WorldWideScience

Sample records for technology mediation role

  1. Technology mediator: a new role for the reference librarian?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howse, David K; Bracke, Paul J; Keim, Samuel M

    2006-10-13

    The Arizona Health Sciences Library has collaborated with clinical faculty to develop a federated search engine that is useful for meeting real-time clinical information needs. This article proposes a technology mediation role for the reference librarian that was inspired by the project, and describes the collaborative model used for developing technology-mediated services for targeted users.

  2. The Mediating Role of Knowledge Sharing on Information Technology and Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onwika Kaewchur

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the relationship between information technology, knowledge sharing, and a firm’s innovation. Knowledge sharing as a mediating effect is also simultaneously investigated with regard to the relationship between information technology and a firm’s innovation. In this research, the quantitative method was mainly employed. The data was collected with a survey. A total of 224 respondents from herbal manufacturing companies were included in the research. The results presented in this paper demonstrate that knowledge sharing and information technology can critically influence the organization’s innovation and can play a vital role as a significant success factor in this process.

  3. Sense or Sensibility?: How Commitment Mediates the Role of Self-Service Technology on Loyalty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sangeeta; Olsen, Line Lervik

    It has been well documented that employing self-service technology (SST) results in considerable cost savings but few studies have examined its impact on consumers’ behavior. We apply a well-recognized model from the field of services marketing in an SST context. We examine how the established relationships between satisfaction, affective and calculative commitments, and loyalty are affected when the service is provided through a technology interface as opposed to service personnel. We then present two alternative perspectives on the role of SST. The first is based on the predominant assumption that SST is a moderator of the relationship between customer loyalty and its drivers, while the other rests on the assumption that SST is just another context and that its role in affecting customer loyalty is mediated by drivers of loyalty. A cross-sectional study conducted in the banking industry shows that SST does not change everything. The classical model of how customers evaluate services and the predictors of loyalty are replicated in the SST setting. Interestingly, SST does not have a direct influence on loyalty by itself but its effects are mediated by commitment. However, it is the affective commitment that is more important in forming loyalty toward the service provider.

  4. Investigating the Role of Identity and Gender in Technology Mediated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yujong

    2010-01-01

    Instructors and trainers are increasingly using online education and technology-mediated learning (TML) to supplement or replace traditional approaches to classroom teaching. Because mandatory involvement requirements may not intrinsically motivate learners to achieve high quality learning, social factors with commitment, such as identification…

  5. Swift Guanxi in online marketplace : The role of computer-mediated-communication technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ou, C.X.J.; Pavlou, P.A.; Davison, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of guanxi (i.e., a close and pervasive interpersonal relationship) has received little attention in the literature on online marketplaces, perhaps due to their impersonal nature. However, we propose that computer-mediated communication (CMC) technologies can mimic traditional interactive

  6. Analyzing the effects of information technology on supply chain integration: The role of ERP success mediator

    OpenAIRE

    Samaneh Alimohamadian; Farshid Abdi

    2014-01-01

    This research analyzes the effects of Information Technology (IT) on Supply Chain Integration (SCI) through ERP mediator by proposing a conceptual model among these components. We also hypothesize that three constructs of IT influence on enterprise resource planning (ERP) success and one construct of ERP success influences on SCI. To clarify the relationships among the constructs, structural equation model (SEM) is conducted to examine the model fit and seven hypotheses. The data was collecte...

  7. Technology-Use Mediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bansler, Jørgen P.; Havn, Erling C.

    2004-01-01

    Implementation of new computer-mediated communication (CMC) systems in organizations is a complex socio-technical endeavour, involving the mutual adaptation of technology and organization over time. Drawing on the analytic concept of sensemaking, this paper provides a theoretical perspective...... that deepens our understanding of how organizations appropriate new electronic communication media. The paper analyzes how a group of mediators in a large, multinational company adapted a new web-based CMC technology (a virtual workspace) to the local organizational context (and vice versa) by modifying...... features of the technology, providing ongoing support for users, and promoting appropriate conventions of use. We found that these mediators exerted considerable influence on how the technology was established and used in the organization. The mediators were not neutral facilitators of a well...

  8. Analyzing the effects of information technology on supply chain integration: The role of ERP success mediator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Alimohamadian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzes the effects of Information Technology (IT on Supply Chain Integration (SCI through ERP mediator by proposing a conceptual model among these components. We also hypothesize that three constructs of IT influence on enterprise resource planning (ERP success and one construct of ERP success influences on SCI. To clarify the relationships among the constructs, structural equation model (SEM is conducted to examine the model fit and seven hypotheses. The data was collected from three Iranian firms through questionnaire with 23 questions adopted by past researches. The results confirmed that top management support of IT and employees’ general IT skills factors of IT enhance ERP success, and ERP success positively influences on Supply Chain Integration, so these two IT factors influence Supply Chain Integration through ERP success. Our data unsupported negative impact of satisfaction with legacy IT system on ERP success.

  9. The relationship between the external environment and physician e-mail communication: The mediating role of health information technology availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurenko, Olena; Hearld, Larry R; Menachemi, Nir

    Physician e-mail communication, with patients and other providers, is one of the cornerstones of effective care coordination but varies significantly across physicians. A physician's external environment may contribute to such variations by enabling or constraining a physician's ability to adopt innovations such as health information technology (HIT) that can be used to support e-mail communication. The aim of the study was to examine whether the relationship of the external environment and physician e-mail communication with patients and other providers is mediated by the practice's HIT availability. The data were obtained from the Health Tracking Physician Survey (2008) and the Area Resource File (2008). Cross-sectional multivariable subgroup path analysis was used to investigate the mediating role of HIT availability across 2,850 U.S. physicians. Solo physicians' perceptions about malpractice were associated with 0.97 lower odds (p environment. Specifically, solo practitioners were more responsive to the availability of resources in their environment, with per capita income associated with lower likelihood of physician e-mail communication (OR = 0.99, p environment, with a physician's perception of practicing in environments with higher malpractice risks associated with greater information technology availability, which in turn was associated with a greater likelihood of communicating via e-mail with patients (OR = 1.02, p environment is mediated by the practice's HIT availability. Efforts to improve physician e-mail communication and HIT adoption may need to reflect the varied perceptions of different types of practices.

  10. The Role of Executive Functioning and Technological Anxiety (FOMO in College Course Performance as Mediated by Technology Usage and Multitasking Habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry D. Rosen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated how technology use impacts academic performance. A proposed model postulated that academic performance could be predicted by a cognitive independent variable-executive functioning problems-and an affective independent variable-technological anxiety or FOMO (fear of missing out-mediated by how students choose to use technology. An unobtrusive smartphone application called “Instant Quantified Self” monitored daily smartphone unlocks and daily minutes of use. Other mediators included self-reported smartphone use, self-observed studying attention, self-reported multitasking preference, and a classroom digital metacognition tool that assessed the student’s ability to understand the ramifications of technology use in the classroom that is not relevant to the learning process. Two hundred sixteen participants collected an average of 56 days of “Instant” application data, demonstrating that their smartphone was unlocked more than 60 times a day for three to four minutes each time for a total of 220 daily minutes of use. Results indicated that executive functioning problems predicted academic course performance mediated by studying attention and a single classroom digital metacognition subscale concerning availability of strategies of when to use mobile phones during lectures. FOMO predicted performance directly as well as mediated by a second classroom digital metacognition concerning attitudes toward mobile phone use during lectures. Implications for college students and professors include increasing metacognition about technology use in the classroom and taking “tech breaks” to reduce technology anxiety.

  11. Sonic mediations: body, sound, technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birdsall, C.; Enns, A.

    2008-01-01

    Sonic Mediations: Body, Sound, Technology is a collection of original essays that represents an invaluable contribution to the burgeoning field of sound studies. While sound is often posited as having a bridging function, as a passive in-between, this volume invites readers to rethink the concept of

  12. Factors Influencing Turkish Preservice Teachers' Intentions to Use Educational Technologies and the Mediating Role of Risk Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilinc, Ahmet; Ertmer, Peggy A.; Bahcivan, Eralp; Demirbag, Mehmet; Sonmez, Arzu; Ozel, Ruhan

    2016-01-01

    An expanded version of the Decomposed Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1991), which incorporated the concept of Risk Perceptions (RP), was used to examine the intentions of Turkish preservice middle school teachers to use educational technologies (ET) in their future classrooms. A modified survey was developed and tested with a sample of 1,667…

  13. Technological mediation: new scenarios for teaching practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Alfonso Muñoz Rojas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to elucidate and reflect on the dimensions configured in a transformation of teaching practices. Such practices can lead to set new educational scenarios based on technological mediation. This paper is the result of a qualitative analysis of concepts referred to in researches between 2009 and 2013. Likewise it makes part of the project: ‘Theoretical Approaches of Research Projects on Mediation of Information and Communication Technologies: A Configuration for a Conceptual Approach’, product of the announcement # 9 by Universidad Santo Tomas’ Distance Learning – Open University Vice Chancellor Office (VUAD. It is inquired, among other emerging categories, about autonomous and collaborative learning, the role of online tutors, the social, teaching, and cognitive presence, the collective intelligence and the digital education. Methodologically dissertation was based on the use of ATLAS.ti – program that strengthened the process of ordering and organizing the information from various sources, and helped to determine the categorization and construction of semantic maps. Finally, conclusions and questions about prospects for technology and education are presente.

  14. Sensemaking in Technology-Use Mediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bansler, Jørgen P.; Havn, Erling C.

    2006-01-01

    of advanced CSCW technologies is basically a problem of sensemaking. We analyze how a group of “technology-use mediators” (Orlikowski et al. Org. Sci. (1995) 6(4), 423) in a large, multinational company adapted a groupware technology (a “virtual workspace”) to the local organizational context (and vice versa......) by modifying features of the technology, providing ongoing support for users, and promoting appropriate conventions of use. Our findings corroborate earlier research on technology-use mediation, which suggests that such mediators can exert considerable influence on how a particular technology...... will be established and used in an organization. However, we also find that the process of technology-use mediation is much more complex and indeterminate than prior research suggests. The reason being, we argue, that new, advanced CSCW technologies, such as “virtual workspaces” and other groupware applications...

  15. Teaching Responsibly with Technology-Mediated Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltsos, Jennifer R.; Veltsos, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    Technology-mediated communication, or "new media," such as blogs, Twitter, wikis, and social network sites, can be an endless source of ideas for activities or inspiration for classroom discussion. Many instructors ask students to monitor current events by following keywords and industry leaders on Twitter and reading both corporate and…

  16. How do dynamic capabilities transform external technologies into firms’ renewed technological resources? – A mediation model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li-Ying, Jason; Wang, Yuandi; Ning, Lutao

    2016-01-01

    How externally acquired resources may become valuable, rare, hard-to-imitate, and non-substitute resource bundles through the development of dynamic capabilities? This study proposes and tests a mediation model of how firms’ internal technological diversification and R&D, as two distinctive...... microfoundations of dynamic technological capabilities, mediate the relationship between external technology breadth and firms’ technological innovation performance, based on the resource-based view and dynamic capability view. Using a sample of listed Chinese licensee firms, we find that firms must broadly...... explore external technologies to ignite the dynamism in internal technological diversity and in-house R&D, which play their crucial roles differently to transform and reconfigure firms’ technological resources....

  17. Bellona and hydrogen - the role of mediation in technical change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristiansen, Beate

    2001-01-01

    The energy production and consumption is a major contributor to our environmental problems. The energy carrier hydrogen can be a part of the solution. In the thesis the Bellona Foundation's role in the process of technical change towards utilisation of hydrogen in Norway is investigated. Its role is analysed through the concept of mediation, which is based on seeing technical change as a social process. Mediators connect, or build bridges between, different actors, as well as between different types of knowledge. They establish new kinds of links and create new arenas of interaction for previously separated units. In addition, or through their work, they translate knowledge from one context or domain to another. They are also processing, interpreting and combining knowledge in new ways. Mediators bring together people with different competencies, and orchestrate their efforts often on a consensus basis. Bellona combines the different kinds of mediations, to influence the process of technical change at various levels and steps. They mediate mainly within the industry and between the industrial- and governmental domain. To some degree they also mediate between the experts and the public. But the direct contact with the public seems to be more or less absent in their hydrogen work. It seems like Bellona's mediator role fills an open space in the realm of technology policy making. Environmental oriented NGOs will perform or combine various mediating roles differently. To be able to make socially appropriate and sustainable technical change, probably other actors than the established traditional ones should be more involved. The possibilities for public participation should be strengthened, as well as the possibilities for mediation. (Author)

  18. Technological, mediatic and cultural hybridisation: Cultural mediations in the context of globalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laan Mendes de Barros

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We live in a context of borders that are dissolving in many senses, of the convergence and hybridisation of technologies, mass media and cultures. The context is the resizing of practical time, of movements and links between the local and the global. In these times of interculturality, communication plays a very important role; not so much in its technological media dimension, but particularly in the dynamics of cultural mediations that are dividing off from mediatised relations. This article aims to reflect on the transformations in present-day communication processes, marked by strong movements of hybridisation, as well as examining how to consider interculturality in the context of cultural mediations, based on dialogue between Latin American and French authors. Also, using media material, the article presents illustrations of the Brazilian cultural scene, which is marked by a long history of hybridisation that is filled with intercultural dynamics.

  19. Physics solving-problem mediated by technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Souza

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available We questioned the traditional practice of Physics teaching interrogating the normal procedures of solving-problem. We pointed the students passivity out, the lack of dialog interaction, the teaching-learning activity isolated from investigation, as responsible for the technological-communication non-mediation in classroom and, consequently, the lack of the problem-dialog in school process. Oriented by the investigation-action conceptions and by the problem-dialog education, we developed, established and evaluated an school object for solving-problem linked in to a teaching-learning virtual environment for the Internet, both with open sources, prioritizing empowered didactic strategies of procedures and abilities which we named as teachinginvestigation- learning in a problem perspective

  20. Technology-Mediated Learning for Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Majchrzak, Tim; Busch, Peter André

    Resilience is a topic of steadily increasing interest. It particularly gains importance when discussing how communities (e.g. municipalities) can prepare themselves for potential future disruptions. A resilient community will overcome immediate shocks, such as an earthquake, as well as stresses......, such as the successive outbreak of a pandemic. Due to the novelty of the topic, research particularly exists on theoretical aspects of resilience. Targeting learning – and thereby the local population – is a rather new emergence. To effectively reach, involve, and engage citizens, technology can play a key role. Based...... on four actual cases from communities we analyse the impact technology has on learning about resilience. We then scrutinize the effectiveness and propose future steps. Thereby, we seek to provide practical advice to local governments and to enrich the theory at the same time....

  1. Role of advanced technologies in strategic defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canavan, G.H.

    1988-10-01

    This report discusses the role of advanced technologies in strategic defense and reviews the threats, the proposed solutions, the risks involved in implementing the solutions, and the roles advanced technologies could play in reducing the risks. Although current technologies could address nominal threats, advanced technologies would be required for increased threats. 34 refs., 3 tabs.

  2. Socially Interactive and Passive Technologies Enhance Friendship Quality: An Investigation of the Mediating Roles of Online and Offline Self-Disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjarlais, Malinda; Joseph, Jessica J

    2017-05-01

    Previous studies indicate that characteristics of social-based technologies (STs) stimulate the sharing of intimate information online, which in turn enhances the quality of friendships. In addition, intimate online self-disclosure has been positively associated with offline self-disclosure. One objective of the current study was to combine the literature and test a model which postulates that STs use stimulates online self-disclosure which facilitates offline self-disclosure and, thereby, enhances the quality of close friendships. A second objective of this study was to examine if the aforementioned model applies to two categories of STs, including socially interactive technologies (SITs; e.g., instant messaging) and socially passive technologies (SPTs; e.g., reading posts on social networking sites). An online survey was conducted with 212 young adults between 18 and 25 years of age. The proposed indirect positive effects of SITs and SPTs use on the quality of friendships were supported. The positive effect of SITs use on the quality of friendships was explained entirely by the young adults' disclosure of personal information when using SITs which facilitated intimate self-disclosure during face-to-face interactions. Although there was not a direct effect of SPTs use on the quality of friendships, SPTs use was positively related to SPTs self-disclosure, which had a positive effect on offline self-disclosure. The current study enhances our understanding regarding the positive effects associated with the use of STs among close friends and identifies the contribution of online self-disclosure for offline interactions.

  3. Technology transfer - the role of AEA Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, A.E.; Bullough, R.; Mason, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper concentrates mostly on examples of spin offs which have arisen from the more basic research carried out by the AEA. However, it should not be inferred from this that the only examples of successful technology transfer by the AEA are of a similar, often unforeseen nature. The most outstanding example of technology transfer by the AEA must surely be that achieved through the applied research which has enabled the establishment of a successful civil nuclear power programme in the UK. The natural transfer of technology here, achieved by virtue of the unique bridging position of the AEA with respect to universities and the nuclear industry, means that its success can easily be overlooked; to do so would be a mistake. However, by including spin off examples, we hope to illustrate how the AEA has also succeeded in bridging to more difficult areas where the special relationship which it shares with the nuclear industry is absent. (author)

  4. The Technological Mediation of Morality - A Post-Phenomenological Approach to Moral Subjectivity and Moral Objectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, Peter P.C.C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes the moral relevance of technological artifacts and its possible role in ethical theory, by taking the postphenomenological approach that has developed around the work of Don Ihde into the domain of ethics. By elaborating a postphenomenological analysis of the mediating role of

  5. Student Views of Technology-Mediated Written Corrective Feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Hanne Wacher

    2017-01-01

    and practices concerning the specific – and time-consuming – language-teacher activity of providing WCF and 2) potential changes in student attitudes when technology is used to mediate the feedback. At the core of the study is an eight-month intervention which was carried out with three teachers of English...... as a foreign language and their lower-secondary classes, requiring the teachers to make use of a specific program supportive of effective written corrective feedback in their provision of feedback to their students. The article will report on results pertaining to student attitudes to the changes brought about...... by the intervention, which changed both teacher and student practices. Data was collected through student questionnaires concerning their views of the roles of written corrective feedback for foreign language acquisition, and also their views of and attitudes to their teacher’s normal practice were addressed...

  6. Role of analytical chemistry in accelerator technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pravin Kumar, M.; Roy, S.B.; Ram Sankar, P.

    2007-01-01

    Role of analytical chemistry in accelerator technology is different from other nuclear technologies. In a reactor technology, the requirement may be dictated by the extreme physical conditions. But, in accelerator technology, it is governed mainly by the purity requirements, with special emphasis on the surface conditions of accelerator components

  7. The Role of New Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Steven; Collins, Theodore

    2002-08-18

    This paper describes the FEMP New Technology Demonstration Program, which seeks to reduce federal-sector costs and improve overall energy efficiency at federal facilities by accelerating federal adoption of new and emerging energy-efficient, renewable-energy, and water-conserving technologies through education and demonstrations. The Program focuses on technologies that are commercially available but have not penetrated the federal market. This paper describes the Program, how new technologies fit into an overall energy management program, and how the Program disseminates information on new technologies. The paper also provides a successful case study as well as a caution regarding new technologies.

  8. Bioethics mediation: the role and importance of nursing advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlairet, Maura C

    2009-01-01

    Ethics consultations are utilized in health care to identify and manage conflict, difficult decision-making, and ethical issues. In bioethics mediation, a more updated approach using interpersonal, mediative, conflict management, and dispute resolution skills is merged with ethical principles to manage dilemmas arising in healthcare settings. This article argues, based on a professional obligation to advocate for the good of the client, that nurses must assume leadership roles in mediation processes. Nurses can initiate and fully participate in formal bioethics mediation and other mediative interventions. Nurse administrators can work to evolve existing ethics consult models to mediation models. Nonetheless, mediative efforts of individual nurses must be grounded in realization of the multifactorial nature of conflict and dilemma in healthcare settings. Multidisciplinary mediative interventions, framed by sound institutional policies, may best serve the complex needs of ethically vulnerable clients. To best advocate for these at-risk clients, nurses must assume various leadership roles in mediation processes.

  9. Fibroblasts in fibrosis: novel roles and mediators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Thomas Kendall

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Fibroblasts are the most common cell type of the connective tissues found throughout the body and the principal source of the extensive extracellular matrix (ECM characteristic of these tissues. They are also the central mediators of the pathological fibrotic accumulation of ECM and the cellular proliferation and differentiation that occurs in response to prolonged tissue injury and chronic inflammation. The transformation of the fibroblast cell lineage involves classical developmental signaling programs and includes a surprisingly diverse range of precursor cell types—most notably, myofibroblasts that are the apex of the fibrotic phenotype. Myofibroblasts display exaggerated ECM production; constitutively secrete and are hypersensitive to chemical signals such as cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors; and are endowed with a contractile apparatus allowing them to manipulate the ECM fibers physically to close open wounds. In addition to ECM production, fibroblasts have multiple concomitant biological roles, such as in wound healing, inflammation, and angiogenesis, which are each interwoven with the process of fibrosis. We now recognize many common fibroblast-related features across various physiological and pathological protracted processes. Indeed, a new appreciation has emerged for the role of noncancerous fibroblast interactions with tumors in cancer progression. Although the predominant current clinical treatments of fibrosis involve nonspecific immunosuppressive and anti-proliferative drugs, a variety of potential therapies under investigation specifically target fibroblast biology.

  10. Expanding Technological Frames Towards Mediated Collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Pernille; Scupola, Ada; Fitzgerald, Brian

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides an in-depth analysis of technological and social factors leading to the successful adoption of groupware in a virtual team in educational setting. Drawing on a theoretical framework based on the concept of technological frames, we conducted an action research study to analyze...... the chronological sequence of events leading to groupware adoption. We argue that groupware adoption can be conceptualized as a three-step process of expanding and aligning individual technological frames towards groupware: The first step comprises activities facilitating participants in articulation and evaluation...... collaborative practice and use of technology, and that this activity cannot take place at the outset....

  11. Associated technologies ensures complete loop mediated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) assay could be a useful adjunct diagnostic assay along with the conventional methods that would preclude the requirement of continuous maintenance of pure cultures. Moreover, LAMP assay is simple, rapid, specific and sensitive for the detection of pathogens. Having ...

  12. [Research progress in sperm mediated gene transfer technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xiaoxiong; Zhu, Zheng; Cao, Mianfu; Li, Chengren; Lin, Yunlai

    2013-04-01

    With the rapid development of biotechnology, we can change the trait of organism using transgenetic technology. In recent years, there are growing interests in the establishment of sperm mediated gene transfer (SMGT) technology as an effective and convenient method to produce transgenic animals. SMGT technology is a transgenetic method, which is easy in operation and does little harm to the cell compared with the other transgenetic methods. In this review, we expound the background, development, mechanism, operation and application of SMGT.

  13. THE ROLE AND THE TECHNIQUES USED BY THE MEDIATOR IN THE MEDIATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEPTIMIU STOICA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to emphasize the complexity of the mediator’s activity during the mediation process, as an extra – judicial alternative dispute resolution methodology. Different mediation schools have launched different mediation models in terms of theoretical and practical approach of the matter. So one can note on brief the facilitative, the evaluative, the transformative and the narrative mediation, for example. It is not our goal to praise one of the above mentioned paradigms or to suggest a hierarchy among them. We think that each of these models is valuable and has a potential utility. The most important achievement is to solve the conflicts and to obtain the parties’ agreements, based on mediation generated solutions. It seems in this respect that different mediation models fit differently in solving specific cases. To reach the solutions of their conflict, the parties have to follow the mediator through a difficult and complicated route. It can be made easier by the mediator himself if he adapts his role and techniques according to the specifics of the parties and of the case. We assume that he can be more efficient if he will use a proper role from an appropriate model for a definite and concrete conflict or type of conflict. Even he may try to play a multiple role, changing its characteristics dynamically as the mediation process flows. The present work identifies some of the key roles that can be played by the mediator during the mediation process. Only based on these we can select, explain and analyze the specific or common techniques used by a mediator. Our point is that for his new case the efficient mediator must be flexible, knowledgeable and able to decide, select and perform a dedicated role or roles, same time or successively, and accordingly and dynamically use the adequate mediation techniques, which will be also summarized.

  14. The mediating role of absorptive capacity in knowledge transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adisa, Femi; Rose, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    , the authors investigate the mediating role of absorptive capacity in knowledge transfer in SMEs ERP implementations. They present exploratory case studies from 3 Nigerian companies with varying outcomes, and hypothesize that knowledge transfer is complicated by acute information asymmetry, absence of pre......Knowledge transfer between consultants and organizational users influences the outcomes of an Enterprise Resource System (ERP) implementation. Configuration and implementation tasks are dependent on generating some level of shared understanding of both business practices and technology....... These problems become acute in implementations in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). SMEs often operate with non-standard business processes, making an effective interchange of process knowledge between consultants and end-users crucial. Using a multiple case study method and content analysis...

  15. The identity of functional diversity in communication mediated by technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Montalba-Ocaña

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of the research presented below gravitates on the ontological change imposed by technology in humans. In particular, development of assistive technologies applied to alternative communication systems represents an interesting example of how this technology works on the social relationships, communication, and how this mediation modifies the self-image and social image of the users. This study focuses on people with cerebral palsy or neuronal degenerative disease and the identity transformation suffering to be able to communicate with autonomous tech support. In this way, the hypotheses to be faced in this study are: technology (paradoxically humanizes.

  16. Integrating Technology: The Principals' Role and Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Lucas J.; Chung, Chia-Jung

    2015-01-01

    There are many factors that influence technology integration in the classroom such as teacher willingness, availability of hardware, and professional development of staff. Taking into account these elements, this paper describes research on technology integration with a focus on principals' attitudes. The role of the principal in classroom…

  17. The Role of Technology in SLA Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Dorothy M.

    2016-01-01

    In this review article for the 20th Anniversary Issue, I look back at research from the last two decades on the role of computer technology in understanding and facilitating second language acquisition (SLA) and forward to what future research might investigate. To be discussed are both how technology has been used to conduct research on SLA…

  18. Role of Information and Communication Technologies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Role of Information and Communication Technologies in Sustainable Livelihoods in Selected Rural Areas of Tanzania. ... In the recent past, Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) have been accorded significant importance in development and poverty reduction. This article reports findings and conclusions of ...

  19. Troubling Discourse: Basic Writing and Computer-Mediated Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonaitis, Leigh A.

    2012-01-01

    Through an examination of literature in the fields of Basic Writing and developmental education, this essay provides some historical perspective and examines the prevalent discourses on the use of computer-mediated technologies in the basic writing classroom. The author uses Bertram Bruce's (1997) framework of various "stances" on…

  20. Developing Course Materials for Technology-Mediated Chinese Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubler, Cornelius C.

    2018-01-01

    This article discusses principles involved in developing course materials for technology-mediated Chinese language learning, with examples from a new course designed to take into account the needs of distance and independent learners. Which learning environment is most efficient for a given learning activity needs to be carefully considered. It…

  1. Lifelong Learning in Artistic Context Mediated by Advanced Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Mirella

    2016-01-01

    This research starts by analysing the current state of artistic heritage in Italy and studying some examples in Europe: we try to investigate the scope of non-formal learning in artistic context, mediated by advanced technology. The framework within which we have placed our investigation is that of lifelong learning and lifedeep learning. The…

  2. The mediating role of Risk Perception

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aimed at determining whether or not neuroticism would account for more variance in predicting risk perception and fear of terrorist attack in Ghana compared to conscientiousness. Moreover, it sought to examine the mediating effect of risk perception on the relationship between neuroticism and fear of terrorist ...

  3. The role of mediation in resolving workplace relationship conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Donna Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Stress triggered by workplace-based interpersonal conflict can result in damaged relationships, loss of productivity, diminished job satisfaction and increasingly, workers' compensation claims for psychological injury. This paper examined the literature on the role and effectiveness of mediation, as the most common method of Alternative Dispute Resolution, in resolving workplace relationship conflict. Available evidence suggests that mediation is most effective when supported by organisational commitment to ADR strategies, policies and processes, and conducted by independent, experienced and qualified mediators. The United States Postal Service program REDRESS™ is described as an illustration of the successful use of mediation to resolve conflict in the workplace. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. THE ROLE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN ORGANIZATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Ramin Bashir Khodaparasti

    2012-01-01

    Development of organization started in period with agriculture and industrial during the period came and information. Today in period of competition, information is very important needed. So competitive advantage in the information provided to achieve goals is necessary. Entrance of this technology in organizations conjectural attitude changed and evolved functions their managers. The purpose of this paper is to define the correct information and the role technology has in improving the situa...

  5. The role of cytokines as inflammatory mediators in preeclampsia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of cytokines as inflammatory mediators in preeclampsia. ... Introduction: this study is to determine the concentrations of IL-6, TNF 5, and C reactive protein (CRP) in women with severe preeclampsia, and compare with ... A role may exist for anti inflammatory agents in the management of women with preeclampsia.

  6. The Effect of Technology-Mediated Diabetes Prevention Interventions on Weight: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Rachel R; Piatt, Gretchen A; Sen, Ananda; Plegue, Melissa A; De Michele, Mariana L; Hafez, Dina; Czuhajewski, Christina M; Buis, Lorraine R; Kaufman, Neal; Richardson, Caroline R

    2017-03-27

    Lifestyle interventions targeting weight loss, such as those delivered through the Diabetes Prevention Program, reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Technology-mediated interventions may be an option to help overcome barriers to program delivery, and to disseminate diabetes prevention programs on a larger scale. We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of such technology-mediated interventions on weight loss. In this meta-analysis, six databases were searched to identify studies reporting weight change that used technology to mediate diet and exercise interventions, and targeted individuals at high risk for developing type 2 diabetes. Studies published between January 1, 2002 and August 4, 2016 were included. The search identified 1196 citations. Of those, 15 studies met the inclusion criteria and evaluated 18 technology-mediated intervention arms delivered to a total of 2774 participants. Study duration ranged from 12 weeks to 2 years. A random-effects meta-analysis showed a pooled weight loss effect of 3.76 kilograms (95% CI 2.8-4.7; Ptechnology-mediated intervention method was most efficacious. Technology-mediated diabetes prevention programs can result in clinically significant amounts of weight loss, as well as improvements in glycaemia in patients with prediabetes. Due to their potential for large-scale implementation, these interventions will play an important role in the dissemination of diabetes prevention programs. ©Rachel R Bian, Gretchen A Piatt, Ananda Sen, Melissa A Plegue, Mariana L De Michele, Dina Hafez, Christina M Czuhajewski, Lorraine R Buis, Neal Kaufman, Caroline R Richardson. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 27.03.2017.

  7. STAT6: its role in interleukin 4-mediated biological functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, K; Kishimoto, T; Akira, S

    1997-05-01

    Interleukin (IL) 4 is known to be a cytokine which plays a central role in the regulation of immune response. Studies on cytokine signal transduction have clarified the mechanism by which IL4 exerts its functions. Two cytoplasmic proteins, signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 6 and IL4-induced phosphotyrosine substrate/insulin receptor substrate 2 (4PS/IRS2), are activated in IL4 signal transduction. Recent studies from STAT6-deficient mice have revealed the essential role of STAT6 in IL4-mediated biological actions. In addition, STAT6 has also been demonstrated to be important for the functions mediated by IL13, which is related to IL4. IL4 and IL13 have been shown to induce the production of IgE, which is a major mediator in an allergic response. These findings indicate that STAT6 activation is involved in IL4- and IL13-mediated disorders such as allergy.

  8. The role of affect in attitude formation toward new technologies: The case of stratospheric aerosol injection

    OpenAIRE

    Merk, Christine; Pönitzsch, Gert

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes determinants of technology acceptance and their interdependence. It highlights the role of affect in attitude formation toward new technologies and examines how it mediates the influence of stable psychological variables on technology acceptance. Based on theory and previous empirical evidence, we develop an analytical framework of attitude formation. We test this framework using survey data on the acceptance of stratospheric aerosol injection (SAI), a technology that coul...

  9. The role of logbooks as mediators of engineering design work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAlpine, Hamish; Cash, Philip; Hicks, Ben

    2017-01-01

    Information transformation is key to engineering design work. However, research on how information management tools, and logbooks in particular, mediate this, is fragmented. We explore this via two studies (from which we confirm the central role of logbooks) and propose three modes of mediation......: facilitating cognition and creation, gathering and collation of information, and staging and transformation of information. The findings explain the widespread use of logbooks through their support of these three modes. Consequently, we contend that multi-modal mediation is one of the main reasons why logbooks...

  10. Theoretical Propositions for the Citizen Formation Mediated by Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Margarita Martínez de Padrón

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The research presented emerges from the connotations concerning the formation of the citizenship by the information technology and communication. Be part of the conception of the current citizen and the influence that has emerged through the utility of the various social networks, as well as Canaima education project and the guidance provided to schoolchildren in this sense. The general objective was to generate propositions theoretical that guide the formation of citizenship mediated by ICT in the primary schools of Santa Teresa del Tuy. The methodology used was the qualitative paradigm, based on the interpretative phenomenological approach of Heidegger, which is interested in discovering and understanding the meanings, habits and practices of the human being. Castle (2000: 5. The researcher approached the field object of study to observe, describe and interpret a reality. As an instrument used the interview in depth. The information obtained was recorded in pictures which allowed to comply with the development of specific objectives through triangulation. On whose findings prevailed deviating from the use of technological tools and how these have formed the formation of citizenship in school children in their behavior and actions. At the same time, allowed know from educational technological approach, that sparing the teacher provides guidance that redirect the formation of citizenship. Also was the stated objective as it was the theoretical propositions that guide the formation of citizens ICT-mediated.

  11. The mediating role of tourist attractions in the relationship between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings have implications for understanding the dynamics of the mediating role of tourist attractions in the relationship between hotel employees and the intentions of the business tourist to visit the tourist attraction. Managers in the hotel industry may use the results to develop marketing strategies, targeted at ...

  12. Mediated Effects of Technology Competencies and Experiences on Relations among Attitudes Towards Technology Use, Technology Ownership, and Self Efficacy about Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerdelen-Damar, Sevda; Boz, Yezdan; Aydın-Günbatar, Sevgi

    2017-08-01

    This study examined the relations of preservice science teachers' attitudes towards technology use, technology ownership, technology competencies, and experiences to their self-efficacy beliefs about technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK). The present study also investigated interrelations among preservice teachers' attitudes towards technology use, technology ownership, technology competencies, and experiences. The participants of study were 665 elementary preservice science teachers (467 females, 198 males) from 7 colleges in Turkey. The proposed model based on educational technology literature was tested using structural equation modeling. The model testing results revealed that preservice teachers' technology competencies and experiences mediated the relation of technology ownership to their TPACK self efficacy beliefs. The direct relation of their possession of technology to their TPACK self efficacy beliefs was insignificant while the indirect relation through their technology competencies and experiences was significant. The results also indicated there were significant direct effects of preservice teachers' attitudes towards technology use, technology competencies, and experiences on their TPACK self efficacy beliefs.

  13. Adherence to technology-mediated insomnia treatment: a meta-analysis, interviews, and focus groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horsch, C.; Lancee, J.; Beun, R.J.; Neerincx, M.A.; Brinkman, W.-P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several technologies have been proposed to support the reduction of insomnia complaints. A user-centered assessment of these technologies could provide insight into underlying factors related to treatment adherence. Objective: Gaining insight into adherence to technology-mediated

  14. Technological mediation as a learning tool for writing and reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Molano Caro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article disclosed the progress a technological mediation has built to the adquisition, use and development of reading and writing from Cognitive Affective Method for Learning -MACPA-. A development like the one being proposed, is an option for children and young people to, activate, promote, develop and / or enhance the learning of reading and writing. Likewise, it is an option to consider the results achieved in the PISA test and case reports, done by teachers by teachers, showing that that elementary students do not perform production of texts so spontaneous or directed; and they fail to make progress in reading comprehension levels. Given this context, the partial results achieved in the second phase of the research aims to implement a technology platform based mediation MACPA as an educational resource to enhance the processes of reading and writing among students from first to fourth grades of primary education. Accordingly, through Article basis be found in a software for reading and writing that takes into account the particularities of learning of students with intellectual disabilities, learning disabilities in students who have not evidenced difficulties in academic learning processes, though they require a new method to accelerate learning.

  15. URBAN CHILDHOOD ROUTINES MEDIATED BY TECHNOLOGY: A VISUAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Patiño, Javier

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available With the goal of documenting routines in which a technological component had some type of impact and observe the influences of immediate environments, exploring meaning and sense, interviews and some observations and, especially, a series of photographs taken by a young girl about her daily life were collected. The purpose of this article is to foster a critical debate about the social and developmental consequences that have been attributed to changes in the living conditions of contemporary Western urban children. For the analytical approach and the analysis of the data, it was especially important to take into consideration the characteristics of the case study participant, a high social class 12 year old pre-adolescent who lives in a home where a large variety of information and communication technology equipment is at her disposal. The conclusions that are presented mainly revolve around two issues. First, related to the emergence of multimodal communication situations, of increasingly semiotic complexity, promoted by digital practices visible in different styles of mediation in the uses of technologies identified as: "convergence", "divergence" and "accessibility". Second, that these technological practices facilitate transformations in space, whether public, private or virtual, altering the importance that traditionally held by other places in the processes of socialization of urban children. This article is published in Spanish.

  16. Physical Activity and Cognition: A Mediating Role of Efficient Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilckens, Kristine A; Erickson, Kirk I; Wheeler, Mark E

    2016-12-09

    Physical activity benefits executive control, but the mechanism through which this benefit occurs is unclear. Sleep is a candidate mechanism given that it improves with exercise and has restorative effects on the prefrontal cortex. The present cross-sectional study examined the mediating role of sleep in the relationship between physical activity and executive control in young and older adults. Young (n = 59) and older (n = 53) community-dwelling adults ages 21-30 and 55-80. Participants wore an accelerometer for one week to assess sleep efficiency, total sleep time, and physical activity, operationalized as metabolic equivalent of task (METs) during time spent awake. Cognition was assessed in the laboratory across multiple measures of executive control, memory recall, and processing speed. Mediation analyses tested the role of sleep efficiency in the cross-sectional relationship between METs and cognitive performance accounting for age, sex, and education. METs were significantly associated with performance before, but not after accounting for covariates. METs were associated with sleep efficiency but not total sleep time. Sleep efficiency, but not total sleep time, mediated the relationship between METs and working memory, switching, verbal ability and fluency, and recall. Age group did not moderate the mediating role of sleep efficiency in the relationship between METs and performance. Sleep efficiency is one pathway by which physical activity may be associated with executive control across young and older adults.

  17. Alexithymia in anorexia nervosa: the mediating role of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Sandra; Guerra, Marina Prista; Lencastre, Leonor; Miller, Kylee; Vieira, Filipa Mucha; Roma-Torres, António; Brandão, Isabel; Costa, Patrício

    2015-01-30

    The role of depression in the expression of alexithymia in anorexia nervosa (AN) has been controversially explained and several variables that may mask or increase the presence of emotional difficulties have scant examination in previous studies. This study aims to analyze the associations between alexithymia and state variables, such as age, BMI, illness duration, treatment duration, and medication status in AN participants, and to test the mediating role of depression in emotional difficulties. The Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale were administrated to 160 females: 80 participants with AN and 80 healthy controls. High levels of alexithymia were not a function of state variables. The mediating role of depression differed by the alexithymia dimension, with total mediation found for the TAS-DDF and partial mediation found for the TAS-DIF. Alexithymia is a relevant feature throughout the spectrum of AN and does not seem to be related to developmental maturation and some clinical features. Depression is probably the variable that best accounts for the variance in alexithymia, but is not a complete explanation for the known cognitive-affective disturbances in AN. Specific emotional competencies require scrutiny during psychiatric treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Progress in multiplex loop-mediated isothermal amplification technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen-hui; Zou, Bing-jie; Song, Qin-xin; Zhou, Guo-hua

    2015-09-01

    Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) has been widely applied in nucleic acid diagnostics due to its high sensitivity and specificity, high speed and low requirement of equipment. In order to fully leverage these merits, achieve high efficiency and reliability in diagnostics, and expand the applicable fields while keeping low reagent cost, multiplex LAMP technology has been extensively explored in recent years. Common methods for LAMP products detection are mostly based on the double-stranded DNA amplicons or byproducts from the polymerization reaction, so they can only identify the occurrence of amplification reaction but not the origins or specificity of the products. To achieve specific LAMP products detection, researchers developed various multiplex methods by improving the conventional LAMP technology or coupling LAMP with other assays. However, the interference and/or the different amplification efficiencies among different primer sets often lead to biased amplification and thus limited multiplexing level. We here defined these methods as narrow-sensed multiplex LAMP. The research on miniaturized amplification technology which is booming in recent years has given rise to the novel general-sensed multiplex LAMP technology that breaks this limitation by its capability to perform highly parallel and miniaturized simplex reactions in independent compartments. Methods of this type have additional benefits such as lower reagent cost, higher level of automation, lower risk of cross-contamination and better suitability for on-site detection of multiple targets. In this review, we summarize the recent research progress in multiplex LAMP technology from the following aspects: the principle and design of narrow-sensed LAMP and its amplification optimization, the general-sensed LAMP, and the various applications of all multiplex LAMP technologies in diagnostics.

  19. Psychological Vulnerability and Subjective Happiness: The Mediating Role of Hopelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satici, Seydi Ahmet; Uysal, Recep

    2017-04-01

    The current study examined the mediating role of hopelessness on the relationship between psychological vulnerability and subjective happiness. It was anticipated that hopelessness may act as a mediator in the relationship between psychological vulnerability and subjective happiness. Two hundred sixty-nine (150 women and 119 men) university students completed the Psychological Vulnerability Scale, the Subjective Happiness Scale and the Beck Hopelessness Scale. Data have been collected in the 2013-2014 academic year. The present study was designed as a cross-sectional study. Correlational results indicated that psychological vulnerability and hopelessness were significantly negatively associated with subjective happiness. Results using structural equation modelling showed that hopelessness fully mediated the relationship between psychological vulnerability and subjective happiness. Implications for future research and limitations of the present study are discussed. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Adult Attachment and Dyadic Adjustment: The Mediating Role of Shame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Teresa C; Canavarro, Maria Cristina; Moreira, Helena

    2016-07-03

    Although it is widely recognized that adult attachment is associated with romantic relationship quality, the mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the mediating role of external and internal shame on the association between attachment and dyadic adjustment. A battery of self-report measures was completed by 228 Portuguese participants and a serial multiple mediation model was tested. Data showed that, in the population under study, attachment dimensions were associated with worse dyadic adjustment through high external and internal shame. Internal shame alone also mediated the association between attachment avoidance and dyadic adjustment. This study identifies a new putative mechanism linking adult attachment and intimate relationship functioning that may be targeted in couples therapy to promote a better dyadic adjustment and relationship functioning.

  1. The mediating role of organizational subcultures in health care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lok, Peter; Rhodes, Jo; Westwood, Bob

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the mediating role of organizational subculture between job satisfaction, organizational commitment (dependent variables) and leadership, culture (independent variables) in health care organizations. A survey on nurses from 26 wards from various types of hospital was used. A total of 251 usable returns were collected for the analysis (i.e. response rate of 63 per cent). Structural equation analysis was conducted to obtain the best fit model and to determine the direction of the causal effect between job satisfaction and commitment, and the role of subculture as a mediating variable, between commitment of its other antecedents. Comparisons with alternative models confirmed satisfaction as an antecedent of commitment and the role of subculture as a mediating variable. The results of this study contribute to the clarification of the causal relations of the antecedents of commitment, and highlight the important role of local leadership and subculture in determining employees' job satisfaction and commitment. The results of this study should not be generalized to other industries and other national cultural context. Furthermore, a longitudinal study may be necessary to determine the causal relationship of variables used in this study. The findings could provide managers with valuable insight to focus their limited resources on improving the level of organizational commitment via the mediating role of organizational culture. The research findings provide managers with a new lens to examine organizational culture using the three perspectives of: bureaucratic, supportive, and innovative. Furthermore, the results could renew interest in developing other organizational subculture models that determine the relationship between organizational subculture and commitment

  2. The Role of Universities in Technology Entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Wells

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the role that universities play in the process of technology entrepreneurship, where entrepreneurship is restricted to the process of launching and supporting small and medium-sized technology-based businesses. The article briefly discusses a few of the issues that influence a university’s participation in the process of entrepreneurship. Although there is no “one-size-fits-all” model, the article discusses various ways that Canadian universities may help entrepreneurs, including contract research, the provision of business parks, and sensible handling of intellectual property issues. Finally, the article suggests that the return on “investment”, for both the university and the province, is a difficult thing to measure – nevertheless, participation in the entrepreneurship process may result in some tangible and intangible benefits for both parties.

  3. Role of Healthcare Information Technology in handoffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Ross; Telles, Joel Leon

    2013-01-01

    Handoffs-transfer of patient care from one clinician or service to another-are well known patient safety dangers. Healthcare Information Technology (HIT) as an intervening and powerful force in handoffs has received comparatively little attention. The role of HIT in concert with paper documentation has received even less attention. We analyze handoffs in relation to electronic records and hybrid systems (both paper and HIT) to identify sources of error and miscommunication. We propose a typology of handoffs and illustrate several of them.

  4. Cyber physical systems role in manufacturing technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ali, A. R.; Gupta, Ragini; Nabulsi, Ahmad Al

    2018-04-01

    Empowered by the recent development in single System-on-Chip, Internet of Things, and cloud computing technologies, cyber physical systems are evolving as a major controller during and post the manufacturing products process. In additional to their real physical space, cyber products nowadays have a virtual space. A product virtual space is a digital twin that is attached to it to enable manufacturers and their clients to better manufacture, monitor, maintain and operate it throughout its life time cycles, i.e. from the product manufacturing date, through operation and to the end of its lifespan. Each product is equipped with a tiny microcontroller that has a unique identification number, access code and WiFi conductivity to access it anytime and anywhere during its life cycle. This paper presents the cyber physical systems architecture and its role in manufacturing. Also, it highlights the role of Internet of Things and cloud computing in industrial manufacturing and factory automation.

  5. A social‐technological epistemology of clinical decision‐making as mediated by imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carusi, Annamaria; Sabroe, Ian; Kiely, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In recent years there has been growing attention to the epistemology of clinical decision‐making, but most studies have taken the individual physicians as the central object of analysis. In this paper we argue that knowing in current medical practice has an inherently social character and that imaging plays a mediating role in these practices. We have analyzed clinical decision‐making within a medical expert team involved in diagnosis and treatment of patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH), a rare disease requiring multidisciplinary team involvement in diagnosis and management. Within our field study, we conducted observations, interviews, video tasks, and a panel discussion. Decision‐making in the PH clinic involves combining evidence from heterogeneous sources into a cohesive framing of a patient, in which interpretations of the different sources can be made consistent with each other. Because pieces of evidence are generated by people with different expertise and interpretation and adjustments take place in interaction between different experts, we argue that this process is socially distributed. Multidisciplinary team meetings are an important place where information is shared, discussed, interpreted, and adjusted, allowing for a collective way of seeing and a shared language to be developed. We demonstrate this with an example of image processing in the PH service, an instance in which knowledge is distributed over multiple people who play a crucial role in generating an evaluation of right heart function. Finally, we argue that images fulfill a mediating role in distributed knowing in 3 ways: first, as enablers or tools in acquiring information; second, as communication facilitators; and third, as pervasively framing the epistemic domain. With this study of clinical decision‐making in diagnosis and treatment of PH, we have shown that clinical decision‐making is highly social and mediated by technologies. The epistemology of clinical

  6. A social-technological epistemology of clinical decision-making as mediated by imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Baalen, Sophie; Carusi, Annamaria; Sabroe, Ian; Kiely, David G

    2017-10-01

    In recent years there has been growing attention to the epistemology of clinical decision-making, but most studies have taken the individual physicians as the central object of analysis. In this paper we argue that knowing in current medical practice has an inherently social character and that imaging plays a mediating role in these practices. We have analyzed clinical decision-making within a medical expert team involved in diagnosis and treatment of patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH), a rare disease requiring multidisciplinary team involvement in diagnosis and management. Within our field study, we conducted observations, interviews, video tasks, and a panel discussion. Decision-making in the PH clinic involves combining evidence from heterogeneous sources into a cohesive framing of a patient, in which interpretations of the different sources can be made consistent with each other. Because pieces of evidence are generated by people with different expertise and interpretation and adjustments take place in interaction between different experts, we argue that this process is socially distributed. Multidisciplinary team meetings are an important place where information is shared, discussed, interpreted, and adjusted, allowing for a collective way of seeing and a shared language to be developed. We demonstrate this with an example of image processing in the PH service, an instance in which knowledge is distributed over multiple people who play a crucial role in generating an evaluation of right heart function. Finally, we argue that images fulfill a mediating role in distributed knowing in 3 ways: first, as enablers or tools in acquiring information; second, as communication facilitators; and third, as pervasively framing the epistemic domain. With this study of clinical decision-making in diagnosis and treatment of PH, we have shown that clinical decision-making is highly social and mediated by technologies. The epistemology of clinical decision-making needs

  7. DMPD: Complement-mediated phagocytosis--the role of Syk. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 16754322 Complement-mediated phagocytosis--the role of Syk. Tohyama Y, Yamamura H. ...IUBMB Life. 2006 May-Jun;58(5-6):304-8. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Complement-mediated phagocytosis-...-the role of Syk. PubmedID 16754322 Title Complement-mediated phagocytosis--the role of Syk. Authors Tohyama

  8. Intrinsic motivation and sportsmanship: mediating role of interpersonal relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Juan L; Martín-Albo, José; Navarro, José G; Sánchez, Juana M; González-Cutre, David

    2009-06-01

    This study analyzed the mediating role of interpersonal relations between intrinsic motivation and sportsmanship. Athletes (98 men, 97 women), ages 11 to 43 years, completed measures of intrinsic motivation toward sports, self-concept of social and family relations, and sportsmanship orientation. A structural equation model indicated that self-concept of interpersonal relations mediated the relation between intrinsic motivation and sportsmanship. Also, intrinsic motivation was directly and positively associated with self-concept of interpersonal relations, which, in turn, was positively and significantly related to sportsmanship. Variances explained by self-concept of interpersonal relations and by sportsmanship were 32 and 56%, respectively. The motivational interaction between the context of interpersonal relations and the sports context proposed in the hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation was discussed.

  9. Complications of childhood diabetes and the role of technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yoon Hi; Couper, Jennifer J; Donaghue, Kim C

    2010-08-01

    Technology for detecting vascular complications of childhood diabetes has already helped many children and youth by allowing for the early detection and intervention of impending or present problems as the result of the diabetes state. Prior to the advent of screening, young people developed clinical disease, in particular visual loss and renal impairment that often rapidly progressed to end-stage disease. With the advent of laser photocoagulation, which dramatically reduced visual loss from diabetic retinopathy, the importance of early detection and treatment of micro and macrovascular complications prior to clinical symptoms became apparent. Many technological advances are now being applied to the pediatric diabetes population, in either clinical care or the research setting. For example, retinal photography makes screening more accessible and more meaningful to adolescents with diabetes and can be used in large screening programs, for teleophthalmology, clinical trials and in geographically remote areas. Quantitative measures used to assess microvascular structure may be useful in monitoring interventions in the future. Quantitative sensory tests can monitor nerve dysfunction, but evaluations such as intraepidermal nerve fibre pathology and cornea confocal microscopy may be more sensitive to diagnose neuropathic complications in youth. B-mode ultrasonography can assess vascular function by measuring endothelium-dependent flow mediated dilatation and changes in the intima-media thickness of the carotid and aorta. It is the purpose of this manuscript to explore the role of present and future technological advances (Table 1) in young people with diabetes.

  10. The Mediator Role of Logistic Performance Index : A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio d'Aleo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Logistics sector is recognized as one of most important element of an advanced economies. Many studies tried to understand the relationship among the logistic sector and the prosperity of a country. We start to understand what is the meaning in the academic literature of logistic so as to better understand the Logistic Performance Index (LPI, published by the World Bank in 2007, 2010, 2012, 2014. This research through the use of explanatory linear regression model was aimed to analyze the mediator role of Logistic Performance Index (LPI on the relation between the Global Competitiveness Index (GCI and Gross Domestic Product (GDP from 2007 to 2014 in Europe (EU 28.

  11. Grounded in Theory: Immersing Preservice Teachers in Technology-Mediated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGennaro, Donna

    2010-01-01

    The integration of technology into preservice teacher education continues to be emphasized as important. The hope is that if future teachers obtain technology skills they will design meaningful technology-mediated learning experiences for their students. However, gaining technology skills alone does not ensure the ability to envision and employ…

  12. Salmonella-mediated cancer therapy: Roles and potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Vu Hong [Dept. of Experimental TherapeuticsBeckman Research Institute of City of Hope, Duarte (United States); Min, Jung Joon [Dept. of Nuclear MedicineChonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    The use of bacteria for cancer therapy, which was proposed many years ago, was not recognized as a potential therapeutic strategy until recently. Technological advances and updated knowledge have enabled the genetic engineering of bacteria for their safe and effective application in the treatment of cancer. The efficacy of radiotherapy depends mainly on tissue oxygen levels, and low oxygen concentrations in necrotic and hypoxic regions are a common cause of treatment failure. In addition, the distribution of a drug is important for the therapeutic effect of chemotherapy, and the poor vasculature in tumors impairs drug delivery, limiting the efficacy of a drug, especially in necrotic and hypoxic regions. Bacteria-mediated cancer therapy (BMCT) relies on facultative anaerobes that can survive in well or poorly oxygenated regions, and it therefore improves the therapeutic efficacy drug distribution throughout the tumor mass. Since the mid-1990s, the number of published bacterial therapy papers has increased rapidly, with a doubling time of 2.5 years in which the use of Salmonella increased significantly. BMCT is being reevaluated to overcome some of the drawbacks of conventional therapies. This review focuses on Salmonella-mediated cancer therapy as the most widely used type of BMCT.{sub 2}.

