, mobile phone for motion analysis applications.

  18. Motion aftereffect of combined first-order and second-order motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Smagt, M J; Verstraten, F A; Vaessen, E B; van Londen, T; van de Grind, W A

    1999-01-01

    When, after prolonged viewing of a moving stimulus, a stationary (test) pattern is presented to an observer, this results in an illusory movement in the direction opposite to the adapting motion. Typically, this motion aftereffect (MAE) does not occur after adaptation to a second-order motion stimulus (i.e. an equiluminous stimulus where the movement is defined by a contrast or texture border, not by a luminance border). However, a MAE of second-order motion is perceived when, instead of a static test pattern, a dynamic test pattern is used. Here, we investigate whether a second-order motion stimulus does affect the MAE on a static test pattern (sMAE), when second-order motion is presented in combination with first-order motion during adaptation. The results show that this is indeed the case. Although the second-order motion stimulus is too weak to produce a convincing sMAE on its own, its influence on the sMAE is of equal strength to that of the first-order motion component, when they are adapted to simultaneously. The results suggest that the perceptual appearance of the sMAE originates from the site where first-order and second-order motion are integrated.

  19. Modeling depth from motion parallax with the motion/pursuit ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark eNawrot

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The perception of unambiguous scaled depth from motion parallax relies on both retinal image motion and an extra-retinal pursuit eye movement signal. The motion/pursuit ratio represents a dynamic geometric model linking these two proximal cues to the ratio of depth to viewing distance. An important step in understanding the visual mechanisms serving the perception of depth from motion parallax is to determine the relationship between these stimulus parameters and empirically determined perceived depth magnitude. Observers compared perceived depth magnitude of dynamic motion parallax stimuli to static binocular disparity comparison stimuli at three different viewing distances, in both head-moving and head-stationary conditions. A stereo-viewing system provided ocular separation for stereo stimuli and monocular viewing of parallax stimuli. For each motion parallax stimulus, a point of subjective equality was estimated for the amount of binocular disparity that generates the equivalent magnitude of perceived depth from motion parallax. Similar to previous results, perceived depth from motion parallax had significant foreshortening. Head-moving conditions produced even greater foreshortening due to the differences in the compensatory eye movement signal. An empirical version of motion/pursuit law, termed the empirical motion/pursuit ratio, which models perceived depth magnitude from these stimulus parameters, is proposed.

  20. Modeling depth from motion parallax with the motion/pursuit ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrot, Mark; Ratzlaff, Michael; Leonard, Zachary; Stroyan, Keith

    2014-01-01

    The perception of unambiguous scaled depth from motion parallax relies on both retinal image motion and an extra-retinal pursuit eye movement signal. The motion/pursuit ratio represents a dynamic geometric model linking these two proximal cues to the ratio of depth to viewing distance. An important step in understanding the visual mechanisms serving the perception of depth from motion parallax is to determine the relationship between these stimulus parameters and empirically determined perceived depth magnitude. Observers compared perceived depth magnitude of dynamic motion parallax stimuli to static binocular disparity comparison stimuli at three different viewing distances, in both head-moving and head-stationary conditions. A stereo-viewing system provided ocular separation for stereo stimuli and monocular viewing of parallax stimuli. For each motion parallax stimulus, a point of subjective equality (PSE) was estimated for the amount of binocular disparity that generates the equivalent magnitude of perceived depth from motion parallax. Similar to previous results, perceived depth from motion parallax had significant foreshortening. Head-moving conditions produced even greater foreshortening due to the differences in the compensatory eye movement signal. An empirical version of the motion/pursuit law, termed the empirical motion/pursuit ratio, which models perceived depth magnitude from these stimulus parameters, is proposed.