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Sample records for technology mast common

  1. Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST). Common Ground: Toward a Standards-Based Training System for the U.S. Machine Tool and Metal Related Industries. Volume 7: Industrial Maintenance Technology, of a 15-Volume Set of Skill Standards and Curriculum Training Materials for the Precision Manufacturing Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas State Technical Coll., Waco.

    This document is intended to help education and training institutions deliver the Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST) curriculum to a variety of individuals and organizations. MAST consists of industry-specific skill standards and model curricula for 15 occupational specialty areas within the U.S. machine tool and metals-related…

  2. Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST). Common Ground: Toward a Standards-Based Training System for the U.S. Machine Tool and Metal Related Industries. Volume 1: Executive Summary, of a 15-Volume Set of Skills Standards and Curriculum Training Materials for the Precision Manufacturing Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas State Technical Coll., Waco.

    The Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST) consortium was formed to address the shortage of skilled workers for the machine tools and metals-related industries. Featuring six of the nation's leading advanced technology centers, the MAST consortium developed, tested, and disseminated industry-specific skill standards and model curricula for…

  3. Mast cells in common wolffish Anarhichas lupus L.: ontogeny, distribution and association with lymphatic vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellberg, Hege; Bjerkås, Inge; Vågnes, Øyvind B; Noga, Edward J

    2013-12-01

    The morphology, ontogeny and tissue distribution of mast cells were studied in common wolffish(Anarhichas lupus L.) at the larval, juvenile and adult life stages using light and electron-microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Fish were sampled at 1 day, 1, 2, 3, 4, 8 and 12 weeks post-hatching in addition to 6 and 9 months and 2 years and older. From 8 weeks post-hatching, mast cells in common wolffish mainly appeared as oval or rounded cells 8-15 mm in diameter with an eccentrically placed, ovoid nucleus and filled with cytoplasmic granules up to 1.2 mm in diameter. Granules were refractile and eosinophilic to slightly basophilic in H&E and stained bright red with Martius-scarlet-blue and purple with pinacyanol erythrosinate in formalin-fixed tissues. Mast cells stained positive for piscidin 4 and Fc ε RI by immunohistochemistry. From 1 day to 4 weeks post-hatching, immature mast cell containing only a few irregularly sized cytoplasmic granules were observed by light and electron-microscopy in loose connective tissue of cranial areas. From 1 day post-hatching, these cells stained positive for piscidin 4 and Fc ε RI by immunohistochemistry. From 12 weeks post-hatching, mast cells showed a primarily perivascular distribution and were particularly closely associated with lymphatic vessels and sinuses. Mast cells were mainly located at the peripheral border of the adventitia of arteries and veins, while they were in intimate contact with the endothelium of the lymphatic vessels. Numerous mast cells were observed in the intestine. A stratum compactum, as described in salmonids, was not observed in wolffish intestine,nor were mast cells confined to a separate layer, a stratum granulosum. Lymphatic vessels consisting of endothelium, intimal connective tissue and a poorly developed basal lamina were observed in the intestine. Scanning electron microscopy was used to compare the structure and localization of intestinal mast cells of common wolffish and rainbow trout

  4. Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST). Common Ground: Toward a Standards-Based Training System for the U.S. Machine Tool and Metal Related Industries. Volume 11: Computer-Aided Manufacturing & Advanced CNC, of a 15-Volume Set of Skill Standards and Curriculum Training Materials for the Precision Manufacturing Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas State Technical Coll., Waco.

    This document is intended to help education and training institutions deliver the Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST) curriculum to a variety of individuals and organizations. MAST consists of industry-specific skill standards and model curricula for 15 occupational specialty areas within the U.S. machine tool and metals-related…

  5. Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST). Common Ground: Toward a Standards-Based Training System for the U.S. Machine Tool and Metal Related Industries. Volume 13: Laser Machining, of a 15-Volume Set of Skill Standards and Curriculum Training Materials for the Precision Manufacturing Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas State Technical Coll., Waco.

    This document is intended to help education and training institutions deliver the Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST) curriculum to a variety of individuals and organizations. MAST consists of industry-specific skill standards and model curricula for 15 occupational specialty areas within the U.S. machine tool and metals-related…

  6. Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST). Common Ground: Toward a Standards-Based Training System for the U.S. Machine Tool and Metal Related Industries. Volume 14: Automated Equipment Technician (CIM), of a 15-Volume Set of Skill Standards and Curriculum Training Materials for the Precision Manufacturing Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas State Technical Coll., Waco.

    This document is intended to help education and training institutions deliver the Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST) curriculum to a variety of individuals and organizations. MAST consists of industry-specific skill standards and model curricula for 15 occupational specialty areas within the U.S. machine tool and metals-related…

  7. Mobile phone mast effects on common frog (Rana temporaria) tadpoles: the city turned into a laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmori, Alfonso

    2010-06-01

    An experiment has been made exposing eggs and tadpoles of the common frog (Rana temporaria) to electromagnetic radiation from several mobile (cell) phone antennae located at a distance of 140 meters. The experiment lasted two months, from the egg phase until an advanced phase of tadpole prior to metamorphosis. Measurements of electric field intensity (radiofrequencies and microwaves) in V/m obtained with three different devices were 1.8 to 3.5 V/m. In the exposed group (n = 70), low coordination of movements, an asynchronous growth, resulting in both big and small tadpoles, and a high mortality (90%) was observed. Regarding the control group (n = 70) under the same conditions but inside a Faraday cage, the coordination of movements was normal, the development was synchronous, and a mortality of 4.2% was obtained. These results indicate that radiation emitted by phone masts in a real situation may affect the development and may cause an increase in mortality of exposed tadpoles. This research may have huge implications for the natural world, which is now exposed to high microwave radiation levels from a multitude of phone masts.

  8. High Gain, Very Low Areal Density, Scalable RF Apertures Enabled by Membrane Aperture Shell Technology (MAST) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose that the Membrane Aperture Shell Technology (MAST) approach be expanded with a specific focus on space exploration orbiting comm network RF aperture...

  9. Conceptualizing Student Affect for Science and Technology at the Middle School Level: Development and Implementation of a Measure of Affect in Science and Technology (MAST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romine, William L.; Sadler, Troy D.; Wulff, Eric P.

    2017-01-01

    We describe the development of the Measure of Affect in Science and Technology (MAST), and study its usefulness for measuring science affect in middle school students via both classical and Rasch measurement perspectives. We then proceed to utilize the measurement structure of the MAST to understand how middle school students at varying levels of…

  10. Conceptualizing Student Affect for Science and Technology at the Middle School Level: Development and Implementation of a Measure of Affect in Science and Technology (MAST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romine, William L.; Sadler, Troy D.; Wulff, Eric P.

    2017-10-01

    We describe the development of the Measure of Affect in Science and Technology (MAST), and study its usefulness for measuring science affect in middle school students via both classical and Rasch measurement perspectives. We then proceed to utilize the measurement structure of the MAST to understand how middle school students at varying levels of affect express their interest and attitudes toward science and technology and gender differences in how students express their affect. We found that affect in science and technology comprises a main dimension, science interest, and four peripheral dimensions: interest in careers in science and technology, attitudes toward science, and interest in attending science class. Of these, careers in science and technology carry the highest affective demand. While males showed higher levels of personal and situational interest in science, a greater interest in careers in science and technology was the biggest contributor to males' higher affect toward science and technology. We argue that whether the MAST is used as a measure of a single construct or multiple subconstructs depends upon specific research or evaluation goals; however, both uses of the MAST yield measures which produce valid inferences for student affect.

  11. Mast cell leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgin-Lavialle, Sophie; Lhermitte, Ludovic; Dubreuil, Patrice; Chandesris, Marie-Olivia; Hermine, Olivier; Damaj, Gandhi

    2013-02-21

    Mast cell leukemia (MCL) is a very rare form of aggressive systemic mastocytosis accounting for mast cell activation-involvement of the liver, spleen, peritoneum, bones, and marrow-are frequent. Diagnosis is based on the presence of ≥ 20% atypical mast cells in the marrow or ≥ 10% in the blood; however, an aleukemic variant is frequently encountered in which the number of circulating mast cells is < 10%. The common phenotypic features of pathologic mast cells encountered in most forms of mastocytosis are unreliable in MCL. Unexpectedly, non-KIT D816V mutations are frequent and therefore, complete gene sequencing is necessary. Therapy usually fails and the median survival time is < 6 months. The role of combination therapies and bone marrow transplantation needs further investigation.

  12. Architecture for persistent surveillance using mast and UAS-based autonomous sensing with bio-inspired technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burman, Jerry

    2014-06-01

    A sophisticated real time architecture for capturing relevant battlefield information of personnel and terrestrial events from a network of mast based imaging and unmanned aerial systems (UAS) with target detection, tracking, classification and visualization is presented. Persistent surveillance of personnel and vehicles is achieved using a unique spatial and temporally invariant motion detection and tracking algorithm for mast based cameras in combination with aerial remote sensing to autonomously monitor unattended ground based sensor networks. UAS autonomous routing is achieved using bio-inspired algorithms that mimic how bacteria locate nutrients in their environment. Results include field test data, performance and lessons learned. The technology also has application to detecting and tracking low observables (manned and UAS), counter MANPADS, airport bird detection and search and rescue operations.

  13. Mast cell degranulator compound 48-80 promotes atherosclerotic plaque in apolipoprotein E knockout mice with perivascular common carotid collar placement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Ya-ling; YANG Yong-zong; WANG Shuang; HUANG Tao; TANG Chao-ke; XU Zeng-xiang; SUN Yu-hui

    2009-01-01

    Background Study of the relationship between mast cells and atherosclerosis is mostly dependent on pathological observation and cytology experiments. To investigate the effects of mast cells degranulation on plaque and their possible mechanisms we used apolipoprotein E knockout mice which had been placed perivascular common carotid collar with mast cells degranulator compound 48-80.Methods Forty apolipoprotein E knockout mice were fed a western-type diet and operated on with placement of perivascular right common carotid collar. Four weeks after surgery, the mice were intraperitoneally injected with compound 48-80 (0.5 mg/kg) or D-Hanks every other day for 4 times. The serum lipids and activity of tryptase were measured. Tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Corresponding sections were stained with toluidine blue and immunohistochemically with antibodies against macrophage-specific antigen, α-smooth muscle actin, interleukin-1β and van Willebrand factor. Simultaneously, basic fibroblast growth factor was detected by in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence.Results No pathological change was observed in common carotid non-collar placement but atherogenesis in common carotid collar placement of both groups. There was a significant increase in plaque area ((5.85±0.75)×104 vs (0.86±0.28)×104 μm2, P<0.05), the degree of lumen stenosis ((81±15)% vs (41±12)%, P <0.05), the activity of tryptase in serum ((0.57±0.13) U/L vs (0.36±0.10) U/L, P <0.05), and the percentage of degranulated mast cells ((80.6±17.8)% vs (13.5±4.1)%, P <0.05). The expressions of macrophage-specific antigen, α-smooth muscle actin, interleukin-1β, basic fibroblast growth factor and the density of neovessel in plaque were more in the compound 48-80 group than in the control group.Conclusions Perivascular common carotid collar placement can promote atherosclerotic plaque formation in apolipoprotein E knockout mice. Compound 48-80 increases plaque area and the degree

  14. Mast cell sarcoma: clinical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Catherine R; Butterfield, Joseph

    2014-05-01

    Mast cell sarcoma is a disorder that results in abnormal mast cells as identified by morphology, special stains, and in some publications, c-kit mutation analysis. It affects animal species such as canines more commonly than humans. In humans it is a very rare condition, with variable clinical presentation. There is no standard therapy for the disorder. It can affect any age group. It is occasionally associated with systemic mastocytosis and/or urticaria pigmentosa. The prognosis of mast cell sarcoma in published literature is very poor in humans.

  15. Information Technology Trends, Creative Commons Licenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felician ALECU

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Creative Commons licenses, also known as CC, allow the authors to retain the copyright over the works while granting some right to the others, like the permission to modify or to use the work for commercial purposes.

  16. Mast cell infiltrates in vulvodynia represent secondary and idiopathic mast cell hyperplasias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regauer, Sigrid; Eberz, Barbara; Beham-Schmid, Christine

    2015-05-01

    Mast cell infiltrates in tissues of vulvodynia are common, but they have not been characterized for criteria of neoplastic mast cell disease or correlated with patient's concomitant diseases associated with increased mast cells. Formalin-fixed specimens of 35 patients with vulvodynia were evaluated immunohistochemically with antibodies to CD 3,4,8,20,117c and human mast cell tryptase, and for WHO-criteria of neoplastic mastocytosis (>25% spindled mast cell, CD25 expression, point mutations of the c-kit gene (D816V), and chronically elevated serum tryptase levels). Only 20/35 specimens showed a T-lymphocyte dominant inflammatory infiltrate on HE-stained sections, but all showed mast cells. 4/35 biopsies showed 60 mast cells/mm(2) (average 80/mm(2) ). Control tissue contained typically mast cell rich biopsies with >40 mast cells/mm(2) were classified as a secondary mast cell disorder reflecting an activated immune system in 75% of vulvodynia patients. Patients with increased mast cells may benefit from medical therapy targeting mast cells.

  17. Double expression of CD34 and CD117 on bone marrow progenitors is a hallmark of the development of functional mast cell of Callithrix jacchus (common marmoset).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunomura, Satoshi; Shimada, Shin; Kametani, Yoshie; Yamada, Yuko; Yoshioka, Mino; Suemizu, Hiroshi; Ozawa, Manabu; Itoh, Toshio; Kono, Azumi; Suzuki, Ryuji; Tani, Kenzaburo; Ando, Kiyoshi; Yagita, Hideo; Ra, Chisei; Habu, Sonoko; Satake, Masanobu; Sasaki, Erika

    2012-09-01

    Mast cells (MCs) are developed from hematopoietic progenitor cells and play an important role in inflammation. Study of the kinetics of development and accumulation of primate MC in vivo is crucial for the control of human inflammatory diseases, as evolution of the immune system is quite rapid and inflammation including MC response is considered to be different between mouse and human. In the present study, we examined the development of MC from hematopoietic progenitors of Callithrix jacchus (common marmoset), an experimental animal of nonhuman primates. Bone marrow cells were fractionated for the expression of CD34 and CD117 by cell sorting. MCs were developed in vitro or by transplanting the cells to NOD/SCID/IL-2γc knockout (NOG) mice. In vitro culture of CD34(+)CD117(+) (double positive, DP) cells with stem cell factor could generate high-affinity Fc epsilon receptor (FcεR)-expressing CD117(+) cells with typical granules. The developed MC released β-hexosaminidase and produced leukotriene C(4) after the stimulation of FcεRI. Transplantation of DP cells gave rise to a marked expansion of CD34(-)CD45(+)CD117(+)FcεR(+) cells in NOG mice. They expressed transcripts encoding chymase 1 and tryptase β. Differentiation of CD34(-)CD117(+) cells to MCs was relatively limited compared with the DP cells, similarly to human MCs. These results suggest that this marmoset system provides a good model for human MC development.

  18. How innovation commons contribute to discovering and developing new technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcy W.E. Allen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In modern economics, the institutions surrounding the creation and development of new technologies are firms, markets and governments. We propose an alternative theory that locates the institutional origin of new technologies further back in the commons when self-organizing groups of technology enthusiasts develop effective governance rules to pool distributed information resources. The ‘innovation commons’ alleviates uncertainty around a nascent technology by pooling distributed information about uses, costs, problems and opportunities. While innovation commons are mostly temporary, because the resource itself – the information about opportunities – is only temporarily valuable, they are a further addition to the Pantheon of commons, and suggest that the institutions of the commons – and the common pool resource of information about applications of the technology – may be far more important in the study of innovation than previously thought.

  19. Mast cell proteoglycans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönnberg, Elin; Melo, Fabio R; Pejler, Gunnar

    2012-12-01

    Mast cells are versatile effector cells of the immune system, contributing to both innate and adaptive immunity toward pathogens but also having profound detrimental activities in the context of inflammatory disease. A hallmark morphological feature of mast cells is their large content of cytoplasmic secretory granules, filled with numerous secretory compounds, including highly negatively charged heparin or chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans of serglycin type. These anionic proteoglycans provide the basis for the strong metachromatic staining properties of mast cells seen when applying various cationic dyes. Functionally, the mast cell proteoglycans have been shown to have an essential role in promoting the storage of other granule-contained compounds, including bioactive monoamines and different mast cell-specific proteases. Moreover, granule proteoglycans have been shown to regulate the enzymatic activities of mast cell proteases and to promote apoptosis. Here, the current knowledge of mast cell proteoglycans is reviewed.

  20. Common Technologies for Environmental Research Infrastructures in ENVRIplus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Jean-Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Environmental and geoscientific research infrastructures (RIs) are dedicated to distinct aspects of the ocean, atmosphere, ecosystems, or solid Earth research, yet there is significant commonality in the way they conceive, develop, operate and upgrade their observation systems and platforms. Many environmental Ris are distributed network of observatories (be it drifting buoys, geophysical observatories, ocean-bottom stations, atmospheric measurements sites) with needs for remote operations. Most RIs have to deal with calibration and standardization issues. RIs use a variety of measurements technologies, but this variety is based on a small, common set of physical principles. All RIs have set their own research and development priorities, and developed their solution to their problems - however many problems are common across RIs. Finally, RIs may overlap in terms of scientific perimeter. In ENVRIplus we aim, for the first time, to identify common opportunities for innovation, to support common research and development across RIs on promising issues, and more generally to create a forum to spread state of the art techniques among participants. ENVRIplus activities include 1) measurement technologies: where are the common types of measurement for which we can share expertise or common development? 2) Metrology : how do we tackle together the diversified challenge of quality assurance and standardization? 3) Remote operations: can we address collectively the need for autonomy, robustness and distributed data handling? And 4) joint operations for research: are we able to demonstrate that together, RIs are able to provide relevant information to support excellent research. In this process we need to nurture an ecosystem of key players. Can we involve all the key technologists of the European RIs for a greater mutual benefit? Can we pave the way to a growing common market for innovative European SMEs, with a common programmatic approach conducive to targeted R&D? Can we

  1. Overview of MAST results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counsell, G. F.; Akers, R. J.; Appel, L. C.; Applegate, D.; Axon, K. B.; Baranov, Y.; Brickley, C.; Bunting, C.; Buttery, R. J.; Carolan, P. G.; Challis, C.; Ciric, D.; Conway, N. J.; Cox, M.; Cunningham, G.; Darke, A.; Dnestrovskij, A.; Dowling, J.; Dudson, B.; Dunstan, M. R.; Delchambre, E.; Field, A. R.; Foster, A.; Gee, S.; Gryaznevich, M. P.; Helander, P.; Hender, T. C.; Hole, M.; Howell, D. H.; Joiner, N.; Keeling, D.; Kirk, A.; Lehane, I. P.; Lisgo, S.; Lloyd, B.; Lott, F.; Maddison, G. P.; Manhood, S. J.; Martin, R.; McArdle, G. J.; McClements, K. G.; Meyer, H.; Morris, A. W.; Nelson, M.; O'Brien, M. R.; Patel, A.; Pinfold, T.; Preinhaelter, J.; Price, M. N.; Roach, C. M.; Rozhansky, V.; Saarelma, S.; Saveliev, A.; Scannell, R.; Sharapov, S.; Shevchenko, V.; Shibaev, S.; Stammers, K.; Storrs, J.; Sykes, A.; Tabasso, A.; Tallents, S.; Taylor, D.; Tournianski, M. R.; Turner, A.; Turri, G.; Valovic, M.; Volpe, F.; Voss, G.; Walsh, M. J.; Watkins, J. R.; Wilson, H. R.; Wisse, M.; MAST, the; NBI; ECRH Teams

    2005-10-01

    Significant progress has been made on the Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST) towards a fundamental understanding of transport, stability and edge physics and addressing technological issues for future large devices. Collaborative studies of the L-H transition with NSTX and ASDEX Upgrade confirm that operation in a connected double-null configuration significantly reduces the threshold power, Pthr. The MAST data provide support for a theory for the transition based on finite β drift wave turbulence suppression by self-generated zonal flows. Analysis of low and high field side density gradients in the H-mode pedestal provides support for an analytical model of the density pedestal width dependent on the neutral penetration depth. Adding MAST data to international confinement databases has enhanced confidence in scalings for ITER by significantly expanding the range of β and ɛ explored and indicates a slightly stronger ɛ dependence than in current scalings. Studies of core transport have been conducted for well-diagnosed L-mode, H-mode and internal transport barrier (ITB) discharges using TRANSP, and microstability and turbulence studies have been carried out using GS2. Linear micro-stability analysis indicates that ITG modes are typically unstable on all flux surfaces with growth rates that are comparable to the equilibrium E × B flow shearing rate. Mixing length estimates of transport coefficients from ITG (neglecting flow shear) give diffusion coefficients that are broadly comparable with observed thermal diffusivities. Non-linear, collisionless ETG calculations have been performed and suggest radially extended electrostatic streamers up to 100ρe across in radius. Transport from ITG could easily be suppressed in regions where the E × B shear flow rate, ωSE, exceeds the ITG growth rate, possibly contributing to ITBs. Toroidal rotation, driven by neutral beam torque, is the dominant contribution to ωSE via the vphiBθ term in the radial electric field

  2. First results from MAST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sykes, A.; Akers, R.J.; Appel, L.C.

    2001-01-01

    MAST is one of the new generation of large, purpose-built spherical tokamaks (STs) now becoming operational, designed to investigate the properties of the ST in large, collisionless plasmas. The first six months of MAST operations have been remarkably successful. Operationally, both merging-compr...

  3. Mast cells and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenzel, Laurent; Hermine, Olivier

    2013-03-01

    The prominent role for mast cells in the inflammatory response has been increasingly well documented in recent years. Mast cells not only contribute to maintain homeostasis via degranulation and to generate IgE-mediated allergic reactions, but also sit at a major crossroads for both innate and adaptive immune responses. The part played by mast cells in chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis identifies mast cells as a valuable treatment target in these diseases. Tyrosine-kinase inhibitors targeting the c-Kit mast cell receptor have been found effective in treating rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, and multiple sclerosis. When used in combination with other available drugs, tyrosine-kinase inhibitors may improve the therapeutic management of these diseases.

  4. The mast on the house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landberg, L.

    1997-01-01

    An often encountered problem when preparing the basic input data for a wind atlas is the correction for the influence of the house or hut on which the mast - whose data forms the basis of this wind atlas - is placed. The paper will describe an experiment, where this problem has been addressed....... The knowledge gained will be used to give guide-lines as to the use of the WASP program to correct the observations. Should the house/hut simply be treated as an extension of the mast, should the house/hut be treated as a hill with speed-up effects, or should the house/hill be ignored completely? The paper...... will show that the house/hut should indeed be treated as a hill with speed-up effects. Placing meteorological masts on houses or huts is common practice in quite a few countries in the world. The problem is therefore one which most people involved in detailed wind resource assessment will face sooner...

  5. Mast cell activation disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EL-HAKIM

    only IgE dependent allergic diseases but also play a ... Mast cells are tissue fixed effector cells of allergic ..... alleviated high intensity symptoms of MCAD.29 ... Osteoporosis, osteolysis, bone pain: biphosphonates (vitamin D plus calcium.

  6. Tetraspanins in Mast Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eKöberle

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Mast cells are key mediators of the immune system, most prominently known for their role in eliciting harmful allergic reactions. Mast cell mediator release (e. g. by degranulation is triggered by Fc{epsilon}RI recognition of antigen – IgE complexes. Until today no therapeutic targeting of this and other mast cell activation pathways is established. Among possible new candidates there are tetraspanins that have been described on mast cells already several years ago.Tetraspanins are transmembrane proteins acting as scaffolds, mediating local clustering of their interaction partners and thus amplify their activities. More recently, tetraspanins were also found to exert intrinsic receptor functions. Tetraspanins have been found to be crucial components of fundamental biological processes like cell motility and adhesion. In immune cells, they not only boost the effectiveness of antigen presentation by clustering MHC molecules, they are also key players in all kinds of degranulation events and immune receptor clustering. This review focuses on the contribution of tetraspanins clustered with Fc{epsilon}RI or residing in granule membranes to classical mast cells functions but also undertakes an outlook on the possible contribution of tetraspanins to newly described mast cell functions and discusses possible drugging strategies.

  7. The Virtual Learning Commons: Supporting Science Education with Emerging Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, D. D.; Gandara, A.; Gris, I.

    2012-12-01

    The Virtual Learning Commons (VLC), funded by the National Science Foundation Office of Cyberinfrastructure CI-Team Program, is a combination of Semantic Web, mash up, and social networking tools that supports knowledge sharing and innovation across scientific disciplines in research and education communities and networks. The explosion of scientific resources (data, models, algorithms, tools, and cyberinfrastructure) challenges the ability of educators to be aware of resources that might be relevant to their classes. Even when aware, it can be difficult to understand enough about those resources to develop classroom materials. Often emerging data and technologies have little documentation, especially about their application. The VLC tackles this challenge by providing mechanisms for individuals and groups of educators to organize Web resources into virtual collections, and engage each other around those collections in order to a) learn about potentially relevant resources that are available; b) design classes that leverage those resources; and c) develop course syllabi. The VLC integrates Semantic Web functionality for structuring distributed information, mash up functionality for retrieving and displaying information, and social media for discussing/rating information. We are working to provide three views of information that support educators in different ways: 1. Innovation Marketplace: supports users as they find others teaching similar courses, where they are located, and who they collaborate with; 2. Conceptual Mapper: supports educators as they organize their thinking about the content of their class and related classes taught by others; 3. Curriculum Designer: supports educators as they generate a syllabus and find Web resources that are relevant. This presentation will discuss the innovation and learning theories that have informed design of the VLC, hypotheses about the use of emerging technologies to support innovation in classrooms, and will include a

  8. Common MD-IS infrastructure for wireless data technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Malcolm E.

    1995-12-01

    The expansion of global networks, caused by growth and acquisition within the commercial sector, is forcing users to move away from proprietary systems in favor of standards-based, open systems architectures. The same is true in the wireless data communications arena, where operators of proprietary wireless data networks have endeavored to convince users that their particular implementation provides the best service. However, most of the vendors touting these solutions have failed to gain the critical mass that might have lead to their technologies' adoption as a defacto standard, and have been held back by a lack of applications and the high cost of mobile devices. The advent of the cellular digital packet data (CDPD) specification and its support by much of the public cellular service industry has set the stage for the ubiquitous coverage of wireless packet data services across the Unites States. Although CDPD was developed for operation over the advanced mobile phone system (AMPS) cellular network, many of the defined protocols are industry standards that can be applied to the construction of a common infrastructure supporting multiple airlink standards. This approach offers overall cost savings and operation efficiency for service providers, hardware, and software developers and end-users alike, and could be equally advantageous for those service operators using proprietary end system protocols, should they wish to migrate towards an open standard.

  9. CAE技术在井架设计中的应用%CAE Technology in the Design of the Mast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明亮

    2014-01-01

    对 CAE 技术在井架设计中的应用进行深入分析,探究 ZJ30/1700CZ 钻机井架在有钩载情况、自然状态下的模态和静态,为井架的合理设计提供参考。%CAE technology in the design of the derrick-depth analysis, explore ZJ30/1700CZ rig derrick hook load in case there is, modal and static natural state, provide a reference for the rational design of the derrick.

  10. Application of Defense Technology Commonly Used in Boxing Match

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhixiao Li[1; Jianjun Liu[2

    2015-01-01

    Boxing defense technology is a kind of techniques to prevent the opponent from attacking successfully. Boxing is a kind of sports that needs close cooperation between attack and defense. Attack is used for defense, where there is no attack, there will be no defense, and vice versa. Defense technology is the foundation of attack technology, therefore, defense is of vital importance in boxing match.

  11. Mast cells and angiogenesis in primary and recurrent pterygia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Hüsniye DİLEK

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Pterygium is a common benign lesion of limbus but the pathogenesis are not completely understood. Pterygia have a chronic inflammatory cellular infiltrate and a rich vasculature. Mast cells are a heterogeneous group of multifunctional tissue-resident cells. It has been suggested that mast cells and their products may be responsible for the formation of new blood vessels. We investigated the number and phenotype of mast cells and neovascularization in pterygia specimens and compared with those in normal conjunctival specimensPterygia tissues were obtained during excisional surgery from 32 eyes of 32 consecutive patients. Seventeen of all cases were recurrent pterygia. Superior bulbar conjunctival tissue from the same eye was also sampled as control tissues. The tissue sections were stained with routine hematoxyline-eosin and toluidine blue stain for mast cells. For immunohistochemical studies anti-factor VIII-related antigen, monoclonal anti human mast cell tryptase and chymase were used as an endothelial and mast cell marker.The mean number of mast cells in pterygia was significantly higher than that in the normal conjunctival tissue and microvessel counts was significantly higher than the counts of the controls in both primary and recurrent pterygia. There was no correlation between microvessel numbers and mast cell numbers. There was no phenotypic difference between the mast cells in the ptergyia and those in the normal conjunctival tissues.This study confirms that mast cells are prominent in pterygia and our results suggest that mast cells and angiogenesis are independent factors in the genesis and progress of ptergyium.

  12. Mast cells & Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friederike eJönsson

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Classically, allergy depends on IgE antibodies and on high-affinity IgE receptors expressed by mast cells and basophils. This long accepted IgE/FcεRI/mast cell paradigm, on which the definition of immediate hypersensitivity was based in the Gell and Coomb’s classification, appears too reductionist. Recently accumulated evidence indeed requires that not only IgE but also IgG antibodies, that not only FcεRI but also FcγR of the different types, that not only mast cells and basophils but also neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, eosinophils, and other myeloid cells by considered as important players in allergy. This view markedly changes our understanding of allergic diseases and, possibly, their treatment.

  13. The Virtual Learning Commons: An Emerging Technology for Learning About Emerging Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, D. D.; Del Rio, N.; Fierro, C.; Gandara, A.; Garcia, A.; Garza, J.; Giandoni, M.; Ochoa, O.; Padilla, E.; Salamah, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Virtual Learning Commons (VLC), funded by the National Science Foundation Office of Cyberinfrastructure CI-Team Program, is a combination of semantic, visualization, and social media tools that support knowledge sharing and innovation across research disciplines. The explosion of new scientific tools and techniques challenges the ability of researchers to be aware of emerging technologies that might benefit them. Even when aware, it can be difficult to understand enough about emerging technologies to become potential adopters or re-users. Often, emerging technologies have little documentation, especially about the context of their use. The VLC tackles this challenge by providing mechanisms for individuals and groups of researchers to collectively organize Web resources through social bookmarking, and engage each other around those collections in order to a) learn about potentially relevant technologies that are emerging; and b) get feedback from other researchers on innovative ideas and designs. Concurrently, developers of emerging technologies can learn about potential users and the issues they encounter, and they can analyze the impact of their tools on other projects. The VLC aims to support the 'fuzzy front end' of innovation, where novel ideas emerge and there is the greatest potential for impact on research design. It is during the fuzzy front end that conceptual collisions across disciplines and exposure to diverse perspectives provide opportunity for creative thinking that can lead to inventive outcomes. This presentation will discuss the innovation theories that have informed design of the VLC, and hypotheses about the flow of information in virtual settings that can enable the process of innovation. The presentation will include a brief demonstration of key capabilities within the VLC that enable learning about emerging technologies, including the technologies that are presented in this session.

  14. Study of mast cell count in skin tags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaher Hesham

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Skin tags or acrochordons are common tumors of middle-aged and elderly subjects. They consist of loose fibrous tissue and occur mainly on the neck and major flexures as small, soft, pedunculated protrusions. Objectives: The aim was to compare the mast cells count in skin tags to adjacent normal skin in diabetic and nondiabetic participants in an attempt to elucidate the possible role of mast cells in the pathogenesis of skin tags. Participants and Methods: Thirty participants with skin tags were divided into group I (15 nondiabetic participants and group II (15 diabetic participants. Three biopsies were obtained from each participant: a large skin tag, a small skin tag and adjacent normal skin. Mast cell count from all the obtained sections was carried out, and the mast cell density was expressed as the average mast cell count/high power field (HPF. Results: A statistically significant increase in mast cells count in skin tags in comparison to normal skin was detected in group I and group II. There was no statistically significant difference between mast cell counts in skin tags of both the groups. Conclusion: Both the mast cell mediators and hyperinsulinemia are capable of inducing fibroblast proliferation and epidermal hyperplasia that are the main pathologic abnormalities seen in all types of skin tags. However, the presence of mast cells in all examined skin tags regardless of diabetes and obesity may point to the possible crucial role of mast cells in the etiogenesis of skin tags through its interaction with fibroblasts and keratinocytes.

  15. The mast on the house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landberg, L.

    2000-01-01

    An often encountered problem when preparing the basic input data for a wind atlas study is the correction for the influence of the house or hut on which the mast—whose data form the basis of this wind atlas—is placed. The article will describe an experiment where this problem has been addressed....... The knowledge gained will be used to give guidelines as to the use of the WAsP program to correct the observations. Should the house/hut simply be treated as an extension of the mast, should the house/hut be treated as a hill with speed-up effects, or should the house/hill be ignored completely? The paper...... will show that the house/hut should indeed be treated as a hill with speed-up effects. Placing meteorological masts on houses or huts is common practice in quite a few countries in the world. The problem is therefore one which most people involved in detailed wind resource assessment will face sooner...

  16. Prenatal diagnosis of common single gene disorders by DNA technology

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    Using the new DNA technology, it is now possible to offer prenatal diagnosis or presymptomatic testing for many genetic diseases. For prenatal diagnosis, foetal tissue is obtained y chorionic villus sampling at 9 to 11 weeks gestation or amniocentesis at 18 weeks. The programme in Hong Kong, which started in 1982, is reviewed here and now included alpha and beta thalassaemia, haemophilia A and B, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, Huntington's diseases, and spinal muscular atrophy. DNA diagnosis ca...

  17. Mast cells are important modifiers of autoimmune disease: With so much evidence, why is there controversy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Ann Brown

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available There is abundant evidence that mast cells are active participants in events that mediate tissue damage in autoimmune disease. Disease-associated increases in mast cell numbers accompanied by mast cell degranulation and elaboration of numerous mast cell mediators at sites of inflammation are commonly observed in many human autoimmune diseases including multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis and bullous pemphigoid. In animal models, treatment with mast cell stabilizing drugs or mast cell ablation can result in diminished disease. A variety of receptors including those engaged by antibody, complement, pathogens and intrinsic danger signals are implicated in mast cell activation in disease. Similar to their role as first responders in infection settings, mast cells likely orchestrate early recruitment of immune cells, including neutrophils, to the sites of autoimmune destruction. This co-localization promotes cellular crosstalk and activation and results in the amplification of the local inflammatory response thereby promoting and sustaining tissue damage. Despite the evidence, there is still a debate regarding the relative role of mast cells in these processes. However, by definition, mast cells can only act as accessory cells to the self-reactive T and/or antibody driven autoimmune responses. Thus, when evaluating mast cell involvement using existing and somewhat imperfect animal models of disease, their importance is sometimes obscured. However, these potent immune cells are undoubtedly major contributors to autoimmunity and should be considered as important targets for therapeutic disease intervention.

  18. NIH Common Fund - Disruptive Proteomics Technologies - Challenges and Opportunities | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Request for Information (RFI) is directed toward determining how best to accelerate research in disruptive proteomics technologies. The Disruptive Proteomics Technologies (DPT) Working Group of the NIH Common Fund wishes to identify gaps and opportunities in current technologies and methodologies related to proteome-wide measurements.  For the purposes of this RFI, “disruptive” is defined as very rapid, very significant gains, similar to the "disruptive" technology development that occurred in DNA sequencing technology.

  19. Mast cell density in cardio-esophageal mucosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh E Mahjoub

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mast cells are related to certain gastrointestinal complaints. Mast cell density has not been studied in cardio-esophageal region to the best of our knowledge. In this study we wanted to obtain an estimate of mast cell density in this region and compare it with mast cell density in antrum. From April 2007 till March 2010, we chose children (<14 years old who underwent upper endoscopy and from whom the taken biopsy was stated to be from lower third of esophagus, but in microscopic examination either cardio- esophageal mucosa or only cardiac mucosa was seen. Mast cells were counted by Giemsa stain at × 1000 magnification in 10 fields. 71 children (<14 years old were included in this study of which, 63.4% (n=45 were female and 36.6% (n=26 were male. The mean age of patients was 7.20 ± 4.21 years (range: 0.2 -14 years. The most common clinical manifestations were recurrent abdominal pain (64.8% and vomiting (23.9% followed by symptoms of gastro-esophageal reflux disorder, poor weight gain, hematemesis and dysphagia. The mean mast cell density in the cardiac mucosa was 33.41 ± 32.75 in 0.25 mm2 (range: 0-155, which was two times of that in antral mucosa. We found a significant but weak positive correlation at the 0.05 level between mast cell density of cardiac mucosa and the antrum. Higher mast cell counts were seen in cardiac mucosa in this study. Significant positive correlation between mast cell density of cardiac mucosa and the antrum could hint to a single underlying etiology for the inflammatory process in gastro- esophageal junction and gastric mucosa.

  20. Mast cells and gastrointestinal dysmotility in the cystic fibrosis mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C De Lisle

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF has many effects on the gastrointestinal tract and a common problem in this disease is poor nutrition. In the CF mouse there is an innate immune response with a large influx of mast cells into the muscularis externa of the small intestine and gastrointestinal dysmotility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential role of mast cells in gastrointestinal dysmotility using the CF mouse (Cftr(tm1UNC, Cftr knockout. METHODOLOGY: Wild type (WT and CF mice were treated for 3 weeks with mast cell stabilizing drugs (ketotifen, cromolyn, doxantrazole or were treated acutely with a mast cell activator (compound 48/80. Gastrointestinal transit was measured using gavage of a fluorescent tracer. RESULTS: In CF mice gastric emptying at 20 min post-gavage did not differ from WT, but was significantly less than in WT at 90 min post-gavage. Gastric emptying was significantly increased in WT mice by doxantrazole, but none of the mast cell stabilizers had any significant effect on gastric emptying in CF mice. Mast cell activation significantly enhanced gastric emptying in WT mice but not in CF mice. Small intestinal transit was significantly less in CF mice as compared to WT. Of the mast cell stabilizers, only doxantrazole significantly affected small intestinal transit in WT mice and none had any effect in CF mice. Mast cell activation resulted in a small but significant increase in small intestinal transit in CF mice but not WT mice. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that mast cells are not involved in gastrointestinal dysmotility but their activation can stimulate small intestinal transit in cystic fibrosis.

  1. A global renewable mix with proven technologies and common materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballabrera, J.; Garcia-Olivares, A.; Garcia-Ladona, E.; Turiel, A.

    2012-04-01

    A global alternative mix to fossil fuels is proposed, based on proven renewable energy technologies that do not use scarce materials. Taking into account the availability of materials, the resulting mix consists of a combination of onshore and offshore wind turbines, concentrating solar power stations, hydroelectricity and wave power devices attached to the offshore turbines. Solar photovoltaic power could contribute to the mix if its dependence on scarce materials is solved. Material requirements are studied for the generation, power transport and for some future transport systems. The order of magnitude of copper, aluminium, neodymium, lithium, nickel, zinc and platinum that might be required for the proposed solution is obtained and compared with available reserves. While the proposed global alternative to fossil fuels seems technically feasible, lithium, nickel and platinum could become limiting materials for future vehicles fleet if no global recycling system were implemented and rechargeable zinc-air batteries could not be developed. As much as 60% of the current copper reserves would have to be employed in the implementation of the proposed solution. Altogether, the availability of materials may become a long-term physical constraint, preventing the continuation of the usual exponential growth of energy consumption.

  2. Assay of mast cell mediators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rådinger, Madeleine; Jensen, Bettina M; Swindle, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Mediator release from activated mast cells is a major initiator of the symptomology associated with allergic disorders such as anaphylaxis and asthma. Thus, methods to monitor the generation and release of such mediators have widespread applicability in studies designed to understand the processes...... regulating mast cell activation and for the identification of therapeutic approaches to block mast cell-driven disease. In this chapter, we discuss approaches used for the determination of mast cell degranulation, lipid-derived inflammatory mediator production, and cytokine/chemokine gene expression as well...

  3. Technology and intellectual property strategy of a firm: A view through the commons theory lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukundan Raghavan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Strategy theory positions technology as a crucial resource of private value creation while commons theory provides governance structures pertinent to resource utilisation. The widening disconnect in the approach towards leveraging a resource and its governance increases the pressure on intellectual property that links strategy and commons. We discern in this work the existence of an implicit relationship between strategy and commons. Based on a multidisciplinary study of strategy, commons, and intellectual property theories, we propose patent pools in the form of semicommons as a strategic appropriation mechanism that balances technology strategy, IP strategy and commons in the pursuit of value creation.

  4. Mast cells, peptides and cardioprotection - an unlikely marriage?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, S K

    2012-01-31

    1 Mast cells have classically been regarded as the \\'bad guys\\' in the setting of acute myocardial ischaemia, where their released contents are believed to contribute both to tissue injury and electrical disturbances resulting from ischaemia. Recent evidence suggests, however, that if mast cell degranulation occurs in advance of ischaemia onset, this may be cardioprotective by virtue of the depletion of mast cell contents that can no longer act as instruments of injury when the tissue becomes ischaemic. 2 Many peptides, such as ET-1, adrenomedullin, relaxin and atrial natriuretic peptide, have been demonstrated to be cardioprotective when given prior to the onset of myocardial ischaemia, although their physiological functions are varied and the mechanisms of their cardioprotective actions appear to be diverse and often ill defined. However, one common denominator that is emerging is the ability of these peptides to modulate mast cell degranulation, raising the possibility that peptide-induced mast cell degranulation or stabilization may hold the key to a common mechanism of their cardioprotection. 3 The aim of this review was to consolidate the evidence implying that mast cell degranulation could play both a detrimental and protective role in myocardial ischaemia, depending upon when it occurs, and that this may underlie the cardioprotective effects of a range of diverse peptides that exerts physiological effects within the cardiovascular system.

  5. Overview of MAST results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, I. T.; Adamek, J.; Akers, R. J.; Allan, S.; Appel, L.; Asunta, O.; Barnes, M.; Ben Ayed, N.; Bigelow, T.; Boeglin, W.; Bradley, J.; Brünner, J.; Cahyna, P.; Carr, M.; Caughman, J.; Cecconello, M.; Challis, C.; Chapman, S.; Chorley, J.; Colyer, G.; Conway, N.; Cooper, W. A.; Cox, M.; Crocker, N.; Crowley, B.; Cunningham, G.; Danilov, A.; Darrow, D.; Dendy, R.; Diallo, A.; Dickinson, D.; Diem, S.; Dorland, W.; Dudson, B.; Dunai, D.; Easy, L.; Elmore, S.; Field, A.; Fishpool, G.; Fox, M.; Fredrickson, E.; Freethy, S.; Garzotti, L.; Ghim, Y. C.; Gibson, K.; Graves, J.; Gurl, C.; Guttenfelder, W.; Ham, C.; Harrison, J.; Harting, D.; Havlickova, E.; Hawke, J.; Hawkes, N.; Hender, T.; Henderson, S.; Highcock, E.; Hillesheim, J.; Hnat, B.; Holgate, J.; Horacek, J.; Howard, J.; Huang, B.; Imada, K.; Jones, O.; Kaye, S.; Keeling, D.; Kirk, A.; Klimek, I.; Kocan, M.; Leggate, H.; Lilley, M.; Lipschultz, B.; Lisgo, S.; Liu, Y. Q.; Lloyd, B.; Lomanowski, B.; Lupelli, I.; Maddison, G.; Mailloux, J.; Martin, R.; McArdle, G.; McClements, K.; McMillan, B.; Meakins, A.; Meyer, H.; Michael, C.; Militello, F.; Milnes, J.; Morris, A. W.; Motojima, G.; Muir, D.; Nardon, E.; Naulin, V.; Naylor, G.; Nielsen, A.; O'Brien, M.; O'Gorman, T.; Ono, Y.; Oliver, H.; Pamela, S.; Pangione, L.; Parra, F.; Patel, A.; Peebles, W.; Peng, M.; Perez, R.; Pinches, S.; Piron, L.; Podesta, M.; Price, M.; Reinke, M.; Ren, Y.; Roach, C.; Robinson, J.; Romanelli, M.; Rozhansky, V.; Saarelma, S.; Sangaroon, S.; Saveliev, A.; Scannell, R.; Schekochihin, A.; Sharapov, S.; Sharples, R.; Shevchenko, V.; Silburn, S.; Simpson, J.; Storrs, J.; Takase, Y.; Tanabe, H.; Tanaka, H.; Taylor, D.; Taylor, G.; Thomas, D.; Thomas-Davies, N.; Thornton, A.; Turnyanskiy, M.; Valovic, M.; Vann, R.; Walkden, N.; Wilson, H.; van Wyk, F.; Yamada, T.; Zoletnik, S.; MAST; MAST Upgrade Teams

    2015-10-01

    The Mega Ampère Spherical Tokamak (MAST) programme is strongly focused on addressing key physics issues in preparation for operation of ITER as well as providing solutions for DEMO design choices. In this regard, MAST has provided key results in understanding and optimizing H-mode confinement, operating with smaller edge localized modes (ELMs), predicting and handling plasma exhaust and tailoring auxiliary current drive. In all cases, the high-resolution diagnostic capability on MAST is complemented by sophisticated numerical modelling to facilitate a deeper understanding. Mitigation of ELMs with resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) with toroidal mode number nRMP = 2, 3, 4, 6 has been demonstrated: at high and low collisionality; for the first ELM following the transition to high confinement operation; during the current ramp-up; and with rotating nRMP = 3 RMPs. nRMP = 4, 6 fields cause less rotation braking whilst the power to access H-mode is less with nRMP = 4 than nRMP = 3, 6. Refuelling with gas or pellets gives plasmas with mitigated ELMs and reduced peak heat flux at the same time as achieving good confinement. A synergy exists between pellet fuelling and RMPs, since mitigated ELMs remove fewer particles. Inter-ELM instabilities observed with Doppler backscattering are consistent with gyrokinetic simulations of micro-tearing modes in the pedestal. Meanwhile, ELM precursors have been strikingly observed with beam emission spectroscopy (BES) measurements. A scan in beta at the L-H transition shows that pedestal height scales strongly with core pressure. Gyro-Bohm normalized turbulent ion heat flux (as estimated from the BES data) is observed to decrease with increasing tilt of the turbulent eddies. Fast ion redistribution by energetic particle modes depends on density, and access to a quiescent domain with ‘classical’ fast ion transport is found above a critical density. Highly efficient electron Bernstein wave current drive (1 A W-1) has been achieved

  6. MAST Upgrade - Construction Status

    CERN Document Server

    Milnes, Joe; Dhalla, Fahim; Fishpool, Geoff; Hill, John; Katramados, Ioannis; Martin, Richard; Naylor, Graham; O'Gorman, Tom; Scannell, Rory

    2015-01-01

    The Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST) is the centre piece of the UK fusion research programme. In 2010, a MAST Upgrade programme was initiated with three primary objectives, to contribute to: 1) Testing reactor concepts (in particular exhaust solutions via a flexible divertor allowing Super-X and other extended leg configurations); 2) Adding to the knowledge base for ITER (by addressing important plasma physics questions and developing predictive models to help optimise ITER performance of ITER) and 3) Exploring the feasibility of using a spherical tokamak as the basis for a fusion Component Test Facility. With the project mid-way through its construction phase, progress will be reported on a number of the critical subsystems. This will include manufacture and assembly of the coils, armour and support structures that make up the new divertors, construction of the new set coils that make up the centre column, installation of the new power supplies for powering the divertor coils and enhanced TF coil set, progr...

  7. The Mast Cell, Contact, and Coagulation System Connection in Anaphylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar Guilarte

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Anaphylaxis is the most severe form of allergic reaction, resulting from the effect of mediators and chemotactic substances released by activated cells. Mast cells and basophils are considered key players in IgE-mediated human anaphylaxis. Beyond IgE-mediated activation of mast cells/basophils, further mechanisms are involved in the occurrence of anaphylaxis. New insights into the potential relevance of pathways other than mast cell and basophil degranulation have been unraveled, such as the activation of the contact and the coagulation systems. Mast cell heparin released upon activation provides negatively charged surfaces for factor XII (FXII binding and auto-activation. Activated FXII, the initiating serine protease in both the contact and the intrinsic coagulation system, activates factor XI and prekallikrein, respectively. FXII-mediated bradykinin (BK formation has been proven in the human plasma of anaphylactic patients as well as in experimental models of anaphylaxis. Moreover, the severity of anaphylaxis is correlated with the increase in plasma heparin, BK formation and the intensity of contact system activation. FXII also activates plasminogen in the fibrinolysis system. Mast cell tryptase has been shown to participate in fibrinolysis through plasmin activation and by facilitating the degradation of fibrinogen. Some usual clinical manifestations in anaphylaxis, such as angioedema or hypotension, or other less common, such as metrorrhagia, may be explained by the direct effect of the activation of the coagulation and contact system driven by mast cell mediators.

  8. Mast cells and basophils in cutaneous immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, A; Kabashima, K

    2015-02-01

    Mast cells and basophils share some functions in common and are generally associated with T helper 2 (Th2) immune responses, but taking basophils as surrogate cells for mast cell research or vice versa for several decades is problematic. Thus far, their in vitro functions have been well studied, but their in vivo functions remained poorly understood. New research tools for their functional analysis in vivo have revealed previously unrecognized roles for mast cells and basophils in several skin disorders. Newly developed mast cell-deficient mice provided evidence that mast cells initiate contact hypersensitivity via activating dendritic cells. In addition, studies using basophil-deficient mice have revealed that basophils were responsible for cutaneous Th2 skewing to haptens and peptide antigens but not to protein antigens. Moreover, human basophils infiltrate different skin lesions and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of skin diseases ranging from atopic dermatitis to autoimmune diseases. In this review, we will discuss the recent advances related to mast cells and basophils in human and murine cutaneous immune responses.

  9. Histamine content and secretion in basophils and mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, A M

    1998-01-01

    Biochemical determinations of the histamine content and secretion from basophils and mast cells have been available for some time, and much of the complex anatomy of these cellular populations and their release reactions has been documented using the electron microscope. The ultrastructural analyses led to the description of vesicular transport between secretory granules and the plasma membrane as a mechanism for secretion from basophils and mast cells--a process termed piecemeal degranulation. Proof of concepts incorporated in a general degranulation model put forth in 1975 (DVORAK, H.F. and DVORAK, A.M.) requires high magnification imaging of a granule constituent in trafficking vesicles in the process of a stimulated release reaction in which the constituent release is monitored biochemically. Development and application of a new enzyme-affinity method to detect histamine at high magnifications in well-preserved ultrastructural samples have provided the necessary means to establish proof that appropriate secretagogues can stimulate the vesicular transport of histamine in basophils and mast cells during release reactions monitored biochemically. The background information necessary to the understanding of this result is presented here, as well as the development and verification of the diamine oxidase-gold method to image histamine in human mast cell granules as the test system. Also presented are applications using this technology to examine histamine stores and secretion in vitro, in vivo, and ex vivo in human basophils and mast cells and in mouse mast cells. Specifically examined are histamine stores developing in maturing mast cells induced to develop de novo from cultured human cord blood cells, secretagogue-stimulated release and recovery of histamine stores from isolated, purified human lung mast cells ex vivo, cytokine-stimulated degranulation of human skin mast cells and their histamine stores in vivo, piecemeal degranulation of human gut mast cells and

  10. The TenC Competence Observatory: An Enabling Technology for Common Description of Competences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zervas, Panayiotis; Sampson, Demetrios

    2007-01-01

    P. Zervas and D. Sampson, "The TenC Competence Observatory: An Enabling Technology for Common Description of Competences", in J. M. Spector, D. Sampson, T. Okamoto, Kinshuk, S. A. Cerri, M. Ueno and A. Kashihara (Eds). Proc. of the 7th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies

  11. The TenC Competence Observatory: An Enabling Technology for Common Description of Competences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zervas, Panayiotis; Sampson, Demetrios

    2007-01-01

    P. Zervas and D. Sampson, "The TenC Competence Observatory: An Enabling Technology for Common Description of Competences", in J. M. Spector, D. Sampson, T. Okamoto, Kinshuk, S. A. Cerri, M. Ueno and A. Kashihara (Eds). Proc. of the 7th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies

  12. Mast cells in viral infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Witczak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available  There are some premises suggesting that mast cells are involved in the mechanisms of anti-virus defense and in viral disease pathomechanisms. Mast cells are particularly numerous at the portals of infections and thus may have immediate and easy contact with the external environment and invading pathogens. These cells express receptors responsible for recognition of virus-derived PAMP molecules, mainly Toll-like receptors (TLR3, TLR7/8 and TLR9, but also RIG-I-like and NOD-like molecules. Furthermore, mast cells generate various mediators, cytokines and chemokines which modulate the intensity of inflammation and regulate the course of innate and adaptive anti-viral immunity. Indirect evidence for the role of mast cells in viral infections is also provided by clinical observations and results of animal studies. Currently, more and more data indicate that mast cells can be infected by some viruses (dengue virus, adenoviruses, hantaviruses, cytomegaloviruses, reoviruses, HIV-1 virus. It is also demonstrated that mast cells can release pre formed mediators as well as synthesize de novo eicosanoids in response to stimulation by viruses. Several data indicate that virus-stimulated mast cells secrete cytokines and chemokines, including interferons as well as chemokines with a key role in NK and Tc lymphocyte influx. Moreover, some information indicates that mast cell stimulation via TLR3, TLR7/8 and TLR9 can affect their adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins and chemotaxis, and influence expression of some membrane molecules. Critical analysis of current data leads to the conclusion that it is not yet possible to make definitive statements about the role of mast cells in innate and acquired defense mechanisms developing in the course of viral infection and/or pathomechanisms of viral diseases.