  13. Salmonella-mediated cancer therapy: Roles and potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Vu Hong; Min, Jung Joon

    2017-01-01

    The use of bacteria for cancer therapy, which was proposed many years ago, was not recognized as a potential therapeutic strategy until recently. Technological advances and updated knowledge have enabled the genetic engineering of bacteria for their safe and effective application in the treatment of cancer. The efficacy of radiotherapy depends mainly on tissue oxygen levels, and low oxygen concentrations in necrotic and hypoxic regions are a common cause of treatment failure. In addition, the distribution of a drug is important for the therapeutic effect of chemotherapy, and the poor vasculature in tumors impairs drug delivery, limiting the efficacy of a drug, especially in necrotic and hypoxic regions. Bacteria-mediated cancer therapy (BMCT) relies on facultative anaerobes that can survive in well or poorly oxygenated regions, and it therefore improves the therapeutic efficacy drug distribution throughout the tumor mass. Since the mid-1990s, the number of published bacterial therapy papers has increased rapidly, with a doubling time of 2.5 years in which the use of Salmonella increased significantly. BMCT is being reevaluated to overcome some of the drawbacks of conventional therapies. This review focuses on Salmonella-mediated cancer therapy as the most widely used type of BMCT. 2

  14. Technology-Mediated Interventions and Quality of Life for Persons Living with HIV/AIDS. A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hwayoung; Iribarren, Sarah; Schnall, Rebecca

    2017-04-12

    As HIV/AIDS is considered a chronic disease; quality of life (QoL) has become an important focus for researchers and healthcare providers. Technology-mediated interventions have demonstrated improved clinical effectiveness in outcomes, such as viral suppression, for persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH). However, the evidence to support the impact of these interventions on QoL is lacking. The aim of this paper was to assess the impact of technology-mediated interventions on QoL and to identify the instruments used to measure the QoL of PLWH. For this review we followed the PRISMA guidelines. A literature search was conducted in PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane, and EMBASE databases in April 2016. Inclusion criteria limited articles to those with technology-mediated interventions as compared to usual care; articles with the population defined as HIV-infected patients; and articles with QoL measured as a health outcome in randomized controlled trials. The Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias Tool was used to assess study quality. Of the 1,554 peer-reviewed articles returned in the searches, 10 met the inclusion criteria. This systematic review identified four types of technology-mediated interventions and two types of QoL instruments used to examine the impact of technology-mediated interventions on PLWH. Four studies of technology-mediated interventions resulted in improvement in QoL. Four studies considered QoL as a secondary outcome and resulted in a negative or neutral impact on QoL. Overall, four studies had a low risk of bias, one study had a moderate risk of bias, and the other five studies had a high risk of bias. The evidence to support the improvement of QoL using technology-mediated interventions is insufficient. This lack of research highlights the need for increased study of QoL as an outcome measure and the need for consistent measures to better understand the role of technology-mediated interventions in improving QoL for PLWH.

  15. The Role of Affect in Attitude Formation toward New Technologies: The Case of Stratospheric Aerosol Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merk, Christine; Pönitzsch, Gert

    2017-12-01

    This article analyzes determinants of technology acceptance and their interdependence. It highlights the role of affect in attitude formation toward new technologies and examines how it mediates the influence of stable psychological variables on the technology's acceptability. Based on theory and previous empirical evidence, we develop an analytical framework of attitude formation. We test this framework using survey data on attitudes toward stratospheric aerosol injection (SAI), a technology that could be used to counteract global warming. We show that affect is more important than risk and benefit perception in forming judgment about SAI. Negative and positive affect directly alter the perception of risks and benefits of SAI and its acceptability. Furthermore, affect is an important mediator between stable psychological variables-such as trust in governmental institutions, values, and attitudes-and acceptability. A person's affective response is thus guided by her general attitudes and values. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  16. Depressive Symptoms among Dementia Caregivers: The Role of Mediating Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givens, Jane L; Mezzacappa, Catherine; Heeren, Timothy; Yaffe, Kristine; Fredman, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To compare depressive symptoms between caregivers to persons with dementia and other illnesses, and determine whether caregiver role captivity and care recipient disruptive behaviors mediate this association. Design Prospective cohort study of older women in four U.S. communities followed from 1999 to 2009. Setting Home-based interviews. Participants 345 caregiving participants from the Caregiver-Study of Osteoporotic Fractures. Measurements Caregiver status based on self-report of performing one or more instrumental or basic activities of daily living for care recipient. Depressive symptoms measured using the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Scores of 16 or greater represented high depressive symptoms. Caregiver role captivity and care recipient problematic behaviors measured using validated instruments. Results Approximately one-third of the caregivers cared for a person with dementia. High depressive symptoms were more common among dementia caregivers (22.8% vs. 11.2%, p caregiver role captivity and care recipient problematic behaviors. In adjusted results, high depressive symptoms was associated with middle and highest tertiles of role captivity (adjusted odds ratios [AOR] 5.01, 95% CI 2.31-11.05 and 9.41, 95% CI 3.95-22.40 for the middle and highest tertiles, respectively) and care recipient problematic behaviors (AOR 2.52 95% CI 1.02-6.19 and 5.26, 95% CI 2.00-13.8 for each tertile, respectively). Conclusions Older caregivers to persons with dementia are at increased risk of high depressive symptoms. Targeting problematic behaviors among dementia patients and addressing aspects of dementia care that result in role captivity may ameliorate caregiver depression. PMID:23567432

  17. The Hugging Team: The Role of Technology in Business Networking Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsø Sørensen, Anne; Shklovski, Irina

    2011-01-01

    Technological devices for social networking are produced in droves and networking through media seems to be the way of getting ahead in business. We examine what role technology plays in the creation, development and maintenance of business relationships among entrepreneurs in Copenhagen. We find...... that mediated communication is useful in all stages of relational maintenance but only in a supportive role in relational development where co-presence and shared personal experiences take center-stage, generating trust necessary for business relationships to work. These trust-developing experiences take effort...... of entrepreneurship....

  18. Antientropicity of technology: Role of resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biondi, L.; Galli, R. (Milan Univ. (Italy))

    1992-12-01

    The effect of technology is assessed as antientropic referring to the system of usable material and energy resources. The technological system would be considered in physics as open because of the continuous inventions of 'reserves', through transformation from the larger field of resources.

  19. Reframing the Role of Educational Media Technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westera, Wim

    2015-01-01

    Distance universities excel in using digital media technologies for content delivery and collaborative interaction to compensate for limited face-to-face opportunities. Now that an ever-growing variety of media technologies, devices and services are flooding the market, possession of expertise about

  20. The role of innovative remediation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doesburg, J.M.

    1992-05-01

    There are currently over 1200 sites on the US Superfund's National Priorities List (NPL) of hazardous waste sites, and there are over 30, 000 sites listed by the Comprehensive Environmental Responsibility, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS). The traditional approach to remediating sites in the US has been to remove the material and place it in a secure landfill, or in the case of groundwater, pump and treat the effluent. These technologies have proven to be very expensive and don't really fix the problem. The waste is just moved from one place to another. In recent years, however, alternative and innovative technologies have been increasingly used in the US to replace the traditional approaches. This paper will focus on just such innovative remediation technologies in the US, looking at the regulatory drivers, the emerging technologies, some of the problems in deploying technologies, and a case study

  1. The role of innovative remediation technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doesburg, J.M.

    1992-05-01

    There are currently over 1200 sites on the US Superfund's National Priorities List (NPL) of hazardous waste sites, and there are over 30, 000 sites listed by the Comprehensive Environmental Responsibility, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS). The traditional approach to remediating sites in the US has been to remove the material and place it in a secure landfill, or in the case of groundwater, pump and treat the effluent. These technologies have proven to be very expensive and don't really fix the problem. The waste is just moved from one place to another. In recent years, however, alternative and innovative technologies have been increasingly used in the US to replace the traditional approaches. This paper will focus on just such innovative remediation technologies in the US, looking at the regulatory drivers, the emerging technologies, some of the problems in deploying technologies, and a case study.

  2. The role of innovative remediation technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doesburg, J.M.

    1992-05-01

    There are currently over 1200 sites on the US Superfund`s National Priorities List (NPL) of hazardous waste sites, and there are over 30, 000 sites listed by the Comprehensive Environmental Responsibility, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS). The traditional approach to remediating sites in the US has been to remove the material and place it in a secure landfill, or in the case of groundwater, pump and treat the effluent. These technologies have proven to be very expensive and don`t really fix the problem. The waste is just moved from one place to another. In recent years, however, alternative and innovative technologies have been increasingly used in the US to replace the traditional approaches. This paper will focus on just such innovative remediation technologies in the US, looking at the regulatory drivers, the emerging technologies, some of the problems in deploying technologies, and a case study.

  3. The dual role of external technology sourcing in technological exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhaverbeke, Wim; Li-Ying, Jason; van de Vrande, Vareska

    2013-01-01

    We refine the concept of boundary-spanning exploration, by making a distinction between explorative learning from partners and from non-partners (Partners are organizations with whom a focal firm has some kind of external venturing relations, i.e. technological alliances, corporate venturing capi...

  4. Roles of Prolyl Isomerases in RNA-Mediated Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roopa Thapar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerases (PPIases that include immunophilins (cyclophilins and FKBPs and parvulins (Pin1, Par14, Par17 participate in cell signaling, transcription, pre-mRNA processing and mRNA decay. The human genome encodes 19 cyclophilins, 18 FKBPs and three parvulins. Immunophilins are receptors for the immunosuppressive drugs cyclosporin A, FK506, and rapamycin that are used in organ transplantation. Pin1 has also been targeted in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, asthma, and a number of cancers. While these PPIases are characterized as molecular chaperones, they also act in a nonchaperone manner to promote protein-protein interactions using surfaces outside their active sites. The immunosuppressive drugs act by a gain-of-function mechanism by promoting protein-protein interactions in vivo. Several immunophilins have been identified as components of the spliceosome and are essential for alternative splicing. Pin1 plays roles in transcription and RNA processing by catalyzing conformational changes in the RNA Pol II C-terminal domain. Pin1 also binds several RNA binding proteins such as AUF1, KSRP, HuR, and SLBP that regulate mRNA decay by remodeling mRNP complexes. The functions of ribonucleoprotein associated PPIases are largely unknown. This review highlights PPIases that play roles in RNA-mediated gene expression, providing insight into their structures, functions and mechanisms of action in mRNP remodeling in vivo.

  5. The role of information in technology adoption under poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Jinhua

    2005-01-01

    An important channel through which globalization affects poverty is introducing new technologies to developing countries. Adoption of new technologies can be hindered by uncertainties about their efficiency. This paper studies the role of information exchange between adopters and others about a new technology and about each other’s likelihood of adoption. We show that information about the technology can reduce adoption at the beginning of the diffusion process and increase adoption later. In...

  6. The Role of New Technologies on Contemporary Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor IOAN

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Human communication, in its various forms and systems of signs has allowed for the addition of cultural values along the course of human history, through their conservation and transmission from one generation to the next, a process which confers on culture its cumulative character. Information, specific to the human world, has, itself, a particular role. The information field, generalized, changes within us the feeling of time. Man’s relationship with nature, instead of being just lived, practiced in an obscure manner, gains a statute of stability, of consistency, which transforms it into a reality with its own laws and orderly permanence. Technical activity, edifying the world of technical objects and generalizing the objective mediation between man and nature, links man to nature through a connection that is much richer and well defined than that of the specific reaction of collective labor. The transformations of contemporary communication due to new technologies imply and insistently demand modifications especially in the area of human adaptability.

  7. Mission & Role | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI TTC serves as the focal point for implementing the Federal Technology Transfer Act to utilize patents as incentive for commercial development of technologies and to establish research collaborations and licensing among academia, federal laboratories, non-profit organizations, and industry. The TTC supports technology development activities for the National Cancer Institute and nine other NIH Institutes and Centers. TTC staff negotiate co-development agreements and licenses with universities, non-profit organizations, and pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies to ensure compliance with Federal statutes, regulations and the policies of the National Institutes of Health. TTC also reviews employee invention reports and makes recommendations concerning filing of domestic and foreign patent applications. | [google6f4cd5334ac394ab.html

  8. A Modest Art: Securing Privacy in Technologically Mediated Homecare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphof, Ike

    2017-01-01

    This article addresses the art of living in a technological culture as the active engagement with technomoral change. It argues that this engagement does not just take the form of overt deliberation. It shows in more modest ways as reflection-in-action, an experimental process in which new technology is fitted into existing practices. In this process challenged values are re-articulated in pragmatic solutions to the problem of working with new technology. This art of working with technology is also modest in the sense that it is not oriented to shaping one's own subjectivity in relation to technology. It emanates from human existence as relational and aims at securing good relationships. The argument will be developed in relation to a case study of the ways in which homecare workers engaged with the value of privacy, challenged by tele-monitoring technology that was newly introduced into their work.

  9. Economy and technology roles played by nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Eiji

    1985-01-01

    On the basis of the survey analysis made by Atomic Energy Commission on the roles in economy and technology played in the nuclear energy development and utilization, the following are described: economic roles in nuclear energy development and utilization (the present state of nuclear power industry in Japan and the economy effects); technological roles in the same (the present state of nuclear power technology in Japan and the technology effects). The economy effects in other areas are on higher level than in other industries etc. Then, in the technology effects, system technology and quality control in the nuclear power possess significant effects in other areas. While the nuclear energy development and utilization is important in Japan's energy security, it is contributing largely to the economy and society in Japan. (Mori, K.)

  10. Scientific and Technological Empowerment of Women Role ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ranjeetha

    2006-08-21

    Aug 21, 2006 ... development ensures women's equal access to science & q technology, education, training, economic resources, information, communication and marketing. .... Academies to Lead the Way. ➢Commitment from the top to Good. Management Practice. ➢Establish a diversity committee that reports to.

  11. Role of fracture mechanics in modern technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sih, G.C.

    1987-01-01

    The conference served as a forum not only for reviewing past concepts and technologies but it provided an opportunity for many of the designers, engineers and scientists to come forth with more advanced ideas so that fracture mechanics application can be broadened and employed more effectively to avoid unexpected failures that are annoying, costly and destructive of credibility of the engineering community in general

  12. Addressing Climate Change and the Role of Technological Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Axon

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available As far as sustainability is concerned, the role of technology has always been contested. With regard to environmental degradation, technology is either perceived to be part of the problem or part of the solution. To combat the complex issues of the present time, technological solutions are expected to play a key role towards mitigating and adapting to the negative impacts of climate change. The paper also discusses the role of the 2009 Copenhagen Conference towards addressing climate change. Although the Copenhagen Accord is not a legally binding agreement, it is seen as a necessary first step towards a protocol that will effectively address the issue of climate change.

  13. Job security and work performance in Chinese employees: The mediating role of organisational identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Bing; Liu, Shanshi; Liu, Donglai; Wang, Hongchun

    2016-04-01

    This research focuses on investigating whether organisational identification mediates the effects of job security on in-role behaviour and extra-role behaviour and how these mediation mechanisms differ according to gender. Through analysing 212 supervisor-subordinate dyads from a Chinese air transportation group, the research indicated that organisational identification partially mediated the effect of job security on in-role behaviour and fully mediated the effect of job security on extra-role behaviour. A multi-group analysis also showed that there were significant differences between male and female employees in these relationships. In addition, moderated mediation analyses showed that gender moderated the indirect effects of job security on in-role behaviour and extra-role behaviour through organisational identification. Limitations and implications of these findings are discussed. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  14. Technology-mediated barriers, a counter-trend

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, Maurice

    2016-01-01

    New technology generally raises the opportunities for people. That is however not always the case. This article draws attention to the intricate interplay between new technologies and legal regulation, sometimes leading to regulatory arrangements that create new barriers for some actors. Four cases

  15. The role of chaperone-mediated autophagy in huntingtin degradation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Qi

    Full Text Available Huntington Disease (HD is caused by an abnormal expansion of polyQ tract in the protein named huntingtin (Htt. HD pathology is featured by accumulation and aggregation of mutant Htt in striatal and cortical neurons. Aberrant Htt degradation is implicated in HD pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the regulatory role of chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA components, heat shock protein cognate 70 (Hsc70 and lysosome-associated protein 2A (LAMP-2A in degradation of Htt fragment 1-552aa (Htt-552. A cell model of HD was produced by overexpression of Htt-552 with adenovirus. The involvement of CMA components in degradation of Htt-552 was determined with over-expression or silencing of Hsc70 and LAMP-2A. The results confirmed previous reports that both macroautophagy and CMA were involved in degradation of Htt-552. Changing the levels of CMA-related proteins affected the accumulation of Htt-552. The lysosomal binding and luminal transport of Htt-552 was demonstrated by incubation of Htt-552 with isolated lysosomes. Expansion of the polyQ tract in Htt-552 impaired its uptake and degradation by lysosomes. Mutation of putative KFERQ motif in wild-type Htt-552 interfered with interactions between Htt-552 and Hsc70. Endogenous Hsc70 and LAMP-2A interacted with exogenously expressed Htt-552. Modulating the levels of CMA related proteins degraded endogenous full-length Htt. These studies suggest that Hsc70 and LAMP-2A through CMA play a role in the clearance of Htt and suggest a novel strategy to target the degradation of mutant Htt.

  16. Technification as an approach to realization of The child-friendly justice concept in terms of technologies of mediation and restorative justice: theory and practice questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadovnikova M. N.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Author of the article describes the "Technification", and report about its role in resolving the conflicts that appears in a process of working with children. The article reports about social Technologies that can effect the problem of juvenile delinquency and prevent manifestation of deviation in children’s behavior. Author focuses on the special role of restorative approach and technology of mediation in process of working of specialists involved in prevention of delinquency of children. The article is devoted to the working problems of specialists involved in prevention of delinquency of children. The Author highlights the special role of "Technification" of key branches of the child-friendly justice concept as more effective approach. On the example of using restorative-mediation technologies the author proves the algorithm of technification and possibilities of its realization in practice. The author draws attention to the "Shire krug" technology as a way for correcting of juvenile delinquency problem.

  17. Training and business performance: the mediating role of absorptive capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Perlines, Felipe; Moreno-García, Juan; Yáñez-Araque, Benito

    2016-01-01

    Training has been the focus of considerable conceptual and empirical attention but is considered a relevant factor for competitive edge in companies because it has a positive impact on business performance. This study is justified by the need for deeper analysis of the process involving the transfer of training into performance. This paper's originality lies in the implementation of the absorptive capacities approach as an appropriate conceptual framework for designing a model that reflects the connection between training and business performance through absorptive capacities. Based on the above conceptual framework and using the dual methodological implementation, a new method of analyzing the relationship between training and performance was obtained: efforts in training will not lead to performance without the mediation of absorptive. Training turns into performance if absorptive capacities are involved in this process. The suggested model becomes an appropriate framework for explaining the process of transformation of training into organizational performance, in which absorptive capacities play a key role. The findings obtained can go further owing to fs/QCA: of the different absorptive capacities, that of exploitation is a necessary condition to achieve better organizational performance. Therefore, training based on absorptive capacity will guide and facilitate the design of appropriate human resource strategies so that training results in improved performance. This conclusion is relevant for the development of a new facet of absorptive capacities by relating it to training and resulting in first-level implications for human resource management.

  18. Intelligence and Fitness: The Mediating Role of Educational Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Međedović, Janko

    2017-01-01

    The evolutionary status of intelligence is not clear: It is positively related to various indicators of fitness but negatively to reproductive success as the most important fitness marker. In the present research, we explored the links between intelligence and three fitness indicators: number of children (short-term reproductive success), number of grandchildren (long-term reproductive success), and age at first birth. Participants were individuals in a postreproductive stage ( N = 191; mean age = 66.5 years). Intelligence had a positive correlation with short-term reproductive success and age at first birth but a negative correlation with long-term reproductive success. Participants' education turned out to be a significant mediator of the link between intelligence and criterion measures. The results showed that intelligence can elevate short-term reproductive success. Furthermore, individuals with higher intellectual abilities tended to delay reproduction, which negatively affected their long-term reproductive success. Education was revealed as a very important resource which affects the link between cognitive abilities and fitness, thus proving its evolutionary role in contemporary populations.

  19. Temperament and Anxiety: The Mediating Role of Metacognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragan, Małgorzata; Dragan, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines a simple model for the relationship between temperament, anxiety and maladaptive metacognition. A clinical sample of patients diagnosed with anxiety disorders ( n  = 216) completed a set of self-reported questionnaires measuring temperament dimensions, state anxiety and metacognitions. Three temperament traits were included in the hypothesized model: emotional reactivity, perseveration and briskness. A structural equation modeling analysis supported a model in which the relationship between the three temperament traits and anxiety were fully mediated by metacognition. Dissimilar models were identified for the male and female subgroups, and also with reference to individual categories of maladaptive metacognition. The findings support the significance of metacognition as a factor influencing the temperament-anxiety relationship. Moreover, they confirm the roles both of emotional reactivity and of perseveration, being major traits related to anxiety which also turned out to be strongly associated with metacognition. In case of the models for the categories of metacognition, emotional reactivity was associated with negative beliefs, perseveration with negative and positive beliefs, while briskness predicted anxiety independently of metacognition. These results suggest the existence of more specific associations between temperament traits, anxiety, and various types of metacognition.

  20. Core Self-Evaluations and Job and Life Satisfaction: The Mediating and Moderated Mediating Role of Job Insecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Hui-Hsien; Huang, Jie-Tsuen

    2017-04-03

    This study examined the mediating role of job insecurity in the relationship between core self-evaluations (CSE) and job satisfaction, while also investigating the moderating role of job insecurity in the mediated relationship between CSE and life satisfaction via job satisfaction. Survey data were collected from a sample of 346 full-time employees in Taiwan. We found that job insecurity partially mediated the CSE-job satisfaction relationship. Moreover, we found that job insecurity moderated not only the relationship between CSE and job satisfaction but also the mediated relationship between CSE and life satisfaction via job satisfaction. Specifically, both the CSE-job satisfaction relationship and the CSE-job satisfaction-life satisfaction relationship became stronger when job insecurity was low. Our results emphasize the importance of raising employees' CSE, which is beneficial not only for diminishing their perceptions of job insecurity, but also for boosting their job and life satisfaction. Practical implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  1. The Role of Parental Mediation and Peer Norms on the Likelihood of Cyberbullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasson, Hagit; Mesch, Gustavo

    2017-01-01

    Cyberbullying is a disturbing behavior associated with the use of communication technologies among adolescents. Many studies have been devoted to the activities of cyber victims as risk factors, while others have considered parental mediation a protective factor. However, there is a paucity of studies investigating the joint contribution of parental mediation, peer norms and risky online activities to the likelihood of being bullied on the Internet. To fill this gap, we conducted a study among a representative sample of 495 sixth to eleventh grade adolescents. We measured risky behavior online with items indicating the frequency of posting personal details, sending an insulting message and meeting face-to-face with a stranger met online. Respondents reported their perceptions about their peers. attitudes toward these risky online behaviors. We also measured three types of parental mediation: active guidance, restrictive supervision and non-intervention. Binary logistic regression findings show that risky online behaviors and peer norms regarding these behaviors had a significant effect, suggesting that the likelihood of being bullied on the Internet is associated with both risky behavior online and the norms prevalent within the adolescents. peer group. Restrictive supervision had a significant effect, implying that parents who feel their children are being bullied online may increase their oversight. The results emphasize the critical role of peers and the declining influence of parents in adolescence.

  2. The role of computer technology in radiosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikler, David; Coussaert, Olivier; Schoovaerts, Frédéric; Joly, Anthony; Levivier, Marc

    2007-01-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery treatment principles and irradiation techniques have shown little evolution since its introduction in 1968. Conversely, technology progress linked to computers has produced a major impact on the methods used for treatment planning and dose delivery. In order to fully comprehend modern radiosurgery approaches, one has to acquire good insight of the underlying technology, specifically computer software. In this chapter, we describe the evolution from X-ray films to high-resolution digital imaging, the shift from simple trigonometric calculation to highly complex algorithms and new perspectives in patient follow-up. If these changes open new prospects, they also add complexity, which leads to new pitfalls and limits of the stereotactic radiosurgery method.

  3. The role of mediation in resolving contract disputes

    OpenAIRE

    Christian, Michael C

    1997-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Mediation has emerged as a preferred ADR method among commercial organizations involved in contract disputes. However, its use by the Navy has been rare. Mediation has shown to provide benefits to its commercial users such as: improved business relations, time and cost savings, flexibility and adaptability and superior control over outcomes. This thesis provides information on mediation and examines the differences and similarities bet...

  4. Future Ready Learning: Reimagining the Role of Technology in Education. 2016 National Education Technology Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Susan

    2016-01-01

    The National Education Technology Plan is the flagship educational technology policy document for the United States. The 2016 Plan, "Future Ready Learning: Reimagining the Role of Technology in Education," articulates a vision of equity, active use, and collaborative leadership to make everywhere, all-the-time learning possible. While…

  5. Media violence and adolescents’ ADHD-related behaviors: The role of parental mediation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikkelen, Sanne W C; Vossen, H.G.M.; Piotrowski, J. T.; Valkenburg, Patti M.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the role of parental media mediation in the relationship between media violence and adolescents’ ADHD-related behaviors. Survey data from 1,017 adolescents (10–14 years) show that parents can play an important role in this relationship, depending on the media mediation strategies that

  6. Media violence and adolescents’ ADHD-related behaviors: The role of parental mediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikkelen, S.; Vossen, H.; Piotrowski, J.; Valkenburg, P.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the role of parental media mediation in the relationship between media violence and adolescents’ ADHD-related behaviors. Survey data from 1,017 adolescents (10–14 years) show that parents can play an important role in this relationship, depending on the media mediation strategies that

  7. Technology-Mediated Second Language Vocabulary Development: A Review of Trends in Research Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgort, Irina

    2018-01-01

    Technology-mediated vocabulary development (TMVD) in a second language (L2) covers a wide range of instructional and learning treatments, contexts, and technologies and is situated in a broader field of second language vocabulary learning. Vocabulary knowledge is a complex, multidimensional construct that has been interpreted and categorized in…

  8. Technology as Mediation Tool for Improving Teaching Profession in Higher Education Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinay-Gazi, Zehra; Altinay-Aksal, Fahriye

    2017-01-01

    Technology became a mediation tool for forming information and developing skills is teacher education programs of higher education institutions because technological tools can be used for self-reflection of prospective teachers' teaching performances. Practical implementation of teacher education programmes is a part of quality indicator in higher…

  9. Elementary Teachers’ Views about School Administrators’ Technology Leadership Roles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Sincar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to reveal the elementary school administrators’ technology leadership roles, according to elementary classroom and subject teachers’ perception, and to evaluate these roles. In this mixed method research both qualitative and quantitative methods were used. In order to determine whether elementary school principals’ technology leadership role differentiate in respect of the independent variables such as subjects, gender, experience years in teaching, and number of student, the parametric analyze technique was used. Qualitative data was analyzed with the content analysis technique. According to the opinion of classroom and subject teachers, the technology leadership roles of the elementary school administrators such as human-centered, vision, communication and cooperation were performed partially support role were determined to be performed enough. It was assured that findings obtained from quantitative research techniques were also supported by findings obtained from interviews which were the techniques of qualitative part. No significant differences between the views of subject teachers and classroom teachers were found about elementary school administrators’ technology leadership roles. The results revealed that there were statistically significant differences in terms of gender variable among the views of the classroom teachers, related to the role of the vision of the elementary school administrators; among the views of the branch teacher, on the role of communication and cooperation. In terms of student number of schools, no significant differences were found between the views of teachers about elementary school administrators’ role of technology leadership. However, there were significant differences among subject teachers’ views about elementary school administrators’ technology leadership roles considering roles in vision and humancentered components

  10. Social Experience in "World of Warcraft": Technological and Ideological Mediations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crenshaw, Nicole Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    As society shifts towards spending more time online for business and leisure, examining human behavior in virtual environments is crucial. To better understand the role that games play in our society, I analyze social experience in World of Warcraft (WoW), one of the longest running massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMO). Since its…

  11. Smallholders' Access to Agricultural Markets and Technology, Role ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Smallholders in Ethiopia are constrained in their access to markets, input and technology. This paper investigates the role of cooperatives and contracts in promoting smallholders' access to markets and technology with particular reference to smallholder dairy farmers. A rural household survey was administered for ...

  12. The Role of Technology in the Leadership Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanowski, Andrew P.

    2017-01-01

    This research examines the influence of technology on Leadership style and institutional culture. Past research on this topic has been of a qualitative nature in understanding the impact technology has made within the business setting. The available literature does not consider the role of the business Leader in this situation or address how a…

  13. The Multiple Roles of the Task Design Mediator in Telecollaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Carolin; Snyder, Bill; Tung, Bruce; Jung Han, Yu

    2017-01-01

    This case study explores how a Chinese-American novice teacher acted as mediator in a telecollaboration with student teacher (ST) peers in the USA who designed tasks for his English as a foreign language (EFL) learners in China. The novice teacher was instrumental in mediating the student teachers' task design process by providing feedback…

  14. THE ROLE OF THE PUBLIC SECTOR IN TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT: GENERALIZATIONS FROM GENERAL PURPOSE TECHNOLOGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Ruttan, Vernon W.

    2001-01-01

    In the new science and technology policy literature that emerged in the early 1980s it was held, while public support for science is appropriate, public support for technology development represents an unproductive use of public resources. The perspective that emerges in my recent book, Technology, Growth and Development: An Induced Innovation Perspective is quite different. Government has played an important role in technology development and transfer in almost every U.S. industry that has b...

  15. The Mediating Effect of MSMEs Export Performance between Technological Advancement Capabilities and Business Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Fawad Hussain; Mohammad Basir Bin Saud; Mohd Azwardi Md Isa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to empirically investigate the mediating impact of export performance (EP) between technological advancement capabilities and business performance (BP) of Malaysian manufacturing micro, small and medium sized enterprises (MSME's). Firm's technological advancement resources are hypothesized as a platform to enhance both exports and BP of manufacturing MSMEs in Malaysia. This study is twofold, primary it has investigated that technological advanceme...

  16. The role of cytokines as inflammatory mediators in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udenze, Ifeoma; Amadi, Casimir; Awolola, Nicholas; Makwe, Christian Chigozie

    2015-01-01

    This study is to determine the concentrations of IL-6, TNF α, and C reactive protein (CRP) in women with severe preeclampsia, and compare with those of gestational age- matched normotensive pregnant women and to correlate CRP levels with markers of organ damage in women with preeclampsia. This was a case control study of fifty women with severe preeclampsia and fifty gestational age matched pregnant women with normal blood pressure. The women were drawn from The Antenatal Clinic of The Lagos University Teaching Hospital. Severe pre eclampsia was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥ 160 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 110 mmHg and ≥ 2 + of proteinuria. After obtaining an informed consent, each participant completed a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire sought information on socio-demographic and clinical data. From each participant, mid-stream urine was collected for urinalysis and culture, and blood sample was collected for biochemical analysis. Comparisons of continuous variables and categorical variables were done using the Student's t test and Chi square test respectively. Correlation analysis was used to determine the associations between variables. Statistical significance was set at P. The women were similar in their socio demographic characteristics. There was a statistically significant difference in the systolic blood pressure (p preeclampsia and the group with normal blood pressure. This study also reports a significant association between CRP and systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, uric acid AST and ALP (p. The inflammatory cytokines, IL6, TNF α and CRP are elevated in severe preeclampsia and may mediate some of the clinical manifestations of the disorder. A role may exist for anti inflammatory agents in the management of women with preeclampsia.

  17. The Roles of Information Communication Technologies in Education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article discusses the Roles of ICT in education. Information communication technologies (ICT) at present are influencing every aspect of human life. They are playing salient roles in work places, business, education, and entertainment. Moreover, many people recognize ICTs as catalysts for change; change in working ...

  18. Technology Mediated Information Sharing (Monitor Sharing) in Primary Care Encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asan, Onur

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation study was to identify and describe the use of electronic health records (EHRs) for information sharing between patients and clinicians in primary-care encounters and to understand work system factors influencing information sharing. Ultimately, this will promote better design of EHR technologies and effective training…

  19. Developing Multiliteracies in a Technology-Mediated Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Natalie; Lockyer, Lori; Brown, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Evolving technologies and globalisation presents educators with the challenge of creating learning experiences to help students develop competencies to enable them to function successfully in a dynamic society. Today's learner is expected to be multiliterate--able to analyse and construct multi-modal texts. A qualitative embedded multi-case study…

  20. Exploring student engagement and transfer in technology mediated environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Suparna

    Exploring student engagement and transfer of mechanistic reasoning skills in computer-supported learning environments by SUPARNA SINHA Dissertation Director: Cindy Hmelo-Silver Computer-supported environments designed on learning science principles aim to provide a rich learning experience for students. Students are given opportunities to collaborate, model their understanding, have access to real-time data and engage in hypotheses testing to solve authentic problems. That is to say that affordances of technologies make it possible for students to engage in mechanistic reasoning, a complex inquiry-oriented practice (Machamer, Craver & Darden, 2000; Russ et al., 2008). However, we have limited understanding of the quality of engagement fostered in these contexts. This calls for close observations of the activity systems that the students participate in. The situative perspective focuses on analyzing interactions of individuals (students) with other people, tools and materials within activity systems (Greeno, 2006). Importantly, as the central goal of education is to provide learning experiences that are useful beyond the specific conditions of initial learning, analysis of such interactions sheds light on key experiences that lead to transfer of mechanistic reasoning skills. This is made possible, as computer-supported contexts are activity systems that bring forth trends in students' engagement. From a curriculum design perspective, observing student engagement can be a useful tool to identify features of interactions (with technological tools, peers, curriculum materials) that lead to successful learning. Therefore, the purpose of the present studies is to explore the extent to which technological affordances influence students' engagement and subsequent transfer of reasoning skills. Specifically, the goal of this research is to address the following research questions: How do learners generalize understanding of mechanistic reasoning in computer

  1. COUNTRY OF ORIGIN EFFECT ON ORGANIZATIONAL INNOVATION IN MALAYSIA: THE MEDIATING ROLE OF STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aizzat Mohd. Nasurdin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The two main objectives of this study are: first, to determine whether the level of innovation (technological and process, product and administrative varies by country of origin, and second, to investigate the influence of country of origin on organizational innovation (technological and process, product and administrative via the mediating role played by organizational structure (formalization and centralization, among firms operating in Malaysia. Statistical analyses of the 80 multinational corporations and 43 locally-owned firms and joint-ventures using ANOVA revealed that significant differences do exist in terms of their innovation levels. Firms from the West (American multinationals and European multinationals had higher levels of technological and process innovation compared to firms from the East (Eastern multinationals plus local companies and joint-ventures. Regarding product innovation, American multinationals were found to be more innovative compared to European multinationals and firms from the East (Eastern multinationals plus local firms and joint-ventures. In terms of administrative innovation, American multinationals were found to be most innovative followed by European multinationals, and lastly, firms from the East (Eastern multinationals plus local companies and joint-ventures. Additionally, country of origin had no indirect effect on the three forms of innovation via structure. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  2. Mediating Role of Activity Level in the Depressive Realism Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Fernando; Matute, Helena; A. Vadillo, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Several classic studies have concluded that the accuracy of identifying uncontrollable situations depends heavily on depressive mood. Nondepressed participants tend to exhibit an optimistic illusion of control, whereas depressed participants tend to better detect a lack of control. Recently, we suggested that the different activity levels (measured as the probability of responding during a contingency learning task) exhibited by depressed and nondepressed individuals is partly responsible for this effect. The two studies presented in this paper provide further support for this mediational hypothesis, in which mood is the distal cause of the illusion of control operating through activity level, the proximal cause. In Study 1, the probability of responding, P(R), was found to be a mediator variable between the depressive symptoms and the judgments of control. In Study 2, we intervened directly on the mediator variable: The P(R) for both depressed and nondepressed participants was manipulated through instructions. Our results confirm that P(R) manipulation produced differences in the participants’ perceptions of uncontrollability. Importantly, the intervention on the mediator variable cancelled the effect of the distal cause; the participants’ judgments of control were no longer mood dependent when the P(R) was manipulated. This result supports the hypothesis that the so-called depressive realism effect is actually mediated by the probability of responding. PMID:23029435

  3. TECHNOLOGIES AND PEDAGOGICAL MEDIATION IN DISTANCE HIGHER EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Geni Slomsk

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated of the limits and possibilities of the pedagogical use of technologies in distance higher education according to the perceptions of professors working um a regular accounting course. Qualitative-descriptive research was done, with data collected by means of an online questionnaire with open-questions and then analyzed by means of content analysis. The following benefits of Distance Higher Education, according to the professors, were found: “the access to higher education”, “flexibility of time and physical space”, “student´s self-discipline and self-learning”. As critical points, they mentioned “lack of an online educational background of professors and students” and the “difficulty promoting professor/student interaction”. As a challenge, the professors mentioned “dealing with the absence of a direct relationship professor/student”, that is, the “face-toface situation", which is common in a classroom; the use of strategies and resources that promote the exchange of experiences and interaction”, the “student´s profile”, “lack of student´s maturity”, “self-discipline”. Therefore, it is concluded that digital media are also regarded by professors as mere instructional tools, which a fact that makes a more critical understanding of technologies and the use of their full potential, especially as a way of cultural expression and production.

  4. EWOM and brand awareness impact on consumer purchase intention: Mediating role of brand image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Tariq

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The basic purpose of this research is to analyze the impact of electronic word of mouth (eWOM and brand awareness on customer purchase intention with the mediating role of brand image. The research is conducted to analyze the full or partial role of mediator on the said relationship. This research is basically conducted on customers of mobile users of Rawalpindi and Islamabad. To check this relationship a total of 300 questionnaires were floated in four universities of twin cities, of which 262 questionnaires with a response rate of 87.33% were received back on which mediation analysis has been performed. The results show full mediating impact of brand image on Electronic Word of Mouth (eWOM and customer purchase intention relationship, while partial mediating role of brand image on relationship of brand awareness and customer purchase intention has been observed. This research will help marketers in implementing better marketing techniques for boosting customers purchase intention.

  5. Training and performance: The mediating role of organizational learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Barba Aragón

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Although there is a general recognition in the literature that training improves a firm's performance, empirical research does not always provide evidence to support this effect. One possible explanation is that training does not have a direct effect on performance but an indirect effect by improving other organizational outcomes. This paper suggests that organizational learning is one of those variables and that it mediates the relationship between training and performance and that the adoption of a learning-oriented training enhances performances through its positive effect on organizational learning. Using a sample of Spanish firms we obtain empirical evidence, which supports the view that this mediating effect is present.

  6. Progress of cereal transformation technology mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiei, Yukoh; Ishida, Yuji; Komari, Toshihiko

    2014-01-01

    Monocotyledonous plants were believed to be not transformable by the soil bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens until two decades ago, although convenient protocols for infection of leaf disks and subsequent regeneration of transgenic plants had been well established in a number of dicotyledonous species by then. This belief was reinforced by the fact that monocotyledons are mostly outside the host range of crown gall disease caused by the bacterium and by the failures in trials in monocotyledons to mimic the transformation protocols for dicotyledons. However, a key reason for the failure could have been the lack of active cell divisions at the wound sites in monocotyledons. The complexity and narrow optimal windows of critical factors, such as genotypes of plants, conditions of the plants from which explants are prepared, tissue culture methods and culture media, pre-treatments of explants, strains of A. tumefaciens, inducers of virulence genes, transformation vectors, selection marker genes and selective agents, kept technical hurdles high. Eventually it was demonstrated that rice and maize could be transformed by co-cultivating cells of callus cultures or immature embryos, which are actively dividing or about to divide, with A. tumefaciens. Subsequently, these initial difficulties were resolved one by one by many research groups, and the major cereals are now transformed quite efficiently. As many as 15 independent transgenic events may be regenerated from a single piece of immature embryo of rice. Maize transformation protocols are well established, and almost all transgenic events deregulated for commercialization after 2003 were generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Wheat, barley, and sorghum are also among those plants that can be efficiently transformed by A. tumefaciens.

  7. Progress of cereal transformation technology mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiei, Yukoh; Ishida, Yuji; Komari, Toshihiko

    2014-01-01

    Monocotyledonous plants were believed to be not transformable by the soil bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens until two decades ago, although convenient protocols for infection of leaf disks and subsequent regeneration of transgenic plants had been well established in a number of dicotyledonous species by then. This belief was reinforced by the fact that monocotyledons are mostly outside the host range of crown gall disease caused by the bacterium and by the failures in trials in monocotyledons to mimic the transformation protocols for dicotyledons. However, a key reason for the failure could have been the lack of active cell divisions at the wound sites in monocotyledons. The complexity and narrow optimal windows of critical factors, such as genotypes of plants, conditions of the plants from which explants are prepared, tissue culture methods and culture media, pre-treatments of explants, strains of A. tumefaciens, inducers of virulence genes, transformation vectors, selection marker genes and selective agents, kept technical hurdles high. Eventually it was demonstrated that rice and maize could be transformed by co-cultivating cells of callus cultures or immature embryos, which are actively dividing or about to divide, with A. tumefaciens. Subsequently, these initial difficulties were resolved one by one by many research groups, and the major cereals are now transformed quite efficiently. As many as 15 independent transgenic events may be regenerated from a single piece of immature embryo of rice. Maize transformation protocols are well established, and almost all transgenic events deregulated for commercialization after 2003 were generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Wheat, barley, and sorghum are also among those plants that can be efficiently transformed by A. tumefaciens. PMID:25426132

  8. The Role of Artificial Intelligence Technologies in Crisis Response

    OpenAIRE

    Khalil, Khaled M.; Abdel-Aziz, M.; Nazmy, Taymour T.; Salem, Abdel-Badeeh M.

    2008-01-01

    Crisis response poses many of the most difficult information technology in crisis management. It requires information and communication-intensive efforts, utilized for reducing uncertainty, calculating and comparing costs and benefits, and managing resources in a fashion beyond those regularly available to handle routine problems. In this paper, we explore the benefits of artificial intelligence technologies in crisis response. This paper discusses the role of artificial intelligence technolo...

  9. The evolving role of information technology in internal auditing

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    M.Com. (Computer Auditing) Modern organizations are increasingly dependent on information technology (IT) for various reasons: to enhance their operational efficiency, reduce costs or even attain a competitive advantage. The role of information technology in the organization continues to evolve and this has an impact for the internal audit functions that serve these organizations. The study investigated whether the King III report, ISACA standards and IIA standards assist the internal audi...

  10. Transforming Environmental Knowledge into Behavior: The Mediating Role of Environmental Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmi, Nurit; Arnon, Sara; Orion, Nir

    2015-01-01

    The present study was based on the premise that environmental knowledge can drive environmental behavior only if it arouses environmental emotions. Using a structural equations modeling approach, we tested the direct, as well as the indirect (mediated) effects of knowledge on behavior and assessed the mediating role of environmental emotions. We…

  11. Information Exchange and Information Disclosure in Social Networking Web Sites: Mediating Role of Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mital, Monika; Israel, D.; Agarwal, Shailja

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the mediating effect of trust on the relationship between the type of information exchange (IE) and information disclosure (ID) on social networking web sites (SNWs). Design/methodology/approach: Constructs were developed for type of IE and trust. To understand the mediating role of trust a…

  12. The role of mediation institutions in Sweden and Denmark after centralized bargaining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Christian Lyhne

    2016-01-01

    not explain the internal stability of bargaining coordination once established. This analysis stresses the role of mediation institutions of both countries for solving collective action problems in pattern bargaining by pegging other settlements to the manufacturing labour cost norm. Mediation capabilities...

  13. Evolving technologies drive the new roles of Biomedical Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, P H; St Germain, J; Lui, W

    2008-01-01

    Rapidly changing technology coupled with the financial impact of organized health care, has required hospital Biomedical Engineering organizations to augment their traditional operational and business models to increase their role in developing enhanced clinical applications utilizing new and evolving technologies. The deployment of these technology based applications has required Biomedical Engineering organizations to re-organize to optimize the manner in which they provide and manage services. Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center has implemented a strategy to explore evolving technologies integrating them into enhanced clinical applications while optimally utilizing the expertise of the traditional Biomedical Engineering component (Clinical Engineering) to provide expanded support in technology / equipment management, device repair, preventive maintenance and integration with legacy clinical systems. Specifically, Biomedical Engineering is an integral component of the Medical Physics Department which provides comprehensive and integrated support to the Center in advanced physical, technical and engineering technology. This organizational structure emphasizes the integration and collaboration between a spectrum of technical expertise for clinical support and equipment management roles. The high cost of clinical equipment purchases coupled with the increasing cost of service has driven equipment management responsibilities to include significant business and financial aspects to provide a cost effective service model. This case study details the dynamics of these expanded roles, future initiatives and benefits for Biomedical Engineering and Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center.

  14. [The Relationship Between Marital Adjustment and Psychological Symptoms in Women: The Mediator Roles of Coping Strategies and Gender Role Attitudes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, Özge; Dağ, İhsan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study were to investigate the mediator role of coping strategies and gender roles attitudes on the relationship between women's marital adjustment and psychological symptoms. 248 married women participated in the study. Participants completed Marital Adjustment Scale, Ways of Coping Questionnaire, Brief Symptom Inventory, Gender Role Attitudes Scale and Demographic Information Form. Regression analyses revealed that Submissive (Sobel z= -2.47, prole on the relationship between marital relationship score and psychological symptom level. Also, having Egalitarian Gender Role Attitude effects the psychological symptoms in relation with the marital relationship, but it is seen that this effect is not higher enough to play a mediator role (Sobel z =-1.21, p>.05). Regression analysis showed that there is a statistically significant correlation between women's marital adjustment and their psychological symptoms, indicating that the marital adjustment decreases as the psychological symptoms increases. It is also found out that submissive and helpless coping approach have mediator roles in this relationship. Also, contrary to expectations, having egalitarian gender role attitude effects the psychological symptoms in relation with the marital relationship, but this effect does not seem to play a mediator role. It is thought that the effects of marriage and couple therapy approaches considering couples’s problem solving and coping styles should be examined in further studies.

  15. Teacher Stress: The Mediating Role of Collective Efficacy Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    The aims of the study were to (a) examine the factor structure of measures of teachers' collective efficacy (TCE), job stress, and job satisfaction, and (b) explore the mediating effect of collective efficacy on the relationship between job stress and job satisfaction. The sample consisted of 951 teachers from elementary and secondary schools in…

  16. Training Transfer: The Mediating Role of Perception of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velada, Raquel; Caetano, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to analyse the mediating effects of perception of learning between occupational satisfaction, affective reactions, utility reactions and perceived training transfer. Design/methodology/approach: The participants in the study were 185 Portuguese teachers who attended a professional training programme.…

  17. Gratitude and Drug Misuse: Role of Coping as Mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Chi-Ching; Tong, Eddie M W

    2017-12-06

    Positive emotions, such as gratitude has been found to be beneficial to both physical and mental well-being but so far, drug misuse research has yet to identify important emotive predictors related to drug use. This study aimed to examine the relationship between gratitude and drug use among a group of drug misusers. It was hypothesized that greater dispositional gratitude was associated with lesser drug use through greater use of adaptive coping methods and lesser use of maladaptive coping methods. This study utilized a cross-sectional design to examine the relationship between gratitude, coping, and drug use among a sample of drug misusers (N = 105) at a drug rehabilitation center. Participants completed the gratitude questionnaire (GQ-6), the joy subscale of the Dispositional Positive Emotion Scale (DPES), the Brief COPE, and a questionnaire on their drug use. Data were collected in 2015. Mediation analysis supported the hypothesis and found that adaptive coping mediated the relationship between gratitude and drug use. However, mediation was not found for maladaptive coping. Additional analysis found that adaptive coping as a mediator was not found for joy. Results suggested that gratitude has utility in reducing drug use through the use of more adaptive coping strategies and this relationship was not simply due to positive affect. Interventions targeting drug use behavior could consider introducing gratitude to increase adaptive coping abilities to reduce drug use.

  18. Grandma's Games Project: Bridging Tradition and Technology Mediated Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Vasileva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a project entitled "Grandma’s games", following a research idea to enrich the educational process of K9 students by introducing the traditional children games of our ancestors in the learning environment, revived and adapted for modern students with the aid of information and communication technology. While creating a strong connection between our heritage and the modern educational trends, the project’s intention goes beyond mere fulfilment of educational goals, striving to increase the interest and motivation of primary education students to develop their creativity and originality while learning, with respect of their own personal preferences and cultural heritage. The "Grandma’s games" research project engaged twelve traditional games in the educational activities at primary schools from both rural and non-rural environments in Republic of Macedonia. Descriptive statistics was applied on the data set sampled from the extensive survey conducted among teachers in these schools, to illustrate the benefits from the application of the Grandma’s games in educational process.

  19. Relationship of submissive behavior and cyberbullying/cybervictimization: The mediation role of gender

    OpenAIRE

    Adem Peker; Yüksel Eroğlu; Nihan Çitemel

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the mediating role of gender in relationship between submissive behavior and cyber bullying/cyber victimization. The sample included 193 female and 137 male. Data were obtained using Submissive Behavior Scale and Revized Cyberbullying Inventory and analyzed by SPSS 11.5. Hierarchical regression was used to explore the mediating role of gender in relationship between submissive behavior and cyber bullying/cyber victimization. According to result...

  20. Utilizing Computer Mediated Technology in the Basic Communication Course: "Organizational Implications."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, J. Derek

    A basic public speaking/communication course at the University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point, a general degree requirement, is using computer mediated technologies to make the class more innovative and applicable. The basic course should provide experiential knowledge of the fundamentals of delivering an effective presentation, and, in a more general…

  1. The Chronotopes of Technology-Mediated Creative Learning Practices in an Elementary School Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpulainen, Kristiina; Mikkola, Anna; Jaatinen, Anna-Mari

    2014-01-01

    This socioculturally informed study examines space-time configurations of students' technology-mediated creative learning practices in a Finnish elementary school over a school musical project. This study focuses on the social practices of 21 students who worked with personal laptops, wireless internet access, and a collaborative writing service,…

  2. Exploring How Technology Mediates the Types of Relationships Formed in Sociotechnical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Kar-Hai

    2012-01-01

    This work presents an exploratory study of how technology mediates the different types of relationships that are formed in sociotechnical systems. More people each day are connecting with each other through social networks, online communities, and other forms of virtual environments. Whether for education, information seeking, friendship,…

  3. Between Assessments, Digital Technologies and Big Data: The Growing Influence of "Hidden" Data Mediators in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartong, Sigrid

    2016-01-01

    The past few decades have witnessed a global enforcement of "governance by data" in education policy, including a significant increase of assessments and quantified evaluation. Within this context, this article focuses particularly on the intensifying evolvement of new (digital) information technologies and "mediated"…

  4. Technology or Process First? A Call for Mediation Between ESM and BPM Approaches in Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siurdyban, Artur; Svejvig, Per; Møller, Charles

    2011-01-01

    in infrastructure implementation projects. The purpose of this paper is articulate a need and a direction to mediate between the process-driven and the technology-driven approaches. Using a cross-case analysis, we gain insight into two examples of systems and process implementation. We highlight the dierences...

  5. Technology Mediated Instruction and its Effect on Cognitive Scaffolding, motivation and Academic Performance in EFL Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Berenji

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Technology mediated learning brings together the users with shared interests. This method makes learners informally engaged in language learning. This study intended to investigate the effect of technology mediated instruction on cognitive scaffolding, academic performance and motivation. Employing a quasi-experimental research, 80 learners from two intact classes at Islamic Azad University, Osku Branch were selected as the experimental and control groups. Telegram as a tool was used in the experimental group, while the control group received traditional way of instruction. Critical ethnography approach was implemented to consider the amount of cognitive scaffolding. To measure the students’ motivational level in both groups, Course Interest Survey (CIS was administered at the end of the semester. The total average score for each group was calculated. To compare students’ academic achievement, their average scores in the final academic test were considered. An Independent samples t-test in was used to compare the mean scores. The results indicated that technology mediated learning brought about cognitive scaffolding and the students in the experimental group outperformed the control group in terms of motivation and academic achievement. The results of the study suggest that to bring about academically successful students, practitioners should use technology mediated instruction.

  6. Emerging roles of protein kinases in microglia-mediated neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun-Hwa; Suk, Kyoungho

    2017-12-15

    Neuroinflammation is mediated by resident central nervous system glia, neurons, peripherally derived immune cells, blood-brain barrier, and inflammatory mediators secreted from these cells. Neuroinflammation has been implicated in stroke and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Protein kinases have been one of the most exploited therapeutic targets in the current pharmacological research, especially in studies on cancer and inflammation. To date, 32 small-molecule protein kinase inhibitors have been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of cancer and inflammation. However, there is no drug effectively targeting neuroinflammation and/or neurodegenerative diseases. Recent studies have advanced several protein kinases as important drug targets in neuroinflammation and/or neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we review emerging protein kinases potentially involved in neuroinflammation and subsequent neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Potential Role of Artificial Intelligence Technology in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Abdel-Badeeh M.

    The field of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Education has traditionally a technology-based focus, looking at the ways in which AI can be used in building intelligent educational software. In addition AI can also provide an excellent methodology for learning and reasoning from the human experiences. This paper presents the potential role of AI in…

  8. Media Technologies and Their Role in the Information Warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Владимир Александрович Федоров

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the new role of the mass media in the modern information space, the basic techniques and technologies of focused preparation, semantic distortion and emotional coloring of the transmitted information. The value of the mass media is estimated as the main weapon of the information warfare in the modern geopolitical space. Specific examples and techniques for manipulating information.

  9. Information Technology and Firm Performance : The Role of Innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zand, F.

    2011-01-01

    There is an essential quest in the literature to open up the “black box” of Information Technology (IT) by identifying and explaining how and why IT creates value for the firm. The present dissertation is an attempt to clarify the role of innovation in the process of value creation from IT

  10. The Role of Nonprofits in Educational Technology Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, Andrew A.

    2009-01-01

    For decades, nonprofit organizations have played a vital role in educational technology innovation. "Sesame Street," online high schools, probeware for science and mathematics teaching and learning, and many other innovations now widely used both in and outside schools were developed by nonprofits, including not only universities but also…

  11. The Role of Education in Technology Transfer and Poverty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The variations in the extent of its severity across countries depend on many economic and social variables prominent among which is the educational structure, which often determine people's vulnerability to poverty. This paper therefore reports on the role of education in technology transfer and highlights strategic options ...

  12. Technology adoption and food security: the role of the Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The focus of this paper is on the potential role of the Nigerian Agricultural Insurance Scheme (NAIS) in protecting the farmer from the plethora of risks associated with the transfer and introduction of modern technologies. The scheme can improve farmers' access to credit when the insurance contract is used as collateral for ...

  13. The fostering role of information technology on SMEs' strategic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scholarly concerns about the fostering role of information technology (IT) in supply chain management have increased dramatically over the past decades. Nevertheless, there are significant issues yet to be addressed and resolved, one of which relates to the influences of IT on strategic purchasing, logistics integration and ...

  14. The role of research in the diffusion of wind technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirazzi, L.

    2009-01-01

    This last year for the first time in Europe the stunning global growth of wind technology has made wind energy to rank highest in diffusion among all energy sources. The role of research remains critical to achieve ever more ambitions E U goals. [it

  15. Different Perspectives on Technology Acceptance: The Role of Technology Type and Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arning, Katrin; Ziefle, Martina

    Although eHealth technologies offer an enormous potential to improve healthcare, the knowledge about key determinants of acceptance for eHealth technology is restricted. While the underlying technology of eHealth technologies and Information and Communication technology (ICT) is quite similar, utilization contexts and using motives are quite different. In order to explore the role of technology type on acceptance, we contrasted central application characteristics of both technology types using the scenario technique. A questionnaire was administered (n = 104) measuring individual variables (age, gender) and attitudes regarding an eHealth application (blood sugar meter) in contrast to an ICT device (Personal Digital Assistant, PDA). Older users basically approved the utilization of health-related technologies and perceived lower usability barriers. In addition, we identified main utilization motives of eHealth technology and technology-specific acceptance patterns, especially regarding issues of data safety in the eHealth context. Effects of age and gender in acceptance ratings suggest a differential perspective on eHealth acceptance. Finally, practical interventions were derived in order to support eHealth device design and to promote acceptance of eHealth technology.

  16. The role of transportation technologies in reducing greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-11-01

    The potential role of passenger transportation technologies in reducing greenhouse gas emissions was discussed. The technologies considered in the report were those that affect ground transportation of passengers and were in at least the early stages of development in 1995. They were: (1) technologies to improve the fuel efficiency of cars and light trucks, (2) alternative fuels for internal combustion engines, (3) electric hybrid vehicles, (4) advanced technology transit buses, (5) intelligent transportation systems, (6) high speed rail, and (7) bicycles. For each option, the advantages and disadvantages were described. The feasibility of establishing a high-speed rail system serving Canada's most densely populated region, the Windsor to Quebec City corridor, was discussed. Economic and environmental studies of such a proposal are underway. tabs

  17. The role of geo-based technology in place experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tussyadiah, Iis; Zach, F.J.

    2012-01-01

    Today, as various context-aware technologies have become increasingly ubiquitous, tourists have access to retrieve voluminous geographic information about tourism destinations. These technologies are suggested to aid tourists in gaining meaningful experiences with places. This study identifies how...... the use of geo-based technology plays a role in the acquisition of geographic knowledge and behavior. It is identified that the use of geo-based technology while traveling contributes to the different components that frame the structure of tourism experience. Further, this study also confirms that tourism...... experience can be seen as a part of the everyday experience as geographic behavior exhibited on a day-to-day basis is found to have an effect on tourism experience....

  18. Attachment and prejudice: The mediating role of empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boag, Elle M; Carnelley, Katherine B

    2016-06-01

    In two studies, we examined the novel hypothesis that empathy is a mechanism through which the relationship between attachment patterns and prejudice can be explained. Study 1 examined primed attachment security (vs. neutral prime), empathy, and prejudice towards immigrants. Study 2 examined primed attachment patterns (secure, avoidant, anxious), empathy subscales (perspective taking, empathic concern, personal distress), and prejudice towards Muslims. Across both studies, empathy mediated the relationship between primed attachment security and low prejudice levels. The findings suggest that enhancing felt security and empathic skills in individuals high in attachment-avoidance may lead to reduced prejudice. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  19. The Benefits of Social Technology Use Among Older Adults Are Mediated by Reduced Loneliness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopik, William J

    2016-09-01

    Technology has the ability to enhance and enrich the lives of older adults by facilitating better interpersonal relationships. However, few studies have directly examined associations between technology use for social reasons and physical and psychological health among older adults. The current study examines the benefits of technology use in 591 older adults from the 2012 wave of the Health and Retirement Study (Mage = 68.18, SD = 10.75; 55.5% female). Social technology use was assessed through five technology-based behaviors (i.e., using e-mail, social networking sites, online video/phone calls, online chatting/instant messaging, using a smartphone). Attitudes toward the usability and benefits of technology use were also assessed. Older adults had generally positive attitudes toward technology. Higher social technology use was associated with better self-rated health, fewer chronic illnesses, higher subjective well-being, and fewer depressive symptoms. Furthermore, each of the links between social technology use and physical and psychological health was mediated by reduced loneliness. Close relationships are a large determinant of physical health and well-being, and technology has the potential to cultivate successful relationships among older adults.

  20. Role of Inflammation and Oxidative Stress Mediators in Gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Conti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Gliomas are the most common primary brain tumors of the central nervous system. Despite relevant progress in conventional treatments, the prognosis of such tumors remains almost invariably dismal. The genesis of gliomas is a complex, multistep process that includes cellular neoplastic transformation, resistance to apoptosis, loss of control of the cell cycle, angiogenesis, and the acquisition of invasive properties. Among a number of different biomolecular events, the existence of molecular connections between inflammation and oxidative stress pathways and the development of this cancer has been demonstrated. In particular, the tumor microenvironment, which is largely orchestrated by inflammatory molecules, is an indispensable participant in the neoplastic process, promoting proliferation, survival and migration of such tumors. Proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1beta, and interferon-gamma, as well as chemokines and prostaglandins, are synthesized by resident brain cells and lymphocytes invading the affected brain tissue. Key mediators of cancer progression include nuclear factor-kappaB, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, and specific microRNAs. The collective activity of these mediators is largely responsible for a pro-tumorigenic response through changes in cell proliferation, cell death, cellular senescence, DNA mutation rates, DNA methylation and angiogenesis. We provide a general overview of the connection between specific inflammation and oxidative stress pathway molecules and gliomas. The elucidation of specific effects and interactions of these factors may provide the opportunity for the identification of new target molecules leading to improved diagnosis and treatment.

  1. The Role of Metacognition in Pathological Gambling: A Mediation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansueto, Giovanni; Pennelli, Michele; De Palo, Valeria; Monacis, Lucia; Sinatra, Maria; De Caro, Maria Fara

    2016-03-01

    Pathological gambling involves multitudinous costs related to financial, legal, and public health care aspects, as well as to specific psychological disorders. Despite the overall evidence suggesting that comorbid disorders represent a risk factor for pathological gambling, there is scant evidence on the appropriate treatments for gamblers with such disorders. In this context, metacognitive therapy is an interesting approach because it considers psychological disorders as a result of the activation of perseverative cognitive processes and attentional strategies in response to inner events. Several studies report that metacognition is associated with different psychological problems. This study investigated the relationship among comorbid disorders, metacognition, and pathological gambling. 69 pathological gamblers at the first hospital admission and 58 controls drawn from general population (matched for age, gender, education) completed a battery of self report instruments: Symptom Checklist-90-R, Metacognition Questionnaire 30, South Oaks Gambling Scale. Compared to controls, pathological gamblers showed higher level of comorbid symptomatology and metacognition. Correlation analyses showed that: comorbid symptomatology and metacognition were positively and significantly correlated with pathological gambling; metacognition was positively and significantly associated with comorbid symptomatology. Mediation analysis indicated that dysfunctional metacognitive strategies could have an indirect effect on pathological gambling mediated by concurrent psychological disorders. These findings provide some implications for gambling treatment programs: pathological gamblers should be screened for psychiatric disorders, and metacognitive therapy could be considered a correct treatment of pathological gamblers. Metacognitive therapy might lead to the reduction of the pathological gambling by the diminishing of the concurrent psychological disorders.

  2. Coping with Anxiety, Depression, Anger and Aggression: The Mediational Role of Resilience in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Reuben; Ang, Rebecca P.; Ho, Moon-Ho Ringo

    2012-01-01

    Background: The New Freedom Commission on Mental Health urged that mental health services be transformed from a reactive approach of treatment to a proactive one of prevention and building resilience. In response, the present study delineates the role of resilience in reducing psychopathology. Objective: The study examined the mediational role of…

  3. Transformational Leadership and Knowledge Sharing: Mediating Roles of Employee's Empowerment, Commitment, and Citizenship Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seung Hyun; Seo, Gaeun; Yoon, Seung Won; Yoon, Dong-Yeol

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine the fundamental process through which transformational leaders play a significant role in employees' knowledge sharing by investigating mediating roles of individual affects, particularly psychological empowerment, organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB).…

  4. The role of computer simulation in nuclear technologies development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tikhonchev, M.Yu.; Shimansky, G.A.; Lebedeva, E.E.; Lichadeev, V. V.; Ryazanov, D.K.; Tellin, A.I.

    2001-01-01

    In the report the role and purposes of computer simulation in nuclear technologies development is discussed. The authors consider such applications of computer simulation as nuclear safety researches, optimization of technical and economic parameters of acting nuclear plant, planning and support of reactor experiments, research and design new devices and technologies, design and development of 'simulators' for operating personnel training. Among marked applications the following aspects of computer simulation are discussed in the report: neutron-physical, thermal and hydrodynamics models, simulation of isotope structure change and damage dose accumulation for materials under irradiation, simulation of reactor control structures. (authors)

  5. The mediating role of mental toughness in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, A R; Perry, J L; Jones, L; Sanctuary, C; Carson, F; Clough, P J

    2015-01-01

    We conducted two studies that examined different models, which included mental toughness and psychological constructs that are thought to be related to this construct. In Study 1, 531 athletes completed measures of mental toughness, resilience, and emotional intelligence. In Study 2, 522 athletes completed measures of mental toughness, sport motivation, and self-efficacy. There were positive paths between the constructs in the model, which were mediated by mental toughness in Study 1. Further, there was a positive path between mental toughness and self-efficacy, but negative paths with introjected regulation and amotivation in Study 2. This two study paper suggests that it might also be the presence of constructs such as resilience, emotional intelligence, motivation, and/or self-efficacy that enable mentally tough individuals to excel under stressful circumstances rather than just coping.

  6. The Mediating Role of Absorptive Capacity in Knowledge Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adisa, Femi; Rose, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge transfer between consultants and organizational users influences the outcomes of an Enterprise Resource System (ERP) implementation. Configuration and implementation tasks are dependent on generating some level of shared understanding of both business practices and technology. These pro......-existing related knowledge and consequent difficulties in developing a shared understanding, and by a tendency to operate with lone consultants and lone organizational representatives.......Knowledge transfer between consultants and organizational users influences the outcomes of an Enterprise Resource System (ERP) implementation. Configuration and implementation tasks are dependent on generating some level of shared understanding of both business practices and technology....... These problems become acute in implementations in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). SMEs often operate with non-standard business processes, making an effective interchange of process knowledge between consultants and end-users crucial. Using a multiple case study method and content analysis...

  7. Role of arterial baroreceptors in mediating cardiovascular response to exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcritchie, R. J.; Vatner, S. F.; Patrick, T. A.; Braunwald, E.; Boettcher, D.; Heyndrickx, G. R.

    1976-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to define the role of the major arterial baroreceptors during moderately severe exercise by comparing the responses of untethered conscious dogs instrumented for the measurement of aortic pressure and cardiac output with those of dogs with total arterial baroreceptor denervation. The reflex heart rate responses to intravenous bolus doses of methoxamine were also examined in intact animals, both at rest and during exercise. Methoxamine is found to cause striking bradycardia at rest, but little bradycardia during exercise. Experimental findings suggest that the arterial baroreceptor reflex is normally inhibited during severe exercise and therefore plays little role in modulating the cardiovascular response to exercise.

  8. The role of a technology demonstration program for future reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viktorov, A.

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive technology demonstration program is seen as an important component of the overall safety case, especially for a novel technology. The objective of such a program is defined as providing objective and auditable evidence that the technology will meet or exceed the relevant requirements. Various aspects of such a program are identified and then discussed in some details in this presentation. We will show how the need for such a program is anchored in fundamental safety principles. Attributes of the program, means of achieving its objective, roles of participants, as well as key steps are all elaborated. It will be argued that to prove a novel technology, the designer will have to combine several activities such as the use of operational experience, prototyping of the technology elements, conduct of experiments and tests under representative conditions, as well as modeling and analysis. Importance of availability of experimental facilities and qualified scientific and technical staff is emphasized. A solid technology demonstration program will facilitate and speed up regulatory evaluations of licensing applications. (author)

  9. The Information and Communication Technology User Role: Implications for the Work Role and Inter-Role Spillover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piszczek, Matthew M; Pichler, Shaun; Turel, Ofir; Greenhaus, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Management and organization research has traditionally focused on employees' work role and the interface between their work and family roles. We suggest that persons assume a third role in modern society that is relevant to work and organizations, namely the Information and Communication Technology User (ICTU) role. Based on role theory and boundary theory, we develop propositions about the characteristics of this role, as well as how ICTU role characteristics are related to boundary spanning activity, inter-role spillover with the work role, and work role performance. To this end, we first conceptualize the ICTU role and its associations with work and family roles. We then apply identity theory and boundary management theory to advance our understanding of how the ICTU role is related to criteria that are important to individuals and to organizations, namely self-selection into certain types of work roles and positive and negative inter-role spillover. The implications of this role for theory, research, and practice in management and organizations are discussed.

  10. Oxidative-stress-mediated teratogenesis and the role of folate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, Y.H.; Bergman, J.; Bakker, M.; Groen, H.; Wilffert, B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Oxidative stress (OS) is one of the underlying teratogenic mechanisms of medical drugs. Folate is indirectly involved in OS because of its role in the methylation steps in the detoxification of xenobiotics and in the repair of OS-induced DNA damage. Our study was to explore the

  11. Mediators of the association between depression and role functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buist-Bouwman, M. A.; Ormel, J.; de Graaf, R.; de Jonge, P.; van Sonderen, E.; Alonso, J.; Bruffaerts, R.; Vollebergh, W. A. M.

    2008-01-01

    While the adverse effect of Major Depressive Episode on role functioning is well established, the exact pathways remain unclear. Data from The European Study of the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders, a cross-sectional survey including 21 425 adults from six European countries, were used to assess

  12. Sociopolitical analysis of the role of mediating of international organizations in conflicts at Burundi and Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Cesar Cunha Leite

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to discuss the effectiveness of the mediator role of the United Nations and the African Union on conflict resolution in the cases of Burundi and Uganda. The argument is that this mediating role influenced considerably in the negotiations since it realized a ceasefire in hostilities between the warring parties and the establishment of more significant agreements on pending issues. For this discussion, we attempted to describe the processes of successful mediation in recent decades in Africa, based on the cases as mentioned above, whose similar methods of resolution could achieve positive results. Finally, we evaluated the effectiveness of UN mediator in the field of maintenance and promotion of peace, emphasizing their strategies on reducing violence on the ground and in the protection of civilians.

  13. Balancing participation and risks in children's Internet use: the role of internet literacy and parental mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sook-Jung; Chae, Young-Gil

    2012-05-01

    This study analyzed the survey data from 566 Korean children between the ages of 10 and 15 to examine the role of Internet literacy and parental mediation in solving the dilemma of children's Internet use. According to the findings, children's online participation was associated with increased exposure to online risks. The association was moderated by Internet skills and parental restrictive mediation; that is, for children with a high level of Internet skills and for children who received more restrictive mediation, the positive association between online participation and online risks weakened, but was still significant. The limited roles of Internet skills and parental restrictive mediation in children's Internet use were discussed in the context of media education.

  14. Authentic leadership and organizational commitment: the mediating role of positive psychological capital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rego, P.; Pereira Lopes, M.; Nascimento, J.

    2016-07-01

    Purpose: This study analyzes the mediating role of positive psychological capital in the relationship between authentic leadership and organizational commitment. Design/methodology/approach: This quantitative study presents a model in which were considered as variables mediating the relationship between authentic leadership and organizational commitment, the four dimensions of positive psychological capital (optimism, resilience, self-efficacy, hope). Findings: The results showed that positive psychological capital mediates the relationship between authentic leadership and organizational commitment. However, they also indicate that this mediation is only made for three of the four dimensions of positive psychological capital (self-efficacy, hope and optimism). They also show that resilience negatively affects organizational commitment. Originality/value: The value of this study is to strengthen the interest in the study of positive psychological capital as a mediating variable and the importance of development that each of its dimensions and the impact they may have on other variables, as demonstrated by the results. (Author)

  15. The Role of Technology as an Enabler in Job Redesign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Savino

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an acknowledgement of the role of technology as an enabler that encourages the constant need to evaluate, update and employ changing job descriptions and business processes that truly acknowledge job requirements as they are versus notions of what they have been or should be. Advancements in technology have brought about a significant amount of change in terms of how we go about doing our daily work. The evolution from being a manufacturing economy to being information and service based brought to the workplace new realities and responsibilities. As a result, workers can no longer expect to be given a specific listing of assigned duties and tasks that remain fixed over a long period of time. The new paradigm in the workplace relies on continuous demands for improvement and acquired knowledge in a dynamic environment. The catalyst that enables continuous improvement is technology.

  16. Enhancing technological innovation in small firms: Role of collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, D.; Khamba, J. S.; Nanda, T.

    2014-07-01

    Contribution of Micro-Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) is highly remarkable in the overall industrial economy of the country. In recent years, the MSME sector has consistently registered higher growth rate compared to the overall industrial sector. With its agility and dynamism, the sector has shown admirable innovativeness and adaptability to survive the recent economic downturn and recession. However, MSMEs growth rate is still at low level. Therefore, it becomes essential for organizations to adopt new technologies or upgrade existing setup to meet continuously changing global market and fulfill customer needs. This paper explores the relationships between different collaboration networks and technological innovation of small firms through an extensive review of literature. The study finds that collaboration with larger enterprises, R&D institutions, universities and government agencies play a significant role in enhancing technological innovation in small firms.

  17. Enhancing technological innovation in small firms: Role of collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, D; Khamba, J S; Nanda, T

    2014-01-01

    Contribution of Micro-Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) is highly remarkable in the overall industrial economy of the country. In recent years, the MSME sector has consistently registered higher growth rate compared to the overall industrial sector. With its agility and dynamism, the sector has shown admirable innovativeness and adaptability to survive the recent economic downturn and recession. However, MSMEs growth rate is still at low level. Therefore, it becomes essential for organizations to adopt new technologies or upgrade existing setup to meet continuously changing global market and fulfill customer needs. This paper explores the relationships between different collaboration networks and technological innovation of small firms through an extensive review of literature. The study finds that collaboration with larger enterprises, R and D institutions, universities and government agencies play a significant role in enhancing technological innovation in small firms

  18. Mediating Role of Knowledge Management in Effect of Management Accounting Practices on Firm Performance

    OpenAIRE

    David Han-Min Wang; Quang Linh Huynh

    2013-01-01

    While adopting knowledge management can improve firm performance, it is determined by implementing level of management accounting practices. Furthermore, it plays mediating role in the relationship between implementing management accounting practices and firm performance. This paper employs path analysis to investigate causal relationships among the variables. Then it uses procedures suggested by Sobel (1982) to examine the mediation of adopting knowledge management. Moreover, this paper util...

  19. Video game addiction, engagement and symptoms of stress, depression and anxiety: The mediating role of coping.

    OpenAIRE

    Loton, D.; Borkoles, Erika; Lubman, D.; Polman, Remco C.J.

    2016-01-01

    A number of studies have reported a co-occurrence between video game addiction and poorer mental health, but few have contextualised this relationship by identifying mediating variables. Further, there remains uncertainty in how to differentiate high engagement from what may be termed addiction in the context of video gaming. This study examined the mediating role of coping between one measure of video game addiction and engagement, and mental health. An international sample of 552 adult part...

  20. The Role of Modular Robotics in Mediating Nonverbal Social Exchanges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marti, P; Giusti, L; Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2009-01-01

    in interacting with dementia-affected patients. The RPs are semitransparent plastic tubes that are capable of measuring their orientation and the speed of their rotation; at a local level, they have three types of feedback: red, green, and blue light, sound, and vibration. The peculiarity of the RPs...... is that they are able to communicate with each other or with other devices equipped with the same radio communication technology. The RPs are usually used in pairs, as the local feedback of an RP can be set depending not only on its own speed and orientation but also on the speed and the orientation of the peer RP...

  1. The Big Five Personality Traits and French Firefighter Burnout: The Mediating Role of Achievement Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaulerin, Jérôme; Colson, Serge S; Emile, Mélanie; Scoffier-Mériaux, Stéphanie; d'Arripe-Longueville, Fabienne

    2016-04-01

    We investigated the associations between the Big Five personality traits and occupational burnout in firefighters and the mediating role of achievement goals in this relationship. Two hundred twenty male firefighters from 20 to 62 years old participated and mediation analyses were performed. The results showed that neuroticism was positively related to the three dimensions of burnout, both directly and through mastery avoidance goals. Mastery approach goals mediated the relationships between conscientiousness and physical fatigue and between openness to experience and physical fatigue. Three of the Big Five personality traits, neuroticism, conscientiousness and openness to experience, and achievement goals, may be important factors in understanding and preventing firefighter burnout.

  2. The Role of Histone Demethylase Jmjd3 in Immune-Mediated Aplastic Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0055 TITLE: The Role of Histone Demethylase Jmjd3 in Immune-Mediated Aplastic Anemia PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Yi...Immune-Mediated Aplastic Anemia 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-16-1-0055 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Yi Zhang 5d... anemia (AA) is a condition of bone marrow failure (BMF) characterized by blood pancytopenia and BM hypoplasia. In most cases, AA is an immune-mediated

  3. Religion and Well-Being: The Mediating Role of Positive Virtues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Swati; Singh, Kamlesh

    2018-01-20

    Researchers have consistently advocated positive associations between religion and well-being. The present research takes a step forward and explores potential mechanisms behind the same. The mediating role of a surprisingly neglected mechanism, positive virtues, specifically gratitude, forgiveness and altruism, is studied through a quantitative study on a sample of 220 adult respondents residing in Delhi NCR. The participants adhered to one of the six major religions present in India. Mediational analysis revealed that gratitude mediated the relationship between religiosity, spirituality and well-being via two pathways of forgiveness and altruism. The implications for researchers and practitioners working in the field of mental health are discussed.

  4. Publics in the making: mediating different methods of engagement and the publics these construct : commentary on: "Technologies of democracy: experiments and demonstrations".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Alison

    2011-12-01

    The potential for public engagement to democratise science has come under increasing scrutiny amid concerns that conflicting motivations have led to confusion about what engagement means to those who mediate science and publics. This raises important yet relatively unexplored questions regarding how publics are constituted by different forms of engagement used by intermediary scholars and other actors. It is possible to identify at least two possible 'rationalities of mediation' that mobilise different versions of the public and the roles they are assumed to play, as 'citizens' or 'users', in discussions around technology. However, combinations of rationalities are found in practice and these have significant implications for the 'new' scientific democracy.

  5. Political Violence and the Mediating Role of Violent Extremist Propensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nele Schils

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Research into violent extremism is lacking integrated theoretical frameworks explaining individual involvement in politically or religiously motivated violence, resulting in a poor understanding of causal mechanisms. Building on situational action theory, the current study moves beyond the dominant risk factor approach and proposes an integrated model for the explanation of political/religious violence, distinguishing between direct mechanisms and “causes of the causes.” The model integrates mechanisms from different but complementary traditions. Following previous work, this study focusses on the causes of the causes influencing direct key mechanisms, violent extremist propensity, and exposure to violent extremist moral settings that explain political/religious violence. The theoretical model is tested using structural equation modelling. The analyses are based on a web survey (N = 6,020 among adolescents and young adults in Belgium. Results show that violent extremist propensity and exposure to violent extremist moral settings have direct effects on the likelihood of political/religious violence. These direct mechanisms are in turn determined by a series of exogenous factors: perceived injustice and poor social integration. The relationship between perceived injustice and poor social integration and political/religious violence is further mediated by perceived alienation, perceived procedural justice, and religious authoritarianism. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  6. How job demands affect absenteeism? The mediating role of work-family conflict and exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignoli, Michela; Guglielmi, Dina; Bonfiglioli, Roberta; Violante, Francesco Saverio

    2016-01-01

    To investigate how psychosocial factors (such as job demands and work-family conflict) produce absenteeism in the workplace, using the health impairment process of the job demands-resources model. According to this model, job demands lead to burnout (often measured with the emotional exhaustion component), which in turn could lead to outcomes (such as absenteeism). Work-family conflict (WFC) was also studied, because of contradictory results collected in the existing literature on absenteeism in the workplace, regarding the role of WFC in causing absenteeism. Data were collected on 245 workers using both subjective (questionnaire on psychological risk factors and work-related health) and objective data (sickness leave frequency records). To test the hypothesis that job demands and WFC contribute to absenteeism in the workplace, a subsequent mediation analysis was used, which analysed both (a) the subsequent mediation of WFC and emotional exhaustion and (b) the separate roles played by the mediators proposed (WFC and emotional exhaustion). Job demands affect absenteeism through the subsequent mediation of WFC and emotional exhaustion. In addition, emotional exhaustion mediates the relationship between job demands and absenteeism, while WFC does not. In conclusion, subsequent mediation highlights the role of emotional exhaustion in causing absenteeism; in fact, when emotional exhaustion is included in the analysis, job demands are associated with higher levels of absenteeism. The results of this study suggest that without the concurrent contribution of emotional exhaustion, WFC does not influence absenteeism in the workplace. Our findings are useful for organizations that aim to reduce absenteeism.

  7. The relationship between attachment styles and alexithymia: mediating role of defense mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besharat, Mohammad Ali; Khajavi, Zeinab

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the mediating role of ego defense mechanisms on the relationship between attachment styles and alexithymia. Four hundred and forty-three Iranian high school students (213 boys, 230 girls) participated in this study. Participants completed Defense Styles Questionnaire (DSQ-40), Adult Attachment Inventory (AAI), and Farsi version of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (FTAS-20). Results showed a significant negative correlation between secure attachment style and alexithymia, while avoidant and ambivalent attachment styles showed significant positive associations with alexithymia. Regression analysis indicated that defense mechanisms have a mediating role between attachment styles and alexithymia. It can be concluded that a mediation role of ego defense mechanisms on the relationship between attachment styles and alexithymia was partial. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Redefining the Relationship between Intellectual Capital and Innovation: The Mediating Role of Absorptive Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Cassol

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyze the relationship between absorptive capacity, intellectual capital and innovation. The main purpose of this research is to demonstrate that absorptive capacity can leverage the relation between intellectual capital and innovation potential. The method was a single case study using exploratory and descriptive research strategies and applying both quantitative and qualitative techniques. The case study investigated was a Brazilian corporation that has been doing business in the paper and corrugated cardboard industry for 72 years. The paper describes a case analysis demonstrating that adoption of practices associated with absorptive capacity has potential to foster intellectual capital, which is particularly important for development of innovations. These practices include assimilation of new technologies; creating capacity to utilize existing internal knowledge held by employees; use of benchmarking; application of technical knowledge; and registration of patents. Triangulation of data provided evidence confirming that the relationship between absorptive capacity and intellectual capital is a driver of innovation in the firm investigated. Additionally, this relationship is better explained by the mediating role of absorptive capacity, which is capable of potentiating intellectual capital to foster innovation.

  9. Mediating Role of Perceived Organizational Support on the Impact of Psychol ogical Capital on Organizational Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haluk Erdem

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Employees’ loyalty toward organizations is decreasing gradually recently. This phenomenon negatively affects the dimensions of organizational behavior directly or indirectly. In this study, the effect of psychological capital on organizational identification, and the mediating role of perceived org anizational support in this association are explored. Thereby, data based on the government employees in Bitlis Province (n=478 are analyzed (exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, regression analysis and it is supported that psychological capital increases positively and significantly perceived organizational support and organizational identification. Besides, the mediating role of organizational support in the association between psychological capital and organizational identification is supporte d using tree step regression analysis and Sobel Test

  10. Roles of AP-2 in clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Boucrot

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The notion that AP-2 clathrin adaptor is an essential component of an endocytic clathrin coat appears to conflict with recent observations that substantial AP-2 depletion, using RNA interference with synthesis of AP-2 subunits, fails to block uptake of certain ligands known to internalize through a clathrin-based pathway.We report here the use of in vivo imaging data obtained by spinning-disk confocal microscopy to study the formation of clathrin-coated structures at the plasma membranes of BSC1 and HeLa cells depleted by RNAi of the clathrin adaptor, AP-2. Very few clathrin coats continue to assemble after AP-2 knockdown. Moreover, there is a total absence of clathrin-containing structures completely lacking AP-2 while all the remaining coats still contain a small amount of AP-2. These observations suggest that AP-2 is essential for endocytic coated-pit and coated-vesicle formation. We also find that AP-2 knockdown strongly inhibits light-density lipoprotein (LDL receptor-mediated endocytosis, as long as cells are maintained in complete serum and at 37 degrees C. If cells are first incubated with LDL at 4 degrees C, followed by warming, there is little or no decrease in LDL uptake with respect to control cells. LDL uptake at 37 degrees C is also not affected in AP-2 depleted cells first deprived of LDL by incubation with either serum-starved or LDL-starved cells for 24 hr. The LDL-deprived cells display a significant increase in endocytic structures enriched on deeply invaginated tubes that contain LDL and we suggest that under this condition of stress, LDL might enter through this alternative pathway.These results suggest that AP-2 is essential for endocytic clathrin coated-pit and coated-vesicle formation. They also indicate that under normal conditions, functional endocytic clathrin coated pits are required for LDL internalization. We also show that under certain conditions of stress, cells can upregulate alternative endocytic structures

  11. Efficacy of family mediation and the role of family violence: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleak, Helen; Schofield, Margot; Bickerdike, Andrew

    2014-01-21

    Family law reforms in Australia require separated parents in dispute to attempt mandatory family dispute resolution (FDR) in community-based family services before court attendance. However, there are concerns about such services when clients present with a history of high conflict and family violence. This study protocol describes a longitudinal study of couples presenting for family mediation services. The study aims to describe the profile of family mediation clients, including type of family violence, and determine the impact of violence profiles on FDR processes and outcomes, such as the type and durability of shared parenting arrangements and clients' satisfaction with mediated agreements. A mixed method, naturalistic longitudinal design is used. The sampling frame is clients presenting at nine family mediation centres across metropolitan, outer suburban, and regional/rural sites in Victoria, Australia. Data are collected at pre-test, completion of mediation, and six months later. Self-administered surveys are administered at the three time points, and a telephone interview at the final post-test. The key study variable is family violence. Key outcome measures are changes in the type and level of acrimony and violent behaviours, the relationship between violence and mediated agreements, the durability of agreements over six months, and client satisfaction with mediation. Family violence is a major risk to the physical and mental health of women and children. This study will inform debates about the role of family violence and how to manage it in the family mediation context. It will also inform decision-making about mediation practices by better understanding how mediation impacts on parenting agreements, and the implications for children, especially in the context of family violence.

  12. Linking transformational leadership to nurses' extra-role performance: the mediating role of self-efficacy and work engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salanova, Marisa; Lorente, Laura; Chambel, Maria J; Martínez, Isabel M

    2011-10-01

    This paper is a report of a social cognitive theory-guided study about the link between supervisors' transformational leadership and staff nurses' extra-role performance as mediated by nurse self-efficacy and work engagement. Past research has acknowledged the positive influence that transformational leaders have on employee (extra-role) performance. However, less is known about the psychological mechanisms that may explain the links between transformational leaders and extra-role performance, which encompasses behaviours that are not considered formal job requirements, but which facilitate the smooth functioning of the organization as a social system. Seventeen supervisors evaluated nurses' extra-role performance, the data generating a sample consisting of 280 dyads. The nurses worked in different health services in a large Portuguese hospital and the participation rate was 76·9% for nurses and 100% for supervisors. Data were collected during 2009. A theory-driven model of the relationships between transformation leadership, self-efficacy, work engagement and nurses' extra-role performance was tested using Structural Equation Modelling. Data analysis revealed a full mediation model in which transformational leadership explained extra-role performance through self-efficacy and work engagement. A direct relationship between transformational leadership and work engagement was also found. Nurses' supervisors with a transformational leadership style enhance different 'extra-role' performance in nurses and this increases hospital efficacy. They do so by establishing a sense of self-efficacy but also by amplifying their levels of engagement in the workplace. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. The role of Educational Technology in Medical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZAHRA SAFFARI

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Dear Editor Being one of the most effective tools for educational system improvement, educational Technology plays an important role in learning facilitation. In order to have a deeper, more effective and long lasting learning impact, this systematic approach designs, implements and evaluates the teaching- learning process, using specific purposes, new methods of psychology and communication sciences and also human and non-human resources (1. A fruitful and effective educational system which results in actual learning improvement cannot be achieved unless its faculty members become competent. To achieve this goal, not only they must attain and/or maintain academic qualifications, especially in their teaching area, but also be familiar with the newest communication and teaching methods and equipped with educational and professional skills. Considering the growing movement of education towards the new technologies and the Ministry of Health and Medical Education tendency for upgrading the educational technology and virtual learning, the need for experts in education technology was clear. Therefore, given its mission which focuses on scientific promotion and academic training improvement, in an cooperation with shiraz educational development center along with Center of Excellence for electronic learning`s staff and faculty members, Shiraz Educational Technology unit, established the Master of education technology courses (2. Education’s technology and E-Learning, have arises a condition in which many educational goals, such as independent learning, self-directed learning, learning regardless of time or place, collaborative learning and providing immediate feedbacks and assessment of learning, appears more achievable. Electronic medical education has become very popular in developed countries and is rapidly developing, since it has educational value and the tremendous broadening audience through educational programs. Considering the fact that

  14. Beyond knowledge and skills: the use of a Delphi study to develop a technology-mediated teaching strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Michael; Frantz, Jose; Bozalek, Vivienne

    2013-04-10

    While there is evidence to suggest that teaching practices in clinical education should include activities that more accurately reflect the real world, many educators base their teaching on transmission models that encourage the rote learning of knowledge and technical skills. Technology-mediated instruction may facilitate the development of professional attributes that go beyond "having" knowledge and skills, but there is limited evidence for how to integrate technology into these innovative teaching approaches. This study used a modified Delphi method to help identify the professional attributes of capable practitioners, the approaches to teaching that may facilitate the development of these attributes, and finally, how technology could be integrated with those teaching strategies in order to develop capable practitioners. Open-ended questions were used to gather data from three different expert panels, and results were thematically analysed. Clinical educators should not view knowledge, skills and attitudes as a set of products of learning, but rather as a set of attributes that are developed during a learning process. Participants highlighted the importance of continuing personal and professional development that emphasised the role of values and emotional response to the clinical context. To develop these attributes, clinical educators should use teaching activities that are learner-centred, interactive, integrated, reflective and that promote engagement. When technology-mediated teaching activities are considered, they should promote the discussion of clinical encounters, facilitate the sharing of resources and experiences, encourage reflection on the learning process and be used to access content outside the classroom. In addition, educational outcomes must drive the integration of technology into teaching practice, rather than the features of the technology. There is a need for a cultural change in clinical education, in which those involved with the

  15. The Relationship between Loneliness and Depression: Mediation Role of Internet Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasin Demir

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the mediation role of internet addiction in the relationship between loneliness and depression. 452 university students (241 women, 211 men ranging in age from 17 to 31 and who are receiving education in different faculties at Firat University in Turkey participated in the study. UCLA Loneliness Scale, Young Internet Addiction Test Short Form, and Indication Scanning List was applied to the participants. The data were analyzed with correlation, regression, hierarchical regression analysis, and Sobel Z test. According to correlation analysis, there are relations in a positive way among loneliness, depression, and internet addiction. In reference to regression analysis, loneliness predicts internet addiction and depression. However, internet addiction also predicts depression as well. As a result of hierarchical regression analysis to determine the mediation role of internet addiction, it was monitored that internet addiction has partial mediation in the relation between loneliness and depression. In addition to that, it was confirmed that this mediation predicts at a significant level with Sobel Z Test. The findings of the study demonstrate a partial mediation role of internet addiction in the relation between loneliness and depression. According to this result, it can be stated that loneliness and internet addiction are risk factors for depression. In terms of studies on depression, the results of this study can be taken into consideration.

  16. Emerging roles for telemedicine and smart technologies in dementia care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossen, Ann L; Kim, Heejung; Williams, Kristine N; Steinhoff, Andreanna E; Strieker, Molly

    Demographic aging of the world population contributes to an increase in the number of persons diagnosed with dementia (PWD), with corresponding increases in health care expenditures. In addition, fewer family members are available to care for these individuals. Most care for PWD occurs in the home, and family members caring for PWD frequently suffer negative outcomes related to the stress and burden of observing their loved one's progressive memory and functional decline. Decreases in cognition and self-care also necessitate that the caregiver takes on new roles and responsibilities in care provision. Smart technologies are being developed to support family caregivers of PWD in a variety of ways, including provision of information and support resources online, wayfinding technology to support independent mobility of the PWD, monitoring systems to alert caregivers to changes in the PWD and their environment, navigation devices to track PWD experiencing wandering, and telemedicine and e-health services linking caregivers and PWD with health care providers. This paper will review current uses of these advancing technologies to support care of PWD. Challenges unique to widespread acceptance of technology will be addressed and future directions explored.

  17. Dialectic Antidotes to Critics of the Technology Acceptance Model: Conceptual, Methodological, and Replication Treatments for Behavioural Modelling in Technology-Mediated Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weng Marc Lim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The technology acceptance model (TAM is a prominent and parsimonious conceptual lens that is often applied for behavioural modelling in technology-mediated environments. However, TAM has received a great deal of criticism in recent years. This article aims to address some of the most pertinent issues confronting TAM through a rejoinder that offers dialectic antidotes—in the form of conceptual, methodological, and replication treatments—to support the continued use of TAM to understand the peculiarities of user interactions with technology in technology-mediated environments. In doing so, this article offers a useful response to a common but often inadequately answered question about how TAM can continue to be relevant for behavioural modelling in contemporary technology-mediated environments.

  18. The Role of Inflammatory Mediators in the Pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Azizi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD, a neurodegenerative disorder associated with advanced age, is the most common cause of dementia globally. AD is characterised by cognitive dysfunction, deposition of amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles and neuro-inflammation. Inflammation of the brain is a key pathological hallmark of AD. Thus, clinical and immunopathological evidence of AD could be potentially supported by inflammatory mediators, including cytokines, chemokines, the complement system, acute phase proteins and oxidative mediators. In particular, oxidative mediators may actively contribute to the progression of AD and on-going inflammation in the brain. This review provides an overview of the functions and activities of inflammatory mediators in AD. An improved understanding of inflammatory processes and their role in AD is needed to improve therapeutic research aims in the field of AD and similar diseases.

  19. PTSD as a mediator of sexual revictimization: the role of reexperiencing, avoidance, and arousal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, Heather J; Hetzel-Riggin, Melanie D; Thomsen, Cynthia J; McCanne, Thomas R

    2006-10-01

    Theory and research suggest that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may mediate the relationship between child sexual abuse and adult sexual assault. However, little empirical research has examined the mediational role of PTSD. In the present study, the authors use structural equation modeling to examine the degree to which the three symptom clusters that define PTSD (reexperiencing, avoidance, and hyperarousal) contribute to sexual revictimization. To assess PTSD symptomatology, undergraduate women completed questionnaires (N = 1,449), which detailed the history and severity of childhood and adult sexual assault experiences. Results indicated that PTSD mediated sexual revictimization. When PTSD symptom clusters were examined individually, only the hyperarousal cluster was a significant mediator. Results are discussed in terms of information-processing mechanisms that may underlie sexual revictimization.

  20. The mediating role of automatic thoughts in the personality-event-affect relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C; Santor, Darcy A

    2009-01-01

    Although cognitive theory gives automatic thoughts a causal role in the onset of negative mood and depressive symptoms, little research has directly tested this relationship, and no research has examined whether automatic thoughts explain the effects of personality factors, life events, and positive mood on negative affect. Accordingly, automatic thoughts were prospectively tested as a mediator of the effects of personality vulnerability factors, positive affect, and hassles on mood. Measures of self-criticism and dependency were administered at baseline, and measures of automatic thoughts, hassles, and positive and negative affect were administered once per week for 4 weeks to 102 college students. Automatic thoughts fully mediated the effects of self-criticism and partially mediated the effects of dependency and hassles on mood. Findings suggest that negative thoughts only partially account for the relationship among personality, hassles, and mood. Results also showed that the impact of positive affect on negative affect may be mediated by the presence or absence of automatic thoughts.

  1. The role of economic incentives for managing technological risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunreuther, H.

    1995-01-01

    A key issue facing society in dealing with the management of technological facilities is balancing the costs of reducing risks with the relevant benefits. These tradeoffs are difficult for both experts and laypersons to make when there is limited objective data on the nature of the health and safety risks. Economic incentives, such as insurance and compensation, can play an important role in reducing and preventing losses associated with technological facilities if they are coupled with appropriate regulations and/or standards. They also can communicate information to the public on the price associated with different levels of risk. The talk will focus on how these policy tools can be utilized for improving the risk management process in conjunction with risk assessment. The siting of facilities for storing and disposing of potentially hazardous wastes will be used to illustrate these concepts and indicate how the public can be made a more integral part of the process

  2. Mission to Planet Earth: The role of new technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Paul; Price, Robert

    1997-01-01

    The Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) Enterprise is a long-duration, comprehensive program to advance scientific knowledge of the Earth as a system. It includes both national and international elements. A diverse array of spacecraft-borne instruments will be placed into various orbits to continuously monitor the land, oceans, atmosphere, ice cover, and solar irradiation. In addition to extending certain sets of data critical to assessing global change, new measurements will be made that further expand our understanding of the world and its dynamic environment. Because the program extends well into the 21st century, programmatic and technical changes are inevitable. This paper addresses the role of new flight and ground system technologies in sustaining the vitality of the MTPE program and describes some specific initiatives that will assist the technology infusion process.

  3. Industry growth, work role characteristics, and job satisfaction: a cross-level mediation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Michael T; Wooldridge, Jessica D

    2012-10-01

    The associations between industry revenue growth, individual work role characteristics, and job satisfaction were examined in this cross-level mediation analysis. Work roles were expected to be more autonomous, involve greater skill variety, and offer more opportunities for growth and development for workers in growing industries than for workers in declining industries. Supervisor support was also hypothesized to be stronger for workers in high-growth industries. Results from a nationally representative (U.S.) sample of service industry workers, using multilevel modeling, supported these propositions and suggest that job enrichment mediates relations between industry growth and job satisfaction. Associations between industry growth and autonomy were also stronger among workers in occupations that are less normatively autonomous, suggesting that industry growth fosters a weakening, and industry decline a strengthening, of traditional differences in autonomy across work roles. These results contribute to a multilevel perspective on organizational environments, individual work roles, and worker attitudes and well-being.

  4. Big five personality and adolescent Internet addiction: The mediating role of coping style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yueyue; Li, Dongping; Li, Xian; Wang, Yanhui; Zhao, Liyan

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the unique associations between big five personality traits and adolescent Internet addiction (IA), as well as the mediating role of coping style underlying these relations. Our theoretical model was tested with 998 adolescents. Participants provided self-report data on demographic variables, big five personality traits, coping style, and IA. After controlling for demographic variables, it was found that agreeableness and conscientiousness were negatively associated with IA, whereas extraversion, neuroticism, and openness to experience were positively associated with IA. Mediation analyses further indicated that conscientiousness had an indirect impact on adolescent IA through decreased emotion-focused coping, whereas extraversion, neuroticism, openness to experience had indirect impacts on adolescent IA through increased emotion-focused coping. In contrast, problem-focused coping had no mediating role. These findings suggest that emotion-focused coping may, in part, account for the association between big five personality and adolescent IA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Family Functioning and Adolescent Psychological Maladjustment: The Mediating Role of Coping Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Rita; Loios, Sara; Pedro, Marta

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to analyze the mediating role of coping strategies in the relationship between family functioning and youth maladjustment. A community sample of 341 adolescents (M = 15.11 years old; SD = 1.71) completed self-report measures about such variables. Results showed that a perception of an inadequate family functioning was associated with the use of maladaptive coping strategies, as well as with youth psychological maladjustment. The results also revealed that rumination and support-seeking mediated the relationship between family functioning and internalizing behavior, and hostile expression of feelings played a mediating role between family functioning and externalizing behavior. No gender differences were found in the relationship between variables. This study emphasizes the importance of coping strategies used by adolescents to understand the relationship between family functioning and youth psychological maladjustment.

  6. Perceived Work Conditions and Turnover Intentions: The Mediating Role of Meaning of Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnoux-Nicolas, Caroline; Sovet, Laurent; Lhotellier, Lin; Di Fabio, Annamaria; Bernaud, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    Perceived working conditions lead to various negative outcomes for employee behaviors, including turnover intentions. Although potential mediators for these relationships were previously identified, the importance of meaning of work has not yet been investigated. This study examines the role of this psychological resource as a mediator for the relationships between perceived working conditions and turnover intentions in a sample of 336 French workers from different job contexts. Results show that adverse working conditions were positively and significantly associated with turnover intentions. Meaning of work is negatively related to both perceived working conditions and turnover intentions. Mediation analyses for meaning of work demonstrated indirect effects of several adverse working conditions on turnover intentions. The role of meaning of work as a psychological resource for employees facing adverse working conditions is discussed, especially regarding its implications for research and practice within organizational contexts.

  7. Industrial Applications of radioisotopes and radiation technology and Agency's role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramamoorthy, N.; Haji-Saeid, M.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Applications of radioisotopes and radiation technology are contributing significantly in many areas of science and technology, industry and environment, towards sustainable development, improving the quality of life and cleaner and safer national industries. There are three major classes impacting industrial scale operations, namely, (a) radiation processing/treatment, (b) radiotracer and sealed source techniques to monitor industrial processes/columns/vessels and (c) industrial gamma radiography and tomography. Radiation processing applying gamma sources and electron accelerators for material treatment/modification is an established technology. There are over 160 gamma industrial irradiators and 1300 industrial electron accelerators in operation worldwide. Development of new materials, especially for health care and environment protection, and advanced products (for electronics, solar energy systems, biotechnology etc) are the main objectives of R and D activity in radiation processing technology. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA, Agency) is involved in supporting both the development and transfer of radiation technology. Thanks to Agency's efforts, advanced radiation processing centres have been established in many Member States (MS), e.g. Malaysia, Egypt, Iran, Poland, Brazil, Hungary. Hydrogel dressing for wounds, radiation vulcanised latex, degraded natural polymer are examples of useful product outcomes. Demonstration of effective treatment of flue gas in pilot plant as well as industrial scale and industrial wastewater in pilot plant scale has shown promise for tackling industrial emissions/effluents using electron beam machines. Industrial radiotracer and gamma sealed source techniques are largely used for analyzing industrial process systems. Initially used as trouble-shooting measures, they play a vital role in process parameter optimization, improved productivity, on-line monitoring and could lead to even pre

  8. Industrial Applications of radioisotopes and radiation technology and Agency's role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramamoorthy, N.; Haji-Saeid, M.

    2004-01-01

    Applications of radioisotopes and radiation technology are contributing significantly in many areas of science and technology, industry and environment, towards sustainable development, improving the quality of life and cleaner and safer national industries. There are three major classes impacting industrial scale operations, namely, (a) radiation processing/treatment, (b) radiotracer and sealed source techniques to monitor industrial processes/columns/vessels and (c) industrial gamma radiography and tomography. Radiation processing applying gamma sources and electron accelerators for material treatment/modification is an established technology. There are over 160 gamma industrial irradiators and 1300 industrial electron accelerators in operation worldwide. Development of new materials, especially for health care and environment protection, and advanced products (for electronics, solar energy systems, biotechnology etc) are the main objectives of R and D activity in radiation processing technology. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA, Agency) is involved in supporting both the development and transfer of radiation technology. Thanks to Agency's efforts, advanced radiation processing centres have been established in many Member States (MS), e.g. Malaysia, Egypt, Iran, Poland, Brazil, Hungary. Hydrogel dressing for wounds, radiation vulcanised latex, degraded natural polymer are examples of useful product outcomes. Demonstration of effective treatment of flue gas in pilot plant as well as industrial scale and industrial wastewater in pilot plant scale has shown promise for tackling industrial emissions/effluents using electron beam machines. Industrial radiotracer and gamma sealed source techniques are largely used for analyzing industrial process systems. Initially used as trouble-shooting measures, they play a vital role in process parameter optimization, improved productivity, on-line monitoring and could lead to even pre-commissioning benchmarking. Gamma

  9. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies and Green Innovation: The Role of Internal Environmental Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Kong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Green innovation has been deemed a key corporate capability to deal with environmental issues. The usage of advanced manufacturing technologies (AMT provides important resources and knowledge for firms’ green innovation. Drawing on a resources-based approach, this study contributes to the existing literature by examining how the adoption of specific types of AMT (process, design, and planning influences two dimensions of green innovation (green product innovation and green process innovation. In particular, we explore these relationships through internal environmental collaboration. Based on data collected from 198 Chinese manufacturing firms, we found that process, design, and planning AMT can contribute to both green products and process innovation. Moreover, the findings confirm the significant mediating role of internal environmental collaboration in this relationship. Specifically, internal environmental collaboration mediates the relationship between process AMT and green product innovation as well as the relationship between design AMT and two dimensions of green innovation; it also partially mediates the relationship between process AMT and green process innovation as well as the relationship between planning AMT and two dimensions of green innovation. These findings provide novel insights into how manufacturing firms can use various types of AMT to enhance their green innovation.

  10. Parenting Styles and Bullying at School: The Mediating Role of Locus of Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Stelios N.; Ioannou, Myria; Stavrinides, Panayiotis

    2017-01-01

    The current study examined the mediating role of children's locus of control in the relation between parenting styles and bully-victim experiences at school. Participants were 447 students aged 10 and 11 years old from 13 different elementary, urban, and rural schools in Cyprus. Analyses using structural equation modeling showed that parenting…

  11. The Effect of Automatic Thoughts on Hopelessness: Role of Self-Esteem as a Mediator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakar, Firdevs Savi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to test a theoretical model concerning the role of self-esteem as a mediator between university students' automatic thoughts and their levels of hopelessness. The participants consisted of 338 students (197 females (58.3%) and 141 males (41.7%) from various departments at the Celal Bayar University. The research data…

  12. Understanding the connection between self-esteem and aggression : The mediating role of emotion dysregulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garofalo, C.; Holden, C.J.; Zeigler-Hill, V.; Velotti, P.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to extend previous knowledge concerning the link between self-esteem and aggression by examining the mediating role of emotion dysregulation among offenders and community participants. A sample of 153 incarcerated violent offenders and a community sample of 197

  13. The role of aquatic fungi in transformations of organic matter mediated by nutrients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cynthia J. Tant; Amy D. Rosemond; Andrew S. Mehring; Kevin A. Kuehn; John M. Davis

    2015-01-01

    1. We assessed the key role of aquatic fungi in modifying coarse particulate organic matter (CPOM) by affecting its breakdown rate, nutrient concentration and conversion to fine particulate organic matter (FPOM). Overall, we hypothesised that fungal-mediated conditioning and breakdown of CPOM would be accelerated when nutrient concentrations are increased and tested...