  13. A mast-seeding desert shrub regulates population dynamics and behavior of its heteromyid dispersers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janene Auger; Susan E. Meyer; Stephen H. Jenkins

    2016-01-01

    Granivorous rodent populations in deserts are primarily regulated through precipitation-driven resource pulses rather than pulses associated with mast-seeding, a pattern more common in mesic habitats. We studied heteromyid responses to mast-seeding in the desert shrub blackbrush (Coleogyne ramosissima), a regionally dominant species in the Mojave–Great Basin...

  14. Mast Cells are Important Modifiers of Autoimmune Disease: With so Much Evidence, Why is There Still Controversy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Melissa A; Hatfield, Julianne K

    2012-01-01

    There is abundant evidence that mast cells are active participants in events that mediate tissue damage in autoimmune disease. Disease-associated increases in mast cell numbers accompanied by mast cell degranulation and elaboration of numerous mast cell mediators at sites of inflammation are commonly observed in many human autoimmune diseases including multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and bullous pemphigoid. In animal models, treatment with mast cell stabilizing drugs or mast cell ablation can result in diminished disease. A variety of receptors including those engaged by antibody, complement, pathogens, and intrinsic danger signals are implicated in mast cell activation in disease. Similar to their role as first responders in infection settings, mast cells likely orchestrate early recruitment of immune cells, including neutrophils, to the sites of autoimmune destruction. This co-localization promotes cellular crosstalk and activation and results in the amplification of the local inflammatory response thereby promoting and sustaining tissue damage. Despite the evidence, there is still a debate regarding the relative role of mast cells in these processes. However, by definition, mast cells can only act as accessory cells to the self-reactive T and/or antibody driven autoimmune responses. Thus, when evaluating mast cell involvement using existing and somewhat imperfect animal models of disease, their importance is sometimes obscured. However, these potent immune cells are undoubtedly major contributors to autoimmunity and should be considered as important targets for therapeutic disease intervention.

  15. Emerging Technologies: The Technological Imperative in Teaching and Learning Less Commonly Taught Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin-Jones, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Anyone in the United States who wants to learn Spanish can easily find local instructional options. Opportunities abound as well for maintaining one's Spanish: all-Spanish television stations, widely distributed print media, and an abundance of native speakers. Learning opportunities and resources for other commonly taught languages (CTL) such as…

  16. e Ciências Afins (MAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Granato

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available MAST is a science and technology museum located in the grounds and architectural complex belonging to the former Observatório Nacional in Rio de Janeiro. This complex, concluded in 1921, comprises of 16 buildings, and was listed by the Artistic and Historic National (1986 and State (1987 Heritage. This complex features three pavilions sheltering the equatorial telescopes, typical examples of Architecture and Engineering buildings for Astronomic purposes. Two of these pavilions, all of which are under the care of MAST, shelter the 21 cm and 32 cm telescopes, plus a third, part of the National Observatory, which houses the 46 cm equatorial telescope. The present study is the result of the work undertaken by MAST to preserve and restore the historical buildings under its responsibility. Thanks to a partnership set up with the Vitae Foundation, it has been possible to develop restoration work covering all aspects of the pavilions (moving metal dome, building, scientific instrument, as well as the area’s museography, with a view to informing visitors about the restoration work undertaken. The project, based on the historical research on the complex, was carried out by a multidisciplinary team over two years. Each stage of the work was comprehensively photographed, including the intervention project design, which was based on architectural surveys and the diagnosis of the complex’s state of repair, plus the restoration per se. This is a groundbreaking initiative in Latin America and will serve as an example for future actions to be taken on historical buildings, especially those built for scientific and technological purposes.

  17. The Role of Mast Cells in Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Nyeong Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is one of the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders, but its treatment is unsatisfactory as its pathophysiology is multifactorial. The putative factors of IBS pathophysiology are visceral hypersensitivity and intestinal dysmotility, also including psychological factors, dysregulated gut-brain axis, intestinal microbiota alterations, impaired intestinal permeability, and mucosal immune alterations. Recently, mucosal immune alterations have received much attention with the role of mast cells in IBS. Mast cells are abundant in the intestines and function as intestinal gatekeepers at the interface between the luminal environment in the intestine and the internal milieu under the intestinal epithelium. As a gatekeeper at the interface, mast cells communicate with the adjacent cells such as epithelial, neuronal, and other immune cells throughout the mediators released when they themselves are activated. Many studies have suggested that mast cells play a role in the pathophysiology of IBS. This review will focus on studies of the role of mast cell in IBS and the limitations of studies and will also consider future directions.

  18. Opportunity from Crisis: A Common Agenda for Higher Education and Science, Technology and Innovation Policy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Merle; Hellström, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    This paper makes a plea for the construction of a common agenda for higher education and science, technology and innovation (STI) policy research. The public higher education and research sector in all countries is currently in the grip of several challenges arising from increased accountability, internationalization and in some cases dwindling…

  19. The STAT5-GATA2 pathway is critical in basophil and mast cell differentiation and maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yapeng; Qi, Xiaopeng; Liu, Bing; Huang, Hua

    2015-05-01

    Transcription factor GATA binding protein 2 (GATA2) plays critical roles in hematopoietic stem cell survival and proliferation, granulocyte-monocyte progenitor differentiation, and basophil and mast cell differentiation. However, precise roles of GATA2 in basophil and mast cell differentiation and maintenance have not been delineated. We have identified GATA2 as an essential transcription factor in differentiation of newly identified common basophil and mast cell progenitors into basophils and mast cells. We observed Gata2 haploinsufficiency for mast cell differentiation, but not for basophil differentiation. We examined the precise role of GATA2 in maintaining the expression of a wide range of genes that are important for performing basophil or mast cell functions. The effects of GATA2 on gene expression were broadly based. We demonstrated that GATA2 was required for maintaining Fcer1a mRNA and FcεRIα protein expression on both basophils and mast cells, as well as for maintaining Kit mRNA and c-Kit protein expression on mast cells. GATA2 was required for histamine synthesis and was also critical for Il4 mRNA expression in basophils and Il13 mRNA expression in mast cells. We demonstrate a STAT5-GATA2 connection, showing that the STAT5 transcription factor directly bound to the promoter and an intronic region of the Gata2 gene. Overexpression of the Gata2 gene was sufficient to direct basophil and mast cell differentiation in the absence of the Stat5 gene. Our study reveals that the STAT5-GATA2 pathway is critical for basophil and mast cell differentiation and maintenance.

  20. Familial occurrence of systemic mast cell activation disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard J Molderings

    Full Text Available Systemic mast cell activation disease (MCAD comprises disorders characterized by an enhanced release of mast cell mediators accompanied by accumulation of dysfunctional mast cells. Demonstration of familial clustering would be an important step towards defining the genetic contribution to the risk of systemic MCAD. The present study aimed to quantify familial aggregation for MCAD and to investigate the variability of clinical and molecular findings (e.g. somatic mutations in KIT among affected family members in three selected pedigrees. Our data suggest that systemic MCAD pedigrees include more systemic MCAD cases than would be expected by chance, i.e., compared with the prevalence of MCAD in the general population. The prevalence of MCAD suspected by symptom self-report in first-degree relatives of patients with MCAD amounted to approximately 46%, compared to prevalence in the general German population of about 17% (p<0.0001. In three families with a high familial loading of MCAD, the subtype of MCAD and the severity of mediator-related symptoms varied between family members. In addition, genetic alterations detected in KIT were variable, and included mutations at position 816 of the amino acid sequence. In conclusion, our data provide evidence for common familial occurrence of MCAD. Our findings observed in the three pedigrees together with recent reports in the literature suggest that, in familial cases (i.e., in the majority of MCAD, mutated disease-related operator and/or regulator genes could be responsible for the development of somatic mutations in KIT and other proteins important for the regulation of mast cell activity. Accordingly, the immunohistochemically different subtypes of MCAD (i.e. mast cell activation syndrome and systemic mastocytosis should be more accurately regarded as varying presentations of a common generic root process of mast cell dysfunction, than as distinct diseases.

  1. Mast cell production and response to IL-4 and IL-13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Jamie J A; Baker, Bianca; Ryan, John J

    2015-09-01

    IL-4 was identified as the first cytokine to be produced by mast cells and is responsible for promoting mast cell IL-13 production. IL-4 and IL-13 play a prominent role in stimulating and maintaining the allergic response. As closely related genes, IL-4 and IL-13 share a common receptor subunit, IL-4Rα, necessary for signaling. Here we summarize the literature on mast cell activation associated with IL-4 and IL-13 production, including downstream signaling. We also describe the positive and negative roles each cytokine plays in mast cell immunity and detail the differences that exist between mouse and human mast cell responses to IL-4 and IL-13.

  2. Comparison of the morphological heterogeneity of mast cells in different tissues of 6 types of common laboratory animals%常用实验动物不同组织部位肥大细胞异质性的组织学特点比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈颖; 朱萍妹; 刘巧玲; 潘华; 周光兴

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨并比较六种常用实验动物不同部位肥大细胞异质性的形态学特点。方法应用麻醉后处死的方法,取小鼠、大鼠、豚鼠、兔、犬和猴的皮肤、肺脏、乙状结肠和脾脏组织,经4%中性缓冲甲醛溶液或Bouin’ s液固定后,制作常规组织切片,分别作HE、甲苯胺蓝、阿尔新蓝-藏红和P物质免疫组织化学染色,镜下观察并应用彩色病理图像分析软件进行形态学分析;另取皮肤组织固定于磷酸缓冲戊二醛溶液,制作常规超薄切片,透射电镜下观察肥大细胞超微结构。结果六种动物不同组织中肥大细胞各有其分布特点,且在形态大小、异染性及染色特性等方面表现各异,肥大细胞密度和形态学参数差异有显著性( P<0.05);豚鼠、犬和猴皮肤肥大细胞颗粒具有特殊亚微结构;小鼠皮肤组织内可见P物质免疫阳性肥大细胞和神经纤维,犬脾脏内可见P物质免疫阳性肥大细胞。结论在六种实验动物的同一组织中以及同一种动物不同组织中,肥大细胞具有明显的异质性,此异质性对采用实验动物开展与肥大细胞功能相关的动物实验研究具有重要参考价值。%Objective To compare and explore the morphological characteristics of mast cells in different tissues of 6 types of common laboratory animals.Methods Ten healthy adult SPF Kunming mice, 10 SD rats, 10 Hartley guinea pigs, 10 New Zealand rabbits, 6 beagle dogs and 6 Macaca mulata ( male:female=1:1, for all) were used in this study. The animals were sacrificed by euthanasia, samples of the skin, lung, spleen and sigmoid colon were taken from mouse, rat, guinea pig, rabbit, dog and monkey, and fixed in formalin and Bouin’ s solution.Paraffin sections were stained with toluidine blue and Alcian blue-safranin O, respectively.The mouse skin and dog spleen were immunohistochemically stained for substance P.A color pathological

  3. Mast cells enhance T cell activation: Importance of mast cell-derived TNF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakae, Susumu; Suto, Hajime; Kakurai, Maki; Sedgwick, Jonathon D.; Tsai, Mindy; Galli, Stephen J.

    2005-05-01

    Mast cells are not only important effector cells in immediate hypersensitivity reactions and immune responses to pathogens but also can contribute to T cell-mediated disorders. However, the mechanisms by which mast cells might influence T cells in such settings are not fully understood. We find that mast cells can enhance proliferation and cytokine production in multiple T cell subsets. Mast cell-dependent enhancement of T cell activation can be promoted by FcRI-dependent mast cell activation, TNF production by both mast cells and T cells, and mast cell-T cell contact. However, at high concentrations of cells, mast cells can promote T cell activation independent of IgE or TNF. Finally, mast cells also can promote T cell activation by means of soluble factors. These findings identify multiple mechanisms by which mast cells can influence T cell proliferation and cytokine production. allergy | asthma | autoimmunity | cytokines | immune response

  4. Mast cells in viral infections

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr Witczak; Ewa Brzezińska-Błaszczyk

    2012-01-01

     There are some premises suggesting that mast cells are involved in the mechanisms of anti-virus defense and in viral disease pathomechanisms. Mast cells are particularly numerous at the portals of infections and thus may have immediate and easy contact with the external environment and invading pathogens. These cells express receptors responsible for recognition of virus-derived PAMP molecules, mainly Toll-like receptors (TLR3, TLR7/8 and TLR9), but also RIG-I-like and NOD-like molecules. Fu...

  5. Measuring originality: common patterns of invention in research and technology organizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, D.L.; Wiseman, E.; Keating, T.; Archambeault, J.

    2016-07-01

    The National Research Council of Canada (NRC) co-chairs an international working group on performance benchmarking and impact assessment of Research and Technology Organizations (RTO). The Knowledge Management branch of the NRC conducted the patent analysis portion of the benchmarking study. In this paper, we present a Weighted Originality index that can more accurately measure the spread of technological combinations in terms of hierarchical patent classifications. Using this patent indicator, we revealed a common pattern of distribution of invention originality in RTOs. Our work contributes to the methodological advancement of patent measures for the scientometric community. (Author)

  6. Mast cell activation syndromes presenting as anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Cem

    2015-05-01

    Anaphylaxis results from severe systemic mast cell activation. In addition to IgE-mediated and physical triggers, it may occur with a clonal mast cell disease and in an idiopathic fashion without clear provoking factors. Disorders of mast cell activation are classified into primary (clonal), secondary, and idiopathic. Mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS) is a multisystem disorder characterized by objective documentation of elevated mast cell mediators during attacks and a favorable response to antimediator therapy. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with recurrent anaphylaxis without a clear cause. This article discusses the diagnosis of MCAS.

  7. TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT TO ELABORATE COMMON WHITE WINE IN MISIONES, WITH ECONOMIC EVALUATION AT INDUSTRIAL SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miño Valdés, Juan Esteban

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to develop a sustainable technology on an industrial scale to produce common white wine with non viniferous grapes cultivated in Misiones. This technological project was initiated at a laboratory scale, continued in the pilot plant and industrial-scale project. It was considered as a productive unit to 12 rural families with 27 hectares of vines each. The 8 stages followed with inductive and deductive methodology were: The development of dry white wine at laboratory scale. The evaluation of process variables in the vivification. The mathematical modeling of the alcoholic fermentation in oenological conditions. The valuation of the aptitude of wines for human consumption. The establishment of a technological procedure for wine in the pilot plant. The evaluation of the pilot plant in technological procedure established. The calculation and selection of industrial equipment. The estimate of the costs and profitability of industrial technological process. It reached a technology for a production capacity of 5,834 L day-1, with dynamic economic indicators whose values were: net present value of 6,602,666 U$D, an internal rate of return of 60 % for a period of recovery of investment to net present value of 3 years.

  8. Improvements of task performance in daily life after acquired brain injury using commonly available everyday technology.

    OpenAIRE

    Lindén, Anita; Lexell, Jan; Larsson Lund, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate how individualised occupation-based interventions with commonly available everyday technology (ET) can compensate for perceived difficulties with daily life tasks after an aquired brain injury (ABI) and improve satisfaction with occupational performance. Method. This intervention study was designed as a multiple case study according to Yin. Ten men and women with an ABI (traumatic or non-traumatic) participated. Data were collected through interviews, observations and ...

  9. Diagnosis and treatment of mast cell disorders: practical recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandes, Alex Freire; Medeiros, Raphael Salles Scortegagna; Rizzatti, Edgar Gil

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE The term mastocytosis covers a group of rare disorders characterized by neoplastic proliferation and accumulation of clonal mast cells in one or more organs. The aim of this study was to assess the principal elements for diagnosing and treating these disorders. DESIGN AND SETTING Narrative review of the literature conducted at Grupo Fleury, São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS This study reviewed the scientific papers published in the PubMed, Embase (Excerpta Medica Database), Lilacs (Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde) and Cochrane Library databases that were identified using the search term "mastocytosis." RESULTS The clinical presentation of mastocytosis is remarkably heterogeneous and ranges from skin lesions that may regress spontaneously to aggressive forms associated with organ failure and short survival. Currently, seven subtypes of mastocytosis are recognized through the World Health Organization classification system for hematopoietic tumors. These disorders are diagnosed based on clinical manifestations and on identification of neoplastic mast cells using morphological, immunophenotypic, genetic and molecular methods. Abnormal mast cells display atypical and frequently spindle-shaped morphology, and aberrant expression of the CD25 and CD2 antigens. Elevation of serum tryptase is a common finding in some subtypes, and more than 90% of the patients present the D816V KIT mutation in mast cells. CONCLUSION Here, we described the most common signs and symptoms among patients with mastocytosis and suggested a practical approach for the diagnosis, classification and initial clinical treatment of mastocytosis.

  10. MAST Upgrade – Construction Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milnes, Joe, E-mail: Joe.Milnes@ccfe.ac.uk; Ayed, Nizar Ben; Dhalla, Fahim; Fishpool, Geoff; Hill, John; Katramados, Ioannis; Martin, Richard; Naylor, Graham; O’Gorman, Tom; Scannell, Rory

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Outlines unique capability of MAST-U, including divertor and diagnostic capability. • Describes progress made in the manufacture and assembly of key MAST-U components. • Highlights the design challenges that have been overcome. • Lists the key lessons learned thus far in the project. - Abstract: The Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST) is the centre piece of the UK fusion research programme. In 2010, a MAST Upgrade programme was initiated with three primary objectives, to contribute to: (1) testing reactor concepts (in particular exhaust solutions via a flexible divertor allowing Super-X and other extended leg configurations); (2) adding to the knowledge base for ITER (by addressing important plasma physics questions and developing predictive models to help optimise ITER performance of ITER) and (3) exploring the feasibility of using a spherical tokamak as the basis for a fusion Component Test Facility. With the project mid-way through its construction phase, progress will be reported on a number of the critical subsystems. This will include manufacture and assembly of the coils, armour and support structures that make up the new divertors, construction of the new set coils that make up the centre column, installation of the new power supplies for powering the divertor coils and enhanced TF coil set, progress in delivering the upgraded diagnostic capability, the modification and upgrading of the NBI heating systems and the complete overhaul of the machine control infrastructure, including a new control room with full remote participation facilities.

  11. Mast cell Toll-like receptors (TLR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Brzezińska-Błaszczyk

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account the role of mast cells in different physiological and pathological processes, as well as in host defense it seems very important to recognize mast cell receptors and their role in activation of these cells. In the last few years it has been indicated that mast cells can express Toll-like receptors (TLRs, molecules that play an essential role in the activation of innate immune response to microbial pathogens and take part in the development of adaptive immunity, as well. It has been defined that mast cells express TLR2, TLR4, TLR1 and TLR6. There is also some data proving that mast cells possess TLR5, TLR3 and TLR9 molecules. The presence of TLR7, TLR9, and TLR10 on mast cells is still unclear. Some data indicate that TLR expression by mast cells can be modulated by various cytokines, such as granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF and interferon (IFN-γ, cathelicidin LL-37 as well as by some bacterial components. It is now established that TLRs are involved in mast cell response to bacterial stimulation; some data also indicate that TLRs take part in virus-induced mast cell activation. What is more, it is now suggested that TLRs might regulate IgE-FcεRI-dependent mast cell stimulation. Further research is needed to fully understand and describe the role of TLRs in mast cell biology.

  12. Comparison Study of Three Common Technologies for Freezing-Thawing Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinbao Yu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a comparison study on three different technologies (i.e., thermocouple, electrical resistivity probe and Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR that are commonly used for frost measurement. Specially, the paper developed an analyses procedure to estimate the freezing-thawing status based on the dielectric properties of freezing soil. Experiments were conducted where the data of temperature, electrical resistivity, and dielectric constant were simultaneously monitored during the freezing/thawing process. The comparison uncovered the advantages and limitations of these technologies for frost measurement. The experimental results indicated that TDR measured soil dielectric constant clearly indicates the different stages of the freezing/thawing process. Analyses method was developed to determine not only the onset of freezing or thawing, but also the extent of their development. This is a major advantage of TDR over other technologies.

  13. Lipid Rafts in Mast Cell Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Maria Mariano Silveira e Souza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mast cells have long been recognized to have a direct and critical role in allergic and inflammatory reactions. In allergic diseases, these cells exert both local and systemic responses, including allergic rhinitis and anaphylaxis. Mast cell mediators are also related to many chronic inflammatory conditions. Besides the roles in pathological conditions, the biological functions of mast cells include roles in innate immunity, involvement in host defense mechanisms against parasites, immunomodulation of the immune system, tissue repair, and angiogenesis. Despite their growing significance in physiological and pathological conditions, much still remains to be learned about mast cell biology. This paper presents evidence that lipid rafts or raft components modulate many of the biological processes in mast cells, such as degranulation and endocytosis, play a role in mast cell development and recruitment, and contribute to the overall preservation of mast cell structure and organization.

  14. Advantages of masting in European beech: timing of granivore satiation and benefits of seed caching support the predator dispersal hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwolak, Rafał; Bogdziewicz, Michał; Wróbel, Aleksandra; Crone, Elizabeth E

    2016-03-01

    The predator satiation and predator dispersal hypotheses provide alternative explanations for masting. Both assume satiation of seed-eating vertebrates. They differ in whether satiation occurs before or after seed removal and caching by granivores (predator satiation and predator dispersal, respectively). This difference is largely unrecognized, but it is demographically important because cached seeds are dispersed and often have a microsite advantage over nondispersed seeds. We conducted rodent exclosure experiments in two mast and two nonmast years to test predictions of the predator dispersal hypothesis in our study system of yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica). Specifically, we tested whether the fraction of seeds removed from the forest floor is similar during mast and nonmast years (i.e., lack of satiation before seed caching), whether masting decreases the removal of cached seeds (i.e., satiation after seed storage), and whether seed caching increases the probability of seedling emergence. We found that masting did not result in satiation at the seed removal stage. However, masting decreased the removal of cached seeds, and seed caching dramatically increased the probability of seedling emergence relative to noncached seeds. European beech thus benefits from masting through the satiation of scatterhoarders that occurs only after seeds are removed and cached. Although these findings do not exclude other evolutionary advantages of beech masting, they indicate that fitness benefits of masting extend beyond the most commonly considered advantages of predator satiation and increased pollination efficiency.

  15. Mast cells in chronic inflammation, pelvic pain and depression in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziottin, Alessandra; Skaper, Stephen D; Fusco, Mariella

    2014-07-01

    Inflammatory and neuroinflammatory processes are increasingly recognized as critical pathophysiologic steps in the development of multiple chronic diseases and in the etiology of persistent pain and depression. Mast cells are immune cells now viewed as cellular sensors in inflammation and immunity. When stimulated, mast cells release an array of mediators to orchestrate an inflammatory response. These mediators can directly initiate tissue responses on resident cells, and may also regulate the activity of other immune cells, including central microglia. New evidence supports the involvement of peripheral and central mast cells in the development of pain processes as well as in the transition from acute, to chronic and neuropathic pain. That behavioral and endocrine states can increase the number and activation of peripheral and brain mast cells suggests that mast cells represent the immune cells that peripherally and centrally coordinate inflammatory processes in neuropsychiatric diseases such as depression and anxiety which are associated with chronic pelvic pain. Given that increasing evidence supports the activated mast cell as a director of common inflammatory pathways/mechanisms contributing to chronic and neuropathic pelvic pain and comorbid neuropsychiatric diseases, mast cells may be considered a viable target for the multifactorial management of both pain and depression.

  16. A TRPV2–PKA Signaling Module for Transduction of Physical Stimuli in Mast Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Alexander J.; Shimoda, Lori M.N.; Koblan-Huberson, Murielle; Adra, Chaker N.; Turner, Helen

    2004-01-01

    Cutaneous mast cell responses to physical (thermal, mechanical, or osmotic) stimuli underlie the pathology of physical urticarias. In vitro experiments suggest that mast cells respond directly to these stimuli, implying that a signaling mechanism couples functional responses to physical inputs in mast cells. We asked whether transient receptor potential (vanilloid) (TRPV) cation channels were present and functionally coupled to signaling pathways in mast cells, since expression of this channel subfamily confers sensitivity to thermal, osmotic, and pressure inputs. Transcripts for a range of TRPVs were detected in mast cells, and we report the expression, surface localization, and oligomerization of TRPV2 protein subunits in these cells. We describe the functional coupling of TRPV2 protein to calcium fluxes and proinflammatory degranulation events in mast cells. In addition, we describe a novel protein kinase A (PKA)–dependent signaling module, containing PKA and a putative A kinase adapter protein, Acyl CoA binding domain protein (ACBD)3, that interacts with TRPV2 in mast cells. We propose that regulated phosphorylation by PKA may be a common pathway for TRPV modulation. PMID:15249591

  17. Serum concentrations of mast cell tryptase are reduced in heavy drinkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beceiro, Carmen; Campos, Joaquín; Valcarcel, Maria-Angeles;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Baseline serum tryptase concentrations are commonly used in clinical practice as a marker of the body's mast cell burden. This study aimed to investigate serum tryptase concentrations in heavy drinkers. METHODS: Serum tryptase concentrations were determined in 126 heavy drinkers (75...... test positivity) was not associated with serum tryptase concentrations in heavy drinkers. CONCLUSIONS: Serum concentrations of mast cell tryptase are lower in heavy drinkers than in healthy controls....

  18. Technological quality of common bean grains obtained in different growing seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Francischinelli Perina

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The traits that provide technological quality to common bean grains exhibit genetic and environmental variation and variation in the genotype x environment interaction. In this context, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of different periods of the growing season on the technological quality of common bean grains. The experiment was conducted with 25 bean genotypes (carioca [beige with brown stripes] and black commercial group that are part of the Value for Cultivation and Use (Valor de Cultivo e Uso - VCU trials in three growing seasons, namely, the 2009/2010 rainy season, the 2010/2011 dry season and the 2010/2011 winter season, in a randomized block experimental design with three replications in which the following items were assessed: cooking time (CT, water absorption capacity before cooking (Peanc and after cooking (Peapc, percentage of whole grains (PWG, total soluble solids in the broth (TSSb, volume expansion before cooking (EXPVbc and after cooking (EXPVac, and dry grain density (DD, grain density after maceration (SD and grain density after cooking (CD. Assessments showed that the different growing seasons for obtaining grains for the purpose of analysis of technological quality have an effect on the results and on differentiation among genotypes, indicating genotype x environment interaction. They also showed that the genotypes C2-1-6-1, C4-8-1-1, LP04-03, IAC-Imperador, P5-4-4-1 and Pr11-6-4-1-2 had the best results in relation to cooking time in the mean values of the three growing seasons. The use of early selection based on phenotypic correlations that exist among the technological features is not expressive, due to the variation of magnitude among the different growing seasons.

  19. Generation, isolation, and maintenance of rodent mast cells and mast cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bettina M; Swindle, Emily J; Iwaki, Shoko;

    2006-01-01

    Antigen-mediated mast cell activation, with subsequent mediator release, is a major initiator of the inflammatory allergic response associated with such conditions as asthma. A comprehensive understanding of the principles involved in this process therefore is key to the development of novel...... therapies for the treatment of these disease states. In vitro models of mast cell function have allowed significant progress to be made in the recognition of the fundamental principles of mast cell activation via the high-affinity IgE receptor (FcvarepsilonRI) and, more recently, other receptors expressed...... on mast cells. In addition to human mast cells, the major cell culture systems employed to investigate these responses are rat and mouse peritoneal mast cells, mouse bone-marrow-derived mast cells, the rat basophilic leukemia cell line RBL-2H3, and the mouse MC/9 mast cell line. In this unit, we describe...

  20. Immunohistochemical characterization of feline mast cell tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallett, C L; Northrup, N C; Saba, C F; Rodriguez, C O; Rassnick, K M; Gieger, T L; Childress, M O; Howerth, E W

    2013-01-01

    Expression of histamine, serotonin, and KIT was evaluated in 61 archived feline mast cell tumors (MCTs) from the skin (n = 29), spleen (n = 17), and gastrointestinal (GI) tract (n = 15) using immunohistochemistry. Twenty-eight percent of cutaneous MCTs, 18% of splenic MCTs, and 53% of GI MCTs displayed histamine immunoreactivity. Serotonin immunoreactivity was detected in 3 GI and 1 cutaneous MCT. Sixty-nine percent of cutaneous MCTs, 35% of splenic MCTs, and 33% of GI MCTs were positive for KIT. Expression of these biogenic amines and KIT was less common than expected. Results of this study suggest heterogeneity in feline MCTs based on anatomic location. Further studies are needed to explain the significance of these differences.

  1. Correlation of mast cells in periodontal diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Sushma S Lagdive; Lagdive, Sanjay B; Mani, Ameet; Anarthe, Raju; Pendyala, Gowri; Pawar, Babita; Marawar, Pramod P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Among the cells involved in immune and inflammatory responses in periodontal disease, mast cells have been shown to be capable of generating a large number of biologically active substances. Mast cells are mobile, bone-marrow-derived, granule-containing immune cells that are found in all connective tissue and mucosal environments and in the peripheral and central nervous systems. Mast cells are able to phagocytose, process and present antigens as effectively as macrophages. The pr...

  2. Solar Array Mast Imagery Discussion for ISIW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgo, Gary

    2017-01-01

    SAW Mast inspection background: In 2012, NASA's Flight Safety Office requested the Micro Meteoroid and Orbital Debris (MMOD) office determine the probability of damage to the Solar Array Wing (SAW) mast based on the exposure over the life time of the ISS program. As part of the risk mitigation of the potential MMOD strikes. ISS Program office along with the Image Science and Analysis Group (ISAG) began developing methods for imaging the structural components of the Mast.

  3. Mast cells in pathological and surgical scars

    OpenAIRE

    Beer, T; Baldwin, H; West, L; Gallagher, P.; Wright, D.

    1998-01-01

    AIM—To investigate the role of mast cells in surgical and pathological scar reactions by their identification and quantification using immunohistochemistry.
METHODS—Surgical scars and pathological scar reactions were stained immunohistochemically for tryptase to identify mast cells. These were quantified in the scar tissue and surrounding dermis. Statistical analyses were performed to test the hypothesis that mast cell numbers were different in the varying types of scar reaction.
RESULTS—A si...

  4. Multi-Axial Simulation Table (MAST)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The MAST delivers an extensive array of testing applications providing rapid, flexible and reliable analysis for ground vehicle components and subassemblies. Using...

  5. Multi-Axial Simulation Table (MAST)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The MAST delivers an extensive array of testing applications providing rapid, flexible and reliable analysis for ground vehicle components and subassemblies. Using...

  6. Mast cells and cancer: enemies or allies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyduch, Grzegorz; Kaczmarczyk, Karolina; Okoń, Krzysztof

    2012-03-01

    Mast cells are a component of cancer microenvironment the role of which is complex and poorly understood. Mast cells promote cancer growth by stimulation of neoangiogenesis, tissue remodeling and by modulation of the host immune response. The mediators of cancer promotion include protease-activated receptors, mitogen activated protein kinases, prostaglandins and histamine. Histamine may induce tumor proliferation and immunosuppression through H1 and H2 receptors, respectively. The mast cell-derived modulators of immune response include also interleukin 10 (IL-10), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and CD30L. Possibly stimulation of angiogenesis is the most important. Mast cells release potent proangiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), TNF- α and IL-8, and mast cells' enzymes, like metaloproteinases (MMPs), tryptase and chymase participate in vessels' formation. The anti-cancer actions of mast cells include direct growth inhibition, immunologic stimulation, inhibition of apoptosis and decreased cell mobility; the mediators of these processes include chymase, tryptase, TNF-α, IL-1 and IL-6. The very same mediators may exert both pro- or anti-cancer effects depending on concentration, presence of cofactors or location of secreting cells. In fact, peri- and intra-tumoral mast cells may have dissimilar effects. Understanding of the role of mast cells in cancer could lead to improved prognostication and development of therapeutic methods targeting the mast cells.

  7. Paul Ehrlich's mastzellen: a historical perspective of relevant developments in mast cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghably, Jack; Saleh, Hana; Vyas, Harsha; Peiris, Emma; Misra, Niva; Krishnaswamy, Guha

    2015-01-01

    Following the discovery of mast cells (or mastzellen) by the prolific physician researcher, Paul Ehrlich, many advances have improved our understanding of these cells and their fascinating biology. The discovery of immunoglobulin E and receptors for IgE and IgG on mast cells heralded further in vivo and in vitro studies, using molecular technologies and gene knockout models. Mast cells express an array of inflammatory mediators including tryptase, histamine, cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors. They play a role in many varying disease states, from atopic diseases, parasitic infections, hematological malignancies, and arthritis to osteoporosis. This review will attempt to summarize salient evolving areas in mast cell research over the last few centuries that have led to our current understanding of this pivotal multifunctional cell.

  8. Vibration Measurements on the Frejlev Mast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Hansen, Lars Pilegaard

    The present report presents full-scale measurements on the Frejlev-mast which is a 200 meter hight guyed steel mast located 10 km. from Aalborg. The goal of the research was to investigate various techniques which could be used to estimate cable forces from vibration measurements. The cables...

  9. Ion channels regulating mast cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashmole, I; Bradding, P

    2013-05-01

    Mast cells play a central role in the pathophysiology of asthma and related allergic conditions. Mast cell activation leads to the degranulation of preformed mediators such as histamine and the secretion of newly synthesised proinflammatory mediators such as leukotrienes and cytokines. Excess release of these mediators contributes to allergic disease states. An influx of extracellular Ca2+ is essential for mast cell mediator release. From the Ca2+ channels that mediate this influx, to the K+ , Cl- and transient receptor potential channels that set the cell membrane potential and regulate Ca2+ influx, ion channels play a critical role in mast cell biology. In this review we provide an overview of our current knowledge of ion channel expression and function in mast cells with an emphasis on how channels interact to regulate Ca2+ signalling.

  10. Mast Cells and Histamine: Do They Influence Placental Vascular Network and Development in Preeclampsia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Szewczyk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The physiological course of pregnancy is closely related to adequate development of the placenta. Shallow invasion of trophoblast as well as decreased development of the placental vascular network are both common features of preeclampsia. To better understand the proangiogenic features of mast cells, in this study we aim to identify the potential relationship between the distribution of mast cells within the placenta and vascular network development. Material and Methods. Placentas from preeclampsia-complicated pregnancies (=11 and from physiological pregnancies (=11 were acquired after cesarean section. The concentration of histamine was measured, and immunohistochemical staining for mast cell tryptase was performed. Morphometric analysis was then performed. Results. We noticed significant differences between the examined groups. Notably, in the preeclampsia group compared to the control group, we observed a higher mean histamine concentration, higher mast cell density (MCD, lower mean mast cell (MMCA and lower vascular/extravascular (V/EVT index. In physiological pregnancies, a positive correlation was observed between the histamine concentration and V/VEVT index as well as MCD and the V/VEVT index. In contrast, a negative correlation was observed between MMCA and the V/EVT index in physiological pregnancies. Conclusions. Based on the data from our study, we suggest that a differential distribution of mast cells and corresponding changes in the concentration of histamine are involved in the defective placental vascularization seen in preeclamptic placentas.

  11. Mast cells and influenza A virus: Association with allergic responses and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy C. Graham

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus (IAV is a widespread infectious agent commonly found in mammalian and avian species. In humans, IAV is a respiratory pathogen that causes seasonal infections associated with significant morbidity in young and elderly populations and has a large economic impact. Moreover, IAV has the potential to cause both zoonotic spillover infection and global pandemics, which have significantly greater morbidity and mortality across all ages. The pathology associated with these pandemic and spillover infections appear to be the result of an excessive inflammatory response leading to severe lung damage, which likely predisposes the lungs for secondary bacterial infections. The lung is protected from pathogens by alveolar epithelial cells, endothelial cells, tissue resident alveolar macrophages, dendritic cells, and mast cells. The importance of mast cells during bacterial and parasitic infections has been extensively studied, yet the role of these hematopoietic cells during viral infections is only beginning to emerge. Recently, it has been shown that mast cells can be directly activated in response to IAV, releasing mediators such histamine, proteases, leukotrienes, inflammatory cytokines, and antiviral chemokines, which participate in the excessive inflammatory and pathological response observed during IAV infections. In this review, we will examine the relationship between mast cells and IAV, and discuss the role of mast cells as a potential drug target during highly pathological IAV infections. Finally, we proposed an emerging role for mast cells in other viral infections associated with significant host pathology.

  12. Mast fruiting is a frequent strategy in woody species of eastern South America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Norden

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is thought that mast seeding is a rare reproductive strategy in the tropics, since tropical climates are less variable, and fruit consumers tend to be more generalist in these regions. However, previous tests of this hypothesis were based on only few tropical datasets, and none from tropical South America. Moreover, reproductive strategies have been quantified based on the coefficient of variation of interannual seed production, an index that potentially confounds masting and high interannual variability in seed production. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We developed a new approach to model the monthly variability in seed production for 28 tree species, and 20 liana species monitored during 5 years in a tropical forest of Central French Guiana. We found that 23% of the species showed a masting pattern, 54% an annual fruiting pattern, and 23% an irregular fruiting pattern. The majority of masting species were trees (8 out of 11, most of them animal-dispersed. The classification into reproductive strategies based on the coefficient of variation was inconsistent with our results in nearly half of the cases. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study is the first to clearly evidence the frequency of the masting strategy in a tropical forest community of Eastern South America. The commonness of the masting strategy in tropical plants may promote species coexistence through storage dynamics.

  13. Technological Language as a Common Language for Euro-Mediterranean Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Sebastio

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The internet and social networks provide new forms of public spaces, virtual continents populated by people of different races, languages, and religions that communicate with a single language, in one unique mode and with one unique tool. In the era of extreme social participation, it is impossible not to consider the role of future policies of education. We cannot ignore the basic language in which the Euro-Mediterranean people recognize themselves, allowing them to interact on all sides of the Mediterranean basin. Technology provides a dialogue bridge, as well as mutual recognition and accreditation for the people who share the Mediterranean Sea and the world. The Internet is the true centre of the Union membership and provides a common good, which generates shared recognition and willingness to communicate; furthermore, it results in the renunciation of personal data protection, as well as the management of its powers to private entities. The aim of this paper is to envisage the effects of the electronic society on the Mediterranean Policies.

  14. Improvements of task performance in daily life after acquired brain injury using commonly available everyday technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindén, Anita; Lexell, Jan; Larsson Lund, Maria

    2011-01-01

    To investigate how individualised occupation-based interventions with commonly available everyday technology (ET) can compensate for perceived difficulties with daily life tasks after an aquired brain injury (ABI) and improve satisfaction with occupational performance. This intervention study was designed as a multiple case study according to Yin. Ten men and women with an ABI (traumatic or non-traumatic) participated. Data were collected through interviews, observations and field notes before and after the intervention and at follow-up (on average 11 weeks afterwards). The interventions focused on enabling each participant's prioritised goals related to task performance in daily life. All participants achieved all their goals by learning to use both new functions in their own familiar ET and new ET. The participant's perceived difficulties in occupational performance decreased and their satisfaction with occupational performance increased with the use of ET. An individualised intervention process, involving the use of own familiar ET or ET off-the-shelf, has the potential to compensate for perceived difficulties following an ABI and improve satisfaction with occupational performance in daily life.

  15. ROADS LESS TRAVELLED: SEXUAL DIMORPHISM AND MAST CELL CONTRIBUTIONS TO MIGRAINE PATHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ivonne Loewendorf

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Migraine is a common, little understood, and debilitating disease. It is much more prominent in women than in men (~2/3 are women but the reasons for female preponderance are not clear. Migraineurs frequently experience severe comorbidities such as allergies, depression, irritable bowel syndrome and others; many of the comorbities are more common in females. Current treatments for migraine are not gender-specific, and rarely are migraine and its comorbidities considered and treated by the same specialist. Thus, migraine treatments represent a huge unmet medical need, which will only be addressed with greater understanding of its underlying pathophysiology. We discuss the current knowledge about sex differences in migraine and its comorbidities, and focus in on the potential role of mast cells in both. Sex-based differences in pain recognition and drug responses, fluid balance, and the blood brain barrier are recognized but their impact on migraine is not well studied. Further, mast cells are well recognized for their prominent role in allergies but much less is known about their contributions to pain pathways in general and migraine specifically. Mast cell-neuron bidirectional communication uniquely positions these cells as potential initiators and/or perpetuators of pain. Mast cells can secrete nociceptor sensitizing and activating agents such as serotonin, prostaglandins, histamine and proteolytic enzymes that can also activate the pain-mediating transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV channels. Mast cells express receptors for both estrogen and progesterone that induce degranulation upon binding. Further, environmental estrogens such as Bisphenol A activate mast cells in preclinical models but their impact on pain pathways or migraine is understudied. We hope that this discussion will encourage scientists and physicians alike to bridge the knowledge gaps linking sex, mast cells and migraine to develop better, more comprehensive

  16. The Virtual Learning Commons: Supporting the Fuzzy Front End of Scientific Research with Emerging Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, D. D.; Gandara, A.; Gris, I.

    2012-12-01

    The Virtual Learning Commons (VLC), funded by the National Science Foundation Office of Cyberinfrastructure CI-Team Program, is a combination of Semantic Web, mash up, and social networking tools that supports knowledge sharing and innovation across scientific disciplines in research and education communities and networks. The explosion of scientific resources (data, models, algorithms, tools, and cyberinfrastructure) challenges the ability of researchers to be aware of resources that might benefit them. Even when aware, it can be difficult to understand enough about those resources to become potential adopters or re-users. Often scientific data and emerging technologies have little documentation, especially about the context of their use. The VLC tackles this challenge by providing mechanisms for individuals and groups of researchers to organize Web resources into virtual collections, and engage each other around those collections in order to a) learn about potentially relevant resources that are available; b) design research that leverages those resources; and c) develop initial work plans. The VLC aims to support the "fuzzy front end" of innovation, where novel ideas emerge and there is the greatest potential for impact on research design. It is during the fuzzy front end that conceptual collisions across disciplines and exposure to diverse perspectives provide opportunity for creative thinking that can lead to inventive outcomes. The VLC integrates Semantic Web functionality for structuring distributed information, mash up functionality for retrieving and displaying information, and social media for discussing/rating information. We are working to provide three views of information that support researchers in different ways: 1. Innovation Marketplace: supports users as they try to understand what research is being conducted, who is conducting it, where they are located, and who they collaborate with; 2. Conceptual Mapper: supports users as they organize their

  17. NEW INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR FORMATION OF COMMON INFORMATION SPACE IN STUDIES OF GRAPHS THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V. Avilkina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An approach to introduction in educational process of the new educational technologies, which is a symbiosis of information technologies, modern multimedia means and author's technical and methodical development is offered in the article. The efficiency analysis of its introduction is carried out. The main ways of development and transformation of such educational technology in the e-learning environment are formulated.

  18. CLIpSAT for Interplanetary Missions: Common Low-cost Interplanetary Spacecraft with Autonomy Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, C.

    2015-10-01

    Blue Sun Enterprises, Inc. is creating a common deep space bus capable of a wide variety of Mars, asteroid, and comet science missions, observational missions in and near GEO, and interplanetary delivery missions. The spacecraft are modular and highly autonomous, featuring a common core and optional expansion for variable-sized science or commercial payloads. Initial spacecraft designs are targeted for Mars atmospheric science, a Phobos sample return mission, geosynchronous reconnaissance, and en-masse delivery of payloads using packetized propulsion modules. By combining design, build, and operations processes for these missions, the cost and effort for creating the bus is shared across a variety of initial missions, reducing overall costs. A CLIpSAT can be delivered to different orbits and still be able to reach interplanetary targets like Mars due to up to 14.5 km/sec of delta-V provided by its high-ISP Xenon ion thruster(s). A 6U version of the spacecraft form fits PPOD-standard deployment systems, with up to 9 km/s of delta-V. A larger 12-U (with the addition of an expansion module) enables higher overall delta-V, and has the ability to jettison the expansion module and return to the Earth-Moon system from Mars orbit with the main spacecraft. CLIpSAT utilizes radiation-hardened electronics and RF equipment, 140+ We of power at earth (60 We at Mars), a compact navigation camera that doubles as a science imager, and communications of 2000 bps from Mars to the DSN via X-band. This bus could form the cornerstone of a large number asteroid survey projects, comet intercept missions, and planetary observation missions. The TugBot architecture uses groups of CLIpSATs attached to payloads lacking innate high-delta-V propulsion. The TugBots use coordinated trajectory following by each individual spacecraft to move the payload to the desired orbit - for example, a defense asset might be moved from GEO to lunar transfer orbit in order to protect and hide it, then returned

  19. Mast cell proteases as pharmacological targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caughey, George H

    2016-05-05

    Mast cells are rich in proteases, which are the major proteins of intracellular granules and are released with histamine and heparin by activated cells. Most of these proteases are active in the granule as well as outside of the mast cell when secreted, and can cleave targets near degranulating mast cells and in adjoining tissue compartments. Some proteases released from mast cells reach the bloodstream and may have far-reaching actions. In terms of relative amounts, the major mast cell proteases include the tryptases, chymases, cathepsin G, carboxypeptidase A3, dipeptidylpeptidase I/cathepsin C, and cathepsins L and S. Some mast cells also produce granzyme B, plasminogen activators, and matrix metalloproteinases. Tryptases and chymases are almost entirely mast cell-specific, whereas other proteases, such as cathepsins G, C, and L are expressed by a variety of inflammatory cells. Carboxypeptidase A3 expression is a property shared by basophils and mast cells. Other proteases, such as mastins, are largely basophil-specific, although human basophils are protease-deficient compared with their murine counterparts. The major classes of mast cell proteases have been targeted for development of therapeutic inhibitors. Also, a human β-tryptase has been proposed as a potential drug itself, to inactivate of snake venins. Diseases linked to mast cell proteases include allergic diseases, such as asthma, eczema, and anaphylaxis, but also include non-allergic diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, autoimmune arthritis, atherosclerosis, aortic aneurysms, hypertension, myocardial infarction, heart failure, pulmonary hypertension and scarring diseases of lungs and other organs. In some cases, studies performed in mouse models suggest protective or homeostatic roles for specific proteases (or groups of proteases) in infections by bacteria, worms and other parasites, and even in allergic inflammation. At the same time, a clearer picture has emerged of differences in the

  20. Mast cell leukemia: an extremely rare disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dai-Yin; Gau, Jyh-Pyng; Hong, Ying-Chung; Liu, Chun-Yu; Yu, Yuan-Bin; Hsiao, Liang-Tsai; Liu, Jin-Hwang; Chen, Po-Min; Chiou, Tzeon-Jye; Tzeng, Cheng-Hwai

    2014-08-01

    Systemic mastocytosis is characterized by pathologic proliferation and accumulation of mast cells in at least one extracutaneous organ such as liver, spleen, bone marrow, or lymph nodes. The clinical features are highly variable depending on impairment of the involved organ systems. It often raises diagnostic challenges. Here we report a case of a 78-year-old patient with mast cell leukemia. The literature is reviewed regarding the diagnosis and updated management of this rare disease.

  1. Mast Cell-Mediated Mechanisms of Nociception

    OpenAIRE

    Anupam Aich; Afrin, Lawrence B.; Kalpna Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Mast cells are tissue-resident immune cells that release immuno-modulators, chemo-attractants, vasoactive compounds, neuropeptides and growth factors in response to allergens and pathogens constituting a first line of host defense. The neuroimmune interface of immune cells modulating synaptic responses has been of increasing interest, and mast cells have been proposed as key players in orchestrating inflammation-associated pain pathobiology due to their proximity to both vasculature and nerve...

  2. The response of common building construction technologies to the urban poor and their environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wekesa, BW

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available of the technologies are not responsive in the regional context. That is, the technologies cannot provide a good quality dwelling unit and at the same time address the socio-economic needs of the urban poor while minimising the negative impact on the environment....

  3. Overview of physics results from MAST towards ITER/DEMO and the MAST Upgrade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, H.; Abel, I.G.; Akers, R.J.

    2013-01-01

    New diagnostic, modelling and plant capability on the Mega Ampère Spherical Tokamak (MAST) have delivered important results in key areas for ITER/DEMO and the upcoming MAST Upgrade, a step towards future ST devices on the path to fusion currently under procurement. Micro-stability analysis of the...