  14. Effects of Teachers' Organizational Justice Perceptions on Intention to Quit: Mediation Role of Organizational Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basar, Ufuk; Sigri, Ünsal

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to discover the effects of teachers' organizational justice perceptions on intention to quit as well as the mediation role of teachers' organizational identification in this process. Interactions between research variables were measured using structural equation models. The sample used comprised teachers working at primary and…

  15. The Mediating Role of School Motivation in Linking Student Victimization and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Weihua; Dempsey, Allison G.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the mediating role of student school motivation in linking student victimization experiences and academic achievement among a nationally representative sample of students in 10th grade. Structural equation modeling supported that there were significant associations between student victimization and academic achievement for high…

  16. Mediator and Moderator Role of Loneliness in the Relationship between Peer Victimization and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Ozgur Erdur; Bugay, Asli

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the mediator and moderator roles of loneliness in the relationship between peer victimisation and depressive symptoms. The participants of the study were 144 adolescents (66 girls, 78 boys) ranging in age from 11 to 15 years. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to test the relations of…

  17. Role of bacterial virulence proteins in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Aspergillus awamori

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielse, C.B.; Ram, A.F.J.; Hooykaas, P.J.J.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den

    2004-01-01

    The Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Aspergillus awamori was optimized using defined co-cultivation conditions, which resulted in a reproducible and efficient transformation system. Optimal co-cultivation conditions were used to study the role of Agrobacterium tumefaciens virulence proteins

  18. Prospective Teachers' Future Time Perspective and Professional Plans about Teaching: The Mediating Role of Academic Optimism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Altay

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the mediating role of prospective teachers' academic optimism in the relationship between their future time perspective and professional plans about teaching. A total of 396 prospective teachers voluntarily participated in the study. Correlation, regression, and structural equation modeling analyses were conducted in…

  19. Learning Support and Academic Achievement among Malaysian Adolescents: The Mediating Role of Student Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelas, Zalizan M.; Azman, Norzaini; Zulnaidi, Hutkemri; Ahmad, Nor Aniza

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations between learning support, student engagement and academic achievement among adolescents. We also examined the extent to which affective, behavioural and cognitive engagement play a mediating role in students' perceived learning support from parents, teachers and peers, and contribute to their…

  20. Teaching-Learning Conceptions and Academic Achievement: The Mediating Role of Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas, Gökhan

    2016-01-01

    The current research aimed at examining the mediating role of test anxiety in the relationship between teaching-learning conceptions and academic achievement. The correlation investigation model was adopted in this research. The participants of the research were volunteering teachers (n = 108) and students (n = 526) from five different high…

  1. The Mediating Role of Materialism on the Relationship between Values and Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevgili, Fatma; Cesur, Sevim

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between values and consumption, and to adduce the mediating roles of materialism in this association. Values have been investigated through Schwartz's main value dimensions in his Theory of Human Values: Self-Enhancement, Self-Transcendence, Openness to Change and Conservation. Through…

  2. Psychological Capital, Career Identity and Graduate Employability in Uganda: The Mediating Role of Social Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoma, Muhammad; Dithan Ntale, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This paper seeks to evaluate the relationship between psychological capital, career identity, social capital and graduate employability. We also seek to evaluate the mediating role of social capital on the relationships between psychological capital, career identity and graduate employability in Uganda. A population of 480 unemployed young people…

  3. Transformational leadership and project success : The mediating role of team-building

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aga, Deribe Assefa; Noorderhaven, Niels; Vallejo, Bertha

    2016-01-01

    Although the effect of transformational leadership on project success is empirically supported, less is known about the mechanisms that explain this effect. To address this issue, we propose the mediating role of team-building as a possible explanation of the relationship between transformational

  4. Trait Procrastination, Self-Efficacy and Achievement Goals: The Mediation Role of Boredom Coping Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mingming; Kam, Chester Chun Seng

    2017-01-01

    Limited research has examined the mediational role of coping strategy in students' motivation and procrastination. In this study, we examined the relationships among self-efficacy, achievement goals, boredom coping strategies and procrastination with 506 Chinese college students. Data were collected via questionnaires. Structural equation…

  5. Study groups and peer roles in mediated academic literacy events in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KATEVG

    This paper explores the role of study groups in mediating academic writing, particularly among multilingual black students at the University of the Western Cape (UWC). Using data from questionnaires, focus groups, and interviews, as well as academic texts generated by study groups, the paper focuses on the efficacy of ...

  6. Social Capital, Team Efficacy and Team Potency: The Mediating Role of Team Learning Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Emmerik, Hetty; Jawahar, I. M.; Schreurs, Bert; de Cuyper, Nele

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Drawing on social capital theory and self-identification theory, this study aims to examine the associations of two indicators of social capital, personal networks and deep-level similarity, with team capability measures of team efficacy and team potency. The central focus of the study is to be the hypothesized mediating role of team…

  7. Epistatic role of base excision repair and mismatch repair pathways in mediating cisplatin cytotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothandapani, Anbarasi; Sawant, Akshada; Dangeti, Venkata Srinivas Mohan Nimai; Sobol, Robert W.; Patrick, Steve M.

    2013-01-01

    Base excision repair (BER) and mismatch repair (MMR) pathways play an important role in modulating cis-Diamminedichloroplatinum (II) (cisplatin) cytotoxicity. In this article, we identified a novel mechanistic role of both BER and MMR pathways in mediating cellular responses to cisplatin treatment. Cells defective in BER or MMR display a cisplatin-resistant phenotype. Targeting both BER and MMR pathways resulted in no additional resistance to cisplatin, suggesting that BER and MMR play epistatic roles in mediating cisplatin cytotoxicity. Using a DNA Polymerase β (Polβ) variant deficient in polymerase activity (D256A), we demonstrate that MMR acts downstream of BER and is dependent on the polymerase activity of Polβ in mediating cisplatin cytotoxicity. MSH2 preferentially binds a cisplatin interstrand cross-link (ICL) DNA substrate containing a mismatch compared with a cisplatin ICL substrate without a mismatch, suggesting a novel mutagenic role of Polβ in activating MMR in response to cisplatin. Collectively, these results provide the first mechanistic model for BER and MMR functioning within the same pathway to mediate cisplatin sensitivity via non-productive ICL processing. In this model, MMR participation in non-productive cisplatin ICL processing is downstream of BER processing and dependent on Polβ misincorporation at cisplatin ICL sites, which results in persistent cisplatin ICLs and sensitivity to cisplatin. PMID:23761438

  8. Personality and Social Problem-Solving: The Mediating Role of Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koruklu, Nermin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine direct and indirect relationships among personality, selfesteem and social problem-solving, as well as the mediating role of self-esteem in the link between personality and social problem-solving among Turkish youth. The study utilized a cross-sectional design comprising several self-reports. Data…

  9. Core Self-Evaluations as Causes of Satisfaction: The Mediating Role of Seeking Task Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Abhishek; Locke, Edwin A.; Judge, Timothy A.; Adams, John W.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the mediating role of task complexity in the relationship between core self-evaluations (CSE) and satisfaction. In Study 1, eighty three undergraduate business students worked on a strategic decision-making simulation. The simulated environment enabled us to verify the temporal sequence of variables, use an objective measure of…

  10. Role of light in the mediation of acute effects of a single afternoon ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 25; Issue 3. Role of light in the mediation of acute effects of a single afternoon melatonin injection on steroidogenic activity of testis in the rat. Saumen K Maitra Arun K Ray. Articles Volume 25 Issue 3 September 2000 pp 253-256 ...

  11. The Mediating Role of Organizational Citizenship Behavior between Organizational Identification and Its Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnaik, Siddharth; Biswas, Soumendu

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the impact of organizational identification on consequences like job satisfaction and turnover intention of organizational members. It also explored the mediational role played by organizational citizenship behavior in the relationship. Using a sample (n=127) of Indian employees, this current study makes a…

  12. Parental Interpersonal Sensitivity and Youth Social Problems: A Mediational Role for Child Emotion Dysregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suveg, Cynthia; Jacob, Marni L.; Payne, Mary

    2010-01-01

    We examined the relations between parental interpersonal sensitivity and youth social problems and explored the mediational role of child emotion dysregulation. Mothers (N = 42; M age = 39.38) and fathers (N = 41; M age = 39.38) of youth aged 7-12 (N = 42; M age = 9.12) completed measures of their own interpersonal sensitivity and reported on…

  13. Personality and Attitude towards Teaching Profession: Mediating Role of Self Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üstüner, Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to examine the correlation between the five factor personality traits of pre-service teachers and their attitudes towards the teaching profession and to test the mediating role of the pre-service teachers' self-efficacy beliefs. The study population included pre-service teachers that attended the…

  14. The Mediating Role of Psychosocial Benefits in the Satisfaction Formation Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Prevo; P. Leunisse; H. Roest (Henk)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we investigate the mediating role of psychosocial benefits in the customer satisfaction/dissatisfaction formation process. Most research on this subject deals with the causality direction of psychosocial benefits and satisfaction, sometimes preceded by an overall functional

  15. Peer Attachment, Coping, and Self-Esteem in Institutionalized Adolescents: The Mediating Role of Social Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Catarina Pinheiro; Matos, Paula Mena

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the contribution of peer attachment in predicting active coping and self-esteem in a sample of 109 institutionalized adolescents. It also explores the mediating role of social skills in the association between peer attachment, coping, and self-esteem. Structural equation modeling identified a model able to predict a positive…

  16. Mediatization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjarvard, Stig

    2017-01-01

    Mediatization research shares media effects studies' ambition of answering the difficult questions with regard to whether and how media matter and influence contemporary culture and society. The two approaches nevertheless differ fundamentally in that mediatization research seeks answers...... research is concerned with long-term structural changes involving media, culture, and society, i.e. the influences of the media are understood in relation to how media are implicated in social and cultural changes and how these processes come to create new conditions for human communication and interaction....... From the perspective of mediatization research, the most important effect of the media stems from their embeddedness in culture and society....

  17. Technological response to economic disruption: The role of new technologies in mitigating exogenous economic shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Aron Scott

    2003-07-01

    The three essays in this dissertation deal with the role of technology in mitigating economic disruption. Much research has been done on the disruptive effects of technology; in contrast, these essays look at how technology can be used to reduce the effects of exogenous disruptions. Each essay looks at the issue at a different level; the first at the firm level, the second at the industry level and the final essay at the level of the national economy. The first essay examines the options and possible strategies for firms faced with increased instability in their electricity supply, as recently occurred in California. This paper develops response strategies for companies affected by an electrical crisis. These responses fall into three categories: Lead, Follow, or Get Out of the State. The technologies available to companies choosing to lead are reviewed, along with constraints to their adoption. From these strategies, it can be shown that areas with unstable electrical markets can expect a loss of firms to locales with less risk and uncertainty, unless governments adopt policies promoting distributed generation. The second essay projects the economic impacts of the adoption of high-temperature superconductor (FITS) technologies in electric generation, transmission, and distribution systems. Three technologies utilizing high-temperature superconductors are analyzed for their potential impact on the electrical utility industry. Distributed superconducting magnetic energy storage systems (D-SMES), superconducting cable, and HTS generators are each described along with their possible uses in the electrical utility industry. The economic impact of these technologies is then projected, along with a comparison between them and conventional technologies. The third essay deals with the role of technology in mitigating the economic effects of the reaction to terrorist attacks. In the wake of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, public and private investments are

  18. Understanding the connection between self-esteem and aggression: The mediating role of emotion dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, Carlo; Holden, Christopher J; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Velotti, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to extend previous knowledge concerning the link between self-esteem and aggression by examining the mediating role of emotion dysregulation among offenders and community participants. A sample of 153 incarcerated violent offenders and a community sample of 197 individuals completed self-report measures of self-esteem level, emotion dysregulation, and trait aggression. Offenders reported lower levels of self-esteem than community participants, as well as greater levels of emotional nonacceptance and hostility. Bootstrapping analyses were performed to test whether emotion dysregulation mediated the association between self-esteem level and aggression. In the offender sample, mediation models were significant for three of the four aspects of trait aggression that were considered. Emotion dysregulation fully mediated the links that low self-esteem had with physical aggression, anger, and hostility. The same pattern (with the addition of full mediation for verbal aggression) was confirmed in the community sample. Our findings suggest that emotion dysregulation may play an important role in the connection between low self-esteem and aggression. Alternative models of the associations among these variables were tested and discussed. As a whole, the present results are consistent with those of other studies and suggest that it may be beneficial to include emotion regulation modules as part of prevention and treatment programs for violent offenders. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Gender differences in eating behavior and eating pathology: The mediating role of rumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opwis, Mareile; Schmidt, Jennifer; Martin, Alexandra; Salewski, Christel

    2017-03-01

    Rumination is a maladaptive emotion regulation strategy which contributes to psychopathology and is more frequently used by women than men. It has been found to mediate the relationship between gender and the occurrence of anxiety disorders or depression. Since gender differences also appear in dysfunctional eating, the aim of the study is to test, whether rumination mediates the association between gender and several facets of eating pathology. A total of 295 participants (205 women) completed an online-questionnaire including the assessment of different facets of dysfunctional eating and rumination. Mediation analyses were conducted with PROCESS. Women reported significantly higher levels in both, rumination and eating pathology. Moreover, rumination mediated the relationship between gender and all assessed aspects of dysfunctional eating. The present study extends findings on the mediating role of rumination accounting for gender differences in psychopathology to eating pathology in a community sample. Results suggest that cognitive factors play a substantial role in explaining gender differences in eating pathology which tend to be reduced to biologicals factors and beauty ideals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Technology Trust and E-Banking Adoption: The Mediating Effect of Customer Relationship Management Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsudin Wahab

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The electronic revolution in the Malaysian banking sector has started in the 1970's. The first visible form of electronic innovation in the Malaysian banking industry was the introduction of Automated Teller Machines in 1981. Finally, on June 1, 2000, the Malaysian Central Bank gave the green light for locally owned commercial banks to offer Internet banking services. Due to the drastic changes in the business environment, it leads financial institutions to revise their marketing strategies to stress long-lasting relationships with customers. Relationships is important criteria in the selection of private bank. In many conditions, customer satisfaction mediates the relationship between antecedent’s factors and marketing performance. Hence, CRM performance is about maintaining good relationship and repurchases behavior, word-of-mouth and customer retention. Trust has been studied in traditional physical commercial environments. In the marketing and management literatures, trust is strongly associated with attitudes toward products, services, and purchasing behaviors. So that, the main objective of this research paper is to investigate the role of CRM performance as the mediator in the relationship between trust and E-Banking adoption. Hence, this empirical paper confirmed the role of customer relationship management performance as the mediators in the relationship between trust and electronic banking adoption.Key words: Trust, Customer Relationship Management Performance, E-Banking Adoption

  1. Health technology assessment in Australia: a role for clinical registries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Anna Mae

    2017-03-01

    Objective Health technology assessment (HTA) is a process of assessing evidence to inform policy decisions about public subsidy of new drugs and medical procedures. Where evidence is uncertain but the technology itself is promising, funders may recommend funding on an interim basis. It is unknown whether evidence from clinical registries is used to resolve uncertainties identified in interim-funded decisions made by Australian HTA bodies. Therefore, the present study evaluated the role of evidence from clinical registries in resolving evidence uncertainties identified by the Medical Services Advisory Committee (MSAC). Methods All HTAs considered by MSAC between 1998 and 2015 were reviewed and assessments that recommended interim funding were identified. The MSAC website was searched to identify reassessments of these recommendations and sources of evidence used to resolve the uncertainties were identified. Results Of 173 HTA reports considered by MSAC, 17 (10%) contained an interim funding recommendation. Eight recommendations cited uncertainty around safety, 15 cited uncertainty around clinical effectiveness and 13 cited uncertainty around economics (cost-effectiveness and/or budget impact). Of the 17 interim funding recommendations, 11 (65%) have been reassessed. Only two reassessments relied on clinical registry evidence to resolve evidence gaps identified at the time of the interim funding recommendation. Conclusions Clinical registries are underused as a source of evidence for resolving uncertainties around promising new health technologies in Australia. An open dialogue between stakeholders on the role of registries in this context is needed. What is known about the topic? HTA is a process of assessing the evidence to inform policy decisions about public subsidy of new health technologies (e.g. pharmaceuticals, diagnostic tests, medical procedures). Where evidence is uncertain but the technology under evaluation is promising, funders may recommend the funding

  2. Training and the Commitment of Outsourced Information Technologies' Workers: Psychological Contract Fulfillment as a Mediator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontinha, Rita; Chambel, Maria José; De Cuyper, Nele

    2014-01-01

    Outsourced workers in information technologies (IT) generally have high skills and a high value on the job market. Their IT outsourcing organizations are likely to provide them with training, in the first place for skill development, but perhaps also as a way to bind the workers to them. This can be understood along the role of the psychological…

  3. Peer Support and Adolescents' Physical Activity: The Mediating Roles of Self-Efficacy and Enjoyment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Han; Sun, Haichun; Dai, Jun

    2017-06-01

    The present study aimed to contrast the mediating magnitude of self-efficacy and enjoyment connecting peer support and adolescents' physical activity (PA). Participants were 9th-12th grade students ( N  = 409; 56.5% boys) who were randomly chosen from six public schools located in Fuzhou city in southeast China. The bootstrapping method in structural equation modeling was conducted to examine the direct and indirect effects of peer support on adolescents' PA. Peer support did not directly impact PA. Rather, peer support indirectly influenced PA through either self-efficacy or enjoyment, with self-efficacy demonstrating a stronger mediating effect. Additionally, we found a significant serial mediating effect with enjoyment, and self-efficacy sequentially mediated the relationship between peer support and PA. The findings highlight the role of self-efficacy and enjoyment as mediators connecting peer support and PA. Self-efficacy seems to be more important, as it demonstrated a significantly greater mediating effect. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  4. Role of Mediator in Regulating Pol II Elongation and Nucleosome Displacement in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Selena B.; Kim, Sunyoung; Jeon, Jeong Ok; Moustafa, Yara W.; Chen, Apeng; Zhao, Jing; Gross, David S.

    2012-01-01

    Mediator is a modular multisubunit complex that functions as a critical coregulator of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcription. While it is well accepted that Mediator plays important roles in the assembly and function of the preinitiation complex (PIC), less is known of its potential roles in regulating downstream steps of the transcription cycle. Here we use a combination of genetic and molecular approaches to investigate Mediator regulation of Pol II elongation in the model eukaryote, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We find that ewe (expression without heat shock element) mutations in conserved Mediator subunits Med7, Med14, Med19, and Med21—all located within or adjacent to the middle module—severely diminish heat-shock–induced expression of the Hsf1-regulated HSP82 gene. Interestingly, these mutations do not impede Pol II recruitment to the gene’s promoter but instead impair its transit through the coding region. This implies that a normal function of Mediator is to regulate a postinitiation step at HSP82. In addition, displacement of histones from promoter and coding regions, a hallmark of activated heat-shock genes, is significantly impaired in the med14 and med21 mutants. Suggestive of a more general role, ewe mutations confer hypersensitivity to the anti-elongation drug 6-azauracil (6-AU) and one of them—med21—impairs Pol II processivity on a GAL1-regulated reporter gene. Taken together, our results suggest that yeast Mediator, acting principally through its middle module, can regulate Pol II elongation at both heat-shock and non–heat-shock genes. PMID:22377631

  5. Role stressors and job attitudes: a mediated model of leader-member exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui-Ping; Tsingan, Li; Zhang, Long-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Workers with high levels of role stressors have been known to report low job satisfaction and high turnover intention. However, how the role stressors-job attitudes relationship is influenced by leader-member exchange has hardly been studied. This study examined the effect of leader-member exchange (leader support) on the relationship between chronic role stressors (i.e., role ambiguity and role conflict) and job attitudes (i.e., job satisfaction and turnover intention). Employees (N = 162) who enrolled in weekend psychology courses were investigated. The results showed that leader-member exchange mediated the effects of role stressors on job satisfaction and turnover intention. Implications of these results are discussed and directions for future research are suggested.

  6. Emotional Eating Mediates the Relationship Between Role Stress and Obesity in Clergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manister, Nancy N; Gigliotti, Eileen

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between role stress, emotional eating, and obesity in clergy. A random sample of United States Lutheran Church Missouri Synod clergy who met the study criteria (N = 430), response rate 38%, completed the Role Stress and Emotional Eating Behavior Scales, and self-reported height and weight for Body Mass Index (BMI) calculation. Obesity was high (81.4% overweight/obese, 36.7% obese), and emotional eating partially mediated the relationship between role stress and obesity. This study tested relations of the Neuman Systems Model. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Mediating Role of Mindfulness on the Associations of Friendship Quality and Subjective Vitality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Umran; Akin, Ahmet; Uğur, Erol

    2016-10-01

    This research investigated the mediator role of mindfulness on the relationship between friendship quality and subjective vitality. Participants were 273 university students (M age = 21 years, SD = 1.1) who completed a questionnaire package that included the Friendship Quality Scale, the Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale, and the Subjective Vitality Scale. Both mindfulness and subjective vitality were correlated positively with friendship quality and subjective vitality was correlated positively with mindfulness. Mindfulness mediated the relationship between friendship quality and subjective vitality. Together, the findings illuminate the importance of friendship quality in psychological and cognitive adjustment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Mediated Effects of Technology Competencies and Experiences on Relations among Attitudes towards Technology Use, Technology Ownership, and Self Efficacy about Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerdelen-Damar, Sevda; Boz, Yezdan; Aydin-Günbatar, Sevgi

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the relations of preservice science teachers' attitudes towards technology use, technology ownership, technology competencies, and experiences to their self-efficacy beliefs about technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK). The present study also investigated interrelations among preservice teachers' attitudes towards…

  9. The Role of New Technology in Campus Activities: An Update for Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greig, Rick E.

    1998-01-01

    A discussion of current uses of technology in campus activities programming looks at what is meant by "new technology"; the range of uses of technology in this field; the role and impact of the interactive aspects of information technology; how technology affects how professionals educate, advise, and train students; and dealing with students who…

  10. The influence of gender on entrepreneurial intention: The mediating role of perceptual factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Camelo-Ordaz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The empirical evidence devoted to analyze the impact of perceptual factors in explaining the differences in the entrepreneurial intention of men and women is still limited and not entirely conclusive (Shinnar et al., 2012; Wilson et al., 2009. This non-conclusive research is significantly more noteworthy when the analysis is focused on the entrepreneurial intention of men and women once they become entrepreneurs. Drawing on this gap and taking as starting point the premises of Social Feminist Theory, our paper aims to examine the mediating role of perceptual factors on the relationship between gender and entrepreneurial intention of non-entrepreneurs and entrepreneurs. Drawing on a sample provided by the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Project of 21,697 Spanish non-entrepreneurs and 2899 Spanish entrepreneurs, our results have shown that, in general terms, perceptual factor fully mediate the relationship between gender and the entrepreneurial intention of non-entrepreneurs, whereas such mediating impact disappears when people become entrepreneurs.

  11. Materialism and addictive buying in women: the mediating role of anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero-López, José Manuel; Villardefrancos, Estíbaliz

    2013-08-01

    There is empirical evidence regarding the interrelationships between materialism, negative emotions, and addictive buying. The aim of this study was to clarify the direction of the relationships among these variables. Specifically, the main objective was to explore the possible mediating roles of anxiety and depression in the link between materialism and addictive buying. Path analysis results, using a sample of 685 women, generally supported the suitability of the proposed model in which anxiety and depression mediated the effects of the materialism dimensions, "importance" and "success," on addictive buying, and that depression also mediates the influence of the "importance" and "happiness" dimensions. Moreover, a direct effect of the importance dimension on addictive buying was found.

  12. Job insecurity and job performance: The moderating role of organizational justice and the mediating role of work engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-jiang; Lu, Chang-qin; Siu, Oi-ling

    2015-07-01

    Organizational justice has been shown to play an important role in employees' affective and performance outcomes particularly in uncertain contexts. In this study, we investigated the interaction effect of job insecurity and organizational justice on employees' performance, and examined the mediating role of work engagement from the perspective of uncertainty management theory. We used 2-wave data (Study 1) from a sample of 140 Chinese employees and 3-wave data (Study 2) from a sample of 125 Chinese employees to test our hypotheses. In Study 1, we found that when employees perceived low levels of organizational justice, job insecurity was significantly negatively related to job performance. In contrast, we found that job insecurity was not related to job performance when there were high levels of organizational justice. Study 2 again supported the interaction of job insecurity and organizational justice on job performance. Furthermore, it was found that work engagement mediated the interaction effect. The results of the mediated moderation analysis revealed that job insecurity was negatively associated with job performance through work engagement when organizational justice was low. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. A comparison of technologically mediated and face-to-face help-seeking sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Philip M; Sperling, Rayne A

    2015-12-01

    Current post-secondary school students have access to multiple help-seeking sources. As help-seeking behaviour relates to academic achievement, the provision of preferred help sources would be beneficial to students, instructors, and course designers. This study examines whether students prefer and intend to utilize technologically mediated or face-to-face help-seeking sources. Participants (n = 226) were recruited from two sections of an on campus, introductory, educational psychology class. An online survey was distributed containing measures of help-seeking threat, adaptive help-seeking tendencies, avoidant help-seeking tendencies, and the intention to seek help from six sources. Correlations and an ANOVA were calculated to determine whether source preferences differed by self-reported course grade. Help-seeking threat was only negatively associated with sources of help that required face-to-face interaction. Despite the threat, students intended to use face-to-face help-seeking sources more than technologically mediated sources. Students intended to seek help the most before or after class, via email, or during class. Students intended to seek help the least through the discussion board and during online office hours. Higher performing students preferred face-to-face sources, particularly before or after class and during class, more than lower performing students. Lower performing students intended to use mediated sources especially the discussion board and online office hours more than the higher performing students. The results provide new insights into the help-seeking process and suggestions for instructors when allocating time and classroom resources. Additionally, the study illustrates the need for continual refinement of a help-seeking source classification system. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  14. Social capital and health in China: exploring the mediating role of lifestyle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xindong Xue

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although social capital as a key determinant of health has been well established in various studies, little is known about how lifestyle factors mediate this relationship. Understanding the cross-relationships between social capital, health, and lifestyle factors is important if health promotion policies are to be effective. The purpose of this study is to explore whether different dimensions of social capital and lifestyle factors are related, and whether lifestyle factors mediate the association between social capital and self-rated health (SRH and psychological well-being (PWB in China. Methods This study used nationally representative data from the 2014 China Family Panel Studies (n = 28,916. The data reported on three dimensions of individual-level social capital: social trust, social relationship and Chinese Communist Party (CCP membership. Health was assessed using SRH and PWB. Five lifestyle indicators were recorded: healthy diet, physical activity, smoking, sleeping, and non-overweight status. Logistic regression was used to examine the associations between social capital and lifestyle factors, and whether there was a mediating role of lifestyle. Odds ratios relating health status to social capital were reported before and after adjustment for lifestyle factors. Mediation analysis was then used to calculate the total, direct and indirect effects of social capital on SRH and PWB. Results The results show that social trust was significantly associated with all five lifestyle factors. Social relationship was significantly associated with four of the five: healthy diet, physical activity, sleeping and non-overweight. CCP membership was only significantly associated with two lifestyle factors: physical activity and non-overweight. Social trust and social relationship were significantly related to both SRH and PWB. CCP membership was only significantly related to SRH. Mediation analysis found modest evidence that

  15. Social capital and health in China: exploring the mediating role of lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xindong; Cheng, Mingmei

    2017-11-06

    Although social capital as a key determinant of health has been well established in various studies, little is known about how lifestyle factors mediate this relationship. Understanding the cross-relationships between social capital, health, and lifestyle factors is important if health promotion policies are to be effective. The purpose of this study is to explore whether different dimensions of social capital and lifestyle factors are related, and whether lifestyle factors mediate the association between social capital and self-rated health (SRH) and psychological well-being (PWB) in China. This study used nationally representative data from the 2014 China Family Panel Studies (n = 28,916). The data reported on three dimensions of individual-level social capital: social trust, social relationship and Chinese Communist Party (CCP) membership. Health was assessed using SRH and PWB. Five lifestyle indicators were recorded: healthy diet, physical activity, smoking, sleeping, and non-overweight status. Logistic regression was used to examine the associations between social capital and lifestyle factors, and whether there was a mediating role of lifestyle. Odds ratios relating health status to social capital were reported before and after adjustment for lifestyle factors. Mediation analysis was then used to calculate the total, direct and indirect effects of social capital on SRH and PWB. The results show that social trust was significantly associated with all five lifestyle factors. Social relationship was significantly associated with four of the five: healthy diet, physical activity, sleeping and non-overweight. CCP membership was only significantly associated with two lifestyle factors: physical activity and non-overweight. Social trust and social relationship were significantly related to both SRH and PWB. CCP membership was only significantly related to SRH. Mediation analysis found modest evidence that lifestyle factors influenced the relationship between all

  16. Differential role of lipocalin-2 during immune-complex mediated acute and chronic inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashidharamurthy, Rangaiah; Machiah, Deepa; Aitken, Jesse D; Putty, Kalyani; Srinivasan, Gayathri; Chassaing, Benoit; Parkos, Charles A; Selvaraj, Periasamy; Vijay-Kumar, Matam

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Lipocalin-2 (Lcn2) is an innate immune protein expressed by a variety of cells and is highly upregulated during several pathological conditions including immune-complex (IC) mediated inflammatory/autoimmune disorders. However, the function of Lcn2 during IC-mediated inflammation is largely unknown. Therefore our objective was to investigate the role of Lcn2 in IC-mediated diseases. Methods The upregulation of Lcn2 was determined by ELISA in three different mouse models of IC-mediated autoimmune disease: systemic lupus erythematosus, collagen-induced arthritis and serum-induced arthritis. The in vivo role of Lcn2 during IC-mediated inflammation was investigated using Lcn2 knockout (Lcn2KO) mice and their wild type (WT) littermates. Results Lcn2 levels were significantly elevated in all the three autoimmune disease models. Further, in an acute skin inflammation model, Lcn2KO mice demonstrated a 50% reduction in inflammation with histopathological analysis revealing strikingly reduced immune cell infiltration compared to WT mice. Administration of recombinant Lcn2 to Lcn2KO mice restored inflammation to levels observed in WT mice. Neutralization of Lcn2 using a monoclonal antibody significantly reduced inflammation in WT mice. In contrast, Lcn2KO mice developed more severe serum-induced arthritis compared to WT mice. Histological analysis revealed extensive tissue and bone destruction with significantly reduced neutrophil infiltration but considerably more macrophage migration in Lcn2KO mice when compared to WT. Conclusion These results demonstrate that Lcn2 may regulate immune cell recruitment to the site of inflammation, a process essential for the controlled initiation, perpetuation and resolution of inflammatory processes. Thus, Lcn2 may present a promising target in the treatment of IC-mediated inflammatory/autoimmune diseases. PMID:23280250

  17. Role of deoxyribonucleic acid technology in forensic dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Pankaj; Datta, Sonia Sood

    2012-01-01

    In the last few years, Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) analysis methods have been applied to forensic cases. Forensic dental record comparison has been used for human identification in cases where destruction of bodily tissues or prolonged exposure to the environment has made other means of identification impractical, that is, after fire exposure or mass disaster. Teeth play an important role in identification and criminology, due to their unique characteristics and relatively high degree of physical and chemical resistance. The use of a DNA profile test in forensic dentistry offers a new perspective in human identification. The DNA is responsible for storing all the genetic material and is unique to each individual. The currently available DNA tests have high reliability and are accepted as legal proofs in courts. This article gives an overview of the evolution of DNA technology in the last few years, highlighting its importance in cases of forensic investigation. PMID:23087582

  18. Use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and Perceived Health in Adolescence: The Role of Sleeping Habits and Waking-Time Tiredness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punamaki, Raija-Leena; Wallenius, Marjut; Nygard, Clase-Hakan; Saarni, Lea; Rimpela, Arja

    2007-01-01

    The first aim for this paper was to examine gender and age differences in the intensity of usage of information and communication technology (ICT: computer for digital playing, writing and e-mailing and communication, and Internet surfing, and mobile phone). Second, we modelled the possible mediating role of sleeping habits and waking-time…

  19. Motivation toward Physical Exercise and Subjective Wellbeing: The Mediating Role of Trait Self-Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Briki

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Motivation toward physical exercise (MPE and trait self-control (TSC were identified as key predictors of subjective wellbeing (SWB. However, there has not been any research designed to examine the mediating role of TSC in the relationship between MPE and SWB. The present study utilizes self-determination theory, control-process theory of self-regulation, and theory of multiple pathways of TSC in order to examine whether TSC mediates the relationships of autonomous MPE (A-MPE, controlled MPE (C-MPE, and impersonal MPE (NO-MPE with SWB using structural equation modeling (XLSTAT PLS. Three hundred seventeen adult American individuals (Mage = 32.97, SDage = 11.30, who reported to be regular exercisers, voluntarily answered questionnaires assessing MPE, TSC, and SWB. Correlational analyses revealed positive relationships between A-MPE, TSC, and SWB, and negative relationships of C-MPE and NO-MPE with TSC and SWB. Mediation analyses revealed that TSC mediated the relationships of A-MPE (partial mediation and C-MPE (full mediation with SWB, but did not mediate the relationship between NO-MPE and SWB. The estimates of the quality of the hypothesized model were acceptable (outer model GoF = .935; absolute GoF = .330; relative GoF = .942; inner model GoF = 1.008; R2 = 36.947%. Finally, this study supports the view that MPE can influence SWB through TSC, and incites to pursue the examination of the relationships between self-determined motivation, self-regulation mechanisms, and health-related outcomes.

  20. Motivation toward Physical Exercise and Subjective Wellbeing: The Mediating Role of Trait Self-Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briki, Walid

    2016-01-01

    Motivation toward physical exercise (MPE) and trait self-control (TSC) were identified as key predictors of subjective wellbeing (SWB). However, there has not been any research designed to examine the mediating role of TSC in the relationship between MPE and SWB. The present study utilizes self-determination theory, control-process theory of self-regulation, and theory of multiple pathways of TSC in order to examine whether TSC mediates the relationships of autonomous MPE (A-MPE), controlled MPE (C-MPE), and impersonal MPE (NO-MPE) with SWB using structural equation modeling (XLSTAT PLS). Three hundred seventeen adult American individuals (Mage = 32.97, SDage = 11.30), who reported to be regular exercisers, voluntarily answered questionnaires assessing MPE, TSC, and SWB. Correlational analyses revealed positive relationships between A-MPE, TSC, and SWB, and negative relationships of C-MPE and NO-MPE with TSC and SWB. Mediation analyses revealed that TSC mediated the relationships of A-MPE (partial mediation) and C-MPE (full mediation) with SWB, but did not mediate the relationship between NO-MPE and SWB. The estimates of the quality of the hypothesized model were acceptable (outer model GoF = 0.935; absolute GoF = 0.330; relative GoF = 0.942; inner model GoF = 1.008; R2 = 36.947%). Finally, this study supports the view that MPE can influence SWB through TSC, and incites to pursue the examination of the relationships between self-determined motivation, self-regulation mechanisms, and health-related outcomes. PMID:27761126

  1. Role of CD137 signaling in dengue virus-mediated apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagila, Amar; Netsawang, Janjuree; Srisawat, Chatchawan; Noisakran, Sansanee; Morchang, Atthapan; Yasamut, Umpa; Puttikhunt, Chunya; Kasinrerk, Watchara

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → For the first time the role of CD137 in dengue virus (DENV) infection. → Induction of DENV-mediated apoptosis by CD137 signaling. → Sensitization to CD137-mediated apoptosis by dengue virus capsid protein (DENV C). → Nuclear localization of DENV C is required for CD137-mediated apoptosis. -- Abstract: Hepatic dysfunction is a well recognized feature of dengue virus (DENV) infection. However, molecular mechanisms of hepatic injury are still poorly understood. A complex interaction between DENV and the host immune response contributes to DENV-mediated tissue injury. DENV capsid protein (DENV C) physically interacts with the human death domain-associated protein Daxx. A double substitution mutation in DENV C (R85A/K86A) abrogates Daxx interaction, nuclear localization and apoptosis. Therefore we compared the expression of cell death genes between HepG2 cells expressing DENV C and DENV C (R85A/K86A) using a real-time PCR array. Expression of CD137, which is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family, increased significantly in HepG2 cells expressing DENV C compared to HepG2 cells expressing DENV C (R85A/K86A). In addition, CD137-mediated apoptotic activity in HepG2 cells expressing DENV C was significantly increased by anti-CD137 antibody compared to that of HepG2 cells expressing DENV C (R85A/K86A). In DENV-infected HepG2 cells, CD137 mRNA and CD137 positive cells significantly increased and CD137-mediated apoptotic activity was increased by anti-CD137 antibody. This work is the first to demonstrate the contribution of CD137 signaling to DENV-mediated apoptosis.

  2. Role of CD137 signaling in dengue virus-mediated apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagila, Amar [Medical Molecular Biology Unit, Office for Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Netsawang, Janjuree [Faculty of Medical Technology, Rangsit University, Bangkok (Thailand); Srisawat, Chatchawan [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Noisakran, Sansanee [Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever Research Unit, Office for Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Medical Biotechnology Unit, National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, National Science and Technology Development Agency, Bangkok (Thailand); Morchang, Atthapan; Yasamut, Umpa [Medical Molecular Biology Unit, Office for Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Puttikhunt, Chunya [Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever Research Unit, Office for Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Medical Biotechnology Unit, National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, National Science and Technology Development Agency, Bangkok (Thailand); Kasinrerk, Watchara [Division of Clinical Immunology, Department of Medical Technology, Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai (Thailand); Biomedical Technology Research Center, National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, National Science and Technology Development Agency at Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai (Thailand); and others

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} For the first time the role of CD137 in dengue virus (DENV) infection. {yields} Induction of DENV-mediated apoptosis by CD137 signaling. {yields} Sensitization to CD137-mediated apoptosis by dengue virus capsid protein (DENV C). {yields} Nuclear localization of DENV C is required for CD137-mediated apoptosis. -- Abstract: Hepatic dysfunction is a well recognized feature of dengue virus (DENV) infection. However, molecular mechanisms of hepatic injury are still poorly understood. A complex interaction between DENV and the host immune response contributes to DENV-mediated tissue injury. DENV capsid protein (DENV C) physically interacts with the human death domain-associated protein Daxx. A double substitution mutation in DENV C (R85A/K86A) abrogates Daxx interaction, nuclear localization and apoptosis. Therefore we compared the expression of cell death genes between HepG2 cells expressing DENV C and DENV C (R85A/K86A) using a real-time PCR array. Expression of CD137, which is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family, increased significantly in HepG2 cells expressing DENV C compared to HepG2 cells expressing DENV C (R85A/K86A). In addition, CD137-mediated apoptotic activity in HepG2 cells expressing DENV C was significantly increased by anti-CD137 antibody compared to that of HepG2 cells expressing DENV C (R85A/K86A). In DENV-infected HepG2 cells, CD137 mRNA and CD137 positive cells significantly increased and CD137-mediated apoptotic activity was increased by anti-CD137 antibody. This work is the first to demonstrate the contribution of CD137 signaling to DENV-mediated apoptosis.

  3. Effects of role stress on nurses' turnover intentions: The mediating effects of organizational commitment and burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sang-Sook; Han, Jeong-Won; An, Young-Suk; Lim, So-Hee

    2015-10-01

    This paper was designed to extend the extant research regarding factors related to nurses' turnover intentions. This survey-based study was based on a path analysis designed to verify a hypothesized causal model involving nurses' role stress, organizational commitment, turnover intentions, and burnout. This study distributed 500 questionnaires to nurses in general hospitals with more than 500 beds located in Seoul, Korea, during 16-30 April 2012. Role conflict, an underlying factor in role stress, had no significant effect on role stress, but the results showed that role ambiguity reduced organizational commitment. On the other hand, role conflict and role ambiguity increased the level of burnout. Organizational commitment reduced turnover intentions, and burnout increased turnover intentions. Role conflict and role ambiguity had no direct effect on turnover intentions, but they had indirect effects on organizational commitment and burnout. To reduce nurses' turnover rate, this study recommends developing plans to improve their organizational commitment because it mediates role stress and turnover intention. © 2014 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2014 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  4. Core self-evaluation and burnout among Nurses: the mediating role of coping styles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofei Li

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the potential association between core self-evaluation and the burnout syndrome among Chinese nurses, and the mediating role of coping styles in this relationship. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Shenyang, China, from May to July, 2013. A questionnaire which consisted of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS, the Core Self-Evaluation Scale (CSE, and the Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire (CSQ, was completed by a total of 1,559 nurses. Hierarchical linear regression analyses and the Sobel test were performed to determine the mediating role of coping styles on the relationship between CSE and burnout. RESULTS: Nurses who had higher self-evaluation characteristics, reported less emotional exhaustion and cynicism, and higher professional efficacy. Coping style had a partial mediating effect on the relationship between CSE and the burnout syndrome among nurses. CONCLUSIONS: Core self-evaluation had effects on burnout and coping style was a mediating factor in this relationship among Chinese nurses. Therefore, the improvement of coping strategies may be helpful in the prevention of burnout among nurses, thus enhancing professional performance.

  5. Core self-evaluation and burnout among Nurses: the mediating role of coping styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaofei; Guan, Lili; Chang, Hui; Zhang, Bo

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the potential association between core self-evaluation and the burnout syndrome among Chinese nurses, and the mediating role of coping styles in this relationship. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Shenyang, China, from May to July, 2013. A questionnaire which consisted of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS), the Core Self-Evaluation Scale (CSE), and the Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire (CSQ), was completed by a total of 1,559 nurses. Hierarchical linear regression analyses and the Sobel test were performed to determine the mediating role of coping styles on the relationship between CSE and burnout. Nurses who had higher self-evaluation characteristics, reported less emotional exhaustion and cynicism, and higher professional efficacy. Coping style had a partial mediating effect on the relationship between CSE and the burnout syndrome among nurses. Core self-evaluation had effects on burnout and coping style was a mediating factor in this relationship among Chinese nurses. Therefore, the improvement of coping strategies may be helpful in the prevention of burnout among nurses, thus enhancing professional performance.

  6. Core Self-Evaluation and Burnout among Nurses: The Mediating Role of Coping Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaofei; Guan, Lili; Chang, Hui; Zhang, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to determine the potential association between core self-evaluation and the burnout syndrome among Chinese nurses, and the mediating role of coping styles in this relationship. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Shenyang, China, from May to July, 2013. A questionnaire which consisted of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS), the Core Self-Evaluation Scale (CSE), and the Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire (CSQ), was completed by a total of 1,559 nurses. Hierarchical linear regression analyses and the Sobel test were performed to determine the mediating role of coping styles on the relationship between CSE and burnout. Results Nurses who had higher self-evaluation characteristics, reported less emotional exhaustion and cynicism, and higher professional efficacy. Coping style had a partial mediating effect on the relationship between CSE and the burnout syndrome among nurses. Conclusions Core self-evaluation had effects on burnout and coping style was a mediating factor in this relationship among Chinese nurses. Therefore, the improvement of coping strategies may be helpful in the prevention of burnout among nurses, thus enhancing professional performance. PMID:25541990

  7. The role of sleep in aesthetic perception and empathy: A mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretti, Sara; Tempesta, Daniela; Socci, Valentina; Pino, Maria C; Mazza, Monica; Valenti, Marco; De Gennaro, Luigi; Di Dio, Cinzia; Marchetti, Antonella; Ferrara, Michele

    2018-02-06

    The ability to experience aesthetics plays a fundamental role in human social interactions, as well as the capacity to feel empathy. Some studies have shown that beauty perception shares part of the neural network underlying emotional and empathic abilities, which are also known to affect sleep quality and duration. In this study, we evaluated for the first time the effects of sleep on the relation between aesthetic perception and empathic abilities in healthy subjects using a mediation analysis approach. One-hundred and twenty-six subjects participated in this study. One-hundred and one subjects slept at home (Sleep Group). The remaining 25 subjects were tested as controls after 1 night of sleep deprivation to assess the effects of lack of sleep on aesthetic perception and empathy (Sleep-Deprived Group). All participants underwent one testing session in which they performed a battery of empathy tests and an aesthetic perception task (Golden Beauty). The results showed that sleep duration mediates the relationship between empathy and aesthetic perception in the sleep group. The mediation effect of sleep was more evident on the emotional empathy measures. Conversely, in the sleep deprivation group the lack of correlations among empathy, aesthetic perception and sleep variables did not allow to perform the mediation analysis. These results suggest that adequate sleep duration may play a significant role in improving cognitive and emotional empathic abilities as well as the capability to give accurate aesthetic judgements. © 2018 European Sleep Research Society.

  8. Cumulative trauma, gender discrimination and mental health in women: mediating role of self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharska, Justyna

    2017-12-20

    Evidence suggests that women show symptoms of trauma-related symptoms more often than men. Gender discrimination is also associated with the severity of symptoms in women. This study explored the relations among cumulative trauma, gender discrimination and mental health in women with a mediating role of self-esteem and emotion regulation. Two types of gender discrimination were taken into account: discrimination by parents and in the social context. Cumulative trauma over the lifetime was assessed, as well as three types of symptoms: internalising, externalising, psychoticism. A total of 277 females from Poland participated in the study. It was hypothesised that gender discrimination and cumulative trauma would be positively related to symptoms and that lowered self-esteem mediates these relations. Hypotheses received partial confirmation, as both gender discrimination and cumulative trauma have been shown to be related to three types of symptoms. Self-esteem was a partial mediator between gender discrimination in the social context and symptoms. It was also demonstrated that emotion suppression is a partial mediator between cumulative trauma and symptoms. It has been demonstrated that socio-cultural factors, such as gender discrimination, play an important role in psychiatric symptoms development.

  9. The mediator role of emotion regulation processes on infertility-related stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galhardo, Ana; Cunha, M; Pinto-Gouveia, J; Matos, M

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate gender differences regarding the mediator role of self-compassion and self-judgment on the effects of external shame, internal shame, dyadic adjustment, on infertility-related stress. One hundred and sixty-two women and 147 men with a primary infertility diagnosis completed the following set of self-report measures: Others as Shamer, Experience of Shame Scale, Dyadic Adjustment Scale, Self-Compassion Scale, and Fertility Problem Inventory. Path analyses results revealed that in women self-compassion fully mediated the effect of internal shame on infertility-related stress and partially mediated the effect of dyadic adjustment on this variable, while external shame had only a direct effect. In men self-judgment fully mediated the effect of external and internal shame on infertility-related stress. Dyadic adjustment had only a direct effect on infertility-related stress. In conclusion, there is a distinct role of self-compassion and self-judgment on the relationship between shame and infertility-related stress in men and women. Such differences should be taken into account in psychological interventions with these patients. Future research is warranted to further support our results.

  10. The Mediating Role of Conscientiousness Personality Characteristic in Relationship between Attitude toward Addiction and Academic Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rezaei

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study is aimed at examining the mediating role of personality trait of conscientiousness in the relationship between attitudes towards addiction (which is considered to be a barrier to educational achievement and students’ academic performance. Method: As a cross sectional study lying within the range of descriptive studies, 106 students of Guilan University of medical sciences in 2010-2011 were randomly selected as the study sample and responded to the items of subscale conscientiousnessof NEO Personality Inventory and attitude measurement questionnaire toward addiction. Recent acquired total averages of students were considered as academic performance. Findings: In the first step, the academic performance regression was significant aboard tendency towards addiction. In the second step, however, with entry of conscientiousness as a mediator variable , there was observed a significant decrease in the β coefficient of attitude toward addiction and lost its significance. In other words, the mediator variable, consciousness, plays a mediating part in the relationship between tendency to addiction and educational performance. In general, these two variables could moderately explain 12% of the variance in academic performance to make the adjustment. Conclusion: Conscientious people enjoy higher achievement and lower degree often tendency toward addiction due to such factors as self-regulation, perseverance, and resistance against harmful impulses. Therefore,the personality trait of conscientiousness can counteract the detrimental effect of attitude toward addiction on academic performance through performing a protective role.

  11. A role for host cell exocytosis in InlB-mediated internalisation of Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ngo, Hoan; Bhalla, Manmeet; Chen, Da-Yuan; Ireton, Keith

    2017-11-01

    The bacterial surface protein InlB mediates internalisation of Listeria monocytogenes into human cells through interaction with the host receptor tyrosine kinase, Met. InlB-mediated entry requires localised polymerisation of the host actin cytoskeleton. Apart from actin polymerisation, roles for other host processes in Listeria entry are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that exocytosis in the human cell promotes InlB-dependent internalisation. Using a probe consisting of VAMP3 with an exofacial green fluorescent protein tag, focal exocytosis was detected during InlB-mediated entry. Exocytosis was dependent on Met tyrosine kinase activity and the GTPase RalA. Depletion of SNARE proteins by small interfering RNA demonstrated an important role for exocytosis in Listeria internalisation. Depletion of SNARE proteins failed to affect actin filaments during internalisation, suggesting that actin polymerisation and exocytosis are separable host responses. SNARE proteins were required for delivery of the human GTPase Dynamin 2, which promotes InlB-mediated entry. Our results identify exocytosis as a novel host process exploited by Listeria for infection. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The mediating role of optimism on post-radiation quality of life in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Clara L M; Fielding, Richard; Chan, Cecilia L W

    2003-02-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is prevalent in southern China. In non-welfare countries, eating difficulties after radiotherapy may hinder NPC patients' short-term quality of life (QoL) especially regarding work and finance. This study explored the positive mediating role of optimism on the relationship between eating ability and QoL of Chinese NPC patients who received radiotherapy in Hong Kong. A sample of 211 newly referred patients were recruited and followed-up face-to-face or by telephone at four (post-radiation 1) (FU 1) and eight (post-radiation 2) (FU 2) months from baseline. QoL was measured by the FACT-G (Chinese). Optimism and eating ability were measured by two 11-point self-rated items. Mediating effects were tested with a series of multiple regression models. After adjustment for pre-radiation QoL, socioeconomic status and cancer stage, optimism significantly mediated the relationship between eating ability at FU 1 and overall QoL at FU 2, in particular physical and social/family well-being. This study is the first to underpin the mediating role of optimism on QoL of NPC patients. Faced with aversive side-effects of radiotherapy, facilitating positive thinking in Chinese NPC patients may accelerate their short-term post-radiation adjustment.

  13. Trauma or growth after a natural disaster? The mediating role of rumination processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe E. García

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test a cognitive model of posttraumatic symptoms (PTS and posttraumatic growth (PTG after exposure to a natural disaster. It was hypothesized that although subjective severity of trauma would be related to the severity of PTS, this relation would be mediated by brooding and cognitive strategies related to the presence of repetitive negative content in thoughts. Furthermore, the relation between severity and PTG would be fully mediated by deliberate rumination (DR, cognitive strategies related to conscious efforts focused on handling the event. To evaluate the cognitive model, adults (N=351 who lost their homes as a result of the earthquake and tsunami that occurred in Chile on February 27, 2010, were selected. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data. The resulting model had adequate indices of goodness adjustment and showed that brooding completely mediated the relation between subjective severity and PTS, and DR completely mediated the relation between subjective severity, brooding, and PTG. These results highlight the role of both the content and process of rumination in mediating the association between subjective severity of trauma, PTS, and PTG. The implications of these results for a more comprehensive model of symptom severity that occurs after trauma are discussed.

  14. Social networking sites and mental health problems in adolescents: The mediating role of cyberbullying victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, H; Hamilton, H A

    2015-11-01

    Previous research has suggested an association between the use of social networking sites (SNSs) and mental health problems such as psychological distress, suicidal ideation and attempts in adolescents. However, little is known about the factors that might mediate these relationships. The present study examined the link between the use of social networking sites and psychological distress, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, and tested the mediating role of cyberbullying victimization on these associations in adolescents. The sample consisted of a group of 11-to-20-year-old individuals (n=5126, 48% females; mean±SD age: 15.2±1.9 years) who completed the mental health portion of the Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS) in 2013. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to test the mediation models. After adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, subjective socioeconomic status (SES), and parental education, use of SNSs was associated with psychological distress (adjusted odds ratio, 95% confidence interval=2.03, 1.22-3.37), suicidal ideation (3.44, 1.54-7.66) and attempts (5.10, 1.45-17.88). Cyberbullying victimization was found to fully mediate the relationships between the use of SNSs with psychological distress and attempts; whereas, it partially mediated the link between the use of SNSs and suicidal ideation. Findings provide supporting evidence that addressing cyberbullying victimization and the use of SNSs among adolescents may help reduce the risk of mental health problems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Burnout and health among critical care professionals: The mediational role of resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrogante, Oscar; Aparicio-Zaldivar, Eva

    2017-10-01

    To analyse the mediational role of resilience in relationships between burnout and health in critical care professionals; to determine relationships among resilience level, three burnout dimensions, and physical/mental health; and to establish demographic differences in psychological variables evaluated. Cross-sectional study. A total of 52 critical care professionals, mainly nurses, were recruited from an intensive care unit of Madrid (Spain). All participants were assessed with the questionnaires 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey, and Short Form-12 Health Survey. No demographic differences were found. Three burnout dimensions were negatively associated with mental health and resilience. Mediational analyses revealed resilience mediated 1) the relationships between emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation with mental health (partial mediations) and 2) the relationship between personal accomplishment and mental health (total mediation). Resilience minimises and buffers the impact of negative outcomes of workplace stress on mental health of critical care professionals. As a result, resilience prevents the occurrence of burnout syndrome. Resilience improves not only their mental health, but also their ability to practice effectively. It is therefore imperative to develop resilience programs for critical care nurses in nursing schools, universities and health centres. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Childhood trauma and eating psychopathology: a mediating role for dissociation and emotion dysregulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulton, Stuart J; Newman, Emily; Power, Kevin; Swanson, Vivien; Day, Kenny

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between different forms of childhood trauma and eating psychopathology using a multiple mediation model that included emotion dysregulation and dissociation as hypothesised mediators. 142 female undergraduate psychology students studying at two British Universities participated in this cross-sectional study. Participants completed measures of childhood trauma (emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional neglect and physical neglect), eating psychopathology, dissociation and emotion dysregulation. Multiple mediation analysis was conducted to investigate the study's proposed model. Results revealed that the multiple mediation model significantly predicted eating psychopathology. Additionally, both emotion dysregulation and dissociation were found to be significant mediators between childhood trauma and eating psychopathology. A specific indirect effect was observed between childhood emotional abuse and eating psychopathology through emotion dysregulation. Findings support previous research linking childhood trauma to eating psychopathology. They indicate that multiple forms of childhood trauma should be assessed for individuals with eating disorders. The possible maintaining role of emotion regulation processes should also be considered in the treatment of eating disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sedentary behaviour and social anxiety in obese individuals: the mediating role of body esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Abbas; Abu Talib, Mansor

    2015-01-01

    Given that the prevalence of social anxiety in obese individuals is high, it is necessary that we increase our knowledge about the related factors that cause social anxiety in obese individuals. The present study sought to examine the role of body esteem as a mediator between sedentary behaviour and social anxiety. The participants were 207 overweight and obese individuals who completed the self-report measures. The structural equation modelling displayed that obese individuals with sedentary behaviour and poor body esteem were more likely to show social anxiety. Body esteem partially mediated between sedentary behaviour and social anxiety. Our results highlight the role of sedentary behaviour and body esteem as promising avenues for reducing social anxiety in obese individuals.

  18. The mediating role of parental expectations in culture and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Shigehiro; Sullivan, Helen W

    2005-10-01

    In two studies, we examined the role of perceived fulfillment of parental expectations in the subjective well-being of college students. In Study 1, we found that American college students reported having higher levels of life satisfaction and self-esteem than did Japanese college students. American college students also reported having fulfilled parental expectations to a greater degree than did Japanese college students. Most importantly, the cultural difference in well-being was mediated by perceived fulfillment of parental expectations. In Study 2, we replicated the mediational finding with Asian American and European American college students. Asian American participants also perceived their parents' expectations about their academic performance to be more specific than did European Americans, which was associated with the cultural difference in perceived fulfillment of parental expectations. In short, perceived parental expectations play an important role in the cultural difference in the well-being of Asians and European Americans.

  19. Sensation seeking and drunk driving: the mediational role of social norms and self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Iglesias, Beatriz; Gómez-Fraguela, José Antonio; Luengo, Ma Ángeles

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this work was to examine the role of sensation seeking in drunk driving by youths, and the potential mediational effect of social, cognitive and emotional variables on their relationship. To this end, a survey was conducted on 274 drivers (164 females and 110 males) aged 24.36±2.96 years (range 18-30 years). The results obtained confirm the significance of sensation seeking to drunk driving by youths and the mediating role of biased self-efficacy perceptions in their relationship. The important practical implications of this finding on the development of effective interventions to prevent the risks of drunk driving in youths are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of Role Ambiguity on Job Satisfaction, Mediating Role of Job Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Arif Khattak; Quarat-ul-Ain; Nadeem Iqbal

    2013-01-01

    In banking sector the retail banking is an important and generous sector of economy, however, generally it has been observed that job stress is increasing in this sector. Therefore, the study of the specific causes of job stress in the retail banking area should provide greater approach into both theory and managerial practices. Several Studies have been conducted on role ambiguity and job satisfaction. This study explored the relationship between role ambiguity, job stress and job satisfacti...

  1. The Changing Role of Librarians - Managing New Technologies in Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, J.-M.

    Never before have there been so many opportunities for involvement in an information-based society including electronic and multimedia publishing; local, national, and global networking; development of navigational and filtering tools for access to networked and non-electronic sources; and new modes for delivering information and educational programs. The base of recorded information is growing at an accelerating rate, in increasing varieties of formats (texts, numeric, graphic, video, audio, image, electronic, etc.). Furthermore, an increasing array of computing and telecommunications technologies are emerging to create new options and opportunities for the development of information capture, storage, retrieval, and delivery systems/services. These developments point toward increased difficulty for the information user to obtain needed information in the required time-frame, quantity, and level of detail. The role of information specialists is to facilitate the interactions between the potential information user community and the body of recorded information. The traditional information access and management roles played by the information professions are expanding, particularly in the design and development of new information products and services and of tools to support information seeking and selection, the analysis and synthesis of information content on behalf of users, and information user instruction. The emerging recognition of companies as learning organizations, reinvention of government agencies, new directions for education in universities, colleges, and schools, promise new opportunities for information specialists to reinforce and expand their facilitation of communication and learning processes in their organizations and communities.

  2. Core Self-Evaluation and Burnout among Nurses: The Mediating Role of Coping Styles

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiaofei; Guan, Lili; Chang, Hui; Zhang, Bo

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the potential association between core self-evaluation and the burnout syndrome among Chinese nurses, and the mediating role of coping styles in this relationship. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Shenyang, China, from May to July, 2013. A questionnaire which consisted of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS), the Core Self-Evaluation Scale (CSE), and the Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire (CSQ), was completed by a...

  3. The Effect of Self-esteem on Corrupt Intention: The Mediating Role of Materialism

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan Liang; Li Liu; Xuyun Tan; Zhenwei Huang; Jianning Dang; Wenwen Zheng

    2016-01-01

    The present set of studies aimed to explore the effect of self-esteem on corrupt intention and the mediating role of materialism in generating this effect. In Study 1, we used questionnaires to investigate the correlation among self-esteem, materialism, and corrupt intention. In Study 2, we manipulated self-esteem to explore the causal effect of self-esteem on materialism and corrupt intention. In Study 3, we manipulated materialism to examine whether inducing materialism can reduce the relat...

  4. THE ROLE OF CUSTOMER SATISFACTION IN MEDIATING MARKETING COMMUNICATION EFFECT ON CUSTOMER LOYALTY

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad Dimyati,

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to test the effect of a) marketing communication on customer satisfaction; b) marketing communication on customer loyalty; c) customer satisfaction on customer loyalty; and d) to identify the role of customer satisfaction in mediating marketing communication effect on customer loyalty of the IM3 user community in Jember regency, East Java province. The study was designed in a form confirmatory research, with the whole IM3 community members in the regency as the ...

  5. The Effect of Environmental Policy by Considering the Mediating Role of Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty

    OpenAIRE

    Safshekan, Sedigheh

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: This thesis aimed to explore the effects of environmental policies (EP) on three dependent variables including customer satisfaction (CS), customer loyalty (CL) and market performance (MP). It also investigated the effects of employing EP on hotel market performance by considering the mediating role of customer satisfaction and customer loyalty in this relationship. Through a quantitative research method, a survey questionnaire administered to international tourists and managers of ...

  6. Dieticians' intentions to recommend functional foods: The mediating role of consumption frequency of functional foods

    OpenAIRE

    Cha, Myeong Hwa; Lee, Jiyeon; Song, Mi Jung

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the conceptual framework of dieticians' intentions to recommend functional food and the mediating role of consumption frequency. A web-based survey was designed using a self-administered questionnaire. A sample of Korean dieticians (N=233) responded to the questionnaire that included response efficacy, risk perception, consumption frequency, and recommendation intention for functional foods. A structural equation model was constructed to analyze the data. We found that res...

  7. Leader-member exchange and safety citizenship behavior: The mediating role of coworker trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li; Li, Feng; Li, YongJuan; Li, Rui

    2017-01-01

    To achieve high safety levels, mere compliance with safety regulations is not sufficient; employees must be proactive and demonstrate safety citizenship behaviors. Trust is considered as a mechanism for facilitating the effects of a leader on employee citizenship behaviors. Increasingly research has focused on the role of trust in a safety context; however, the role of coworker trust has been overlooked. The mediating role of coworker trust in the relationship between the leader-member exchange and safety citizenship behavior is the focus of this field study. Front-line employees from an air traffic control center and an airline maintenance department completed surveys measuring leader-member exchange, co-worker trust, and safety citizenship behavior. Structural Equation Modeling revealed affective and cognitive trust in coworkers is influenced by leader-member exchange. A trust-based mediation model where cognitive trust and affective trust mediate the relationship between the leader-member exchange and safety citizenship behavior emerged. Results of this study add to our understanding of the relationship between leader-member exchange and safety behavior. The effect of co-worker trust and the extent to which employees participate in workplace safety practice were identified as critical factors. The findings show that managers need to focus on developing cognitive and affective coworker trust to improve safety citizenship behaviors.

  8. Mixed lineage leukemia histone methylases play critical roles in estrogen-mediated regulation of HOXC13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Khairul I; Kasiri, Sahba; Hussain, Imran; Mandal, Subhrangsu S

    2009-12-01

    HOXC13, a homeobox-containing gene, is involved in hair development and human leukemia. The regulatory mechanism that drives HOXC13 expression is mostly unknown. Our studies have demonstrated that HOXC13 is transcriptionally activated by the steroid hormone estrogen (17beta-estradiol; E2). The HOXC13 promoter contains several estrogen-response elements (EREs), including ERE1 and ERE2, which are close to the transcription start site, and are associated with E2-mediated activation of HOXC13. Knockdown of the estrogen receptors (ERs) ERalpha and ERbeta suppressed E2-mediated activation of HOXC13. Similarly, knockdown of mixed lineage leukemia histone methylase (MLL)3 suppressed E2-induced activation of HOXC13. MLLs (MLL1-MLL4) were bound to the HOXC13 promoter in an E2-dependent manner. Knockdown of either ERalpha or ERbeta affected the E2-dependent binding of MLLs (MLL1-MLL4) into HOXC13 EREs, suggesting critical roles of ERs in recruiting MLLs in the HOXC13 promoter. Overall, our studies have demonstrated that HOXC13 is transcriptionally regulated by E2 and MLLs, which, in coordination with ERalpha and ERbeta, play critical roles in this process. Although MLLs are known to regulate HOX genes, the roles of MLLs in hormone-mediated regulation of HOX genes are unknown. Herein, we have demonstrated that MLLs are critical players in E2-dependent regulation of the HOX gene.

  9. The Role of Seagrass Traits in Mediating Zostera noltei Vulnerability to Mesograzers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begoña Martínez-Crego

    Full Text Available Understanding how intra-specific differences in plant traits mediate vulnerability to herbivores of relevant habitat-forming plants is vital to attain a better knowledge on the drivers of the structure and functioning of ecosystems. Such studies, however, are rare in seagrass-mesograzer systems despite the increasingly recognized relevance of mesograzers as seagrass consumers. We investigated the role and potential trade-offs of multiple leaf traits in mediating the vulnerability of the seagrass Zostera noltei to different mesograzer species, the amphipod Gammarus insensibilis and the isopod Idotea chelipes. We worked with plants from two different meadows for which contrasting chemical and structural traits were expected based on previous information. We found that plants with high vulnerability to mesograzers (i.e. those preferred and subjected to higher rates of leaf area loss had not only higher nitrogen content and lower C:N, fibre, and phenolics, but also tender and thinner leaves. No trade-offs between chemical and structural traits of the seagrass were detected, as they were positively correlated. When leaf physical structure was removed using agar-reconstituted food, amphipod preference towards high-susceptibility plants disappeared; thus indicating that structural rather than chemical traits mediated the feeding preference. Removal of plant structure reduced the size of isopod preference to less than half, indicating a stronger contribution of structural traits (> 50% but combined with chemical/nutritional traits in mediating the preference. We then hypothesized that the high environmental nutrient levels recorded in the meadow exhibiting high susceptibility modulate the differences observed between meadows in seagrass traits. To test this hypothesis, we exposed low-vulnerability shoots to eutrophic nutrient levels in a 6-week enrichment experiment. Nutrient enrichment increased Z. noltei nitrogen content and lowered C:N, fibre, and

  10. Work-family conflict and burnout among Chinese doctors: the mediating role of psychological capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Liu, Li; Wang, Jiana; Wang, Lie

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between work-family conflict and burnout, and the mediating role of psychological capital (PsyCap) in the relation between work-family conflict and burnout, among Chinese doctors. This cross-sectional study was performed during the period of September/October 2010. A questionnaire that comprised work-family conflict assessed by the work-family conflict scale, PsyCap assessed by the PCQ-24 scale and burnout assessed by the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS), as well as age and gender, was distributed to 1,300 doctors in Liaoning Province, China. A total of 1,011 effective respondents became our final study subjects. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were performed by using SPSS 17.0 to explore the mediating role of PsyCap in the relation between work-family conflict and burnout. Both work interfering family conflict (WIF) and family interfering work conflict (FIW) were positively related with emotional exhaustion and cynicism among both male and females doctors. However, WIF was positively related with professional efficacy only among male doctors, whereas FIW was negatively related with professional efficacy among both male and female doctors. PsyCap partially mediated the relation between WIF and professional efficacy among male doctors and partially mediated the relations of FIW with emotional exhaustion, cynicism and professional efficacy among female doctors. Work-family conflict was associated with burnout among Chinese doctors. PsyCap was a mediator between work-family conflict and burnout. PsyCap might be a positive resource to reduce the negative effect of work-family conflict on burnout of doctors, especially female doctors, in China.

  11. Social Differentiation of Sun-Protection Behaviors: The Mediating Role of Cognitive Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocquier, Aurélie; Fressard, Lisa; Legleye, Stéphane; Verger, Pierre; Peretti-Watel, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    Adherence to sun-protection guidelines in developed countries is low, especially among people of low SES. Mechanisms underlying this social differentiation are poorly understood. This study aimed to examine the social differentiation of sun-protection behaviors and of two cognitive factors (knowledge about both sun health and behavioral risk factors for cancer) and to determine if these cognitive factors mediate the association between SES and sun-protection behaviors. Data came from the 2010 Baromètre Cancer survey (analyzed in 2014), a random cross-sectional telephone survey conducted among the French general population (n=3,359 individuals aged 15-75 years). First, bivariate associations between a composite individual SES indicator (based on education level, occupation, and income) and both sun-protection behaviors and cognitive factors were tested with chi-square tests and ANOVA. Then, confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were used to test the mediating role of cognitive factors with a multiple mediation model including four latent variables. In bivariate analyses, the individual SES indicator was positively associated with sun-protection behaviors and both cognitive factors. Multiple mediation analyses showed that both cognitive factors partially mediated the effect of individual SES on sun-protection behaviors. The overall proportion of mediated effects was 48%. The direct effect of SES remained significant. These results suggest that interventions aimed at modifying the knowledge and perceptions of people of low SES might help to reduce social differentiation of sun-protection behaviors. Further qualitative research is needed to better understand these cognitive factors and develop suitable prevention messages. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The intergenerational transmission of problem gambling: The mediating role of parental psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, N A; Shandley, K; Oldenhof, E; Youssef, G J; Thomas, S A; Frydenberg, E; Jackson, A C

    2016-08-01

    The present study investigated the intergenerational transmission of problem gambling and the potential mediating role of parental psychopathology (problem drinking, drug use problems, and mental health issues). The study comprised 3953 participants (1938 males, 2015 females) recruited from a large-scale Australian community telephone survey of adults retrospectively reporting on parental problem gambling and psychopathology during their childhood. Overall, 4.0% [95%CI 3.0, 5.0] (n=157) of participants reported paternal problem gambling and 1.7% [95%CI 1.0, 2.0] (n=68) reported maternal problem gambling. Compared to their peers, participants reporting paternal problem gambling were 5.1 times more likely to be moderate risk gamblers and 10.7 times more likely to be problem gamblers. Participants reporting maternal problem gambling were 1.7 times more likely to be moderate risk gamblers and 10.6 times more likely to be problem gamblers. The results revealed that the relationships between paternal-and-participant and maternal-and-participant problem gambling were significant, but that only the relationship between paternal-and-participant problem gambling remained statistically significant after controlling for maternal problem gambling and sociodemographic factors. Paternal problem drinking and maternal drug use problems partially mediated the relationship between paternal-and-participant problem gambling, and fully mediated the relationship between maternal-and-participant problem gambling. In contrast, parental mental health issues failed to significantly mediate the transmission of gambling problems by either parent. When parental problem gambling was the mediator, there was full mediation of the effect between parental psychopathology and offspring problem gambling for fathers but not mothers. Overall, the study highlights the vulnerability of children from problem gambling households and suggests that it would be of value to target prevention and intervention

  13. Strength and cardiometabolic risk in young adults: The mediator role of aerobic fitness and waist circumference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez-Fernández, A; Martínez-Vizcaíno, V; Torres-Costoso, A; Cañete García-Prieto, J; Franquelo-Morales, P; Sánchez-López, M

    2018-02-22

    The aim of this study was to analyze the mediation role of cardiorespiratory fitness and waist circumference in the association between muscular strength and cardiometabolic risk. A cross-sectional study involved first-year college students (n = 370) from a Spanish public university was performed. We measured weight, height, waist circumference, blood pressure, biochemical variables, maximum handgrip strength assessment, and cardiorespiratory fitness. We calculated handgrip dynamometry/weight and a previously validated cardiometabolic risk index. Analysis of covariance models was conducted to test differences in cardiometabolic risk values across muscular strength, cardiorespiratory fitness, and waist circumference categories, controlling for confounders. Hayes' PROCESS macro was used for the multiple mediation analysis. The relationship between muscular strength and cardiometabolic risk did not remain significant (c' = 1.76 [1.4]; P > .05) in a multiple serial bootstrapped mediation model including cardiorespiratory fitness and waist circumference as mediators when controlling for age and sex. According to the indirect effect, the significant paths in the model mediating this relationship between muscular strength and cardiometabolic risk index were as follows: muscular strength → waist circumference → cardiometabolic risk index (-4.899; 95% CI: -6.690; -3.450) and muscular strength → cardiorespiratory fitness → waist circumference → cardiometabolic risk index (-0.720; 95% CI: -1.316; -0.360). Both cardiorespiratory fitness and waist circumference mediate the association between muscular strength and cardiometabolic risk in young adults. Thus, our results place cardiorespiratory fitness and waist circumference as the main targets of physical activity programmes aimed at preventing cardiometabolic diseases. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. [The mediating role of organizational citizenship behavior between organizational justice and organizational effectiveness in nursing organizations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Wall Yun; Yoon, Sook Hee

    2009-04-01

    This study was a secondary analysis to verify the mediating role of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) between organizational justice (OJ) and organizational effectiveness (OE) in nursing organizations. The RN-BSNs and their colleagues in Seoul and Busan were subjects. The data was collected for 20 days between September 13 and October 2, 2004. Two hundred eighty three data sets were used for the final analysis. The fitness of models were tested using AMOS 5. The fitness of hypothetical model was moderate. Procedural Justice (PJ), Interaction Justice (IJ) and Distributive Justice (DJ) had direct effects on Job Satisfaction (JS), Organizational Commitment (OC) and Turnover Intention (TI) in OE, and indirect effects on JS, OC and TI mediated by OCB. The modified model improved with ideal fitness showed the causal relations among OE. In modified model, PJ, IJ and DJ had direct positive effects on OCB and JS and OC in OE, and indirect effects on JS and OC mediated by OCB. JS and OC in OE had a direct negative effect on TI. OCB mediated the relationship between OJ and OE, so the nursing managers should enhance OCB of the nurses in order to improve OE.

  15. Association between cigarette smoking and erectile tumescence: the mediating role of heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, C B; Meston, C M

    2013-01-01

    Cigarette smoking deleteriously affects erectile function, and conversely, quitting smoking improves erectile hemodynamics. Underlying mechanisms by which smoking (or reduction of smoking frequency) may affect erectile physiology are not well understood. This study examined the mediating role of heart rate variability (HRV; a marker of sympathovagal balance) among a sample of male chronic smokers from the United States. Sixty-two healthy men (Mage=38.27 years; s.d.=10.62) were assessed at baseline (while smoking regularly), at mid-treatment (while using a nicotine patch) and at follow-up, 4 weeks after patch discontinuation. Cigarette use, frequency-domain parameters of HRV (low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF), LF/HF ratio) and physiological sexual arousal responses (via penile plethysmography) were assessed at each visit. Results were consistent with mediation, in that greater reductions in cigarette use from baseline to follow-up were associated with longitudinal increases in LF, which in turn showed positive relationships with across-time changes in erectile tumescence. Neither HF nor LF/HF ratio mediated the relationship between smoking and erection. In conclusion, HRV mediated the inverse relationship between reductions in smoking and enhancements in erectile tumescence. Results underscore the possibility that cigarette use may deleteriously affect erectile function peripherally, in part, by disrupting cardiac autonomic function.

  16. Houttuynia cordata modulates oral innate immune mediators: potential role of herbal plant on oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satthakarn, S; Chung, W O; Promsong, A; Nittayananta, W

    2015-05-01

    Epithelial cells play an active role in oral innate immunity by producing various immune mediators. Houttuynia cordata Thunb (H. cordata), a herbal plant found in Asia, possesses many activities. However, its impacts on oral innate immunity have never been reported. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of H. cordata extract on the expression of innate immune mediators produced by oral epithelial cells. Primary gingival epithelial cells (GECs) were treated with various concentrations of the extract for 18 h. The gene expression of hBD2, SLPI, cytokines, and chemokines was measured using quantitative real-time RT-PCR. The secreted proteins in the culture supernatants were detected by ELISA or Luminex assay. Cytotoxicity of the extract was assessed using CellTiter-Blue Assay. H. cordata significantly induced the expression of hBD2, SLPI, IL-8, and CCL20 in a dose-dependent manner without cytotoxicity. The secreted hBD2 and SLPI proteins were modulated, and the levels of IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, and IFN-γ were significantly induced by the extract. Our data indicated that H. cordata can modulate oral innate immune mediators. These findings may lead to the development of new topical agents from H. cordata for the prevention and treatment of immune-mediated oral diseases. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The mediational role of perceived stress in the relation between optimism and burnout in competitive athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Henrik; Skoog, Therése

    2012-03-01

    Burnout has been highlighted as an important issue, not only in occupational settings but also among athletes. Optimists appear to be more resistant to burnout, which might be partly explained by lower levels of stress. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between optimism and burnout symptoms in 217 athletes (139 males and 78 females, aged 16 to 19 years), while also examining stress as a mediator in this relationship. The results showed that optimism had a significant negative relationship with both stress and burnout. Mediation analyses indicated that perceived stress fully mediated the links between optimism and two symptoms of burnout, emotional/physical exhaustion and sport devaluation, and partly mediated the link between optimism and a third symptom, reduced sense of accomplishment. The findings indicate that individual factors, such as optimism, may play an important role in the development of burnout by virtue of their association with stress. Future research should, therefore, investigate the longitudinal effects of optimism on stress and burnout.

  18. Psychological Vulnerability and Problem Gambling: The Mediational Role of Cognitive Distortions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévesque, David; Sévigny, Serge; Giroux, Isabelle; Jacques, Christian

    2018-01-03

    Despite numerous studies demonstrating the influence of cognitive distortions on gambling problem severity, empirical data regarding the role of psychological vulnerability on the latter is limited. Hence, this study assesses the mediating effect of cognitive distortions between psychological vulnerability (personality and mood), and gambling problem severity. It also verifies whether the relationships between these variables differs according to the preferred gambling activity. The sample is composed of 272 male gamblers [191 poker players; 81 video lottery terminal (VLT) players] aged between 18 and 82 years (M = 35.2). Bootstrap analysis results revealed that cognitive distortions mediate the effect of narcissism on gambling problem severity for both groups. The level of depression for VLT players significantly predicted gambling problem severity, both directly and indirectly via the mediating effect of cognitive distortions. Mediation analyses also indicated that narcissism had an indirect impact on problem gambling through cognitive distortions for both groups. These findings suggest that certain vulnerabilities related to personality and mood may influence cognitive distortion intensity and gambling problem severity. In addition, psychological vulnerabilities could differ based on preferred gambling activity. These results may be useful for prevention policies, identifying high risk gamblers and planning psychological interventions.

  19. A Potential Role for Acrolein in Neutrophil-Mediated Chronic Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noerager, Brett D; Xu, Xin; Davis, Virginia A; Jones, Caleb W; Okafor, Svetlana; Whitehead, Alicia; Blalock, J Edwin; Jackson, Patricia L

    2015-12-01

    Neutrophils (PMNs) are key mediators of inflammatory processes throughout the body. In this study, we investigated the role of acrolein, a highly reactive aldehyde that is ubiquitously present in the environment and produced endogenously at sites of inflammation, in mediating PMN-mediated degradation of collagen facilitating proline-glycine-proline (PGP) production. We treated peripheral blood neutrophils with acrolein and analyzed cell supernatants and lysates for matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and prolyl endopeptidase (PE), assessed their ability to break down collagen and release PGP, and assayed for the presence of leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H) and its ability to degrade PGP. Acrolein treatment induced elevated production and functionality of collagen-degrading enzymes and generation of PGP fragments. Meanwhile, LTA4H levels and triaminopeptidase activity declined with increasing concentrations of acrolein thereby sparing PGP from enzymatic destruction. These findings suggest that acrolein exacerbates the acute inflammatory response mediated by neutrophils and sets the stage for chronic pulmonary and systemic inflammation.

  20. THE ROLE OF ATTITUDE IN MEDIATING CONSUMER KNOWLEDGE INFLUENCE TOWARDS THE PURCHASE INTENTION OF GREEN PRODUCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A Sagung Ayu Wulandari,

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Protecting the environment has become a main idea for some modern companies in applying the green marketing strategy. Many consumers perceive that a product with natural raw material can give a better benefit both in terms of health issue and environment. The purpose of this study is to find out the role of attitude in mediating consumer knowledge influence towards the purchase intention of green product Ever-E 250 in Denpasar.The samples were 110 respondents from all over Denpasar taken with the purposive sampling method and path analysis. The result of the study shows that consumer knowledge has significant and positive influence towards the attitude and purchase intention of green product Ever-E 250. The attitude variable has been proven to be able to mediate consumer knowledge influence towards the purchase intention of green product Ever-E 250 in Denpasar significantly, while the mediation happen is partial, so that the attitude variable functions as a mediator of consumer knowledge influence towards the purchase intention of green product.

  1. Safety aid use and social anxiety symptoms: The mediating role of perceived control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korte, Kristina J; Unruh, Amanda S; Oglesby, Mary E; Schmidt, Norman B

    2015-08-30

    The use of safety aids, cognitive or behavioral strategies used to reduce or cope with anxiety, has emerged as a key construct of interest in anxiety disorders due to their role in the development and maintenance of anxiety symptoms. It has been suggested that individuals with anxiety engage in safety aid use to reduce their anxiety and feel more in control of a situation; however, no studies to date have examined the association between perceived control, that is, perceived level of control over internal events in anxiety provoking situations, and the use of safety aids. The purpose of the present study was to examine the association of perceived control, the use of safety aids, and symptoms of social anxiety. It was predicted that the association between safety aid use and social anxiety symptoms would be mediated by perceived control. This prediction was examined in a large sample of 281 participants. As predicted, perceived control was a significant mediator of the association between the use of safety aids and social anxiety symptoms. This effect remained significant after running a multiple mediation model with distress tolerance added as a competing mediator. Implications for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The role of pragmatics in mediating the relationship between social disadvantage and adolescent behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, James; Rush, Robert; Clegg, Judy; Peters, Tim; Roulstone, Susan

    2015-06-01

    The relationship between social disadvantage, behavior, and communication in childhood is well established. Less is known about how these 3 interact across childhood and specifically whether pragmatic language skills act as a mediator between early social disadvantage and adolescent behavior. The sample was the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a representative birth cohort initially recruited in England in 1991/1992 and followed through to adolescence and beyond. Of the original 13,992 live births, data were available for 2926 children at 13 years. Univariable analysis was first used to identify sociodemographic and other predictors of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) at 13 years. The mediational role of the pragmatics scale of the Children's Communication Checklist (CCC) at 9 years was then tested, controlling for age, gender, and IQ. There was evidence of both a direct effect from social disadvantage (path C') to SDQ Total Behavior Score at 13 years (-.205; p pragmatics scale as a mediator. The latter represents a reduction in the magnitude of the unadjusted effect or "total effect" (-.430), demonstrating that the pragmatics scale partially mediates the relationship of early social disadvantage and adolescent behavior (even after controlling for other covariates). The same relationship held for all but the pro-social subscale of the SDQ. The results provide evidence to suggest that there maybe a causal relationship between these variables, suggesting that interventions targeting pragmatic skills have the potential to reduce adolescent behavioral symptoms.

  3. The Big Five personality dimensions and mental health: The mediating role of alexithymia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atari, Mohammad; Yaghoubirad, Mahsa

    2016-12-01

    The role of personality constructs on mental health has attracted research attention in the last few decades. The Big Five personality traits have been introduced as parsimonious dimensions of non-pathological traits. The five-factor model of personality includes neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness, extraversion, and openness to experience. The present study aimed to examine the relationship between the Big Five dimensions and mental health considering the mediating role of alexithymia as an important emotional-processing construct. A total of 257 participants were recruited from non-clinical settings in the general population. All participants completed the Ten-Item Personality Inventory (TIPI), 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), and General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28). Structural equation modeling was utilized to examine the hypothesized mediated model. Findings indicated that the Big Five personality dimensions could significantly predict scores of alexithymia. Moreover, alexithymia could predict mental health scores as measured by indices of depression, anxiety, social functioning, and somatic symptoms. The fit indices (GFI=0.94; CFI=0.91; TLI=0.90; RMSEA=0.071; CMIN/df=2.29) indicated that the model fits the data. Therefore, the relationship between the Big Five personality dimensions and mental health is mediated by alexithymia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Authentic leadership and thriving among nurses: the mediating role of empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortier, Anneleen Viona; Vlerick, Peter; Clays, Els

    2016-04-01

    To examine the relationship between perceived authentic leadership and two dimensions of thriving (learning and vitality) among nurses, and to study the mediating role of empathy in this relationship. Nurses' thriving is a key asset for health care organisations, and its significant role warrants the need to identify the underlying key determinants and psychological mechanisms. A cross-sectional design was carried out in a large hospital in September 2013. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to 360 nurses. The main hypotheses were tested through hierarchical regression analyses. The significant positive relationship between perceived authentic leadership and vitality was mediated by perceived empathy. This mediation, however, was not confirmed in relation to learning. Nurse managers' authentic leadership enhances nurses' thriving at work. Furthermore, empathic nurse managers seem to increase the vitality of their nurses. Training nurse managers in authentic leadership skills is important for the nursing field, as those skills help nurse managers to better express empathy and consequently foster thriving in nursing. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The role of RNA structure at 5' untranslated region in microRNA-mediated gene regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Wanjun; Xu, Yuming; Xie, Xueying; Wang, Ting; Ko, Jae-Hong; Zhou, Tong

    2014-09-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the secondary structure of the 5' untranslated region (5' UTR) of messenger RNA (mRNA) is important for microRNA (miRNA)-mediated gene regulation in humans. mRNAs that are targeted by miRNA tend to have a higher degree of local secondary structure in their 5' UTR; however, the general role of the 5' UTR in miRNA-mediated gene regulation remains unknown. We systematically surveyed the secondary structure of 5' UTRs in both plant and animal species and found a universal trend of increased mRNA stability near the 5' cap in mRNAs that are regulated by miRNA in animals, but not in plants. Intra-genome comparison showed that gene expression level, GC content of the 5' UTR, number of miRNA target sites, and 5' UTR length may influence mRNA structure near the 5' cap. Our results suggest that the 5' UTR secondary structure performs multiple functions in regulating post-transcriptional processes. Although the local structure immediately upstream of the start codon is involved in translation initiation, RNA structure near the 5' cap site, rather than the structure of the full-length 5' UTR sequences, plays an important role in miRNA-mediated gene regulation. © 2014 Gu et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  6. Antimicrobial aspects of inflammatory resolution in the mucosa: A role for pro-resolving mediators1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Eric L.; Serhan, Charles N.; Colgan, Sean P.

    2011-01-01

    Mucosal surfaces function as selectively permeable barriers between the host and the outside world. Given their close proximity to microbial antigens, mucosal surfaces have evolved sophisticated mechanisms for maintaining homeostasis and preventing excessive acute inflammatory reactions. The role attributed to epithelial cells was historically limited to serving as a selective barrier, in recent years numerous findings implicate an active role of the epithelium with pro-resolving mediators in the maintenance of immunological equilibrium. In this brief review, we highlight new evidence that the epithelium actively contributes to coordination and resolution of inflammation, principally through the generation of anti-inflammatory and pro-resolution lipid mediators. These autacoids, derived from ω-6 and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, are implicated in the initiation, progression and resolution of acute inflammation and display specific, epithelial-directed actions focused on mucosalhomeostasis. We also summarize present knowledge of mechanisms for resolution via regulation of epithelial-derived antimicrobial peptides in response to pro-resolving lipid mediators. PMID:21934099

  7. The Effect of Employees’ Perceptions of CSR Activities on Employee Deviance: The Mediating Role of Anomie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Hyeok Choi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study hypothesizes that employees’ positive perceptions of corporate social responsibility (CSR activities at the individual level have a negative effect on employee deviance—a negative job-related behavior—and that anomie plays a mediating role in this relationship. In order to verify the relationship, this study conducts an empirical analysis with a questionnaire survey on employees of firms that implement CSR activities at the company level. Based on Social identity theory, this study examines the causal relationship between the employees’ perceptions of CSR activities and their deviance, and mechanisms by which anomie decreases in the process. The findings are as follows. First, employees’ perceptions of CSR activities had a negative effect on employee deviance. Second, employees’ perceptions of CSR activities had a negative effect on anomie. Third, anomie had a positive effect on employee deviance. Fourth, anomie fully mediated the relationship between employees’ perceptions of CSR activities and employee deviance. This study is the first to document this relationship, which has great practical and academic significance, as it indicates the importance for companies to consider employees’ perceptions of CSR activities. In addition, the study identifies the mediating role of anomie as mentioned above. The results suggest that methodological considerations of CSR awareness enhancement at the company level be discussed more in depth, helping top management and middle managers understand that enhancing employees’ positive perceptions of CSR activities should be the first priority for reducing collective normlessness under the pressure of goal attainment and resolving ethical conflicts among employees.

  8. Depression and medication adherence among older Korean patients with hypertension: Mediating role of self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Youn-Jung; Won, Mi Hwa

    2017-06-01

    Many studies have reported the negative effects of depression on adherence to antihypertensive medication. However, little is known about the mechanism underlying this relationship in elderly patients with hypertension. The aim of this cross-sectional study is to examine the mediating role of self-efficacy in the relationship between depression and medication adherence among older patients with hypertension. The data were collected from October to December 2014. A total of 255 older patients with hypertension were assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale, the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Use Scale, and the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale. Hierarchical linear regression analysis and the Sobel test were used to examine the mediating role of self-efficacy in the relationship between depression and medication adherence. Depression and self-efficacy were statistically significant predictors of medication adherence in older patients with hypertension. Self-efficacy partially mediated the relationship between depression and medication adherence. Interventions targeting self-efficacy could increase the confidence of patients in their ability to actively take their medicines. Moreover, health care providers should be aware of the importance of early detection of depression in older patients with hypertension. Future studies with longitudinal data are warranted to clarify the multidirectional relationships between depression, self-efficacy, and medication adherence. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. The mediating role of job satisfaction between leader-member exchange and turnover intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guohong Helen; Jekel, Marc

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether job satisfaction mediates between leader-member exchange and nurse turnover intentions. Limited knowledge is available on the mediating role of job satisfaction between leader-member exchange and turnover intentions in the nursing field. This is a cross-sectional survey study. Data were collected in a US hospital. Higher leader-member exchange was associated with lower turnover intentions (β=-0.41, Pjob satisfaction (β=0.50, PJob satisfaction was negatively related to turnover intentions (β=-0.64, Pjob satisfaction were both controlled for, the link between leader-member exchange and turnover intentions was no longer significant (β=-0.12, P>0.05). Job satisfaction mediates the link between leader-member exchange and turnover intentions. The present study reinforces the significant role of managers. Nurse managers can try to cultivate a good relationship with the nurses. This can enhance nurses' job satisfaction and in turn lower their turnover intentions. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Relationships between work-home segmentation and psychological detachment from work: the role of communication technology use at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, YoungAh; Fritz, Charlotte; Jex, Steve M

    2011-10-01

    Employees can have difficulty mentally distancing themselves from work during off-job time due to increasing use of communication technologies (e.g., e-mail, cell phone, etc.). However, psychological detachment from work during nonwork time is important for employee recovery and health. This study examined several antecedents of psychological detachment: work-home segmentation preference, perceived segmentation norm, and the use of communication technology at home. Results indicate that segmentation preference and segmentation norm were positively associated with psychological detachment. Further, technology use at home partially mediated these relationships. Findings indicate that segmenting work and nonwork roles can help employees detach and recover from work demands. In addition, findings show that the segmentation norm within a work group is associated with employee experiences outside of work. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. The role and potential of information technology in agricultural improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovanović Slavoljub

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The agro-industrial sector in developing countriesis faced with challenges, such as requirement for increase of food production and yield and creation of opportunity for employment of rural and poor population. In addition, the agricultural sector is influenced by global factors and fast changes. These facts indicate that there is great need for information and information technologies (IT, which can be used to cope with the challenges and changes and to improve agricultural production and marketing. However, the potential of IT is not fully utilized in agriculture. Implementation of IT in agricultural sector and rural areas is relatively slow in comparison to the other sectors of the economy where contemporary IT has been implemented at high speed. The aim of the paper is to analyze role, potential and contribution of IT in agribusiness and to explain opportunities for use of IT in many fields of agricultural sector. Our findings are based on economic theory and available literature, and they suggest that IT has great potential for supporting farmers and the other stakeholders in improvement of efficiency, effectiveness and productivity of agriculture. However, the stakeholders have to cope with many limitations and problems in IT implementation and use.

  12. Data, Technology & Social Media: Their Invasive Role in Contemporary Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Prakash Vel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Marketers have paid a huge price for their inability to decipher which trend has come to stay and which one is a fad. Such a challenge has jeopardized the survival of blue-chip brands, as marketers anticipated in vain the end of existing red ocean strategies. Essentially, the traditional marketing strategies associated with the success of well-known brands in the past are losing their relevance in the current context. There is the need to identify and understand modern trends and their implications to marketing strategy development. In light of this, this study examines fourteen (14 fundamental ‘game changing’ trends that are poised to impact the traditional practices and perceptions associated with marketing at the operational and strategic levels. The study presents the trends under three categories, the invasive role of technology, data, and social media, alongside looking at their impact on contemporary marketing. Each trend has been identified and analyzed based on in-depth interviews with industry experts as the primary source of data. Relevant data has also been given to present a holistic perspective on each trend. 

  13. Energy storage and the environment: the role of battery technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruetschi, Paul

    Batteries can store energy in a clean, convenient and efficient manner. Battery-powered electric vehicles are expected to contribute to a cleaner environment. In today's world, batteries are used everywhere: in electronic watches, pocket calculators, flashlights, toys, radios, tape recorders, cameras, camcorders, laptop computers, cordless telephones, paging devices, hearing aids, heart pacers, instruments, detectors, sensors, memory back-up devices, drug dispensing, wireless tools, toothbrushes, razors, stationary emergency power equipment, automobile starters, electric vehicles, boats, submarines, airplanes and satellites. Worldwide, about 15 billion primary batteries, and well over 200 million starter batteries are produced per year. What is the impact of this widespread use of batteries on the environment? What role can battery technology play in order to reduce undue effects on the environment? Since this paper is presented at a lead/acid battery conference, the discussion refers, in particular, to this system. The following aspects are covered: (i) the three "E" criteria that are applicable to batteries: Energy, Economics, Environment; (ii) service life and environment; (iii) judicious use and service life; (iv) recycling.

  14. Understanding the role of patient organizations in health technology assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Tiago

    2015-12-01

    The involvement of patient representatives in health technology assessment is increasingly seen by policy makers and researchers as key for the deployment of patient-centred health care, but there is uncertainty and a lack of theoretical understanding regarding the knowledge and expertise brought by patient representatives and organisations to HTA processes. To propose a conceptually-robust typological model of the knowledge and expertise held by patient organisations. The study followed a case-study design. Data were collected within an international research project on patient organisations' engagement with knowledge, and included archival and documentary data, in-depth interviews with key members of the organisation and participant observation. Data analysis followed standard procedure of qualitative analysis anchored in an analytic induction approach. Analysis identified three stages in the history of the patient organisation under analysis - Alzheimer's Society. In a first period, the focus is on 'caring knowledge' and an emphasis on its volunteer membership. In a transition stage, a combination of experiential, clinical and scientific knowledge is proposed in an attempt to expand its field of activism into HTA. In the most recent phase, there is a deepening of its network of associations to secure its role in the production of evidence. Analysis identified an important relationship between the forms of knowledge deployed by patient organisations and the networks of expertise and policy they mobilise to pursue their activities. A model of this relationship is outlined, for the use of further research and practice on patient involvement. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The Role of Acupuncture in Assisted Reproductive Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Hong Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to provide reliable evidence by performing a systematic review and meta-analysis for evaluating the role of acupuncture in assisted reproductive technology. All randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effects of acupuncture, including manual, electrical, and laser acupuncture (LA techniques, on the clinical pregnancy rate (CPR and live birth rate (LBR of in vitro fertilization (IVF or artificial insemination were included. The controlled groups consisted of no acupuncture and sham acupuncture groups. The sham acupuncture included sham acupuncture at acupoints, sham acupuncture at non- or inappropriate points, sham LA, and adhesive tapes. Twenty-three trials (a total of 5598 participants were included in this paper. The pooled CPR from all acupuncture groups was significantly higher than that from all controlled groups, whereas the LBR was not significantly different between the two groups. However, the results were quite distinct when the type of control and/or different acupuncture times were examined in a sensitivity analysis. The results mainly indicate that acupuncture, especially around the time of the controlled ovarian hyperstimulation, improves pregnancy outcomes in women undergoing IVF. More positive effects from acupuncture in IVF can be expected if a more individualized acupuncture programs are used.

  16. The Association between Perceived Spirituality, Religiosity, and Life Satisfaction: The Mediating Role of Self-Rated Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zullig, Keith J.; Ward, Rose Marie; Horn, Thelma

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the mediating role of self-perceived health between perceived spirituality, religiosity, and life satisfaction among a stratified, random sample of college students, while controlling for gender. Although both models displayed excellent fit criteria, the perceived spirituality and life satisfaction model was fully mediated by…

  17. Justifying gender discrimination in the workplace: The mediating role of motherhood myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The issue of gender equality in employment has given rise to numerous policies in advanced industrial countries, all aimed at tackling gender discrimination regarding recruitment, salary and promotion. Yet gender inequalities in the workplace persist. The purpose of this research is to document the psychosocial process involved in the persistence of gender discrimination against working women. Drawing on the literature on the justification of discrimination, we hypothesized that the myths according to which women’s work threatens children and family life mediates the relationship between sexism and opposition to a mother’s career. We tested this hypothesis using the Family and Changing Gender Roles module of the International Social Survey Programme. The dataset contained data collected in 1994 and 2012 from 51632 respondents from 18 countries. Structural equation modellings confirmed the hypothesised mediation. Overall, the findings shed light on how motherhood myths justify the gender structure in countries promoting gender equality. PMID:29315326

  18. Hedonic Benefits of Close and Distant Interaction Partners: The Mediating Roles of Social Approval and Authenticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venaglia, Rachel B; Lemay, Edward P

    2017-09-01

    The current research utilized ecological momentary assessment methodology to examine affective responses to interacting with close versus distant interaction partners during naturally occurring social interactions, and to test predictions regarding the mediating roles of perceived social approval and authenticity. Analysis of 4,602 social interactions reported by 176 participants suggested that, relative to interactions with distant partners, interactions with close partners were characterized by more positive affect. This effect was mediated by perceived social approval and authenticity. These findings suggest that social interactions with close others confer greater hedonic benefits relative to interactions with distant partners due to greater confidence in social approval and feelings of authenticity. Exploratory analyses suggested that interactions with close partners featured warmer and less shy behavior, and that participants who placed more importance on close relationships (as measured by high relational-interdependent self-construal) experienced more approval and authenticity in their interactions, particularly with distant partners.

  19. The role of leadership perception as a mediator between managers' self-monitoring and subordinate attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özalp Türetgen, Ilknur; Unsal, Pinar; Dural, Uzay

    2017-01-01

    Although the role of social cognition in leadership perception has been emphasized frequently in recent years, research using this approach in an organizational context is rare. This study investigated subordinates' perceptions of their managers as leaders (that is, to what extent they perceive their manager as a leader) as a potential mediating factor explaining the relationship between managers' self-monitoring and their subordinates' attitudes toward their organizations. The study was carried out with middle-level managers (N = 64) and their subordinates (N = 210) from various business organizations in Turkey. Results indicate that subordinates' leadership perceptions of their managers mediate the relationship between managers' self-monitoring and their subordinates' affective and normative organizational commitment. These results provide insight into some of the antecedents and outcomes of leadership perception.

  20. Mediating role of coping competence on the relationship between mindfulness and flourishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Akin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to investigate the mediator role of coping competence on the relationship between mindfulness and flourishing. Participants were 284 university students who completed a questionnaire package that included the Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale, the Coping Competence Questionnaire, and the Flourishing Scale. The relationships between coping competence, mindfulness, and flourishing were examined using correlation and regression analysis. According to results, both coping competence and flourishing were predicted positively by mindfulness. On the other hand, flourishing was predicted positively by coping competence. In addition, coping competence mediated on the relationship between mindfulness and flourishing. Together, the findings illuminate the importance of mindfulness on psychological and cognitive adjustment. The results were discussed in the light of the related literature and dependent recommendations to the area were given.

  1. Parent-adolescent attachment and procrastination: The mediating role of self-worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin-Bin

    2017-01-01

    Within the theoretical framework of attachment theory, the author examined associations between adolescents' procrastination and their attachment relationships with both mothers and fathers, and explored the potential mediation role of self-worth in these associations. Participants were 384 Chinese adolescents (49.6% boys, average age 15.13 years) from public schools in Shanghai, China. They completed self-report measures of 3 dimensions of parental attachment (i.e., trust, communication, and alienation), general self-worth, and procrastination. The results indicated that both paternal and maternal trust and paternal communication were negatively associated with higher levels of procrastination whereas both paternal and maternal alienation were positively associated with procrastination. In addition, self-worth mediated the associations among 3 dimensions of parental attachment and procrastination. The findings highlighted the importance of parental attachment-based intervention strategies to reduce procrastination among adolescents.

  2. The Role of Cgrp-Receptor Component Protein (Rcp in Cgrp-Mediated Signal Transduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Prado

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP-receptor component protein (RCP is a 17-kDa intracellular peripheral membrane protein required for signal transduction at CGRP receptors. To determine the role of RCP in CGRP-mediated signal transduction, RCP was depleted from NIH3T3 cells using antisense strategy. Loss of RCP protein correlated with loss of cAMP production by CGRP in the antisense cells. In contrast, loss of RCP had no effect on CGRP-mediated binding; therefore RCP is not acting as a chaperone for the CGRP receptor. Instead, RCP is a novel signal transduction molecule that couples the CGRP receptor to the cellular signal transduction machinery. RCP thus represents a prototype for a new class of signal transduction proteins that are required for regulation of G protein-coupled receptors.

  3. THE ROLE OF THE SOCIAL MEDIATOR WITHIN THE DISABILITY EMPLOYMENT SUPPORT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dorina PASCA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available For people with disabilities, to find a way to improve life quality by having a job and by developing independent living skills is a “sine qua non” condition for their social integration. The social mediator working within a disability employment support system facilitates the logistic implementation of a viable and plausible program, which can identify, and maintain a workplace for people with disabilities, and acts as a motivational guarantee of these persons’ chance for a better life while also providing life lessons to all of us. Hence, the major role of the social mediator is to develop a new cognitive structure of communication for disabled people so that they can act as our equals and not as marginalized human beings.

  4. Determinants of compulsive buying behavior among young adults: The mediating role of materialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Tahir; Wei, Jiuchang; Sheikh, Zaryab; Hameed, Zahid; Azam, Rauf I

    2017-12-01

    This research seeks to determine what makes young adults materialistic. The study examines the mediating role of materialism between the contextual factors and compulsive buying. Data was gathered from 219 Pakistani undergraduate university students. Partial Least Square (PLS) technique was used to analyze the data. The study confirms the intuition that more materialistic young adults are more likely to be involved in compulsive buying than are less materialistic young adults. The results were similar with the previous literature conducted in the western culture, indicating that also applies in a modern Islamic society. The findings of the study reveal that materialism mediated the relationship between certain sociological factors (i.e., group, media Celebrity endorsement, and TV advertisement) and compulsive buying. The study highlights the importance of understanding young adults' materialistic attitudes and consumption decisions and provides key knowledge for researchers, policymakers, and managers of leading brands. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Communicating about the risks and benefits of genetically modified foods: The mediating role of trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frewer, Lynn J.; Scholderer, Joachim; Bredahl, Lone

    2003-01-01

    role, direct as well as mediating effects of trust were tested in an attitude change experiment involving 1203 consumers from Denmark, Germany, Italy and the UK. After prior attitudes to genetic modification in food production had been assessed, participants received different information materials...... (either product-specific information or balanced/general information about genetic modification in food production) and were asked to evaluate different types of genetically modified foods (either beer or yoghurt). The information materials were attributed to different information sources (either...... an industry association, a consumer organization, or a government source). After completion, perceived risk and perceived benefit were assessed, and participants indicated their trust in the information sources to which the materials had been attributed. Direct and trust-mediated attitude change effects were...

  6. Functional Roles of p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase in Macrophage-Mediated Inflammatory Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is a natural host defensive process that is largely regulated by macrophages during the innate immune response. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs are proline-directed serine and threonine protein kinases that regulate many physiological and pathophysiological cell responses. p38 MAPKs are key MAPKs involved in the production of inflammatory mediators, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2. p38 MAPK signaling plays an essential role in regulating cellular processes, especially inflammation. In this paper, we summarize the characteristics of p38 signaling in macrophage-mediated inflammation. In addition, we discuss the potential of using inhibitors targeting p38 expression in macrophages to treat inflammatory diseases.

  7. Justifying gender discrimination in the workplace: The mediating role of motherhood myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verniers, Catherine; Vala, Jorge

    2018-01-01

    The issue of gender equality in employment has given rise to numerous policies in advanced industrial countries, all aimed at tackling gender discrimination regarding recruitment, salary and promotion. Yet gender inequalities in the workplace persist. The purpose of this research is to document the psychosocial process involved in the persistence of gender discrimination against working women. Drawing on the literature on the justification of discrimination, we hypothesized that the myths according to which women's work threatens children and family life mediates the relationship between sexism and opposition to a mother's career. We tested this hypothesis using the Family and Changing Gender Roles module of the International Social Survey Programme. The dataset contained data collected in 1994 and 2012 from 51632 respondents from 18 countries. Structural equation modellings confirmed the hypothesised mediation. Overall, the findings shed light on how motherhood myths justify the gender structure in countries promoting gender equality.

  8. (Injustice contexts and work satisfaction: The mediating role of justice perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou, Q.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the impact of the social context, namely (injustice climate and target, in workers' justice perceptions and satisfaction. Individual's justice judgments are expected to mediate the relationship of (injustice climate and target with work satisfaction. We found mediation effects of procedural justice in the relationship between justice climate and satisfaction, and interactional justice in the relationship between injustice target and satisfaction. Distributive justice does not affect the relationship between the (injustice context and satisfaction. Findings demonstrate the relevance of framing organizational justice in a socially contextualized perspective since they seem to influence individual justice reactions and work attitudes. Using an experimental methodology, it was possible to explore the role of seldom studied contextual variables.

  9. Role of very late antigen-1 in T-cell-mediated immunity to systemic viral infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørding Kauffmann, Susanne; Thomsen, Allan Randrup; Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard

    2006-01-01

    The T-cell response to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus was studied in mice lacking very late antigen-1 (VLA-1). The generation of virus-specific effector T cells was unimpaired in VLA-1(-/-) mice. In the memory phase, VLA-1 deficiency did not influence the number of memory CD8(+) T cells or th......, the current findings indicate that the expression of VLA-1 is not pivotal for T-cell-mediated antiviral immunity to a systemic infection....... or their distribution between lymphoid and nonlymphoid organs. Regarding a functional role of VLA-1, we found that intracerebral infection of both VLA-1(-/-) and wild-type (wt) mice resulted in lethal T-cell-mediated meningitis, and quantitative and qualitative analyses of the cellular exudate did not reveal any...

  10. Hostility and hearing protection behavior: the mediating role of personal beliefs and low frustration tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, S; Melamed, S; Feiner, M; Weisberg, E; Ribak, J

    1996-10-01

    The authors examined whether hostility would negatively be associated with occupational health behavior, namely, the use of hearing protection devices (HPDs). Also examined as possible mediators were the protection motivation theory (PMT) components and low frustration tolerance (LFT). Participants were 226 male industrial workers, all exposed to potentially hearing-damaging noise. Hostility was negatively related to HPD use. It moderately correlated with the PMT components: negatively with perceived susceptibility, severity, effectiveness, and self-efficacy and positively with perceived barriers. Hostility correlated highly with LFT. Regression analyses confirmed the mediating role of perceived barriers, low self-efficacy, and LFT in the negative relationship between hostility and the use of HPDs. Thus, intrapsychic characteristics of hostile people may be significant for hearing protection behavior.

  11. A New Role for Music Technology: Enhancing Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardo, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    General music teachers have a technology tool that not only helps students sing better, it helps them read better! Carry-a-Tune or Singing Coach--the technology that received a rave review from former "General Music Today" technology columnist Kirk Kassner in 2005--is now being offered in an enhanced version called TUNEin[TM] to READING.…

  12. The mediating role of aggressive behaviour, emotional and behavioural instability on the association between ADHD symptoms and best friend conflicts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zucchetti, G.; Ortega, E.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Rabaglietti, E.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the direct association between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms (i.e. inattention and hyperactivity symptoms) and children’s experience of best friend conflicts, and the mediating role of aggression, emotional and behavioural instability, exploring

  13. Morningness-eveningness and daytime functioning in university students: the mediating role of sleep characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakotic, Marija; Radosevic-Vidacek, Biserka; Koscec Bjelajac, Adrijana

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the mediating role of sleep characteristics in the relationship between morningness-eveningness and three different aspects of daytime functioning: daytime sleepiness, depressive mood and substance use in university students. A multiple mediator model was proposed with sleep debt, poor sleep quality and bedtime delay at weekends as parallel mediators in these relationships. We analysed the data of 1052 university students aged 18-25 years who completed a modified version of the School Sleep Habits Survey, which included questions on sleep and the Composite Scale of Morningness, Sleepiness Scale, Depressive Mood Scale and Substance Use Scale. Students with more pronounced eveningness reported greater daytime sleepiness, greater depressive mood and more frequent substance use, as well as greater sleep debt, poorer sleep quality and greater bedtime delay at weekends. Mediation analyses indicated that morningness-eveningness affected daytime sleepiness and substance use both directly and indirectly through all proposed sleep-related mediators. However, the effect of morningness-eveningness on depressive mood was entirely indirect and was accounted for more by poor sleep than by sleep debt or bedtime irregularity. In conclusion, there are multiple possible mechanisms through which morningness-eveningness affects daytime functioning in university students, and sleep characteristics are a significant mechanism. Sleep debt, poor sleep quality and bedtime irregularity can, to a significant extent, explain the feeling of daytime sleepiness and greater substance use in students with eveningness preferences. However, more depressed mood in the evening-orientated students is primarily a consequence of their poor sleep quality. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.