  4. Overview of physics results from MAST towards ITER/DEMO and the MAST Upgrade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, H.; Abel, I. G.; Akers, R. J.; Allan, A.; Allan, S. Y.; Appel, L. C.; Asunta, O.; Barnes, M.; Barratt, N. C.; N. Ben Ayed,; Bradley, J. W.; Canik, J.; Cahyna, P.; Cecconello, M.; Challis, C. D.; Chapman, I.T.; Ciric, D.; Colyer, G.; Conway, N. J.; Cox, M.; Crowley, B. J.; Cowley, S. C.; Cunningham, G.; Danilov, A.; Darke, A.; de Bock, M. F. M.; De Temmerman, G.; Dendy, R. O.; Denner, P.; Dickinson, D.; Dnestrovskij, A. Y.; Dnestrovsky, Y.; Driscoll, M. D.; Dudson, B.; Dunai, D.; Dunstan, M.; Dura, P.; Elmore, S.; Field, A. R.; Fishpool, G.; Freethy, S.; Fundamenski, W.; Garzotti, L.; Ghim, Y. C.; Gibson, K. J.; Gryaznevich, M. P.; Harrison, J.; E. Havlíčková,; Hawkes, N. C.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Hender, T. C.; Highcock, E.; Higgins, D.; Hill, P.; Hnat, B.; Hole, M. J.; J. Horáček,; Howell, D. F.; Imada, K.; Jones, O.; Kaveeva, E.; Keeling, D.; Kirk, A.; M. Kočan,; Lake, R. J.; Lehnen, M.; Leggate, H. J.; Liang, Y.; Lilley, M. K.; Lisgo, S. W.; Liu, Y. Q.; Lloyd, B.; Maddison, G. P.; Mailloux, J.; Martin, R.; McArdle, G. J.; McClements, K. G.; McMillan, B.; Michael, C.; Militello, F.; Molchanov, P.; Mordijck, S.; Morgan, T.; Morris, A. W.; Muir, D. G.; Nardon, E.; Naulin, V.; Naylor, G.; Nielsen, A. H.; O' Brien, M. R.; O' Gorman, T.; Pamela, S.; Parra, F. I.; Patel, A.; Pinches, S. D.; Price, M. N.; Roach, C. M.; Robinson, J. R.; Romanelli, M.; Rozhansky, V.; Saarelma, S.; Sangaroon, S.; Saveliev, A.; Scannell, R.; Seidl, J.; Sharapov, S. E.; Schekochihin, A. A.; Shevchenko, V.; Shibaev, S.; Stork, D.; Storrs, J.; Sykes, A.; Tallents, G. J.; Tamain, P.; Taylor, D.; Temple, D.; Thomas-Davies, N.; Thornton, A.; Turnyanskiy, M. R.; M. Valovič,; Vann, R. G. L.; Verwichte, E.; Voskoboynikov, P.; Voss, G.; Warder, S. E. V.; Wilson, H. R.; Wodniak, I.; Zoletnik, S.; Zagorski, R.; MAST Team,; NBI Team,

    2013-01-01

    New diagnostic, modelling and plant capability on the Mega Ampère Spherical Tokamak (MAST) have delivered important results in key areas for ITER/DEMO and the upcoming MAST Upgrade, a step towards future ST devices on the path to fusion currently under procurement. Micro-stability analysis of the pe

  5. Presence and quantification of mast cells in the gingiva of cats with tooth resorption, periodontitis and chronic stomatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzi, Boaz; Murphy, Brian; Cox, Darren P; Vapniarsky, Natalia; Kass, Philip H; Verstraete, Frank J M

    2010-02-01

    Mast cells are tissue-dwelling granule-containing immune cells that play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of inflammation and other processes. The three most common orodental disorders in cats are periodontitis, feline resorptive lesions (FRL), and chronic gingivostomatitis (FCGS). The presence and density of mast cells in the gingiva has been established in healthy cats but not in cats affected by FRL, FCGS or periodontitis. The aim of the present study was to document and quantify the presence of mast cells in the gingiva adjacent to teeth affected by FRL, FCGS or chronic periodontitis. Samples from the gingiva of 32 cats affected by FRL, FCGS or periodontitis were obtained and compared to samples obtained from 7 specific pathogen-free (SPF) cats. Evaluation of mast cells and the inflammatory infiltrate were performed on hematoxylin and eosin, and toluidine blue stained sections. Mast cells densities were significantly increased in gingival tissues adjacent to teeth affected by FRL, FCGS or periodontitis in comparison to SPF samples. There were no significant differences between gingival tissues of the FRL, FCGS and periodontitis groups. However, the relative inflammatory score in the FRL group was significantly lower as compared to the FCGS or periodontitis groups, yet with similar density of mast cells. In the gingiva of cats affected with FRL, FCGS or periodontitis, there is an increase in the number of mast cells. The high number of mast cells in the FRL group and concurrent mild inflammatory reaction suggests the notion that mast cells may potentially play role in the pathogenesis of FRL. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. What Do 2nd and 10th Graders Have in Common? Worms and Technology: Using Technology to Collaborate across Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culver, Patti; Culbert, Angie; McEntyre, Judy; Clifton, Patrick; Herring, Donna F.; Notar, Charles E.

    2009-01-01

    The article is about the collaboration between two classrooms that enabled a second grade class to participate in a high school biology class. Through the use of modern video conferencing equipment, Mrs. Culbert, with the help of the Dalton State College Educational Technology Training Center (ETTC), set up a live, two way video and audio feed of…

  7. Mast cell adenosine receptors function: a focus on the A3 adenosine receptor and inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noam eRudich

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Adenosine is a metabolite, which has long been implicated in a variety of inflammatory processes. Inhaled adenosine provokes bronchoconstriction in asthmatics or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients, but not in non-asthmatics. This hyper responsiveness to adenosine appears to be mediated by mast cell activation. These observations have marked the receptor that mediates the bronchoconstrictor effect of adenosine on mast cells, as an attractive drug candidate. Four subtypes (A1, A2a, A2b and A3 of adenosine receptors have been cloned and shown to display distinct tissue distributions and functions. Animal models have firmly established the ultimate role of the A3 adenosine receptor (A3R in mediating hyper responsiveness to adenosine in mast cells, although the influence of the A2b adenosine receptor was confirmed as well. In contrast, studies of the A3R in humans have been controversial. In this review, we summarize data on the role of different adenosine receptors in mast cell regulation of inflammation and pathology, with a focus on the common and distinct functions of the A3R in rodent and human mast cells. The relevance of mouse studies to the human is discussed.

  8. Curbing Inflammation in Multiple Sclerosis and Endometriosis: Should Mast Cells Be Targeted?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Hart

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory diseases and conditions can arise due to responses to a variety of external and internal stimuli. They can occur acutely in response to some stimuli and then become chronic leading to tissue damage and loss of function. While a number of cell types can be involved, mast cells are often present and can be involved in the acute and chronic processes. Recent studies in porcine and rabbit models have supported the concept of a central role for mast cells in a “nerve-mast cell-myofibroblast axis” in some inflammatory processes leading to fibrogenic outcomes. The current review is focused on the potential of extending aspects of this paradigm into treatments for multiple sclerosis and endometriosis, diseases not usually thought of as having common features, but both are reported to have activation of mast cells involved in their respective disease processes. Based on the discussion, it is proposed that targeting mast cells in these diseases, particularly the early phases, may be a fruitful avenue to control the recurring inflammatory exacerbations of the conditions.

  9. [Disodium cromoglycate--mast cell degranulation blocker in the process of tissue remodelation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxová, H; Vasilková, M; Tkaczyk, J; Vízek, M

    2010-01-01

    Disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) is a compound commonly used in the treatment of allergic diseases. The effect of DSCG is due to its ability to stabilize the mast cell membrane and to prevent release of histamine and inflammatory mediators. Mast cells are also an abundant source of tissue metalloproteinases, serine proteases and growth factors, which play an important role in the processes of the tissue remodeling. In this view the DSCG is a substance which allows us to study the mechanisms of the pulmonary vascular bed remodeling in the experimental animals exposed to chronic hypoxia and in a phase of the recovery from hypoxia.

  10. Computed tomography evaluation of mast cell tumours; Avaliacao por tomografia computadorizada dos mastocitomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorigados, Carla Aparecida Batista; Matera, Julia Maria; Macedo, Thais; Pinto, Ana Carolina Brandao Fonseca, E-mail: clorigados@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia. Dept. de Cirurgia

    2012-07-01

    The mast cell tumours are common tumours of the canine skin. Computed tomography (CT) has assumed an important role in tumours evaluation and staging. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of CT as a method of assessing characteristics of mast cell tumors. Ten dogs with mast cell tumor were evaluated. CT was performed before and after the intravenous injection of hydro soluble ionic iodine. Attenuation, contrast enhancement, cleavage with adjacent tissues and the unidimensional measurement of each lesion was determined in it maximum diameter, in transversal plane. Concerning the attenuation characteristic, 50% were homogeneous and 50% heterogeneous. The contrast enhancement was homogeneous in 50% of cases, heterogeneous in 40% and peripheral in 10%. Fifty percent of the tumours showed loss of plane of cleavage and 30% partial loss. This information can help in directing the patients that will be undergoing chemotherapy or surgery. (author)

  11. Do mast cells link obesity and asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sismanopoulos, N; Delivanis, D-A; Mavrommati, D; Hatziagelaki, E; Conti, P; Theoharides, T C

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the lungs. Both the number of cases and severity of asthma have been increasing without a clear explanation. Recent evidence suggests that obesity, which has also been increasing alarmingly, may worsen or precipitate asthma, but there is little evidence of how obesity may contribute to lung inflammation. We propose that mast cells are involved in both asthma and obesity by being the target and source of adipocytokines, 'alarmins' such as interleukin-9 (IL-9) and interleukin-33 (IL-33), and stress molecules including corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and neurotensin (NT), secreted in response to the metabolic burden. In particular, CRH and NT have synergistic effects on mast cell secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). IL-33 augments VEGF release induced by substance P (SP) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) release induced by NT. Both IL-9 and IL-33 also promote lung mast cell infiltration and augment allergic inflammation. These molecules are also expressed in human mast cells leading to autocrine effects. Obese patients are also less sensitive to glucocorticoids and bronchodilators. Development of effective mast cell inhibitors may be a novel approach for the management of both asthma and obesity. Certain flavonoid combinations may be a promising new treatment approach.

  12. Nerve growth factor interactions with mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritas, S K; Caraffa, A; Antinolfi, P; Saggini, A; Pantalone, A; Rosati, M; Tei, M; Speziali, A; Saggini, R; Pandolfi, F; Cerulli, G; Conti, P

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptides are involved in neurogenic inflammation where there is vasodilation and plasma protein extravasion in response to this stimulus. Nerve growth factor (NGF), identified by Rita Levi Montalcini, is a neurotrophin family compound which is important for survival of nociceptive neurons during their development. Therefore, NGF is an important neuropeptide which mediates the development and functions of the central and peripheral nervous system. It also exerts its proinflammatory action, not only on mast cells but also in B and T cells, neutrophils and eosinophils. Human mast cells can be activated by neuropeptides to release potent mediators of inflammation, and they are found throughout the body, especially near blood vessels, epithelial tissue and nerves. Mast cells generate and release NGF after degranulation and they are involved in iperalgesia, neuroimmune interactions and tissue inflammation. NGF is also a potent degranulation factor for mast cells in vitro and in vivo, promoting differentiation and maturation of these cells and their precursor, acting as a co-factor with interleukin-3. In conclusion, these studies are focused on cross-talk between neuropeptide NGF and inflammatory mast cells.

  13. Mast cell density in cardio-esophageal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahjoub, Fatemeh E; Asefi, Hoda; Farahmand, Fatemeh; Pourpak, Zahra; Amini, Zahra

    2014-12-01

    Mast cells are related to certain gastrointestinal complaints. Mast cell density has not been studied in cardio-esophageal region to the best of our knowledge. In this study we wanted to obtain an estimate of mast cell density in this region and compare it with mast cell density in antrum. From April 2007 till March 2010, we chose children (mast cell density in the cardiac mucosa was 33.41 ± 32.75 in 0.25 mm2 (range: 0-155), which was two times of that in antral mucosa. We found a significant but weak positive correlation at the 0.05 level between mast cell density of cardiac mucosa and the antrum. Higher mast cell counts were seen in cardiac mucosa in this study. Significant positive correlation between mast cell density of cardiac mucosa and the antrum could hint to a single underlying etiology for the inflammatory process in gastro- esophageal junction and gastric mucosa.

  14. The emerging role of mast cells in liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarido, Veronica; Kennedy, Lindsey; Hargrove, Laura; Demieville, Jennifer; Thomson, Joanne; Stephenson, Kristen; Francis, Heather

    2017-08-01

    The depth of our knowledge regarding mast cells has widened exponentially in the last 20 years. Once thought to be only important for allergy-mediated events, mast cells are now recognized to be important regulators of a number of pathological processes. The revelation that mast cells can influence organs, tissues, and cells has increased interest in mast cell research during liver disease. The purpose of this review is to refresh the reader's knowledge of the development, type, and location of mast cells and to review recent work that demonstrates the role of hepatic mast cells during diseased states. This review focuses primarily on liver diseases and mast cells during autoimmune disease, hepatitis, fatty liver disease, liver cancer, and aging in the liver. Overall, these studies demonstrate the potential role of mast cells in disease progression.

  15. Quantification and Localization of Mast Cells in Periapical Lesions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of the potential range of mast cell function and interactions in ... possible role played by mast cells in the periapical granuloma and radicular cyst. Hence, this study is to ... and processed by Statistical Package for Social Sciences,. Windows 7 ...

  16. Cultured mast cells from asthmatic patients and controls respond with similar sensitivity to recombinant Der P2 induced, IgE-mediated activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krohn, Inge Jacoba Maria Kortekaas; Sverrild, Asger; Lund, Gitte;

    2013-01-01

    The function of cultured mast cells may depend on genetic or environmental influence on the stem cell donor. This study investigates whether asthma or atopy in the donor influenced the growth and sensitivity of mast cells cultured from patients with asthma and healthy controls under identical...... conditions. Mast cells were cultured from peripheral blood from twelve patients with an objectively confirmed asthma diagnosis and eight healthy subjects. During the last 2 weeks of culture, mast cells were incubated with IL-4 and 80 kU/l recombinant human IgE containing two clones (7% + 7%) specific...... for mite allergen Der p2. The sensitivity of IgE-mediated activation of mast cells was investigated as FcεRI-mediated upregulation of CD63. Ten subjects were atopic, defined as a positive skin prick test (>3 mm) to at least one of ten common allergens. After activation with recombinant Der p2, the maximum...

  17. Pancreatic and pulmonary mast cells activation during experimental acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Inmaculada; Lopez-Font; Sabrina; Gea-Sorlí; Enrique; de-Madaria; Luis; M; Gutiérrez; Miguel; Pérez-Mateo; Daniel; Closa

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To study the activation of pancreatic and pulmonary mast cells and the effect of mast cell inhibition on the activation of peritoneal and alveolar macrophages during acute pancreatitis.METHODS:Pancreatitis was induced by intraductal infusion of 5% sodium taurodeoxycholate in rats.The mast cell inhibitor cromolyn was administered intraperitoneally(i.p.) 30 min before pancreatitis induction.The pancreatic and pulmonary tissue damage was evaluated histologically and mast cells and their state of activation...

  18. Rethinking Common Assumptions about Adolescents' Motivation to Use Technology in and out of School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Gloria E.

    2013-01-01

    Research on youth use of multiliteracies and multimodal texts often imply that youth are inherently motivated by digital technologies. In this column, I consider the nature of research into motivation and multiliteracies. I suggest that the concepts of competence, autonomy, and relatedness should be integrated with a multilayered contextual…

  19. Rethinking Common Assumptions about Adolescents' Motivation to Use Technology in and out of School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Gloria E.

    2013-01-01

    Research on youth use of multiliteracies and multimodal texts often imply that youth are inherently motivated by digital technologies. In this column, I consider the nature of research into motivation and multiliteracies. I suggest that the concepts of competence, autonomy, and relatedness should be integrated with a multilayered contextual…

  20. New technologies in the paving process need to be based on "common practice" and operators' heuristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huerne, ter Henny; Miller, Seirgei; Dorée, André

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes an initiative that aims to integrate process mod-eling with the tacit knowledge of site personnel in order to accelerate profes-sionalism and widen the application of technology in the asphalt paving proc-ess. A preparatory study was conducted to gain insight into operational st

  1. Mast Cell-Mediated Mechanisms of Nociception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aich, Anupam; Afrin, Lawrence B; Gupta, Kalpna

    2015-12-04

    Mast cells are tissue-resident immune cells that release immuno-modulators, chemo-attractants, vasoactive compounds, neuropeptides and growth factors in response to allergens and pathogens constituting a first line of host defense. The neuroimmune interface of immune cells modulating synaptic responses has been of increasing interest, and mast cells have been proposed as key players in orchestrating inflammation-associated pain pathobiology due to their proximity to both vasculature and nerve fibers. Molecular underpinnings of mast cell-mediated pain can be disease-specific. Understanding such mechanisms is critical for developing disease-specific targeted therapeutics to improve analgesic outcomes. We review molecular mechanisms that may contribute to nociception in a disease-specific manner.

  2. Mast cells mediate neutrophil recruitment during atherosclerotic plaque progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wezel, Anouk; Lagraauw, H Maxime; van der Velden, Daniël; de Jager, Saskia C A; Quax, Paul H A; Kuiper, Johan; Bot, Ilze

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: Activated mast cells have been identified in the intima and perivascular tissue of human atherosclerotic plaques. As mast cells have been described to release a number of chemokines that mediate leukocyte fluxes, we propose that activated mast cells may play a pivotal role in leukocyte recruit

  3. Pavlovian Conditioning of Rat Mucosal Mast Cells to Secrete Rat Mast Cell Protease II

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacQueen, Glenda; Marshall, Jean; Perdue, Mary; Siegel, Shepard; Bienenstock, John

    1989-01-01

    Antigen (egg albumin) injections, which stimulate mucosal mast cells to secrete mediators, were paired with an audiovisual cue. After reexposure to the audiovisual cue, a mediator (rat mast cell protease II) was measured with a sensitive and specific assay. Animals reexposed to only the audiovisual cue released a quantity of protease not significantly different from animals reexposed to both the cue and the antigen; these groups released significantly more protease than animals that had received the cue and antigen in a noncontingent manner. The results support a role for the central nervous system as a functional effector of mast cell function in the allergic state.

  4. Research Commentary: Educational Technology--An Equity Challenge to the Common Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, Richard; Berk, Sarabeth

    2016-01-01

    The implementation of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (National Governors Association Center for Best Practices & Council of Chief State School Officers, 2010) has the potential to move forward key features of standards-based reforms in mathematics that have been promoted in the United States for more than 2 decades (e.g.,…

  5. Extendable retractable telescopic mast for deployable structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, M.; Aguirre, M.

    1986-01-01

    The Extendable and Retractable Mast (ERM) which is presently developed by Dornier in the frame of an ESA-contract, will be used to deploy and retract large foldable structures. The design is based on a telescopic carbon-fiber structure with high stiffness, strength and pointing accuracy. To verify the chosen design, a breadboard model of an ERM was built and tested under thermal vacuum (TV)-conditions. It is planned as a follow-on development to manufacture and test an Engineering Model Mast. The Engineering Model will be used to establish the basis for an ERM-family covering a wide range of requirements.

  6. Arrangement on the Recognition of Common Criteria Certificates In the Field of Information Technology Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-05-01

    Security Establishment from Canada and Ministry of Finance from Finland and Service Central de la Sécurité des Systèmes d’Information from France and...39 HQ Defence Command Norway/Security Division from Norway and Ministerio de Administraciones Públicas from Spain and Communications-Electronics...Canadian Common Criteria Evaluation and Certification Scheme sponsored by Communications Security Establishment, from Canada Schema d’Evaluation et

  7. Regulation of the Il4 gene is independently controlled by proximal and distal 3' enhancers in mast cells and basophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Ryouji; Tanaka, Shinya; Motomura, Yasutaka; Kubo, Masato

    2007-12-01

    Mast cells and basophils are known to be a critical interleukin 4 (IL-4) source for establishing Th2 protective responses to parasitic infections. Chromatin structure and histone modification patterns in the Il13/Il4 locus of mast cells were similar to those of IL-4-producing type 2 helper T cells. However, using a transgenic approach, we found that Il4 gene expression was distinctly regulated by individual cis regulatory elements in cell types of different lineages. The distal 3' element contained conserved noncoding sequence 2 (CNS-2), which was a common enhancer for memory phenotype T cells, NKT cells, mast cells, and basophils. Targeted deletion of CNS-2 compromised production of IL-4 and several Th2 cytokines in connective-tissue-type and immature-type mast cells but not in basophils. Interestingly, the proximal 3' element containing DNase I-hypersensitive site 4 (HS4), which controls Il4 gene silencing in T-lineage cells, exhibited selective enhancer activity in basophils. These results indicate that CNS-2 is an essential enhancer for Il4 gene transcription in mast cell but not in basophils. The transcription of the Il4 gene in mast cells and basophils is independently regulated by CNS-2 and HS4 elements that may be critical for lineage-specific Il4 gene regulation in these cell types.

  8. Using Common Sense to Effectively Integrate Security Technologies within a School's Security Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gree, M.W.

    1998-11-03

    Security technologies are not the answer to all school security problems. However, they can be an excellent tool for school administrators and security personnel when incorporated into a total security strategy involving personnel, procedures, and facility layout. Unfortunately, very few of the tougher security problems in schools have solutions that are affordable, effective, and acceptable. Like any other type of facility, a school's security staff must understand the strengths and limitations of the security measures they are c

  9. Relating increasing hantavirus incidences to the changing climate: the mast connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maes Piet

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nephropathia epidemica (NE, an emerging rodent-borne viral disease, has become the most important cause of infectious acute renal failure in Belgium, with sharp increases in incidence occurring for more than a decade. Bank voles are the rodent reservoir of the responsible hantavirus and are known to display cyclic population peaks. We tried to relate these peaks to the cyclic NE outbreaks observed since 1993. Our hypothesis was that the ecological causal connection was the staple food source for voles, being seeds of deciduous broad-leaf trees, commonly called "mast". We also examined whether past temperature and precipitation preceding "mast years" were statistically linked to these NE outbreaks. Results Since 1993, each NE peak is immediately preceded by a mast year, resulting in significantly higher NE case numbers during these peaks (Spearman R = -0.82; P = 0.034. NE peaks are significantly related to warmer autumns the year before (R = 0.51; P Conclusion NE peaks in year 0 are induced by abundant mast formation in year-1, facilitating bank vole survival during winter, thus putting the local human population at risk from the spring onwards of year 0. This bank vole survival is further promoted by higher autumn temperatures in year-1, whereas mast formation itself is primed by higher summer temperatures in year-2. Both summer and autumn temperatures have been rising to significantly higher levels during recent years, explaining the virtually continuous epidemic state since 2005 of a zoonosis, considered rare until recently. Moreover, in 2007 a NE peak and an abundant mast formation occurred for the first time within the same year, thus forecasting yet another record NE incidence for 2008. We therefore predict that with the anticipated climate changes due to global warming, NE might become a highly endemic disease in Belgium and surrounding countries.

  10. Mast Cell: A Multi-Functional Master Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krystel-Whittemore, Melissa; Dileepan, Kottarappat N; Wood, John G

    2015-01-01

    Mast cells are immune cells of the myeloid lineage and are present in connective tissues throughout the body. The activation and degranulation of mast cells significantly modulates many aspects of physiological and pathological conditions in various settings. With respect to normal physiological functions, mast cells are known to regulate vasodilation, vascular homeostasis, innate and adaptive immune responses, angiogenesis, and venom detoxification. On the other hand, mast cells have also been implicated in the pathophysiology of many diseases, including allergy, asthma, anaphylaxis, gastrointestinal disorders, many types of malignancies, and cardiovascular diseases. This review summarizes the current understanding of the role of mast cells in many pathophysiological conditions.

  11. Mast cells are critical for protection against peptic ulcers induced by the NSAID piroxicam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel D Hampton

    Full Text Available Many commonly used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs also cause gastrointestinal toxicity, including the development of life-threatening peptic ulcers. We report that mast cell-deficient mice have an extremely high incidence of severe peptic ulceration when exposed to the NSAID piroxicam. This enhanced ulcer susceptibility can be reversed by reconstitution with mast cells. Furthermore, wild type mice treated with diphenhydramine hydrochloride, a commonly used antihistamine that blocks histamine H1 receptors, develop a similarly high incidence of peptic ulcers following piroxicam exposure. The protective effect of mast cells is independent of TNF, blockade of H2 receptors, or acid secretion. These data indicate a critical role for mast cells and the histamine that they produce in prevention and/or repair of piroxicam-induced gastric mucosal injury. Additional studies will be required to determine whether this represents a NSAID class effect that can be exploited to develop novel therapeutic strategies to limit the incidence of NSAID-induced side effects in humans.

  12. Applying high-resolution melting (HRM) technology to identify five commonly used Artemisia species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ming; Li, Jingjian; Xiong, Chao; Liu, Hexia; Liang, Junsong

    2016-01-01

    Many members of the genus Artemisia are important for medicinal purposes with multiple pharmacological properties. Often, these herbal plants sold on the markets are in processed forms so it is difficult to authenticate. Routine testing and identification of these herbal materials should be performed to ensure that the raw materials used in pharmaceutical products are suitable for their intended use. In this study, five commonly used Artemisia species included Artemisia argyi, Artemisia annua, Artemisia lavandulaefolia, Artemisia indica, and Artemisia atrovirens were analyzed using high resolution melting (HRM) analysis based on the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) sequences. The melting profiles of the ITS2 amplicons of the five closely related herbal species are clearly separated so that they can be differentiated by HRM method. The method was further applied to authenticate commercial products in powdered. HRM curves of all the commercial samples tested are similar to the botanical species as labeled. These congeneric medicinal products were also clearly separated using the neighbor-joining (NJ) tree. Therefore, HRM method could provide an efficient and reliable authentication system to distinguish these commonly used Artemisia herbal products on the markets and offer a technical reference for medicines quality control in the drug supply chain. PMID:27698485

  13. 30 CFR 57.7004 - Drill mast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drill mast. 57.7004 Section 57.7004 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet...

  14. 30 CFR 56.7004 - Drill mast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drill mast. 56.7004 Section 56.7004 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet...

  15. Vibrational Based Inspection Of A Steel Mast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Rytter, A.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the results from a research project concerning vibrational based inspection of a 20 meter high steel mast containing well defined damages. Introductory analyses dealing with among other things evaluation of potential damage indicators and determination...

  16. iMAST FY2007 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Laser fabrication , in the form of laser cutting and laser beam welding, offers tremendous opportunity for reducing cost of highly-engineered...laser stir welding process during fabrication and the finished panel is shown here. Laser Fabrication of Advanced Structures 22 iMAST FY2006 Annual

  17. Overview of physics results from MAST

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lloyd, B.; Akers, R. J.; Alladio, F.; Allan, S.; Appel, L. C.; Barnes, M.; Barratt, N. C.; N. Ben Ayed,; Breizman, B. N.; Cecconello, M.; Challis, C. D.; Chapman, I.T.; Ciric, D.; Colyer, G.; Connor, J. W.; Conway, N. J.; Cox, M.; Cowley, S. C.; Cunningham, G.; Darke, A.; De Bock, M.; Delchambre, E.; De Temmerman, G.; Dendy, R. O.; Denner, P.; Driscoll, M. D.; Dudson, B.; Dunai, D.; Dunstan, M.; Elmore, S.; Field, A. R.; Fishpool, G.; Freethy, S.; Garzotti, L.; Gibson, K. J.; Gryaznevich, M. P.; Guttenfelder, W.; Harrison, J.; Hastie, R. J.; Hawkes, N. C.; Hender, T. C.; Hnat, B.; Howell, D. F.; Hua, M. D.; Hubbard, A.; Huysmans, G.; Keeling, D.; Kim, Y. C.; Kirk, A.; Liang, Y.; Lilley, M. K.; Lisak, M.; Lisgo, S.; Liu, Y. Q.; Maddison, G. P.; Maingi, R.; Manhood, S. J.; Martin, R.; McArdle, G. J.; McCone, J.; Meyer, H.; Michael, C.; Mordijck, S.; Morgan, T.; Morris, A. W.; Muir, D. G.; Nardon, E.; Naylor, G.; O' Brien, M. R.; O' Gorman, T.; Palenik, J.; Patel, A.; Pinches, S. D.; Price, M. N.; Roach, C. M.; Rozhansky, V.; Saarelma, S.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Saveliev, A.; Scannell, R.; Sharapov, S. E.; Shevchenko, V.; Shibaev, S.; Stork, D.; Storrs, J.; Suttrop, W.; Sykes, A.; Tamain, P.; Taylor, D.; Temple, D.; Thomas-Davies, N.; Thornton, A.; Turnyanskiy, M. R.; Valovic, M.; Vann, R. G. L.; Voss, G.; Walsh, M. J.; Warder, S. E. V.; Wilson, H. R.; Windridge, M.; Wisse, M.; Zoletnik, S.

    2011-01-01

    Major developments on the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST) have enabled important advances in support of ITER and the physics basis of a spherical tokamak (ST) based component test facility (CTF), as well as providing new insight into underlying tokamak physics. For example, L-H transition studies

  18. Overview of recent physics results from MAST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirk, A.; Adamek, J.; Akers, R.J.

    2017-01-01

    New results from MAST are presented that focus on validating models in order to extrapolate to future devices. Measurements during start-up experiments have shown how the bulk ion temperature rise scales with the square of the reconnecting field. During the current ramp-up, models are not able to...

  19. The role of Lin28b in myeloid and mast cell differentiation and mast cell malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L D; Rao, T N; Rowe, R G; Nguyen, P T; Sullivan, J L; Pearson, D S; Doulatov, S; Wu, L; Lindsley, R C; Zhu, H; DeAngelo, D J; Daley, G Q; Wagers, A J

    2015-06-01

    Mast cells (MCs) are critical components of the innate immune system and important for host defense, allergy, autoimmunity, tissue regeneration and tumor progression. Dysregulated MC development leads to systemic mastocytosis (SM), a clinically variable but often devastating family of hematologic disorders. Here we report that induced expression of Lin28, a heterochronic gene and pluripotency factor implicated in driving a fetal hematopoietic program, caused MC accumulation in adult mice in target organs such as the skin and peritoneal cavity. In vitro assays revealed a skewing of myeloid commitment in LIN28B-expressing hematopoietic progenitors, with increased levels of LIN28B in common myeloid and basophil-MC progenitors altering gene expression patterns to favor cell fate choices that enhanced MC specification. In addition, LIN28B-induced MCs appeared phenotypically and functionally immature, and in vitro assays suggested a slowing of MC terminal differentiation in the context of LIN28B upregulation. Finally, interrogation of human MC leukemia samples revealed upregulation of LIN28B in abnormal MCs from patients with SM. This work identifies Lin28 as a novel regulator of innate immune function and a new protein of interest in MC disease.

  20. Mast cell progenitors: origin, development and migration to tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlin, Joakim S; Hallgren, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Mast cells in tissues are developed from mast cell progenitors emerging from the bone marrow in a process highly regulated by transcription factors. Through the advancement of the multicolor flow cytometry technique, the mast cell progenitor population in the mouse has been characterized in terms of surface markers. However, only cell populations with enriched mast cell capability have been described in human. In naïve mice, the peripheral tissues have a constitutive pool of mast cell progenitors. Upon infections in the gut and in allergic inflammation in the lung, the local mast cell progenitor numbers increase tremendously. This review focuses on the origin and development of mast cell progenitors. Furthermore, the evidences for cells and molecules that govern the migration of these cells in mice in vivo are described.

  1. Mechanisms of glyceryl trinitrate provoked mast cell degranulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sara Hougaard; Ramachandran, Roshni; Amrutkar, Dipak Vasantrao;

    2015-01-01

    inflammation and dural mast cell degranulation is supported by the effectiveness of prednisolone on glyceryl trinitrate-induced delayed headache. METHODS: Using a newly developed rat model mimicking the human glyceryl trinitrate headache model, we have investigated the occurrence of dural mast cell...... glyceryl trinitrate-induced mast cell degranulation whereas the calcitonin gene-related peptide-receptor antagonist olcegepant and the substance P receptor antagonist L-733,060 did not affect mast cell degranulation. However, topical application of two different nitric oxide donors did not cause mast cell...... degranulation ex vivo. CONCLUSIONS: Direct application of an exogenous nitric oxide donor on dural mast cells does not cause mast cell degranulation ex vivo. In vivo application of the nitric oxide donor glyceryl trinitrate leads to a prominent level of degranulation via a yet unknown mechanism. This effect can...

  2. P2 receptor-mediated signaling in mast cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulanova, Elena; Bulfone-Paus, Silvia

    2010-03-01

    Mast cells are widely recognized as effector cells of allergic inflammatory reactions. They contribute to the pathogenesis of different chronic inflammatory diseases, wound healing, fibrosis, thrombosis/fibrinolysis, and anti-tumor immune responses. In this paper, we summarized the role of P2X and P2Y receptors in mast cell activation and effector functions. Mast cells are an abundant source of ATP which is stored in their granules and secreted upon activation. We discuss the contribution of mast cells to the extracellular ATP release and to the maintenance of extracellular nucleotides pool. Recent publications highlight the importance of purinergic signaling for the pathogenesis of chronic airway inflammation. Therefore, the role of ATP and P2 receptors in allergic inflammation with focus on mast cells was analyzed. Finally, ATP functions as mast cell autocrine/paracrine factor and as messenger in intercellular communication between mast cells, nerves, and glia in the central nervous system.

  3. Mast cell numbers in normal and glaucomatous canine eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louden, C; Render, J A; Carlton, W W

    1990-05-01

    Numbers of mast cells in the cornea, sclera, choroid, ciliary body, iris, and retina of sections of globes from 35 clinically normal dogs and 34 dogs with secondary glaucoma was determined. Fixed globes were trimmed along a vertical midsagittal plane and embedded in paraffin. Tissue sections, approximately 6 microns thick, were stained with toluidine blue for identification of mast cells. In normal globes, most of the mast cells were observed in the anterior portion of the uvea, and fewer mast cells were seen in the choroid and sclera. Mast cells were not observed in the retina and were seldom observed in the cornea of dogs with or without glaucoma. In sections of glaucomatous globes, mast cells were distributed evenly in the uvea and sclera, and fewer mast cells were present than in normal globes, regardless of the cause of glaucoma.

  4. Mast cell synapses and exosomes: membrane contacts for information exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda eCarroll-Portillo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In addition to their central role in allergy, mast cells are involved in a wide variety of cellular interactions during homeostasis and disease. In this review, we discuss the ability of mast cells to extend their mechanisms for intercellular communication beyond the release of soluble mediators. These include formation of mast cell synapses on antigen presenting surfaces, as well as cell-cell contacts with dendritic cells and T cells. Release of membrane-bound exosomes also provide for the transfer of antigen, mast cell proteins and RNA to other leukocytes. With the recognition of the extended role mast cells have during immune modulation, further investigation of the processes in which mast cells are involved is necessary. This reopens mast cell research to exciting possibilities, demonstrating it to be an immunological frontier.

  5. Detection of the common resistance genes in Gram-negative bacteria using gene chip technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Ting

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To design a resistance gene detection chip that could, in parallel, detect common clinical drug resistance genes of Gram-negative bacteria. Materials and Methods: Seventy clinically significant Gram-negative bacilli (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii were collected. According to the known resistance gene sequences, we designed and synthesized primers and probes, which were used to prepare resistance gene detection chips, and finally we hybridized and scanned the gene detection chips. Results: The results between the gene chip and polymerase chain reaction (PCR were compared. The rate was consistently 100% in the eight kinds of resistance genes tested (TEM, SHV, CTX-M, DHA, CIT, VIM, KPC, OXA-23. One strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa had the IMP, but it was not found by gene chip. Conclusion: The design of Gram-negative bacteria-resistant gene detection chip had better application value.

  6. Are mast cells instrumental for fibrotic diseases?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eOvered-Sayer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is a fatal lung disorder of unknown etiology characterised by accumulation of lung fibroblasts and extracellular matrix deposition, ultimately leading to compromised tissue architecture and lung function capacity. IPF has a heterogeneous clinical course; however the median survival after diagnosis is only 3-5 years. The pharmaceutical and biotechnology industry has made many attempts to find effective treatments for IPF, but the disease has so far defied all attempts at therapeutic intervention. Clinical trial failures may arise for many reasons, including disease heterogeneity, lack of readily measurable clinical end points other than overall survival, and, perhaps most of all, a lack of understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms of the progression of IPF.The precise link between inflammation and fibrosis remains unclear, but it appears that immune cells can promote fibrosis by releasing fibrogenic factors. So far, however, therapeutic approaches targeting macrophages, neutrophils, or lymphocytes have failed to alter disease pathogenesis. A new cell to garner research interest in fibrosis is the mast cell. Increased numbers of mast cells have long been known to be present in pulmonary fibrosis and clinically correlations between mast cells and fibrosis have been reported. More recent data suggests that mast cells may contribute to the fibrotic process by stimulating fibroblasts resident in the lung, thus driving the pathogenesis of the disease. In this review, we will discuss the mast cell and its physiological role in tissue repair and remodelling, as well as its pathological role in fibrotic diseases such as IPF, where the process of tissue repair and remodelling is thought to be dysregulated.

  7. Tongue-operated assistive technology with access to common smartphone applications via Bluetooth link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeonghee; Park, Hangue; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2012-01-01

    Tongue Drive System (TDS) is a wireless and wearable assistive technology (AT) that enables people with severe disabilities to control their computers, wheelchairs, and electronic gadgets using their tongue motion. We developed the TDS to control smartphone's (iPhone/iPod Touch) built-in and downloadable apps with a customized Bluetooth mouse module by emulating finger taps on the touchscreen. The TDS-iPhone Bluetooth mouse interface was evaluated by four able-bodied subjects to complete a scenario consisting of seven tasks, which were randomly ordered by using touch on the iPhone screen with index finger, a computer mouse on iPhone, and TDS-iPhone Bluetooth mouse interface with tongue motion. Preliminary results show that the average completion times of a scenario with touch, mouse, and TDS are 165.6 ± 14.50 s, 186.1 ± 15.37 s, and 651.6 ± 113.4 s, respectively, showing that the TDS is 84.37% and 81.16% slower than touch and mouse for speed of typing with negligible errors. Overall, considering the limited number of commands and unfamiliarity of the subjects with the TDS, we achieved acceptable results for hands-free functionality.

  8. Generation, isolation, and maintenance of human mast cells and mast cell lines derived from peripheral blood or cord blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rådinger, Madeleine; Jensen, Bettina M; Kuehn, Hye Sun;

    2010-01-01

    Antigen-mediated mast cell activation is a pivotal step in the initiation of allergic disorders including anaphylaxis and atopy. To date, studies aimed at investigating the mechanisms regulating these responses, and studies designed to identify potential ways to prevent them, have primarily been...... conducted in rodent mast cells. However, to understand how these responses pertain to human disease, and to investigate and develop novel therapies for the treatment of human mast cell-driven disease, human mast cell models may have greater relevance. Recently, a number of systems have been developed...... to allow investigators to readily obtain sufficient quantities of human mast cells to conduct these studies. These mast cells release the appropriate suite of inflammatory mediators in response to known mast cell activators including antigen. These systems have also been employed to examine the signaling...

  9. e Ciências Afins (MAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Granato

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available MAST is a science and technology museum located on the premises of and within the architectural complex belonging to the former National Observatory of Rio de Janeiro. Soon after the museum was created, the historical heritage existing there – which pertains to a significant period of the history of science in Brazil – was listed by the Brazilian National Heritage Institute (Iphan and the Rio de Janeiro State Cultural Heritage Institute (Inepac in 1986 and 1987, respectively. The listed heritage comprises 16 buildings as well as a collection of scientific instruments and other significant artifacts, including a collection of furniture. Following on from previous interventions on the instruments in the collection and the astronomy domes within the campus, the restoration and rehabilitation of significant parts of the listed heritage under MAST’s responsibility were made possible through a partnership with VITAE Foundation. The project was carried out by a multidisciplinary team and based on historical research into the meridian circle and its shelter over a period of three years. It was accompanied by an exhaustive photographic recording of each stage of the project, including a diagnosis of the instrument is upkeep and its restoration, the rehabilitation of the pavilion, and the replacement of the instrument to its original position, as well as a description of the museum to provide the visitors with information about the restoration work carried out. It should be noted that the restored instrument was at great risk of being lost, as it had been left disassembled since the 1960s, and the top part of the dome that sheltered it had been demolished in the 1980s, leaving just a vestibule and the base of the dome, part of which was in danger of collapsing. The rationale behind this intervention was not to put the instrument back in working order, but to allow it to be viewed and understood by the public within the museum space that was created

  10. Mast Cells Produce a Unique Chondroitin Sulfate Epitope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, Brooke L; Whitelock, John M; O'Grady, Robert; Caterson, Bruce; Lord, Megan S

    2016-02-01

    The granules of mast cells contain a myriad of mediators that are stored and protected by the sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains that decorate proteoglycans. Whereas heparin is the GAG predominantly associated with mast cells, mast cell proteoglycans are also decorated with heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate (CS). This study investigated a unique CS structure produced by mast cells that was detected with the antibody clone 2B6 in the absence of chondroitinase ABC digestion. Mast cells in rodent tissue sections were characterized using toluidine blue, Leder stain and the presence of mast cell tryptase. The novel CS epitope was identified in rodent tissue sections and localized to cells that were morphologically similar to cells chemically identified as mast cells. The rodent mast cell-like line RBL-2H3 was also shown to express the novel CS epitope. This epitope co-localized with multiple CS proteoglycans in both rodent tissue and RBL-2H3 cultured cells. These findings suggest that the novel CS epitope that decorates mast cell proteoglycans may play a role in the way these chains are structured in mast cells.

  11. Sphingosine Kinase-1-Dependent and -Independent Inhibitory Effects of Zanthoxyli Fructus to Attenuate the Activation of Mucosal Mast Cells and Ameliorate Food Allergies in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Food allergy (FA is relatively a common disease in infants, but effective drug therapies are not yet available. Notably, mucosal mast cells, but not connective-tissue mast cells, play important roles in food allergic reactions via the release of inflammatory mediators. Therefore, we screened medicinal herb extracts for in vitro and in vivo antiallergic activity through inhibiting mucosal mast cell activation. As a result, both antigen-induced and calcium ionophore-induced degranulation was significantly inhibited by Zanthoxyli Fructus water extract (ZF in mucosal-type murine bone marrow-derived mast cells (mBMMCs. ZF suppressed the antigen-induced [Ca2+] elevation and the antigen-enhanced mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-4, and IL-13. The transcriptome and real-time PCR analyses revealed that ZF greatly decreased the antigen-enhanced expression level of sphingosine kinase 1 (Sphk1, which plays a key role in the FcεRI-mediated immune responses in mast cells. Furthermore, ZF inhibited allergic symptoms in an ovalbumin-caused murine FA model and decreased the number of infiltrating mucosal mast cells and the enhanced mRNA expression levels of IL-4 and Sphk1 in the FA mice colons. These results indicate that ZF suppresses mucosal mast cell activities mainly through Sphk1-dependent mechanism, and ZF is utilized for the development of a novel, potent anti-FA agent.

  12. Migraine pain, meningeal inflammation, and mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Dan

    2009-06-01

    Migraine pain has been attributed to an episode of local sterile meningeal inflammation and the subsequent activation of trigeminal primary afferent nociceptive neurons that supply the intracranial meninges and their related large blood vessels. However, the origin of this inflammatory insult and the endogenous factors that contribute to the activation of meningeal nociceptors remain largely speculative. A particular class of inflammatory cells residing within the intracranial milieu, known as meningeal mast cells, was suggested to play a role in migraine pathophysiology more than five decades ago, but until recently the exact nature of their involvement remained largely unexplored. This review examines the evidence linking meningeal mast cells to migraine and highlights current experimental data implicating these immune cells as potent modulators of meningeal nociceptors' activity and the genesis of migraine pain.

  13. MAST Propellant and Delivery System Design Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Uzair; Mc Cleskey, Carey M.

    2015-01-01

    A Mars Aerospace Taxi (MAST) concept and propellant storage and delivery case study is undergoing investigation by NASA's Element Design and Architectural Impact (EDAI) design and analysis forum. The MAST lander concept envisions landing with its ascent propellant storage tanks empty and supplying these reusable Mars landers with propellant that is generated and transferred while on the Mars surface. The report provides an overview of the data derived from modeling between different methods of propellant line routing (or "lining") and differentiate the resulting design and operations complexity of fluid and gaseous paths based on a given set of fluid sources and destinations. The EDAI team desires a rough-order-magnitude algorithm for estimating the lining characteristics (i.e., the plumbing mass and complexity) associated different numbers of vehicle propellant sources and destinations. This paper explored the feasibility of preparing a mathematically sound algorithm for this purpose, and offers a method for the EDAI team to implement.

  14. The SNARE machinery in mast cell secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel eLorentz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mast cells are known as inflammatory cells which exert their functions in allergic and anaphylactic reactions by secretion of numerous inflammatory mediators. During an allergic response, the high-affinity IgE receptor, FcεRI, becomes cross-linked by receptor-bound IgE and antigen resulting in immediate release of pre-synthesized mediators – stored in granules – as well as in de novo synthesis of various mediators like cytokines and chemokines. Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-Sensitive Factor (NSF Attachment Protein (SNAP Receptors (SNARE proteins were found to play a central role in regulating membrane fusion events during exocytosis. In addition, several accessory regulators like Munc13, Munc18, Rab GTPases, SCAMPs, complexins or synaptotagmins were found to be involved in membrane fusion. In this review we summarize our current knowledge about the SNARE machinery and its mechanism of action in mast cell secretion.

  15. Generation of mast cells from mouse fetus: analysis of differentiation and functionality, and transcriptome profiling using next generation sequencer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Fukuishi

    Full Text Available While gene knockout technology can reveal the roles of proteins in cellular functions, including in mast cells, fetal death due to gene manipulation frequently interrupts experimental analysis. We generated mast cells from mouse fetal liver (FLMC, and compared the fundamental functions of FLMC with those of bone marrow-derived mouse mast cells (BMMC. Under electron microscopy, numerous small and electron-dense granules were observed in FLMC. In FLMC, the expression levels of a subunit of the FcεRI receptor and degranulation by IgE cross-linking were comparable with BMMC. By flow cytometry we observed surface expression of c-Kit prior to that of FcεRI on FLMC, although on BMMC the expression of c-Kit came after FcεRI. The surface expression levels of Sca-1 and c-Kit, a marker of putative mast cell precursors, were slightly different between bone marrow cells and fetal liver cells, suggesting that differentiation stage or cell type are not necessarily equivalent between both lineages. Moreover, this indicates that phenotypically similar mast cells may not have undergone an identical process of differentiation. By comprehensive analysis using the next generation sequencer, the same frequency of gene expression was observed for 98.6% of all transcripts in both cell types. These results indicate that FLMC could represent a new and useful tool for exploring mast cell differentiation, and may help to elucidate the roles of individual proteins in the function of mast cells where gene manipulation can induce embryonic lethality in the mid to late stages of pregnancy.

  16. Mast Cells in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Guo-Ping; Lindholt, Jes Sanddal

    2013-01-01

    Mast cells (MCs) are proinflammatory cells that play important roles in allergic responses, tumor growth, obesity, diabetes, atherosclerosis, and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Although the presence and function of MCs in atherosclerotic lesions have been thoroughly studied in human specimens...... neighboring cells, degrade extracellular matrix proteins, process latent bioactive molecules, promote angiogenesis, recruit additional inflammatory cells, and stimulate vascular cell apoptosis. These activities associate closely with medial elastica breakdown, medial smooth-muscle cell loss and thinning...

  17. Overview of recent physics results from MAST

    OpenAIRE

    KIRK, A.; Adamek, J.; Akers, RJ; Allan, S; Appel, L; Lucini, F Arese; Barnes, M; T. Barrett; Ayed, N Ben; Boeglin, W.; Bradley, J; Browning, P.K.; Brunner, J.; Cahyna, P.; Carr, M.

    2016-01-01

    New results from MAST are presented that focus on validating models in order to extrapolate to future devices. Measurements during start-up experiments have shown how the bulk ion temperature rise scales with the square of the reconnecting field. During the current ramp up models are not able to correctly predict the current diffusion. Experiments have been performed looking at edge and core turbulence. At the edge detailed studies have revealed how filament characteristic are responsible for...

  18. Modelling and Measurements of MAST Neutron Emission

    OpenAIRE

    Klimek, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of neutron emission from a fusion plasma can provide a wealth of information on the underlying temporal, spatial and energy distributions of reacting ions and how they are affected by a wide range of magneto-hydro-dynamic (MHD) instabilities. This thesis focuses on the interpretation of the experimental measurements recorded by neutron flux monitors with and without spectroscopic capabilities installed on the Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST). In particular, the temporally and...

  19. Quantifying mast cells in bladder pain syndrome by immunohistochemical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, M.S.; Mortensen, S.; Nordling, J.;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To evaluate a simple method for counting mast cells, thought to have a role in the pathophysiology of bladder pain syndrome (BPS, formerly interstitial cystitis, a syndrome of pelvic pain perceived to be related to the urinary bladder and accompanied by other urinary symptoms, e. g....... frequency and nocturia), as > 28 mast cells/mm(2) is defined as mastocytosis and correlated with clinical outcome. PATIENTS AND METHODS The current enzymatic staining method (naphtolesterase) on 10 mu m sections for quantifying mast cells is complicated. In the present study, 61 patients had detrusor...... sections between, respectively. Mast cells were counted according to a well-defined procedure. RESULTS The old and the new methods, on 10 and 3 mu m sections, showed a good correlation between mast cell counts. When using tryptase staining and 3 mu m sections, the mast cell number correlated well...

  20. Characterization of mast cell secretory granules and their cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azouz, Nurit Pereg; Hammel, Ilan; Sagi-Eisenberg, Ronit

    2014-10-01

    Exocytosis and secretion of secretory granule (SG) contained inflammatory mediators is the primary mechanism by which mast cells exert their protective immune responses in host defense, as well as their pathological functions in allergic reactions and anaphylaxis. Despite their central role in mast cell function, the molecular mechanisms underlying the biogenesis and secretion of mast cell SGs remain largely unresolved. Early studies have established the lysosomal nature of the mast cell SGs and implicated SG homotypic fusion as an important step occurring during both their biogenesis and compound secretion. However, the molecular mechanisms that account for key features of this process largely remain to be defined. A novel high-resolution imaging based methodology allowed us to screen Rab GTPases for their phenotypic and functional impact and identify Rab networks that regulate mast cell secretion. This screen has identified Rab5 as a novel regulator of homotypic fusion of the mast cell SGs that thereby regulates their size and cargo composition.

  1. IgE and mast cells in allergic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Stephen J; Tsai, Mindy

    2012-05-04

    Immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies and mast cells have been so convincingly linked to the pathophysiology of anaphylaxis and other acute allergic reactions that it can be difficult to think of them in other contexts. However, a large body of evidence now suggests that both IgE and mast cells are also key drivers of the long-term pathophysiological changes and tissue remodeling associated with chronic allergic inflammation in asthma and other settings. Such potential roles include IgE-dependent regulation of mast-cell functions, actions of IgE that are largely independent of mast cells and roles of mast cells that do not directly involve IgE. In this review, we discuss findings supporting the conclusion that IgE and mast cells can have both interdependent and independent roles in the complex immune responses that manifest clinically as asthma and other allergic disorders.

  2. Non-IgE mediated mast cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yingxin; Blokhuis, Bart R; Garssen, Johan; Redegeld, Frank A

    2016-05-05

    Mast cells are crucial effector cells in allergic reactions, where IgE is the best known mechanism to trigger their degranulation and release of a vast array of allergic mediators. However, IgE is not the only component to stimulate these cells to degranulate, while mast cell activation can also result in differential release of mediators. There is a plethora of stimuli, such as IgG, complement components, TLR ligands, neuropeptides, cytokines, chemokines and other inflammatory products, that can directly trigger mast cell degranulation, cause selective release of mediators, and stimulate proliferation, differentiation and/or migration. Moreover, some of these stimuli have a synergic effect on the IgE-mediated mast cell activation. Because of the ability to respond to a large repertoire of stimuli, mast cells may act as a versatile cell in various physiological and pathological conditions. In this review, we discuss current knowledge on non-IgE stimuli for (human) mast cells.

  3. Sclerosing mediastinitis and mast cell activation syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrin, Lawrence B

    2012-03-15

    Sclerosing mediastinitis (ScM) is a rare, potentially life-threatening disorder, idiopathic in roughly half the cases. Systemic symptoms not attributable to sclerosis often appear in idiopathic ScM. Mast cell activation disease (MCAD) is a potential cause of these symptoms and also can cause sclerosis. ScM has not previously been associated with MCAD. Presented here are the first two cases of ScM associated with MCAD, specifically mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS). CASE 1: A 58-year-old chronically polymorbid woman developed ScM following matched sibling allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Eight years later MCAS, likely underlying most of her chronic issues, was identified. CASE 2: A 30-year-old chronically polymorbid woman presented with superior vena cava syndrome and was diagnosed with ScM. On further evaluation, MCAS was identified. Treatment promptly effected symptomatic improvement; sclerosis has been stable. Non-compliance yielded symptomatic relapse; restored compliance re-achieved symptomatic remission. Different MCAS presentations reflect elaboration of different mediators, some of which can induce inflammation and fibrosis. Thus, MCAS may have directly and/or indirectly driven ScM in these patients. MCAS should be considered in ScM presenting with comorbidities better explained by mast cell mediator release. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Skin Slice as a Model for the Investigation of the Role of Mast Cells in Acupuncture Effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪丽娜; DING Guang-hong; 顾全保; Wolfgang SCHWARZ

    2008-01-01

    Obiective:To establish a new and better model to investigate the properties of mast cells that couldbe involved in acupuncture process mechanisms.Methods:Connective tissue under the conum at the area of acupuncture point Zusanli(ST 36)from rat was acutely bluntly separated with forceps and scissors。And incubated in bath solution up to several hours.Mast cells in slices of that tissue were irradiated with laser light of 650 mn,and changes in the appearance were observed under mlcroscope. In addition.patch.clamp technique in whole-cell configuration was employed to induce mechano-sensitive currents by pressure applied through the patch pipette.Results:1)A high density of mast cells embedded in the extracellular matrix was detected in the tissue slices using toluidine blue staining.The mast cells survived for up to several hours;2)Laser irradiation for 10 min(40 mW) resulted in fusion of intracellular vesicles with the plasma membrane of the mast-cell surface;3)Whole.cell currents increased when pressure gradients of-30 cm,-60 cm or-90 cm H20 were applied,the response was attenuated in the presence of 1 0 u M Ruthenium Red(a common blocker of channels 0f the vallinoid.sensitive transient receptor potential family TRPV).Conclusion:The skin tissue slice of rat Zusanli(ST 36)may be used as a model to investigate the role of mast cells in acupuncture.t he results obtained in this model support the suggestion that skin mast cells play a role In laser as well as mechanical acupuncture and TRPV channels may be involved in acupuncture effects.

  5. P2 receptor-mediated signaling in mast cell biology

    OpenAIRE

    Bulanova, Elena; Bulfone-Paus, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    Mast cells are widely recognized as effector cells of allergic inflammatory reactions. They contribute to the pathogenesis of different chronic inflammatory diseases, wound healing, fibrosis, thrombosis/fibrinolysis, and anti-tumor immune responses. In this paper, we summarized the role of P2X and P2Y receptors in mast cell activation and effector functions. Mast cells are an abundant source of ATP which is stored in their granules and secreted upon activation. We discuss the contribution of ...

  6. Central nervous system mast cells in peripheral inflammatory nociception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellmeier Wilfried

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional aspects of mast cell-neuronal interactions remain poorly understood. Mast cell activation and degranulation can result in the release of powerful pro-inflammatory mediators such as histamine and cytokines. Cerebral dural mast cells have been proposed to modulate meningeal nociceptor activity and be involved in migraine pathophysiology. Little is known about the functional role of spinal cord dural mast cells. In this study, we examine their potential involvement in nociception and synaptic plasticity in superficial spinal dorsal horn. Changes of lower spinal cord dura mast cells and their contribution to hyperalgesia are examined in animal models of peripheral neurogenic and non-neurogenic inflammation. Results Spinal application of supernatant from activated cultured mast cells induces significant mechanical hyperalgesia and long-term potentiation (LTP at spinal synapses of C-fibers. Lumbar, thoracic and thalamic preparations are then examined for mast cell number and degranulation status after intraplantar capsaicin and carrageenan. Intradermal capsaicin induces a significant percent increase of lumbar dural mast cells at 3 hours post-administration. Peripheral carrageenan in female rats significantly increases mast cell density in the lumbar dura, but not in thoracic dura or thalamus. Intrathecal administration of the mast cell stabilizer sodium cromoglycate or the spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk inhibitor BAY-613606 reduce the increased percent degranulation and degranulated cell density of lumbar dural mast cells after capsaicin and carrageenan respectively, without affecting hyperalgesia. Conclusion The results suggest that lumbar dural mast cells may be sufficient but are not necessary for capsaicin or carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia.

  7. Serotonin of mast cell origin contributes to hippocampal function

    OpenAIRE

    Nautiyal, Katherine M.; Dailey, Christopher A.; Jahn, Jaquelyn L.; Rodriquez, Elizabeth; Son, Nguyen Hong; Jonathan V. Sweedler; Silver, Rae

    2012-01-01

    In the CNS, serotonin, an important neurotransmitter and trophic factor, is synthesized by both mast cells and neurons. Mast cells, like other immune cells, are born in the bone marrow and migrate to many tissues. We show that they are resident in the mouse brain throughout development and adulthood. Measurements based on capillary electrophoresis with native fluorescence detection indicate that a significant contribution of serotonin to the hippocampal milieu is associated with mast cell act...

  8. Serotonin of mast cell origin contributes to hippocampal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nautiyal, Katherine M; Dailey, Christopher A; Jahn, Jaquelyn L; Rodriquez, Elizabeth; Son, Nguyen Hong; Sweedler, Jonathan V; Silver, Rae

    2012-08-01

    In the central nervous system, serotonin, an important neurotransmitter and trophic factor, is synthesized by both mast cells and neurons. Mast cells, like other immune cells, are born in the bone marrow and migrate to many tissues. We show that they are resident in the mouse brain throughout development and adulthood. Measurements based on capillary electrophoresis with native fluorescence detection indicate that a significant contribution of serotonin to the hippocampal milieu is associated with mast cell activation. Compared with their littermates, mast cell-deficient C57BL/6 Kit(W-sh/W-sh) mice have profound deficits in hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and memory and in hippocampal neurogenesis. These deficits are associated with a reduction in cell proliferation and in immature neurons in the dentate gyrus, but not in the subventricular zone - a neurogenic niche lacking mast cells. Chronic treatment with fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, reverses the deficit in hippocampal neurogenesis in mast cell-deficient mice. In summary, the present study demonstrates that mast cells are a source of serotonin, that mast cell-deficient C57BL/6 Kit(W-sh/W-sh) mice have disrupted hippocampus-dependent behavior and neurogenesis, and that elevating serotonin in these mice, by treatment with fluoxetine, reverses these deficits. We conclude that mast cells contribute to behavioral and physiological functions of the hippocampus and note that they play a physiological role in neuroimmune interactions, even in the absence of inflammatory responses.

  9. Mast Cells Can Enhance Resistance to Snake and Honeybee Venoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Martin; Piliponsky, Adrian M.; Chen, Ching-Cheng; Lammel, Verena; Åbrink, Magnus; Pejler, Gunnar; Tsai, Mindy; Galli, Stephen J.

    2006-07-01

    Snake or honeybee envenomation can cause substantial morbidity and mortality, and it has been proposed that the activation of mast cells by snake or insect venoms can contribute to these effects. We show, in contrast, that mast cells can significantly reduce snake-venom-induced pathology in mice, at least in part by releasing carboxypeptidase A and possibly other proteases, which can degrade venom components. Mast cells also significantly reduced the morbidity and mortality induced by honeybee venom. These findings identify a new biological function for mast cells in enhancing resistance to the morbidity and mortality induced by animal venoms.

  10. Commensal bacteria promote migration of mast cells into the intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunii, Junichi; Takahashi, Kyoko; Kasakura, Kazumi; Tsuda, Masato; Nakano, Kou; Hosono, Akira; Kaminogawa, Shuichi

    2011-06-01

    Mast cells differentiate from hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow and migrate via the circulation to peripheral tissues, where they play a pivotal role in induction of both innate and adaptive immune responses. In this study, the effect of intestinal commensal bacteria on the migration of mast cells into the intestine was investigated. Histochemical analyses showed that germ-free (GF) mice had lower mast cell densities in the small intestine than normal mice. It was also shown that GF mice had lower mast cell proportion out of lamina propria leukocytes in the small intestine and higher mast cell percentages in the blood than normal mice by flow cytometry. These results indicate that migration of mast cells from the blood to the intestine is promoted by intestinal commensal bacteria. In addition, MyD88⁻/⁻ mice had lower densities of intestinal mast cells than CV mice, suggesting that the promotive effect of commensals is, at least in part, TLR-dependent. The ligands of CXC chemokine receptor 2 (CXCR2), which is critical for homing of mast cells to the intestine, were expressed higher in intestinal tissues and in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) of normal mice than in those of GF or MyD88⁻/⁻ mice. Collectively, it is suggested that commensals promote migration of mast cells into the intestine through the induction of CXCR2 ligands from IECs in a TLR-dependent manner.

  11. Assisted reproductive technologies in the common marmoset: an integral species for developing nonhuman primate models of human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropp, Jenna; Di Marzo, Andrea; Golos, Thaddeus

    2017-02-01

    Generation of nonhuman primate models of human disease conditions will foster the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Callithrix jacchus, or the common marmoset, is a New World, nonhuman primate species that exhibits great reproductive fitness in captivity with an ovarian cycle that can be easily managed with pharmacological agents. This characteristic, among others, provides an opportunity to employ assisted reproductive technologies to generate embryos that can be genetically manipulated to create a variety of nonhuman primate models for human disease. Here, we review methods to synchronize the marmoset ovarian cycle and stimulate oocyte donors, and compare various protocols for in vitro production of embryos. In light of advances in genomic editing, recent approaches used to generate transgenic or genetically edited embryos in the marmoset and also future perspective are reviewed.

  12. SENDS criteria from the diversification of MAST procedures. Implementation of preoperative simulation; SENDS-Kriterien als Entwicklungstheorem der MAST-Prozeduren. Einfuehrung praeoperativer Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieger, B. [Universitaetsklinikum Carl Gustav Carus, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Neurochirurgie, Dresden (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Minimal access spinal technologies (MAST) lead to a diversification of surgical procedures, which requires careful selection of the procedure and outcome monitoring. For a rational selection of the procedure simulation, endoscopy, navigation, decompression and stabilization (SENDS) criteria can be derived from the development of the MAST procedures. Preoperative simulation has diagnostic and therapeutic values. The SENDS criteria can be verified indirectly via outcome control. Biomechanically meaningful diagnostic x-rays of the spinal segment to be surgically treated are currently carried out with the patient in inclination and reclination. Software-related preoperative simulation based on these x-ray images facilitates the selection and implementation of the MAST procedure. For preoperative simulation motion shots are needed in inclination, neutral position and reclination and the dimensions can be obtained using an x-ray ball or a computed tomography (CT) scan. The SENDS criteria are useful because established procedures based on these criteria reach a comparable outcome. Preoperative simulation appears to be a useful selection criterion. Preoperatively it is necessary to collate patient and segment information in order to provide each patient with individualized treatment. So far there is no evidence for a better outcome after preoperative simulation but a reduction of surgery time and intraoperative radiation exposure could already be demonstrated. Minimally invasive methods should be preferred if there is a comparable outcome. The establishment of new procedures has to be accompanied by the maintenance of a spine register. Minimally invasive surgical procedures should be individualized for each patient and segment. Mobility X-ray images should be prepared for use with the preoperative simulation as the information content significantly increases with respect to the MAST procedure. (orig.) [German] Die Minimal Access Spine Technology (MAST) fuehrt zur

  13. Can commonly-used fan-driven air cleaning technologies improve indoor air quality? A literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yinping; Mo, Jinhan; Li, Yuguo; Sundell, Jan; Wargocki, Pawel; Zhang, Jensen; Little, John C.; Corsi, Richard; Deng, Qihong; Leung, Michael H. K.; Fang, Lei; Chen, Wenhao; Li, Jinguang; Sun, Yuexia

    2011-08-01

    Air cleaning techniques have been applied worldwide with the goal of improving indoor air quality. The effectiveness of applying these techniques varies widely, and pollutant removal efficiency is usually determined in controlled laboratory environments which may not be realized in practice. Some air cleaners are largely ineffective, and some produce harmful by-products. To summarize what is known regarding the effectiveness of fan-driven air cleaning technologies, a state-of-the-art review of the scientific literature was undertaken by a multidisciplinary panel of experts from Europe, North America, and Asia with expertise in air cleaning, aerosol science, medicine, chemistry and ventilation. The effects on health were not examined. Over 26,000 articles were identified in major literature databases; 400 were selected as being relevant based on their titles and abstracts by the first two authors, who further reduced the number of articles to 160 based on the full texts. These articles were reviewed by the panel using predefined inclusion criteria during their first meeting. Additions were also made by the panel. Of these, 133 articles were finally selected for detailed review. Each article was assessed independently by two members of the panel and then judged by the entire panel during a consensus meeting. During this process 59 articles were deemed conclusive and their results were used for final reporting at their second meeting. The conclusions are that: (1) None of the reviewed technologies was able to effectively remove all indoor pollutants and many were found to generate undesirable by-products during operation. (2) Particle filtration and sorption of gaseous pollutants were among the most effective air cleaning technologies, but there is insufficient information regarding long-term performance and proper maintenance. (3) The existing data make it difficult to extract information such as Clean Air Delivery Rate (CADR), which represents a common benchmark for

  14. Evaluating the UK House of Commons Science and Technology Committee's position on the implausible effectiveness of homeopathic treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Andrew

    2017-08-01

    In 2009, the UK House of Commons Science and Technology Committee (STC) conducted an 'evidence check' on homeopathy to evaluate evidence for its effectiveness. In common with the wider literature critical of homeopathy, the STC report seems to endorse many of the strong claims that are made about its implausibility. In contrast with the critical literature, however, the STC report explicitly does not place any weight on implausibility in its evaluation. I use the contrasting positions of the STC and the wider critical literature to examine the 'implausibility arguments' against homeopathy and the place of such arguments within evidence-based medicine (EBM). I argue that the STC report undervalues its strong claims about the mechanistic plausibility of homeopathy because it relies on a misunderstanding about the role of mechanistic evidence within EBM. This is not a conclusion for a revision of the role mechanistic evidence plays within EBM, however. It is a conclusion about the inconsistency of the STC report's position towards implausibility arguments, given the evidential claims they endorse and the atypical situation that homeopathy presents. It provides a further example of the general point that mechanistic reasoning should not be seen as providing categorically lower quality evidence.

  15. A Ten Year Retrospective Analysis of the Distribution, Use and Phenotypic Characteristics of the LAD2 Human Mast Cell Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirshenbaum, Arnold S.; Petrik, Amy; Walsh, Rosemary; Kirby, Tara L.; Vepa, Sury; Wangsa, Danny; Ried, Thomas; Metcalfe, Dean D.

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2003, this laboratory published an account of the human mast cell line LAD (Laboratory of Allergic Diseases)2 that expressed FcεRI, responded to recombinant human stem cell factor (rhSCF) and resembled CD34+-derived human mast cells. LAD2 cells have now been distributed worldwide. To study the impact of this transfer, we analyzed the number of investigators receiving LAD2 cells and resulting publications. Methods Records maintained in our lab, the Technology Transfer and Intellectual Property Office and Office of Technology Transfer were reviewed for material transfer agreements (MTAs) and licensing agreements (LAs). Journals and impact factors were obtained from PubMed.gov by cross-referencing LAD2 and human mast cells from 2003 through November 2013. Results Over 300 MTAs and 40 LAs were approved. LAD2 cells were shipped to over 30 countries. Over 80 papers have been published in journals with impact factors from 1.31 to 13.21. Intended uses include the study of receptors, degranulation, and cell signaling. LAD2 cells continue to express described markers and have consistent FceR1 mediated degranulation. Conclusions Success of the LAD2 line reflects the demand for a human mast cell line in research, the uniqueness of this cell line, and that it continues to exhibit minimal variation from its original description. We hope that the awareness of the impact of this cell line on mast cell research will encourage others to develop and distribute other similar cell lines with additional characteristics so as to address the limitations of depending on the study of cultured human mast cells from tissues. PMID:25195635

  16. The Mast Cell Stabilizer Ketotifen Fumarate Lessens Contracture Severity and Myofibroblast Hyperplasia: A Study of a Rabbit Model of Posttraumatic Joint Contractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monument, Michael J.; Hart, David A.; Befus, A. Dean; Salo, Paul T.; Zhang, Mei; Hildebrand, Kevin A.

    2010-01-01

    Background The propensity of the elbow to become stiff after trauma is widely appreciated and in this setting, the joint capsule is commonly recognized as the major motion-limiting anatomical structure. Affected joint capsules become fibrotic, characterized by myofibroblast hyperplasia and excessive collagen deposition. Mast cell hyperplasia is common within fibrotic tissue and mast cells are known to synthesize many profibrotic mediators. We have hypothesized that mast cell inhibition after skeletal injury will lessen the degree of contracture severity and will reduce myofibroblast hyperplasia within the joint capsule. Methods Posttraumatic contractures of the knee were created using a combination of intra-articular injury coupled to internal immobilization in skeletally mature, New Zealand white rabbits. Four groups of animals were studied: a non-operative control group (CON), an operative contracture group (ORC) and two-operative groups treated with a mast cell stabilizer, Ketotifen fumarate at doses of 0.5mg/kg (KF0.5) and 1.0mg/kg (KF1.0) twice daily, respectively. After 8 weeks of immobilization, flexion contractures were measured biomechanically and the posterior joint capsule was harvested for quantification of myofibroblast and mast cell numbers. Results Flexion contractures developed in the ORC group (58 ± 14°) and the severity of contracture was significantly reduced in both groups treated with Ketotifen (KF0.5: 42 ± 17° and KF1.0: 45 ± 10°, pcontracture group (pcontracture. This is suggestive that an inflammatory pathway, mediated by mast cell activation is involved in the induction of joint capsule fibrosis after traumatic injury. Clinical Relevance These results suggest mast cell activation is an important event in the genesis of posttraumatic joint contractures. Further work is needed to determine if mast cell inhibition has a role in the prevention of posttraumatic joint contractures in humans. PMID:20516323

  17. Measuring histamine and cytokine release from basophils and mast cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bettina M; Falkencrone, Sidsel; Skov, Per S

    2014-01-01

    Basophils and mast cells are known for their capability to release both preformed and newly synthesized inflammatory mediators. In this chapter we describe how to stimulate and detect histamine released from basophils in whole blood, purified basophils, in vitro cultured mast cells, and in situ...

  18. Non-IgE mediated mast cell activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Yingxin; Blokhuis, Bart R; Garssen, Johan; Redegeld, Frank A

    2016-01-01

    Mast cells are crucial effector cells in allergic reactions, where IgE is the best known mechanism to trigger their degranulation and release of a vast array of allergic mediators. However, IgE is not the only component to stimulate these cells to degranulate, while mast cell activation can also res

  19. Mast cell synapses and exosomes: membrane contacts for information exchange.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carroll-Portillo, A.; Surviladze, Z.; Cambi, A.; Lidke, D.S.; Wilson, B.S.

    2012-01-01

    In addition to their central role in allergy, mast cells are involved in a wide variety of cellular interactions during homeostasis and disease. In this review, we discuss the ability of mast cells to extend their mechanisms for intercellular communication beyond the release of soluble mediators. Th

  20. Damage Assessment of a Steel Lattice Mast under Natural Excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Rytter, A.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper the possibility of detecting and locating damages in a 20 m high steel lattice mast subjected to natural excitation has been investigated. For the damaged mast seven different damage states were considered. In these damage states a damage was assumed in one of the lower diagonals...

  1. Mechanism of mast cell adhesion to human tenocytes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzad, Hayedeh; Tsai, Shu-Huei; Nassab, Paulina; Mousavizadeh, Rouhollah; McCormack, Robert G; Scott, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Mast cells and fibroblasts are two key players involved in many fibrotic and degenerative disorders. In the present study we examined the nature of binding interactions between human mast cells and tendon fibroblasts (tenocytes). In the mast cell-fibroblast co-culture model, mast cells were shown to spontaneously bind to tenocytes, in a process that was partially mediated by α5β1 integrin receptors. The same receptors on mast cells significantly mediated binding of these cells to tissue culture plates in the presence of tenocyte-conditioned media; the tenocyte-derived fibronectin in the media was shown to also play a major role in these binding activities. Upon binding to tenocytes or tissue culture plates, mast cells acquired an elongated phenotype, which was dependent on α5β1 integrin and tenocyte fibronectin. Additionally, tenocyte-derived fibronectin significantly enhanced mRNA expression of the adhesion molecule, THY1, by mast cells. Our data suggests that α5β1 integrin mediates binding of mast cells to human tenocyte and to tenocyte-derived ECM proteins, in particular fibronectin.

  2. Mast cell function: a new vision of an old cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Elaine Zayas Marcelino; Jamur, Maria Célia; Oliver, Constance

    2014-10-01

    Since first described by Paul Ehrlich in 1878, mast cells have been mostly viewed as effectors of allergy. It has been only in the past two decades that mast cells have gained recognition for their involvement in other physiological and pathological processes. Mast cells have a widespread distribution and are found predominantly at the interface between the host and the external environment. Mast cell maturation, phenotype and function are a direct consequence of the local microenvironment and have a marked influence on their ability to specifically recognize and respond to various stimuli through the release of an array of biologically active mediators. These features enable mast cells to act as both first responders in harmful situations as well as to respond to changes in their environment by communicating with a variety of other cells implicated in physiological and immunological responses. Therefore, the critical role of mast cells in both innate and adaptive immunity, including immune tolerance, has gained increased prominence. Conversely, mast cell dysfunction has pointed to these cells as the main offenders in several chronic allergic/inflammatory disorders, cancer and autoimmune diseases. This review summarizes the current knowledge of mast cell function in both normal and pathological conditions with regards to their regulation, phenotype and role.

  3. Norsewind - array of wind lidars and meteorological masts offshore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Detlef Stein, F. P.; Hagemann, Saskia;

    The FP7 project Norsewind (2008-2012) focused on the offshore study of winds through observations with ground-based wind lidars, meteorological masts and satellite remote sensors, and mesoscale modeling. Some results of the observational array of wind lidars and meteorological masts are presented....

  4. The validity of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, H; Nielsen, S D; Gluud, C

    1994-01-01

    This review examines the validity of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) as a screening instrument for alcohol problems. Studies that compare the MAST-questionnaire with other defined diagnostic criteria of alcohol problems were retrieved through MEDLINE and a cross-bibliographic check...

  5. Involvement of mast cells in adipose tissue fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Shizuka; Ohyane, Chie; Kim, Young-Il; Lin, Shan; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Kim, Chu-Sook; Kang, Jihey; Yu, Rina; Kawada, Teruo

    2014-02-01

    Recently, fibrosis is observed in obese adipose tissue; however, the pathogenesis remains to be clarified. Obese adipose tissue is characterized by chronic inflammation with massive accumulation of immune cells including mast cells. The objective of the present study was to clarify the relationship between fibrosis and mast cells in obese adipose tissue, as well as to determine the origin of infiltrating mast cells. We observed the enhancement of mast cell accumulation and fibrosis in adipose tissue of severely obese diabetic db/db mice. Furthermore, adipose tissue-conditioned medium (ATCM) from severely obese diabetic db/db mice significantly enhanced collagen 5 mRNA expression in NIH-3T3 fibroblasts, and this enhancement was suppressed by the addition of an anti-mast cell protease 6 (MCP-6) antibody. An in vitro study showed that only collagen V among various types of collagen inhibited preadipocyte differentiation. Moreover, we found that ATCM from the nonobese but not obese stages of db/db mice significantly enhanced the migration of bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs). These findings suggest that immature mast cells that infiltrate into adipose tissue at the nonobese stage gradually mature with the progression of obesity and diabetes and that MCP-6 secreted from mature mast cells induces collagen V expression in obese adipose tissue, which may contribute to the process of adipose tissue fibrosis. Induction of collagen V by MCP-6 might accelerate insulin resistance via the suppression of preadipocyte differentiation.

  6. The presence of ANP in rat peritoneal mast cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marina G MARTYNOVA; Olga A BYSTROVA; Olga M MOISEEVA; Anton L EVDONIN; Kirill A KONDRATOV; Natalja D MEDVEDEVA

    2005-01-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is an important component of the natriuretic peptide system. A great role in many regulatory systems is played by mast cells. Meanwhile involvement of these cells in ANP activity is poorly studied. In this work, we have shown the presence of ANP in rat peritoneal mast cells. Pure fraction of mast cells was obtained by separation of rat peritoneal cells on a Percoll density gradient. By Western blotting, two ANP-immunoreactive proteins of molecular masses of 2.5 kDa and 16.9 kDa were detected in lysates from these mast cells. Electron microscope immunogold labeling has revealed the presence of ANP-immunoreactive material in storage, secreting and released granules of mast cells. Our findings indicate the rat peritoneal mast cells to contain both ANP prohormone and ANP. These both peptides are located in mast cell secretory granules and released by mechanism of degranulation. It is discussed that many mast cell functions might be due to production of natriuretic peptides by these cells.

  7. Non-IgE mediated mast cell activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Yingxin; Blokhuis, Bart R; Garssen, Johan; Redegeld, Frank A

    2015-01-01

    Mast cells are crucial effector cells in allergic reactions, where IgE is the best known mechanism to trigger their degranulation and release of a vast array of allergic mediators. However, IgE is not the only component to stimulate these cells to degranulate, while mast cell activation can also res

  8. The mast cell: a neuroimmunoendocrine master player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theoharides, T C

    1996-01-01

    This review of the literature on mast cells (MC) suggests that when activated they may play a central role in disease syndromes with a neural, immune and endocrine component exacerbated under stress. After a discussion of their biology, differential secretions and interaction with neurons, the effect of stress in causing MC degranulation is emphasized. The importance of MC in syndromes such as migraine, multiple sclerosis, interstitial cystitis and irritable bowel syndrome is assessed, along with possible therapeutic possibilities with compounds that inhibit MC activation.

  9. Modelling and Analysis Capabilities for Lightweight Masts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-02-01

    needed in DREA’s VAST finite element code in order to be able to analyse composite mast structures. Future Plans The second phase of this...résultats Les travaux effectués pour ce projet fournissent la base du développement futur de l’outil de modélisation MASTAS des exercices financiers...pouvoir analyser les structures des mâts composites. Projets futurs La deuxième phase de ce projet d’application de technologie est actuellement en

  10. Stereological quantification of mast cells in human synovium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, T E; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Herlin, T;

    1999-01-01

    Mast cells participate in both the acute allergic reaction as well as in chronic inflammatory diseases. Earlier studies have revealed divergent results regarding the quantification of mast cells in the human synovium. The aim of the present study was therefore to quantify these cells in the human...... synovium, using stereological techniques. Different methods of staining and quantification have previously been used for mast cell quantification in human synovium. Stereological techniques provide precise and unbiased information on the number of cell profiles in two-dimensional tissue sections of......, in this case, human synovium. In 10 patients suffering from osteoarthritis a median of 3.6 mast cells/mm2 synovial membrane was found. The total number of cells (synoviocytes, fibroblasts, lymphocytes, leukocytes) present was 395.9 cells/mm2 (median). The mast cells constituted 0.8% of all the cell profiles...

  11. Human mast cell tryptase in biology and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitte, Joana

    2015-01-01

    The most abundant prestored enzyme of human mast cell secretory granules is the serine-protease tryptase. In humans, there are four tryptase isoforms, but only two of them, namely the alpha and beta tryptases, are known as medically important. Low levels of continuous tryptase production as an immature monomer makes up the major part of the baseline serum tryptase levels, while transient release of mature tetrameric tryptase upon mast cell degranulation accounts for the anaphylactic rise of serum tryptase levels. Serum tryptase determination contributes to the diagnosis or monitoring of mast cell disorders including mast cell activation - induced anaphylaxis, mastocytosis and a number of myeloproliferative conditions with mast cell lineage involvement. Baseline serum tryptase levels are predictive of the severity risk in some allergic conditions.

  12. Mast cell function modulating IgE-mediated allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruby Pawankar

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic diseases, such as atopic rhinitis, bronchial asthma and urticaria, are prevalent and increasing in frequency. Mast cells are known to play a central role in the immediate phase reaction of allergic diseases through the IgE-mediated release of a variety of chemical mediators, such as histamine, leukotrienes and prostaglandins. In contrast, T lymphocytes, basophils and eosinophils are thought to be responsible for inducing the late phase response. However, whether the mast cell can be simplistically assigned a role in the immediate phase allergic response and whether mast cells are necessary for the ongoing allergic response, including the development of hyperresponsiveness, remains to be completely studied. In the present article, the author will discuss the integrated roles of mast cells in IgE-mediated allergic inflammation, with specific emphasis on the roles of mast cell-derived cytokines in the late phase allergic response and chronic allergic inflammation.

  13. Thymus involution in alloxan diabetes: analysis of mast cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EO Barreto

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported that alloxan-induced diabetes results in reduction in the number and reactivity of mast cells at different body sites. In this study, the influence of diabetes on thymic mast cells was investigated. Thymuses from diabetic rats showed marked alterations including shrinkage, thymocyte depletion, and increase in the extracellular matrix network, as compared to those profiles seen in normal animals. Nevertheless, we noted that the number and reactivity of mast cells remained unchanged. These findings indicate that although diabetes leads to critical alterations in the thymus, the local mast cell population is refractory to its effect. This suggests that thymic mast cells are under a different regulation as compared to those located in other tissues.

  14. The impact of mast cells on cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritikou, Eva; Kuiper, Johan; Kovanen, Petri T; Bot, Ilze

    2016-05-05

    Mast cells comprise an innate immune cell population, which accumulates in tissues proximal to the outside environment and, upon activation, augments the progression of immunological reactions through the release and diffusion of either pre-formed or newly generated mediators. The released products of mast cells include histamine, proteases, as well as a variety of cytokines, chemokines and growth factors, which act on the surrounding microenvironment thereby shaping the immune responses triggered in various diseased states. Mast cells have also been detected in the arterial wall and are implicated in the onset and progression of numerous cardiovascular diseases. Notably, modulation of distinct mast cell actions using genetic and pharmacological approaches highlights the crucial role of this cell type in cardiovascular syndromes. The acquired evidence renders mast cells and their mediators as potential prognostic markers and therapeutic targets in a broad spectrum of pathophysiological conditions related to cardiovascular diseases.

  15. Lung mast cells and hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction in cats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, L.F.; Tucker, A.; Munroe, M.L.; Reeves, J.T.

    1978-01-01

    An attempt was made to reduce or eliminate lung mast cells in order to determine the involvement of mast cells in hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. Anesthetized cats were exposed to acute hypoxia (10% O/sub 2/) 20 to 24 h after no pretreatment, after total lung irradiation (3,000 r), after intravenous nitrogen mustard, or after combined lung irradiation and nitrogen mustard. None of the treatments reduced total or perivascular lung mast cell density, or reduced the pulmonary vasoconstrictor response to hypoxia. However, an inverse relationship between lung mast cell density and the pulmonary pressor response to hypoxia was observed. These results suggest that the presence of more lung mast cells may oppose hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction.

  16. Overview of recent physics results from MAST

    CERN Document Server

    Kirk, A; Akers, RJ; Allan, S; Appel, L; Lucini, F Arese; Barnes, M; Barrett, T; Ayed, N Ben; Boeglin, W; Bradley, J; Browning, P K; Brunner, J; Cahyna, P; Carr, M; Casson, F; Cecconello, M; Challis, C; Chapman, IT; Chapman, S; Conroy, S; Conway, N; Cooper, WA; Cox, M; Crocker, N; Crowley, B; Cardnell, S; Chorley, J; Cunningham, G; Danilov, A; Darrow, D; Dendy, R; Dickinson, D; Dorland, W; Dudson, B; Easy, L; Elmore, S; Evans, M; Farley, T; Fedorczak, N; Field, A; Fitzgerald, I; Fox, M; Freethy, S; Garzotti, L; Ghim, YC; Gi, K; Gorelenkova, M; Gracias, W; Gurl, C; Guttenfelder, W; Ham, C; Harting, D; Havlickova, E; Hawkes, N; Hender, T; Henderson, S; Hillesheim, J; Hnat, B; Horacek, J; Howard, J; Howell, D; Dunai, D; Fishpool, G; Gibson, K; Harrison, J; Highcock, E; Huang, B; Inomoto, M; Imazawa, R; Jones, O; Kadowaki, K; Kaye, S; Keeling, D; Kocan, M; Kogan, L; Komm, M; Lai, W; Leddy, J; Leggate, H; Imada, K; Klimek, I; Hollocombe, J; Lipschultz, B; Lisgo, S; Liu, YQ; Lloyd, B; Lomanowski, B; Lukin, V; Maddison, G; Madsen, J; Mailloux, J; Martin, R; McArdle, G; Lupelli, I; McClements, K; McMillan, B; Meakins, A; Meyer, H; Michael, C; Militello, F; Milnes, J; Motojima, G; Muir, D; Naylor, G; Nielsen, A; O'Brien, M; O'Mullane, M; Olsen, J; Omotani, J; Ono, Y; Pamela, S; Morris, AW; O'Gorman, T; Pangione, L; Parra, F; Patel, A; Peebles, W; Perez, R; Pinches, S; Piron, L; Price, M; Reinke, M; Ricci, P; Riva, F; Roach, C; Romanelli, M; Ryan, D; Saarelma, S; Saveliev, A; Scannell, R; Schekochihin, A; Sharapov, S; Sharples, R; Shevchenko, V; Shinohara, K; Silburn, S; Simpson, J; Stanier, A; Storrs, J; Summers, H; Takase, Y; Tamain, P; Tanabe, H; Tanaka, H; Tani, K; Taylor, D; Thomas, D; Thomas-Davies, N; Thornton, A; Turnyanskiy, M; Valovic, M; Vann, R; Van Wyk, F; Walkden, N; Watanabe, T; Wilson, H; Wischmeier, M; Yamada, T; Young, J; Zoletnik, S

    2016-01-01

    New results from MAST are presented that focus on validating models in order to extrapolate to future devices. Measurements during start-up experiments have shown how the bulk ion temperature rise scales with the square of the reconnecting field. During the current ramp up models are not able to correctly predict the current diffusion. Experiments have been performed looking at edge and core turbulence. At the edge detailed studies have revealed how filament characteristic are responsible for determining the near and far SOL density profiles. In the core the intrinsic rotation and electron scale turbulence have been measured. The role that the fast ion gradient has on redistributing fast ions through fishbone modes has led to a redesign of the neutral beam injector on MAST Upgrade. In H-mode the turbulence at the pedestal top has been shown to be consistent with being due to electron temperature gradient modes. A reconnection process appears to occur during ELMs and the number of filaments released determines...

  17. SOL Width Scaling in the MAST Tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Joon-Wook; Counsell, Glenn; Connor, Jack; Kirk, Andrew

    2002-11-01

    Target heat loads are determined in large part by the upstream SOL heat flux width, Δ_h. Considerable effort has been made in the past to develop analytical and empirical scalings for Δh to allow reliable estimates to be made for the next-step device. The development of scalings for a large spherical tokamak (ST) such as MAST is particularly important both for development of the ST concept and for improving the robustness of scalings derived for conventional tokamaks. A first such scaling has been developed in MAST DND plasmas. The scaling was developed by flux-mapping data from the target Langmuir probe arrays to the mid-plane and fitting to key upstream parameters such as P_SOL, bar ne and q_95. In order to minimise the effects of co-linearity, dedicated campaigns were undertaken to explore the widest possible range of each parameter while keeping the remainder as fixed as possible. Initial results indicate a weak inverse dependence on P_SOL and approximately linear dependence on bar n_e. Scalings derived from consideration of theoretical edge transport models and integration with data from conventional devices is under way. The established scaling laws could be used for the extrapolations to the future machine such as Spherical Tokamak Power Plant (STPP). This work is jointly funded by Euratom and UK Department of Trade and Industry. J-W. Ahn would like to recognise the support of a grant from the British Foreign & Commonwealth Office.

  18. Mast cell distribution in normal adult skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, A S; Heide, R; den Hollander, J C; Mulder, P G M; Tank, B; Oranje, A P

    2005-03-01

    To investigate mast cell distribution in normal adult skin to provide a reference range for comparison with mastocytosis. Mast cells (MCs) were counted in uninvolved skin adjacent to basal cell carcinomas and other dermatological disorders in adults. There was an uneven distribution of MCs in different body sites using the anti-tryptase monoclonal antibody technique. Numbers of MCs on the trunk, upper arm, and upper leg were similar, but were significantly different from those found on the lower leg and forearm. Two distinct groups were formed--proximal and distal. There were 77.0 MCs/mm2 at proximal body sites and 108.2 MCs/mm2 at distal sites. Adjusted for the adjacent diagnosis and age, this difference was consistent. The numbers of MCs in uninvolved skin adjacent to basal cell carcinomas and other dermatological disorders were not different from those in the control group. Differences in the numbers of MCs between the distal and the proximal body sites must be considered when MCs are counted for a reliable diagnosis of mastocytosis. A pilot study in patients with mastocytosis underlined the variation in the numbers of MCs in mastocytosis and normal skin, but showed a considerable overlap. The observed numbers of MCs in adults cannot be extrapolated to children. MC numbers varied significantly between proximal and distal body sites and these differences must be considered when MCs are counted for a reliable diagnosis of mastocytosis. There was a considerable overlap between the numbers of MCs in mastocytosis and normal skin.

  19. Overview of recent physics results from MAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, A.; Adamek, J.; Akers, R. J.; Allan, S.; Appel, L.; Arese Lucini, F.; Barnes, M.; Barrett, T.; Ben Ayed, N.; Boeglin, W.; Bradley, J.; Browning, P. K.; Brunner, J.; Cahyna, P.; Cardnell, S.; Carr, M.; Casson, F.; Cecconello, M.; Challis, C.; Chapman, I. T.; Chapman, S.; Chorley, J.; Conroy, S.; Conway, N.; Cooper, W. A.; Cox, M.; Crocker, N.; Crowley, B.; Cunningham, G.; Danilov, A.; Darrow, D.; Dendy, R.; Dickinson, D.; Dorland, W.; Dudson, B.; Dunai, D.; Easy, L.; Elmore, S.; Evans, M.; Farley, T.; Fedorczak, N.; Field, A.; Fishpool, G.; Fitzgerald, I.; Fox, M.; Freethy, S.; Garzotti, L.; Ghim, Y. C.; Gi, K.; Gibson, K.; Gorelenkova, M.; Gracias, W.; Gurl, C.; Guttenfelder, W.; Ham, C.; Harrison, J.; Harting, D.; Havlickova, E.; Hawkes, N.; Hender, T.; Henderson, S.; Highcock, E.; Hillesheim, J.; Hnat, B.; Horacek, J.; Howard, J.; Howell, D.; Huang, B.; Imada, K.; Inomoto, M.; Imazawa, R.; Jones, O.; Kadowaki, K.; Kaye, S.; Keeling, D.; Klimek, I.; Kocan, M.; Kogan, L.; Komm, M.; Lai, W.; Leddy, J.; Leggate, H.; Hollocombe, J.; Lipschultz, B.; Lisgo, S.; Liu, Y. Q.; Lloyd, B.; Lomanowski, B.; Lukin, V.; Lupelli, I.; Maddison, G.; Madsen, J.; Mailloux, J.; Martin, R.; McArdle, G.; McClements, K.; McMillan, B.; Meakins, A.; Meyer, H.; Michael, C.; Militello, F.; Milnes, J.; Morris, A. W.; Motojima, G.; Muir, D.; Naylor, G.; Nielsen, A.; O'Brien, M.; O'Gorman, T.; O'Mullane, M.; Olsen, J.; Omotani, J.; Ono, Y.; Pamela, S.; Pangione, L.; Parra, F.; Patel, A.; Peebles, W.; Perez, R.; Pinches, S.; Piron, L.; Price, M.; Reinke, M.; Ricci, P.; Riva, F.; Roach, C.; Romanelli, M.; Ryan, D.; Saarelma, S.; Saveliev, A.; Scannell, R.; Schekochihin, A.; Sharapov, S.; Sharples, R.; Shevchenko, V.; Shinohara, K.; Silburn, S.; Simpson, J.; Stanier, A.; Storrs, J.; Summers, H.; Takase, Y.; Tamain, P.; Tanabe, H.; Tanaka, H.; Tani, K.; Taylor, D.; Thomas, D.; Thomas-Davies, N.; Thornton, A.; Turnyanskiy, M.; Valovic, M.; Vann, R.; Van Wyk, F.; Walkden, N.; Watanabe, T.; Wilson, H.; Wischmeier, M.; Yamada, T.; Young, J.; Zoletnik, S.; the MAST Team; the EUROfusion MST1 Team

    2017-10-01

    New results from MAST are presented that focus on validating models in order to extrapolate to future devices. Measurements during start-up experiments have shown how the bulk ion temperature rise scales with the square of the reconnecting field. During the current ramp-up, models are not able to correctly predict the current diffusion. Experiments have been performed looking at edge and core turbulence. At the edge, detailed studies have revealed how filament characteristics are responsible for determining the near and far scrape off layer density profiles. In the core the intrinsic rotation and electron scale turbulence have been measured. The role that the fast ion gradient has on redistributing fast ions through fishbone modes has led to a redesign of the neutral beam injector on MAST Upgrade. In H-mode the turbulence at the pedestal top has been shown to be consistent with being due to electron temperature gradient modes. A reconnection process appears to occur during edge localized modes (ELMs) and the number of filaments released determines the power profile at the divertor. Resonant magnetic perturbations can mitigate ELMs provided the edge peeling response is maximised and the core kink response minimised. The mitigation of intrinsic error fields with toroidal mode number n  >  1 has been shown to be important for plasma performance.

  20. Large particulate allergens can elicit mast cell-mediated anaphylaxis without exit from blood vessels as efficiently as do small soluble allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LiHua, Li; Yoshikawa, Soichiro; Ohta, Takuya; Horiguchi, Kayo; Kawano, Yohei; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Yamanishi, Yoshinori; Karasuyama, Hajime

    2015-11-06

    Anaphylaxis is a rapid-onset, life-threatening allergic reaction in that IgE, mast cells and histamine are commonly involved. It can be experimentally induced in IgE-sensitized animals by intravenous injection of corresponding allergens, and the sign of anaphylactic reaction can be detected within minutes after allergen challenge. However, it remains puzzling why the anaphylactic reaction can be initiated in vivo so quickly, considering that allergens are delivered into the blood circulation while mast cells reside within peripheral tissues but not in the blood circulation. To address this issue, we compared two different forms of the same allergen, small soluble and large particulate ones, in their ability to induce anaphylaxis in IgE-sensitized mice. In contrast to our expectation, particulate allergens could induce anaphylaxis as quickly and efficiently as did soluble allergens, even though they remained inside of blood vessels. In vivo imaging analysis suggested the direct interaction of intravascular particulate allergens and perivascular mast cells across the capillary wall. Taken together with previous report that perivascular mast cells can capture IgE in the blood circulation by extending cell processes across the vessel wall, our findings imply that blood-circulating allergens, regardless of their size, can stimulate mast cells without exit from blood vessels, by means of cross-linking IgE on mast cell processes inserted into the vessel lumen, and hence initiate anaphylactic reaction so quickly.

  1. The master switch: Comparative study of mast cell in oral epithelial dysplasia, oral submucous fibrosis and oral squamous cells carcinoma and their association with inflammation and angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neethu Telagi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental and medical practitioners encounter wide spectrum of oral lesions in their day-to-day practice. Many of the lesions such as leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis (OSF, etc., are associated with tobacco and betel nut chewing. Oral leukoplakia, OSF, oral lichen planus and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC are the most commonly occurring oral diseases associated with characteristic clinical and histological features and are associated with chronic inflammation at some stage of the disease process. Aims: To study and compare the number, morphology and topographical distribution of mast cells in oral epithelial dysplasia (OED, OSF and OSCC and to correlate different types of mast cells with the inflammatory infiltrate and vascularity of the lesions. Materials and Methods: Total number of subjects was 120 and equally divided into four groups of 30 as controls, OED, OSF and OSCC cases. Two sections of from each tissue embedded in paraffin wax block were made which were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and toluidine blue stain. Mast cells were counted in five different zones. Results: In the present study, increased numbers of mast cells were seen in all lesions. The cases with mild, moderate and severe inflammation showed increased number of typical (TMCs, atypical (AMCs and granular mast cells (GMCs, respectively. Conclusion: The result of the present study concludes that the mast cells play a key role in mediating the cross links between external angiogenic agent and local immunologic factors.

  2. Introduction: Regionalising the Common Fisheries Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raakjær, Jesper; Hegland, Troels Jacob

    2012-01-01

    The idea of putting together a special issue of MAST on the issue of regionalisation of the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP), was born in late 2010. Having participated in an EU funded research project looking into how an eco-system based approach to fisheries management could be operationalised...

  3. Histamine and TNF-α release by rat peritoneal mast cells stimulated with Trichomonas vaginalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Im S.J.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Mast cells have been reported to be predominant in the vaginal smears of patients infected with T. vaginalis. In this study, we investigated whether T. vaginalis could induce mast cells to migrate and to produce TNF-α and histamine. Rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMC, a primary mast cell, were used for the study. T. vaginalis induced an increase in chemotactic migration of the mast cells toward excretory and secretory product (ESP of T. vaginalis, and the mast cells activated with T. vaginalis showed an increased release of histamine and TNF-α. Therefore, mast cells may be involved in the inflammatory response caused by T. vaginalis.

  4. Mast Cells and IgE: From History to Today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirohisa Saito

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Role of mast cells in allergy had remained undetermined until the discovery of IgE in 1966. Then, IgE purified from many Liters of plasma, which had been donated from a patient with fatal myeloma, was distributed to researchers all over the world, and thus accelerated exploring the mechanisms involved in allergic reactions, particularly about the role of mast cells and basophils in the IgE-mediated reactions. Identification of mast cells as a progeny of a bone marrow hematopoietic stem cell in 1977 led us to successful in vitro culture of human mast cells. Along with the development of molecular biological techniques, the structure of the high affinity IgE receptor (FceRI was determined in 1989. These findings and subsequent investigations brought deeper understanding of IgE-mediated allergic diseases in the past half century, especially where mast cells are involved. We have now even obtained the information about whole genome expression of FceRI-dependently activated mast cells. In sharp contrast to our comprehension of allergic diseases where IgE and mast cells are involved, the mechanisms involved in non-IgE-mediated allergic diseases or non-IgE-mediated phase of IgE-mediated diseases are almost left unsolved and are waiting for devoted investigators to reveal it.

  5. Martian environmental simulation for a deployable lattice mast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warden, Robert M.

    1994-01-01

    The Mars Pathfinder mission (formerly Mars Environmental Survey or MESUR) is scheduled for launch in December 1996 and is designed to place a small lander on the surface of Mars. After impact, the lander unfolds to expose its solar panels and release a miniature rover. Also on board is the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) binocular camera which is elevated by a deployable mast to obtain a panoramic view of the landing area. The design of this deployable mast is based on similar designs which have a long and successful flight history. In the past when this type of self-deployable mast has been used, a rate limiter has been incorporated to control the speed of deployment. In this application, to reduce weight and complexity, it was proposed to eliminate the rate limiter so that the mast would deploy without restraint. Preliminary tests showed that this type of deployment was possible especially if the deployed length was relatively short, as in this application. Compounding the problem, however, was the requirement to deploy the mast at an angle of up to 30 degrees from vertical. The deployment process was difficult to completely analyze due to the effects of gravitational and inertial loads on the mast and camera during rapid extension. Testing in a realistic manner was imperative to verify the system performance. A deployment test was therefore performed to determine the maximum tilt angle at which the mast could reliably extend and support the camera on Mars. The testing of the deployable mast requires partial gravity compensation to simulate the smaller force of Martian gravity. During the test, mass properties were maintained while weight properties were reduced. This paper describes the testing of a deployable mast in a simulated Martian environment as well as the results of the tests.

  6. Quantification and Localization of Mast Cells in Periapical Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahita, VN; Manjunatha, BS; Shah, R; Astekar, M; Purohit, S; Kovvuru, S

    2015-01-01

    Background: Periapical lesions occur in response to chronic irritation in periapical tissue, generally resulting from an infected root canal. Specific etiological agents of induction, participating cell population and growth factors associated with maintenance and resolution of periapical lesions are incompletely understood. Among the cells found in periapical lesions, mast cells have been implicated in the inflammatory mechanism. Aim: Quantifications and the possible role played by mast cells in the periapical granuloma and radicular cyst. Hence, this study is to emphasize the presence (localization) and quantification of mast cells in periapical granuloma and radicular cyst. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 cases and out of which 15 of periapical granuloma and 15 radicular cyst, each along with the case details from the previously diagnosed cases in the department of oral pathology were selected for the study. The gender distribution showed male 8 (53.3%) and females 7 (46.7%) in periapical granuloma cases and male 10 (66.7%) and females 5 (33.3%) in radicular cyst cases. The statistical analysis used was unpaired t-test. Results: Mean mast cell count in periapical granuloma subepithelial and deeper connective tissue, was 12.40 (0.99%) and 7.13 (0.83%), respectively. The mean mast cell counts in subepithelial and deeper connective tissue of radicular cyst were 17.64 (1.59%) and 12.06 (1.33%) respectively, which was statistically significant. No statistical significant difference was noted among males and females. Conclusion: Mast cells were more in number in radicular cyst. Based on the concept that mast cells play a critical role in the induction of inflammation, it is logical to use therapeutic agents to alter mast cell function and secretion, to thwart inflammation at its earliest phases. These findings may suggest the possible role of mast cells in the pathogenesis of periapical lesions. PMID:25861530

  7. Mast Cell Activation Syndrome: Proposed Diagnostic Criteria: Towards a global classification for mast cell disorders

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The term “mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS)” is finding increasing use as a diagnosis for individuals who present with signs and symptoms involving the dermis, gastrointestinal track and cardiovascular system; frequently accompanied by neurologic complaints. Such patients often have undergone multiple extensive medical evaluations by different physicians in varied disciplines without a definitive medical diagnosis until the diagnosis of “MCAS” is applied. However, “MCAS” as a distinct clin...

  8. Histamine from Brain Resident MAST Cells Promotes Wakefulness and Modulates Behavioral States

    OpenAIRE

    Sachiko Chikahisa; Tohru Kodama; Atsushi Soya; Yohei Sagawa; Yuji Ishimaru; Hiroyoshi Séi; Seiji Nishino

    2013-01-01

    Mast cell activation and degranulation can result in the release of various chemical mediators, such as histamine and cytokines, which significantly affect sleep. Mast cells also exist in the central nervous system (CNS). Since up to 50% of histamine contents in the brain are from brain mast cells, mediators from brain mast cells may significantly influence sleep and other behaviors. In this study, we examined potential involvement of brain mast cells in sleep/wake regulations, focusing espec...

  9. Dual view FIDA measurements on MAST

    CERN Document Server

    Michael, C A; Crowley, B; Jones, O; Heidbrink, W W; Pinches, S; Braeken, E; Akers, R; Challis, C; Turnyanskiy, M; Patel, A; Muir, D; Gaffka, R; Bailey, S

    2013-01-01

    A Fast Ion Deuterium Alpha (FIDA) spectrometer was installed on MAST to measure radially resolved information about the fast ion density and its distribution in energy and pitch angle. Toroidally and vertically-directed collection lenses are employed, to detect both passing and trapped particle dynamics, and reference views are installed to subtract the background. This background is found to contain a substantial amount of passive FIDA emission driven by edge neutrals, and to depend delicately on viewing geometry. Results are compared with theoretical expectations based on the codes NUBEAM (for fast ion distributions) and FIDASIM. Calibrating via the measured beam emission peaks, the toroidal FIDA signal profile agrees with classical simulations in MHD quiescent discharges where the neutron rate is also classical. Long-lived modes (LLM) and chirping modes decrease the core FIDA signal significantly, and the profile can be matched closely to simulations using anomalous diffusive transport; a spatially uniform...

  10. Mini-mast CSI testbed user's guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Sharon E.; Pappa, Richard S.; Sulla, Jeffrey L.; Elliott, Kenny B.; Miserentino, Robert; Bailey, James P.; Cooper, Paul A.; Williams, Boyd L., Jr.; Bruner, Anne M.

    1992-01-01

    The Mini-Mast testbed is a 20 m generic truss highly representative of future deployable trusses for space applications. It is fully instrumented for system identification and active vibrations control experiments and is used as a ground testbed at NASA-Langley. The facility has actuators and feedback sensors linked via fiber optic cables to the Advanced Real Time Simulation (ARTS) system, where user defined control laws are incorporated into generic controls software. The object of the facility is to conduct comprehensive active vibration control experiments on a dynamically realistic large space structure. A primary goal is to understand the practical effects of simplifying theoretical assumptions. This User's Guide describes the hardware and its primary components, the dynamic characteristics of the test article, the control law implementation process, and the necessary safeguards employed to protect the test article. Suggestions for a strawman controls experiment are also included.

  11. Mast Cell and Immune Inhibitory Receptors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LixinLi; ZhengbinYao

    2004-01-01

    Modulation by balancing activating and inhibitory receptors constitutes an important mechanism for regulating immune responses. Cells that are activated following ligation of receptors bearing immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs) can be negatively regulated by other receptors bearing immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motifs (ITIMs). Human mast cells (MCs) are the major effector cells of type I hypersensitivity and important participants in a number of disease processes. Antigen-mediated aggregation of IgE bound to its high-affinity receptor on MCs initiates a complex series of biochemical events leading to MC activation. With great detailed description and analysis of several inhibitory receptors on human MCs, a central paradigm of negative regulation of human MC activation by these receptors has emerged. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2004;1(6):408-415.