  14. Role of MicroRNAs in Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System-Mediated Cardiovascular Inflammation and Remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maricica Pacurari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are endogenous regulators of gene expression either by inhibiting translation or protein degradation. Recent studies indicate that microRNAs play a role in cardiovascular disease and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system- (RAAS- mediated cardiovascular inflammation, either as mediators or being targeted by RAAS pharmacological inhibitors. The exact role(s of microRNAs in RAAS-mediated cardiovascular inflammation and remodeling is/are still in early stage of investigation. However, few microRNAs have been shown to play a role in RAAS signaling, particularly miR-155, miR-146a/b, miR-132/122, and miR-483-3p. Identification of specific microRNAs and their targets and elucidating microRNA-regulated mechanisms associated RAS-mediated cardiovascular inflammation and remodeling might lead to the development of novel pharmacological strategies to target RAAS-mediated vascular pathologies. This paper reviews microRNAs role in inflammatory factors mediating cardiovascular inflammation and RAAS genes and the effect of RAAS pharmacological inhibition on microRNAs and the resolution of RAAS-mediated cardiovascular inflammation and remodeling. Also, this paper discusses the advances on microRNAs-based therapeutic approaches that may be important in targeting RAAS signaling.

  15. Assessing the relationship between technology readiness and continuance intention in an E-appointment system: relationship quality as a mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shih-Chih; Jong, Din; Lai, Min-Tsai

    2014-09-01

    Numerous types of self-service technologies have prevailed due to innovations in network and information technology. To hospitals, patient intentions to continue to use the e-appointment system are crucial. Previous investigations discussed only the relationships between the technology readiness of users and their continuance intentions, and ignored the most important mediator, relationship quality. This study explored the relationships among technology readiness, relationship quality, and continuance intention. The research results demonstrated that both optimism and innovativeness significantly and positively influenced continuance intention through the mediating effect of relationship quality. However, discomfort and insecurity hid not significantly influence relationship quality or continuance intention. Finally, theoretical contributions, managerial implications and future research directions were discussed.

  16. Teacher identity formation in nursing teacher training: reflection mediated by digital technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parigi, Dayane Mayara Gambini; Tomazelli, Priscila Caccer; Almeida, Denise Maria de; Vaz, Débora Rodrigues; Heimann, Candice; Prado, Cláudia

    2015-12-01

    Objective Analyze the teacher identity formation process from the perspective of the past, present and future in the training of nursing teachers through the integration of digital technologies. Method Descriptive, exploratory study, with a qualitative approach, conducted in the on-site class "Teacher Identity Formation" in 2012. Of the synchronous and asynchronous activities, four were analyzed using content analysis. Results In chat, positive and negative impressions and reflections on the formation of one's own identity were identified (six categories); in the "Time tunnel," the projection of future identity (four categories); in the "Portfolio," the perception of one's own identity (four categories); and in the evaluation of the class, the perception of the experiences lived in the class (two categories). Conclusion The integration of digital technologies promoted, in a collaborative way, discussion and understanding by students of how their identity is formed and the projection of their future identity, aligned with the profile and role of teachers demanded in the world of today.

  17. Sex-Pheromone-Mediated Mating Disruption Technology for the Oriental Fruit Moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): Overview and Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Wei N. Kong; J. Li; Ren J. Fan; Sheng C. Li; Rui Y. Ma

    2014-01-01

    A great deal of progress has been made over the last three decades in research on pheromone-mediated mating disruption technology for the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck). Pheromones can interrupt normal orientation, and the most likely mechanism of pheromone disruption, competitive-attraction (false-plume following), invokes competition between point sources of pheromone formulation and females for males. This technology, performed by broadcasting pheromones into orchards to d...

  18. Promoting clean energy technology entrepreneurship: The role of external context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malen, Joel; Marcus, Alfred A.

    2017-01-01

    This study examines how political, social and economic factors influence clean energy technology entrepreneurship (CETE). Government policies supporting clean energy technology development and the development of markets for clean energy create opportunities for CETE. However, the extent to which such opportunities lead to the emergence of new clean energy businesses depends on a favorable external context promoting CETE. This study employs a novel dataset combining indicators of the policy and social context of CETE with information on clean energy technology startup firms in the USA to provide empirical evidence that technological and market conditions supporting clean energy induce more extensive CETE under contexts where local attention to clean energy issues and successful firms commercializing clean energy technologies are more prominent. By establishing that CETE is contingent upon a supportive local environment as well as technology and market opportunities, the study holds relevance for policy makers and clean energy technology firms. - Highlights: • Influence of political, social and economic factors on clean energy technology entrepreneurship (CETE). • CETE more prominent with clean energy technology availability. • Greater when local attention interacts with technology availability and market opportunities. • Greater when local firms successfully commercialize technologies. • Novel dataset and Arellano-Bond dynamic panel estimation.

  19. The angiosperm phloem sieve tube system: a role in mediating traits important to modern agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Byung-Kook; Lucas, William J

    2014-04-01

    The plant vascular system serves a vital function by distributing water, nutrients and hormones essential for growth and development to the various organs of the plant. In this review, attention is focused on the role played by the phloem as the conduit for delivery of both photosynthate and information macromolecules, especially from the context of its mediation in traits that are important to modern agriculture. Resource allocation of sugars and amino acids, by the phloem, to specific sink tissues is of importance to crop yield and global food security. Current findings are discussed in the context of a hierarchical control network that operates to integrate resource allocation to competing sinks. The role of plasmodesmata that connect companion cells to neighbouring sieve elements and phloem parenchyma cells is evaluated in terms of their function as valves, connecting the sieve tube pressure manifold system to the various plant tissues. Recent studies have also revealed that plasmodesmata and the phloem sieve tube system function cooperatively to mediate the long-distance delivery of proteins and a diverse array of RNA species. Delivery of these information macromolecules is discussed in terms of their roles in control over the vegetative-to-floral transition, tuberization in potato, stress-related signalling involving miRNAs, and genetic reprogramming through the delivery of 24-nucleotide small RNAs that function in transcriptional gene silencing in recipient sink organs. Finally, we discuss important future research areas that could contribute to developing agricultural crops with engineered performance characteristics for enhance yield potential.

  20. The mediating role of social workers in the implementation of regional policies targeting energy poverty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarpellini, Sabina; Sanz Hernández, M. Alexia; Llera-Sastresa, Eva; Aranda, Juan A.; López Rodríguez, María Esther

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to provide a socio-political reflection of the role played by social workers in regional policies and of the real needs of households affected by energy poverty. The paper also examines the impact of technical-specialised training on the ability of social workers to prevent and mitigate conditions of household energy poverty in Europe. The adoption of a research-action-participation methodological framework and a training research approach has permitted the opinions of social workers to be collected through surveys, and their central role in implementing regional policies to be highlighted. The conclusions obtained have made possible the construction of a self-diagnosis and data-collection tool which increases the ability of social workers to mediate and implement urgent mitigation measures for energy poverty. Finally, regional policies which aim to mitigate household energy poverty are examined from the professional perspective of social workers. - Highlights: • Social workers play a mediating role in the certification of household energy poverty. • Specific training for social workers contributes to the prevention of energy poverty. • National wide regulation would enable the implementation of equitable measures for energy poverty. • It is recommendable to define progressive subsidies depending on the level of energy vulnerability of the households.

  1. Leadership and change commitment in the life insurance service context in Taiwan: the mediating-moderating role of job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi-Feng

    2011-06-01

    The effects of transformational leadership and satisfaction were studied along with their interconnected effects (mediation and moderation) on commitment to change in the life insurance industry in two samples, sales managers and salespersons. A multiple mediated-moderated regression approach showed mediation and moderation to have statistically significant main effects on change commitment. Transformational leadership and satisfaction made a more important contribution to change commitment while job satisfaction had a mediating and moderating role that could enhance the relationships between leadership and change commitment. This information is of importance in building successful change commitment associations with customers.

  2. The role of HSP70 in mediating age-dependent mortality in sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Kevin W.; Fox, Amy C.; Clark, Andrew T.; Chang, Nai-Yuan Nicholas; Dominguez, Jessica A.; Farris, Alton B.; Buchman, Timothy G.; Hunt, Clayton R.; Coopersmith, Craig M.

    2011-01-01

    Sepsis is primarily a disease of the aged, with increased incidence and mortality occurring in aged hosts. Heat shock protein (HSP) 70 plays an important role in both healthy aging and the stress response to injury. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of HSP70 in mediating mortality and the host inflammatory response in aged septic hosts. Sepsis was induced in both young (6–12week old) and aged (16–17 month old) HSP70−/− and wild type (WT) mice to determine if HSP70 modulated outcome in an age-dependent fashion. Young HSP70−/− and WT mice subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia or Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia had no differences in mortality, suggesting HSP70 does not mediate survival in young septic hosts. In contrast, mortality was higher in aged HSP70−/− mice than aged WT mice subjected to CLP (p=0.01), suggesting HSP70 mediates mortality in sepsis in an age-dependent fashion. Compared to WT mice, aged septic HSP70−/− mice had increased gut epithelial apoptosis and pulmonary inflammation. In addition, HSP70−/−mice had increased systemic levels of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-1β compared to WT mice. These data demonstrate that HSP70 is a key determinant of mortality in aged but not young hosts in sepsis. HSP70 may play a protective role in an age-dependent response to sepsis by preventing excessive gut apoptosis and both pulmonary and systemic inflammation. PMID:21296977

  3. The role of heat shock protein 70 in mediating age-dependent mortality in sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Kevin W; Fox, Amy C; Clark, Andrew T; Chang, Nai-Yuan Nicholas; Dominguez, Jessica A; Farris, Alton B; Buchman, Timothy G; Hunt, Clayton R; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2011-03-15

    Sepsis is primarily a disease of the aged, with increased incidence and mortality occurring in aged hosts. Heat shock protein (HSP) 70 plays an important role in both healthy aging and the stress response to injury. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of HSP70 in mediating mortality and the host inflammatory response in aged septic hosts. Sepsis was induced in both young (6- to 12-wk-old) and aged (16- to 17-mo-old) HSP70(-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice to determine whether HSP70 modulated outcome in an age-dependent fashion. Young HSP70(-/-) and WT mice subjected to cecal ligation and puncture, Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia, or Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia had no differences in mortality, suggesting HSP70 does not mediate survival in young septic hosts. In contrast, mortality was higher in aged HSP70(-/-) mice than aged WT mice subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (p = 0.01), suggesting HSP70 mediates mortality in sepsis in an age-dependent fashion. Compared with WT mice, aged septic HSP70(-/-) mice had increased gut epithelial apoptosis and pulmonary inflammation. In addition, HSP70(-/-) mice had increased systemic levels of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-1β compared with WT mice. These data demonstrate that HSP70 is a key determinant of mortality in aged, but not young hosts in sepsis. HSP70 may play a protective role in an age-dependent response to sepsis by preventing excessive gut apoptosis and both pulmonary and systemic inflammation.

  4. Autophagy Plays an Essential Role in Mediating Regression of Hypertrophy during Unloading of the Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariharan, Nirmala; Ikeda, Yoshiyuki; Hong, Chull; Alcendor, Ralph R.; Usui, Soichiro; Gao, Shumin; Maejima, Yasuhiro; Sadoshima, Junichi

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy is a bulk degradation mechanism for cytosolic proteins and organelles. The heart undergoes hypertrophy in response to mechanical load but hypertrophy can regress upon unloading. We hypothesize that autophagy plays an important role in mediating regression of cardiac hypertrophy during unloading. Mice were subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC) for 1 week, after which the constriction was removed (DeTAC). Regression of cardiac hypertrophy was observed after DeTAC, as indicated by reduction of LVW/BW and cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area. Indicators of autophagy, including LC3-II expression, p62 degradation and GFP-LC3 dots/cell, were significantly increased after DeTAC, suggesting that autophagy is induced. Stimulation of autophagy during DeTAC was accompanied by upregulation of FoxO1. Upregulation of FoxO1 and autophagy was also observed in vitro when cultured cardiomyocytes were subjected to mechanical stretch followed by incubation without stretch (de-stretch). Transgenic mice with cardiac-specific overexpression of FoxO1 exhibited smaller hearts and upregulation of autophagy. Overexpression of FoxO1 in cultured cardiomyocytes significantly reduced cell size, an effect which was attenuated when autophagy was inhibited. To further examine the role of autophagy and FoxO1 in mediating the regression of cardiac hypertrophy, beclin1+/− mice and cultured cardiomyocytes transduced with adenoviruses harboring shRNA-beclin1 or shRNA-FoxO1 were subjected to TAC/stretch followed by DeTAC/de-stretch. Regression of cardiac hypertrophy achieved after DeTAC/de-stretch was significantly attenuated when autophagy was suppressed through downregulation of beclin1 or FoxO1. These results suggest that autophagy and FoxO1 play an essential role in mediating regression of cardiac hypertrophy during mechanical unloading. PMID:23308102

  5. THE ROLE OF ATTITUDE IN MEDIATING CONSUMER KNOWLEDGE INFLUENCE TOWARDS THE PURCHASE INTENTION OF GREEN PRODUCT

    OpenAIRE

    A.A Sagung Ayu Wulandari,; I Ketut Rahyuda; Ni Nyoman Kerti Yasa

    2015-01-01

    Protecting the environment has become a main idea for some modern companies in applying the green marketing strategy. Many consumers perceive that a product with natural raw material can give a better benefit both in terms of health issue and environment. The purpose of this study is to find out the role of attitude in mediating consumer knowledge influence towards the purchase intention of green product Ever-E 250 in Denpasar.The samples were 110 respondents from all over Denpasar taken with...

  6. Neutrophil-Mediated Regulation of Innate and Adaptive Immunity: The Role of Myeloperoxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Odobasic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils are no longer seen as leukocytes with a sole function of being the essential first responders in the removal of pathogens at sites of infection. Being armed with numerous pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators, these phagocytes can also contribute to the development of various autoimmune diseases and can positively or negatively regulate the generation of adaptive immune responses. In this review, we will discuss how myeloperoxidase, the most abundant neutrophil granule protein, plays a key role in the various functions of neutrophils in innate and adaptive immunity.

  7. Protective role of complement C3 against cytokine-mediated beta cell apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dos Santos, R. S.; Marroqui, L.; Grieco, F. A.

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims: Type 1 diabetes is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by pancreatic islet inflammation and β-cell destruction by pro-inflammatory cytokines and other mediators. The complement system, a major component of the immune system, has been recently shown to also act...... in metabolic organs, such as liver, adipose tissue, and pancreas. In the present study we identified complement C3 as an important hub of a cytokine-modified complement network in human islets and characterized the role of C3 in β-cell survival....

  8. Scaffolding High School Students' Divergent Idea Generation in a Computer-Mediated Design and Technology Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Tiong-Meng; Quek, Choon-Lang

    2014-01-01

    This comparative study investigates how two groups of design and technology students generated ideas in an asynchronous computer-mediated communication setting. The generated ideas were design ideas in the form of sketches. Each group comprised five students who were all 15 years of age. All the students were from the same secondary school but…

  9. Exploration of new perspectives and limitations in Agrobacterium mediated gene transfer technology. Progress report, [June 1, 1992-- May 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marton, L.

    1994-12-31

    This report describes progress aimed at constructing gene-transfer technology for Nicotiana plumbaginifolia. Most actual effort as described herein has so far been directed at exploring new perspectives and limitations in Agrobacterium mediated gene transfer. Accomplishments are described using a core homologous gene targeting vector.

  10. The Mediator Effect of Career Development between Personality Traits and Organizational Commitment: The Example of Sport Communication Technology Talents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Hung-Jen; Lin, Chun-Hung; Tung-Hsing, Lin; Tu, Peng-Fei

    2014-01-01

    This paper explored the relationships among career development, personality trait, and organizational commitment and examines whether career development mediates the relationship between personality trait and organizational commitment. The sample was 275 sport communication technology talents in Taiwan. The instrument included the Personality…

  11. Childhood maltreatment, depressive symptoms, and body dissatisfaction in patients with binge eating disorder: the mediating role of self-criticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkley, David M; Masheb, Robin M; Grilo, Carlos M

    2010-04-01

    We examined the mediating role of self-criticism in the relation between childhood maltreatment and both depressive symptoms and body dissatisfaction in patients with binge eating disorder (BED). Participants were 170 BED patients who completed measures of childhood maltreatment, self-criticism, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and body dissatisfaction. Specific forms of childhood maltreatment (emotional abuse, sexual abuse) were significantly associated with body dissatisfaction. Path analyses demonstrated that self-criticism fully mediated the relation between emotional abuse and both depressive symptoms and body dissatisfaction. Specificity for the mediating role of self-criticism was demonstrated in comparison to other potential mediators (low self-esteem) and alternative competing mediation models. These results highlight self-criticism as a potential mechanism through which certain forms of childhood maltreatment may be associated with depressive symptoms and body dissatisfaction in BED patients.

  12. Internet addiction, adolescent depression, and the mediating role of life events: finding from a sample of Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Linsheng; Sun, Liang; Zhang, Zhihua; Sun, Yehuan; Wu, Hongyan; Ye, Dongqing

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the mediating role of life events in the relation between Internet addiction and depression using an adolescent sample in China. A total of 3507 urban adolescent students were asked to complete the questionnaires including Young's Internet Addiction Scale, Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Checklist, and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales, and demographic characteristics. Path analyses demonstrated that life events fully mediated the relationship between Internet addiction and adolescent depression. Specificity for the mediating role of life events was demonstrated in comparison to alternative competing mediation models. The findings support our hypothesis that the effect of Internet addiction on adolescent depression is mediated by the life events. Further research is required to test the temporal relationship between Internet addiction and adolescent depression and explore mechanisms underlying the pathways leading to adolescent depression. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  13. Childhood Maltreatment, Depressive Symptoms, and Body Dissatisfaction in Patients with Binge Eating Disorder: The Mediating Role of Self-Criticism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkley, David M.; Masheb, Robin M.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective We examined the mediating role of self-criticism in the relation between childhood maltreatment and both depressive symptoms and body dissatisfaction in patients with binge eating disorder (BED). Method Participants were 170 BED patients who completed measures of childhood maltreatment, self-criticism, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and body dissatisfaction. Results Specific forms of childhood maltreatment (emotional abuse, sexual abuse) were significantly associated with body dissatisfaction. Path analyses demonstrated that self-criticism fully mediated the relation between emotional abuse and both depressive symptoms and body dissatisfaction. Specificity for the mediating role of self-criticism was demonstrated in comparison to other potential mediators (low self-esteem) and alternative competing mediation models. Conclusion These results highlight self-criticism as a potential mechanism through which certain forms of childhood maltreatment may be associated with depressive symptoms and body dissatisfaction in BED patients. PMID:20119938

  14. The Role of Educational Technology Professionals as Perceived by Building Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Cheryl A.; Allred, Jonathan B.; Brescia, William F.

    2018-01-01

    Educational Technology (ETEC) professionals in the United States (US) fill multiple roles in public school systems. While these roles can be classified into broad categories, what remains unclear are the expectations and priorities for the completion of these roles and the tasks associated within each role category. In order for ETEC professionals…

  15. Assessing the Role of Technology Adoption in China's Growth Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wirz, Nadja

    China has experienced a period of tremendous economic growth in recent years. In an attempt to explain this development, several existing growth-accounting studies reveal that impressively high rates of productivity growth have been at the heart of China's performance. This study investigates...... to what extent these productivity increases can be explained by technology-adoption theory. In less developed countries, the key element behind technological progress is technology adoption, the process of copying technological knowledge invented throughout the world. To uncover a measure of China......'s technological advances, the paper constructs a hybrid of some prominent technology-adoption models and calibrates it to reasonable parameter values. The calibrated version of the model is then combined with Chinese economic data. For the period 1978-2005, the analysis finds that the Chinese performance can...

  16. Self-Efficacy, Satisfaction, and Academic Achievement: The Mediator Role of Students' Expectancy-Value Beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Doménech-Betoret

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Although there is considerable evidence to support the direct effects of self-efficacy beliefs on academic achievement, very few studies have explored the motivational mechanism that mediates the self-efficacy–achievement relationship, and they are necessary to understand how and why self-efficacy affects students' academic achievement. Based on a socio-cognitive perspective of motivation, this study examines the relationships among academic self-efficacy, students' expectancy-value beliefs, teaching process satisfaction, and academic achievement. Its main aim is to identify some motivational-underlying processes through which students' academic self-efficacy affects student achievement and satisfaction. Student achievement and satisfaction are two of the most important learning outcomes, and are considered key indicators of education quality. The sample comprises 797 Spanish secondary education students from 36 educational settings and three schools. The scales that referred to self-efficacy and expectancy-value beliefs were administered at the beginning of the course, while student satisfaction and achievement were measured at the end of the course. The data analysis was conducted by structural equation modeling (SEM. The results revealed that students' expectancy-value beliefs (Subject value, Process expectancy, Achievement expectancy, Cost expectancy played a mediator role between academic self-efficacy and the achievement/satisfaction relationship. These results provided empirical evidence to better understand the mechanism that mediates self-efficacy–achievement and efficacy–course satisfaction relationships. The implications of these findings for teaching and learning in secondary education are discussed.

  17. Self-Efficacy, Satisfaction, and Academic Achievement: The Mediator Role of Students' Expectancy-Value Beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doménech-Betoret, Fernando; Abellán-Roselló, Laura; Gómez-Artiga, Amparo

    2017-01-01

    Although there is considerable evidence to support the direct effects of self-efficacy beliefs on academic achievement, very few studies have explored the motivational mechanism that mediates the self-efficacy-achievement relationship, and they are necessary to understand how and why self-efficacy affects students' academic achievement. Based on a socio-cognitive perspective of motivation, this study examines the relationships among academic self-efficacy, students' expectancy-value beliefs, teaching process satisfaction, and academic achievement. Its main aim is to identify some motivational-underlying processes through which students' academic self-efficacy affects student achievement and satisfaction. Student achievement and satisfaction are two of the most important learning outcomes, and are considered key indicators of education quality. The sample comprises 797 Spanish secondary education students from 36 educational settings and three schools. The scales that referred to self-efficacy and expectancy-value beliefs were administered at the beginning of the course, while student satisfaction and achievement were measured at the end of the course. The data analysis was conducted by structural equation modeling (SEM). The results revealed that students' expectancy-value beliefs (Subject value, Process expectancy, Achievement expectancy, Cost expectancy) played a mediator role between academic self-efficacy and the achievement/satisfaction relationship. These results provided empirical evidence to better understand the mechanism that mediates self-efficacy-achievement and efficacy-course satisfaction relationships. The implications of these findings for teaching and learning in secondary education are discussed.

  18. Marital Conflicts and Parent-Adolescent Conflicts: The Mediator Role of Adolescents' Appraisals of Interparental Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ایرج مختارنیا

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mediating role of adolescents' appraisals from interparents conflict on the relationship of marital conflicts and parent-adolescent conflict. The study was descriptive correlational and the population of this study included students of Qods town of Tehran province. Sample size was 700 students that were selected by multistage random sampling. The data were collected by Parent-Adolescent Conflict Questionnaire (PACQ, Marital Conflict Scale (MCS and Children's Appraisals of Interparental Conflict Scale (CPIC. The results of structural equation modeling analysis showed that the theoretical model of the study included in the model was properly fitted with the data. This means that the variable of adolescent's appraisals of interparents’ conflict can be considered as a mediator variable in the relationship of marital conflict and parent-adolescent conflict. Furthermore, in this model all direct and indirect paths to predict parent-adolescent conflict were recognized. Therefore, marital conflict can predict parent-adolescent conflicts through mediating factors. Also, it can be concluded that the model of cognitive-contextual is capable of explaining the parent-adolescent conflicts.

  19. Early maladaptive schemas and social anxiety in adolescents: the mediating role of anxious automatic thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvete, Esther; Orue, Izaskun; Hankin, Benjamin L

    2013-04-01

    Cognitive models state that cognitions are organized hierarchically, so that the underlying schemas affect behavior via more automatic, superficial cognitive processes. This study aimed to demonstrate that early maladaptive schemas predict anxious automatic thoughts, and to show that such automatic thoughts act as mediators between schemas and prospective changes in social anxiety symptoms. The study also examined an alternative reverse model in which schemas acted as mediators between automatic thoughts and social anxiety. A total of 1052 adolescents (499 girls and 553 boys; M(age)=13.43; SD(age)=1.29) completed measures of early maladaptive schemas, socially anxious automatic thoughts, and social anxiety symptoms at Times 1, 2, and 3. The results revealed bidirectional longitudinal relationships among schemas and automatic thoughts that were consistent in content (e.g., the disconnection/rejection schemas and automatic thoughts of negative self-concept). Furthermore, the automatic thoughts of anticipatory negative evaluation by others at Time 2 mediated the relationship between the other-directedness schemas at Time 1 and social anxiety symptoms at Time 3. These findings are consistent with hierarchical cognitive models of social anxiety given that deeper schemas predict more surface-level thoughts. They also support that these more surface-level thoughts contribute to perpetuating schemas. Finally, results show that early maladaptive schemas of the other-directedness domain play a relevant role in the development and maintenance of social anxiety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Roles of TRAFs in NF-κB signaling pathways mediated by BAFF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Lingling; Wei, Wei

    2018-04-01

    B cell activating factor (BAFF) is an important cytokine for the maintenance of B cell development, survival and homeostasis. BAFF/BAFF-R could directly activate nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway. Tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated factors (TRAFs) are key regulatory proteins in NF-κB signaling pathways. TRAF1 enhances the activation of tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNF-R2) induced by NF-κB. TRAF2 and TRAF3 signal adapters act cooperatively to control the maturation and survival signals mediated by BAFF receptor. TRAF5 is most homologous to TRAF3, as well as most functionally similar to TRAF2. TRAF6 is also required for the BAFF-mediated activation of NF-κB signal pathway. TRAF7 is involved in signal transduction pathways that lead either to activation or repression of NF-κB transcription factor. In this article, we reviewed the roles of TRAFs in NF-κB signaling pathway mediated by BAFF. Copyright © 2018 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Instagram addiction and the Big Five of personality: The mediating role of self-liking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kircaburun, Kagan; Griffiths, Mark D

    2018-03-01

    Background and aims Recent research has suggested that social networking site use can be addictive. Although extensive research has been carried out on potential addiction to social networking sites, such as Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, and Tinder, only one very small study has previously examined potential addiction to Instagram. Consequently, the objectives of this study were to examine the relationships between personality, self-liking, daily Internet use, and Instagram addiction, as well as exploring the mediating role of self-liking between personality and Instagram addiction using path analysis. Methods A total of 752 university students completed a self-report survey, including the Instagram Addiction Scale (IAS), the Big Five Inventory (BFI), and the Self-Liking Scale. Results Results indicated that agreeableness, conscientiousness, and self-liking were negatively associated with Instagram addiction, whereas daily Internet use was positively associated with Instagram addiction. The results also showed that self-liking partially mediated the relationship of Instagram addiction with agreeableness and fully mediated the relationship between Instagram addiction with conscientiousness. Discussion and conclusions This study contributes to the small body of literature that has examined the relationship between personality and social networking site addiction and is one of only two studies to examine the addictive use of Instagram and the underlying factors related to it.

  2. Self-Efficacy, Satisfaction, and Academic Achievement: The Mediator Role of Students' Expectancy-Value Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doménech-Betoret, Fernando; Abellán-Roselló, Laura; Gómez-Artiga, Amparo

    2017-01-01

    Although there is considerable evidence to support the direct effects of self-efficacy beliefs on academic achievement, very few studies have explored the motivational mechanism that mediates the self-efficacy–achievement relationship, and they are necessary to understand how and why self-efficacy affects students' academic achievement. Based on a socio-cognitive perspective of motivation, this study examines the relationships among academic self-efficacy, students' expectancy-value beliefs, teaching process satisfaction, and academic achievement. Its main aim is to identify some motivational-underlying processes through which students' academic self-efficacy affects student achievement and satisfaction. Student achievement and satisfaction are two of the most important learning outcomes, and are considered key indicators of education quality. The sample comprises 797 Spanish secondary education students from 36 educational settings and three schools. The scales that referred to self-efficacy and expectancy-value beliefs were administered at the beginning of the course, while student satisfaction and achievement were measured at the end of the course. The data analysis was conducted by structural equation modeling (SEM). The results revealed that students' expectancy-value beliefs (Subject value, Process expectancy, Achievement expectancy, Cost expectancy) played a mediator role between academic self-efficacy and the achievement/satisfaction relationship. These results provided empirical evidence to better understand the mechanism that mediates self-efficacy–achievement and efficacy–course satisfaction relationships. The implications of these findings for teaching and learning in secondary education are discussed. PMID:28769839

  3. Stress and depression in Latin American immigrants: the mediating role of religiosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, T; Patiño, C

    2010-12-01

    Migrating implies a high level of stress that may destabilise immigrants' mental health. The sense of spiritual fulfilment (feelings of faith, religiosity, and transcendence beyond ordinary material life) can mitigate the stress and benefit mental health. The objective of the present study was to analyze the relationship between migratory stress, religiosity and depression symptoms, as well as the mediating role of religiosity between migratory stress and depression symptoms. Participants were 295 Latin American immigrants living in Barcelona (Spain), 186 of whom (63.1%) were women and 109 (36.9%) were men. They were recruited from a Spanish NGO by means of a consecutive-case method. The results showed an inverse relationship between religiosity and depression symptoms, but only in women. Likewise, in women, the sense of spiritual fulfilment had mediating value in buffering the relationship between stress and depression symptoms. This mediating value of spiritual fulfilment was not observed in men. For both genders religiosity was inversely related with stress. In addition, it was observed that the sense of religiosity decreases as the time since immigration passes. These results may be of importance in clinical practice for prevention and therapeutic intervention with Latin American immigrants. As sense of transcendence and social support from the religious community are intertwined, it is difficult to specifically attribute the observed benefit of religiosity to the former versus the later. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Mentalizing and interpersonal problems in borderline personality disorder: The mediating role of identity diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meulemeester, Celine; Lowyck, Benedicte; Vermote, Rudi; Verhaest, Yannic; Luyten, Patrick

    2017-12-01

    Individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) are characterized by problems in interpersonal functioning and their long-term social integration often remains problematic. Extant theories have linked identity diffusion to many of the interpersonal problems characteristic of BPD patients. Recent theoretical accounts have suggested that identity diffusion results from problems with mentalizing or reflective functioning, that is, the capacity to understand oneself and others in terms of intentional mental states. In this study we tested these assumptions, i.e., whether identity diffusion plays a mediating role in the relationship between mentalizing difficulties and interpersonal problems, in a sample of 167 BPD patients. Highly significant correlations were found between mentalizing impairments, identity diffusion and interpersonal problems. Mediation analyses showed that identity diffusion fully mediated the relationship between mentalizing difficulties and interpersonal problems. This study provides preliminary evidence that impairments in mentalizing are related to identity diffusion, which in turn is related to interpersonal problems in BPD. Further longitudinal research is needed to further substantiate these conclusions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Social Networks and Health Among Older Adults in Lebanon: The Mediating Role of Support and Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonucci, Toni C.; Ajrouch, Kristine J.; Abdulrahim, Sawsan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Despite a growing body of literature documenting the influence of social networks on health, less is known in other parts of the world. The current study investigates this link by clustering characteristics of network members nominated by older adults in Lebanon. We then identify the degree to which various types of people exist within the networks. This study further examines how network composition as measured by the proportion of each type (i.e., type proportions) is related to health; and the mediating role of positive support and trust in this process. Method. Data are from the Family Ties and Aging Study (2009). Respondents aged ≥60 were selected (N = 195) for analysis. Results. Three types of people within the networks were identified: Geographically Distant Male Youth, Geographically Close/Emotionally Distant Family, and Close Family. Having more Geographically Distant Male Youth in one’s network was associated with health limitations, whereas more Close Family was associated with no health limitations. Positive support mediated the link between type proportions and health limitations, whereas trust mediated the link between type proportions and depressive symptoms. Discussion. Results document links between the social networks and health of older adults in Lebanon within the context of ongoing demographic transitions. PMID:25324295

  6. Academic Stress and Self-Regulation among University Students in Malaysia: Mediator Role of Mindfulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Hamizah Hj Ramli

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Academic stress is the most common emotional or mental state that students experience during their studies. Stress is a result of a wide range of issues, including test and exam burden, a demanding course, a different educational system, and thinking about future plans upon graduation. A sizeable body of literature in stress management research has found that self-regulation and being mindful will help students to cope up with the stress and dodge long-term negative consequences, such as substance abuse. The present study aims to investigate the influence of academic stress, self-regulation, and mindfulness among undergraduate students in Klang Valley, Malaysia, and to identify mindfulness as the mediator between academic stress and self-regulation. For this study, a total of 384 undergraduate students in Klang Valley, Malaysia were recruited. Using Correlational analysis, results revealed that there was a significant relationship between academic stress, self-regulation, and mindfulness. However, using SPSS mediational analysis, mindfulness did not prove the mediator role in the study.

  7. Academic Stress and Self-Regulation among University Students in Malaysia: Mediator Role of Mindfulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hj Ramli, Nur Hamizah; Alavi, Masoumeh; Mehrinezhad, Seyed Abolghasem; Ahmadi, Atefeh

    2018-01-15

    Academic stress is the most common emotional or mental state that students experience during their studies. Stress is a result of a wide range of issues, including test and exam burden, a demanding course, a different educational system, and thinking about future plans upon graduation. A sizeable body of literature in stress management research has found that self-regulation and being mindful will help students to cope up with the stress and dodge long-term negative consequences, such as substance abuse. The present study aims to investigate the influence of academic stress, self-regulation, and mindfulness among undergraduate students in Klang Valley, Malaysia, and to identify mindfulness as the mediator between academic stress and self-regulation. For this study, a total of 384 undergraduate students in Klang Valley, Malaysia were recruited. Using Correlational analysis, results revealed that there was a significant relationship between academic stress, self-regulation, and mindfulness. However, using SPSS mediational analysis, mindfulness did not prove the mediator role in the study.

  8. THE MEDIATING ROLE OF SCIENCE MUSEUM IN STRUCTURING AND SYNTHESIS OF LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Angulo Delgado

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the mediating role of science museum in learning scientific content in school, it involves reflecting on the contributions of research to the question of what and how people learn in non-conventional educational settings. It has been shown that most people spend less than 3% of their lives learning in school, which emphasizes the importance of conceptualizing what they are and how much of their learning take place. While that question is resolved, it speaks at this bioassay on the complementary relationship between the museum and the school, as both institutions share the same educational purpose, but differ in the ways of achieving it. The science museum joins the class as a mediator that facilitates student learning as part of an education that promotes understanding of the phenomena of the world through models, which means that school learning goes in stages, one of which is that students have opportunity to structure new knowledge and synthesize on its own model. For this it is necessary that students speak, read, listen and write in science class, while the thought is expressed in language to attest to the facts. These communication skills arise in science class as indicators of mediation exercised by the museum and allow us to understand that it takes place in at least two dimensions: museographic and didactics.

  9. How do stressors lead to burnout? The mediating role of motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubino, Cristina; Luksyte, Aleksandra; Perry, Sara Jansen; Volpone, Sabrina D

    2009-07-01

    We extend existing stressor-strain theoretical models by including intrinsic motivation as a mediator between well-established job stressors and burnout. Though the link between situational stressors and burnout is well established, little is known about mechanisms behind this relationship. With a sample of 284 self-employed individuals, we examined motivation as a mediator to explain why situational factors impact 3 dimensions of burnout: emotional exhaustion, cynicism, and inefficacy. Motivation is an explanatory mechanism that drives human behavior and thought, and thus may have an impact on important well-being outcomes. As expected, intrinsic motivation was a full mediator for the effect of perceived fit on the inefficacy dimension of burnout. Unexpectedly, neither perceived fit nor motivation was related to the other 2 dimensions of burnout, and role ambiguity had only a direct effect on the inefficacy dimension; it was also unrelated to exhaustion and cynicism. We discuss implications of these findings for researchers as well as for practitioners. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Trauma and psychosis: The mediating role of self-concept clarity and dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gavin John; Reid, Graeme; Preston, Phil; Palmier-Claus, Jasper; Sellwood, William

    2015-08-30

    Childhood trauma (CT) and psychosis may be associated. Drawing on the dissociation and social psychological literature, the current study examined the mediating role of structural aspects of self in explaining the relationship between childhood trauma and psychosis. Twenty-nine individuals with psychosis were compared with 31 healthy volunteers regarding childhood trauma, dissociation and self-concept clarity (SCC). High rates of maltreatment were found in the psychosis sample. Additionally, clinical participants reported more dissociation and less self-concept clarity. Mediational analyses were carried out on pooled data from across both clinical and non-clinical samples. These suggested that the influence of physical neglect in increasing the likelihood of experiencing psychosis was explicable through the effects of increased dissociation. Self-concept clarity mediated the relationship between psychosis and total childhood trauma, emotional abuse, physical abuse, emotional and physical neglect. Furthermore, dissociation and self-concept clarity were strongly correlated providing evidence that they may form a unitary underlying concept of 'self-concept integration'. The study provides further evidence of the link between childhood trauma and psychosis. Self-concept integration may be adversely affected by negative childhood experiences, which increases psychosis risk. Methodological limitations, clinical implications and suggestions for future research are considered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The role of teachers' expectations in the association between children's SES and performance in kindergarten: a moderated mediation analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Speybroeck

    Full Text Available This study examines the role of teachers' expectations in the association between children's socio-economic background and achievement outcomes. Furthermore, the role of children's ethnicity in moderating this mediated relation is investigated. In the present study, 3,948 children from kindergarten are examined. Data are analysed by means of structural equation modeling. First, results show that teachers' expectations mediate the relation between children's SES and their later language and math achievement, after controlling for children's ethnicity, prior achievement and gender. This result indicates that teachers may exacerbate individual differences between children. Second, children's ethnicity moderates the mediation effect of teachers' expectations with respect to math outcomes. The role of teachers' expectations in mediating the relation between SES and math outcomes is stronger for majority children than for minority children.

  12. FOOD PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY AS A MEDIATOR OF FUNCTIONALITY. STRUCTURE-PROPERTY-PROCESS RELATIONSHIPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Betoret

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available During the last years, the food industry has been facing technical and economic changes both in society and in the food processing practices, paying high attention to food products that meet the consumers´ demands. In this direction, the study areas in food process and products have evolved mainly from safety to other topics such as quality, environment or health. The improvement of the food products is now directed towards ensuring nutritional and specific functional benefits. Regarding the processes evolution, they are directed to ensure the quality and safety of environmentally friendly food products produced optimizing the use of resources, minimally affecting or even enhancing their nutritional and beneficial characteristics. The product structure both in its raw form and after processing plays an important role maintaining, enhancing and delivering the bioactive compounds in the appropriate target within the organism. The aim of this review is to make an overview on some synergistic technologies that can constitute a technological process to develop functional foods, enhancing the technological and/or nutritional functionality of the food products in which they are applied. More concretely, the effect of homogenization, vacuum impregnation and drying operations on bioactive compounds have been reviewed, focusing on the structure changes produced and its relationship on the product functionality, as well as on the parameters and the strategies used to quantify and increase the achieved functionality.

  13. The mediator role of psychological morbidity on sleep and health behaviors in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucci, Silvia Helena Modenesi; Pereira, Maria da Graça

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the mediation role of psychological morbidity, defined in this study as depression/anxiety, in the relationship between excessive daytime sleepiness and sleep quality, and between sleep habits and health behaviors, in adolescents. A total of 272 students, between 12 and 18 years old, underwent a psychological protocol assessing excessive daytime sleepiness, sleep quality, sleep habits, health behavior, and psychological morbidity. Psychological morbidity was not associated with the relationship between excessive daytime sleepiness and sleep quality, but was associated, with statistical significance, in the relationship between sleep habits and health behaviors. These results emphasize the role of psychological morbidity in adolescent health behaviors. Analyzing the symptoms of depression and anxiety in pediatric patients may help in a more accurate diagnosis, especially in relation to sleep problems and health behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Articular chondrocyte network mediated by gap junctions: role in metabolic cartilage homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayan, Maria D; Gago-Fuentes, Raquel; Carpintero-Fernandez, Paula; Fernandez-Puente, Patricia; Filgueira-Fernandez, Purificacion; Goyanes, Noa; Valiunas, Virginijus; Brink, Peter R; Goldberg, Gary S; Blanco, Francisco J

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study investigated whether chondrocytes within the cartilage matrix have the capacity to communicate through intercellular connections mediated by voltage-gated gap junction (GJ) channels. Methods Frozen cartilage samples were used for immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry assays. Samples were embedded in cacodylate buffer before dehydration for scanning electron microscopy. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments and mass spectrometry (MS) were performed to identify proteins that interact with the C-terminal end of Cx43. GJ communication was studied through in situ electroporation, electrophysiology and dye injection experiments. A transwell layered culture system and MS were used to identify and quantify transferred amino acids. Results Microscopic images revealed the presence of multiple cellular projections connecting chondrocytes within the matrix. These projections were between 5 and 150 μm in length. MS data analysis indicated that the C-terminus of Cx43 interacts with several cytoskeletal proteins implicated in Cx trafficking and GJ assembly, including α-tubulin and β-tubulin, actin, and vinculin. Electrophysiology experiments demonstrated that 12-mer oligonucleotides could be transferred between chondrocytes within 12 min after injection. Glucose was homogeneously distributed within 22 and 35 min. No transfer was detected when glucose was electroporated into A549 cells, which have no GJs. Transwell layered culture systems coupled with MS analysis revealed connexins can mediate the transfer of L-lysine and L-arginine between chondrocytes. Conclusions This study reveals that intercellular connections between chondrocytes contain GJs that play a key role in cell-cell communication and a metabolic function by exchange of nutrients including glucose and essential amino acids. A three-dimensional cellular network mediated through GJs might mediate metabolic and physiological homeostasis to maintain cartilage tissue. PMID:24225059

  15. Tracking Effects of Problematic Social Networking on Adolescent Psychopathology: The Mediating Role of Sleep Disruptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, Lynette; Modecki, Kathryn L; Barber, Bonnie L

    2017-01-01

    Concerns are growing about adolescents' problematic social networking and possible links to depressed mood and externalizing behavior. Yet there remains little understanding of underlying processes that may account for these associations, including the mediating role of sleep disruption. This study tests this putative mediating process and examines change in problematic social networking investment and disrupted sleep, in relation to change in depressed mood and externalizing behavior. A sample of 874 students (41% male; 57.2% Caucasian; baseline M age = 14.4 years) from 27 high schools were surveyed. Participants' problematic social networking, sleep disruption, and psychopathology (depressed mood, externalizing behaviors) were measured annually over 3 years. Longitudinal mediation was tested using latent trajectories of problematic social networking use, sleep disruption, and psychopathology. Both problematic social networking and sleep disruption underwent positive linear growth over time. Adolescents who increasingly invested in social networking reported increased depressed mood, with around 53% of this association explained by the indirect effect of increased sleep disruptions. Further, adolescents who increasingly invested in social networking also reported increased externalizing behavior; some of this relation was explained (13%) via increased sleep disruptions. However an alternative model in which increased externalizing was associated with increased social networking, mediated by sleep disruptions, indicated a reciprocal relation of similar magnitude. It is important for parents, teachers, and psychologists to minimize the negative effects of social networking on adolescents' psychopathology. Interventions should potentially target promoting healthy sleep habits through reductions in social networking investment and rescheduling usage away from bedtime.

  16. A critical role of CDKN3 in Bcr-Abl-mediated tumorigenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghuang Chen

    Full Text Available CDKN3 (cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 3, a dual specificity protein phosphatase, dephosphorylates cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs and thus functions as a key negative regulator of cell cycle progression. Deregulation or mutations of CDNK3 have been implicated in various cancers. However, the role of CDKN3 in Bcr-Abl-mediated chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML remains unknown. Here we found that CDKN3 acts as a tumor suppressor in Bcr-Abl-mediated leukemogenesis. Overexpression of CDKN3 sensitized the K562 leukemic cells to imanitib-induced apoptosis and dramatically inhibited K562 xenografted tumor growth in nude mouse model. Ectopic expression of CDKN3 significantly reduced the efficiency of Bcr-Abl-mediated transformation of FDCP1 cells to growth factor independence. In contrast, depletion of CDKN3 expression conferred resistance to imatinib-induced apoptosis in the leukemic cells and accelerated the growth of xenograph leukemia in mice. In addition, we found that CDKN3 mutant (CDKN3-C140S devoid of the phosphatase activity failed to affect the K562 leukemic cell survival and xenografted tumor growth, suggesting that the phosphatase of CDKN3 was required for its tumor suppressor function. Furthermore, we observed that overexpression of CDKN3 reduced the leukemic cell survival by dephosphorylating CDK2, thereby inhibiting CDK2-dependent XIAP expression. Moreover, overexpression of CDKN3 delayed G1/S transition in K562 leukemic cells. Our results highlight the importance of CDKN3 in Bcr-Abl-mediated leukemogenesis, and provide new insights into diagnostics and therapeutics of the leukemia.

  17. Parental verbal abuse and the mediating role of self-criticism in adult internalizing disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs-Ericsson, Natalie; Verona, Edelyn; Joiner, Thomas; Preacher, Kristopher J

    2006-07-01

    Researchers (e.g., [Gibb, B.E., 2002. Childhood maltreatment and negative cognitive styles. A quantitative and qualitative review. Clinical Psychology Review, 22 (2), 223-246]; [Rose, D.T., Abramson, L.Y., 1992. Developmental predictors of depressive cognitive styles: developmental perspectives on depression. In Cicchetti, D., Toth, S.L. (Eds.), Developmental Perspectives on Depression. Rochester symposium on developmental psychopathology, vol. 4, pp. 323-349]) have proposed that when childhood abuse is verbal (rather than sexual or physical), the child is more likely to develop a negative self-schema because the negative self-cognitions are directly supplied to the child by the abuser (e.g., "you are stupid"). In a test of this theory in adult participants, and drawing on the National Comorbidity Survey (NCS) (N=5877), we investigate the mediating role of current levels of self-criticism on the relationship between retrospective reports of parental verbal abuse, as well as sexual and physical abuse, and adult internalizing symptoms. We found self-criticism, but not dependency traits, to fully mediate the relationship between childhood verbal abuse perpetrated by parents and internalizing (depression, anxiety) symptoms. On the other hand, self-criticism was only a partial mediator of the relationship between the other types of abuse and internalizing symptoms. The NCS data is cross-sectional, which limits any firm conclusions regarding causality. While these results are suggestive that self-criticism is a mediator of the relationship between abuse and internalizing symptoms, longitudinal data are necessary to help rule out alternative explanations. Results of this study suggest that childhood abuse experiences, and in particular verbal abuse, may confer risk for internalizing disorders in part because verbal abuse influences the development of a self-critical style.

  18. Association of eveningness with problem behavior in children: a mediating role of impaired sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heijden, Kristiaan B; de Sonneville, Leo M J; Swaab, Hanna

    2013-08-01

    Eveningness, the preference of being active during the evening in contrast to the morning, has been associated with markedly increased problem behavior in adolescents; however, the underlying mechanisms are still not understood. This study investigates the association of eveningness with behavior and cognition in children aged 7-12 yrs, and explores the potential mediating role of a variety of sleep factors. Parents of 333 school-aged children (mean age=9.97 yrs; 55% girls) completed a sleep log and several questionnaires regarding eveningness, sleep habits, and behavioral problems. Intellectual abilities, working memory, and attention were assessed using the short-form of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) and subtasks of the Amsterdam Neuropsychological Tasks. Results showed that eveningness predicted behavioral problems over and above the effects of demographic variables (age, sex, and familial socioeconomic status) (p=0.003). Significant partial correlation was found for eveningness and sleep duration during weekdays (p=0.005), and not during weekends. Furthermore, evening orientation was associated with a reduced rested feeling on weekday mornings (psleep characteristic showing association with many cognitive and behavioral measures was the subjective feeling upon awakening-particularly during weekdays. Bootstrap mediation analyses demonstrated that sleep significantly mediated the effects of eveningness on behavioral problems, working memory, and sustained attention. Interestingly, mediation was only significant through the subjective feeling upon awakening on weekdays. The current findings indicate that the subjective feeling upon awakening is a much better predictor of daytime problems than subjective sleep quantity. Furthermore, the data suggest that negative outcomes in evening types are due to the fact that they wake up before their circadian drive for arousal and prior to complete dissipation of sleep pressure during weekdays

  19. The dual role of external corporate venturing in technological exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ying; van de Vrande, Vareska; Vanhaverbeke, Wim

    2009-01-01

    Innovating firms can not only explore new technologies from its innovation partners, but also explore new technologies from the organizations to which the innovating firm has had no prior relationships. Prior studies have mostly focused on a firm's exploratory learning from its venturing partners...

  20. Motivating Children to Learn: The Role of Technology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Coral; Jane, Beverley

    2012-01-01

    Design and technology education provides children with opportunities to create solutions to specific needs in innovative ways. This paper reports on research that focused on the language that the children used when they were involved in a design and technology activity. In accessing the results of the language study, the findings suggest that the…

  1. Is there a role for social technologies in collaborative healthcare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacigalupe, Gonzalo

    2011-03-01

    The exponential growth, variety, and sophistication of the information communication technologies (ICTs) plus their growing accessibility are transforming how clinical practitioners, patients, and their families can work together. Social technologies are the ICTs tools that augment the ability of people to communicate and collaborate despite obstacles of geography and time. There is still little empirical research on the impact of social technologies in the case of collaborative health. Defining a set of social technologies with potential for developing, sustaining, and strengthening the collaborative health agenda should prove useful for practitioners and researchers. This paper is based on an extensive review of the literature focusing on emerging technologies and the experience of the author as a consultant to health care professionals learning about social technologies. A note of caution is required: the phenomenon is complex and hard to describe in writing (a medium very different from the technologies themselves). Hardware and software are in continuous development and the iterative adaptation of the emergent social technologies for new forms of virtual communication. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  2. New Rules, New Roles: Technology Standards and Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasco, Becky; Adcock, Phyllis G.

    2007-01-01

    The digital age is infiltrating colleges of education around the country, but while some faculty are jumping on the bandwagon and working hard to improve their own technological literacy and that of their students, other faculty are resistant, afraid that technology may "dehumanize" education. School districts around the country are investing…

  3. Diabetes Technologies and Their Role in Diabetes Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollipara, Sobha; Silverstein, Janet H.; Marschilok, Katie

    2009-01-01

    The 1993 Diabetes Complications and Control Trial (DCCT) showed that controlling blood glucose prevents and delays the progression of long term complications of diabetes. New diabetes technologies can make control of diabetes possible and safer. This paper reviews these technologies used to monitor blood glucose, administer insulin and evaluate…

  4. The role of new technologies in expanding useful coal reserves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sligar, J. [Pacific Power, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    1995-12-31

    The range of new high efficiency coal utilisation technologies for power generation will have a marked effect in increasing marketable coal reserves from world sources as the technologies are integrated into new and retrofitted power stations. These technologies are substantially more efficient than pulverised coal technology; so if marketable coal reserves are viewed as energy reserves there will be an increase of at least 28% due to this factor alone. In addition, the new technologies use coals with different sets of properties to present internationally traded coals. In many cases reserves of these coals exist but are not presently included in reserves for power generation but which will need to be included in the future. These changes, which require a reassessment of marketable resources for the reliable generation of cheap and environmentally friendly energy and generally extend coal resources by a conservative 33%.

  5. Viet Nam at the Crossroads: The Role of Science and Technology ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1999-01-01

    ... Nam at the Crossroads: The Role of Science and Technology. Book cover Viet Nam at the Crossroads: The Role of Science and Technology. Author(s):. K. Bezanson, J. Annerstedt, K. Chung, D. Hopper, G. Oldham, and F. Sagasti. Publisher(s):. IDRC. January 1, 1999. ISBN: Out of print. 160 pages. e-ISBN: 1552502848.

  6. Narcissistic Implications in Gambling Disorder: The Mediating Role of Emotion Dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogier, Guyonne; Velotti, Patrizia

    2018-02-17

    Gambling Disorder (GD) is a complex psychopathology involving a numbers of cognitive, behavioral, emotional and neurobiological determinants. Previous research suggests that GD may frequently co-occur with Narcissistic Personality Disorder. However, there is still a lack of study investigating Pathological Narcissism (PN) in both its vulnerable and grandiose facets among clinical population. Moreover, emotional dysregulation is commonly thought to underlie GD albeit research on this topic remains poor. The present study aims to investigate the role of both vulnerable and grandiose narcissism in relation to GD as well as the mediator role played by emotion dysregulation in such link. We administered to a sample of addicted gamblers (n = 74) and a sample of heathy controls (n = 105), the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS), the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) and the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS). Differences across groups emerged on the scores obtained on the PNI and DERS. Moreover, we found positive associations between SOGS scores and both PNI and DERS. Also, strategic addicted gamblers showed higher levels of vulnerable narcissism compared to others. Finally, emotion dysregulation difficulties appeared to fully mediate the relationship between grandiose narcissism and GD severity. Grandiose and vulnerable narcissism appear important variables involved in GD. Also, emotion regulation deficits seem to account for GD and to explain the pathways by which grandiose narcissism leads to GD. Clinical implications and future directions are discussed.

  7. Effect of intrinsic rewards on task performance of employees: Mediating role of motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwan Qaiser Danish

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The basic purpose of this study was to examine the effect of reward management system, especially intrinsic rewards on task performance with the mediating role of extrinsic and intrinsic motivation of employees working in the banks in the capital of Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan. The secondary purpose of this study was to explore what level of performance these employees demonstrate towards their organizations when they are rewarded intrinsically and when they are motivated due to these reward management system accordingly. In this study, we collected data through self-administered questionnaires applying correlational explanatory research design. We distributed 300 questionnaires among which 290 were returned resulting in a response rate of 96%. The analysis of the data revealed that intrinsic rewards have positive impact on task performance of employees working in banks and motivation and its dimensions, i.e., intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and job satisfaction mediated this relationship. Considering the importance of appreciations received by bankers in the form of rewards and their effect on extra role performance and sophisticated management, policy makers should take necessary steps for improving the reward management system which will increase the task performance of employees because they will be motivated by these performance appraisal techniques.

  8. Neighborhood Concentrated Disadvantage and Dating Violence among Urban Adolescents: The Mediating Role of Neighborhood Social Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garthe, Rachel C; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Gregory, Joshua; E Schoeny, Michael

    2018-03-14

    The link between relationship violence and aspects of neighborhood concentrated disadvantage (e.g., percent of unemployed adults, percent of families below poverty level), has been established. However, the literature examining neighborhood social processes, including informal social control and social cohesion, in relation to adolescent dating violence has shown mixed results with a limited theoretical foundation and methodology. Using a social disorganization theoretical framework, this study examined the mediating role of these neighborhood social processes in the relation between concentrated disadvantage and adolescent dating violence within an urban context. Participants included 605 adult residents in 30 census tracts and 203 adolescents from neighborhoods on the West and South sides of Chicago. Neighborhood-level concentrated disadvantage was measured via Census data, adult residents reported on neighborhood social processes, and youth reported on dating violence. Informal social control was negatively associated with dating violence, and social cohesion was positively associated with dating violence. A multilevel mediation model showed that concentrated disadvantage was related to higher levels of dating violence via lower levels of informal social control. These results extend social disorganization theory to dating violence within an urban context, while also highlighting the important role of neighborhood processes on relationship violence. Implications for research and intervention programming are discussed. © Society for Community Research and Action 2018.

  9. The dark side of subjective value in sequential negotiations: The mediating role of pride and anger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, William J; Curhan, Jared R

    2018-01-01

    Scholars who study negotiation increasingly recognize the importance of social context, seeing negotiations not merely as 1-shot interactions but as influenced by what came before. Under this longitudinal conceptualization of negotiation, a number of recent studies demonstrate that social psychological outcomes from prior negotiations are positively related to economic performance in subsequent negotiations when negotiating repeatedly with the same counterpart. In this report, we investigate a counterexample in the context of "sequential negotiations," which we define as multiple negotiation sessions that occur within a short time frame but facing different counterparts in each session. We theorize, in sequential negotiations, that subjective value from 1 negotiation should be negatively related to objective outcomes in a subsequent negotiation because of spillover effects of incidental anger and pride. We test this model in 2 studies: a multiround lab study with a student sample and a longitudinal field study with employees negotiating as part of their jobs. Results from both studies support the hypothesized negative relationship between subjective value from an initial negotiation and the objective outcome from a subsequent negotiation with a different counterpart. The mediating role of pride is supported partially in Study 1 and fully in Study 2, whereas the mediating role of anger is not supported in either study. We discuss implications for negotiation theory and practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Examining the stress-burnout relationship: the mediating role of negative thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chyi, Theresa; Hsu, Ya-Wen; Chan, Shi-Wei; Wang, Erica T.W.

    2017-01-01

    Background Using Smith’s (1986) cognitive-affective model of athletic burnout as a guiding framework, the purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among athletes’ stress in life, negative thoughts, and the mediating role of negative thoughts on the stress-burnout relationship. Methods A total of 300 college student-athletes (males = 174; females = 126, Mage = 20.43 y, SD = 1.68) completed the College Student Athlete’s Life Stress Scale (CSALSS; Lu et al., 2012), the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire (ATQ; Hollon & Kendall, 1980), and the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire (ABQ; Raedeke & Smith, 2001). Results Correlational analyses found that two types of life stress and four types of negative thoughts correlated with burnout. Additionally, hierarchical regression analyses found that four types of negative thoughts partially mediated the stress-burnout relationship. Discussion We concluded that an athlete’s negative thoughts play a pivotal role in predicting athletes’ stress-burnout relationship. Future study may examine how irrational cognition influences athletes’ motivation and psychological well-being. PMID:29302397

  11. Examining the stress-burnout relationship: the mediating role of negative thoughts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ko-Hsin Chang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Using Smith’s (1986 cognitive-affective model of athletic burnout as a guiding framework, the purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among athletes’ stress in life, negative thoughts, and the mediating role of negative thoughts on the stress-burnout relationship. Methods A total of 300 college student-athletes (males = 174; females = 126, Mage = 20.43 y, SD = 1.68 completed the College Student Athlete’s Life Stress Scale (CSALSS; Lu et al., 2012, the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire (ATQ; Hollon & Kendall, 1980, and the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire (ABQ; Raedeke & Smith, 2001. Results Correlational analyses found that two types of life stress and four types of negative thoughts correlated with burnout. Additionally, hierarchical regression analyses found that four types of negative thoughts partially mediated the stress-burnout relationship. Discussion We concluded that an athlete’s negative thoughts play a pivotal role in predicting athletes’ stress-burnout relationship. Future study may examine how irrational cognition influences athletes’ motivation and psychological well-being.

  12. COMMITMENT AND BURNOUT: MEDIATOR ROLE OF THE “EMOTIONAL LABOR”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Esmeray Yogun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available As an undeniable reality of the century, emotional labor is required spesifically in the caring services, where face to face contact is main characteristic of the provided service quality. It is a certain fact that hospitals in need of nurses with high commitment and low burnout more than ever to survive in the chaotic competition market. The main purpose of this paper is to examine the mediating role of the emotional labor on the relationship among nurses‟ commitment and burnout level. To get the required data, Emotional Labor Scale, The Maslach Burnout Inventory and Allen and Meyer‟s Organizational Commitment Scale were used. 500 nurses in Turkey in March 2015-April 2015 were reached. For the analysis of the gathered data, AMOS program, Structural Equation Modeling analysis was employed. In this study it is found that there is a partial mediating role of the emotional labor on the relationship between commitment and burnout. And it is found that there is a negative and moderate impact of commitment on the burnout level of nurses. Finally, practical implications of the gathered results have been given at the end of the paper

  13. Role of human-mediated dispersal in the spread of the pinewood nematode in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinet, Christelle; Roques, Alain; Pan, Hongyang; Fang, Guofei; Ye, Jianren; Zhang, Yanzhuo; Sun, Jianghua

    2009-01-01

    Intensification of world trade is responsible for an increase in the number of alien species introductions. Human-mediated dispersal promotes not only introductions but also expansion of the species distribution via long-distance dispersal. Thus, understanding the role of anthropogenic pathways in the spread of invading species has become one of the most important challenges nowadays. We analysed the invasion pattern of the pinewood nematode in China based on invasion data from 1982 to 2005 and monitoring data on 7 locations over 15 years. Short distance spread mediated by long-horned beetles was estimated at 7.5 km per year. Infested sites located further away represented more than 90% of observations and the mean long distance spread was estimated at 111-339 km. Railways, river ports, and lakes had significant effects on the spread pattern. Human population density levels explained 87% of the variation in the invasion probability (Pclimate scenarios (stable climate or moderate warming), projections of the invasion probability suggest that this pest could expand its distribution 40-55% by 2025. This study provides evidence that human-induced dispersal plays a fundamental role in the spread of the pinewood nematode, and appropriate control measures should be taken to stop or slow its expansion. This model can be applied to Europe, where the nematode had been introduced later, and is currently expanding its distribution. Similar models could also be derived for other species that could be accidentally transported by humans.

  14. The Role of Antioxidation and Immunomodulation in Postnatal Multipotent Stem Cell-Mediated Cardiac Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny Huard

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress and inflammation play major roles in the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease including myocardial infarction (MI. The pathological progression following MI is very complex and involves a number of cell populations including cells localized within the heart, as well as cells recruited from the circulation and other tissues that participate in inflammatory and reparative processes. These cells, with their secretory factors, have pleiotropic effects that depend on the stage of inflammation and regeneration. Excessive inflammation leads to enlargement of the infarction site, pathological remodeling and eventually, heart dysfunction. Stem cell therapy represents a unique and innovative approach to ameliorate oxidative stress and inflammation caused by ischemic heart disease. Consequently, it is crucial to understand the crosstalk between stem cells and other cells involved in post-MI cardiac tissue repair, especially immune cells, in order to harness the beneficial effects of the immune response following MI and further improve stem cell-mediated cardiac regeneration. This paper reviews the recent findings on the role of antioxidation and immunomodulation in postnatal multipotent stem cell-mediated cardiac repair following ischemic heart disease, particularly acute MI and focuses specifically on mesenchymal, muscle and blood-vessel-derived stem cells due to their antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties.

  15. Pgrmc1/BDNF Signaling Plays a Critical Role in Mediating Glia-Neuron Cross Talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fen; Nguyen, Trinh; Jin, Xin; Huang, Renqi; Chen, Zhenglan; Cunningham, Rebecca L; Singh, Meharvan; Su, Chang

    2016-05-01

    Progesterone (P4) exerts robust cytoprotection in brain slice cultures (containing both neurons and glia), yet such protection is not as evident in neuron-enriched cultures, suggesting that glia may play an indispensable role in P4's neuroprotection. We previously reported that a membrane-associated P4 receptor, P4 receptor membrane component 1, mediates P4-induced brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) release from glia. Here, we sought to determine whether glia are required for P4's neuroprotection and whether glia's roles are mediated, at least partially, via releasing soluble factors to act on neighboring neurons. Our data demonstrate that P4 increased the level of mature BDNF (neuroprotective) while decreasing pro-BDNF (potentially neurotoxic) in the conditioned media (CMs) of cultured C6 astrocytes. We examined the effects of CMs derived from P4-treated astrocytes (P4-CMs) on 2 neuronal models: 1) all-trans retinoid acid-differentiated SH-SY5Y cells and 2) mouse primary hippocampal neurons. P4-CM increased synaptic marker expression and promoted neuronal survival against H2O2. These effects were attenuated by Y1036 (an inhibitor of neurotrophin receptor [tropomysin-related kinase] signaling), as well as tropomysin-related kinase B-IgG (a more specific inhibitor to block BDNF signaling), which pointed to BDNF as the key protective component within P4-CM. These findings suggest that P4 may exert its maximal protection by triggering a glia-neuron cross talk, in which P4 promotes mature BDNF release from glia to enhance synaptogenesis as well as survival of neurons. This recognition of the importance of glia in mediating P4's neuroprotection may also inform the design of effective therapeutic methods for treating diseases wherein neuronal death and/or synaptic deficits are noted.

  16. School motivation and high school dropout: the mediating role of educational expectation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Weihua; Wolters, Christopher A

    2014-03-01

    A good deal of evidence indicates that students' motivational beliefs and attitudes play a critical role in their academic success. Research studies on how motivational factors may help determine whether students remain in high school or drop out, however, are relatively few. More specifically, there is a lack of research examining the dynamics of whether students' motivational beliefs from earlier in high school might be used to predict their status as a dropout in their final year. The aim of the present study was to examine the mediating role of students' educational expectations in linking students' school motivation to their dropout status by utilizing a nationally representative dataset. The present study used data from the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS: 2002). The final sample consisted of 16,194 students, with approximately 54% White, 13% Black, 16% Hispanic, and 10% Asian students, and the rest were Native American, Hawaiian, multiracial, or of other races. Structural equation modelling was employed to conduct the mediational analysis. The results of the present study demonstrated that the relationships between student ability beliefs in math and English and student behaviour of dropping out were fully mediated by students' educational expectations. The results also revealed that student intrinsic value in math and English had significant indirect relations with student behaviour of leaving school through students' educational expectations. The results of this study suggest that explanations for student dropout status that rely solely on students' social background and school behaviours without considering their motivation are incomplete. The study expands the extant research by showing possible pathways that motivate students to persist in high school. These pathways are specifically rooted in students' ability beliefs and intrinsic interest in learning through their relationships with students' expectations for their education. © 2012 The

  17. The mediating role of dichotomous thinking and emotional eating in the relationship between depression and BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Evangelia E; Bongers, Peggy; Jansen, Anita

    2017-08-01

    Obesity and depression have important health implications. Although there is knowledge about the moderators of the depression-obesity association, our understanding of the potential behavioral and cognitive mediators that may explain the relationship between depression and obesity, is scarcely researched. The aim of this study is to investigate the mediating role of emotional eating and dichotomous thinking in the depression-obesity relationship. Data on 205 individuals from a community-based study conducted at Maastricht University, Netherlands were used. Self-reported data on depression, emotional eating and dichotomous thinking were collected and BMI scores were calculated in a cross-sectional research design. Correlations between variables were calculated. The primary analysis tested the hypothesis that depression has an effect on BMI through dichotomous thinking and emotional eating. A two-mediator model was used to predict the direct and indirect effects of emotional eating and dichotomous thinking on the depression-BMI relationship. Depression was positively correlated with BMI (r=0.21, p=0.005), emotional eating (r=0.38, pthinking (r=0.49, pthinking and emotional eating were positively correlated with BMI (r=0.35, pthinking (Z=2.54, p=0.01, 95% confidence intervals=0.01-0.17) and emotional eating (Z=3.92 pthinking might be useful in guiding assessment and treatment protocols for weight management. The present study adds to the existing literature on the role of dysfunctional cognitions and emotions on eating behavior, and particularly to the factors that may impede people's ability to control their eating. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A genomewide screen for suppressors of Alu-mediated rearrangements reveals a role for PIF1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen M Chisholm

    Full Text Available Alu-mediated rearrangement of tumor suppressor genes occurs frequently during carcinogenesis. In breast cancer, this mechanism contributes to loss of the wild-type BRCA1 allele in inherited disease and to loss of heterozygosity in sporadic cancer. To identify genes required for suppression of Alu-mediated recombination we performed a genomewide screen of a collection of 4672 yeast gene deletion mutants using a direct repeat recombination assay. The primary screen and subsequent analysis identified 12 candidate genes including TSA, ELG1, and RRM3, which are known to play a significant role in maintaining genomic stability. Genetic analysis of the corresponding human homologs was performed in sporadic breast tumors and in inherited BRCA1-associated carcinomas. Sequencing of these genes in high risk breast cancer families revealed a potential role for the helicase PIF1 in cancer predisposition. PIF1 variant L319P was identified in three breast cancer families; importantly, this variant, which is predicted to be functionally damaging, was not identified in a large series of controls nor has it been reported in either dbSNP or the 1000 Genomes Project. In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Pfh1 is required to maintain both mitochondrial and nuclear genomic integrity. Functional studies in yeast of human PIF1 L319P revealed that this variant cannot complement the essential functions of Pfh1 in either the nucleus or mitochondria. Our results provide a global view of nonessential genes involved in suppressing Alu-mediated recombination and implicate variation in PIF1 in breast cancer predisposition.

  19. Experimenting with semantic web services to understand the role of NLP technologies in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannathan, V

    2006-01-01

    NLP technologies can play a significant role in healthcare where a predominant segment of the clinical documentation is in text form. In a graduate course focused on understanding semantic web services at West Virginia University, a class project was designed with the purpose of exploring potential use for NLP-based abstraction of clinical documentation. The role of NLP-technology was simulated using human abstractors and various workflows were investigated using public domain workflow and semantic web service technologies. This poster explores the potential use of NLP and the role of workflow and semantic web technologies in developing healthcare IT environments.

  20. A Multi-Case Study of University Students' Language-Learning Experience Mediated by Mobile Technologies: A Socio-Cultural Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qing

    2017-01-01

    Emerging mobile technologies can be considered a new form of social and cultural artefact that mediates people's language learning. This multi-case study investigates how mobile technologies mediate a group of Hong Kong university students' L2 learning, which serves as a lens with which to capture the personalised, unique, contextual and…

  1. The Mediating Effect of Employee well-being in relation to Role Stressors and Turnover Intention: A Conceptual Study

    OpenAIRE

    Langove, Naseebullah; Isha, Ahmad Shahrul Nizam B.; Javaid, Muhammad Umair

    2016-01-01

    The technological revolution has escorted diverse roles with deleterious effects, which in turn triggers stress. Role stressors are comprehensively conceptualized as two distinctive variables, role conflict and role ambiguity. In literature, studies have shown a positive relationship of role conflict and role ambiguity with turnover intention while a negative relationship of employee well-being and turnover intention. However, very limited studies have attempted to examine the indirect effect...

  2. Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP): Emergence As an Alternative Technology for Herbal Medicine Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing-Jian; Xiong, Chao; Liu, Yue; Liang, Jun-Song; Zhou, Xing-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Correct identification of medicinal plant ingredients is essential for their safe use and for the regulation of herbal drug supply chain. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a recently developed approach to identify herbal medicine species. This novel molecular biology technique enables timely and accurate testing, especially in settings where infrastructures to support polymerase chain reaction facilities are lacking. Studies that used this method have altered our view on the extent and complexity of herbal medicine identification. In this review, we give an introduction into LAMP analysis, covers the basic principles and important aspects in the development of LAMP analysis method. Then we presented a critical review of the application of LAMP-based methods in detecting and identifying raw medicinal plant materials and their processed products. We also provide a practical standard operating procedure (SOP) for the utilization of the LAMP protocol in herbal authentication, and consider the prospects of LAMP technology in the future developments of herbal medicine identification and the challenges associated with its application.

  3. The Effect of Individualized Technology-Mediated Feedback on EFL Learners’ Argumentative Essays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Soltanpour

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This quantitative quasi-experimental study, which followed a pretest-posttest-delayed posttest design, was aimed at investigating the effect of individualized technology-mediated feedback (henceforth, ITMF on the overall quality of Iranian EFL learners’ argumentative essays. The effect of ITMF, as the experimental treatment, was compared with the common written corrective feedback (henceforth, CWCF strategies as the control treatment. 57 learners, studying at general EFL courses at upper-intermediate level, formed the participants. They were assigned to two groups: ITMF and CWCF, which, in this study, is meant as the pen-and-paper form of direct and indirect feedback. Each group received six sessions of treatment. The writing tasks and tests were all of argumentative type. First, whether there was any significant difference between the ITMF and CWCF in the overall quality of the essays was investigated. The ITMF group significantly outperformed the CWCF one. Then, whether the difference between the groups varied over time was explored, and it was revealed that the ITMF was still significantly superior over the CWCF. Next, whether there would be any significant change in the ITMF in the long term was examined, and no change was seen. The study supports the advocates of screencasting feedback, revision and teacher-learner negotiation following the feedback.

  4. Contextual role of TRLs and MRLs in technology management.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Joseph A.

    2010-11-01

    Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) have been used extensively from the 1970s, especially in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Their application was recommended by the General Accounting Office in 1999 to be used for major Department of Defense acquisition projects. Manufacturing Readiness Levels (MRLs) have been proposed for improving the way manufacturing risks and readiness are identified; they were introduced to the defense community in 2005, but have not been used as broadly as TRLs. Originally TRLs were used to assess the readiness of a single technology. With the emergence of more complex systems and system of systems, it has been increasingly recognized that TRLs have limitations, especially when considering integration of complex systems. Therefore, it is important to use TRLs in the correct context. Details on TRLs and MRLs are reported in this paper. More recent indices to establish a better understanding of the integrated readiness state of systems are presented. Newer readiness indices, System Readiness Levels (SRLs) and Integration Readiness Levels, are discussed and their limitations and advantages are presented, along with an example of computing SRLs. It is proposed that a modified SRL be considered that explicitly includes the MRLs and a modification of the TRLs to include the Integrated Technology Index (ITI) and/or the Advancement Degree of Difficulty index proposed by NASA. Finally, the use of indices to perform technology assessments are placed into the overall context of technology management, recognizing that factors to transition and manage technology include cost, schedule, manufacturability, integration readiness, and technology maturity.

  5. Small-scale technologies for energy innovations: role and implication directions

    OpenAIRE

    Knol, W.H.C.

    2005-01-01

    Energy innovations with sustainable fundamentals are needed to fulfill energy demands for the coming decades. This leads to a seeking process for new knowledge and technologies in order to create incremental and breakthrough energy innovations. The question is what the role is of small-scale technologies (nanotechnologies) for these innovations? This paper examines in a brief and non-exhaustive manor the role and implication directions of small-scale technologies for energy innovations. Firs...

  6. Role of the Nrf2-heme oxygenase-1 pathway in silver nanoparticle-mediated cytotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Su Jin; Ryoo, In-geun; Lee, Young Joon; Kwak, Mi-Kyoung

    2012-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (nano-Ag) have been widely used in various commercial products including textiles, electronic appliances and biomedical products. However, there remains insufficient information on the potential risk of nano-Ag to human health and environment. In the current study, we have investigated the role of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) transcription factor in nano-Ag-induced cytotoxicity. When Nrf2 expression was blocked using interring RNA expression in ovarian carcinoma cell line, nano-Ag treatment showed a substantial decrease in cell viability with concomitant increases in apoptosis and DNA damage compared to the control cells. Target gene analysis revealed that the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) was highly elevated by nano-Ag in nonspecific shRNA expressing cells, while Nrf2 knockdown cells (NRF2i) did not increase HO-1 expression. The role of HO-1 in cytoprotection against nano-Ag was reinforced by results using pharmacological inducer of HO-1: cobalt protoporphyrin-mediated HO-1 activation in the NRF2i cells prevented nano-Ag-mediated cell death. Similarly, pharmacological or genetic inhibition of HO-1 in nonspecific control cells exacerbated nano-Ag toxicity. As the upstream signaling mechanism, nano-Ag required the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and p38MAPK signaling cascades for HO-1 induction. The treatment with either PI3K inhibitor or p38MAPK inhibitor suppressed HO-1 induction and intensified nano-Ag-induced cell death. Taken together, these results suggest that Nrf2-dependent HO-1 up-regulation plays a protective role in nano-Ag-induced DNA damage and consequent cell death. In addition, nano-Ag-mediated HO-1 induction is associated with the PI3K and p38MAPK signaling pathways. -- Highlights: ► Role of Nrf2 signaling in silver nanoparticle toxicity. ► Silver nanoparticle toxicity is increased by Nrf2 blockade. ► Nrf2-dependent HO-1 induction protects cells from silver nanoparticle toxicity. ► PI3K and p38MAPK cascades are

  7. The role of teachers' expectations in the association between children's SES and performance in kindergarten: A moderated mediation analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speybroeck, S.; Kuppens, S.P.E.; Van Damme, J.; Van Petegem, P.; Lamote, C.; Boonen, T.; de Bilde, J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the role of teachers' expectations in the association between children's socio-economic background and achievement outcomes. Furthermore, the role of children's ethnicity in moderating this mediated relation is investigated. In the present study, 3,948 children from kindergarten

  8. Attachment and Parenting: The Mediating Role of Work-Family Balance in Portuguese Parents of Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Joana Marina; AVila, Marisa; Matos, Paula Mena

    2012-01-01

    Given the increasingly challenging task of balancing multiple adult life roles in contemporary society, this study examined the influences of both conflicting and (positively) synergistic work and family roles in mediating associations between the quality of adult attachment and both parental satisfaction and parenting stress. Participants were…

  9. IL-13 mediates collagen deposition via STAT6 and microRNA-135b : A role for epigenetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Reilly, Steven; Ciechomska, Marzena; Fullard, Nicola; Przyborski, Stefan; Van Laar, Jacob M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/104073942

    2016-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis is an autoimmune connective tissue disease in which T cells play a prominent role. We and others have previously demonstrated a role for T cell-derived IL-13 in mediating the induction of collagen in dermal fibroblasts and that blockade with IL-13 antibodies attenuates this

  10. Coping with chronic illness: the mediating role of biographic and illness-related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viney, L L; Westbrook, M T

    1982-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine the mediating roles played by a range of biographic and illness-related factors in preferences for strategies for coping with chronic illness. Chronically-ill patients assessed their own coping strategy preference by ranking six clusters of strategies. Information was also obtained about their demographic characteristics, life styles, illness roles, the degree of their disability, their perceived handicaps and their perceived achievement of their rehabilitation goals. Multiple regression analyses of each of these six sets of variables on each coping strategy were carried out to identify patterns of association between them. (1) Preferences for action strategies were found to be associated with patient-related factors (demographic characteristics, life style and illness role). (2) Control strategies were associated with illness-related factors (illness role, degree of disability, perceived handicap and achievement of rehabilitation goals). (3) Escape strategies were ranked higher by women than by men, sex being their only significant predictor. (4) Preferences for fatalism, unlike those for action strategies, were associated with relatively low social status and relatively little interpersonal involvement or social commitment. (5) Preferences for optimism were related only to patients' perceptions of their handicaps. (6) Interpersonal coping was not found to be associated with any of this wide range of biographic illness-related factors.

  11. Acceptance of hydrogen technologies and the role of trust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmer, R. [Independent Institute for Environmental Concerns, Berlin (Germany). Resource Protection and Landscape Ecology; Hoelzinger, N. [Spilett New Technologies GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    It is well known in socio-economic studies, that the success of an innovation process depends not only on the technological innovation itself or the state of the economic and institutional environment, but also on the public acceptance of the innovation. Public acceptance can be an obstacle for the development and introduction of a new and innovative idea as the example of genetic engineering in agriculture shows. In respect to hydrogen technology this means, that the compilation and communication of scientific risk assessments are not sufficient to generate or enhance public acceptance. Moreover, psychological, social and cultural aspects of risk perception have to be considered when introducing new technologies. This paper focuses on trust as a central parameter of risk perception and the public acceptance of new technologies. (orig.)

  12. A novel role of sesamol in inhibiting NF-κB-mediated signaling in platelet activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Chao-Chien

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Platelet activation is relevant to a variety of coronary heart diseases. Our previous studies revealed that sesamol possesses potent antiplatelet activity through increasing cyclic AMP formation. Although platelets are anucleated cells, they also express the transcription factor, NF-κB, that may exert non-genomic functions in platelet activation. Therefore, we further investigated the inhibitory roles of sesamol in NF-κB-mediated platelet function. Methods Platelet aggregation, Fura 2-AM fluorescence, and immunoblotting analysis were used in this study. Results NF-κB signaling events, including IKKβ phosphorylation, IκBα degradation, and p65 phosphorylation, were markedly activated by collagen (1 μg/ml in washed human platelets, and these signaling events were attenuated by sesamol (2.5~25 μM. Furthermore, SQ22536 and ODQ, inhibitors of adenylate cyclase and guanylate cyclase, respectively, strongly reversed the sesamol (25 μM-mediated inhibitory effects of IKKβ phosphorylation, IκBα degradation, and p65 phosphorylation stimulated by collagen. The protein kinase A (PKA inhibitor, H89, also reversed sesamol-mediated inhibition of IκBα degradation. Moreover, BAY11-7082, an NF-κB inhibitor, abolished IκBα degradation, phospholipase C (PLCγ2 phosphorylation, protein kinase C (PKC activation, [Ca2+]i mobilization, and platelet aggregation stimulated by collagen. Preincubation of platelets with the inhibitors, SQ22536 and H89, both strongly reversed sesamol-mediated inhibition of platelet aggregation and [Ca2+]i mobilization. Conclusions Sesamol activates cAMP-PKA signaling, followed by inhibition of the NF-κB-PLC-PKC cascade, thereby leading to inhibition of [Ca2+]i mobilization and platelet aggregation. Because platelet activation is not only linked to hemostasis, but also has a relevant role in inflammation and metastasis, our data demonstrating that inhibition of NF-κB interferes with platelet function may

  13. Parenting styles and bullying. The mediating role of parental psychological aggression and physical punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Ortiz, Olga; Romera, Eva María; Ortega-Ruiz, Rosario

    2016-01-01

    Studies concerning parenting styles and disciplinary practices have shown a relationship between both factors and bullying involvement in adolescence. The scarce available evidence suggests that abusive disciplinary practices increase teenagers' vulnerability to abuse in school or the likelihood of them becoming abusers of their peers in the same context. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the indirect effect of parenting styles in adolescents' bullying involvement through disciplinary practices, although a relationship between parenting styles and disciplinary practices has been shown. The aim of this research was to determine the mediating role of punitive parental discipline (physical punishment and psychological aggression) between the dimensions of parents' parenting styles and their children's involvement in bullying victimization and aggression. We used a sample comprising 2060 Spanish high school students (47.9% girls; mean age=14.34). Structural equation modeling was performed to analyze the data. The results confirmed the mediating role of parental discipline between the parenting practices analyzed and students' aggression and victimization. Significant gender-related differences were found for aggression involvement, where boys were for the most part linked to psychological aggression disciplinary practices and girls to physical punishment. Victimization directly correlated with parental psychological aggression discipline behavior across both sexes. In conclusion, the results seem to suggest that non-democratic parenting styles favor the use of punitive discipline, which increases the risk of adolescents' bullying involvement. Therefore, intervention programs must involve parents to make them aware about the important role they play in this process and to improve their parenting styles. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The role of referrals in financing technology-based ventures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuven, J.M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Many referral mechanisms can be found in the context of entrepreneurship. Networks and third party referrals play a prominent role in spotting entrepreneurial opportunities and in acquiring the resources necessary for growth. In this dissertation, the focus is on the role of referrals in acquiring

  15. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification: an emerging technology for detection of fish and shellfish pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savan, R; Kono, T; Itami, T; Sakai, M

    2005-10-01

    Fish and shellfish diseases are a constant threat to the sustainability and economic viability of aquaculture. Early diagnosis plays a vital role in management of fish and shellfish diseases. Traditionally, various biochemical and serological tests have been used for fish disease diagnosis. However, the time and expertise required for such diagnoses makes it difficult for aquaculturists to easily adopt them under production conditions. Polymerase chain reaction and probe-based nucleic acid detection have become increasingly popular in fish and shellfish diagnostics. Recently, a novel technique called loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) has been developed, which is highly sensitive and rapid. LAMP has been used for the detection of bacterial, viral, fungal and parasitic diseases in both animal and plants. In aquaculture, LAMP-based detection of pathogens like Edwardsiella tarda, E. ictaluri, Nocardia seriolae, Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae, white spot syndrome virus and infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus have been reported. In this review, the application of LAMP for the detection of aquaculture-associated pathogens is discussed.

  16. Coproduction as an Approach to Technology-Mediated Citizen Participation in Emergency Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Díaz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Social and mobile computing open up new possibilities for integrating citizens’ information, knowledge, and social capital in emergency management (EM. This participation can improve the capacity of local agencies to respond to unexpected events by involving citizens not only as first line informants, but also as first responders. This participation could contribute to build resilient communities aware of the risks they are threatened by and able to mobilize their social capital to cope with them and, in turn, decrease the impact of threats and hazards. However for this participation to be possible organizations in charge of EM need to realize that involving citizens does not interfere with their protocols and that citizens are a valuable asset that can contribute to the EM process with specific skills and capabilities. In this paper we discuss the design challenges of using social and mobile computing to move to a more participatory EM process that starts by empowering both citizens and organizations in a coproduction service envisioned as a partnership effort. As an example, we describe a case study of a participatory design approach that involved professional EM workers and decision makers in an effort to understand the challenges of using technology-based solutions to integrate citizen skills and capabilities in their operation protocols. The case study made it possible to identify specific roles that citizens might play in a crisis or disaster and to envision scenarios were technologies could be used to integrate their skills into the EM process. In this way the paper contributes to the roles and the scenarios of theory-building about coproduction in EM services.

  17. A novel theory: biological processes mostly involve two types of mediators, namely general and specific mediators Endogenous small radicals such as superoxide and nitric oxide may play a role of general mediator in biological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Jian

    2005-01-01

    A great number of papers have shown that free radicals as well as bioactive molecules can play a role of mediator in a wide spectrum of biological processes, but the biological actions and chemical reactivity of the free radicals are quite different from that of the bioactive molecules, and that a wide variety of bioactive molecules can be easily modified by free radicals due to having functional groups sensitive to redox, and the significance of the interaction between the free radicals and the bioactive molecules in biological processes has been confirmed by the results of some in vitro and in vivo studies. Based on these evidence, this article presented a novel theory about the mediators of biological processes. The essentials of the theory are: (a) mediators of biological processes can be classified into general and specific mediators; the general mediators include two types of free radicals, namely superoxide and nitric oxide; the specific mediators include a wide variety of bioactive molecules, such as specific enzymes, transcription factors, cytokines and eicosanoids; (b) a general mediator can modify almost any class of the biomolecules, and thus play a role of mediator in nearly every biological process via diverse mechanisms; a specific mediator always acts selectively on certain classes of the biomolecules, and may play a role of mediator in different biological processes via a same mechanism; (c) biological processes are mostly controlled by networks of their mediators, so the free radicals can regulate the last consequence of a biological process by modifying some types of the bioactive molecules, or in cooperation with these bioactive molecules; the biological actions of superoxide and nitric oxide may be synergistic or antagonistic. According to this theory, keeping the integrity of these networks and the balance between the free radicals and the bioactive molecules as well as the balance between the free radicals and the free radical scavengers

  18. Role of Recombinant DNA Technology to Improve Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suliman Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past century, the recombinant DNA technology was just an imagination that desirable characteristics can be improved in the living bodies by controlling the expressions of target genes. However, in recent era, this field has demonstrated unique impacts in bringing advancement in human life. By virtue of this technology, crucial proteins required for health problems and dietary purposes can be produced safely, affordably, and sufficiently. This technology has multidisciplinary applications and potential to deal with important aspects of life, for instance, improving health, enhancing food resources, and resistance to divergent adverse environmental effects. Particularly in agriculture, the genetically modified plants have augmented resistance to harmful agents, enhanced product yield, and shown increased adaptability for better survival. Moreover, recombinant pharmaceuticals are now being used confidently and rapidly attaining commercial approvals. Techniques of recombinant DNA technology, gene therapy, and genetic modifications are also widely used for the purpose of bioremediation and treating serious diseases. Due to tremendous advancement and broad range of application in the field of recombinant DNA technology, this review article mainly focuses on its importance and the possible applications in daily life.

  19. The evolving role of supply chain management technology in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langabeer, Jim

    2005-01-01

    The healthcare supply chain is a vast, disintegrated network of products and players, loosely held together by manual and people-intensive processes. Managing the flow of information, supplies, equipment, and services from manufacturers to distributors to providers of care is especially difficult in clinical supply chains, compared with more technology-intense industries like consumer goods or industrial manufacturing. As supplies move downstream towards hospitals and clinics, the quality and robustness of accompanying management and information systems used to manage these products deteriorates significantly. Technology that provides advanced planning, synchronization, and collaboration upstream at the large supply manufacturers and distributors rarely is used at even the world's larger and more sophisticated hospitals. This article outlines the current state of healthcare supply chain management technologies, addresses potential reasons for the lack of adoption of technologies and provides a roadmap for the evolution of technology for the future. This piece is based on both quantitative and qualitative research assessments of the healthcare supply chain conducted during the last two years.

  20. Gratitude and Adolescents’ Subjective Well-Being in School: The Multiple Mediating Roles of Basic Psychological Needs Satisfaction at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lili; Pi, Luyang; Huebner, E. S.; Du, Minmin

    2016-01-01

    Based on the relation between gratitude and general subjective well-being (SWB), and Basic Psychological Needs Theory (Ryan and Deci, 2000), the present study’s aim was to use structural equation modeling to test the multiple mediational roles of the satisfaction of three basic psychological needs at school in accounting for the association between gratitude and SWB in school (school satisfaction, school affect) in adolescents. A total of 881 Chinese adolescents (427 males; Mean age = 12.97) completed a multi-measure questionnaire that tapped the targeted variables. Findings revealed that gratitude related significantly, positively to adolescents’ SWB in school. Moreover, a multiple-mediators analysis suggested that relatedness and competence needs satisfaction at school mediated the relation between gratitude and SWB in school. Lastly, a multiple-mediators analysis also indicated that autonomy needs satisfaction mediated the relation between relatedness and competence needs and SWB in school. Limitations and practical applications of the study were discussed. PMID:27708601

  1. Gratitude and Adolescents' Subjective Well-Being in School: The Multiple Mediating Roles of Basic Psychological Needs Satisfaction at School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lili; Pi, Luyang; Huebner, E S; Du, Minmin

    2016-01-01

    Based on the relation between gratitude and general subjective well-being (SWB), and Basic Psychological Needs Theory (Ryan and Deci, 2000), the present study's aim was to use structural equation modeling to test the multiple mediational roles of the satisfaction of three basic psychological needs at school in accounting for the association between gratitude and SWB in school (school satisfaction, school affect) in adolescents. A total of 881 Chinese adolescents (427 males; Mean age = 12.97) completed a multi-measure questionnaire that tapped the targeted variables. Findings revealed that gratitude related significantly, positively to adolescents' SWB in school. Moreover, a multiple-mediators analysis suggested that relatedness and competence needs satisfaction at school mediated the relation between gratitude and SWB in school. Lastly, a multiple-mediators analysis also indicated that autonomy needs satisfaction mediated the relation between relatedness and competence needs and SWB in school. Limitations and practical applications of the study were discussed.

  2. Satisfying personal needs at the museum: The role of digital technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Pina Myrczik

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates how museum visitors use digital technologies to mediate their general meaning-making process about artworks and other information they encounter throughout their museum experience. Concluding from a case study at the National Gallery of Denmark in Copenhagen, this study suggests that visitors use digital technologies as a vehicle for satisfying one or more personal needs. In order to gain control over their experience, visitors used not only digital technologies provided by the museum but also their personal technologies. The article argues that both museums and visitors will derive great benefits by understanding the ways in which people process multimedia messages and by implementing these principles of multimedia learning into the design of digital technologies at museums. The data also suggest that museums should especially support visitors in using technology with which they are already familiar and embed it in the museum experience.

  3. The role of stress mediators in modulation of cytokine production by ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glover, Mitzi; Cheng Bing; Fan Ruping; Pruett, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Acute ethanol exposure in humans and in animal models activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS); the resultant increases in concentration of neuroendocrine mediators contribute to some of the immunosuppressive effects of ethanol. However, the role of these mediators in the ethanol-induced inhibition of inflammatory responses is not clear. This is complicated by the fact that most inflammatory stimuli also activate the HPA axis and SNS, and it has not been determined if ethanol plus an inflammatory stimulus increases these stress responses. Addressing this issue is the major focus of the study described herein. Complementary approaches were used, including quantitative assessment of the stress response in mice treated with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C, as an inflammatory stimulus) and inhibition of the production or action of key HPA axis and SNS mediators. Treatment of mice with ethanol shortly before treatment with poly I:C yielded a significant increase in the corticosterone response as compared to the response to poly I:C alone, but the increase was small and not likely sufficient to account for the anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol. Inhibition of catecholamine and glucocorticoid production by adrenalectomy, and inhibition of catecholamine action with a sustained release antagonist (nadalol) supported this conclusion and revealed that 'excess' stress responses associated with ethanol treatment is not the mechanism of suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokine production, but stress-induced corticosterone does regulate production of several of these cytokines, which has not previously been reported.

  4. The Role of Grid Computing Technologies in Cloud Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, David; Rodero, Ivan; Fong, Liana; Bobroff, Norman; Liu, Yanbin; Parashar, Manish; Sadjadi, S. Masoud

    The fields of Grid, Utility and Cloud Computing have a set of common objectives in harnessing shared resources to optimally meet a great variety of demands cost-effectively and in a timely manner Since Grid Computing started its technological journey about a decade earlier than Cloud Computing, the Cloud can benefit from the technologies and experience of the Grid in building an infrastructure for distributed computing. Our comparison of Grid and Cloud starts with their basic characteristics and interaction models with clients, resource consumers and providers. Then the similarities and differences in architectural layers and key usage patterns are examined. This is followed by an in depth look at the technologies and best practices that have applicability from Grid to Cloud computing, including scheduling, service orientation, security, data management, monitoring, interoperability, simulation and autonomic support. Finally, we offer insights on how these techniques will help solve the current challenges faced by Cloud computing.

  5. Energy and economic milestones in Nigeria: Role of nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahunsi, S.O.A.

    2011-01-01

    Electric power supply could be the driving force critical to poverty reduction, economic growth and sustainable development in developing countries like Nigeria. Comparative analysis of several promising technologies that could be explored to achieve energy sufficiency however shows that nuclear power is more economically competitive and outstanding despite the relatively high initial capital cost. Furthermore, one of the critical conditions in deciding to invest in a specific electric power technology is the overall cost component of the new technology, nuclear therefore is in many places competitive with other forms of electricity generation. The fundamental attraction is about harnessing the sources of energy which takes cognizance of the environmental effects of burning fossil fuel and its security of supply. This paper therefore highlights the benefits of inclusion of nuclear energy in the Nigeria energy mix, a sine qua non for economic and social development, safer environment, wealth creation and a long term energy security.

  6. The Relationship Between Mindfulness and Life Stress in Student-Athletes: The Mediating Role of Coping Effectiveness and Decision Rumination.

    OpenAIRE

    Kaiseler, M; Poolton, JM; Backhouse, SH; Stanger, N

    2017-01-01

    The role of dispositional mindfulness on stress in student-athletes and factors that mediate this relationship has yet to be examined. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between the facets of mindfulness and life stress in student-athletes and whether these relationships are mediated through coping effectiveness and decision rumination. Participants were 202 student-athletes who completed validated measures of dispositional mindfulness, student-athlete...

  7. Experimental taphonomy of Artemia reveals the role of endogenous microbes in mediating decay and fossilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Aodhán D; Cunningham, John A; Budd, Graham E; Donoghue, Philip C J

    2015-06-07

    Exceptionally preserved fossils provide major insights into the evolutionary history of life. Microbial activity is thought to play a pivotal role in both the decay of organisms and the preservation of soft tissue in the fossil record, though this has been the subject of very little experimental investigation. To remedy this, we undertook an experimental study of the decay of the brine shrimp Artemia, examining the roles of autolysis, microbial activity, oxygen diffusion and reducing conditions. Our findings indicate that endogenous gut bacteria are the main factor controlling decay. Following gut wall rupture, but prior to cuticle failure, gut-derived microbes spread into the body cavity, consuming tissues and forming biofilms capable of mediating authigenic mineralization, that pseudomorph tissues and structures such as limbs and the haemocoel. These observations explain patterns observed in exceptionally preserved fossil arthropods. For example, guts are preserved relatively frequently, while preservation of other internal anatomy is rare. They also suggest that gut-derived microbes play a key role in the preservation of internal anatomy and that differential preservation between exceptional deposits might be because of factors that control autolysis and microbial activity. The findings also suggest that the evolution of a through gut and its bacterial microflora increased the potential for exceptional fossil preservation in bilaterians, providing one explanation for the extreme rarity of internal preservation in those animals that lack a through gut.

  8. Moralizing Food Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian Eyde

    2015-01-01

    Food technologies are common on many levels in society and used by both food professionals and consumers. Food technologies are not neutral. They inform and shape the behaviour of people. This paper presents a theoretical framework for analysing the mediating role of food technology and its influ...

  9. Planning Abilities in Bilingual and Monolingual Children: Role of Verbal Mediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangopadhyay, Ishanti; McDonald, Margarethe; Ellis Weismer, Susan; Kaushanskaya, Margarita

    2018-01-01

    We examined the role of verbal mediation in planning performance of English–Spanish-speaking bilingual children and monolingual English-speaking children, between the ages of 9 and 12 years. To measure planning, children were administered the Tower of London (ToL) task. In a dual-task paradigm, children completed ToL problems under three conditions: with no secondary task (baseline), with articulatory suppression, and with non-verbal motor suppression. Analyses revealed generally shorter planning times for bilinguals than monolinguals but both groups performed similarly on number of moves and execution times. Additionally, bilingual children were more efficient at planning throughout the duration of the task while monolingual children showed significant gains with more practice. Children’s planning times under articulatory suppression were significantly shorter than under motor suppression as well as the baseline condition, and there was no difference in planning times between monolingual and bilingual children during articulatory suppression. These results demonstrate that bilingualism influences performance on a complex EF measure like planning, and that these effects are not related to verbal mediation. PMID:29593620

  10. The mediating roles of coping and adjustment in the relationship between personality and academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Harsha N; McIlveen, Peter; Oliver, Mark E

    2015-09-01

    Existing literature has documented relationships between personality traits and academic achievement as well as some of the mechanisms underlying these links. However, the pathways by which personality traits are associated with achievement during stressful educational circumstances require further investigation. This study examined a model of the roles of conscientiousness and neuroticism in achievement during the typically stressful university transition, with a focus on coping strategies and academic adjustment to university as mediators in the putative chain of events linking the dispositional traits with achievement. The sample comprised 498 first-year students attending a metropolitan university in Australia. A multiwave design was used with measures of the personality traits administered at the beginning of the semester, measures of coping administered 4 weeks thereafter, and data on academic adjustment collected mid-semester. Students' GPA data were retrieved at the end of the semester. In structural equations analyses, conscientiousness was associated with greater primary control engagement coping and lesser narrow disengagement coping, whereas the opposite was found for neuroticism. Furthermore, conscientiousness and neuroticism were indirectly associated with academic adjustment via the coping strategies, and the personality factors were also indirectly associated with achievement via the coping strategies and academic adjustment linked serially in three-path mediated sequences. The findings of this study replicate existing data concerning the direct and indirect relationships of personality with coping and adjustment, and extend these data by elucidating the pathways through which conscientiousness and neuroticism are linked with achievement during a typically stressful educational event. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  11. Leader-member exchange, organizational identification and the mediating role of job involvement for nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katrinli, Alev; Atabay, Gulem; Gunay, Gonca; Guneri, Burcu

    2008-11-01

    This paper is a report of a study to explore the relationship between leader-member exchange quality and organizational identification and the mediating role of job involvement in this relationship. As a result of the fast-changing structures and increasing competition, healthcare organizations increasingly demand highly qualified nurses who also have positive work attitudes towards the job and the organization. Among these positive work attitudes, organizational identification affects nurses' job performance and, in turn, the quality of care and patient satisfaction. The quality of the relationship between nurse supervisors and nurses, which is examined in the leader-member exchange context, can be an important determinant for organizational identification. This relationship is also affected by nurses' job involvement. The sample consisted of 148 nurses working in a private general hospital. Questionnaires, which included measures for organizational identification, level of leader-member exchange quality, job involvement and questions about the demographic characteristics of the sample, were distributed in 2007. The response rate was 87%. A statistically significant and positive relationship was found between leader-member exchange quality and organizational identification. The results also reveal that job involvement mediates the positive effects of leader-member exchange quality on organizational identification. If nurse supervisors increase their awareness of the effects of their behaviours towards their nurses, they can increase the nurses' performance and achieve desired results through increasing job involvement and organizational identification.

  12. Pathological narcissism and depressive symptoms in psychiatric outpatients: mediating role of dysfunctional attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marčinko, Darko; Jakšić, Nenad; Ivezić, Ena; Skočić, Milena; Surányi, Zsuzsanna; Lončar, Mladen; Franić, Tomislav; Jakovljević, Miro

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between pathological narcissism (narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability), dysfunctional attitudes (perfectionism and dependency on other people), and depressive symptoms in psychiatric outpatients. A sample of 234 adult psychiatric outpatients (57.3% male; mean age 44.39 years) completed the Pathological Narcissism Inventory, the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale-Form A, and the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scales-21. Narcissistic vulnerability exhibited unique positive correlations with depressive symptoms, whereas narcissistic grandiosity showed substantially weaker correlations with depressive symptoms. Perfectionism partially mediated the relationship between narcissistic vulnerability and depressive symptoms. The mediating role of dependency was not confirmed. Among adult psychiatric outpatients, narcissistic vulnerability is more strongly related to depressive symptoms than narcissistic grandiosity, and dysfunctional perfectionism represents one of the underlying mechanisms of this relationship. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders diagnostic criteria and the treatment of pathological narcissism. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Secondary traumatization among former prisoners of wars' adult children: the mediating role of parental bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerach, Gadi; Aloni, Roy

    2015-01-01

    The aversive impact of combat and parents' combat-induced posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on young children has been examined in a few studies. However, the long-term toll of war captivity on secondary traumatization (ST) and the parental bonding of adult children remain unknown. This study examined ST symptoms and parental bonding among adult children of former prisoners of war (ex-POWs' children) that were compared to adult children of comparable veterans (controls' children). Furthermore, we examined the mediating role of parental bonding and exposure to stress in the association between group and ST symptoms. A correlative, cross-sectional study. Participants were Israeli ex-POWs' children (N = 98) and controls' children (N = 90), whose fathers fought in the 1973 Yom Kippur War. All participants completed a battery of self-reported questionnaires. Ex-POWs' children reported a higher number of ST symptoms and lower levels of fathers' care, as compared to controls' children. Importantly, exposure to stress stemming from fathers' behaviors and fathers' care was found to mediate the association between research group and ST. Forty years after the war ended, the experience of living with ex-POWs is associated with ex-POWs' children psychological outcome.

  14. The Nexus of Ethical Leadership, Job Performance, and Turnover Intention: The Mediating Role of Job Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Shafique

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the impact of ethical leadership on employees' job satisfaction, job performance, and turnover intention. A conceptual framework is developed which integrates job satisfaction as a mediating mechanism in explaining the nexus among ethical leadership, employee job performance, and turnover intention. The proposed model is tested by using the data collected from a sample (n = 196 of tourist companies in Pakistan. The results reveal that ethical leadership has a positive effect on employees' job satisfaction, job performance and negative effect on employees' turnover intentions. Further, job satisfaction mediates the effect of ethical leadership on employees' job performance and turnover intentions. The findings recommend that the demonstration of ethical leadership behaviours by managers at the workplace increases the likelihood of employees' job satisfaction and performance, while reducing their intention to leave the job. This study elucidates that, in Pakistani tourism sector, ethical leadership plays a key role in achieving performance goals. Future research could analyse the said nexus in different sectors and across different cultures while considering other measures of individual performance. The originality of this study is theorizing as well as empirically testing the intervening mechanism of job satisfaction in probing the linkages among ethical leadership, job performance, and turnover intention in Pakistani workplace context.

  15. Alexithymia and marital quality: the mediating roles of loneliness and intimate communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye-Cox, Nick E; Hesse, Colin R

    2013-04-01

    This study examined the mediating roles of loneliness and intimate communication in the association between alexithymia and marital quality. Guided by a personality-behavioral approach to loneliness and affection exchange theory (AET), two actor-partner interdependence models (APIMs) were examined to test the associations among the variables. Path models (N = 155 couples) indicated that, for both spouses, loneliness and intimate communication fully mediated the association between alexithymia and marital quality. More specifically, higher alexithymia was associated with greater loneliness, which predicted lower intimate communication, which was related to lower marital quality. Multiple specific indirect effects were also significant, suggesting that the association between alexithymia and marital quality may be explained through divergent intrapersonal and interpersonal pathways. Although the magnitude of the intrapersonal associations was similar for both spouses, the results revealed gender differences in spousal interpersonal associations. For husbands, consistent differences were found between intrapersonal and interpersonal associations. Conversely, for wives, no significant differences were found between intrapersonal and interpersonal associations, suggesting that their marital quality was most strongly predicted by their own and their spouse's alexithymia, loneliness, and perceptions of intimate communication. Theoretical implications and future directions for research are also discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Development pathways from abusive parenting to delinquency: the mediating role of depression and aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Sukkyung; Lim, Sun Ah

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the long-term relationship between abusive parenting and adolescent mental health, and the path to delinquent behavior. Longitudinal data from 5th through 7th graders from the Korean Children and Youth Panel Survey (KCYPS) were analyzed to examine if abusive parenting was a predictor of early adolescent delinquency behavior, via aggression and depression as mediating factors. The results were as follows. First, parental abuse (both emotional and physical) was found to have significant effects on children's psychosocial factors (aggression and depression), while parental neglect (both emotional and physical) had significant effects on depression alone and not on aggression. Second, aggression exerted significant effects on both violent and non-violent delinquent behaviors, while depression had a significant effect on only non-violent delinquent behaviors. Third, children's psychosocial factors (aggression and depression) played significant mediating roles between earlier abusive parenting and delinquent behaviors. Fourth, for children living in a family with their grandparents, paths from abusive parenting, psychosocial adaptation, and later delinquent behaviors were not significant, implying that living with grandparents played a protective factor in these relationships. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Employment Status and Mental Health: Mediating Roles of Social Support and Coping Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perreault, Michel; Touré, El Hadj; Perreault, Nicole; Caron, Jean

    2017-09-01

    Although it has been established that unemployment and underemployment increase distress and depression, the psychological mechanisms involved are not very clear. This study examines the roles of social support and coping strategies as mediators of the association between employment status and mental health, as well as gender and age differences as moderators. Residents from the epidemiological catchment area of south-west Montreal responded to a randomized household survey for adults in 2009. A follow-up was conducted based on participants' employment status 2 and 4 years later. ANOVAs tests were computed with SPSS to evaluate group differences, and structural equation modeling was performed with AMOS to test mediation effects. At baseline, among participants between 18 and 64 years old (n = 2325), 14.3 % were unemployed/not studying, 14.4 % worked part-time, and 56.5 % worked full-time. Employment status was found to significantly affect depression among those under 45 years old (chi-square = 23.4, p strategies like coping with drugs/medication, resulting in less distress (β = -0.05; p < 0.01) and depression (β = -0.028; p < 0.01). Results suggest that optimal impact on mental health could be attained when increasing employment, namely full-time employment, in communities.

  18. Psychosocial job characteristics and psychological distress / well-being: the mediating role of personal goal facilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisanti, Renato; van der Doef, Margot; Maes, Stan; Violani, Cristiano; Lazzari, David

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the mediating role of personal goal facilitation through work (PGFW), defined as perceptions of the extent to which one's job facilitates the attainment of one's personal goals, in the association between psychosocial job characteristics and psychological distress and job-related well-being. Questionnaire data from 217 nurses (84% female, with a mean age of 42.7 years, SD=7.2) were analyzed. Participants completed the following measures: the Leiden Quality of Work Questionnaire for Nurses, Workplace Goal Facilitation Inventory, Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey, and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (short version). A cross-sectional study design was applied. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted. The results indicated that unfavorable psychosocial job characteristics (high demands, low control, and low social support) were associated with lower PGFW. Furthermore, personal goal facilitation through work explained significant additional variance (from 2 to 11%) in psychological distress (somatic complaints and emotional exhaustion) and job-related well-being (personal accomplishment, job satisfaction, and work engagement), controlling for demographic indicators and psychosocial job characteristics. Finally, the results provided support for the mediating effects of PGFW between all psychosocial job characteristics and all outcomes, except in the case of depersonalization. This study suggests that hindered personal goal facilitation may be a mechanism through which psychosocial job characteristics have a negative impact on employees' well-being.