  12. Effect of fexofenadine,a mast cell blocker,in infertile men with significantly increased testicular mast cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CayaS; ApaDD

    2002-01-01

    Aim:To investigate the role of fexofenadine,a mast cell blocker,on semen quality in the treatment of infertile men.Methods:The study included 16 Turkish idiopathic infertile men with azoospermia or oligozoospermia who underwent testicular biopsy to examine maxt cells containing tryptase.In all patients,a complete metical history,clinical examination,semen analysis and serum hormone assay were carried out.The biopsy specimens were immunohistochemically stained with antihuman tryptase for mast cells.The number of total mast cells per seminiferous tubule was calculated and recorded as mast cell index.The patients were divided into two groups according to their mast cell index:the higher (≥1,n=9) and the lower (<1,n=7) index groups.Fexofenadine was administered orally at a dose of 180mg/day for 4 to 9 months.Pre-and post-treatment semen parameters,including total motile sperm counts(TMC) were recorded and compared.spontaneous pregnancies after the treatment were registered.Results:There was no statistically significant difference in TMC between the pre-treatment and post-treatment values in patients with higher and lower mast cell index(P≥0.05).In both groups,nobody had a significant response to the treatment and there was no spontaneous pregnancy after the treatment.Conclusion:Althought testicular dysfunction is closely associated with increased number of testicular mast cells,fexofenadine,a mast cell blocker,appears not having any benefit in the treatment of Turkish infertile men with a significant increase in testicular mast cells.

  13. Use of Commonly Available Technologies for Diabetes Information and Self-Management Among Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes and Their Parents: A Web-Based Survey Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaala, Sarah E; Hood, Korey K; Laffel, Lori; Kumah-Crystal, Yaa A; Lybarger, Cindy K

    2015-01-01

    Background For individuals with Type 1 diabetes (T1D), following a complicated daily medical regimen is critical to maintaining optimal health. Adolescents in particular struggle with regimen adherence. Commonly available technologies (eg, diabetes websites, apps) can provide diabetes-related support, yet little is known about how many adolescents with T1D use them, why they are used, or relationships between use and self-management. Objective This study examined adolescent and parent use of 5 commonly available technologies for diabetes, including proportions who use each technology, frequency of use, and number of different technologies used for diabetes. Analyses also investigated the reasons adolescents reported for using or not using technologies for diabetes, and factors correlated with adolescents’ technology use. Finally, this study examined relationships between the type and number of technologies adolescents use for diabetes and their self-management and glycemic control. Methods Adolescents (12-17 years) and their parents (N=174 pairs), recruited from a pediatric diabetes clinic (n=134) and the Children with Diabetes community website (n=40), participated in this Web-based survey study. Glycosylated hemoglobin (A1C) values were obtained from medical records for pediatric clinic patients. Adolescents reported their use of 5 commonly available technologies for diabetes (ie, social networking, diabetes websites, mobile diabetes apps, text messaging, and glucometer/insulin pump software), reasons for use, and self-management behavior (Self-Care Inventory-Revised, SCI-R). Results Most adolescents and parents used at least one of the 5 technologies for diabetes. Among adolescents, the most commonly used technology for diabetes was text messaging (53%), and the least commonly used was diabetes websites (25%). Most adolescents who used diabetes apps, text messaging, or pump/glucometer software did so more frequently (≥2 times per week), compared to social

  14. Mast cells in allergy and autoimmunity: implications for adaptive immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Gregory D; Brown, Melissa A

    2006-01-01

    As in the fashion industry, trends in a particular area of scientific investigation often are fleeting but then return with renewed and enthusiastic interest. Studies of mast cell biology are good examples of this. Although dogma once relegated mast cells almost exclusively to roles in pathological inflammation associated with allergic disease, these cells are emerging as important players in a number of other physiological processes. Consequently, they are quickly becoming the newest "trendy" cell, both within and outside the field of immunology. As sources of a large array of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators, mast cells also express cell surface molecules with defined functions in lymphocyte activation and trafficking. Here, we provide an overview of the traditional and newly appreciated contributions of mast cells to both innate and adaptive immune responses.

  15. Gene expression profiles in adenosine-treated human mast cells

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-10-26

    Oct 26, 2011 ... 11Department of Biotechnology and School of Biotechnology, Yeungnam ... The role of mast cells in allergic diseases and innate immunity has been widely .... the sequence quality and cloning vector sequences were.

  16. 即时检测常用技术及其临床应用%Common Technologies and Clinical Applications of Point of Care Testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘波

    2013-01-01

    本文综合论述了即时检测(Point of Care Testing, POCT)的基本概念、工作原理、常用技术及其临床应用。%This paper discussed the basic conception, working principle, common technologies and clinical applications of point of care testing.

  17. Finding Inspiration in the Common Core: An Uncommon Opportunity to Refine the Role of the School Library and Technology Planning Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravey, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    The implementation of the Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts affords school librarians and their planning committees an opportunity to reinvigorate their roles in the school as curators of the school library collection, innovators in the use of instructional technology, and leaders in instructional planning. By focusing on these…

  18. Effect of stocking large channel catfish in a biofloc technology production system on production and incidence of common microbial off-flavor compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Density-dependent production and incidence of common microbial off-flavors caused by geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol were investigated in an outdoor biofloc technology production system stocked with stocker-size (217 g/fish) channel catfish at 1.4, 2.1, or 2.8 kg/m3. Individual weight at harvest rang...

  19. Pathogenic role of mast cells in experimental eosinophilic esophagitis

    OpenAIRE

    Niranjan, Rituraj; Mavi, Parm; Rayapudi, Madhavi; Dynda, Scott; Mishra, Anil

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic allergic disease characterized by esophageal intraepithelial eosinophils, extracellular eosinophil granule deposition, induced mast cell accumulation, and epithelial cell hyperplasia. However, the processes involved in the development of a number of these characteristics are largely unknown. Herein, we tested the hypothesis whether induced mast cell accumulation in the esophagus has a role in promoting EoE pathogenesis. Accordingly, we induced exper...

  20. Irritable bowel syndrome - An inflammatory disease involving mast cells

    OpenAIRE

    Philpott, Hamish; Gibson, Peter; Thien, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is traditionally defined as a functional disorder - that is the presence of symptoms in the absence of demonstrable pathological abnormalities. In recent times, low grade inflammatory infiltrates in both the small and large bowel of some patients with IBS - often rich in mast cells, along with serological markers of low grade inflammation have focussed attention on IBS as an inflammatory disease. The observation that mast cells often lie in close association to ...

  1. Canine mast cell tumors: diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrett LD

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Laura D Garrett Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, University of Illinois College of Veterinary Medicine, Urbana, IL, USA Abstract: Mast cell tumors (MCTs are the most common malignant skin cancer in dogs, and significant variability exists in their biological behavior. Most MCTs are cured with appropriate local therapy, but a subset shows malignant behavior with the potential to spread to lymph nodes, liver, spleen, and other areas and to thus become a systemic cancer. Because of this variable behavior, it is difficult to predict how any individual tumor is going to behave. The variability thus creates uncertainty in deciding what a particular dog's prognosis is, whether staging tests to assess for metastasis are needed, and even what treatments will be necessary for best outcome. In addition to controversies over the potential for development of systemic disease, or diffuse metastasis, controversies also exist over what treatment is needed to best attain local control of these tumors. This article will briefly discuss the diagnosis of MCTs in dogs and will summarize the literature in regards to the controversial topics surrounding the more aggressive form of this disease, with recommendations made based on published studies. Keywords: mitotic index, mastocytosis, tyrosine kinase inhibitor, histologic grade

  2. The role of mast cells in vascularized recurrent pterygium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Riza Cenk Celebi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine and compare the mast cell count in primary and recurrent vascularized pterygium, and in normal bulbar conjunctiva. Methods: The study included 22 patients with primary pterygium (PP group and 28 patients with vascularized recurrent pterygium (VRP group that underwent excision via the limbal conjunctival autograft technique. Normal conjunctiva samples were collected from the superotemporal bulbar conjunctival region, just temporal to the site from which the autograft conjunctival tissue was harvested. The total number of mast cells in the pterygium (primary and recurrent and control tissue samples was calculated microscopically using 1% toluidine blue stain under 400× magnification. Results: The mean mast cell count in primary and vascularized recurrent pterygium tissue was 7.45 ± 2.06 mm–2 and 16.11 ± 4.33 mm–2, respectively, and the difference was significant (independent samples t-test, P<0.001. The mean mast cell count in pterygium tissue was significantly higher than that in normal conjunctiva tissue in both groups (Student's t-test, P<0.001. Conclusion: An increase in the number of mast cells might play a role in the pathogenesis of recurrent pterygium. Determination of a mast cell count cut-off value could be of diagnostic significance for recurrent pterygium.

  3. Irritable bowel syndrome - An inflammatory disease involving mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpott, Hamish; Gibson, Peter; Thien, Frank

    2011-04-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is traditionally defined as a functional disorder - that is the presence of symptoms in the absence of demonstrable pathological abnormalities. In recent times, low grade inflammatory infiltrates in both the small and large bowel of some patients with IBS - often rich in mast cells, along with serological markers of low grade inflammation have focussed attention on IBS as an inflammatory disease. The observation that mast cells often lie in close association to enteric neurons, and in-vitro and in-vivo animal studies demonstrating that mast cell mediators may influence enteric motility provides a biologically plausible causal mechanism in IBS. Pilot studies on patients with IBS using the mast cell stabiliser sodium cromoglycate ('proof of concept') have been encouraging. The essential question remains why mast cells infiltrate the bowel of IBS patients. A disturbance of the 'brain-gut axis' is the current favoured hypothesis, whereby childhood stress or psychiatric comorbidity act via neuro-immune mechanisms to modulate low grade inflammation. An alternative hypothesis is that food allergy may be responsible. Serum specific IgE, and skin prick tests are not elevated in IBS patients, suggesting type 1 IgE mediated food allergy is not the cause. However questionnaire based studies indicate IBS patients have higher rates of atopic disease, and increased bronchial reactivity to methacholine has been demonstrated. In this review, we highlight the potential role of mast cells in IBS, and current and future research directions into this intriguing condition.

  4. Structural analysis of guyed mast exposed to wind action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pezo Milada L.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of the mast is non-linear due to its slenderness and compliant guy-support system, having a tendency to lose stability and even crush suddenly. Wind load is one of the main factors affecting the stability of the structure of the mast. Structural assessment of the different mast configurations has been investigated in the past. Furthermore, European standards EN 1993-3-1:2006 and EN 1993-1-6:2007 already provides some guidelines about the basis of structural analysis of masts and towers. This paper presents the results of numerical simulations of a guyed mast exposed to wind action using finite element method. Structural analyses were performed for three different constant wind loads, modal analysis provides the values of natural frequency and mode shapes, while the stability analysis was performed for the first three buckling load factor values. The motivation for this study is to investigate the contribution of finite element method to structural analysis of a lattice structure such as guyed mast as an alternative and/or improvement to the literature and codes. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR33036

  5. Mast cell-derived histamine mediates cystitis pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles N Rudick

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mast cells trigger inflammation that is associated with local pain, but the mechanisms mediating pain are unclear. Interstitial cystitis (IC is a bladder disease that causes debilitating pelvic pain of unknown origin and without consistent inflammation, but IC symptoms correlate with elevated bladder lamina propria mast cell counts. We hypothesized that mast cells mediate pelvic pain directly and examined pain behavior using a murine model that recapitulates key aspects of IC. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Infection of mice with pseudorabies virus (PRV induces a neurogenic cystitis associated with lamina propria mast cell accumulation dependent upon tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF, TNF-mediated bladder barrier dysfunction, and pelvic pain behavior, but the molecular basis for pelvic pain is unknown. In this study, both PRV-induced pelvic pain and bladder pathophysiology were abrogated in mast cell-deficient mice but were restored by reconstitution with wild type bone marrow. Pelvic pain developed normally in TNF- and TNF receptor-deficient mice, while bladder pathophysiology was abrogated. Conversely, genetic or pharmacologic disruption of histamine receptor H1R or H2R attenuated pelvic pain without altering pathophysiology. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that mast cells promote cystitis pain and bladder pathophysiology through the separable actions of histamine and TNF, respectively. Therefore, pain is independent of pathology and inflammation, and histamine receptors represent direct therapeutic targets for pain in IC and other chronic pain conditions.

  6. Science commons

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    SCP: Creative Commons licensing for open access publishing, Open Access Law journal-author agreements for converting journals to open access, and the Scholar's Copyright Addendum Engine for retaining rights to self-archive in meaningful formats and locations for future re-use. More than 250 science and technology journals already publish under Creative Commons licensing while 35 law journals utilize the Open Access Law agreements. The Addendum Engine is a new tool created in partnership with SPARC and U.S. universities. View John Wilbanks's biography

  7. Evaluation of Mast Cell and Blood Vessel Density in Inflammatory Periapical Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safoura Seifi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Radicular cystsand periapical granulomas are the most common periapical inflammatory lesions. However, the role of cellular immunity and microvessels in their pathogenesis remains unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mast cell density (MCD, mircovessel density (MVD and investigating the correlation between their densities with each other in the above mentioned lesions.Materials & Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 40 paraffin blocks of mentioned lesions were selected from achieves of School of Dentistry, Babol University of Medical Sciences. Three sections were prepared from each block and stained by hematoxylin-eosin, toluidine blue, and immunohistochemically for CD34 to determine the score of inflammation, presence of mast cells and degranulatedmast cells (DMCs, and MVD, respectively. The correlation between MCD and either inflammatory infiltrate or MVD was evaluated. Data analyzed by t student, Mann-Whitney and Spearman test.Results: Mast cells were present in all periapical inflammatory lesions; 15.4±14.8 for MCD, 7.2±6.1 for DMCs, and the ratio of DMCs to total number of MCs was 0.354±0.166 and 14.8+4.44 for blood vessel density in radicular cyst and 8.52±6.75, 2.91±2.1, 0.196±0.194 and 13±8.02 in periapical granulomas, respectively. There was a positive correlation between MCD and MVD in radicular cyst (P=0.03, r=0.341, but not in periapical granulomas (P=0.6, r=0.124. MCD and MVD increased with the score of inflammation in radicular cyst (P=0.001, r=0.7 and periapical granuloma (P=0.012, r=0.54.Conclusion: Mast cells and microvessels play a role in pathogenesis of periapical inflammatory lesions. In this study, the density of mast cells and DMCs in radicular cyst was higher than periapical granulomas, but no difference was observed regarding MVD in periapical inflammatory lesions. It seems that the relationship between MCD and MVD is different based on the clinical stage of periapical

  8. Assisted reproductive technologies in the common marmoset: an integral species for developing nonhuman primate models of human diseases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kropp, Jenna; Di Marzo, Andrea; Golos, Thaddeus

    2017-01-01

    .... Callithrix jacchus, or the common marmoset, is a New World, nonhuman primate species that exhibits great reproductive fitness in captivity with an ovarian cycle that can be easily managed with pharmacological agents...

  9. Can commonly-used fan-driven air cleaning technologies improve indoor air quality? A literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yinping; Mo, Jinhan; Li, Yuguo

    2011-01-01

    Air cleaning techniques have been applied worldwide with the goal of improving indoor air quality. The effectiveness of applying these techniques varies widely, and pollutant removal efficiency is usually determined in controlled laboratory environments which may not be realized in practice. Some...... air cleaners are largely ineffective, and some produce harmful by-products. To summarize what is known regarding the effectiveness of fan-driven air cleaning technologies, a state-of-the-art review of the scientific literature was undertaken by a multidisciplinary panel of experts from Europe, North...... technologies was able to effectively remove all indoor pollutants and many were found to generate undesirable by-products during operation. (2) Particle filtration and sorption of gaseous pollutants were among the most effective air cleaning technologies, but there is insufficient information regarding long...

  10. Mast cells phagocyte Candida albicans and produce nitric oxide by mechanisms involving TLR2 and Dectin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinke, Karen Henriette; Lima, Heliton Gustavo de; Cunha, Fernando Queiroz; Lara, Vanessa Soares

    2016-02-01

    Candida albicans (C. albicans) is a fungus commonly found in the human mucosa, which may cause superficial and systemic infections, especially in immunosuppression. Until now, the main actors in the defense against this fungus are the epithelial cells, neutrophils, macrophages/monocytes and dendritic cells. However, mast cells are strategically located to play a first line of anti-Candida defense and it has appropriate mechanisms to do it. As with other cells, the recognition of C. albicans occurs meanly via TLR2 and Dectin-1. We assess the TLR2/Dectin-1 involvement in phagocytosis and production of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) by mast cells challenged with C. albicans. Bone marrow-derived mast cells (MC) from wild type (Wt) or knockout (TLR2-/-) mice C57BL/6 were subjected to in vitro Dectin-1 blockade. After challenged with FITC-labeled C. albicans or zymosan, phagocytosis was analyzed by microscopy. The intracellular production of NO and ROS was measured by DAF-FM diacetate and CellROX Deep/Red Reagent kits. The nitrite formation and hydrogen peroxide release were analyzed by Griess reaction and Amplex Red Hydrogen Peroxide/Peroxidase Assay Kit. Wt/MC phagocytose C. albicans with production of intracellular NO, but not ROS. Moreover, increased levels of nitrite were also observed. The absence and/or blockade of TLR2/Dectin-1 caused significant decreased in C. albicans phagocytosis and NO production. Our results showed that mast cells are able to phagocytose and produce NO against C. albicans via TLR2/Dectin-1. Therefore, mast cells could be important during the course of Candida infection and as a therapeutic target.

  11. Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional answer card reading method using OMR (Optical Mark Reader, most commonly, OMR special card special use, less versatile, high cost, aiming at the existing problems proposed a method based on pattern recognition of the answer card identification method. Using the method based on Line Segment Detector to detect the tilt of the image, the existence of tilt image rotation correction, and eventually achieve positioning and detection of answers to the answer sheet .Pattern recognition technology for automatic reading, high accuracy, detect faster

  12. Mast cells mediate malignant pleural effusion formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannou, Anastasios D.; Marazioti, Antonia; Spella, Magda; Kanellakis, Nikolaos I.; Apostolopoulou, Hara; Psallidas, Ioannis; Prijovich, Zeljko M.; Vreka, Malamati; Zazara, Dimitra E.; Lilis, Ioannis; Papaleonidopoulos, Vassilios; Kairi, Chrysoula A.; Patmanidi, Alexandra L.; Giopanou, Ioanna; Spiropoulou, Nikolitsa; Harokopos, Vaggelis; Aidinis, Vassilis; Spyratos, Dionisios; Teliousi, Stamatia; Papadaki, Helen; Taraviras, Stavros; Snyder, Linda A.; Eickelberg, Oliver; Kardamakis, Dimitrios; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Feyerabend, Thorsten B.; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; Kalomenidis, Ioannis; Blackwell, Timothy S.; Agalioti, Theodora; Stathopoulos, Georgios T.

    2015-01-01

    Mast cells (MCs) have been identified in various tumors; however, the role of these cells in tumorigenesis remains controversial. Here, we quantified MCs in human and murine malignant pleural effusions (MPEs) and evaluated the fate and function of these cells in MPE development. Evaluation of murine MPE-competent lung and colon adenocarcinomas revealed that these tumors actively attract and subsequently degranulate MCs in the pleural space by elaborating CCL2 and osteopontin. MCs were required for effusion development, as MPEs did not form in mice lacking MCs, and pleural infusion of MCs with MPE-incompetent cells promoted MPE formation. Once homed to the pleural space, MCs released tryptase AB1 and IL-1β, which in turn induced pleural vasculature leakiness and triggered NF-κB activation in pleural tumor cells, thereby fostering pleural fluid accumulation and tumor growth. Evaluation of human effusions revealed that MCs are elevated in MPEs compared with benign effusions. Moreover, MC abundance correlated with MPE formation in a human cancer cell–induced effusion model. Treatment of mice with the c-KIT inhibitor imatinib mesylate limited effusion precipitation by mouse and human adenocarcinoma cells. Together, the results of this study indicate that MCs are required for MPE formation and suggest that MC-dependent effusion formation is therapeutically addressable. PMID:25915587

  13. Mast cells and human hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fabio Grizzi; Barbara Franceschini; Maurizio Chiriva-Internati; Young Liu; Paul L. Hermonat; Nicola Dioguardi

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the density of mast cells (MCs) in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and to determine whether the MCs density has any correlations with histopathological grading, staging or some baseline patient characteristics.METHODS: Tissue sections of 22 primary HCCs were histochemically stained with toluidine blue, in order to be able to quantify the MCs in and around the neoplasm using a computer-assisted image analysis system. HCC was staged and graded by two independent pathologists. To identify the sinusoidal capillarisation of each specimen 3μm thick sections were histochemically stained with sirius red, and semi-quantitatively evaluated by two independent observers. The data were statistically analysed using Spearman′s correlation and Student′s t-test when appropriate.RESULTS: MCs density did not correlate with the age or sex of the patients, the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) or aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels, or the stage or grade of the HCC. No significant differences were found between the MCs density of the patients with and without hepatitis C virus infection, but they were significantly higher in the specimens showing marked sinusoidal capillarisation.CONCLUSION: The lack of any significant correlation between MCs density and the stage or grade of the neoplastic lesions suggests that there is no causal relationship between MCs recruitment and HCC. However, as capillarisation proceeds concurrently with arterial blood supply during hepatocarcinogenesis, MCs may be considered of primary importance in the transition from sinusoidal to capillary-type endothelial cells and the HCC growth.

  14. Blockade of mast cell activation reduces cutaneous scar formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Schrementi, Megan E; Ranzer, Matthew J; Wilgus, Traci A; DiPietro, Luisa A

    2014-01-01

    Damage to the skin initiates a cascade of well-orchestrated events that ultimately leads to repair of the wound. The inflammatory response is key to wound healing both through preventing infection and stimulating proliferation and remodeling of the skin. Mast cells within the tissue are one of the first immune cells to respond to trauma, and upon activation they release pro-inflammatory molecules to initiate recruitment of leukocytes and promote a vascular response in the tissue. Additionally, mast cells stimulate collagen synthesis by dermal fibroblasts, suggesting they may also influence scar formation. To examine the contribution of mast cells in tissue repair, we determined the effects the mast cell inhibitor, disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), on several parameters of dermal repair including, inflammation, re-epithelialization, collagen fiber organization, collagen ultrastructure, scar width and wound breaking strength. Mice treated with DSCG had significantly reduced levels of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1α, IL-1β, and CXCL1. Although DSCG treatment reduced the production of inflammatory mediators, the rate of re-epithelialization was not affected. Compared to control, inhibition of mast cell activity caused a significant decrease in scar width along with accelerated collagen re-organization. Despite the reduced scar width, DSCG treatment did not affect the breaking strength of the healed tissue. Tryptase β1 exclusively produced by mast cells was found to increase significantly in the course of wound healing. However, DSCG treatment did not change its level in the wounds. These results indicate that blockade of mast cell activation reduces scar formation and inflammation without further weakening the healed wound.

  15. Blockade of mast cell activation reduces cutaneous scar formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chen

    Full Text Available Damage to the skin initiates a cascade of well-orchestrated events that ultimately leads to repair of the wound. The inflammatory response is key to wound healing both through preventing infection and stimulating proliferation and remodeling of the skin. Mast cells within the tissue are one of the first immune cells to respond to trauma, and upon activation they release pro-inflammatory molecules to initiate recruitment of leukocytes and promote a vascular response in the tissue. Additionally, mast cells stimulate collagen synthesis by dermal fibroblasts, suggesting they may also influence scar formation. To examine the contribution of mast cells in tissue repair, we determined the effects the mast cell inhibitor, disodium cromoglycate (DSCG, on several parameters of dermal repair including, inflammation, re-epithelialization, collagen fiber organization, collagen ultrastructure, scar width and wound breaking strength. Mice treated with DSCG had significantly reduced levels of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1α, IL-1β, and CXCL1. Although DSCG treatment reduced the production of inflammatory mediators, the rate of re-epithelialization was not affected. Compared to control, inhibition of mast cell activity caused a significant decrease in scar width along with accelerated collagen re-organization. Despite the reduced scar width, DSCG treatment did not affect the breaking strength of the healed tissue. Tryptase β1 exclusively produced by mast cells was found to increase significantly in the course of wound healing. However, DSCG treatment did not change its level in the wounds. These results indicate that blockade of mast cell activation reduces scar formation and inflammation without further weakening the healed wound.

  16. IgE, mast cells, and eosinophils in atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fu-Tong; Goodarzi, Heidi; Chen, Huan-Yuan

    2011-12-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with specific immune and inflammatory mechanisms. Atopy is among the major features of the diagnosis criteria for AD but is not an essential feature. Thus, patients diagnosed with AD can be atopic or non-atopic. This review focuses on the role of IgE, mast cells, and eosinophils in the pathogenesis of AD. The known functions of IgE in allergic inflammation suggest that IgE and IgE-mediated mast cell and eosinophil activation contribute to AD, but direct evidence supporting this is scarce. The level of IgE (thus the degree of allergic sensitization) is associated with severity of AD and contributed by abnormality of skin barrier, a key feature of AD. The function of IgE in development of AD is supported by the beneficial effect of anti-IgE therapy in a number of clinical studies. The role of mast cells in AD is suggested by the increase in the mast cell number and mast cell activation in AD lesions and the association between mast cell activation and AD. It is further suggested by their role in mouse models of AD as well as by the effect of therapeutic agents for AD that can affect mast cells. The role of eosinophils in AD is suggested by the presence of eosinophilia in AD patients and eosinophil infiltrates in AD lesions. It is further supported by information that links AD to cytokines and chemokines associated with production, recruitment, and activation of eosinophils.

  17. Mast cell chemotaxis – Chemoattractants and signaling pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana eHalova

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Migration of mast cells is essential for their recruitment within target tissues where they play an important role in innate and adaptive immune responses. These processes rely on the ability of mast cells to recognize appropriate chemotactic stimuli and react to them by a chemotactic response. Another level of intercellular communication is attained by production of chemoattractants by activated mast cells, which results in accumulation of mast cells and other hematopoietic cells at the sites of inflammation. Mast cells express numerous surface receptors for various ligands with properties of potent chemoattractants. They include the stem cell factor recognized by c-Kit, antigen, which binds to immunoglobulin E (IgE anchored to the high affinity IgE receptor (FcRI, highly cytokinergic IgE recognized by FcRI, lipid mediator sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P, which binds to G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs. Other large groups of chemoattractants are eicosanoids [prostaglandin E2 and D2, leukotriene (LT B4, LTD4 and LTC4, and others] and chemokines (CC, CXC, C and CX3X, which also bind to various GPCRs. Further noteworthy chemoattractants are isoforms of transforming growth factor (TGF , which are sensitively recognized by TGF- serine/threonine type I and II  receptors, adenosine, C1q, C3a, and C5a components of the complement, 5-hydroxytryptamine, neuroendocrine peptide catestatin, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor- and others. Here we discuss the major types of chemoattractants recognized by mast cells, their target receptors, as well as signaling pathways they utilize. We also briefly deal with methods used for studies of mast cell chemotaxis and with ways of how these studies profited from the results obtained in other cellular systems.

  18. Technology and Curriculum Standards: How Well Do Internet-Based Learning Games Support Common Core Standards for Mathematics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Teri; Ray, Jan

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to keep up with the new generation of digital learners, educators are integrating multiple forms of technology into their teaching, including online learning game applications. The purpose of this study was to determine the degree to which internet-based learning game applications selected by preservice teachers were aligned with the…

  19. Mercury induces inflammatory mediator release from human mast cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson Erika

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mercury is known to be neurotoxic, but its effects on the immune system are less well known. Mast cells are involved in allergic reactions, but also in innate and acquired immunity, as well as in inflammation. Many patients with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD have "allergic" symptoms; moreover, the prevalence of ASD in patients with mastocytosis, characterized by numerous hyperactive mast cells in most tissues, is 10-fold higher than the general population suggesting mast cell involvement. We, therefore, investigated the effect of mercuric chloride (HgCl2 on human mast cell activation. Methods Human leukemic cultured LAD2 mast cells and normal human umbilical cord blood-derived cultured mast cells (hCBMCs were stimulated by HgCl2 (0.1-10 μM for either 10 min for beta-hexosaminidase release or 24 hr for measuring vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and IL-6 release by ELISA. Results HgCl2 induced a 2-fold increase in β-hexosaminidase release, and also significant VEGF release at 0.1 and 1 μM (311 ± 32 pg/106 cells and 443 ± 143 pg/106 cells, respectively from LAD2 mast cells compared to control cells (227 ± 17 pg/106 cells, n = 5, p 2 (0.1 μM to the proinflammatory neuropeptide substance P (SP, 0.1 μM had synergestic action in inducing VEGF from LAD2 mast cells. HgCl2 also stimulated significant VEGF release (360 ± 100 pg/106 cells at 1 μM, n = 5, p 6 cells, and IL-6 release (466 ± 57 pg/106 cells at 0.1 μM compared to untreated cells (13 ± 25 pg/106 cells, n = 5, p 2 (0.1 μM to SP (5 μM further increased IL-6 release. Conclusions HgCl2 stimulates VEGF and IL-6 release from human mast cells. This phenomenon could disrupt the blood-brain-barrier and permit brain inflammation. As a result, the findings of the present study provide a biological mechanism for how low levels of mercury may contribute to ASD pathogenesis.

  20. Microvessel and mast cell densities in malignant laryngeal neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balica Nicolae Constantin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Laryngeal neoplasm contributes to 30-40% of carcinomas of the head and neck. Mast cells are normal connective tissue residents, well represented in the respiratory tract. Experimental evidence suggests that the growth of a tumor beyond a certain size requires angiogenesis, which may also permit metastasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between mast cell density, microvascular density, histopathological type and histological grade. Our study included 38 laryngeal carcinomas as follows: adenoid cystic carcinoma (2 cases, malignant papilloma (2 cases and squamous cell carcinoma (34 cases. The combined technique of CD 34-alcian blue safranin (ABS was used to identify microvessel and mast cell density, which was quantified by the hot spot method. A significant correlation was found between both mast cell and microvascular density, and G1/G2 histological grade (p=0.002 and p=0.004, respectively. Squamous cell carcinoma was significantly correlated with mast cell density (p=0.003, but not with microvascular density (p=0.454.

  1. Borrelia burgdorferi Spirochetes Induce Mast Cell Activation and Cytokine Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talkington, Jeffrey; Nickell, Steven P.

    1999-01-01

    The Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, is introduced into human hosts via tick bites. Among the cell types present in the skin which may initially contact spirochetes are mast cells. Since spirochetes are known to activate a variety of cell types in vitro, we tested whether B. burgdorferi spirochetes could activate mast cells. We report here that freshly isolated rat peritoneal mast cells or mouse MC/9 mast cells cultured in vitro with live or freeze-thawed B. burgdorferi spirochetes undergo low but detectable degranulation, as measured by [5-3H] hydroxytryptamine release, and they synthesize and secrete the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). In contrast to findings in previous studies, where B. burgdorferi-associated activity was shown to be dependent upon protein lipidation, mast cell TNF-α release was not induced by either lipidated or unlipidated recombinant OspA. This activity was additionally shown to be protease sensitive and surface expressed. Finally, comparisons of TNF-α-inducing activity in known low-, intermediate-, and high-passage B. burgdorferi B31 isolates demonstrated passage-dependent loss of activity, indicating that the activity is probably plasmid encoded. These findings document the presence in low-passage B. burgdorferi spirochetes of a novel lipidation-independent activity capable of inducing cytokine release from host cells. PMID:10024550

  2. Effect of methylmercury on the rat mast cell degranulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graevskaya, E. E.; Yasutake, A.; Aramai, R.; Rubin, A. B.

    2003-05-01

    Methylmercury is the well-known neurotoxicant as weil as a modulator of the immune system. We investigated the effects of MeHg on the rat mast cell degranulation induced by nonimmunological stimuli (the selective liberator of histamine, compound 48/80, and calcium ionophore A23187) both in vivo and in vitro. In 8, 12 and 15 days afterthe final administration of MeHg we observed the suppression of calcium ionophore A23187-and 48/80-induced histamine release, which enhanced with time. In experiments in vitro incubation of peritoneal mast cells with MeHg alone in the dose range 10^{-8} to 10^{-6} did not induce mast cell degranulation, however modified the activation of mast cells by compound 48/80, and calcium ionophore A23187. We observed activation of stimulated secretion by preliminary incubation with low dose of MeHg 10^{-8} M and inhibition by dose of MeHg 10^{-6} M. These results show that MeHg treatment can modify mast cell function in vivo and in vitro and provide insight into the understanding what role this cell has in the pathogenesis of Minamata disease-comlected disorders.

  3. The role of mast cells in treatment of scabies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, M; Mostafa, F F; Nasr, A N; el-Harras, M

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to recognize the role of mast cells in the pathogenesis of scabies. One hundred and fifty patients and 10 controls were included in the study. Group 1 included 20 patients without previous treatment. In group 2, 80 patients were treated with antiscabietic drugs. Group 3 had 50 patients who received an antiscabietic drug followed by 3 days of crotamiton. Diurnal and nocturnal skin biopsies were taken from group 1. In groups 2 and 3, the biopsies were taken after 2 weeks of treatment. Sections were cut and stained by hematoxylin and eosin and Giemsa stains. Mast cells were increased in diurnal and nocturnal biopsies. Evident degranulation of mast cells was detected in nocturnal biopsies. The mast cell number decreased to half its pretreatment number in patients treated with antiscabietic drugs and to its normal number in patients treated with antiscabietic drugs followed by 3 days with crotamiton. The number of mast cells are increased in scabietic lesions. This plays a role in the pathogenesis of the clinical and histologic picture of scabies. We recommend that an antiscabietic drug should be followed by 3 days of crotamiton in the treatment of scabies.

  4. Mast cell subsets and neuropeptides in leprosy reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antunes Sérgio Luiz Gomes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The immunohistochemical identification of neuropeptides (calcitonin gene-related peptide, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, substance P, alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone and gamma-melanocyte stimulating hormone quantification of mast cells and their subsets (tryptase/chymase-immunoreactive mast cells = TCMC and tryptase-immunoreactive mast cells = TMC were determined in biopsies of six patients with leprosy reactions (three patients with type I reaction and three with type II. Biopsies were compared with those taken from the same body site in the remission stage of the same patient. We found a relative increase of TMC in the inflammatory infiltrate of the reactional biopsies compared to the post-reactional biopsy. Also, the total number of mast cells and the TMC/TCMC ratio in the inflammatory infiltrate was significantly higher than in the intervening dermis of the biopsies of both periods. No significant difference was found regarding neuroptide expression in the reactional and post-reactional biopsies. The relative increase of TMC in the reactional infiltrates could implicate this mast cell subset in the reported increase of the immune response in leprosy reactions.

  5. Mast cell activation contributes to sickle cell pathobiology and pain in mice

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Inhibition of mast cells with cromolyn or imatinib results in reduced systemic inflammation and neurogenic inflammation in sickle mice.Pharmacological inhibition or genetic depletion of mast cells in sickle mice ameliorates chronic and hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced pain.

  6. Expression profiling of constitutive mast cells reveals a unique identity within the immune system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Daniel F.; Barrett, Nora A.; Austen, K. Frank

    2016-01-01

    Mast cells are evolutionarily ancient sentinel cells. Like basophils, mast cells express the high-affinity IgE receptor and are implicated in host defense and diverse immune-mediated diseases. To better characterize the function of these cells, we assessed the transcriptional profiles of mast cells isolated from peripheral connective tissues and basophils isolated from spleen and blood. We found that mast cells were transcriptionally distinct, clustering independently from all other profiled cells, and that mast cells demonstrated considerably greater heterogeneity across tissues than previously appreciated. We observed minimal homology between mast cells and basophils, which share more overlap with other circulating granulocytes than with mast cells. Derivation of mast cell and basophil transcriptional signatures underscores their differential capacity to detect environmental signals and influence the inflammatory milieu. PMID:27135604

  7. Analysis of modern technologies commonly used in beef cattle production: conventional beef production versus nonconventional production using meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wileman, B W; Thomson, D U; Reinhardt, C D; Renter, D G

    2009-10-01

    Conventional feeding systems use pharmaceutical products not allowed in natural or organic systems for finishing cattle. This review of data compares the performance effects (ADG, G:F, DMI) of technologies used in conventional feeding programs that are prohibited in organic programs, natural programs, or both. The technologies evaluated were steroid implants, monensin, tylosin, endectocides, and metaphylaxis with any antimicrobial. For inclusion in this analysis, studies were conducted in North America, reported randomization to treatment group, used beef cattle, contained an untreated control group, and were sourced from peer-reviewed journals. Forest plots were used to examine the data visually for trends toward a uniform effect of the technology on the outcomes of interest (ADG, DMI, G:F). Technologies that displayed a uniform response on the forest plot compared with negative controls were then analyzed using mixed models. Examination of forest plots for endectocides, steroid implants, monensin, and metaphylaxis technologies appeared to show performance advantages for treated cattle relative to cattle in negative control groups. An insufficient number of studies met the inclusion criteria to conduct meta-analyses comparing endectocides, monensin, or tylosin with negative controls. Average daily gain in feeder cattle given metaphylaxis on arrival was 0.11 kg/d (P < 0.01) greater relative to cattle that did not receive metaphylaxis on arrival. Implanting heifers increased ADG by 0.08 kg/d compared with nonimplanted controls (P = 0.09). Implants had no effect on G:F (P = 0.14) in heifers or on DMI (P = 0.44) relative to nonimplanted control heifers. Implanting steers was associated with greater ADG, by 0.25 kg/d (P < 0.01), and DMI, by 0.53 kg/d (P < 0.01), relative to nonimplanted control steers. Implants also improved G:F in steers relative to nonimplanted steers, by 0.02 (0.17 vs. 0.15; implanted vs. controls, P < 0.01; n = 21 studies). When average estimated

  8. Immunosurveillance function of human mast cell?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    (O)ner (O)zdemir

    2005-01-01

    Mast cell (MC) is so widely recognized as a critical effector in allergic disorders that it can be difficult to think of MC in any other context. Indeed, MCs are multifunctional and recently shown that MCs can also act as antigen presenters as well as effector elements of human immune system. First observations of their possible role as anti-tumor cells in peri- or intra-tumoral tissue were mentioned five decades ago and a high content of MCs is considered as a favorable prognosis,consistent with this study. Believers of this hypothesis assumed them to be inhibitors of tumor development through their pro-apoptotic and -necrolytic granules e.g.,granzymes and TNF-α. However, some still postulate them to be enhancers of tumor development through their effects on angiogenesis due to mostly tryptase.There are also some data suggesting increased MC density causes tumor development and indicates bad prognosis. Furthermore, since MC-associated mediators have shown to influence various aspects of tumor biology, the net effect of MCs on the development/progression of tumors has been difficult to evaluate. For instance, chymase induces apoptosis in targets; yet,tryptase, another MC protease, is a well-known mitogen.MCs with these various enzyme expression patterns may mediate different functions and the predominant MC type in tissues may be determined by the environmental needs. The coexistence of tryptase-expressing MCs(MCT) and chymase and tryptase-expressing MCs (MCTC)in physiological conditions reflects a naturally occurring balance that contributes to tissue homeostasis. We have recently discussed the role and relevance of MC serine proteases in different bone marrow diseases.

  9. Functions and Imaging of Mast Cell and Neural Axis of the Gut

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Close association between nerves and mast cells in the gut wall provides the microanatomic basis for functional interactions between these elements, supporting the hypothesis that a mast cell–nerve axis influences gut functions in health and disease. Advanced morphology and imaging techniques are now available to assess structural and functional relationships of the mast cell–nerve axis in human gut tissues. Morphologic techniques including co-labeling of mast cells and nerv...

  10. Mast cells and atopic dermatitis. Stereological quantification of mast cells in atopic dermatitis and normal human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, T E; Olesen, A B; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1997-01-01

    Stereological quantification of mast cell numbers was applied to sections of punch biopsies from lesional and nonlesional skin of atopic dermatitis patients and skin of healthy volunteers. We also investigated whether the method of staining and/or the fixative influenced the results of the determ...... the clinical score and the number of mast cell profiles per millimetre squared. Using stereological techniques, this study indicated that mast cells might participate in the inflammatory process in skin leading to atopic dermatitis.......Stereological quantification of mast cell numbers was applied to sections of punch biopsies from lesional and nonlesional skin of atopic dermatitis patients and skin of healthy volunteers. We also investigated whether the method of staining and/or the fixative influenced the results...... of the determination of the mast cell profile numbers. The punch biopsies were taken from the same four locations in both atopic dermatitis patients and normal individuals. The locations were the scalp, neck and flexure of the elbow (lesional skin), and nates (nonlesional skin). Clinical scoring was carried out...

  11. Measurement and control of the fast ion redistribution on MAST

    CERN Document Server

    Turnyanskiy, M; Akers, R J; Cecconello, M; Keeling, D L; Kirk, A; Lake, R; Pinches, S D; Sangaroon, S; Wodniak, I

    2013-01-01

    Previous experiments on MAST and other tokamaks have indicated that the level of fast ion redistribution can exceed that expected from classical diffusion and that this level increases with beam power. In this paper we present a quantification of this effect in MAST plasmas using a recently commissioned scanning neutron camera. The observed fast ion diffusivity correlates with the amplitude of n=1 energetic particle modes, indicating that they are the probable cause of the non-classical fast ion diffusion in MAST. Finally, it will be shown that broadening the fast ion pressure profile by the application of neutral beam injection at an off-axis location can mitigate the growth of these modes and result in the classical fast ion behaviour

  12. Spontaneous skin canine tumors: toluidine blue stain detection of mast cells in tissue section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALKETA QOKU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dog mast cell tumor (MCT is common in dog. The etiology of canine MCTs is unknown, but it is probably multi-factorial. Its incidence is higher than it has found in human. There are demonstrated several common biological and clinical characteristics in both species. Cutaneous mast cells are located in the dermis and hypodermis. The objective of this study is to detect of MC on Toluidine Blue stained slides. There were examined 74 dogs of difference breeds and aged, from Tirana city. Six of them demonstrated the skin canine tumors. Skin samples were obtained from these animals. Macroscopic examination of the tumor revealed nodular ulcerated lesion with areas of necrosis and hemorrhage, accompanied with normal superjacent epidermis and annexes. Serial sections obtained from biopsy specimens were processed with toluidine blue staining pH 4.5, specific for MC identification. This study suggests that Toluidine blue, pH 4.5 stain may give a good information about skin tumors in dog, histologically with benign behavior.

  13. Activation of human tonsil and skin mast cells by agonists of proteinase activated receptor-2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao-heng HE; Hua XIE; Yi-ling FU

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of the agonists of proteinase activated receptor (PAR)-2,and histamine on degranulation of human mast cells. Methods: Human mast cells were enzymatically dispersed from tonsil and skin tissues. The dis persed cells were then cultured with various stimuli, and tryptase and histamine levels in cell supernatants collected from challenge tubes were measured. Results:PAR-2 agonist peptide SLIGKV provoked a dose-dependent release of histamine from skin mast cells. It also induced tryptase release from tonsil mast cells, tcLIGRLO appeared less potent than SLIGKV in induction of release of histamine and tryptase. Trypsin was able to induce a "bell" shape increase in tryptase release from tonsil mast cells. It was also able to induce a dose-dependent release of histamine from both tonsil and skin mast cells. The actions of trypsin on mast cells were inhibited by soy bean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI) or α1-antitrypsin (α1-AT).Time course study revealed that both stimulated tryptase or histamine release initiated within 10 s and reached their peak release between 4 and 6 min. Pretreatment of cells with metabolic inhibitors or pertussis toxin reduced the ability of mast cells to release tryptase or histamine. Conclusion: It was demonstrated that the in vitro tryptase release properties of human tonsil and skin mast cells suggested a novel type of mast cell heterogeneity. The activation of mast cells by PAR-2 agonists indicated a self-amplification mechanism of mast cell degranulation.

  14. Immunoglobulin free light chains: new insights in mast cell activation and immunology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thio, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, several studies are described that elaborate on the biological properties of immunoglobulin free light chains (Ig-fLC) related to the activation of mast cells and effects on other cells. Mast cell degranulation through Ig-fLC requires two events. At first, mast cell-bound Ig-fLCs sho

  15. File list: ALL.Bld.50.AllAg.Mast_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Bld.50.AllAg.Mast_Cells mm9 All antigens Blood Mast Cells SRX310205,SRX310198,S...,SRX310204,SRX310199 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Bld.50.AllAg.Mast_Cells.bed ...

  16. Changes in ocular mast cell numbers and histamine distribution during experimental autoimmune uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C H; Lang, L S; Orr, E L

    1993-01-01

    Choroidal mast cells have been implicated in experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU), an ocular inflammatory disease induced by S-antigen. Our data confirm that choroidal mast cell numbers decrease with clinical onset of S-antigen-induced EAU in Lewis rats, and establish that the decrease is statistically significant. In addition, we find that the numbers of limbal mast cells also decrease during S-antigen-induced EAU, and that this decrease occurs earlier in the course of the disease than that observed for choroidal mast cells. Activation and degranulation of mast cells, as evidenced by decreases in mast cell number, result in the synthesis and/or release of large quantities of mast cell mediators, such as histamine. Histamine levels in EAU were found to change significantly, decreasing in the anterior portion of the eye and increasing in the choroid and retina, in concert with changes in mast cell number over the course of EAU. Mast cell mediators may actively contribute to the pathogenesis of EAU through direct enhancement of the inflammation, by stimulation of other elements of the immune system, and/or through facilitation of the blood-retinal barrier breakdown that occurs in EAU. Overall, these results add to the evidence for a mast cell role in EAU, and, in addition, show that the mast cell involvement in EAU includes the mast cells of the limbus.

  17. Mast cells, glia and neuroinflammation: partners in crime?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaper, Stephen D; Facci, Laura; Giusti, Pietro

    2014-03-01

    Glia and microglia in particular elaborate pro-inflammatory molecules that play key roles in central nervous system (CNS) disorders from neuropathic pain and epilepsy to neurodegenerative diseases. Microglia respond also to pro-inflammatory signals released from other non-neuronal cells, mainly those of immune origin such as mast cells. The latter are found in most tissues, are CNS resident, and traverse the blood-spinal cord and blood-brain barriers when barrier compromise results from CNS pathology. Growing evidence of mast cell-glia communication opens new perspectives for the development of therapies targeting neuroinflammation by differentially modulating activation of non-neuronal cells that normally control neuronal sensitization - both peripherally and centrally. Mast cells and glia possess endogenous homeostatic mechanisms/molecules that can be up-regulated as a result of tissue damage or stimulation of inflammatory responses. Such molecules include the N-acylethanolamine family. One such member, N-palmitoylethanolamine is proposed to have a key role in maintenance of cellular homeostasis in the face of external stressors provoking, for example, inflammation. N-Palmitoylethanolamine has proven efficacious in mast-cell-mediated experimental models of acute and neurogenic inflammation. This review will provide an overview of recent progress relating to the pathobiology of neuroinflammation, the role of microglia, neuroimmune interactions involving mast cells and the possibility that mast cell-microglia cross-talk contributes to the exacerbation of acute symptoms of chronic neurodegenerative disease and accelerates disease progression, as well as promoting pain transmission pathways. We will conclude by considering the therapeutic potential of treating systemic inflammation or blockade of signalling pathways from the periphery to the brain in such settings.

  18. Talking on the Common Black Hat SEO Technology%浅谈常见的黑帽SEO技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁保立

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the common search engine optimization cheating,explain what the practice is illegal,can not be used to avoid falling into the search engine optimization errors.%本文主要介绍常见的搜索引擎优化作弊手段,说明哪些做法是违规的、不可以使用的,从而避免陷入搜索引擎优化误区。

  19. Phenotypic and genetic relationships of common health disorders with milk and fat yield persistencies from producer-recorded health data and test-day yields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appuhamy, J A D R N; Cassell, B G; Cole, J B

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate phenotypic and genetic relationships of common health disorders in dairy cows with milk (PMY) and fat (PFY) yield persistencies. Health and production data from 398 commercial dairy herds were used. Disease traits were defined in binary form for individual lactations considering mastitis only during the first 100 d in milk (MAST1), only after 100 d in milk (MAST2), and at any stage of lactation (MAST), and reproductive disorders (REPRO), metabolic disorders (METAB), and lameness (LAME). The persistencies were defined to be uncorrelated with 305-d yields. Impact of the diseases on PMY and PFY were investigated separately in first (FL) and later (LL) lactations. Phenotypic associations of PMY and PFY with likelihood of diseases in current and subsequent lactations were examined using odds ratios from a logistic regression model. Linear-threshold sire-maternal grandsire models were used to estimate genetic correlations of displaced abomasums (DA), ketosis (KET), metritis (MET), MAST, MAST1, and MAST2 with PMY and PFY across parities. Metabolic diseases and REPRO had significantly positive relationships with PMY and PFY in both FL and LL. Significantly greater PMY and PFY were associated with MAST1 in LL. Significantly lower PMY and PFY were related to MAST2 in both FL and LL, whereas cows affected by MAST had significantly less persistent lactations. Incidence of MAST and MAST2 decreased with increasing PMY and PFY in the present and previous lactation. Heritability of disease incidences were 0.03 (DA), 0.01 (KET), 0.10 (MAST), 0.02 to 0.05 (MAST1), 0.02 (MAST2), and 0.04 to 0.10 (MET). Displaced abomasum, KET, MAST, MAST1, and MET had unfavorable genetic correlations of 0.35, 0.46, 0.17, 0.02, and 0.27 with PMY, and 0.16, 0.21, 0.07, 0.06, and 0.12 with PFY, respectively. Favorable genetic correlations were found for MAST2 with PMY (-0.24) and PFY (-0.04). Results suggest that diseases in early lactation increase

  20. Effects of staphylococcal enterotoxin B on rodent mast cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Komisar, J; Rivera, J.; Vega, A.; Tseng, J

    1992-01-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) was tested in rodent mast cell cultures for the release of serotonin. Both rat RBL-2H3 mast cells and murine peritoneal cells released serotonin after SEB stimulation in culture. Release of serotonin in RBL-2H3 cells depended on the concentration of SEB; an appreciable release was seen at 50 micrograms/ml. The release of serotonin was not due to cell death. Serotonin release could be enhanced by bradykinin but not by vasoactive intestinal peptide, substance ...

  1. A geographical model of radio-frequency power density around mobile phone masts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, David; Beale, Linda; Bennett, James; Toledano, Mireille B; de Hoogh, Kees

    2012-06-01

    Public concern about possible health effects of EMF radiation from mobile phone masts has led to an increase of epidemiological studies and health risk assessments which, in turn, require adequate methods of exposure estimation. Difficulties in exposure modelling are exacerbated both by the complexity of the propagation processes, and the need to obtain estimates for large study populations in order to provide sufficient statistical power to detect or exclude the small relative risks that might exist. Use of geographical information system (GIS) techniques offers the means to make such computations efficiently. This paper describes the development and field validation of a GIS-based exposure model (Geomorf). The model uses a modified Gaussian formulation to represent spatial variations in power densities around mobile phone masts, on the basis of power output, antenna height, tilt and the surrounding propagation environment. Obstruction by topography is allowed for, through use of a visibility function. Model calibration was done using field data from 151 measurement sites (1510 antenna-specific measurements) around a group of masts in a rural location, and 50 measurement sites (658 antenna-specific measurements) in an urban area. Different parameter settings were found to be necessary in urban and rural areas to obtain optimum results. The calibrated models were then validated against independent sets of data gathered from measurement surveys in rural and urban areas, and model performance was compared with that of two commonly used path-loss models (the COST-231 adaptations of the Hata and Walfisch-Ikegami models). Model performance was found to vary somewhat between the rural and urban areas, and at different measurement levels (antenna-specific power density, total power density), but overall gave good estimates (R(2)=0.641 and 0.615, RMSE=10.7 and 6.7 dB m at the antenna and site-level respectively). Performance was considerably better than that of both path

  2. Quantitative evaluation of the structure and function of the common carotid artery in hypertriglyceridemic subjects using ultrasound radiofrequency-data technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dan, Hai-Jun, E-mail: danhaijun@163.com [Department of Physical Examination, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050000, Hebei (China); Wang, Yan [Department of Ultrasound in Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, Shanghai 200233 (China); Sha, Hai-Jing [Second Department of Geriatrics, The Central Hospital of Handan, Handan 056001, Hebei (China); Wen, Shu-Bin [Department of Physical Examination, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050000, Hebei (China)

    2012-11-15

    Assessment of the properties of blood-vessel walls by ultrasound radiofrequency (RF)-data technology is an innovative technique. We quantitatively evaluated the intima-media thickness (IMT) and arterial elasticity of the common carotid artery (CCA) in asymptomatic subjects with hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) using RF-data technology. Thirty HTG subjects and 30 matched controls were enrolled in the study. The common carotid arterial systolic diameter, diastolic diameter, IMT, carotid distensibility (CD), local pulse wave velocity (PWV{beta}), and stiffness ({beta}) were compared between the two groups, as was the correlation between triglyceride level and the parameters mentioned above. The HTG group had significantly higher values of CCA-IMT compared with the control group (p < 0.001). There were significant differences between the HTG group and controls in terms of higher values of PWV{beta} and {beta}, and lower values of CD (all p < 0.05). No difference was observed in terms of the systolic and diastolic diameter of the CCA (p > 0.05). The level of triglycerides had significant positive correlations with CCA-IMT (r = 0.493, p < 0.001), whereas significant correlations with CD, PWV{beta}, and {beta} were not observed in the HTG group. Ultrasound RF-data technology can be used to non-invasively and quantitatively detect the change in the structure and function of the CCA in asymptomatic HTG subjects for evaluating preclinical atherosclerosis.

  3. Role of Mast Cells in Regulation of T Cell Responses in Experimental and Clinical Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elieh Ali Komi, Daniel; Grauwet, Korneel

    2017-09-19

    Mast cells secrete a wide spectrum of stored or newly synthesized pro-inflammatory, anti-inflammatory, and/or immunosuppressive mediators and express several costimulatory and inhibitory surface molecules. Mast cells finely tune activities of T cells, B cells, and regulatory cells and effectively contribute to the development of different T cell-associated responses by influencing their recruitment, activation, proliferation, and differentiation. The interaction between mast cells and T cells, with regard to cellular functionality and immune responses, can be assessed in both activating and inhibitory regulations. While Th2 cytokines, including IL-5 and IL-9, stimulate stem cell factor (SCF)-dependent proliferation of mast cells, Th1 cytokine IFN-γ suppresses SCF-mediated differentiation of mast cell progenitors. Mast cell mediators such as CCL5 have a role in the recruitment of CD8+ T cells to viral infection sites where their ability in clearance of viral reservoirs is needed. The capacity of mast cells in presenting antigens by classes I and II MHC molecules to CD4+ and CD8+ T cells respectively is considered one of the main antigen-dependent interactions of mast cells with T cells. Interestingly, Tregs recruit mast cells to different sites through secretion of IL-9, while the OX40L (expressed on mast cell)-OX40(expressed on T cell) interaction inhibits the extent of the mast cell degranulation. Recently, the capability of exosomes to carry regulatory receptors of the mast cell surface and their role in T cell activation has been investigated. Functional interplay between mast cells and T cell subsets has been suggested primarily by investigating their co-localization in inflamed tissues and involvement of mast cells in autoimmune diseases. In this review, the interactions of mast cells with T cells are reviewed in cell-to-cell, cytokine, and exosome categories.

  4. THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTALRESEARCH ON DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF GUYED MASTS UNDER WIND LOAD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MaXing; WangZhonggang; DengHongzhou; WangZhaomin

    2004-01-01

    A frequency-domain algorithm is presented for the dynamic analysis of guyed masts. By introducing a four-degrees-of-freedom model of a suspended cable, guyed masts are simplified as an equivalent cable-beam model. Then, based on the discrete random vibration theory, recurrence formulas for the statistical moments of the wind-induced behavior of guyed masts are developed with the wind load treated as filtered white noise excitation. The dynamic analysis of a two-level guyed mast has been illustrated. Finally. results from a wind-tunnel experiment of guyed mast are used to testify the theory developed in this paper.

  5. Correlation of nodal mast cells with clinical outcome in dogs with mast cell tumour and a proposed classification system for the evaluation of node metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weishaar, K M; Thamm, D H; Worley, D R; Kamstock, D A

    2014-11-01

    Lymph node metastasis in dogs with mast cell tumour has been reported as a negative prognostic indicator; however, no standardized histological criteria exist to define metastatic disease. The primary aim of this study was to determine whether different histological patterns of node-associated mast cells correlate with clinical outcome in dogs with mast cell tumour. A secondary goal was to propose a criteria-defined classification system for histological evaluation of lymph node metastasis. The Colorado State University Diagnostic Medicine Center database was searched for cases of canine mast cell tumours with reported lymph node metastasis or evidence of node-associated mast cells. Additional cases were obtained from a clinical trial involving sentinel lymph node mapping and node extirpation in dogs with mast cell neoplasia. Forty-one cases were identified for inclusion in the study. Demographic data, treatment and clinical outcome were collected for each case. Lymph nodes were classified according to a novel classification system (HN0-HN3) based on the number of, distribution of, and architectural disruption by, nodal mast cells. The findings of this study indicate that characterization of nodal mast cells as proposed by this novel classification system correlates with, and is prognostic for, clinical outcome in dogs with mast cell tumours.

  6. Mast cells as key players in periodontal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popovici Ramona Amina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mast cell (MC active mediators promote inflammation through changes induced in the connective tissue components of human gingiva. The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution, mast cell density and their relationship with the degree of inflammatory infiltrate in gingiva from patients with periodontal disease. Thirty-nine cases with periodontal disease and 12 cases without significant changes to the gingival mucosa were investigated. MCs were identified on paraffin-embedded specimens by immunohistochemistry using anti-mast cell tryptase. The inflammatory infiltrate was scored from 0 to 3, and the MCs were counted using the hotspot method. Intraepithelial MCs were scored from 0 to 2. We found a significant increase of mast cell density in cases with mild and moderate inflammatory changes, and a slight decrease in patients with severe periodontal disease. We noticed a higher degranulation rate in patients with periodontal disease compared to those with healthy mucosa. Intraepithelial MCs were found in cases with periodontal disease only and were correlated with the severity of the inflammatory lesion. MCs are important cellular components of the early stages of periodontal disease. Contrary to other studies, we found that MC density and activation increases with moderate inflammation but decreases in severe inflammatory lesions. Our data suggest that MCs are key players in the progression of inflammatory lesions of the gingiva. In advanced-stage periodontal disease, intraepithelial MCs apparently play an important role, although their biological significance remains to be fully understood.

  7. Increased mast cell numbers in a calcaneal tendon overuse model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pingel, Jessica; Wienecke, Jacob; Kongsgaard Madsen, Mads

    2013-01-01

    Tendinopathy is often discovered late because the initial development of tendon pathology is asymptomatic. The aim of this study was to examine the potential role of mast cell involvement in early tendinopathy using a high-intensity uphill running (HIUR) exercise model. Twenty-four male Wistar ra...

  8. Mast Cell Inhibition Improves Pulmonary Vascular Remodeling in Pulmonary Hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartelds, Beatrijs; van Loon, Rosa Laura E.; Mohaupt, Saffloer; Wijnberg, Hans; Dickinson, Michael G.; Takens, Janny; van Albada, Mirjam; Berger, Rolf M. F.; Boersma, B.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive angioproliferative disease with high morbidity and mortality. Although the histopathology is well described, its pathogenesis is largely unknown. We previously identified the increased presence of mast cells and their markers in a ra

  9. Defense in Depth Added to Malicious Activities Simulation Tools (MAST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    15 Figure 6. ECB Encryption...Algorithm ECB Electronic Cookbook ECDSA Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm EN End Node MAC Message Authentication Code MAST Malicious...discussion will be based on the use of AES. 16 Electronic Codebook ( ECB ) This is the simplest and the weakest mode for block ciphering. For this mode

  10. Atherosclerosis: a chronic inflammatory disease mediated by mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Pio; Shaik-Dasthagirisaeb, Yazdami

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is a process that plays an important role in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis and immune disease, involving multiple cell types, including macrophages, T-lymphocytes, endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells and mast cells. The fundamental damage of atherosclerosis is the atheromatous or fibro-fatty plaque which is a lesion that causes several diseases. In atherosclerosis the innate immune response, which involves macrophages, is initiated by the arterial endothelial cells which respond to modified lipoproteins and lead to Th1 cell subset activation and generation of inflammatory cytokines and chemoattractant chemokines. Other immune cells, such as CD4+ T inflammatory cells, which play a critical role in the development and progression of atherosclerosis, and regulatory T cells [Treg], which have a protective effect on the development of atherosclerosis are involved. Considerable evidence indicates that mast cells and their products play a key role in inflammation and atherosclerosis. Activated mast cells can have detrimental effects, provoking matrix degradation, apoptosis, and enhancement as well as recruitment of inflammatory cells, which actively contributes to atherosclerosis and plaque formation. Here we discuss the relationship between atherosclerosis, inflammation and mast cells.

  11. In Vitro Desensitization of Human Skin Mast Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Gomez, Gregorio; Macey, Matthew; Kepley, Christopher L.

    2013-01-01

    Desensitization is a clinical procedure whereby incremental doses of a drug are administered over several hours to a sensitive patient until a therapeutic dose and clinical tolerance are achieved. Clinical tolerance may occur in part by attenuating the mast cell response. In the present study, primary human skin mast cells were used to establish and characterize an in vitro model of desensitization. Mast cells in culture were armed with allergen-specific (4-hydroxy-3-nitro-phenylacety and Der p2) and non-specific IgE antibodies, and then desensitized by incremental exposures to 4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenylacety-BSA. This desensitization procedure abrogated the subsequent degranulation response to the desensitizing allergen, to an unrelated allergen, and to IgG anti-FcεRI, but not to C5a, substance P, compound 48/80, and calcium ionophore. Desensitized cells regained their FcεRI-dependent degranulation capability by 24–48 h after free allergen had been removed. Therefore, sensitized human skin mast cells are reversibly desensitized in vitro by exposure to incremental doses of that allergen, which also cross-desensitizes them to an unrelated allergen. PMID:22009002

  12. Murine mast cells secrete and respond to interleukin-33.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Hui-Ying; Plunkett, Beverly; Huang, Shau-Ku; Zhou, Yufeng

    2014-03-01

    Interleukin-33 (IL-33) appears to play a crucial role in the expression of allergic diseases, but its cellular source and regulatory mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. Mast cells, one of the major effecter cell populations in mediating allergy, express high levels of IL-33 receptor, ST2, and have been shown to express IL-33 transcripts. In this study, we aimed to examine the secretion of IL-33 in mast cells and their response to IL-33. We have successfully detected secreted IL-33 from cell supernatants through a modified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique-cell-based ELISA. Activation of bone marrow-derived cultured mast cells (BMMCs) by crosslinkage of an antigen [ovalbumin (OVA)] and OVA-specific IgE mAbs significantly induced the expression of IL-33 transcripts, cytosolic and secreted proteins. In addition, the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR-9 ligands could trigger IL-33 mRNA expression. Exposure of BMMCs to IL-33 significantly increased the levels of IL-13 and IL-6 expression, concomitant with enhanced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs) (ERK, p38, and JNK) and nuclear factor-kappa B. These results suggest that mouse BMMCs are capable of producing and serving as endogenous sources of IL-33, and that IL-33 plays an important role in regulating mast cell functions.

  13. Influence of the Meteorology Mast on a Cup Anemometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin O. L.; Pedersen, B.M.

    1999-01-01

    The actuator disc model is applied on lattice-type meteorological masts to estimate the influence of the tower on the accuracy of the measured wind speed. Combining the results with corrections for the boom, on which the anemometer is mounted, good agreement is found for measurements made...

  14. Transcription factor GATA1 is dispensable for mast cell differentiation in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohneda, Kinuko; Moriguchi, Takashi; Ohmori, Shin'ya; Ishijima, Yasushi; Satoh, Hironori; Philipsen, Sjaak; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    2014-05-01

    Although previous studies have shown that GATA1 is required for mast cell differentiation, the effects of the complete ablation of GATA1 in mast cells have not been examined. Using conditional Gata1 knockout mice (Gata1(-/y)), we demonstrate here that the complete ablation of GATA1 has a minimal effect on the number and distribution of peripheral tissue mast cells in adult mice. The Gata1(-/y) bone marrow cells were capable of differentiating into mast cells ex vivo. Microarray analyses showed that the repression of GATA1 in bone marrow mast cells (BMMCs) has a small impact on the mast cell-specific gene expression in most cases. Interestingly, however, the expression levels of mast cell tryptases in the mouse chromosome 17A3.3 were uniformly reduced in the GATA1 knockdown cells, and GATA1 was found to bind to a 500-bp region at the 5' end of this locus. Revealing a sharp contrast to that observed in the Gata1-null BMMCs, GATA2 deficiency resulted in a significant loss of the c-Kit(+) FcεRIα(+) mast cell fraction and a reduced expression of several mast cell-specific genes. Collectively, GATA2 plays a more important role than GATA1 in the regulation of most mast cell-specific genes, while GATA1 might play specific roles in mast cell functions.

  15. The production and secretion of complement component C1q by human mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaarenburg, Rosanne A; Suurmond, Jolien; Habets, Kim L L; Brouwer, Mieke C; Wouters, Diana; Kurreeman, Fina A S; Huizinga, Tom W J; Toes, René E M; Trouw, Leendert A

    2016-10-01

    C1q is the initiation molecule of the classical pathway of the complement system and is produced by macrophages and immature dendritic cells. As mast cells share the same myeloid progenitor cells, we have studied whether also mast cells can produce and secrete C1q. Mast cells were generated in vitro from CD34+ progenitor cells from buffy coats or cord blood. Fully differentiated mast cells were shown by both RNA sequencing and qPCR to express C1QA, C1QB and C1QC. C1q produced by mast cells has a similar molecular make-up as serum C1q. Reconstituting C1q depleted serum with mast cell supernatant in haemolytic assays, indicated that C1q secreted by mast cells is functionally active. The level of C1q in supernatants produced under basal conditions was considerably enhanced upon stimulation with LPS, dexamethasone in combination with IFN- γ or via FcεRI triggering. Mast cells in human tissues stained positive for C1q in both healthy and in inflamed tissue. Moreover, mast cells in healthy and diseased skin appear to be the predominant C1q positive cells. Together, our data reveal that mast cells are able to produce and secrete functional active C1q and indicate mast cells as a local source of C1q in human tissue. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Masting promotes individual- and population-level reproduction by increasing pollination efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Xoaquín; Abdala-Roberts, Luis; Linhart, Yan B; Mooney, Kailen A

    2014-04-01

    Masting is a reproductive strategy defined as the intermittent and synchronized production of large seed crops by a plant population. The pollination efficiency hypothesis proposes that masting increases pollination success in plants. Despite its general appeal, no previous studies have used long-term data together with population- and individual-level analyses to assess pollination efficiency between mast and non-mast events. Here we rigorously tested the pollination efficiency hypothesis in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), a long-lived monoecious, wind-pollinated species, using a data set on 217 trees monitored annually for 20 years. Relative investment in male and female function by individual trees did not vary between mast and non-mast years. At both the population and individual level, the rate of production of mature female cones relative to male strobili production was higher in mast than non-mast years, consistent with the predicted benefit of reproductive synchrony on reproductive success. In addition, at the individual level we found a higher conversion of unfertilized female conelets into mature female cones during a mast year compared to a non-mast year. Collectively, parallel results at the population and individual tree level provide robust evidence for the ecological, and potentially also evolutionary, benefits of masting through increased pollination efficiency.

  17. Estimation of the total number of mast cells in the human umbilical cord. A methodological study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg Damsgaard, T M; Windelborg Nielsen, B; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1992-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the total number of mast cells in the human umbilical cord. Using 50 microns-thick paraffin sections, made from a systematic random sample of umbilical cord, the total number of mast cells per cord was estimated using a combination of the optical...... disector and fractionated sampling. The mast cell of the human umbilical cord was found in Wharton's jelly, most frequently in close proximity to the three blood vessels. No consistent pattern of variation in mast cell numbers from the fetal end of the umbilical cord towards the placenta was seen....... The total number of mast cells found in the umbilical cord was 5,200,000 (median), range 2,800,000-16,800,000 (n = 7), that is 156,000 mast cells per gram umbilical cord (median), range 48,000-267,000. Thus, the umbilical cord constitutes an adequate source of mast cells for further investigation...

  18. New Kepler Data Products At MAST For Stellar Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Scott W.; Shiao, B.; Tseng, S.; Million, C.; Thompson, R.; Seibert, M.; Abney, F.; Donaldson, T.; Dower, T.; Fraquelli, D. A.; Handy, S.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Levay, K.; Matuskey, J.; McLean, B.; Quick, L.; Rogers, A.; Wallace, G.; White, R. L.

    2014-01-01

    The Kepler Mission has collected high-precision, time-series photometry of over 200,000 stars. The reduced lightcurves, target pixel files, and a variety of catalog metadata are already available at MAST. We present new data products and services at MAST that will further aid researchers as Kepler begins its transition to a legacy mission, particularly in the realm of stellar astrophysics. New photometric catalogs to accompany the Kepler targets have arrived at MAST within the past year, and several more will be coming in the relative future. These include the second half of the Kepler INT survey (U,g,r,i,H_alpha; available now), an improved GALEX source catalog (NUV and FUV; available now), PanSTARRS (g,r,i,z; available soon), and WISE (3.4, 4.6, 12, and 22 microns; planned). We expect searches for variability will become one of the most active areas of archive use, so MAST is including a wide range of variability statistics as part of the archive database. In addition to being searchable through database queries and web forms, each Preview page will now include a summary of these variability indices for each of the target's lightcurves within a Quarter. Along with updated NUV and FUV fluxes, a new tool at MAST called gPhoton will allow users to create time-series lightcurves, including animated movies and intensity images, from any set of GALEX photons with arbitrary aperture and bin sizes. We show some examples of the ways GALEX UV lightcurves generated with gPhoton can be used in conjunction with the Kepler data. Finally, MAST has released an initial version of its Data Discovery Portal. This one-stop, interactive web application gives users the ability to search and access data from any of MAST's missions (HST, GALEX, Kepler, FUSE, IUE, JWST, etc.), as well as any data available through the Virtual Observatory. It includes filtering options, access to interactive displays, an accompanying AstroViewer with data footprints on-sky, the ability to upload your own

  19. A restauração na trajetória de um teodolito do acervo do MAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Granato

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available MAST is a science and technology museum located in the grounds and architectural complex belonging to the former National Observatory in Rio de Janeiro. Soon after the museum was created, the historical heritage existing there, relating to a significant period in the history of science in Brazil, was listed by the Brazilian National Heritage Institute (Iphan and the Rio de Janeiro State Cultural Heritage Institute (Inepac in 1986 and 1987, respectively. The studies that preceded the restoration of a theodolite from the MAST collection started with an appraisal of the state of conservation of the institution's scientific instruments collection. Next, a set of pre-established criteria were used to select this object, which was in a critical state of conservation. After this, historical research was undertaken of the instrument, the composition of its main parts was determined, a study was made into its working, and finally the intervention per se was undertaken on the object. The restoration procedure involved three stages: the conservation of parts, the restoration of parts, and the replacement of missing parts. The whole process was photographed exhaustively. The procedure adopted in this study has been replicated in further restoration projects. Studies were undertaken into the conservation of scientific instruments and research was done into the construction of trajectories of objects and collections by the Archive Preservation Group, based at MAST, resulting in the identification of restoration as a singular moment in these trajectories.

  20. The genetic basis of mast cell activation disease - looking through a glass darkly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molderings, Gerhard J

    2015-02-01

    Within the last decade, and in particular since 2012, research has greatly extended our understanding of the molecular basis of systemic mast cell activation disease (MCAD). Initial studies demonstrated that somatic mutations in the tyrosine kinase KIT led to the establishment of a clonal mast cell population. Recent studies, in particular those involving next generation sequencing analyses of advanced systemic mastocytosis, have revealed mutations in additional genes. The respective genes encode proteins for various signaling pathways, epigenetic regulators, the RNA splicing machinery, and transcription factors. Although almost all of the detected mutations are somatic in nature, transgenerational transmission of MCAD appears to be quite common. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying genetic predestination, e.g. germline mutations and the contribution of epigenetic processes, still await identification. The aim of the present review is to present and discuss available genetic findings, and to outline the relationship between adult-onset systemic MCAD and childhood-onset mastocytosis, often termed cutaneous mastocytosis, on the basis of current genetic data. Finally, the implications of increased knowledge of the molecular basis of MCAD in terms of diagnostics and therapy are discussed.

  1. Effect of methylmercury on histamine release from rat mast cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graevskaya, Elizabeth E.; Rubin, Andrew B. [Moscow State University, Biological Faculty, Department of Biophysics, 119899, Vorobjovy Gory, Moscow (Russian Federation); Yasutake, Akira; Aramaki, Ryoji [National Institute for Minamata Disease, 4058-18 Hama, Minamata, Kumamoto 867-0008 (Japan)

    2003-01-01

    Methylmercury chloride (MeHgCl) is well known as a significant environmental hazard, particularly as a modulator of the immune system. As it is acknowledged that the critical effector cells in the host response participating in various biological responses are mast cells, we tried to define the possible contribution of mast cells in the development of methylmercury-evoked effects. We investigated the effects of methylmercury on the rat mast cell degranulation induced by non-immunological stimuli (the selective liberator of histamine, compound 48/80, and calcium ionophore A23187) both in vivo and in vitro. Using the cells prepared from methylmercury-intoxicated rats through a 5-day treatment of MeHgCl (10 mg/kg/day), we observed the suppression of calcium ionophore A23187- and 48/80-induced histamine release, which was enhanced with time after treatment. Similar suppression was observed in the ionophore-stimulated release, when cells were prepared from rat with a single treatment of MeHgCl (20 mg/kg). It should be noted that when cells from the control rat were pre-incubated with methylmercury in vitro at a 10{sup -8} M concentration for 10 min, A23187 and compound 48/80-stimulated histamine release was significantly enhanced. However, when the pre-incubation period was prolonged to 30 min, the release was suppressed. An increase in the methylmercury concentration to 10{sup -6} M also suppressed the histamine release. These results show that methylmercury treatment can modify mast cell function depending on concentration and time, and might provide an insight into the role of mast cells in the development of methylmercury-stimulated effects. (orig.)

  2. Linearized models for a new magnetic control in MAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artaserse, G., E-mail: giovanni.artaserse@enea.it [Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, Via Enrico Fermi 45, I-00044 Frascati (RM) (Italy); Maviglia, F.; Albanese, R. [Associazione Euratom-ENEA-CREATE sulla Fusione, Via Claudio 21, I-80125 Napoli (Italy); McArdle, G.J.; Pangione, L. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► We applied linearized models for a new magnetic control on MAST tokamak. ► A suite of procedures, conceived to be machine independent, have been used. ► We carried out model-based simulations, taking into account eddy currents effects. ► Comparison with the EFIT flux maps and the experimental magnetic signals are shown. ► A current driven model for the dynamic simulations of the experimental data have been performed. -- Abstract: The aim of this work is to provide reliable linearized models for the design and assessment of a new magnetic control system for MAST (Mega Ampère Spherical Tokamak) using rtEFIT, which can easily be exported to MAST Upgrade. Linearized models for magnetic control have been obtained using the 2D axisymmetric finite element code CREATE L. MAST linearized models include equivalent 2D axisymmetric schematization of poloidal field (PF) coils, vacuum vessel, and other conducting structures. A plasmaless and a double null configuration have been chosen as benchmark cases for the comparison with experimental data and EFIT reconstructions. Good agreement has been found with the EFIT flux map and the experimental signals coming from magnetic probes with only few mismatches probably due to broken sensors. A suite of procedures (equipped with a user friendly interface to be run even remotely) to provide linearized models for magnetic control is now available on the MAST linux machines. A new current driven model has been used to obtain a state space model having the PF coil currents as inputs. Dynamic simulations of experimental data have been carried out using linearized models, including modelling of the effects of the passive structures, showing a fair agreement. The modelling activity has been useful also to reproduce accurately the interaction between plasma current and radial position control loops.

  3. Induction of Microglial Activation by Mediators Released from Mast Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Microglia are the resident immune cells in the brain and play a pivotal role in immune surveillance in the central nervous system (CNS. Brain mast cells are activated in CNS disorders and induce the release of several mediators. Thus, brain mast cells, rather than microglia, are the “first responders” due to injury. However, the functional aspects of mast cell-microglia interactions remain uninvestigated. Methods: Conditioned medium from activated HMC-1 cells induces microglial activation similar to co-culture of microglia with HMC-1 cells. Primary cultured microglia were examined by flow cytometry analysis and confocal microscopy. TNF- alpha and IL-6 were measured with commercial ELISA kits. Cell signalling was analysed by Western blotting. Results: In the present study, we found that the conditioned medium from activated HMC-1 cells stimulated microglial activation and the subsequent production of the pro-inflammatory factors TNF-α and IL-6. Co-culture of microglia and HMC-1 cells with corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH for 24, 48 and 72 hours increased TNF-α and IL-6 production. Antagonists of histamine receptor 1 (H1R, H4R, proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2 or Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 reduced HMC-1-induced pro-inflammatory factor production and MAPK and PI3K/AKT pathway activation. Conclusions: These results imply that activated mast cells trigger microglial activation. Interactions between mast cells and microglia could constitute a new and unique therapeutic target for CNS inflammation-related diseases.

  4. Revaluation of the concept of the human condition and the common heritage of mankind: Keys to the social benefits of space technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocca, Aldo Armando

    Men may do many things, but they must never forget the human condition in any act or relation with a fellow human being. Space Law has vindicated the supreme value of man as a legal subject par excellence. The dignity of the human being is a value that rates above any scientific or technological advance. A benefit, by definition and derivation, is anything contributing to an improvement in a condition. Social benefits pertain only to human beings, who are their sole beneficiaries. Developing countries are young nations that through their international relations may, and indeed must, realize the benefits of space technology. The principle of the "common heritage of Mankind" was created to satisfy the aspirations of all peoples and to meet the needs of both industrialized and developing countries. Only a groundless fear and lack of vision of the future can induce governments to delay its implementation. We must not forget that the concept was transformed into a principle of international positive law by the unanimous decision of the international community, which enshrined it in the Moon Agreement. The social and individual responsibility of the scientist is becoming even more clearly defined, and scientists play an important role in the conduct of nations. Through education, including education in the humanities and a graduation pledge, the scientist has embarked on the road leading to an active presence in society, facing his responsibility. Inter-generational equity contributes to strengthening the concept of the human condition and the legal principle of the common heritage of mankind.

  5. PREFACE: 5th International Conference on Materials and Applications for Sensors and Transducers (IC-MAST2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristoforou, E.; Vlachos, D. S.; Giouroudi, I.; Kar-Narayan, S.; Potirakis, S.

    2016-03-01

    The 5th International Conference on Materials and Applications for Sensors and Transducers, Mykonos island, Greece, hosted about 110 oral and poster papers and more than 90 participants. IC-MAS, as an international annual conference which tries to meet the needs for various types of sensors, particularly those which may be manufactured by low cost methods (i.e. hybrid sensors, smart specialization devices, particular applications not necessarily requiring integrated micro-nano technologies), covering all types of materials and physical effects, appears to be a necessity. IC-MAST has been established as a high quality international conference by: I. Gathering together multinational researchers from all over the world, working in different materials for sensors and transducers and technical applications of sensors, but also in some cases in the management of the data coming from sensors and transducers. The careful selection of the conference place (like Aegean Sea, Budapest, Prague, Bilbao, Mykonos etc) allows for enjoying the local hospitality and sightseeing. II. Emphasizing in hybrid sensors and smart specialization devices produced by inexpensive methods, without excluding of course micro-nano technology, from all kinds of solid state, liquid and gaseous materials, as well as in particular transducer applications (design and development, as well as use of sensing data) III. Innovatively implementing the Virtual Paper Concept, allowing for large impact of research works presented in the conference by authors who either have no time or no funding support for visiting a conference; this year more than 12 virtual papers are presented in the 5th IC MAST, following a standardized procedure via the our robust and reliable Conference Site (www.icmast.net!) > IV. Allowing for lengthy technical and managerial discussions in terms of sensor, material and instrumentation development; furthermore, the different research groups gathered together are offered the particular

  6. Wnt-β-Catenin Signaling Promotes the Maturation of Mast Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Yamaguchi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mast cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. Immature mast cells migrate into peripheral tissues from the bone marrow and undergo complete maturation. Interestingly, mast cells have characteristics similar to hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs, such as self-renewal and c-kit expression. In HSCs, Wnt signaling is involved in their maintenance and differentiation. On the other hand, the relation between Wnt signaling and mast cell differentiation is poorly understood. To study whether Wnt signals play a role in the maturation of mast cells, we studied the effect of Wnt proteins on mast cell maturation of bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs. The expression levels of CD81 protein and histidine decarboxylase mRNA and activity of mast cell-specific protease were all elevated in BMMCs treated with Wnt5a. In addition, Wnt5a induced the expression of Axin2 and TCF mRNA in BMMCs. These results showed that Wnt5a could promote the maturation of mast cells via the canonical Wnt signaling pathway and provide important insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the differentiation of mast cells.

  7. Comparative electron microscopy of basophils and mast cells, in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, M

    1991-01-01

    We compared the fine structure and electron microscopic cytochemical findings of basophils and mast cells from humans, guinea pigs, rabbits, mice and rats. The particulate structure was the most frequently observed and most typical structure of human and rabbit basophil granules and of guinea pig mast cell granules. The most prominent feature of guinea pig basophils and murine mast cells was that the fine structure of the granules was homogeneous. The fine structure of the granules in guinea pig basophils resembled that in murine mast cells, while the fine structure of the granules of guinea pig mast cells resembled those in human and rabbit mast cells. In mouse mast cells in culture, the majority of the granules contained small vesicles, which were also observed in human basophils in culture and in mouse basophils in vivo. The degrees of cytochemical reactivity of acid mucopolysaccharides among the species were different. Peroxidase activity was positive in most basophils and in human mast cells. Among mammals, the granules of basophils and mast cells present heterogeneous fine structure. It is of interest that the basophil granules of some species resemble the mast cell granules rather than the basophil granules of other species.

  8. Studies on the Specific Degranulation of Mast Cell Sensitized by Several Allergens in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongchao Guo; Zhenxing Li; Hong Lin; Haider Samee; Jamil Khalid

    2009-01-01

    Food allergy is a major health issue worldwide. Mast cells play a very important role in the immediate hypersensitivity for which mast cell degranulation needs to be studied extensively. In this study, an approach was taken to study the characteristics of sensitized mast cell degranulation in vitro, which associated with the study of mast cells and animal models. BALB/c mice were immunized respectively by several food allergens, then blood and peritoneal mast cells were collected at different time points. A dynamic determination was carried out between mast cells and serumal IgE. Comparative analysis on sequential time points showed that there was a close coincidence between mast cell degranulation and IgE antibody titers in sensitized BALB/c mice. Furthermore, it is interesting that sensitized mast cells could implement specific degranulation against the challenges in vitro, but the closely tropomyosins induced mast cell degranulation displayed cross reactions. This is very similar to IgE resisting the allergens in vivo. The study disclosed some characteristics on mast cells, coming from sensitized BALB/c mice, degranulation in vitro. Cellular & Molecular Immunology.

  9. Structure and biological activities of eumenine mastoparan-AF (EMP-AF), a new mast cell degranulating peptide in the venom of the solitary wasp (Anterhynchium flavomarginatum micado).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, K; Hisada, M; Naoki, H; Itagaki, Y; Kawai, N; Miwa, A; Yasuhara, T; Morimoto, Y; Nakata, Y

    2000-11-01

    A new mast cell degranulating peptide, eumenine mastoparan-AF (EMP-AF), was isolated from the venom of the solitary wasp Anterhynchium flavomarginatum micado, the most common eumenine wasp found in Japan. The structure was analyzed by FAB-MS/MS together with Edman degradation, which was corroborated by solid-phase synthesis. The sequence of EMP-AF, Ile-Asn-Leu-Leu-Lys-Ile-Ala-Lys-Gly-Ile-Ile-Lys-Ser-Leu-NH(2), was similar to that of mastoparan, a mast cell degranulating peptide from a hornet venom; tetradecapeptide with C-terminus amidated and rich in hydrophobic and basic amino acids. In fact, EMP-AF exhibited similar activity to mastoparan in stimulating degranulation from rat peritoneal mast cells and RBL-2H3 cells. It also showed significant hemolytic activity in human erythrocytes. Therefore, this is the first example that a mast cell degranulating peptide is found in the solitary wasp venom. Besides the degranulation and hemolytic activity, EMP-AF also affects on neuromuscular transmission in the lobster walking leg preparation. Three analogs EMP-AF-1 approximately 3 were snythesized and biologically tested together with EMP-AF, resulting in the importance of the C-terminal amide structure for biological activities.

  10. iMAST FY2000 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Ductile Iron •Effect of Lubricant on Durability •High-Hot-Hardness Gear Steels •Induction Hardening of Gears •Utilization of Boron Toughened Steels...individual companies. Since its inception in 1982, the Gear Research Institute has conducted technology programs in the following areas: • Austempered

  11. iMAST FY2005 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Since its inception in 1982, the Gear Research Institute has conducted technology programs in the following areas: ◆ Austempered Ductile Iron ◆ Effect...is currently producing high-strength alloys with yield strengths of 100 ksi and ductility between 9 and 13%. Advanced Manufacturing Processes for

  12. iMAST FY2004 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Since its inception in 1982, the Gear Research Institute has conducted technology programs in the following areas: ◆ Austempered Ductile Iron ◆ Effect...alloys. ARL is currently producing high-strength alloys with yield strengths of 100 ksi and ductility between 9 and 13%. Advanced Manufacturing

  13. KIT mutation analysis in mast cell neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arock, M; Sotlar, K; Akin, C;

    2015-01-01

    Although acquired mutations in KIT are commonly detected in various categories of mastocytosis, the methodologies applied to detect and quantify the mutant type and allele burden in various cells and tissues are poorly defined. We here propose a consensus on methodologies used to detect KIT...

  14. Role And Relevance Of Mast Cells In Fungal Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit eSaluja

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In addition to their detrimental role in allergic diseases, mast cells (MCs are well known to be important cells of the innate immune system. In the last decade, they have been shown to contribute significantly to optimal host defense against numerous pathogens including parasites, bacteria, and viruses. The contribution of MCs to the immune responses in fungal infections, however, is largely unknown. In this review, we first discuss key features of mast cell responses to pathogens in general and then summarize the current knowledge on the function of MCs in the defense against fungal pathogens. We especially focus on the potential and proven mechanisms by which MC can detect fungal infections and on possible MC effector mechanisms in protecting from fungal infections.

  15. FAST Mast Structural Response to Axial Loading: Modeling and Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Elliott, Kenny B.; Templeton, Justin D.; Song, Kyongchan; Rayburn, Jeffery T.

    2012-01-01

    The International Space Station s solar array wing mast shadowing problem is the focus of this paper. A building-block approach to modeling and analysis is pursued for the primary structural components of the solar array wing mast structure. Starting with an ANSYS (Registered Trademark) finite element model, a verified MSC.Nastran (Trademark) model is established for a single longeron. This finite element model translation requires the conversion of several modeling and analysis features for the two structural analysis tools to produce comparable results for the single-longeron configuration. The model is then reconciled using test data. The resulting MSC.Nastran (Trademark) model is then extended to a single-bay configuration and verified using single-bay test data. Conversion of the MSC. Nastran (Trademark) single-bay model to Abaqus (Trademark) is also performed to simulate the elastic-plastic longeron buckling response of the single bay prior to folding.

  16. Role of human mast cells and basophils in bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marone, Gianni; Triggiani, Massimo; Genovese, Arturo; De Paulis, Amato

    2005-01-01

    Mast cells and basophils are the only cells expressing the tetrameric (alphabetagamma2) structure of the high affinity receptor for IgE (FcepsilonRI) and synthesizing histamine in humans. Human FcepsilonRI+ cells are conventionally considered primary effector cells of bronchial asthma. There is now compelling evidence that these cells differ immunologically, biochemically, and pharmacologically, which suggests that they might play distinct roles in the appearance and fluctuation of the asthma phenotype. Recent data have revealed the complexity of the involvement of human mast cells and basophils in asthma and have shed light on the control of recruitment and activation of these cells in different lung compartments. Preliminary evidence suggests that these cells might not always be detrimental in asthma but, under some circumstances, they might exert a protective effect by modulating certain aspects of innate and acquired immunity and allergic inflammation.

  17. Glia, mast cells and related: new therapeutic perspectives?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Orlandini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Glia exerts a pathogenic role in the development and maintenance of pain. In the past, glia was considered only support material; the glia is 70 to 90 percent of the CNS cells. Normally in a resting state, it is activated by substances released from central terminals of C fibers and releases cytokines that enhance excitatory synaptic transmission in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord (that is the basis of central sensitization, with allodynia-hyperalgesia. By analogy with the role of glia, it has been suggested the importance of the mast cell, a connective ubiquitous cell filled with granules that contain histamine, heparin, serotonin, and NGF as well as lipid droplets that contain hyaluronic acid and a cell membrane on which cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2 and vanilloid are located. Nociceptive stimuli cause mast cell degranulation and the release of substances contained in the granules. ___________________________________________________

  18. Microstability analysis of pellet fuelled discharges in MAST

    CERN Document Server

    Garzotti, L; Roach, C M; Valovic, M; Dickinson, D; Naylor, G; Romanelli, M; Scannell, R; Szepesi, G

    2014-01-01

    Reactor grade plasmas are likely to be fuelled by pellet injection. This technique transiently perturbs the profiles, driving the density profile hollow and flattening the edge temperature profile. After the pellet perturbation, the density and temperature profiles relax towards their quasi-steady-state shape. Microinstabilities influence plasma confinement and will play a role in determining the evolution of the profiles in pellet fuelled plasmas. In this paper we present the microstability analysis of pellet fuelled H-mode MAST plasmas. Taking advantage of the unique capabilities of the MAST Thomson scattering system and the possibility of synchronizing the eight lasers with the pellet injection, we were able to measure the evolution of the post-pellet electron density and temperature profiles with high temporal and spatial resolution. These profiles, together with ion temperature profiles measured using a charge exchange diagnostic, were used to produce equilibria suitable for microstability analysis of th...

  19. Induction of Mast Cell Accumulation by Tryptase via a Protease Activated Receptor-2 and ICAM-1 Dependent Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Wang, Junling; Zhang, Huiyun; Zhan, Mengmeng; Chen, Hanqiu; Fang, Zeman; Xu, Chiyan; Chen, Huifang; He, Shaoheng

    2016-01-01

    Mast cells are primary effector cells of allergy, and recruitment of mast cells in involved tissue is one of the key events in allergic inflammation. Tryptase is the most abundant secretory product of mast cells, but little is known of its influence on mast cell accumulation. Using mouse peritoneal model, cell migration assay, and flow cytometry analysis, we investigated role of tryptase in recruiting mast cells. The results showed that tryptase induced up to 6.7-fold increase in mast cell numbers in mouse peritoneum following injection. Inhibitors of tryptase, an antagonist of PAR-2 FSLLRY-NH2, and pretreatment of mice with anti-ICAM-1, anti-CD11a, and anti-CD18 antibodies dramatically diminished tryptase induced mast cell accumulation. On the other hand, PAR-2 agonist peptides SLIGRL-NH2 and tc-LIGRLO-NH2 provoked mast cell accumulation following injection. These implicate that tryptase induced mast cell accumulation is dependent on its enzymatic activity, activation of PAR-2, and interaction between ICAM-1 and LFA-1. Moreover, induction of trans-endothelium migration of mast cells in vitro indicates that tryptase acts as a chemoattractant. In conclusion, provocation of mast cell accumulation by mast cell tryptase suggests a novel self-amplification mechanism of mast cell accumulation. Mast cell stabilizers as well as PAR-2 antagonist agents may be useful for treatment of allergic reactions.

  20. Increased mast cell numbers in a calcaneal tendon overuse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingel, J; Wienecke, J; Kongsgaard, M; Behzad, H; Abraham, T; Langberg, H; Scott, A

    2013-12-01

    Tendinopathy is often discovered late because the initial development of tendon pathology is asymptomatic. The aim of this study was to examine the potential role of mast cell involvement in early tendinopathy using a high-intensity uphill running (HIUR) exercise model. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided in two groups: running group (n = 12); sedentary control group (n = 12). The running-group was exposed to the HIUR exercise protocol for 7 weeks. The calcaneal tendons of both hind limbs were dissected. The right tendon was used for histologic analysis using Bonar score, immunohistochemistry, and second harmonic generation microscopy (SHGM). The left tendon was used for quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis. An increased tendon cell density in the runners were observed compared to the controls (P = 0.05). Further, the intensity of immunostaining of protein kinase B, P = 0.03; 2.75 ± 0.54 vs 1.17 ± 0.53, was increased in the runners. The Bonar score (P = 0.05), and the number of mast cells (P = 0.02) were significantly higher in the runners compared to the controls. Furthermore, SHGM showed focal collagen disorganization in the runners, and reduced collagen density (P = 0.03). IL-3 mRNA levels were correlated with mast cell number in sedentary animals. The qPCR analysis showed no significant differences between the groups in the other analyzed targets. The current study demonstrates that 7-week HIUR causes structural changes in the calcaneal tendon, and further that these changes are associated with an increased mast cell density.

  1. Mast cells express novel functional IL-15 receptor alpha isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulanova, Elena; Budagian, Vadim; Orinska, Zane; Krause, Hans; Paus, Ralf; Bulfone-Paus, Silvia

    2003-05-15

    Mast cells previously have been reported to be regulated by IL-15 and to express a distinct IL-15R, termed IL-15RX. To further examine IL-15 binding and signaling in mast cells, we have studied the nature of the IL-15R and some of its biological activities in these cells. In this study, we report the existence of three novel isoforms of the IL-15R alpha chain in murine bone marrow-derived mast cells as a result of an alternative exon-splicing mechanism within the IL-15R alpha gene. These correspond to new mRNA transcripts lacking exon 4; exons 3 and 4; or exons 3, 4, and 5 (IL-15R alpha Delta 4, IL-15R alpha Delta 3,4, IL-15R alpha Delta 3,4,5). After transient transfection in COS-7 cells, all IL-15R alpha isoforms associate with the Golgi apparatus, the endoplasmic reticulum, the perinuclear space, and the cell membrane. Analysis of glycosylation pattern demonstrates the usage of a single N-glycosylation site, while no O-glycosylation is observed. Importantly, IL-15 binds with high affinity to, and promotes the survival of, murine BA/F3 cells stably transfected with the IL-15R alpha isoforms. Furthermore, we report that signaling mediated by IL-15 binding to the newly identified IL-15R alpha isoforms involves the phosphorylation of STAT3, STAT5, STAT6, Janus kinase 2, and Syk kinase. Taken together, our data indicate that murine mast cells express novel, fully functional IL-15R alpha isoforms, which can explain the selective regulatory effects of IL-15 on these cells.

  2. Clonal mast cell activation syndrome with anaphylaxis to sulfites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes, Liliana; Ring, Johannes; Brockow, Knut

    2013-01-01

    Sulfites are rarely suspected as causative agents of immediate-type hypersensitivity. We report on a 49-year-old male patient who developed recurrent severe hypotension after food ingestion. A diagnosis of monoclonal mast cell activation syndrome was established. In the double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge, the patient reacted to potassium metabisulfite with anaphylaxis. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. TRANSP modelling of total and local neutron emission on MAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek, I.; Cecconello, M.; Gorelenkova, M.; Keeling, D.; Meakins, A.; Jones, O.; Akers, R.; Lupelli, I.; Turnyanskiy, M.; Ericsson, G.; the MAST Team

    2015-02-01

    The results of TRANSP simulations of neutron count rate profiles measured by a collimated neutron flux monitor-neutron camera (NC)—for different plasma scenarios on MAST are reported. In addition, the effect of various plasma parameters on neutron emission is studied by means of TRANSP simulation. The fast ion redistribution and losses due to fishbone modes, which belong to a wider category of energetic particle modes, are observed by the NC and modelled in TRANSP.

  4. Phenotypic and functional plasticity of cells of innate immunity: macrophages, mast cells and neutrophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galli, Stephen J; Borregaard, Niels; Wynn, Thomas A

    2011-01-01

    Hematopoietic cells, including lymphoid and myeloid cells, can develop into phenotypically distinct 'subpopulations' with different functions. However, evidence indicates that some of these subpopulations can manifest substantial plasticity (that is, undergo changes in their phenotype and functio...... a common mechanism for modulating innate or adaptive immunity.......). Here we focus on the occurrence of phenotypically distinct subpopulations in three lineages of myeloid cells with important roles in innate and acquired immunity: macrophages, mast cells and neutrophils. Cytokine signals, epigenetic modifications and other microenvironmental factors can substantially...... and, in some cases, rapidly and reversibly alter the phenotype of these cells and influence their function. This suggests that regulation of the phenotype and function of differentiated hematopoietic cells by microenvironmental factors, including those generated during immune responses, represents...

  5. The progress and promise of zebrafish as a model to study mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prykhozhij, Sergey V; Berman, Jason N

    2014-09-01

    Immunological and hematological research using the zebrafish (Danio rerio) has significantly advanced our understanding of blood lineage ontology, cellular functions and mechanisms, and provided opportunities for disease modeling. Mast cells are an immunological cell type involved in innate and adaptive immune systems, hypersensitivity reactions and cancer progression. The application of zebrafish to study mast cell biology exploits the developmental and imaging opportunities inherent in this model system to enable detailed genetic and molecular studies of this lineage outside of traditional mammalian models. In this review, we first place the importance of mast cell research in zebrafish into the context of comparative studies of mast cells in other fish species and highlight its advantages due to superior experimental tractability and direct visualization in transparent embryos. We discuss current and future tools for mast cell research in zebrafish and the notable results of using zebrafish for understanding mast cell fate determination and our development of a systemic mastocytosis model.

  6. Mediators of Mast Cells in Bullous Pemphigoid and Dermatitis Herpetiformis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Zebrowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bullous pemphigoid (BP and dermatitis herpetiformis (DH are skin diseases associated with inflammation. However, few findings exist concerning the role of mast cells in autoimmune blistering disease. Skin biopsies were taken from 27 BP and 14 DH patients, as well as 20 healthy individuals. Immunohistochemistry was used to identify the localization and mast cell expression of TNFα and MMP9 in skin lesions and perilesional skin. The serum concentrations of TNFα, MMP9, chymase, tryptase, PAF, and IL-4 were measured by immunoassay. TNFα and MMP9 expression in the epidermis and in inflammatory influxed cells in the dermis was detected in skin biopsies from patients. Although these mediators were found to be expressed in the perilesional skin of all patients, the level was much lower than that in lesional skin. Increased serum PAF levels were observed in BP patients. Mast cells may play an essential role in activating inflammation, which ultimately contributes to the tissue damage observed in BP and DH. Our findings suggest that differences in the pattern of cytokine expression directly contribute to variations in cellular infiltration in DH and BP.

  7. Getting NuSTAR on target: predicting mast motion

    CERN Document Server

    Forster, Karl; Miyasaka, Hiromasa; Craig, William W; Harrison, Fiona A; Rana, Vikram R; Markwardt, Craig B; Grefenstette, Brian W

    2016-01-01

    The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) is the first focusing high energy (3-79 keV) X-ray observatory operating for four years from low Earth orbit. The X-ray detector arrays are located on the spacecraft bus with the optics modules mounted on a flexible mast of 10.14m length. The motion of the telescope optical axis on the detectors during each observation is measured by a laser metrology system and matches the pre-launch predictions of the thermal flexing of the mast as the spacecraft enters and exits the Earths shadow each orbit. However, an additional motion of the telescope field of view was discovered during observatory commissioning that is associated with the spacecraft attitude control system and an additional flexing of the mast correlated with the Solar aspect angle for the observation. We present the methodology developed to predict where any particular target coordinate will fall on the NuSTAR detectors based on the Solar aspect angle at the scheduled time of an observation. This may ...

  8. Acrolein induction of oxidative stress and degranulation in mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochman, Daniel J; Collaco, Christopher R; Brooks, Edward G

    2014-08-01

    Increases in asthma worldwide have been associated epidemiologically with expanding urban air pollution. The mechanistic relationship between airway hyper-responsiveness, inflammation, and ambient airborne triggers remains ambiguous. Acrolein, a ubiquitous aldehyde pollutant, is a product of incomplete combustion reactions. Acrolein is abundant in cigarette smoke, effluent from industrial smokestacks, diesel exhaust, and even hot oil cooking vapors. Acrolein is a potent airway irritant and can induce airway hyper-responsiveness and inflammation in the lungs of animal models. In the present study, we utilized the mast cell analog, RBL-2H3, to interrogate the responses of cells relevant to airway inflammation and allergic responses as a model for the induction of asthma-like conditions upon exposure to acrolein. We hypothesized that acrolein would induce oxidative stress and degranulation in airway mast cells. Our results indicate that acrolein at 1 ppm initiated degranulation and promoted the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Introduction of antioxidants to the system significantly reduced both ROS generation and degranulation. At higher levels of exposure (above 100 ppm), RBL-2H3 cells displayed signs of severe toxicity. This experimental data indicates acrolein can induce an allergic inflammation in mast cell lines, and the initiation of degranulation was moderated by the application of antioxidants. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company.

  9. Hydrodynamics numerical investigation of hoistable masts for underwater vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Lijie; Hu Gangyi; Xu Jian; Qiu Lei

    2011-01-01

    Using the unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equation as the governing equation, the large eddy simulation (LES) model is implemented to investigate the shedding of vortices, the flow pattern of turbulence, the unsteady pressure fluctuation and the time history of the lift coefficient and drag coefficient of hoistable masts with various mast shapes and various arrangements in this paper. Combining the FFT, combined time-frequency transform and wavelet power spectrum analysis, the characteristics of unsteady pressure can be obtained in both time and frequency domain. It shows that the main frequency of pressure fluctuation is near the frequency of vortex shedding in time domain using the FFT method. It can be inferred from the combined time-frequency transform that the unsteady pressure fluctuation has obviously the peak value and the second peak value in time domain. It could indicate that the fluctuation power varies from the fluctuation frequency through the power spectrum analysis. By the data analysis, it shows that the vortex shedding is the dominant cause of the periodically pressure fluctuation. And the interaction pattern of wake and interplay between wake and the walls of masts under different arrangements are also discussed in this paper.

  10. Mast cell mediators and peritoneal adhesion formation in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, J C; Liebman, S M; Monk, P K; Pelletier, G J

    1995-09-01

    We have previously shown that mast cell stabilization attenuates peritoneal adhesion formation in the rat. The present study investigated the mechanism of this protection. Adhesions were created in weanling rats using cecal scraping and application of 95% ethanol. Rats received specific blockers for the mast cell products histamine, serotonin (5HT), leukotriene D4, and platelet activating factor intraperitoneally 30 min before laparotomy and at the time of abdominal closure. Control animals received saline. Adhesions were assessed blindly 1 week later using a standardized scale. Adhesion formation was not affected by histamine blockade using combined mepyramine and ranitidine, 5-HT1 blockade using methysergide, 5-HT3 blockade using ondansetron, leukotriene D4 blockade using MK-571, or platelet activating factor blockade using WEB-2086. However, blockade of the 5-HT2 receptor using ketanserin resulted in significant dose-dependent attenuation of adhesions compared to saline. These data suggest that mast cells mediate peritoneal adhesion formation in the rat through release of serotonin acting on 5HT2 receptors. Further understanding of this process may lead to new strategies for the prevention of postoperative adhesions.