  19. Mediating role of job satisfaction in the relationship between motivation, perceived support, training and perceived commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Sadat Sanei

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivation as a psychological factor can affect the mental health of employees and consequently the health of work place. It has been recently concerned in the social science literature. The present study aimed to assess the mediating effect of job satisfaction on the relation of motivation, perceived support and training to perceived commitment. The data study analyzed in the structural equation modeling method. The data were gathered in library field, and, also using questionnaire. The data were achieved from staff of Sabzevar city municipality using validity and reliability approved questionnaires. For validity, face and construct validity and for reliability, Cronbach's alpha was used. Finally, data from 159 questionnaires were analyzed. The findings showed that motivation, perceived support and training had positive significant effects on normative and continuance commitment of employees. Also, positive significant effect of job satisfaction on continuance and normative commitment was confirmed. In addition, the findings of this study indicated positive effect of motivation, perceived support and training on perceived commitment with mediating role of job satisfaction. In other words, the more motivation, perceived support and training are, the more job satisfaction will be, which in turn can result in the increased continuance and normative commitment.

  20. Organizational culture and a safety-conscious work environment: The mediating role of employee communication satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silla, Inmaculada; Navajas, Joaquin; Koves, G Kenneth

    2017-06-01

    A safety-conscious work environment allows high-reliability organizations to be proactive regarding safety and enables employees to feel free to report any concern without fear of retaliation. Currently, research on the antecedents to safety-conscious work environments is scarce. Structural equation modeling was applied to test the mediating role of employee communication satisfaction in the relationship between constructive culture and a safety-conscious work environment in several nuclear power plants. Employee communication satisfaction partially mediated the positive relationships between a constructive culture and a safety-conscious work environment. Constructive cultures in which cooperation, supportive relationships, individual growth and high performance are encouraged facilitate the establishment of a safety-conscious work environment. This influence is partially explained by increased employee communication satisfaction. Constructive cultures should be encouraged within organizations. In addition, managers should promote communication policies and practices that support a safety-conscious work environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  1. Negative Interpersonal Interactions and Dating Abuse Perpetration: The Mediating Role of Dispositional Forgivingness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garthe, Rachel C; Griffin, Brandon J; Worthington, Everett L; Goncy, Elizabeth A; Sullivan, Terri N; Coleman, Jennifer A; Davis, Don E; Kwakye-Nuako, Charlotte O; Mokushane, Thapelo; Makola, Solomon; Anakwah, Nkansah

    2017-06-01

    Theory and research suggest that an individual's negative interactions with his or her parents or romantic partner are associated with the perpetration of dating abuse. Research is beginning to explore the role of forgivingness within abusive romantic relationships, and these preliminary findings suggest that dispositional forgivingness might mediate the relations between negative interpersonal interactions and dating abuse. The current study assessed negative interactions with one's parents and one's romantic partner, the frequency of dating abuse perpetration, and dispositional forgivingness of others and oneself among a sample of emerging adults in college ( n = 421). Dispositional forgivingness of others was negatively associated with the perpetration of emotional/verbal dating abuse and threatening behaviors, and it mediated relations between negative interpersonal interactions and dating abuse perpetration. Our findings suggest that the tendency to forgive others may explain why some individuals who experience negative interpersonal interactions with parents or romantic partners do not escalate to perpetration of abuse within their romantic relationships. Implications for future research and application are discussed.

  2. Transformational leadership and safety performance among nurses: the mediating role of knowledge-related job characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lievens, Ilse; Vlerick, Peter

    2014-03-01

    To report the impact of transformational leadership on two dimensions of nurses' safety performance (i.e. safety compliance and safety participation) and to study the mediating role of knowledge-related job characteristics in this relationship. Safety performance refers to the behaviours that employees exhibit to adhere to safety guidelines and to promote health and safety at their workplace. Nurses' safety performance is a major challenge for healthcare settings, urging the need to identify the key determinants and psychological mechanisms that influence it. A cross-sectional survey study. The study was carried out in September 2010 in a large Belgian hospital. We used self-administered questionnaires; 152 nurses participated. The hypotheses were tested using hierarchical regression analyses. In line with our first hypothesis, the results show that transformational leadership exerted a significant positive impact on both dimensions of nurses' safety performance. This positive relation was mediated by knowledge-related job characteristics, supporting our second hypothesis. Head nurses' transformational leadership can enhance nurses' compliance with and participation in safety. Furthermore, transformational head nurses are able to influence the perception that their nurses have about the kind and amount of knowledge in their job, which can also lead to increases in both dimensions of nurses' safety performance. This study therefore demonstrates the key impact that transformational head nurses have, both directly and indirectly, on the safety performance of their nurses. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Attitude and Entrepreneurial Intention Among Rural Community: the Mediating Role of Entrepreneurial Opportunity Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahalan Norziani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship has been well documented to have an economic and social implication for the nation to increase income. Most of developing countries give further consideration to include entrepreneurship as an agenda to help the poor to increase the living standard. In fact, entrepreneurship offers various business opportunities for rural communities to achieve better quality of life. However, the crucial part of doing business is to recognize business opportunity. Entrepreneurship and opportunity are two terms that complement each other. Opportunity recognition enables the entrepreneur to identify a good idea and transform it into a business concept. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between attitude (attitude toward money, attitude toward start-up and entrepreneurial intention. This paper also intends to understand the role of entrepreneurial opportunity recognition as a mediator between attitude and entrepreneurial intention. The aim of this research is to support training providers, to identify input for entrepreneurial training, specifically developing business concepts among rural community. From the practical perspective, it might help the government to understand the necessity to encourage entrepreneurial movement among rural community as to ensure business ideas flow. This research employed the quantitative method of data collection. The questionnaires were distributed to 500 local populations according to districts and villages. The findings of this study showed that both attitude (attitude toward money, attitude toward start-up influence entrepreneurial intention. The relationship between attitude toward start-up and entrepreneurial intention was mediated by opportunity recognition.

  4. Dieticians' intentions to recommend functional foods: The mediating role of consumption frequency of functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Myeong Hwa; Lee, Jiyeon; Song, Mi Jung

    2010-02-01

    This study explored the conceptual framework of dieticians' intentions to recommend functional food and the mediating role of consumption frequency. A web-based survey was designed using a self-administered questionnaire. A sample of Korean dieticians (N=233) responded to the questionnaire that included response efficacy, risk perception, consumption frequency, and recommendation intention for functional foods. A structural equation model was constructed to analyze the data. We found that response efficacy was positively related to frequency of consumption of functional foods and to recommendation intention. Consumption frequency also positively influenced recommendation intention. Risk perception had no direct influence on recommendation intention; however, the relationship was mediated completely by consumption frequency. Dieticians' consumption frequency and response efficacy were the crucial factors in recommending functional foods. Dieticians may perceive risks arising from the use of functional foods in general, but the perceived risks do not affect ratings describing dieticians' intentions to recommend them. The results also indicated that when dieticians more frequently consume functional foods, the expression of an intention to recommend functional foods may be controlled by the salience of past behaviors rather than by attitudes.

  5. Attachment and adaptation to breast cancer: The mediating role of avoidant emotion processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, T; Schulz, M S; Matos, P M

    2018-03-01

    Attachment insecurity is associated with difficulties in adapting to cancer. Accumulating evidence points to the influence of avoidant emotion processes in this association. This study explored this pathway by examining the association between attachment insecurity and quality of life in women with breast cancer, and by exploring the mediating role of two avoidant emotion processes in this association. Women with breast cancer (N = 155) completed measures of attachment, emotional suppression, emotional awareness and quality of life. Avoidance of attachment was positively associated with emotional suppression (β = .29, p < .01) and lack of emotional awareness (β = .27, p < .01), and negatively associated with quality of life (β = -.22, p < .05). Lack of emotional awareness partially mediated the relationship between attachment avoidance and quality of life (indirect effect β = -.12, p = .008). Attachment anxiety was not associated with any variable. Attachment avoidance may hinder the process of adaptation to breast cancer and difficulties in identifying and describing emotions may be partly responsible for this influence. Access to and ability to benefit from social and medical supports is likely to depend on being able to engage with others and recognise and process emotions effectively. Research and clinical implications are discussed. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Materialism and well-being among Chinese college students: the mediating role of basic psychological need satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yongjie; Yao, Meilin; Yan, Wenfan

    2014-10-01

    Based on self-determination theory, this study explored the potential mediating role of basic psychological need satisfaction in the relationship between materialism and well-being among Chinese college students. The results showed that basic psychological need satisfaction partially mediated the relationship between materialism and life satisfaction and fully mediated the relationships among materialism and emotional well-being, subjective vitality, and self-actualization. The findings indicated the importance of considering both subjective and psychological well-being and the interpretative power of basic psychological need satisfaction and Chinese culture in the flow from materialism to well-being. © The Author(s) 2013.

  7. HR Practices and Employee Performance Relationship in Higher Education: Mediating Role of Job Embeddedness, Perceived Organizational Support and Trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehreen Fatima

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to find out the impact of Human Resource practices on employee performance. Job embeddedness, Perceived organizational support and Trust were taken as mediators and they were investigated for their mediation effect on the relationship between human resource practices and employee performance. Organizational citizenship behavior and task performance were taken as two dimensions of Employee Performance. Data was collected through questionnaires from faculty members of different campuses of Public sector University in Pakistan. Results support that job embeddedness, perceived organization support and trust have partial or full mediation role for HR-Performance relationship of teaching faculty of Higher Education sector.

  8. Moralizing Food Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian Eyde

    2015-01-01

    Food technologies are common on many levels in society and used by both food professionals and consumers. Food technologies are not neutral. They inform and shape the behaviour of people. This paper presents a theoretical framework for analysing the mediating role of food technology and its...... influence on food ethics. Post-phenomenology and the idea of a technologically mediated morality are central theoretical approaches. Four elements are included in the analytical framework: perception, interpretation, intentionality, and mediated morality. The framework is applied to two cases; food safety...

  9. Role of Calcium and Mitochondria in MeHg-Mediated Cytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Roos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Methylmercury (MeHg mediated cytotoxicity is associated with loss of intracellular calcium (Ca2+ homeostasis. The imbalance in Ca2+ physiology is believed to be associated with dysregulation of Ca2+ intracellular stores and/or increased permeability of the biomembranes to this ion. In this paper we summarize the contribution of glutamate dyshomeostasis in intracellular Ca2+ overload and highlight the mitochondrial dysfunctions induced by MeHg via Ca2+ overload. Mitochondrial disturbances elicited by Ca2+ may involve several molecular events (i.e., alterations in the activity of the mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes, mitochondrial proton gradient dissipation, mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP opening, thiol depletion, failure of energy metabolism, reactive oxygen species overproduction that could culminate in cell death. Here we will focus on the role of oxidative stress in these phenomena. Additionally, possible antioxidant therapies that could be effective in the treatment of MeHg intoxication are briefly discussed.

  10. The Effect of Self-Esteem on Corrupt Intention: The Mediating Role of Materialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yuan; Liu, Li; Tan, Xuyun; Huang, Zhenwei; Dang, Jianning; Zheng, Wenwen

    2016-01-01

    The present set of studies aimed to explore the effect of self-esteem on corrupt intention and the mediating role of materialism in generating this effect. In Study 1, we used questionnaires to investigate the correlation among self-esteem, materialism, and corrupt intention. In Study 2, we manipulated self-esteem to explore the causal effect of self-esteem on materialism and corrupt intention. In Study 3, we manipulated materialism to examine whether inducing materialism can reduce the relationship between self-esteem and corrupt intention. The three studies converged to show that increased self-esteem caused a low level of materialism, which in turn decreased corrupt intention. The theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed.

  11. Assessing the Role of Emotional Associations in Mediating Crossmodal Correspondences between Classical Music and Red Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian (Janice Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Several recent studies have demonstrated that people intuitively make consistent matches between classical music and specific wines. It is not clear, however, what governs such crossmodal mappings. Here, we assess the role of emotion—specifically different dimensional aspects of valence, arousal, and dominance—in mediating such mappings. Participants matched three different red wines to three different pieces of classical music. Subsequently, they made emotion ratings separately for each wine and each musical selection. The results revealed that certain wine–music pairings were rated as being significantly better matches than others. More importantly, there was evidence that the participants’ dominance and arousal ratings for the wines and the music predicted their matching rating for each wine–music pairing. These results therefore support the view that wine–music associations are not arbitrary but can be explained, at least in part, by common emotional associations.

  12. Inflammatory Mediators and Insulin Resistance in Obesity: Role of Nuclear Receptor Signaling in Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Fuentes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Visceral obesity is coupled to a general low-grade chronic inflammatory state characterized by macrophage activation and inflammatory cytokine production, leading to insulin resistance (IR. The balance between proinflammatory M1 and antiinflammatory M2 macrophage phenotypes within visceral adipose tissue appears to be crucially involved in the development of obesity-associated IR and consequent metabolic abnormalities. The ligand-dependent transcription factors peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs have recently been implicated in the determination of the M1/M2 phenotype. Liver X receptors (LXRs, which form another subgroup of the nuclear receptor superfamily, are also important regulators of proinflammatory cytokine production in macrophages. Disregulation of macrophage-mediated inflammation by PPARs and LXRs therefore underlies the development of IR. This review summarizes the role of PPAR and LXR signaling in macrophages and current knowledge about the impact of these actions in the manifestation of IR and obesity comorbidities such as liver steatosis and diabetic osteopenia.

  13. Intracellular antibody-mediated immunity and the role of TRIM21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, William A; Mallery, Donna L; Rhodes, David A; Trowsdale, John; James, Leo C

    2011-11-01

    Protection against bacterial and viral pathogens by antibodies has always been thought to end at the cell surface. Once inside the cell, a pathogen was understood to be safe from humoral immunity. However, it has now been found that antibodies can routinely enter cells attached to viral particles and mediate an intracellular immune response. Antibody-coated virions are detected inside the cell by means of an intracellular antibody receptor, TRIM21, which directs their degradation by recruitment of the ubiquitin-proteasome system. In this article we assess how this discovery alters our view of the way in which antibodies neutralise viral infection. We also consider the antiviral function of TRIM21 in the context of its other reported roles in immune signalling and autoimmunity. Finally, we discuss the conceptual implications of intracellular antibody immunity and how it alters our view of the discrete separation of extracellular and intracellular environments. Copyright © 2011 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The Effect of Self-Esteem on Corrupt Intention: The Mediating Role of Materialism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yuan; Liu, Li; Tan, Xuyun; Huang, Zhenwei; Dang, Jianning; Zheng, Wenwen

    2016-01-01

    The present set of studies aimed to explore the effect of self-esteem on corrupt intention and the mediating role of materialism in generating this effect. In Study 1, we used questionnaires to investigate the correlation among self-esteem, materialism, and corrupt intention. In Study 2, we manipulated self-esteem to explore the causal effect of self-esteem on materialism and corrupt intention. In Study 3, we manipulated materialism to examine whether inducing materialism can reduce the relationship between self-esteem and corrupt intention. The three studies converged to show that increased self-esteem caused a low level of materialism, which in turn decreased corrupt intention. The theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed. PMID:27462297

  15. The Effect of Self-esteem on Corrupt Intention: The Mediating Role of Materialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Liang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present set of studies aimed to explore the effect of self-esteem on corrupt intention and the mediating role of materialism in generating this effect. In Study 1, we used questionnaires to investigate the correlation among self-esteem, materialism and corrupt intention. In Study 2, we manipulated self-esteem to explore the causal effect of self-esteem on materialism and corrupt intention. In Study 3, we manipulated materialism to examine whether inducing materialism can reduce the relationship between self-esteem and corrupt intention. The three studies converged to show that increased self-esteem caused a low level of materialism, which in turn decreased corrupt intention. The theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed.

  16. How School Climate Influences Teachers' Emotional Exhaustion: The Mediating Role of Emotional Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xiuping; Yao, Meilin; Zong, Xiaoli; Li, Yulan; Li, Xiying; Guo, Fangfang; Cui, Guanyu

    2015-10-08

    Currently, in China, improving the quality of teachers' emotional labor has become an urgent need for most pre-kindergarten through 12th grade (p-12) schools because the new curriculum reform highlights the role of emotion in teaching. A total of 703 primary and high school teachers in Mainland China were investigated regarding their perceptions of school climate, emotional labor strategy and emotional exhaustion via questionnaires. The findings revealed that the teachers' perceptions of the school climate negatively affected surface acting but positively affected deep acting. Surface acting positively predicted emotional exhaustion, and deep acting had no significant effect on emotional exhaustion. Moreover, emotional labor mediated the relationship between the teachers' perceptions of the school climate and emotional exhaustion. Programs aimed at improving the school climate and the teachers' use of appropriate emotional labor strategies should be implemented in schools in Mainland China.

  17. How forgiveness promotes offender pro-relational intentions: The mediating role of offender gratitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Louise; Strelan, Peter; McKee, Ian

    2016-03-01

    Although relationship restoration is an important outcome of forgiveness, little is known about how forgiveness facilitates such an outcome. In addition, in forgiveness research, little attention is paid to the perspective of the offender. We address these two shortcomings simultaneously, testing the idea that forgiveness promotes offender gratitude, which in turn encourages offender pro-relational intentions. Across three experimental studies, participants were induced to believe they had transgressed; recalled a time when they had transgressed; and imagined transgressing. In studies 1 and 2, forgiveness was manipulated; in Study 3, victim motivation for forgiving was manipulated. State gratitude--in comparison with guilt, indebtedness, and positive affect--was consistently found to play the primary mediating role between forgiveness and pro-relational intentions. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  18. Learning in the Knowledge Economy: The Role of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffrin, Manuel

    2003-01-01

    Internet is not the panacea for every problem in education but we must realize that this is a great tool that can help us empower every student and elevate each individual to new levels of intellectual capacity and skills. Combined with specifics learning objectives, it will definitely change the face of education. Technology is becoming an…

  19. The role of information technology in enhancing the administrative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The major objective of this paper is to demonstrate that the administrative capacity of a public organisation is a function of both high-level human resource capacity and the effective utilisation of Information Technology. In order to substantiate this, the paper elicited data from civil service employees in Ethiopia and USA, ...

  20. The fostering role of information technology on SMEs' strategic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-05-03

    May 3, 2013 ... Inter-organisational coordination is achieved using electronic links. We use information technology-enabled transaction processing. We have electronic mailing capabilities with our key suppliers. We use electronic transfer of purchase orders, invoices and/or funds. We use advanced information systems to ...

  1. The Role of New Technologies to Foster Positive Youth Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bers, Marina Umaschi

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a developmental systems approach to applied developmental science (ADS), which provides a framework to design and evaluate technology-rich programs that promote positive development by emphasizing the strengths and assets of young people instead of focusing on diminishing or preventing risk-taking behaviors. Until now, most…

  2. The Role of Community Technology Centers in Promoting Youth Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Rebecca A.; Pastor, Manuel, Jr.; Servon, Lisa J.; Rosner, Rachel; Wallace, Antwuan

    2010-01-01

    Recent data suggest that the digital divide between White and minority youth persists, particularly in terms of home access to computers and the Internet. Community technology centers (CTCs) are an important alternative access point, especially for low-income youth of color. Such institutions, however, do much more, providing not just access, but…

  3. Roles of Modern Information Technology in Graduate Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruixian; Gao, Song

    2009-01-01

    Introduction of information technology into the education field has greatly enriched teaching content and forms, and facilitated transformation of teaching mode, teaching approaches and training concepts. Especially for training of graduates, its introduction seems extraordinarily prominent. In this paper, the authors will analyze and discuss…

  4. The Role of Technology and Institutions for Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Ingrid; Lampe, Markus; Sharp, Paul

    We consider the relative contributions of changing technology and institutions for economic growth through the investigation of a natural experiment in history: the almost simultaneous introduction of the automatic cream separator and the cooperative ownership form in the Danish dairy industry fr...

  5. The role of incoherent microRNA-mediated feedforward loops in noise buffering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Osella

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are endogenous non-coding RNAs which negatively regulate the expression of protein-coding genes in plants and animals. They are known to play an important role in several biological processes and, together with transcription factors, form a complex and highly interconnected regulatory network. Looking at the structure of this network, it is possible to recognize a few overrepresented motifs which are expected to perform important elementary regulatory functions. Among them, a special role is played by the microRNA-mediated feedforward loop in which a master transcription factor regulates a microRNA and, together with it, a set of target genes. In this paper we show analytically and through simulations that the incoherent version of this motif can couple the fine-tuning of a target protein level with an efficient noise control, thus conferring precision and stability to the overall gene expression program, especially in the presence of fluctuations in upstream regulators. Among the other results, a nontrivial prediction of our model is that the optimal attenuation of fluctuations coincides with a modest repression of the target expression. This feature is coherent with the expected fine-tuning function and in agreement with experimental observations of the actual impact of a wide class of microRNAs on the protein output of their targets. Finally, we describe the impact on noise-buffering efficiency of the cross-talk between microRNA targets that can naturally arise if the microRNA-mediated circuit is not considered as isolated, but embedded in a larger network of regulations.

  6. Role of human-mediated dispersal in the spread of the pinewood nematode in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christelle Robinet

    Full Text Available Intensification of world trade is responsible for an increase in the number of alien species introductions. Human-mediated dispersal promotes not only introductions but also expansion of the species distribution via long-distance dispersal. Thus, understanding the role of anthropogenic pathways in the spread of invading species has become one of the most important challenges nowadays.We analysed the invasion pattern of the pinewood nematode in China based on invasion data from 1982 to 2005 and monitoring data on 7 locations over 15 years. Short distance spread mediated by long-horned beetles was estimated at 7.5 km per year. Infested sites located further away represented more than 90% of observations and the mean long distance spread was estimated at 111-339 km. Railways, river ports, and lakes had significant effects on the spread pattern. Human population density levels explained 87% of the variation in the invasion probability (P<0.05. Since 2001, the number of new records of the nematode was multiplied by a factor of 5 and the spread distance by a factor of 2. We combined a diffusion model to describe the short distance spread with a stochastic, individual based model to describe the long distance jumps. This combined model generated an error of only 13% when used to predict the presence of the nematode. Under two climate scenarios (stable climate or moderate warming, projections of the invasion probability suggest that this pest could expand its distribution 40-55% by 2025.This study provides evidence that human-induced dispersal plays a fundamental role in the spread of the pinewood nematode, and appropriate control measures should be taken to stop or slow its expansion. This model can be applied to Europe, where the nematode had been introduced later, and is currently expanding its distribution. Similar models could also be derived for other species that could be accidentally transported by humans.

  7. Differential Roles of Glucosinolates and Camalexin at Different Stages of Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Po-Yuan; Chou, Shu-Jen; Müller, Caroline; Halkier, Barbara Ann; Deeken, Rosalia; Lai, Erh-Min

    2018-03-02

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens is the causal agent of crown gall disease in a wide range of plants via a unique interkingdom DNA transfer from bacterial cells into the plant genome. A. tumefaciens is capable of transferring its T-DNA into different plant parts at different developmental stages for transient and stable transformation. However, the plant genes and mechanisms involved in these transformation processes are not well understood. We used Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 seedlings to reveal the gene expression profiles at early time points during Agrobacterium infection. Common and differentially expressed genes were found in shoots and roots. A gene ontology analysis showed that the glucosinolate (GS) biosynthesis pathway was an enriched common response. Strikingly, several genes involved in indole glucosinolate (iGS) modification and camalexin biosynthesis pathway were up-regulated while genes in aliphatic GS (aGS) biosynthesis were generally down-regulated upon Agrobacterium infection. Thus, we evaluated the impacts of GSs and camalexin during different stages of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation combining Arabidopsis mutant studies, metabolite profiling, and exogenous applications of various GS hydrolysis products or camalexin. The results suggest that the iGS hydrolysis pathway plays an inhibitory role in transformation efficiency on Arabidopsis seedlings at the early infection stage. Later in the Agrobacterium infection process, accumulation of camalexin was a key factor inhibiting tumor development on Arabidopsis inflorescence stalks. In conclusion, this study revealed the differential roles of glucosinolates and camalexin at different stages of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and provided new insights into crown gall disease control and improvement of plant transformation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 BSPP and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Role of ginsenosides in reactive oxygen species-mediated anticancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodrul, Islam M.D.; Wang, Chenying; Chen, Xiangfeng; Du, Jing; Sun, Hongxiang

    2018-01-01

    Cancer is still a global public health problem, which is the leading cause of death in most countries. Ginseng has been used for centuries all over the world as a panacea that promotes longevity. As the king of herb plants, ginseng holds great promise as a new treatment option which is used either by itself or in combination with other medicinal ingredients that is widely accepted as complementary and alternative medicine in cancer therapy. Ginsenosides, the major pharmacologically active ingredients of ginseng, have been shown to have multiple medicinal effects including prominent anticancer activity. The purpose of this review is to give our perspective about the roles of ginsenosides in reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated anticancer therapy. Additionally, to provide new sheds light for further improvement and carry out pre-clinical and clinical trials to develop it successfully into a potential anticancer agent. Panax herbs and their derivate/metabolites ginsenosides exert beneficial effects for treating various types of cancers. The mechanism of ROS-mediated anticancer activities of ginsenosides varies depending on the specific type of cancer cells involved. Ginsenosides may suppress cancer cell proliferation through anti-oxidation on tumor initiation and induce apoptosis, paraptosis or autophagy via generation of ROS on tumor progression, promotion, angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis by various signaling pathways e.g., activation of AMPK, MEK, ASK-1/JNK, ESR2-NCF1-ROS, ER-dependent PI3K/Akt/Nrf2, P53-CHOP, ROS-JNK-autophagy, and/or inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. These multiple effects rather than a single may play a crucial role in emerging ginsenosides as a successful anticancer drug. PMID:29416826

  9. The Mediating Role of Psychological Adjustment between Peer Victimization and Social Adjustment in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romera, Eva M; Gómez-Ortiz, Olga; Ortega-Ruiz, Rosario

    2016-01-01

    There is extensive scientific evidence of the serious psychological and social effects that peer victimization may have on students, among them internalizing problems such as anxiety or negative self-esteem, difficulties related to low self-efficacy and lower levels of social adjustment. Although a direct relationship has been observed between victimization and these effects, it has not yet been analyzed whether there is a relationship of interdependence between all these measures of psychosocial adjustment. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between victimization and difficulties related to social adjustment among high school students. To do so, various explanatory models were tested to determine whether psychological adjustment (negative self-esteem, social anxiety and social self-efficacy) could play a mediating role in this relationship, as suggested by other studies on academic adjustment. The sample comprised 2060 Spanish high school students (47.9% girls; mean age = 14.34). The instruments used were the scale of victimization from European Bullying Intervention Project Questionnaire , the negative scale from Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents and a general item about social self-efficacy, all of them self-reports. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data. The results confirmed the partial mediating role of negative self-esteem, social anxiety and social self-efficacy between peer victimization and social adjustment and highlight the importance of empowering victimized students to improve their self-esteem and self-efficacy and prevent social anxiety. Such problems lead to the avoidance of social interactions and social reinforcement, thus making it difficult for these students to achieve adequate social adjustment.

  10. The Mediating Role of Psychological Adjustment between Peer Victimization and Social Adjustment in Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva M. Romera

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available There is extensive scientific evidence of the serious psychological and social effects that peer victimization may have on students, among them internalizing problems such as anxiety or negative self-esteem, difficulties related to low self-efficacy and lower levels of social adjustment. Although a direct relationship has been observed between victimization and these effects, it has not yet been analyzed whether there is a relationship of interdependence between all these measures of psychosocial adjustment. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between victimization and difficulties related to social adjustment among high school students. To do so, various explanatory models were tested to determine whether psychological adjustment (negative self-esteem, social anxiety and social self-efficacy could play a mediating role in this relationship, as suggested by other studies on academic adjustment. The sample comprised 2060 Spanish high school students (47.9% girls; mean age = 14.34. The instruments used were the scale of victimization from European Bullying Intervention Project Questionnaire, the negative scale from Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents and a general item about social self-efficacy, all of them self-reports. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data. The results confirmed the partial mediating role of negative self-esteem, social anxiety and social self-efficacy between peer victimization and social adjustment and highlight the importance of empowering victimized students to improve their self-esteem and self-efficacy and prevent social anxiety. Such problems lead to the avoidance of social interactions and social reinforcement, thus making it difficult for these students to achieve adequate social adjustment.

  11. Role development of nurses for technology-dependent children attending mainstream schools in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Fumie; Suzuki, Machiko

    2015-04-01

    To describe the role development of nurses caring for medical technology-dependent children attending Japanese mainstream schools. Semi-structured interviews with 21 nurses caring for technology-dependent children were conducted and analyzed using the modified grounded theory approach. Nurses developed roles centered on maintaining technology-dependent children's physical health to support children's learning with each other, through building relationships, learning how to interact with children, understanding the children and the school community, and realizing the meaning of supporting technology-dependent children. These findings support nurses to build relationships of mutual trust with teachers and children, and learn on the job in mainstream schools. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The national laboratory business role in energy technology research and development. Panel Discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sackett, John; Sullivan, Charles J.; Aumeier, Steve; Sanders, Tom; Johnson, Shane; Bennett, Ralph

    2001-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Energy issues will play a pivotal role in the economic and political future of the United States. For reasons of both available supply and environmental concerns, development and deployment of new energy technologies is critical. Nuclear technology is important, but economic, political, and technical challenges must be overcome if it is to play a significant role. This session will address business opportunities for national laboratories to contribute to the development and implementation of a national energy strategy, concentrating on the role of nuclear technology. Panelists have been selected from the national laboratories, the U.S. Department of Energy, and state regulators. (authors)

  13. Participation in organized sport and self-esteem across adolescence: the mediating role of perceived sport competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagnsson, Stefan; Lindwall, Magnus; Gustafsson, Henrik

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to test longitudinal (2 years across three occasions) associations between sport participation (SP) and self-esteem (SE) across adolescence (10-18 years), addressing the mediating role of perceived sport competence (PSC) from a developmental perspective. Three waves of data were collected from three age cohorts (10-12, 13-15, and 16-18 years) of school-aged youth (N = 1358). The results demonstrate that SP and SE are related across time and that PSC has an important mediating role in this relationship, both from a skill development and a self-enhancement perspective. In the skill development model, the mediating role of PSC was significantly stronger in the youngest cohort whereas the effect of PSC on subsequent SP in the self-enhancement model was significantly stronger in the 13-15 age group compared with the youngest age group.

  14. The Functions of Mediator in Candida albicans Support a Role in Shaping Species-Specific Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelicic, Branka; Lo, Tricia L.; Beaurepaire, Cecile; Bantun, Farkad; Quenault, Tara; Boag, Peter R.; Ramm, Georg; Callaghan, Judy; Beilharz, Traude H.; Nantel, André; Peleg, Anton Y.; Traven, Ana

    2012-01-01

    The Mediator complex is an essential co-regulator of RNA polymerase II that is conserved throughout eukaryotes. Here we present the first study of Mediator in the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. We focused on the Middle domain subunit Med31, the Head domain subunit Med20, and Srb9/Med13 from the Kinase domain. The C. albicans Mediator shares some roles with model yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, such as functions in the response to certain stresses and the role of Med31 in the expression of genes regulated by the activator Ace2. The C. albicans Mediator also has additional roles in the transcription of genes associated with virulence, for example genes related to morphogenesis and gene families enriched in pathogens, such as the ALS adhesins. Consistently, Med31, Med20, and Srb9/Med13 contribute to key virulence attributes of C. albicans, filamentation, and biofilm formation; and ALS1 is a biologically relevant target of Med31 for development of biofilms. Furthermore, Med31 affects virulence of C. albicans in the worm infection model. We present evidence that the roles of Med31 and Srb9/Med13 in the expression of the genes encoding cell wall adhesins are different between S. cerevisiae and C. albicans: they are repressors of the FLO genes in S. cerevisiae and are activators of the ALS genes in C. albicans. This suggests that Mediator subunits regulate adhesion in a distinct manner between these two distantly related fungal species. PMID:22496666

  15. The functions of Mediator in Candida albicans support a role in shaping species-specific gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Uwamahoro

    Full Text Available The Mediator complex is an essential co-regulator of RNA polymerase II that is conserved throughout eukaryotes. Here we present the first study of Mediator in the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. We focused on the Middle domain subunit Med31, the Head domain subunit Med20, and Srb9/Med13 from the Kinase domain. The C. albicans Mediator shares some roles with model yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, such as functions in the response to certain stresses and the role of Med31 in the expression of genes regulated by the activator Ace2. The C. albicans Mediator also has additional roles in the transcription of genes associated with virulence, for example genes related to morphogenesis and gene families enriched in pathogens, such as the ALS adhesins. Consistently, Med31, Med20, and Srb9/Med13 contribute to key virulence attributes of C. albicans, filamentation, and biofilm formation; and ALS1 is a biologically relevant target of Med31 for development of biofilms. Furthermore, Med31 affects virulence of C. albicans in the worm infection model. We present evidence that the roles of Med31 and Srb9/Med13 in the expression of the genes encoding cell wall adhesins are different between S. cerevisiae and C. albicans: they are repressors of the FLO genes in S. cerevisiae and are activators of the ALS genes in C. albicans. This suggests that Mediator subunits regulate adhesion in a distinct manner between these two distantly related fungal species.

  16. Associations among occupational roles, independence, assistive technology, and purchasing power of individuals with physical disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cruz, Daniel Marinho Cezar; Emmel, Maria Luisa Guillaumon

    2013-01-01

    to verify whether there are associations among occupational roles, independence to perform Activities of Daily Living, purchasing power, and assistive technology for individuals with physical disabilities. 91 individuals with physical disabilities participated in the study. The instruments used were: Role Checklist, Brazilian Economic Classification Criterion, Barthel Index, and a Questionnaire to characterize the subjects. an association with a greater number of roles was found among more independent individuals using a lower number of technological devices. Higher purchasing power was associated with a lower functional status of dependence. even though technology was not directly associated with independence, the latter was associated with a greater number of occupational roles, which requires reflection upon independence issues when considering the participation in occupational roles. These findings support interdisciplinary actions designed to promote occupational roles in individuals with physical disabilities.

  17. Reimagining the Role of Technology in Education: 2017 National Education Technology Plan Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Educational Technology, US Department of Education, 2017

    2017-01-01

    The National Education Technology Plan (NETP) sets a national vision and plan for learning enabled by technology through building on the work of leading education researchers; district, school, and higher education leaders; classroom teachers; developers; entrepreneurs; and nonprofit organizations. The principles and examples provided in this…

  18. Role of health-keeping technologies in educational process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voloshin O. R.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The value of health-keeping technologies in educational process is considered. Theoretical methodological approaches of their interpretation are exposed. The making forming for the man of conscious motivation in relation to the maintainance of individual health is shown. Valeological and ecological values are analysed. The features of introduction of health-keeping technologies in a modern educational process are certain. The complex estimation of terms of education and studies, which allow to provide the good state of health of young people, care of high level of their self-realization, skills of healthy way of life, is resulted, to carry out monitoring of indexes of individual development, forecast the possible changes of health. It is marked on the necessity of providing of harmonious development of natural capabilities of personality: its mind, moral and aesthetically beautiful senses, requirement in activity, capture initial experience of socializing with people.

  19. Teacher Verbal Aggressiveness and Credibility Mediate the Relationship between Teacher Technology Policies and Perceived Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Amber N.; Ledbetter, Andrew M.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we extend previous work on teacher technology policies by refining the teacher technology policies instrument to account for the technology purpose (social, academic) and type (cell phone, laptop/tablet), and examine a model of teacher technology policies and perceived learning. We found that students are more sensitive to policies…

  20. The role of technology and digital gaming in nurse education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Brian; Boyle, Liz; MacArthur, Ewan; Manion, Baltasar Fernandez

    2013-03-13

    There is growing evidence that using e-learning and digital gaming technology can support students in their learning. An international project, Continuing/Higher Education in Research Methods Using Games, funded by the European Commission's Lifelong Learning Programme and led by a team at the University of the West of Scotland, aims to develop interactive activities and games to support nursing and social science students. This article looks at the scope of the project in helping to deliver nurse education.

  1. Towards a new Role of Agent Technology in User Modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenz, A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses resent attempts to employ multi-agent technologies for user modelling purposes. Based on the analysis of recent implemented systems, this contribution provides a general agent definition representing a flexible implementation to employ highly specialized entities for user modelling tasks, and illustrates communication and cooperation approaches. In the overall solution, agent teams cooperate to fulfill the requirements of user modelling in a more appropriate way.

  2. The role of technology and engineering models in transforming healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavel, Misha; Jimison, Holly Brugge; Wactlar, Howard D; Hayes, Tamara L; Barkis, Will; Skapik, Julia; Kaye, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    The healthcare system is in crisis due to challenges including escalating costs, the inconsistent provision of care, an aging population, and high burden of chronic disease related to health behaviors. Mitigating this crisis will require a major transformation of healthcare to be proactive, preventive, patient-centered, and evidence-based with a focus on improving quality-of-life. Information technology, networking, and biomedical engineering are likely to be essential in making this transformation possible with the help of advances, such as sensor technology, mobile computing, machine learning, etc. This paper has three themes: 1) motivation for a transformation of healthcare; 2) description of how information technology and engineering can support this transformation with the help of computational models; and 3) a technical overview of several research areas that illustrate the need for mathematical modeling approaches, ranging from sparse sampling to behavioral phenotyping and early detection. A key tenet of this paper concerns complementing prior work on patient-specific modeling and simulation by modeling neuropsychological, behavioral, and social phenomena. The resulting models, in combination with frequent or continuous measurements, are likely to be key components of health interventions to enhance health and wellbeing and the provision of healthcare.

  3. The Role of the Nuclear Science and Technology in Hydrocarbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eko Budi Lelono; Isnawati

    2007-01-01

    The development of the nuclear science and technology influences the method of hydrocarbon exploration as shown by the use of radioactive isotope to determine the absolute age of the rock. Traditionally, the age determination relies on the occurrence of index fossil, both micro and macro forms, to define the relative age of the rock. The absolute age is basically defined based on the calculation of the decay of the selected radioactive mineral. By referring to its absolute age, the rock (source rock or reservoir) can be precisely put in the certain stratigraphic level. On the other hand, the nuclear technology - so called NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) - is applied in the well exploration survey to measure the porosity and the permeability of the rock for predicting the existence of hydrocarbon. From the sedimentology view point, the nuclear technology is used in x ray diffraction (XRD) laboratory to identify mineral in the reservoir rock. In addition, it is also applied in scanning electron microscope (sem) laboratory for estimating the porosity of reservoir. These kinds of information are required by the exploration experts to create reservoir management. (author)

  4. The Role of Electronic Learning Technology in Networks Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd ELhamid, A.; Ayad, N.M.A.; Fouad, Y.; Abdelkader, T.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, Electronic Learning Technology (ELT) has been widely spread as one of the new technologies in the world through using Information and Communication Technology (ICT). One of the strategies of ELT is Simulation, for instance Military and Medical simulations that are used to avoid risks and reduce Costs. A wireless communication network refers to any network not physically connected by cables, which enables the desired convenience and mobility for the user. Wireless communication networks have been useful in areas such as commerce, education and defense. According to the nature of a particular application, they can be used in home-based and industrial systems or in commercial and military environments. Historically, Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANET) have primarily been used for tactical military network related applications to improve battlefield communications/ survivability. MANET is a collection of wireless nodes that can dynamically be set up anywhere and anytime without using any pre-existing network infrastructure. Mobility in wireless networks basically refers to nodes changing its point of attachment to the network. Also, how the end terminals can move, there are many mobility models described the movement of nodes, many researchers use the Random Way point Mobility Model (RWPM). In this paper, a Graphical User Interface (GUI) for RWPM simulation is introduced as a proposal to be used through ELT Project. In the research area of computer and communications networks, simulation is a very useful technique for the behavior of networks

  5. The mediating role of metacognitive variables in the relationship between Thought-Action Fusion and obsessive-compulsive symptomatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Odriozola-González

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Diverse studies support the central role of Thought-Action Fusion (TAF and other metacognitive variables in the understanding of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD symptomatology. However, a more detailed study of the involvement of these variables is needed. This article seeks to assess the possible mediating role of the factors of the Metacognitions Questionnaire (MCQ in the relationship between TAF and OCD symptoms both in clinical and non-clinical samples. A cross-sectional design was used in which 120 participants, divided into three groups (two clinical and one non-clinical, completed the questionnaires assessing the constructs of interest. The mediational findings generally supported the proposed mediation model. Specifically, the mediational analyses focused on negative beliefs and the need to control (metacognitive factors of the MCQ showed that MCQ Negative beliefs mediated the effects of TAF-Total and TAF factors (except for the TAF-Moral on OCD symptomatology in the OCD group. The MCQ Need to control was non-significant as a mediator of the relationships between TAF and OCD. However, it was observed that this mediation approached significance, with considerable effect sizes. In the clinical-control group, the analyses showed that MCQ Negative beliefs mediated the effects of TAF-Likelihood-Oneself on OCD symptoms. In the remaining group, neither MCQ Negative beliefs nor MCQ Need to control were found to be significant mediators. It is generally concluded that certain beliefs, such as TAF, can evolve toward more complex metacognitive beliefs, which ultimately lead to the development of OCD symptoms.

  6. Peer relationship and adolescent smartphone addiction: The mediating role of self-esteem and the moderating role of the need to belong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengcheng; Zhao, Meng; Wang, Xingchao; Xie, Xiaochun; Wang, Yuhui; Lei, Li

    2017-12-01

    Background and aims Adolescent smartphone addiction has received increased attention in recent years, and peer relationship has been found to be a protective factor in adolescent smartphone. However, little is known about the mediating and moderating mechanisms underlying this relation. The aim of this study was to investigate (a) the mediating role of self-esteem in the association between student-student relationship and smartphone addiction, and (b) the moderating role of the need to belong in the indirect relationship between student-student relationship and adolescent smartphone addiction. Methods This model was examined with 768 Chinese adolescents (mean age = 16.81 years, SD = 0.73); the participants completed measurements regarding student-student relationship, self-esteem, the need to belong, and smartphone addiction. Results The correlation analyses indicated that student-student relationship was significantly negatively associated with adolescent smartphone addiction, and the need to belong was significantly positively associated with adolescent smartphone addiction. Mediation analyses revealed that self-esteem partially mediated the link between student-student relationship and adolescent smartphone addiction. Moderated mediation further indicated that the mediated path was weaker for adolescents with lower levels of the need to belong. Discussion and conclusion High self-esteem could be a protective factor against smartphone addiction for adolescents with a strong need to belong as these students appeared to be at elevated risk of developing smartphone addiction.

  7. The Role of Information and Communication Technology in Competitive Intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriens, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role of ICT for competitive intelligence activities. To this end, it starts with an introduction to competitive intelligence. Next, it discusses possible uses of ICT for intelligence activities. In this discussion attention is paid to the use of the Internet, to general

  8. Roles Prioritization of Hydrogen Production Technologies for Promoting Hydrogen Economy in the Current State of China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Gao, Suzhao; Tan, Shiyu

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen production technologies play an important role in the hydrogen economy of China. However, the roles of different technologies played in promoting the development of hydrogen economy are different. The role prioritization of various hydrogen production technologies is of vital importance...... for the stakeholders/decision-makers to plan the development of hydrogen economy in China and to allocate the finite R&D budget reasonably. In this study, DPSIR framework was firstly used to identify the key factors concerning the priorities of various hydrogen production technologies; then, a fuzzy group decision...... information. The prioritization results by using the proposed method demonstrated that the technologies of coal gasification with CO2 capture and storage and hydropower-based water electrolysis were regarded as the two most important hydrogen production pathways for promoting the development of hydrogen...

  9. Exploiting semantic technologies in smart environments and grids: Emerging roles and case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonino, D.; Procaccianti, G.

    2014-01-01

    Semantic technologies are currently spreading across several application domains as a reliable and consistent mean to address challenges related to organization, manipulation, visualization and exchange of data and knowledge. Different roles are actually played by these techniques depending on the

  10. New delivery technology for financial services and the changing role of financial intermediaries

    OpenAIRE

    Buhl, Hans Ulrich

    1998-01-01

    New delivery technology for financial services and the changing role of financial intermediaries / H. U. Buhl ; A. Will. - In: Business Information Systems ´98 / W. Abramowicz (ed.). - Poznan : Akad. Ekonomiczna w Poznaniu, 1998. - S. 203-215

  11. Working Memory Ability Predicts Trajectories of Early Alcohol Use in Adolescents: The Mediational Role of Impulsivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Atika; Romer, Dan; Betancourt, Laura M.; Brodsky, Nancy L.; Giannetta, Joan M.; Hurt, Hallam

    2012-01-01

    Aims 1) To evaluate the role of pre-existing weakness in working memory ability (WM) as a risk factor for early alcohol use as mediated by different forms of impulsivity. 2) To assess the adverse effects of progressive alcohol use on variations in WM over time. Design, Setting and Participants A community sample of 358 adolescents [48% males, Meanage(baseline) = 11.4± 0.87 years] from a longitudinal cohort design, assessed annually over four consecutive years with less than 6% attrition. Measurements Repeated assessments were conducted for the following key variables: WM (based on performance on four separate tasks), frequency of alcohol use (AU), and three forms of impulsivity, namely sensation seeking (SS), acting-without-thinking (AWT) and delay discounting (DD). Latent growth curve modeling procedures were used to identify individual trajectories of change for all key variables. Findings Weakness in WM (at baseline) significantly predicted both concurrent alcohol use and increased frequency of use over the four waves (p memory (WM) rather than a cause of it. Efforts to reduce early alcohol use should consider the distinct roles of different impulsivity dimensions, in addition to WM, as potential targets of intervention. PMID:23033972

  12. Role of Muramyl Dipeptide in Lipopolysaccharide-Mediated Biological Activity and Osteoclast Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Kitaura

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipopolysaccharide (LPS is an endotoxin and bacterial cell wall component that is capable of inducing inflammation and immunological activity. Muramyl dipeptide (MDP, the minimal essential structural unit responsible for the immunological activity of peptidoglycans, is another inflammation-inducing molecule that is ubiquitously expressed by bacteria. Several studies have shown that inflammation-related biological activities were synergistically induced by interactions between LPS and MDP. MDP synergistically enhances production of proinflammatory cytokines that are induced by LPS exposure. Injection of MDP induces lethal shock in mice challenged with LPS. LPS also induces osteoclast formation and pathological bone resorption; MDP enhances LPS induction of both processes. Furthermore, MDP enhances the LPS-induced receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL expression and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 expression both in vivo and in vitro. Additionally, MDP enhances LPS-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling in stromal cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that MDP plays an important role in LPS-induced biological activities. This review discusses the role of MDP in LPS-mediated biological activities, primarily in relation to osteoclastogenesis.

  13. Influence of adult attachment insecurities on parenting self-esteem: The mediating role of dyadic adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo eCalvo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parenting self-esteem includes two global components, parents’ self-efficacy and satisfaction with their parental role, and has a crucial role in parent-child interactions. The purpose of this study was to develop an integrative model linking adult attachment insecurities, dyadic adjustment, and parenting self-esteem.Methods: The study involved 118 pairs (236 subjects of heterosexual parents of a firstborn child aged 0 to 6 years. They were administered the Experiences in Close Relationships – Revised (ECR-R questionnaire, the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS, and the Parenting Sense of Competence Scale (PSOC.Results: Path analysis was used to design and test a theoretical integrative model, achieving a good fit with the data. Findings showed that dyadic adjustment mediates the negative influence on parenting self-efficacy of both attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance. Parenting satisfaction is positively influenced by parenting self-efficacy and negatively affected by child’s age. Attachment anxiety negatively influences parenting satisfaction. Conclusion: Our findings are in line with the theoretical expectations and have promising implications for future research and intervention programs designed to improve parenting self-esteem.

  14. Influence of adult attachment insecurities on parenting self-esteem: the mediating role of dyadic adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Vincenzo; Bianco, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Parenting self-esteem includes two global components, parents' self-efficacy and satisfaction with their parental role, and has a crucial role in parent-child interactions. The purpose of this study was to develop an integrative model linking adult attachment insecurities, dyadic adjustment, and parenting self-esteem. The study involved 118 pairs (236 subjects) of heterosexual parents of a firstborn child aged 0-6 years. They were administered the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised (ECR-R) questionnaire, the Dyadic Adjustment Scale, and the Parenting Sense of Competence Scale. Path analysis was used to design and test a theoretical integrative model, achieving a good fit with the data. Findings showed that dyadic adjustment mediates the negative influence on parenting self-efficacy of both attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance. Parenting satisfaction is positively influenced by parenting self-efficacy and negatively affected by child's age. Attachment anxiety negatively influences parenting satisfaction. Our findings are in line with the theoretical expectations and have promising implications for future research and intervention programs designed to improve parenting self-esteem.

  15. Host-detrimental role of Esx-1-mediated inflammasome activation in mycobacterial infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredric Carlsson

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The Esx-1 (type VII secretion system is a major virulence determinant of pathogenic mycobacteria, including Mycobacterium marinum. However, the molecular events and host-pathogen interactions underlying Esx-1-mediated virulence in vivo remain unclear. Here we address this problem in a non-lethal mouse model of M. marinum infection that allows detailed quantitative analysis of disease progression. M. marinum established local infection in mouse tails, with Esx-1-dependent formation of caseating granulomas similar to those formed in human tuberculosis, and bone deterioration reminiscent of skeletal tuberculosis. Analysis of tails infected with wild type or Esx-1-deficient bacteria showed that Esx-1 enhanced generation of proinflammatory cytokines, including the secreted form of IL-1beta, suggesting that Esx-1 promotes inflammasome activation in vivo. In vitro experiments indicated that Esx-1-dependent inflammasome activation required the host NLRP3 and ASC proteins. Infection of wild type and ASC-deficient mice demonstrated that Esx-1-dependent inflammasome activation exacerbated disease without restricting bacterial growth, indicating a host-detrimental role of this inflammatory pathway in mycobacterial infection. These findings define an immunoregulatory role for Esx-1 in a specific host-pathogen interaction in vivo, and indicate that the Esx-1 secretion system promotes disease and inflammation through its ability to activate the inflammasome.

  16. Heterotypic contact reveals a COX-2-mediated suppression of osteoblast differentiation by endothelial cells: A negative modulatory role for prostanoids in VEGF-mediated cell: cell communication?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarkin, Claire E.; Garonna, Elena; Pitsillides, Andrew A.; Wheeler-Jones, Caroline P.D.

    2008-01-01

    In bone, angiogenesis must be initiated appropriately, but limited once remodelling or repair is complete. Our recent findings have supported a role for prostaglandins (PG), known modulators of osteoblast (OB) and endothelial cell (EC) behaviour, in facilitating VEGF-mediated paracrine communication from OBs to 'remotely located' ECs, but the mechanism(s) regulating OB:EC crosstalk when these cells are closely opposed are undefined. In this study we have examined: (i) the effects of exogenous PGE 2 on VEGF-driven events in ECs, and (ii) the role of endogenous COX-2-derived prostanoids in mediating communication between intimately opposed OBs and ECs in direct contact. Exposure of ECs to PGE 2 increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation, COX-2 induction, 6-keto-PGF 1α release and EC proliferation. In contrast, PGE 2 attenuated VEGF 165 -induced VEGFR2/Flk1 phosphorylation, ERK1/2 activation and proliferation of ECs, suggesting that exogenous PGE 2 restricts the actions of VEGF. However, the COX-2-selective inhibitor, NS398, also attenuated VEGF-induced proliferation, implying a distinct role for endogenous COX-2 activity in regulating EC behaviour. To examine the effect of OB:EC proximity and the role of COX-2 products further, we used a confrontational co-culture model. These studies showed that COX-2 blockade with NS398 enhanced EC-dependent increases in OB differentiation, that this effect was reversed by exogenous PGH 2 (immediate COX-2 product), and that exogenous VEGF did not influence EC-dependent OB differentiation under these conditions. Our findings indicate that locally produced prostanoids may serve distinct roles depending on OB:EC proximity and negatively modulate VEGF-mediated changes in EC behaviour when these cells are closely opposed to control angiogenesis during bone (re)modelling

  17. Roles of concrete technology for containment of radioactive contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitsutaka, Yoshinori; Imamoto, Keiichi

    2014-01-01

    A large amount of radioactive materials was emitted in the environment by the reactor accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. Nuclear debris still remains in the reactor container. An investigative committee was organized in Japan Concrete Institute to study on the containment of radioactive materials and the safe utilization of concrete materials. We have investigated the effect of the hydrogen explosion upon the property of concrete and the transfer of materials into the concrete. We also present the outline of the advice made by Japan Concrete Institute about technologies on the concrete materials for the waterproofing in buildings and for water-shielding walls. (J.P.N.)

  18. Complementary Product Integration by High-Technology New Ventures: The Role of Initial Technology Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Satish Nambisan

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the relationship between complementary product integration and the initial technology strategy of a high-technology new venture. With customers placing considerable emphasis on cross-product integration, the success of a new venture is dependent as much on its ability to integrate its product with relevant complementary products as on the core product functionality itself. We identify three types of complementary product integration: value-added internal, add-on ...

  19. The Role of New Technologies on Contemporary Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Tudor IOAN

    2012-01-01

    Human communication, in its various forms and systems of signs has allowed for the addition of cultural values along the course of human history, through their conservation and transmission from one generation to the next, a process which confers on culture its cumulative character. Information, specific to the human world, has, itself, a particular role. The information field, generalized, changes within us the feeling of time. Man’s relationship with nature, instead of being just lived, pra...

  20. The Role of Computer Technology in Teaching Reading and Writing: Preschool Teachers' Beliefs and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihmeideh, Fathi

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated preschool teachers' beliefs and practices regarding the use of computer technology in teaching reading and writing in Jordan. The researcher developed a questionnaire consisting of two scales--Teachers' Beliefs Scale (TB Scale) and Teachers' Practices Scale (TP Scale)--to examine the role of computer technology in teaching…