  11. Weather model verification using Sodankylä mast measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kangas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sodankylä, in the heart of Arctic Research Centre of the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI ARC in northern Finland, is an ideal site for atmospheric and environmental research in the boreal and sub-arctic zone. With temperatures ranging from −50 to +30 °C, it provides a challenging testing ground for numerical weather forecasting (NWP models as well as weather forecasting in general. An extensive set of measurements has been carried out in Sodankylä for more than 100 years. In 2000, a 48 m high micrometeorological mast was erected in the area. In this article, the use of Sodankylä mast measurements in NWP model verification is described. Started in 2000 with NWP model HIRLAM and Sodankylä measurements, the verification system has now been expanded to include comparisons between 12 NWP models and seven measurement masts. A case study, comparing forecasted and observed radiation fluxes, is also presented. It was found that three different radiation schemes, applicable in NWP model HARMONIE-AROME, produced during cloudy days somewhat different downwelling long-wave radiation fluxes, which however did not change the overall cold bias of the predicted screen-level temperature.

  12. The Role of Mast Cells in Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik-Dasthagirisaheb, Yasdani B; Conti, Pio

    2016-01-01

    Immunity and inflammation are deeply involved in Alzheimer's disease. The most important properties of pathological Alzheimer's disease are the extracellular deposits of amyloid â-protein plaque aggregates along with other unknown mutated proteins, which are implicated in immunity and inflammation. Mast cells are found in the brain of all mammalian species and in the periphery, and their biological mediators, including cytokines/chemokines, arachidonic acid products and stored enzymes, play an import role in Alzheimer's disease. Cytokines/chemokines, which are generated mostly by microglia and astrocytes in Alzheimer's disease, contribute to nearly every aspect of neuroinflammation and amyloid â-protein plaque aggregates may induce in mast cells the release of a plethora of mediators, including pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines such as interleukin-1, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, interleukin-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, vascular endothelial growth factor, transforming growth factor beta, CXCL8 and CCL2-3-4. These proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines are prominent mediators of neuroinflammation in brain disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, and their inhibition may be associated with improved recovery. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge regarding the roles of mast cell mediators (stored and de novo synthesis) in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease.

  13. Assay of Histamine in Single Mast Cells by Capillary Zone Electrophoresis with Electrochemical Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Capillary zone electrophoresis was employed for the analysis of histamine in single rat peritoneal mast cells using an amperometric detector. In this method, individual mast cells and then 0.02 mol/L NaOH as a lysing solution are injected into the front end of the separation capillary. A cell injector was constructed for easy injection of single cells. Histamine in single mast cells has been identified and quantified.

  14. Climate-influenced ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) seed masting trends in western Montana, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher R. Keyes; Rubén Manso González

    2015-01-01

    Aim of study: The aim of this study was to analyze 10-year records of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) seed production, in order to confirm synchronic seed production and to evaluate cyclical masting trends, masting depletion effect, and climate-masting relationships. Area of study: The study area was located in a P. ponderosa stand in the northern Rocky Mountains (western Montana, USA). Material and methods: The study was conducted in one stand that had been subjected to a silvicul...

  15. Synthesis of Prostaglandins and Eicosanoids by the Mast Cell Secretory Granule

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    constituents of the so-called "slow reacting substance of anaphylaxis" (SRS-A) (1,3). Like many other cell types, the mast cell can incorporate exogenous...arachidonic acid into its cellular phospholipid. The stimulation of mast cells which have been pre-loaded with radioactive arachidonic acid can result in...synthesis of eicosanoids has not been identified. Recently, we found that the secretory granule of the quiescent mast cell contains a large amount of matrix

  16. Nanoscale Patterning of Antigen on Silicon Substrate to Examine Mast Cell Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-04-01

    Examine Mast Cell Activation DISTRIBUTION: Approved for public release, distribution unlimited This paper is part of the following report: TITLE...Materials Research Society N4.3 Nanoscale Patterning of Antigen on Silicon Substrate to Examine Mast Cell Activation Reid N. Orth", Min Wu2 , Theodore G...nanometer scale to spatially control the stimulation of specific immunoreceptors on RBL mast cells . This work was motivated by previous research to

  17. Common Warts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases and Conditions Common warts By Mayo Clinic Staff Common warts are small, grainy skin growths that occur most often on your fingers or hands. Rough to the touch, common warts also often feature a pattern of tiny ...

  18. Mast cells promote scar remodeling and functional recovery after spinal cord injury via mouse mast cell protease 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangansewinkel, Tim; Geurts, Nathalie; Quanten, Kirsten; Nelissen, Sofie; Lemmens, Stefanie; Geboes, Lies; Dooley, Dearbhaile; Vidal, Pia M; Pejler, Gunnar; Hendrix, Sven

    2016-05-01

    An important barrier for axon regeneration and recovery after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is attributed to the scar that is formed at the lesion site. Here, we investigated the effect of mouse mast cell protease (mMCP) 6, a mast cell (MC)-specific tryptase, on scarring and functional recovery after a spinal cord hemisection injury. Functional recovery was significantly impaired in both MC-deficient and mMCP6-knockout (mMCP6(-/-)) mice after SCI compared with wild-type control mice. This decrease in locomotor performance was associated with an increased lesion size and excessive scarring at the injury site. Axon growth-inhibitory chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans and the extracellular matrix components fibronectin, laminin, and collagen IV were significantly up-regulated in MC-deficient and mMCP6(-/-) mice, with an increase in scar volume between 23 and 32%. A degradation assay revealed that mMCP6 directly cleaves fibronectin and collagen IV in vitro In addition, gene expression levels of the scar components fibronectin, aggrecan, and collagen IV were increased up to 6.8-fold in mMCP6(-/-) mice in the subacute phase after injury. These data indicate that endogenous mMCP6 has scar-suppressing properties after SCI via indirect cleavage of axon growth-inhibitory scar components and alteration of the gene expression profile of these factors.-Vangansewinkel, T., Geurts, N., Quanten, K., Nelissen, S., Lemmens, S., Geboes, L., Dooley, D., Vidal, P. M., Pejler, G., Hendrix, S. Mast cells promote scar remodeling and functional recovery after spinal cord injury via mouse mast cell protease 6.

  19. Suppression of Brain Mast Cells Degranulation Inhibits Microglial Activation and Central Nervous System Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hongquan; Zhang, Xiang; Wang, Yiming; Zhou, Xiqiao; Qian, Yanning; Zhang, Shu

    2017-03-01

    Brain inflammation has a critical role in the pathophysiology of brain diseases. Microglia, the resident immune cells in the brain, play an important role in brain inflammation, while brain mast cells are the "first responder" in the injury rather than microglia. Functional aspects of mast cell-microglia interactions remain poorly understood. Our results demonstrated that site-directed injection of the "mast cell degranulator" compound 48/80 (C48/80) in the hypothalamus induced mast cell degranulation, microglial activation, and inflammatory factor production, which initiated the acute brain inflammatory response. "Mast cell stabilizer" disodium cromoglycate (cromolyn) inhibited this effect, including decrease of inflammatory cytokines, reduced microglial activation, inhibition of MAPK and AKT pathways, and repression of protein expression of histamine receptor 1 (H1R), histamine receptor 4 (H4R), protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2), and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in microglia. We also demonstrated that C48/80 had no effect on microglial activation in mast cell-deficient Kit(W-sh/W-sh) mice. These results implicate that activated brain mast cells trigger microglial activation and stabilization of mast cell inhibits microglial activation-induced central nervous system (CNS) inflammation. Interactions between mast cells and microglia could constitute a new and unique therapeutic target for CNS immune inflammation-related diseases.

  20. Two-step differentiation of mast cells from induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Tomoko; Tashiro, Katsuhisa; Tanaka, Satoshi; Katayama, Sumie; Ishida, Waka; Fukuda, Ken; Fukushima, Atsuki; Araki, Ryoko; Abe, Masumi; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Kawabata, Kenji

    2013-03-01

    Mast cells play important roles in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. They are generally classified into 2 phenotypically distinct populations: connective tissue-type mast cells (CTMCs) and mucosal-type mast cells (MMCs). The number of mast cells that can be obtained from tissues is limited, making it difficult to study the function of mast cells. Here, we report the generation and characterization of CTMC-like mast cells derived from mouse induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. iPS cell-derived mast cells (iPSMCs) were generated by the OP9 coculture method or embryoid body formation method. The number of Safranin O-positive cells, expression levels of CD81 protein and histidine decarboxylase mRNA, and protease activities were elevated in the iPSMCs differentiated by both methods as compared with those in bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs). Electron microscopic analysis revealed that iPSMCs contained more granules than BMMCs. Degranulation was induced in iPSMCs after stimulation with cationic secretagogues or vancomycin. In addition, iPSMCs had the ability to respond to stimulation with the IgE/antigen complex in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, when iPSMCs generated on OP9 cells were cocultured with Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts, protease activities as maturation index were more elevated, demonstrating that mature mast cells were differentiated from iPS cells. iPSMCs can be used as an in vitro model of CTMCs to investigate their functions.

  1. Evidence against Participation of Mast Cell Histamine in Formation of Burn Wound Edema

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    mast cell is the principal source of tissue histamine, the contribution of this cell to edema formation in rats with a standard 30% total body surface area (TBSA) partial-thickness burn was investigated. Degranulating the mast cells prior to burn injury evoked no difference in the amount of edema formed compared with that in rats with normal mast cells. Substantially lower systemic levels of histamine were observed in the plasma of this group of rats after burn injury, which confirmed that degranulation of mast cells affected histamine

  2. Distinct and shared transcriptomes are regulated by microphthalmia-associated transcription factor isoforms in mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahlaee, Amir H; Brandal, Stephanie; Lee, Youl-Nam; Jie, Chunfa; Takemoto, Clifford M

    2007-01-01

    The Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (Mitf) is an essential basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor for mast cell development. Mice deficient in Mitf harbor a severe mast cell deficiency, and Mitf-mutant mast cells cultured ex vivo display a number of functional defects. Therefore, an understanding of the genetic program regulated by Mitf may provide important insights into mast cell differentiation. Multiple, distinct isoforms of Mitf have been identified in a variety of cell types; we found that Mitf-a, Mitf-e, and Mitf-mc were the major isoforms expressed in mast cells. To determine the physiologic function of Mitf in mast cells, we restored expression of these isoforms in primary mast cells from Mitf(-/-) mice. We found that these isoforms restored granular morphology and integrin-mediated migration. By microarray analysis, proteases, signaling molecules, cell surface receptor, and transporters comprised the largest groups of genes up-regulated by all isoforms. Furthermore, we found that isoforms also regulated distinct genes sets, suggesting separable biological activities. This work defines the transcriptome regulated by Mitf in mast cells and supports its role as master regulator of mast cell differentiation. Expression of multiple isoforms of this transcription factor may provide for redundancy of biological activities while also allowing diversity of function.

  3. Masting behaviour in a Mediterranean pine tree alters seed predator selection on reproductive output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, X; Abdala-Roberts, L; Zas, R; Merlo, E; Lombardero, M J; Sampedro, L; Mooney, K A

    2016-11-01

    Context-dependency in species interactions is widespread and can produce concomitant patterns of context-dependent selection. Masting (synchronous production of large seed crops at irregular intervals by a plant population) has been shown to reduce seed predation through satiation (reduction in rates of seed predation with increasing seed cone output) and thus represents an important source of context-dependency in plant-animal interactions. However, the evolutionary consequences of such dynamics are not well understood. Here we describe masting behaviour in a Mediterranean model pine species (Pinus pinaster) and present a test of the effects of masting on selection by seed predators on reproductive output. We predicted that masting, by enhancing seed predator satiation, could in turn strengthen positive selection by seed predators for larger cone output. For this we collected six-year data (spanning one mast year and five non-mast years) on seed cone production and seed cone predation rates in a forest genetic trial composed by 116 P. pinaster genotypes. Following our prediction, we found stronger seed predator satiation during the masting year, which in turn led to stronger seed predator selection for increased cone production relative to non-masting years. These findings provide evidence that masting can alter the evolutionary outcome of plant-seed predator interactions. More broadly, our findings highlight that changes in consumer responses to resource abundance represent a widespread mechanism for predicting and understanding context dependency in plant-consumer evolutionary dynamics.

  4. TLR3-induced activation of mast cells modulates CD8+ T-cell recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orinska, Zane; Bulanova, Elena; Budagian, Vadim; Metz, Martin; Maurer, Marcus; Bulfone-Paus, Silvia

    2005-08-01

    Mast cells play an important role in host defense against various pathogens, but their role in viral infection has not been clarified in detail. dsRNA, synthesized by various types of viruses and mimicked by polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) is recognized by Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3). In this study, we demonstrate that poly(I:C) injection in vivo potently stimulates peritoneal mast cells to up-regulate a number of different costimulatory molecules. Therefore, we examined the expression and the functional significance of TLR3 activation in mast cells. Mast cells express TLR3 on the cell surface and intracellularly. After stimulation of mast cells with poly(I:C) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV), TLR3 is phosphorylated and the expression of key antiviral response cytokines (interferon beta, ISG15) and chemokines (IP10, RANTES) is upregulated. Interestingly, mast cells activated via TLR3-poly(I:C) potently stimulate CD8+ T-cell recruitment. Indeed, mast-cell-deficient mice (KitW/KitW-v) given an intraperitoneal injection of poly(I:C) show a decreased CD8+ T-cell recruitment, whereas granulocytes normally migrate to the peritoneal cavity. Mast-cell reconstitution of KitW/KitW-v mice normalizes the CD8+ T-cell influx. Thus, mast cells stimulated through engagement of TLR3 are potent regulators of CD8+ T-cell activities in vitro and in vivo.

  5. Neutrophil Recruitment by Tumor Necrosis Factor from Mast Cells in Immune Complex Peritonitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Ramos, Bernard F.; Jakschik, Barbara A.

    1992-12-01

    During generalized immune complex-induced inflammation of the peritoneal cavity, two peaks of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) were observed in the peritoneal exudate of normal mice. In mast cell-deficient mice, the first peak was undetected, and the second peak of TNF and neutrophil influx were significantly reduced. Antibody to TNF significantly inhibited neutrophil infiltration in normal but not in mast cell-deficient mice. Mast cell repletion of the latter normalized TNF, neutrophil mobilization, and the effect of the antibody to TNF. Thus, in vivo, mast cells produce the TNF that augments neutrophil emigration.

  6. Protective Role of Mast Cells in Primary Systemic Vasculitis: A Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Jason M; Raveendran, Vineesh V; Gierer, Selina A; Maz, Mehrdad; Dileepan, Kottarappat N

    2017-01-01

    Mast cells are important cells of the immune system. Although traditionally considered as key players in allergic and hypersensitivity reactions, emerging evidence suggests that mast cells have many complex roles in vascular disease. These include regulation of vasodilation, angiogenesis, activation of matrix metalloproteinases, apoptosis of smooth muscle cells, and activation of the renin angiotensin system. Mast cells are also known to play an immunomodulatory role via modulation of regulatory T-cell (Treg), macrophage and endothelial cell functions. This dual role of the mast cells is evident in myeloperoxidase anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies-mouse model of glomerulonephritis in which mast cell deficiency worsens glomerulonephritis, whereas inhibition of mast cell degranulation is effective in abrogating the development of glomerulonephritis. Our previous work demonstrated that mast cell degranulation inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced interleukin 6 (IL-6) production in mice. This effect was not seen in histamine-1-receptor knockout (H1R(-/-)) mice suggesting a role for histamine in IL-6 homeostasis. In addition, mast cell degranulation-mediated decrease in IL-6 production was associated with an upregulation of suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 protein in the aorta. We propose that mast cells regulate large artery inflammation through T-cells, shifting a primarily Th1 and Th17 toward a Th2 response and leading to enhanced IL-10 production, activation Treg cells, and the inhibition of macrophage functions.

  7. Macrophages and mast cells in dystrophic masseter muscle: a light and electron microscopic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, S; Mikkelsen, H

    1988-01-01

    Macrophages and mast cells in masseter muscle from normal and dystrophic mice were studied by light and electron microscopy. Acid phosphatase activity and FITC-dextran were used to identify and describe macrophages. Toluidine blue was used as a marker for mast cells. In dystrophic muscle, the num......Macrophages and mast cells in masseter muscle from normal and dystrophic mice were studied by light and electron microscopy. Acid phosphatase activity and FITC-dextran were used to identify and describe macrophages. Toluidine blue was used as a marker for mast cells. In dystrophic muscle...

  8. Study of mast cells in prostate lesions: Adenocarcinoma compared with hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittal Rakshith

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: (1 To study and correlate the mast cell numbers in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH and prostate carcinoma lesions. (2 To compare mast cell numbers of intratumoral and peritumoral regions in prostate adenocarcinomas. (3 To ascertain a relationship between the number of mast cells and age, prostate-specific antigen (PSA levels, and Gleason Grade. Subjects and Methods: One-hundred cases of prostate lesions, consisting of 75 cases of BPH and 25 cases of prostatic adenocarcinoma, received in the form of transurethral resection of prostate chips in the Department of Pathology, were included in the study. After histopathological diagnosis, the paraffin sections were stained with toluidine blue. Results: The mean value of mast cell count per mm2 in benign and malignant lesion was 37.05 and 92.20, respectively. The difference in mean mast cell count in BPH and prostatic adenocarcinoma was found to be statistically significant (P = 0.001. The correlation between mast cell count and Gleason Grade was found to be statistically significant (P: Grades I–III - 0.043; 0.002; 0.012. However, no correlation was found between mast cell count with age and PSA levels. Conclusion: In this study, an increase in the number of mast cells was observed in patients with prostate cancer than in benign lesions. This suggests a stimulating role of mast cells in the progression of cancer.

  9. No role for mast cells in obesity-related metabolic dysregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jindřich Chmelař

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Obesity-related adipose tissue (AT inflammation that promotes metabolic dysregulation is associated with increased AT mast cell numbers. Mast cells are potent inducers of inflammatory responses and could potentially contribute to obesity-induced AT inflammation and metabolic dysregulation. Conflicting findings were reported on obesity-related metabolic dysfunction in mast cell-deficient mice, thus creating a controversy that has not been resolved up to date. Whereas traditional Kit hypomorphic mast cell-deficient strains featured reduced diet-induced obesity and diabetes, a Kit-independent model of mast cell deficiency, Cpa3Cre/+ mice, displayed no alterations in obesity and insulin sensitivity. Herein, we analyzed diet-induced obesity in Mcpt5-Cre R-DTA mice, in which the lack of mast cells is caused by a principle different from mast cell deficiency in Cpa3Cre/+ mice or Kit mutations. We observed no difference between mast cell-deficient and –proficient mice in diet-induced obesity with regards to weight gain, glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, metabolic parameters, hepatic steatosis and AT or liver inflammation. We conclude that mast cells play no essential role in obesity and related pathologies.

  10. Increased tissue leptin hormone level and mast cell count in skin tags: A possible role of adipoimmune in the growth of benign skin growths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Safoury Omar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Skin tags (ST are common tumors. They mainly consist of loose fibrous tissue and occur on the neck and major flexures as small, soft, pedunculated protrusions. Decrease in endocrine, hormone level and other factors are thought to play a role in the evolution of ST. Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone that acts as a major regulatory hormone for food intake and energy homeostasis. Leptin deficiency or resistance can result in profound obesity and diabetes in humans. A role of mast cell in the pathogenesis of ST is well recognized. Aims: To investigate the role of leptin in the pathogenesis of ST and to clarify whether there is a correlation between mast cell count and leptin level in ST. Methods: Forty-five skin biopsies were taken from 15 patients with ST. From each patient, a biopsy of a large ST (length >4 mm, a small ST (length <2 mm and a normal skin biopsy (as a control were taken. The samples were processed for leptin level. Skin biopsies were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and toluidine blue-uranyl nitrate metachromatic method for mast cell count was used. Results: There was a significant increased level of leptin in the ST compared to the normal skin. It was highly significant in small ST than in big ST (P = 0.0001 and it was highly significant in small and big ST compared to controls, P = 0.0001 and P = 0.001, respectively. There was a significant increase in mast cell count in the ST, which did not correlate with the increased levels of leptin. Conclusion: This is the first report to demonstrate that tissue leptin may play a role in the pathogenesis of ST. The significant increase in the levels of leptin and mast cell count in ST may indicate a possible role of adipoimmune in the benign skin growths.

  11. Listeria monocytogenes alters mast cell phenotype, mediator and osteopontin secretion in a listeriolysin-dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E Jobbings

    Full Text Available Whilst mast cells participate in the immune defence against the intracellular bacterium Listeria monocytogenes, there is conflicting evidence regarding the ability of L. monocytogenes to infect mast cells. It is known that the pore-forming toxin listeriolysin (LLO is important for mast cell activation, degranulation and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Mast cells, however, are a potential source of a wide range of cytokines, chemokines and other mediators including osteopontin, which contributes to the clearing of L. monocytogenes infections in vivo, although its source is unknown. We therefore aimed to resolve the controversy of mast cell infection by L. monocytogenes and investigated the extent of mediator release in response to the bacterium. In this paper we show that the infection of bone marrow-derived mast cells by L. monocytogenes is inefficient and LLO-independent. LLO, however, is required for calcium-independent mast cell degranulation as well as for the transient and selective downregulation of cell surface CD117 (c-kit on mast cells. We demonstrate that in addition to the key pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6, mast cells release a wide range of other mediators in response to L. monocytogenes. Osteopontin, IL-2, IL-4, IL-13 and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF, and chemokines including CCL2, CCL3, CCL4 and CCL5 are released in a MyD88-dependent manner. The wide range of mediators released by mast cells in response to L. monocytogenes may play an important role in the recruitment and activation of a variety of immune cells in vivo. The cocktail of mediators, however, is unlikely to skew the immune response to a particular effector response. We propose that mast cells provide a hitherto unreported source of osteopontin, and may provide an important role in co-ordinating the immune response during Listeria infection.

  12. The effects of Fasciola hepatica tegumental antigens on mast cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukman, Krisztina V; Adams, Paul N; Dowling, David; Metz, Martin; Maurer, Marcus; O'Neill, Sandra M

    2013-06-01

    Fasciola hepatica infection is associated with T helper 2/T regulatory immune responses and increased mast cell numbers. The aim of this study was to examine the interaction between F. hepatica tegumental coat antigen and mast cells in vivo and in vitro. Firstly, BALB/C, C57BL/6 or STAT6(-/-) mice were infected with F. hepatica metacercarie or mice were treated with F. hepatica tegumental coat antigen and then mast cells numbers in the peritoneal cavity and/or the liver were quantified. Also, the proliferation, chemotaxis, degranulation and cytokine secretion of mast cells from bone marrow or from peritoneal exudate cells stimulated with F. hepatica tegumental coat antigen were measured. Finally, we tested whether F. hepatica tegumental coat antigen inhibits degranulation of mast cells in vivo in a passive cutaneous and systemic anaphylaxis mouse model. Mast cell numbers increased in the peritoneal cavity and liver of F. hepatica infected mice, and this was mimicked by injection of F. hepatica tegumental coat antigen in a STAT6(-/-) independent manner. The increase in mast cell number was not the result of F. hepatica tegumental coat antigen-induced proliferation; rather F. hepatica tegumental coat antigen indirectly induces mast cell migration by dendritic cell-derived chemokines. Fasciola hepatica tegumental coat antigen interactions with mast cells do not drive T helper 2 or T regulatory immune responses. These studies on mast cell and F. hepatica tegumental coat antigen interaction may help us to understand the function of mast cells in immunity against F. hepatica and the immunomodulatory effect of F. hepatica tegumental coat antigen on these cells.

  13. Activated MCTC mast cells infiltrate diseased lung areas in cystic fibrosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Löfdahl Claes-Göran

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although mast cells are regarded as important regulators of inflammation and tissue remodelling, their role in cystic fibrosis (CF and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF has remained less studied. This study investigates the densities and phenotypes of mast cell populations in multiple lung compartments from patients with CF, IPF and never smoking controls. Methods Small airways, pulmonary vessels, and lung parenchyma were subjected to detailed immunohistochemical analyses using lungs from patients with CF (20 lung regions; 5 patients, IPF (21 regions; 7 patients and controls (16 regions; 8 subjects. In each compartment the densities and distribution of MCT and MCTC mast cell populations were studied as well as the mast cell expression of IL-6 and TGF-β. Results In the alveolar parenchyma in lungs from patients with CF, MCTC numbers increased in areas showing cellular inflammation or fibrosis compared to controls. Apart from an altered balance between MCTC and MCT cells, mast cell in CF lungs showed elevated expression of IL-6. In CF, a decrease in total mast cell numbers was observed in small airways and pulmonary vessels. In patients with IPF, a significantly elevated MCTC density was present in fibrotic areas of the alveolar parenchyma with increased mast cell expression of TGF-β. The total mast cell density was unchanged in small airways and decreased in pulmonary vessels in IPF. Both the density, as well as the percentage, of MCTC correlated positively with the degree of fibrosis. The increased density of MCTC, as well as MCTC expression of TGF-β, correlated negatively with patient lung function. Conclusions The present study reveals that altered mast cell populations, with increased numbers of MCTC in diseased alveolar parenchyma, represents a significant component of the histopathology in CF and IPF. The mast cell alterations correlated to the degree of tissue remodelling and to lung function parameters. Further

  14. Diagnostic Value of Calretinin in Mast Cell Lesions of the Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangini, Janine; Silverman, Jan F.; Dabbs, David J.; Tung, Ming Y.; Silverman, Alan R.

    2000-04-01

    The diagnosis of mast cell lesions of the skin can occasionally be challenging. Calretinin, a 29 kD neuron-specific calcium-binding protein found mostly in the CNS and retina, has been shown to be a positive marker for mesotheliomas, and is also expressed in mast cells. We studied the diagnostic value of calretinin and compared our results to other established ancillary studies used to identify mast cells, such as Toluidine blue and the Leder stain. Sixty-three cases were studied, including 45 mast cell lesions (22 urticaria pigmentosum, 17 mastocytomas, and six telangiectasia macularis eruptiva perstans [TMEP]), seven nevi, three melanomas, four granular cell minors of the skin, three cutaneous lymphomas, and one granulocytic sarcoma. Patients ranged in age from less than 1 to 85 years with a median age of 29 years. The group consisted of 36 females and 27 males. Calretinin was expressed in all 45 mast cell lesions. Negative staining for calretinin was seen in all skin lesions that potentially could be considered in the differential diagnosis of mast cell lesions such as nevi, melanomas, lymphomas, and the granulocytic sarcoma. However, calretinin expression was noted in four/four granular cell tumors. Leder and Toluidine blue stains were positive in all 45 mast cell lesions, and all nonmast cell lesions were negative with these stains. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that calretinin is a sensitive and specific marker of mast cells and can be an aid in distinguishing mast cell lesions from other skin lesions considered in the differential diagnosis. Calretinin may be more sensitive than the currently used special stains utilized to diagnose mast cell lesions having few diagnostic mast cells such as TMEP. However, this immunoperoxidase stain does not add significant diagnostic information in most cases, when compared with the currently used less expensive special stains and, therefore, is not cost-effective. Int J Surg Pathol 8(2):119-122, 2000

  15. Airway responsiveness to mannitol in asthma is associated with chymase-positive mast cells and eosinophilic airway inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sverrild, Asger; Bergqvist, Anders; Baines, Katherine J;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to inhaled mannitol is associated with indirect markers of mast cell activation and eosinophilic airway inflammation. It is unknown how AHR to mannitol relates to mast cell phenotype, mast cell function and measures of eosinophilic inflammation in airway...... tissue. We compared the number and phenotype of mast cells, mRNA expression of mast cell-associated genes and number of eosinophils in airway tissue of subjects with asthma and healthy controls in relation to AHR to mannitol. METHODS: Airway hyperresponsiveness to inhaled mannitol was measured in 23 non......-smoking, corticosteroid-free asthmatic individuals and 10 healthy controls. Mast cells and eosinophils were identified in mucosal biopsies from all participants. Mast cells were divided into phenotypes based on the presence of chymase. mRNA expression of mast cell-associated genes was measured by real-time PCR. RESULTS...

  16. The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Mast cameras and Descent imager: Investigation and instrument descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Michal C.; Ravine, Michael A.; Caplinger, Michael A.; Tony Ghaemi, F.; Schaffner, Jacob A.; Maki, Justin N.; Bell, James F.; Cameron, James F.; Dietrich, William E.; Edgett, Kenneth S.; Edwards, Laurence J.; Garvin, James B.; Hallet, Bernard; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Heydari, Ezat; Kah, Linda C.; Lemmon, Mark T.; Minitti, Michelle E.; Olson, Timothy S.; Parker, Timothy J.; Rowland, Scott K.; Schieber, Juergen; Sletten, Ron; Sullivan, Robert J.; Sumner, Dawn Y.; Aileen Yingst, R.; Duston, Brian M.; McNair, Sean; Jensen, Elsa H.

    2017-08-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory Mast camera and Descent Imager investigations were designed, built, and operated by Malin Space Science Systems of San Diego, CA. They share common electronics and focal plane designs but have different optics. There are two Mastcams of dissimilar focal length. The Mastcam-34 has an f/8, 34 mm focal length lens, and the M-100 an f/10, 100 mm focal length lens. The M-34 field of view is about 20° × 15° with an instantaneous field of view (IFOV) of 218 μrad; the M-100 field of view (FOV) is 6.8° × 5.1° with an IFOV of 74 μrad. The M-34 can focus from 0.5 m to infinity, and the M-100 from 1.6 m to infinity. All three cameras can acquire color images through a Bayer color filter array, and the Mastcams can also acquire images through seven science filters. Images are ≤1600 pixels wide by 1200 pixels tall. The Mastcams, mounted on the 2 m tall Remote Sensing Mast, have a 360° azimuth and 180° elevation field of regard. Mars Descent Imager is fixed-mounted to the bottom left front side of the rover at 66 cm above the surface. Its fixed focus lens is in focus from 2 m to infinity, but out of focus at 66 cm. The f/3 lens has a FOV of 70° by 52° across and along the direction of motion, with an IFOV of 0.76 mrad. All cameras can acquire video at 4 frames/second for full frames or 720p HD at 6 fps. Images can be processed using lossy Joint Photographic Experts Group and predictive lossless compression.

  17. Cromoglycate, not ketotifen, ameliorated the injured effect of warm ischemia/reperfusion in rat liver: role of mast cell degranulation, oxidative stress, proinflammatory cytokine, and inducible nitric oxide synthase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Shitany NA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nagla A El-Shitany,1,2 Karema El-Desoky3 1Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt; 3Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt Abstract: Hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (ISCH/REP is a major clinical problem that is considered to be the most common cause of postoperative liver failure. Recently, mast cells have been proposed to play an important role in the pathophysiology of ISCH/REP in many organs. In contrast, the role played by mast cells during ISCH/REP-induced liver damage has remained an issue of debate. This study aimed to investigate the protective role of mast cells in order to search for an effective therapeutic agent that could protect against fatal ISCH/REP-induced liver damage. A model of warm ISCH/REP was induced in the liver of rats. Four groups of rats were used in this study: Group I: SHAM (normal saline, intravenously [iv]; Group II: ISCH/REP; Group III: sodium cromoglycate + ISCH/REP (CROM + ISCH/REP, and Group IV: ketotifen (KET + ISCH/REP (KET + ISCH/REP. Liver damage was assessed both histopathologically and biochemically. Mast cell degranulation was assessed histochemically. Lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde [MDA] as well as the levels of glutathione (GSH, interleukin-6 (IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, the formation of nitric oxide (NO, and the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS were determined. The results of this study revealed increased mast cell degranulation in the liver during the acute phase of ISCH/REP. Moreover, CROM, but not KET, decreased the activity of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactic dehydrogenase and maintained normal liver tissue histology. Both CROM and KET protected against mast cell degranulation in the liver. In addition, both CROM and KET decreased IL

  18. Modulation of Mast Cell Function by Amino Acids In vitro: A Potential Mechanism of Immunonutrition for Wound Healing

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    "Mast cells release important chemical mediators, such as histamine and interleukin (IL)-13, for the regulation of allergic reactions and inflammation. Recently, mast cell activation has been implicated in wound healing. Glutamine (Gln) and Arginine (Arg) are used as “immune nutrients” in severe infections and chronic wounds in malnourished patients, but the potential effect of these amino acids on mast cell activation is unclear. We evaluated the effect of Gln and /or Arg in culture on mast ...

  19. Brain Mast Cells Act as an Immune Gate to the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis in Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumoto, Itsuro; Inoue, Yasuhisa; Shimada, Toshio; Aikawa, Tadaomi

    2001-01-01

    Mast cells perform a significant role in the host defense against parasitic and some bacterial infections. Here we show that in the dog, degranulation of brain mast cells evokes hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal responses via histamine release. A large number of mast cells were found in a circumscribed ventral region of the hypothalamus, including the pars tuberalis and median eminence. When these intracranial mast cells were passively sensitized with immunoglobulin E via either the intracerebro...

  20. Cloning and expression of human colon mast cell carboxypeptidase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang-Quan Chen; Shao-Heng He

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To clone and express the human colon mast cell METHODS: Total RNA was extracted from colon tissue, and the cDNA encoding human colon mast cell carboxypeptidase was amplified by reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR). The product cDNA was subcloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pMAL-c2x and eukaryotic expression vector pPIC9K to conrtruct prokaryotic expression vector pMAL/human MC-CP (hMC-CP) and eukaryotic pPIC9K/hMC-CP. The recombinant fusion protein expressed in E.coli was induced with IPTG and purified by amylose affinity chromatography. After digestion with factor Xa, recombinant hMC-CP was purified by heparin agarose chromatography. The recombinant hMC-CP expressed in Pichia pastoris (P.pastoris) was induced with methanol and analyzed by SDS-PAGE, Western blot, N-terminal amino acid RESULTS: The cDNA encoding the human colon mast cell carboxypeptidase was cloned, which had five nucleotide variations compared with skin MC-CP cDNA. The recombinant hMC-CP protein expressed in E.coli was purified with amylose affinity chromatography and heparin agarose chromatogphy.SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis showed that the recombinant protein expressed by E. coli had a molecular weight of 36 kDa and reacted to the anti-native hMC-CP monoclonal antibody (CA5). The N-terminal amino acid sequence confirmed further the product was hMC-CP. E. coli generated hMC-CP showed a very low level of enzymatic activity, but P. pastoris produced hMC-CP had a relatively high enzymatic activity towards a synthetic substrate hippuryl-L-phenylalanine.carboxypeptidase can be successfully cloned and expressed in E.coli and P. pastoris, which will contribute greatly to the fonctional study on hMC-CP.

  1. MAST CELLS ARE KEY PARTICIPANTS IN THE PATHOGENESIS OF IMMUNOINFLAMMATORY DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. O. Baglay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mast cells are an integral component of the pathogenetic  chain of immune inflammation in the body's tissues in different diseases. The mechanisms  underlying the proinflammatory effects of mast cells remain inadequately investigated. Their study may contribute to the optimization of therapy for different diseases, including chronic arthritis.

  2. Critical role of mast cell chymase in mouse abdominal aortic aneurysm formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, J; Zhang, J; Lindholt, Jes S.

    2009-01-01

    Mast cell chymase may participate in the pathogenesis of human abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), yet a direct contribution of this serine protease to AAA formation remains unknown.......Mast cell chymase may participate in the pathogenesis of human abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), yet a direct contribution of this serine protease to AAA formation remains unknown....

  3. Human mast cells produce and release the cytotoxic lymphocyte associated protease granzyme B upon activation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strik, M.C.; Koning, P.J. de; Kleijmeer, M.J.; Bladergroen, B.A.; Wolbink, A.M.; Griffith, J.M.; Wouters, D.; Fukuoka, Y.; Schwartz, L.B.; Hack, C.E.; Ham, S.M. van; Kummer, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Mast cells are widely distributed throughout the body and express effector functions in allergic reactions, inflammatory diseases, and host defense. Activation of mast cells results in exocytosis of preformed chemical mediators and leads to novel synthesis and secretion of lipid mediators and cytoki

  4. Modeling Pharmacological Inhibition of Mast Cell Degranulation as a Therapy for Insulinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Soucek

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Myc, a pleiotropic transcription factor that is deregulated and/or overexpressed in most human cancers, instructs multiple extracellular programs that are required to sustain the complex microenvironment needed for tumor maintenance, including remodeling of tumor stroma, angiogenesis, and inflammation. We previously showed in a model of pancreatic β-cell tumorigenesis that acute Myc activation in vivo triggers rapid recruitment of mast cells to the tumor site and that this is absolutely required for angiogenesis and macroscopic tumor expansion. More-over, systemic inhibition of mast cell degranulation with sodium cromoglycate induced death of tumor and endothelial cells in established tumors. Hence, mast cells are required both to establish and to maintain the tumors. Whereas this intimates that selective inhibition of mast cell function could be therapeutically efficacious, cromoglycate is not a practical drug for systemic delivery in humans, and no other systemic inhibitor of mast cell degranulation has hitherto been available. PCI-32765 is a novel inhibitor of Bruton tyrosine kinase (Btk that blocks mast cell degranulation and is currently in clinical trial as a therapy for B-cell non–Hodgkin lymphoma. Here, we show that systemic treatment of insulinoma-bearing mice with PCI-32765 efficiently inhibits Btk, blocks mast cell degranulation, and triggers collapse of tumor vasculature and tumor regression. These data reinforce the notion that mast cell function is required for maintenance of certain tumor types and indicate that the Btk inhibitor PCI-32765 may be useful in treating such diseases.

  5. Thermographic study of heat load asymmetries during MAST L-mode discharges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Temmerman, G.; Delchambre, E.; Dowling, J.; Kirk, A.; Lisgo, S.; Tamain, P.

    2010-01-01

    A long wavelength range infrared (LWIR) camera has been installed on MAST to compliment the existing medium wave infrared (MWIR) system. Simultaneous LWIR/MWIR temperature measurements have been made in the lower and upper divertors of MAST. As expected, the LWIR system is less sensitive to disturba

  6. Mast cell numbers in airway smooth muscle and PC(20)AMP in asthma and COPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liesker, J. J. W.; ten Hacken, N. H. T.; Rutgers, S. R.; Zeinstra-Smith, M.; Postma, D. S.; Timens, W.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Most patients with asthma and many patients with COPD show bronchial hyperresponsiveness to adenosine (BHRAMP). BHRAMP may be caused by release of mast cell histamine, which induces smooth muscle contraction. Aim of the study: To evaluate whether mast cell numbers in airway smooth musc

  7. Mast cell sarcoma: a rare and potentially under-recognized diagnostic entity with specific therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Russell J H; Akin, Cem; Castells, Mariana; Wills, Marcia; Selig, Martin K; Nielsen, G Petur; Ferry, Judith A; Hornick, Jason L

    2013-04-01

    Mast cell sarcoma is a rare, aggressive neoplasm composed of cytologically malignant mast cells presenting as a solitary mass. Previous descriptions of mast cell sarcoma have been limited to single case reports, and the pathologic features of this entity are not well known. Here, we report three new cases of mast cell sarcoma and review previously reported cases. Mast cell sarcoma has a characteristic morphology of medium-sized to large epithelioid cells, including bizarre multinucleated cells, and does not closely resemble either normal mast cells or the spindle cells of systemic mastocytosis. One of our three cases arose in a patient with a remote history of infantile cutaneous mastocytosis, an association also noted in one previous case report. None of our three cases were correctly diagnosed as mast cell neoplasms on initial pathological evaluation, suggesting that this entity may be under-recognized. Molecular testing of mast cell sarcoma has not thus far detected the imatinib-resistant KIT D816V mutation, suggesting that recognition of these cases may facilitate specific targeted therapy.

  8. Estimation of Cable Forces of a Guyed Mast from Dynamic Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Hansen, Lars Pilegaard

    This paper presents how the tension forces in the cables of a 200 m. high guyed mast have been estimated from natural frequencies obtained from acceleration measurements.The mast is guyed at five levels with three guys at 120 degree intervals at each level. The accelerations in three directions...

  9. Concurrent inhibition of kit- and FcepsilonRI-mediated signaling: coordinated suppression of mast cell activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bettina M; Beaven, Michael A; Iwaki, Shoko

    2008-01-01

    Although primarily required for the growth, differentiation, and survival of mast cells, Kit ligand (stem cell factor) is also required for optimal antigen-mediated mast cell activation. Therefore, concurrent inhibition of Kit- and FcepsilonRI-mediated signaling would be an attractive approach fo...

  10. Immunohistochemical evaluation of mast cells and angiogenesis in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Bhushan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : Angiogenesis is a complex event mediated by angiogenic factors released from cancer cells and immune cells. It has been reported to be associated with progression, aggressiveness and metastases of various malignant tumors including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC. Similarly, mast cells have also been reported to play a role in tumor progression and metastases by promoting angiogenesis. The present study aims at comparison of microvascular density (MVD and mast cell density (MCD in normal oral mucosa (NM and among various grades of OSCC. Materials and Methods : MVD was assessed immunohistochemically using anti-Factor VIII related von Willebrand factor, and MCD using anti-mast cell tryptase in a study sample of 30 cases of OSCC and 10 cases of clinically normal oral mucosa. Results : The mast cells in normal oral mucosa and oral squamous cell carcinoma strongly expressed mast cell tryptase. The density of mast cells and micro vessels were significantly higher in OSCC compared to normal oral mucosa. The MCD and MVD were higher in moderately differentiated OSCC than in well differentiated OSCC ( P > 0.05 and normal oral mucosa ( P < 0.05. Pearson′s correlation revealed a positive correlation between MCD and MVD ( r=0.33; P=0.077. Conclusion : These findings indicate that mast cells may play a role in up regulation of tumor angiogenesis in OSCC probably through mast cell tryptase.

  11. Histamine release from gut mast cells from patients with inflammatory bowel diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nolte, Hendrik; Spjeldnæs, Nikolaj; Kruse, Aksel

    1990-01-01

    of macroscopically inflamed and normal tissue. Mast cells and corresponding basophils were challenged with anti-IgE, anti-IgG, subclass anti-IgG4, and formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) and results were compared with those from nine patient control subjects. The mast cell count in patients with ulcerative...

  12. Wind‐gust parametrizations at heights relevant for wind energy: a study based on mast observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suomi, I.; Vihma, T.; Gryning, Sven-Erik;

    2013-01-01

    gustiness conditions were studied using observations from two coastal/archipelago weather masts in the Gulf of Finland (northern Europe) with observation heights between 30 and 143 m. Only moderate and strong wind cases were addressed. Both masts were located over relatively flat terrain but the local...

  13. 30 CFR 77.807-2 - Booms and masts; minimum distance from high-voltage lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-voltage lines. 77.807-2 Section 77.807-2 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface High-Voltage Distribution § 77.807-2 Booms and masts; minimum distance from high-voltage lines. The booms and masts of equipment operated on the surface of...

  14. Pharmacological targeting of the KIT growth factor receptor: a therapeutic consideration for mast cell disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bettina Margrethe; Akin, C; Gilfillan, A M

    2008-01-01

    KIT is a member of the tyrosine kinase family of growth factor receptors which is expressed on a variety of haematopoietic cells including mast cells. Stem cell factor (SCF)-dependent activation of KIT is critical for mast cell homeostasis and function. However, when KIT is inappropriately activa...

  15. Adaptive and innate immune reactions regulating mast cell activation: from receptor-mediated signaling to responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tkaczyk, Christine; Jensen, Bettina M; Iwaki, Shoko

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we have described studies that have demonstrated that mast cells can be activated as a consequence of adaptive and innate immune reactions and that these responses can be modified by ligands for other receptors expressed on the surface of mast cells. These various stimuli...

  16. Common Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen Common Terms Below is a list of diabetes-related ... a skin condition characterized by darkened skin patches; common in people whose body is not responding correctly ...

  17. New GALEX UV Data Products At MAST For Stellar Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiao, Bernie; Fleming, S. W.; Million, C.; Seibert, M.; Bianchi, L.; Thompson, R.; Tseng, S.; Adler, W. J.; Hubbard, M.; Levay, K.; Madore, B. F.; Martin, C. D.; Nieto-Santisteban, M. A.; Sahai, R.; Schiminovich, D.; White, R. L.; Wyder, T. K.

    2014-01-01

    The Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) mission ended in June 2013 after ten years in orbit. Its FUV and NUV microchannel plate detectors were used to conduct a variety of direct imaging and spectroscopic astronomical surveys with various depths and sky coverage, recording individual photon events with a time resolution of five thousandths of a second. Although the mission has ended, MAST is continuing to provide new data products as the mission transitions to a legacy archive. One product is the GCAT (Seibert et al., in prep), a catalog of GALEX sources across the entire GR6 data release that removes duplicate objects found in the GALEX MCAT. The GCAT defines "primary" NUV and FUV fluxes within the AIS and MIS surveys 40 million and 22 million sources, respectively), accounting for tile overlaps, and with visual inspection of every tile to flag artifacts and conduct other quality control checks. Another catalog of unique sources is that of Bianchi et al. (2013). Similar to the GCAT, their catalog produces a list of distinct GALEX sources in both the FUV and NUV from the AIS and MIS surveys, and includes data from GR7 (through the end of 2012). They have also cross-matched their sources with SDSS DR9, GSC-II, PanSTARRS, and 2MASS. We review access options for these catalogs, including updated matches between the GCAT and SDSS / Kepler available at MAST. In addition to these unique GALEX source catalogs, MAST will provide a database and software package that archives each of the ~1.5 trillion photon events detected over the lifetime of the mission. For the first time, users will be able to create calibrated lightcurves, intensity maps, and animated movies from any set of photons selected across any tile, and with specified aperture sizes, coordinates, and time steps. Users can access the data using either a python-based command-line software package, through a web interface at MAST, or (eventually) through CasJobs using direct SQL queries. We present some example

  18. Common Cold

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nose, coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In the course of a year, people ... avoid colds. There is no cure for the common cold. For relief, try Getting plenty of rest ...

  19. Antibacterial agent triclosan suppresses RBL-2H3 mast cell function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, Rachel K., E-mail: rachel.palmer@maine.edu [Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469 (United States); Department of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469 (United States); Hutchinson, Lee M.; Burpee, Benjamin T.; Tupper, Emily J.; Pelletier, Jonathan H.; Kormendy, Zsolt; Hopke, Alex R.; Malay, Ethan T.; Evans, Brieana L.; Velez, Alejandro [Department of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469 (United States); Gosse, Julie A., E-mail: julie.gosse@umit.maine.edu [Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469 (United States); Department of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469 (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Triclosan is a broad-spectrum antibacterial agent, which has been shown previously to alleviate human allergic skin disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that the mechanism of this action of triclosan is, in part, due to effects on mast cell function. Mast cells play important roles in allergy, asthma, parasite defense, and carcinogenesis. In response to various stimuli, mast cells degranulate, releasing allergic mediators such as histamine. In order to investigate the potential anti-inflammatory effect of triclosan on mast cells, we monitored the level of degranulation in a mast cell model, rat basophilic leukemia cells, clone 2H3. Having functional homology to human mast cells, as well as a very well defined signaling pathway leading to degranulation, this cell line has been widely used to gain insight into mast-cell driven allergic disorders in humans. Using a fluorescent microplate assay, we determined that triclosan strongly dampened the release of granules from activated rat mast cells starting at 2 μM treatment, with dose-responsive suppression through 30 μM. These concentrations were found to be non-cytotoxic. The inhibition was found to persist when early signaling events (such as IgE receptor aggregation and tyrosine phosphorylation) were bypassed by using calcium ionophore stimulation, indicating that the target for triclosan in this pathway is likely downstream of the calcium signaling event. Triclosan also strongly suppressed F-actin remodeling and cell membrane ruffling, a physiological process that accompanies degranulation. Our finding that triclosan inhibits mast cell function may explain the clinical data mentioned above and supports the use of triclosan or a mechanistically similar compound as a topical treatment for allergic skin disease, such as eczema. -- Highlights: ►The effects of triclosan on mast cell function using a murine mast cell model. ►Triclosan strongly inhibits degranulation of mast cells.

  20. The combined action of mast cell chymase, tryptase and carboxypeptidase A3 protects against melanoma colonization of the lung

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grujic, Mirjana; Paivandy, Aida; Gustafson, Ann-Marie

    2017-01-01

    Mast cell secretory granules are densely packed with various bioactive mediators including proteases of chymase, tryptase and CPA3 type. Previous studies have indicated that mast cells can affect the outcome of melanoma but the contribution of the mast cell granule proteases to such effects has n...

  1. Strict mast fruiting for a tropical dipterocarp tree: a demographic cost–benefit analysis of delayed reproduction and seed predation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.D.; Jongejans, E.; Breugel, van M.; Zuidema, P.A.; Chen, Y.Y.; Kassim, A.R.; Kroon, de H.

    2011-01-01

    1. Masting, the production of large seed crops at intervals of several years, is a reproductive adaptation displayed by many tree species. The predator satiation hypothesis predicts that starvation of seed predators between mast years and satiation during mast years decreases seed predation and thus

  2. Scaling Issues in the Determination of Wind loads on Lattice Masts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koss, Holger; Srouji, Robin G.

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a study conducted to investigate the influence of geometric scale and flow condition on the wind load coefficients for lattice masts structures. An initial study in 2008 on a full size mast section indicated a possible contingency, which could be used to add equipment on teleco......The paper presents a study conducted to investigate the influence of geometric scale and flow condition on the wind load coefficients for lattice masts structures. An initial study in 2008 on a full size mast section indicated a possible contingency, which could be used to add equipment...... on telecommunication towers without further structural strengthening. This study focuses on the role of scaling. A 1:6 scaled mast model was tested in two different flow conditions and in three layout variations. It was found that scaling does play a large role and that some of the codified loads are in fact more...

  3. Cutting Edge: Murine Mast Cells Rapidly Modulate Metabolic Pathways Essential for Distinct Effector Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phong, Binh; Avery, Lyndsay; Menk, Ashley V; Delgoffe, Greg M; Kane, Lawrence P

    2017-01-15

    There is growing appreciation that cellular metabolic and bioenergetic pathways do not play merely passive roles in activated leukocytes. Rather, metabolism has important roles in controlling cellular activation, differentiation, survival, and effector function. Much of this work has been performed in T cells; however, there is still very little information regarding mast cell metabolic reprogramming and its effect on cellular function. Mast cells perform important barrier functions and help control type 2 immune responses. In this study we show that murine bone marrow-derived mast cells rapidly alter their metabolism in response to stimulation through the FcεRI. We also demonstrate that specific metabolic pathways appear to be differentially required for the control of mast cell function. Manipulation of metabolic pathways may represent a novel point for the manipulation of mast cell activation.

  4. Influence of mass moment of inertia on normal modes of preloaded solar array mast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armand, Sasan C.; Lin, Paul

    1992-01-01

    Earth-orbiting spacecraft often contain solar arrays or antennas supported by a preloaded mast. Because of weight and cost considerations, the structures supporting the spacecraft appendages are extremely light and flexible; therefore, it is vital to investigate the influence of all physical and structural parameters that may influence the dynamic behavior of the overall structure. The study primarily focuses on the mast for the space station solar arrays, but the formulations and the techniques developed in this study apply to any large and flexible mast in zero gravity. Furthermore, to determine the influence on the circular frequencies, the mass moment of inertia of the mast was incorporated into the governing equation of motion for bending. A finite element technique (MSC/NASTRAN) was used to verify the formulation. Results indicate that when the mast is relatively flexible and long, the mass moment inertia influences the circular frequencies.

  5. An increased number of mast cells in the sclerae of alloxan-diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, L; Naeser, P

    1987-04-01

    The number of mast cells in the sclerae and retinae has been investigated in alloxan-diabetic mice, in obese-hyperglycaemic mice and in non-diabetic, lean control animals. In contrast to the alloxan-diabetic mice the obese-hyperglycaemic animals have increased circulating inulin levels. In the sclerae of alloxan-diabetic mice the number of mast cells was significantly (P less than 0.05) increased. No increase in mast cell content could be observed in the sclerae of the obese-hyperglycaemic mice. No mast cells could be observed in the retina in any of the experimental groups. It is concluded that lack of insulin may be of importance for the accumulation of mast cells in the sclerae of mice with hyperglycaemia.

  6. The parasympathetic nervous system as a regulator of mast cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Often considered as the archetype of neuroimmune communication, much of our understanding of the bidirectional relationship between the nervous and immune systems has come from the study of mast cell-nerve interaction. Mast cells play a role in resistance to infection and are extensively involved in inflammation and subsequent tissue repair. Thus, the relationship between mast cells and neurons enables the involvement of peripheral and central nervous systems in the regulation of host defense mechanisms and inflammation. Recently, with the identification of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, there has been increased interest in the role of the parasympathetic nervous system in regulating immune responses. Classical neurotransmitters and neuropeptides released from cholinergic and inhibitory NANC neurons can modulate mast cell activity, and there is good evidence for the existence of parasympathetic nerve-mast cell functional units in the skin, lung, and intestine that have the potential to regulate a range of physiological processes.

  7. Increased dermal mast cell prevalence and susceptibility to development of basal cell carcinoma in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimbaldeston, Michele A; Skov, Lone; Finlay-Jones, John J;

    2002-01-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation (280-320 nm) is the primary etiologic factor associated with the development of basal cell carcinoma (BCC). The outgrowth of these keratinocyte-derived skin lesions is enhanced by the ability of UVB to impair an immune response that would otherwise......, display variations in dermal mast cell prevalence. In a study of Danish and South Australian BCC patients and control subjects, one 4-mm punch biopsy of non-sun-exposed buttock skin was sampled from each participant. This skin site was investigated to avoid any changes in mast cell prevalence caused...... dermal area (expressed as mast cells per square millimeter). This technique enabled us to detect heterogeneity of dermal mast cell prevalence in buttock skin between individuals and provided evidence of an association between high dermal mast cell prevalence and BCC development in two diverse populations...

  8. Ultraviolet B radiation increases hairless mouse mast cells in a dose-dependent manner and alters distribution of UV-induced mast cell growth factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kligman, L.H.; Murphy, G.F. [Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). School of Medicine

    1996-01-01

    In studies of the effects of chronic UVB irradiation on dermal connective tissue in the hairless mouse, we observed that the number and size of mast cells was increased. Because mast cells are known to be associated with connective tissue remodeling, we examined and quantified the effect of increasing UVB (290-320 nm)doses on this cell. Groups of mice were exposed to filtered FS-40 Westinghouse lamps (290-400 nm: peak irradiance 313 nm) for 1-5 minimal erythema doses (MED) thrice weekly for 10 weeks. Appropriate controls were included. Biopsies, processed for light microscopy, were stained with toluidine blue. Mast cells were counted in 15 high-magnification fields per specimen with upper and lower dermis scored separately. Significant increases in large densely granular mast cells occurred at 2 MED in the lower dermic in association with the UVB-exacerbated granulomatous reaction. In the upper dermis, mast cells were significantly increased with 3 MED. These findings suggest that mast cells may play a dual role in UV-irradiated skin with those in the lower dermis related to inflammation processes and those in the upper dermis involved in connective tissue modeling. To gain understanding of the mechanism of mast cell recruitment and maturation, we examined the effect of UVB on mast cell growth factor expression. This was enhanced in the epidermis by UVB, with a shift from cytoplasmic staining to membrane-associated or intercellular staining at 2 MED and higher. Dermal dendritic and mononuclear cells also showed increased reactivity. (Author).

  9. Informatics and Decisions support in Galway Bay (SmartBay) using ERDDAP, OGC Technologies and Third Party Data Sources to Provide Services to the Marine Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Conor; Gaughan, Paul; Smyth, Damian

    2013-04-01

    The global marine sector generates and consumes vast quantities of operational and forecast data on a daily basis. One of the key challenges facing the sector relates to the management and transformation of that data into knowledge. The Irish Marine Institute (MI) generates oceanographic and environmental data on a regular and frequent basis. This data comes from operational ocean models run on the MI's high performance computer (HPC) and various environmental observation sensors systems. Some of the data published by the Marine Institute is brokered by the Environmental Research Division's Data Access Program (ERDDAP) data broker, which is a broker technology that uses technology based on OPeNDAP and Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards. The broker provides a consistent web service interface to the data services of the Marine Institute; these services include wave, tide and weather sensors and numerical model output. An ERDDAP server publishes data in a number of standard and developer friendly ways, including some OGC formats. The data on the MI ERDDAP (http://erddap.marine.ie) server is published as OpenData. The marine work package of the FP7 funded ENVIROFI project (http://www.envirofi.eu/) has used the ERDDAP data broker as a core resource in the development of its Marine Asset management decision Support Tool (MAST) portal and phone App. Communication between MAST and ERDDAP is via a Uniform Resource Identifier (Linked Data). A key objective of the MAST prototype is to demonstrate the potential of next-generation dynamic web-based products and services and how they can be harnessed to facilitate growth of both the marine and IT sectors. The use case driving the project is the management of ocean energy assets in the marine environment. In particular the provision of information that aid in the decision making process surrounding maintenance at sea. This question is common to any offshore industry and solution proposed here is applicable to other users

  10. Isolation of Mature (Peritoneum-Derived Mast Cells and Immature (Bone Marrow-Derived Mast Cell Precursors from Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen K Meurer

    Full Text Available Mast cells (MCs are a versatile cell type playing key roles in tissue morphogenesis and host defence against bacteria and parasites. Furthermore, they can enhance immunological danger signals and are implicated in inflammatory disorders like fibrosis. This granulated cell type originates from the myeloid lineage and has similarities to basophilic granulocytes, both containing large quantities of histamine and heparin. Immature murine mast cells mature in their destination tissue and adopt either the connective tissue (CTMC or mucosal (MMC type. Some effector functions are executed by activation/degranulation of MCs which lead to secretion of a typical set of MC proteases (MCPT and of the preformed or newly synthesized mediators from its granules into the local microenvironment. Due to the potential accumulation of mutations in key signalling pathway components of corresponding MC cell-lines, primary cultured MCs are an attractive mean to study general features of MC biology and aspects of MC functions relevant to human disease. Here, we describe a simple protocol for the simultaneous isolation of mature CTMC-like murine MCs from the peritoneum (PMCs and immature MC precursors from the bone marrow (BM. The latter are differentiated in vitro to yield BM-derived MCs (BMMC. These cells display the typical morphological and phenotypic features of MCs, express the typical MC surface markers, and can be propagated and kept in culture for several weeks. The provided protocol allows simple amplification of large quantities of homogenous, non-transformed MCs from the peritoneum and bone marrow-derived mast cells for cell- and tissue-based biomedical research.

  11. Role of mast cell- and non-mast cell-derived inflammatory mediators in immunologic induction of synaptic plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A.C. Albuquerque

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available We have previously discovered a long-lasting enhancement of synaptic transmission in mammal autonomic ganglia caused by immunological activation of ganglionic mast cells. Subsequent to mast cell activation, lipid and peptide mediators are released which may modulate synaptic function. In this study we determined whether some mast cell-derived mediators, prostaglandin D2 (PGD2; 1.0 µM, platelet aggregating factor (PAF; 0.3 µM and U44619 (a thromboxane analogue; 1.0 µM, and also endothelin-1 (ET-1; 0.5 µM induce synaptic potentiation in the guinea pig superior cervical ganglion (SCG, and compared their effects on synaptic transmission with those induced by a sensitizing antigen, ovalbumin (OVA; 10 µg/ml. The experiments were carried out on SCGs isolated from adult male guinea pigs (200-250 g actively sensitized to OVA, maintained in oxygenated Locke solution at 37oC. Synaptic potentiation was measured through alterations of the integral of the post-ganglionic compound action potential (CAP. All agents tested caused long-term (LTP; duration ³30 min or short-term (STP; <30 min potentiation of synaptic efficacy, as measured by the increase in the integral of the post-ganglionic CAP. The magnitude of mediator-induced potentiation was never the same as the antigen-induced long-term potentiation (A-LTP. The agent that best mimicked the antigen was PGD2, which induced a 75% increase in CAP integral for LTP (antigen: 94% and a 34% increase for STP (antigen: 91%. PAF-, U44619-, and ET-1-induced increases in CAP integral ranged for LTP from 34 to 47%, and for STP from 0 to 26%. These results suggest that the agents investigated may participate in the induction of A-LTP

  12. Nitrogen storage dynamics are affected by masting events in Fagus crenata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qingmin; Kabeya, Daisuke; Iio, Atsuhiro; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Kakubari, Yoshitaka

    2014-03-01

    It is generally assumed that the production of a large crop of seeds depletes stores of resources and that these take more than 1 year to replenish; this is accepted, theoretically, as the proximate mechanism of mast seeding (resource budget model). However, direct evidence of resource depletion in masting trees is very rare. Here, we trace seasonal and inter-annual variations in nitrogen (N) concentration and estimate the N storage pool of individuals after full masting of Fagus crenata in two stands. In 2005, a full masting year, the amount of N in fruit litter represented half of the N present in mature leaves in an old stand (age 190-260 years), and was about equivalent to the amount of N in mature leaves in a younger stand (age 83-84 years). Due to this additional burden, both tissue N concentration and individual N storage decreased in 2006; this was followed by significant replenishment in 2007, although a substantial N store remained even after full masting. These results indicate that internal storage may be important and that N may be the limiting factor for fruiting. In the 4 years following full masting, the old stand experienced two moderate masting events separated by 2 years, whilst trees in the younger stand did not fruit. This different fruiting behavior may be related to different "costs of reproduction" in the full masting year 2005, thus providing more evidence that N may limit fruiting. Compared to the non-fruiting stand, individuals in the fruiting stand exhibited an additional increase in N concentrations in roots early in the 2007 growing season, suggesting additional N uptake from the soil to supply resource demand. The enhanced uptake may alleviate the N storage depletion observed in the full masting year. This study suggests that masting affects N cycle dynamics in mature Fagus crenata and N may be one factor limiting fruiting.

  13. Global microRNA expression is essential for murine mast cell development in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sun Young; Brandal, Stephanie; Kapur, Reuben; Zhu, Zhou; Takemoto, Clifford M

    2014-10-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, noncoding RNAs that have been shown to play a critical role in normal physiology and disease, such as hematopoietic development and cancer. However, their role in mast-cell function and development is poorly understood. The major objective of this study was to determine how global miRNA expression affects mast-cell physiology. The RNase III endonuclease, Dicer, is required for the processing of pre-miRNAs into mature miRNAs. To investigate the effect of global miRNA depletion on mast cells in vivo, we generated a mast-cell-specific knock out of Dicer in mice. Transgenic mice (Mcpt5-Cre) that express Cre selectively in connective tissue mast cells were crossed with mice carrying the floxed conditional Dicer allele (Dicer fl/fl). Mcpt5-Cre × Dicer fl/fl mice with homozygous Dicer gene deletion in mast cells were found to have a profound mast-cell deficiency with near complete loss of peritoneal, gastrointestinal, and skin mast cells. We examined the in vivo functional consequence of mast-cell-specific Dicer deletion using an immunoglobulin-E-dependent passive systemic anaphylaxis murine model. Immunoglobulin-E-sensitized wild type Mcpt5-Cre × Dicer +/+ and heterozygous Mcpt5-Cre × Dicer fl/+ mice show marked hypothermia with antigen; however, homozygous Mcpt5-Cre × Dicer fl/fl mice were completely unresponsive to antigen challenge. These studies suggest a critical role for Dicer and miRNA expression for establishment of tissue compartments of functional mast cells in vivo.

  14. Antianaphylactic and mast cell stabilization activity of Strychnos potatorum Linn. seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh Jayantarao Patil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The antianaphylactic activity of Strychnos potatorum Linn seed extract was evaluated by using compound 48/80 induced anaphylaxis and mast cell stabilization was studied by using peritoneal mast cells of rats. The possible antianaphylactic and mast cell stabilization mechanism was evaluated by using compound 48/80 induced mast cell activation and level of nitric oxide in rat peritoneal mast cells. Materials and Methods: Anaphylactic shock in mice was induced by the intraperitoneal administration of 8 mg/kg compound 48/80, prior to induction of anaphylaxis the animals were treated with S. potatorum Linn. seed extract administered orally 1 h before administration of compound 48/80, the rate mortality was observed in each group of animals. Mast cell stabilization was seen by preincubation of mast cells with the compound 48/80 and the extracts. Results: This study indicates that the chloroform, petroleum ether, and methanolic extracts were shown potent and has significant (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001 inhibitory effects on compound 48/80 induced anaphylactic reaction and mast cell activation. This compound also inhibited significantly compound 48/80 induced increased level of nitric oxide in rat peritoneal mast cells. Conclusion: We conclude from this study that the different extracts of S. potatorum seed have potent antianaphylactic activity through mast cell stabilization and inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis. The inhibitory effect of S. potatorum Linn. on release of histamine and nitric oxide protects from compound 48/80 induced anaphylactic reaction may be through blocking vasodilatation, decrease vascular resistance, hypotension and tachycardia induced by immunogenic agent used in this study.

  15. Effects of cannabinoid receptor agonists on immunologically induced histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Alaster H Y; Chow, Sharron S M

    2003-03-19

    Immunologic activation of mast cells through the cross-linking of high affinity IgE receptors results in the release of inflammatory mediators which are important in the pathogenesis of allergic reactions. Early studies investigating the effects of palmitoylethanolamide on animal models of inflammation and on rat mast cells led to the hypothesis that endogenous cannabinoids might act as local autacoids which suppressed inflammation by reducing the activation of mast cells. However, more recent studies produced contradicting results. In order to evaluate if cannabinoid receptors are present in mast cells, we studied the effects of endocannabinoids (anandamide and palmitoylethanolamide) and synthetic cannabimimetics (CP 55,940, WIN 55,212-2 and HU-210) on histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells. When incubated with mast cells alone, only anandamide could induce significant level of histamine release at concentrations higher than 10(-6) M. When mast cells were activated with anti-IgE, the histamine release induced was not affected by anandamide, palmitoylethanolamide and CP 55,940. In contrast, both WIN 55,212-2 and HU-210 enhanced anti-IgE-induced histamine release at 10(-5) M and preincubation did not increase the potency. The histamine releasing action of anandamide and the enhancing effects of WIN 55,212-2 and HU-210 on anti-IgE-induced histamine release were not reduced by the cannabinoid receptor antagonists, AM 281 and AM 630. In conclusion, the present study does not support the hypothesis that cannabinoids suppress mast cell activation. Instead, some of the cannabinoid receptor-directed ligands tested enhanced mast cell activation. However, the high concentrations required and the failure of cannabinoid receptor antagonists to reverse such effects also question the existence of functional cannabinoid receptors in mast cells.

  16. Autoantibodies against G-Protein-Coupled Receptors Modulate Heart Mast Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ludmila Okruhlicova; Rosemarie Morwinski; Wolfgang Schulze; Sabine Bartel; Peter Weismann; Narcisa Tribulova; Gerd Wallukat

    2007-01-01

    Mast cells are believed to be involved in myocardial tissue remodelling under pathophysiological conditions. We examined the effects of autoantibodies against G-protein-coupled receptors in sera of patients with heart diseases on myocardial mast cells in the cultured neonatal Sprague-Dawley rat heart cells. Cells collected at day 3 and 10 of the culture were preincubated with autoantibodies against α1-adrenoceptor and angiotensin Ⅱ AT1-receptor,agonist phenylephrine and angiotensin Ⅱ, and control IgG. The pretreated cultured cells were stained for selected mast cell markers tryptase, chymase and TNF-α. The cultured cells were also processed for observation with electron microscopy. The autoantibodies-treatment of the 3-day cultured cells caused both increased intensity of immunofluorescence (p<0.05) and their enlarged diameters of the mast cells when compared to age-matched ones.In contrast, the fluorescence of preincubated 10-day-old mast cells was decreased compared with controls (p<0.01).In control samples, the fluorescence of 10-day-old mast cells was significantly higher than that of 3-day-old ones (p<0.001). Results of electron microscopy examination demonstrated there was an increased granulation of treated 3-day-old mast cells, while a degranulation of mast cells at day 10 of application. The results suggest the modulation effect of the autoantibodies against G-protein-coupled receptors on mast cells, indicating a potential functional link between the autoantibodies against G-protein-coupled receptors and the mast cells in progression of heart disease.

  17. Beyond The Prime Directive: The MAST Discovery Portal and High Level Science Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Scott W.; Abney, Faith; Donaldson, Tom; Dower, Theresa; Fraquelli, Dorothy A.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Levay, Karen; Matuskey, Jacob; McLean, Brian; Quick, Lee; Rogers, Anthony; Shiao, Bernie; Thompson, Randy; Tseng, Shui-Ay; Wallace, Geoff; White, Richard L.

    2015-01-01

    The Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST) is a NASA-funded archive for a wide range of astronomical missions, primarily supporting space-based UV and optical telescopes. What is less well-known is that MAST provides much more than just a final resting place for primary data products and documentation from these missions. The MAST Discovery Portal is our new search interface that integrates all the missions that MAST supports into a single interface, allowing users to discover (and retrieve) data from other missions that overlap with your targets of interest. In addition to searching MAST, the Portal allows users to search the Virtual Observatory, granting access to data from thousands of collections registered with the VO, including large missions spanning the electromagnetic spectrum (e.g., Chandra, SDSS, Spitzer, 2MASS, WISE). The Portal features table import/export, coordinate-based cross-matching, dynamic chart plotting, and the AstroView sky viewer with footprint overlays. We highlight some of these capabilities with science-driven examples. MAST also accepts High Level Science Products (HLSPs) from the community. These HLSPs are user-generated data products that can be related to a MAST-supported mission. MAST provides a permanent archive for these data with linked references, and integrates it within MAST infrastructure and services. We highlight some of the most recent HLSPs MAST has released, including the HST Frontier Fields, GALEX All-Sky Diffuse Radiation Mapping, a survey of the intergalactic medium with HST-COS, and one of the most complete line lists ever derived for a white dwarf using FUSE AND HST-STIS. These HLSPs generate substantial interest from the community, and are an excellent way to increase visibility and ensure the longevity of your data.

  18. Granule proteinases define mast cell heterogeneity in the serosa and the gastrointestinal mucosa of the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, H R; Huntley, J F; Newlands, G F; Mackellar, A; Lammas, D A; Wakelin, D

    1988-12-01

    In order to define further mast cell heterogeneity in the mouse, affinity-purified antibodies against a 28,000 MW serine proteinase from mouse intestinal mast cells (IMCP) and against rat mast cell proteinase I (RMCPI) were used to characterize mast cell cytoplasmic granules immunohistochemically. On Western blot, anti-IMCP cross-reacted with RMCPI and with a 25,000 MW antigen from isolated mouse serosal mast cells (SMC). Anti-RMCPI did not react with IMCP, although it identified the same 25,000 MW antigen from SMC. Isolated SMC (85-90% pure) lacked the 28,000 MW IMCP on Western blot, even though, immunohistochemically, the cells were stained with both anti-RMCPI and anti-IMCP. Anti-IMCP stained the granules of more than 85% of all mast cells detected with toluidine blue in the tongue or gastrointestinal mucosa. The specificity of anti-RMCPI which, in the rat, detects very few mucosal mast cells was almost identical to that of anti-IMCP for murine tongue and gastric and large intestinal mucosae, but a significant proportion of cells in distal jejunal, ileal and caecal mucosae were not stained with this antibody. The immunohistochemistry of the large numbers of mast cells recruited to jejunum following infection 10 days previously with 300 Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae was similar to that of uninfected control mice. The results show that considerable mast cell heterogeneity exists within the gastrointestinal mucosa of the mouse and indicate that there are both similarities and differences between mouse and rat in the distribution of mast cells and of their granule proteinases.

  19. Anti-Allergic Drugs Tranilast and Ketotifen Dose-Dependently Exert Mast Cell-Stabilizing Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asuka Baba

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anti-allergic drugs, such as tranilast and ketotifen, inhibit the release of chemokines from mast cells. However, we know little about their direct effects on the exocytotic process of mast cells. Since exocytosis in mast cells can be monitored electrophysiologically by changes in the whole-cell membrane capacitance (Cm, the absence of such changes by these drugs indicates their mast cell-stabilizing properties. Methods: Employing the standard patch-clamp whole-cell recording technique in rat peritoneal mast cells, we examined the effects of tranilast and ketotifen on the Cm during exocytosis. Using confocal imaging of a water-soluble fluorescent dye, lucifer yellow, we also examined their effects on the deformation of the plasma membrane. Results: Relatively lower concentrations of tranilast (100, 250 µM and ketotifen (1, 10 µM did not significantly affect the GTP-γ-S-induced increase in the Cm. However, higher concentrations of tranilast (500 µM, 1 mM and ketotifen (50, 100 µM almost totally suppressed the increase in the Cm, and washed out the trapping of the dye on the surface of the mast cells. Compared to tranilast, ketotifen required much lower doses to similarly inhibit the degranulation of mast cells or the increase in the Cm. Conclusions: This study provides electrophysiological evidence for the first time that tranilast and ketotifen dose-dependently inhibit the process of exocytosis, and that ketotifen is more potent than tranilast in stabilizing mast cells. The mast cell-stabilizing properties of these drugs may be attributed to their ability to counteract the plasma membrane deformation in degranulating mast cells.

  20. Multiplexed identification of different fish species by detection of parvalbumin, a common fish allergen gene: a DNA application of multi-analyte profiling (xMAP) technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Sabine

    2010-07-01

    Fish are a common cause of allergic reactions associated with food consumption, with parvalbumin being the major allergenic protein. Some fish-hypersensitive patients tolerate some fish species while being allergic to others. Reliable detection methods for allergenic fish species in foods are necessary to ensure compliance with food allergen labeling guidelines to protect fish-allergic consumers. The objective of this project was to develop a multi-analyte detection method for the presence of fish in food. Therefore, conserved parvalbumin exon sequences were utilized for the design of universal PCR primers amplifying intron DNA and small regions of exons flanking the enclosed intron from even very distantly related fish species. An assay for the identification of eight fish species was developed using xMAP technology with probes targeting species-specific parvalbumin intron regions. Additionally, a universal fish probe was designed targeting a highly conserved exon region located between the intron and the reverse primer region. The universal fish assay showed no cross-reactivity with other species, such as beef, pork, lamb, chicken, turkey, and shrimp. Importantly, with the exception of one notable case with fish in the same subfamily, species-specific detection showed no cross-reactivity with other fish species. Limits of detection for these eight species were experimentally estimated to range from 0.01% to 0.04%, with potential to increase the detection sensitivity. This report introduces a newly developed method for the multiplex identification of at least eight allergenic fish species in food, which could conceivably be extended to detect up to 100 species simultaneously in one sample.

  1. Pharmacological treatment options for mast cell activation disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molderings, Gerhard J; Haenisch, Britta; Brettner, Stefan; Homann, Jürgen; Menzen, Markus; Dumoulin, Franz Ludwig; Panse, Jens; Butterfield, Joseph; Afrin, Lawrence B

    2016-07-01

    Mast cell activation disease (MCAD) is a term referring to a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by aberrant release of variable subsets of mast cell (MC) mediators together with accumulation of either morphologically altered and immunohistochemically identifiable mutated MCs due to MC proliferation (systemic mastocytosis [SM] and MC leukemia [MCL]) or morphologically ordinary MCs due to decreased apoptosis (MC activation syndrome [MCAS] and well-differentiated SM). Clinical signs and symptoms in MCAD vary depending on disease subtype and result from excessive mediator release by MCs and, in aggressive forms, from organ failure related to MC infiltration. In most cases, treatment of MCAD is directed primarily at controlling the symptoms associated with MC mediator release. In advanced forms, such as aggressive SM and MCL, agents targeting MC proliferation such as kinase inhibitors may be provided. Targeted therapies aimed at blocking mutant protein variants and/or downstream signaling pathways are currently being developed. Other targets, such as specific surface antigens expressed on neoplastic MCs, might be considered for the development of future therapies. Since clinicians are often underprepared to evaluate, diagnose, and effectively treat this clinically heterogeneous disease, we seek to familiarize clinicians with MCAD and review current and future treatment approaches.

  2. Electron and ion heating characteristics during magnetic reconnection in MAST

    CERN Document Server

    Tanabe, H; Watanabe, T; Gi, K; Kadowaki, K; Inomoto, M; Imazawa, R; Gryaznevich, M; Michael, C; Crowley, B; Conway, N; Scannell, R; Harrison, J; Fitzgerald, I; Meakins, A; Hawkes, N; Cheng, C Z; Ono, Y

    2015-01-01

    Local electron and ion heating characteristics during merging reconnection startup on the MAST spherical tokamak have been revealed for the first time using a 130 channel YAG-TS system and a new 32 chord ion Doppler tomography diagnostic. 2D local profile measurement of $T_e$, $n_e$ and $T_i$ detect highly localized electron heating at the X point and bulk ion heating downstream. For the push merging experiment under high guide field condition, thick layer of closed flux surface formed by reconnected field sustains the heating profile for more than electron and ion energy relaxation time $\\tau^E_{ei}\\sim4-10$ms, both heating profiles finally form triple peak structure at the X point and downstream. Toroidal guide field mostly contributes the formation of peaked electron heating profile at the X point. The localized heating increases with higher guide field, while bulk downstream ion heating is unaffected by the change in the guide field under MAST conditions ($B_t>3B_{rec}$).

  3. Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,…

  4. Key role of mast cells and their major secretory products in inflammatory bowel disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao-Heng He

    2004-01-01

    Hirtoncally, mast cells were known as a key cell type involved in type I hypersensitivity Until last two decades, this cell type was recognized to be widely involved in a number of non-allergic diseases including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Markedly increased numbers of mast cells were observed in the mucosa of the iieum and colon of patients with IBD, which was accompanied by great changes of the content in mart cells such as dramatically increaed expression of TNFα, IL-16 and substance P.The evidence of mast cell degranulation was found in the wall of intestine from patients with IBD with immunohistochemistry technique. The highly elevated histamine and tryptase levels were detected in mucosa of petienta with IBD, strongly suggesting that mast cell degranulation is involved in the pathogenesis of IBD.However, Iittle is known of the actions of histamine, tryptase,chymase and carboxypeptidase in IBD. Over the lart decade,heparin has been used to treat IBD in clinical practice. The low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) was effective as adjuvant therapy, and the petienis showed good clinical and laberatory respense with no senous advere effectd. The roles of PGD2, LTC4, PAF and mast cell cytokines in IBD were also discussed. Recently, a series of experiments with dispersed colon mast cells suggested there should be at least two pathways in man for mast colls to amplify their own activationdegranulation signals in an autocrine or paracrine mannec.The hypethesis is that mast cell secretogogues induce mart cell degranulation, release histamine, then stimulate the adjacent mast cells or positively feedback to further stimulate its host mast cells through H1 recepton.Whereas released tryptase acts similarly to hirtamine, but activates mart cells through its receptor PAR-2. The connections between current anti-IBD therapies or potential therapies for IBD with mast cells were discussed, implicating further that mast cell is a key cell type that is involved in the

  5. Evidence questioning cromolyn’s effectiveness and selectivity as a “mast cell stabilizer” in mice

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Cromolyn, widely characterized as a “mast cell stabilizer”, has been used in mice to investigate the biological roles of mast cells in vivo. However, it is not clear to what extent cromolyn can either limit the function of mouse mast cells or influence biological processes in mice independently of effects on mast cells. We confirmed that cromolyn (at 10 mg/kg in vivo or 10 – 100 μM in vitro) can inhibit IgE-dependent mast cell activation in rats in vivo (measuring Evans blue extravasation in ...

  6. Mast cell gastritis: Children complaining of chronic abdominal pain with histologically normal gastric mucosal biopsies except for increase in mast cells, proposing a new entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pourpak Zahra

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mast cells reside within the connective tissue of a variety of tissues and all vascularized organs. Since 1996, few studies have been performed on mast cell density in gastrointestinal biopsies, mainly in adult age group. We recently studied mast cell density in pediatric age group on rather larger number of cases in a referral children hospital. Mast cell density was 12.6 ± 0.87 in 0.25 mm2 (range: 0-81 in our study. Since we frequently encounter cases with rather normal gastric biopsies with no H.pylori, which mainly complain of chronic abdominal pain, we gathered those cases with mast cell density more than 30/0.25 mm2. from 895 gastric biopsies and wanted to study their clinical and endoscopic findings and propose a new entity. Methods Between April 2005 and May 2008, 895 children (2, were chosen and a questionnaire was filled for each patient including clinical, endoscopic and pathologic findings. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS, version 13 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA. Results Over a 3 year period of study, of 895 selected children, 86 patients fulfilled the entrance criteria. The major complaint of patients was recurrent abdominal pain. The mean mast cell density was 45.59 ± 13.81 in 0.25 mm2 (range: 30-93. Among our cases, about 67.4% (n = 58 had 30 to 49, 23.3% (n = 20 had 50 to 69, 8.1% (n = 7 had 70 to 89 and 1.2% (n = 1 had 93 mast cells/0.25 mm2 in their specimens Discussion In 29% of our cases, neither endoscopic nor pathologic change was detected and only increase in mast cell number was reported and in others endoscopic and histopathological findings were negligible except increase in mast cells. In updated Sydney system (classification and grading of gastritis, no term is introduced which is in concordance with this group but we think that increased density of mast cells in these cases should not be overlooked and it may contribute to clinical manifestations in some way. We hope that

  7. Student Commons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Student commons are no longer simply congregation spaces for students with time on their hands. They are integral to providing a welcoming environment and effective learning space for students. Many student commons have been transformed into spaces for socialization, an environment for alternative teaching methods, a forum for large group meetings…

  8. [Bacteria and viruses modulate FcεRI-dependent mast cell activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słodka, Aleksandra; Brzezińska-Błaszczyk, Ewa

    2013-03-08

    Undoubtedly, mast cells play a central role in allergic processes. Specific allergen cross-linking of IgE bound to the high affinity receptors (FcεRI) on the mast cell surface leads to the release of preformed mediators and newly synthesized mediators, i.e. metabolites of arachidonic acid and cytokines. More and more data indicate that bacteria and viruses can influence FcεRI-dependent mast cell activation. Some bacterial and viral components can reduce the surface expression of FcεRI. There are also findings that ligation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) by bacterial or viral antigens can affect IgE-dependent mast cell degranulation and preformed mediator release as well as eicosanoid production. The synergistic interaction of TLR ligands and allergen can also modify cytokine synthesis by mast cells stimulated via FcεRI. Moreover, data suggest that specific IgE for bacterial or viral antigens can influence mast cell activity. What is more, some bacterial and viral components or some endogenous proteins produced during viral infection can act as superantigens by interacting with the VH3 domain of IgE. All these observations indicate that bacterial and viral infections modify the course of allergic diseases by affecting FcεRI-dependent mast cell activation. 

  9. Inhibition of histamine release from human mast cells by natural chymase inhibitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao-heng HE; Hua XIE; Xiao-jun ZHANG; Xian-jie WANG

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the ability of natural chymase inhibitors to modulate histamine release from human mast cells.METHODS: Enzymatically dispersed cells from human lung, tonsil, and skin were challenged with anti-IgE or calcium ionophore A23187 in the absence or presence of the natural chymase inhibitors secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) and α1-antitrypsin, then histamine release was determined. RESULTS: IgE-dependent histamine release from lung, tonsil, and skin mast cells were inhibited by up to 70 %, 61%, and 62%, respectively following incubation with α1-antitrypsin (5000 nmol/L). SLPI 5000 nmol/L was also able to inhibit anti-IgEdependent histamine released from lung, tonsil and skin mast cells by up to approximately 72%, 67%, and 58%,respectively. While neither α1-antitrypsin nor SLPI by themselves altered histamine release from lung, tonsil and skin mast cells, they were able to inhibit calcium ionophore-induced histamine release from lung and tonsil mast cells. CONCLUSION: Both α1-antitrypsin and SLPI could potently inhibit IgE-dependent and calcium ionophoreinduced histamine release from dispersed human lung, tonsil, and skin mast cells in a concentration-dependent manner, which suggested that they were likely to play a protective role in mast cell associated diseases including allergy.

  10. Mucosal Mast Cells Response in the Jejunum of Ascaridia galli-Infected Laying Hens

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    Darmawi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal defense mechanism against helminthes parasitic nematode to be associated with mucosal mast cells reaction. The aim of this research was to examine the effect of infection by Ascaridia galli parasite to trigger mucosal defense based on mucosal mast cells response in laying hens. Amount of ten head laying hens 12-wk old were divided into two groups containing five chickens of each. The first group, chickens were left as un-infected controls. The second group, chickens were infected orally with 1,000 embryonated eggs of A. galli. Mucosal mast cell responses were assayed by in situ jejunal mast cell counts in stained serial histological sections with Alcian blue (pH 0.3 and Safranin-O (pH 0.1 of the jejunum. Mucosal mast cells response were observed and counted on days 14 post infection. The result showed that A. galli infection was able to increase significantly (P<0.05 mast cells response. This research concluded that the A. galli infection can trigger the involment of mucosal mast cells response in jejunal defense of laying hens against parasitic diseases caused by A. galli.

  11. Cutaneous mast cell tumor and mastocytosis in a black-masked lovebird (Agapornis personata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallwig, Rebecca K; Whittington, Julia K; Terio, Karen; Barger, Ann

    2012-03-01

    A 12-year-old female black-masked lovebird (Agapornis personata) with a cobalt color mutation was presented for self-mutilation of a mass located on the right lateral neck. Cytologic evaluation of the soft tissue mass revealed a predominance of poorly stained mast cells with metachromatic intracytoplasmic granules. The presumptive diagnosis was cutaneous mast cell tumor. Clinical evaluation, results of a complete blood cell count and biochemical analysis, and radiographs did not reveal systemic manifestation of mast cell disease. The mass was surgically resected, but surgical margins were limited because of the location of the mass and the small size of the patient. The lovebird died the day after surgery. Gross postmortem examination revealed splenomegaly, multifocal pinpoint white nodules throughout the liver parenchyma, severe thickening and yellow coloration of the great vessels, and pale pink swelling of the caudal right kidney. Histopathologic analysis of the resected mass revealed sheets of round cells that contain metachromatic granules, defined as neoplastic mast cells, within a fine fibrovascular stroma. Similar neoplastic cells were seen in the right kidney, hepatic sinusoids, splenic pulp, periovarian connective tissue, and bone marrow. The histopathologic diagnosis was a cutaneous mast cell tumor and disseminated mast cell disease, or mastocytosis. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of a cutaneous mast cell tumor and mastocytosis in a psittacine bird.

  12. Lightning protection for roof-mounted solar cell using two masts

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    N. Petcharaks

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Houses invested in roof-mounted solar cell need protection from direct lightning. This paper presents the application of numerical method in designing the height and location of masts based on protection angle method according to international standard IEC 62305. An isolated external lightning protection system using two isolated masts is designed. The protected zone which is in the volume according to the protection angle method, depends on the protection level, the rolling sphere radius and the height of the masts which must be less than the rolling sphere radius defined in IEC standard. Furthermore, separation distance between the protected house and mast depends on the height of the mast. This paper develops a program using heuristic numerical method to design masts to protect a house with roof-mounted solar cell. Input data such as the house dimensions and the lightning protection class should be provided. This program is tested on houses with different dimensions. The height and location of two masts are obtained. The numerical results show that this program can be used effectively and correctly.

  13. Hydrogen inhalation ameliorated mast cell mediated brain injury after ICH in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaenko, Anatol; Lekic, Tim; Ma, Qingyi; Zhang, John H.; Tang, Jiping

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Hydrogen inhalation was neuroprotective in several brain injury models. Its mechanisms are believed to be related to anti-oxidative stress. We investigated the potential neurovascular protective effect of hydrogen inhalation especially effect on mast cell activation in a mouse model of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). DESIGN Controlled in vivo laboratory study. SETTING Animal research laboratory SUBJECTS 171, 8 weeks old male CD-1 mice were used. INTERVENTIONS Collagenase-induced ICH model in 8 weeks old, male, CD-1 mice was used. Hydrogen was administrated via spontaneous inhalation. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and neurological deficits were investigated at 24 and 72 hours after ICH. Mast cell activation was evaluated by Western blot and immuno-staining. The effects of hydrogen inhalation on mast cell activation were confirmed in an autologous blood injection model ICH. MEASURMENT AND MAIN RESULTS At 24 and 72 hours post-ICH, animals showed BBB disruption, brain edema, neurological deficits, accompanied with phosphorylation of Lyn kinase and release of tryptase, indicating mast cell activation. Hydrogen treatment diminished phosphorylation of Lyn kinase and release of tryptase, decreased accumulation and degranulation of mast cells, attenuated BBB disruption and improved neurobehavioral function. CONCLUSION Activation of mast cells following ICH contributed to increase of BBB permeability and brain edema. Hydrogen inhalation preserved BBB disruption by prevention of mast cell activation after ICH. PMID:23388512

  14. [Inhibitory effect of kaempferol on inflammatory response of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human mast cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yun-jiang; Wang, Hu; Li, Li; Sui, He-huan; Huang, Jia-jun

    2015-06-01

    This study is to investigate the inhibitory effect of kaempferol on inflammatory response of lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-stimulated HMC-1 mast cells. The cytotoxicity of kaempferol to HMC-1 mast cells were analyzed by using MTT assay and then the administration concentrations of kaempferol were established. Histamine, IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β and TNF-α were measured using ELISA assay in activated HMC-1 mast cells after incubation with various concentrations of kaempferol (10, 20 and 40 µmol.L-1). Western blot was used to test the protein expression of p-IKKβ, IκBα, p-IκBα and nucleus NF-κB of LPS-induced HMC-1 mast cells after incubation with different concentrations of kaempferol. The optimal concentrations of kaempferol were defined as the range from 5 µmol.L-1 to 40 µmol.L-1. Kaempferol significantly decreased the release of histamine, IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β and TNF-α of activated HMC-1 mast cells (Pkaempferol, the protein expression of p-IKKβ, p-IKBa and nucleus NF-κB (p65) markedly reduced in LPS-stimulated HMC-1 mast cells (Pkaempferol markedly inhibit mast cell-mediated inflammatory response. At the same time, kaempferol can inhibit the activation of IKKβ, block the phosphorylation of IκBα, prevent NF-KB entering into the nucleus, and then decrease the release of inflammatory mediators.

  15. Mast cell activation by conidia of Sporothrix schenckii: role in the severity of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo-Lozano, Y; Hernández-Hernández, F; Salinas, E

    2012-07-01

    Mast cells are abundant in the skin and other peripheral tissues, where they are one of the first immune cells to make contact with invading pathogens. As a result of pathogen recognition, mast cells can be activated and release different preformed and de novo-synthesized mediators. Sporothrix schenckii is the fungus that causes sporotrichosis, a worldwide-distributed subcutaneous mycosis considered as an important emerging health problem. It remains unknown whether or not mast cells are activated by S. schenckii. Here, we investigated the in vitro response of mast cells to conidia of S. schenckii and their in vivo involvement in sporotrichosis. Mast cells became activated after interaction with conidia, releasing early response cytokines as TNF-α and IL-6. Although histamine release was not significantly stimulated by S. schenckii, we determined that conidia potentiate histamine secretion induced by compound 48/80. Furthermore, functional depletion of peritoneal mast cells before S. schenckii infection significantly reduced the severity of cutaneous lesions of the sporotrichosis. These data demonstrate that mast cells are important contributors in the host response to S. schenckii infection, suggesting a role of these cells in the progress of clinical manifestations in sporotrichosis.

  16. Mast Cell Subsets and Their Functional Modulation by the Acanthocheilonema viteae Product ES-62

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    Dimity H. Ball

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ES-62, an immunomodulator secreted by filarial nematodes, exhibits therapeutic potential in mouse models of allergic inflammation, at least in part by inducing the desensitisation of FcεRI-mediated mast cell responses. However, in addition to their pathogenic roles in allergic and autoimmune diseases, mast cells are important in fighting infection, wound healing, and resolving inflammation, reflecting that mast cells exhibit a phenotypic and functional plasticity. We have therefore characterised the differential functional responses to antigen (via FcεRI and LPS and their modulation by ES-62 of the mature peritoneal-derived mast cells (PDMC; serosal and those of the connective tissue-like mast cells (CTMC and the mucosal-like mast cells derived from bone marrow progenitors (BMMC as a first step to produce disease tissue-targeted therapeutics based on ES-62 action. All three mast cell populations were rendered hyporesponsive by ES-62 and whilst the mechanisms underlying such desensitisation have not been fully delineated, they reflect a downregulation of calcium and PKCα signalling. ES-62 also downregulated MyD88 and PKCδ in mucosal-type BMMC but not PDMC, the additional signals targeted in mucosal-type BMMC likely reflecting that these cells respond to antigen and LPS by degranulation and cytokine secretion whereas PDMC predominantly respond in a degranulation-based manner.

  17. Immunohistochemical identification of mast cells in formaldehyde-fixed tissue using monoclonal antibodies specific for tryptase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, A F; Jones, D B; Williams, J H; Church, M K; Holgate, S T

    1990-10-01

    An avidin-biotin enhanced immunoperoxidase procedure using monoclonal antibodies (AA1, AA3, and AA5) prepared against human mast cell tryptase resulted in intense staining of mast cells in paraffin-embedded tissue. The distribution of mast cells observed was similar to that seen when adjacent serial sections were stained using a standard procedure with toluidine blue, though the immunoperoxidase technique permitted the identification of significantly more mast cells. With monoclonal antibody AA1, immunostaining was entirely specific for mast cell granules, and there was negligible background staining in a range of tissues including lung, tonsil, colon, gastric mucosa, skin, and pituitary. There was no staining of antibody on basophils or on any other normal blood leukocyte. The technique was effective with tissue fixed in either Carnoy's or neutral buffered formalin, though the internal mast cell structure was better preserved with formaldehyde fixation. The immunoperoxidase staining procedure with monoclonal antibody AA1 is a highly specific and sensitive means for the detection of mast cells in routinely processed tissues.

  18. Bacteria and viruses modulate FcεRI-dependent mast cell activity 

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    Aleksandra Słodka

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Undoubtedly, mast cells play a central role in allergic processes. Specific allergen cross-linking of IgE bound to the high affinity receptors (FcεRI on the mast cell surface leads to the release of preformed mediators and newly synthesized mediators, i.e. metabolites of arachidonic acid and cytokines. More and more data indicate that bacteria and viruses can influence FcεRI-dependent mast cell activation. Some bacterial and viral components can reduce the surface expression of FcεRI. There are also findings that ligation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs by bacterial or viral antigens can affect IgE-dependent mast cell degranulation and preformed mediator release as well as eicosanoid production. The synergistic interaction of TLR ligands and allergen can also modify cytokine synthesis by mast cells stimulated via FcεRI. Moreover, data suggest that specific IgE for bacterial or viral antigens can influence mast cell activity. What is more, some bacterial and viral components or some endogenous proteins produced during viral infection can act as superantigens by interacting with the VH3 domain of IgE. All these observations indicate that bacterial and viral infections modify the course of allergic diseases by affecting FcεRI-dependent mast cell activation. 

  19. Methoxychlor enhances degranulation of murine mast cells by regulating FcεRI-mediated signal transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunaga, Sho; Nishi, Kosuke; Nishimoto, Sogo; Sugahara, Takuya

    2015-01-01

    Methoxychlor, an organochlorine insecticide developed to replace DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane), has been reported to induce mast cell degranulation and to enhance IgE-mediated allergic responses. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects are not clear. To clarify potential mechanisms, the effects of methoxychlor on degranulation of mast cells were examined. Degranulation responses were evaluated using RBL-2H3 cells and mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells with either the antigen-induced or calcium ionophore-induced stimulation. Phosphorylation of enzymes related to signaling events associated with mast cell degranulation was analyzed by immunoblotting. Effects on vascular permeability in the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction were evaluated following oral administration of methoxychlor to BALB/c mice. The results indicated that methoxychlor caused increased mast cell degranulation in the presence of antigen, whereas it had no effect on calcium ionophore-induced degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells. Immunoblot analyses demonstrated that the phosphorylation level of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (which plays a central role in mast cell signaling) was increased by methoxychlor during antigen-induced degranulation. In addition, methoxychlor activated the signaling pathway via the high-affinity IgE receptor by inducing phosphorylation of Syk and PLCγ1/2, which transfer the signal for degranulation downstream. Lastly, oral administration of methoxychlor exhibited a tendency to promote vascular permeability in passive cutaneous anaphylaxis model mice. Taken together, the results here suggested that methoxychlor enhanced degranulation through FcεRI-mediated signaling and promoted allergenic symptoms involved in mast cell degranulation.

  20. Developmental changes of mast cell populations in the cerebral meninges of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaloudi, Helen; Batzios, Christos; Chiotelli, Maria; Papadopoulos, Georgios C

    2007-10-01

    It is known that both the dura and the pia mater attract and support the differentiation of mast cells. The present study shows that unevenly distributed mast cells in the cerebral meninges of the rat can be found in perivascular sites and vessel ramification points, but can also be unrelated to the meningeal vasculature. It also documents changes in the number, localization and staining preferences of the mast cells in the two meninges of the developing and mature rat brain. Quantitative examination of all types of histochemically differentiated meningeal mast cells reveals no major (although some exist) differences between right and left side subpopulations, but strongly suggests a different origin and fate of the dural and the pial mast cells. The number of dural mast cells, already high from postnatal day 0, although declining from postnatal day 21 onwards, remains conspicuous up to postnatal day 180. In contrast, pial mast cells are comparatively very few in the first day of the postnatal life, and despite a transient significant increase in the following two weeks, they reach almost zero levels from postnatal day 21.

  1. Estimation of the total number of mast cells in the human umbilical cord. A methodological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engberg Damsgaard, T M; Windelborg Nielsen, B; Sørensen, F B; Henriques, U; Schiøtz, P O

    1992-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the total number of mast cells in the human umbilical cord. Using 50 microns-thick paraffin sections, made from a systematic random sample of umbilical cord, the total number of mast cells per cord was estimated using a combination of the optical disector and fractionated sampling. The mast cell of the human umbilical cord was found in Wharton's jelly, most frequently in close proximity to the three blood vessels. No consistent pattern of variation in mast cell numbers from the fetal end of the umbilical cord towards the placenta was seen. The total number of mast cells found in the umbilical cord was 5,200,000 (median), range 2,800,000-16,800,000 (n = 7), that is 156,000 mast cells per gram umbilical cord (median), range 48,000-267,000. Thus, the umbilical cord constitutes an adequate source of mast cells for further investigation of these cells in the newborn, e.g. for describing their functional and secretory characteristics and possible clinical relevance in relation to the development of allergic, inflammatory and immunological diseases in infancy and childhood.

  2. P2X7 receptors induce degranulation in human mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wareham, Kathryn J; Seward, Elizabeth P

    2016-06-01

    Mast cells play important roles in host defence against pathogens, as well as being a key effector cell in diseases with an allergic basis such as asthma and an increasing list of other chronic inflammatory conditions. Mast cells initiate immune responses through the release of newly synthesised eicosanoids and the secretion of pre-formed mediators such as histamine which they store in specialised granules. Calcium plays a key role in regulating both the synthesis and secretion of mast-cell-derived mediators, with influx across the membrane, in particular, being necessary for degranulation. This raises the possibility that calcium influx through P2X receptors may lead to antigen-independent secretion of histamine and other granule-derived mediators from human mast cells. Here we show that activation of P2X7 receptors with both ATP and BzATP induces robust calcium rises in human mast cells and triggers their degranulation; both effects are blocked by the P2X7 antagonist AZ11645373, or the removal of calcium from the extracellular medium. Activation of P2X1 receptors with αβmeATP also induces calcium influx in human mast cells, which is significantly reduced by both PPADS and NF 449. P2X1 receptor activation, however, does not trigger degranulation. The results indicate that P2X7 receptors may play a significant role in contributing to the unwanted activation of mast cells in chronic inflammatory conditions where extracellular ATP levels are elevated.

  3. Design, Fabrication and Testing of Mooring Masts for Remotely Controlled Indoor and Outdoor Airships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaleelullah, Syed; Bhardwaj, Utsav; Pant, Rajkumar Sureshchandra

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the design and structural details of two mooring masts, one for remotely controlled outdoor airships and another one for remotely controlled indoor airships. In a previous study, a mast for outdoor remotely controlled airship was designed to meet several user-specified operating requirements, and a simplified version of the same was fabricated. A spring loaded device was incorporated that sounds an alarm when the wind-loads exceed a threshold value, so that the airship can be taken indoors. The present study started with a critical analysis of that mast, and a new mast was designed and fabricated to remove several of its shortcomings. This mast consists of power screw operated telescopic module made of aluminium, mounted on a five legged base with castor wheels, for ease in mobility. Components of the existing mast were used to the possible extent, and the design was simplified to meet the assembly and transportation requirements. The spring mechanism used in alarming device was also modified to ensure higher sensitivity in the range of maximum expected wind-loads acting on the airship. A lightweight mooring mast for indoor remotely controlled airships was also designed and fabricated, which can accommodate non-rigid indoor airships of length up to 5 m. The mast consists of an elevating bolt operated telescopic module mounted on a tripod adapter base, with lockable castor wheels, and has a specially designed mooring-clamp at the top. The various modules and components of the mast were designed to enable quick assembly and transportation.

  4. Histamine from brain resident MAST cells promotes wakefulness and modulates behavioral states.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachiko Chikahisa

    Full Text Available Mast cell activation and degranulation can result in the release of various chemical mediators, such as histamine and cytokines, which significantly affect sleep. Mast cells also exist in the central nervous system (CNS. Since up to 50% of histamine contents in the brain are from brain mast cells, mediators from brain mast cells may significantly influence sleep and other behaviors. In this study, we examined potential involvement of brain mast cells in sleep/wake regulations, focusing especially on the histaminergic system, using mast cell deficient (W/W(v mice. No significant difference was found in the basal amount of sleep/wake between W/W(v mice and their wild-type littermates (WT, although W/W(v mice showed increased EEG delta power and attenuated rebound response after sleep deprivation. Intracerebroventricular injection of compound 48/80, a histamine releaser from mast cells, significantly increased histamine levels in the ventricular region and enhanced wakefulness in WT mice, while it had no effect in W/W(v mice. Injection of H1 antagonists (triprolidine and mepyramine significantly increased the amounts of slow-wave sleep in WT mice, but not in W/W(v mice. Most strikingly, the food-seeking behavior observed in WT mice during food deprivation was completely abolished in W/W(v mice. W/W(v mice also exhibited higher anxiety and depression levels compared to WT mice. Our findings suggest that histamine released from brain mast cells is wake-promoting, and emphasizes the physiological and pharmacological importance of brain mast cells in the regulation of sleep and fundamental neurobehavior.

  5. Distribution and density of mast cells in camel small intestine and influence of fixation techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MB Al-Zghoul

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to gather species-specific data on mast-cell density and distribution in camel small intestine under different fixation conditions and to elucidate the presence and cross-reactivity of tryptase in the camel small intestine using human specific anti-tryptase antibody. Tissue specimens from the jejunum, duodenum, and ileum were obtained from 9 healthy, 9-12 months old, male camels. Specimens were fixed either with carnoy’s fluid or formalinbuffered solution and stained with either methylene blue or immunohistochemically to identify mast cells. The present study demonstrated for the first time, the presence and cross-reactivity of tryptase in the camel small intestine using a specific mouse anti-human tryptase antibody. Mast cells were detected in all histological layers of the camel small intestine (mucosal, submucosal, muscularis externa and serosa. Among all locations examined in the duodenum, ileum and jejunum, no significant difference was observed in mast-cell counts among the lamina propria, muscularis mucosae, muscularis externa and the serosa. The only significant difference observed was the mast-cell count in submucosa region where the highest and lowest mast count was observed in the jejenual and ileal submucosa, respectively. Significant differences regarding the distribution of mast cell as well as the influence of the fixation method could be observed. This underlines the fact that data regarding mast cell heterogeneity from other species, obtained by different fixation methods, are not comparable. This fact has to be taken into account when evaluating mast cell subtypes under pathological conditions.

  6. The mast cell - B-cell axis in lung vascular remodeling and pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitling, Siegfried; Hui, Zhang; Zabini, Diana; Hu, Yijie; Hoffmann, Julia; Goldenberg, Neil M; Tabuchi, Arata; Buelow, Roland; Dos Santos, Claudia; Kuebler, Wolfgang Michael

    2017-02-24

    Over the past years, a critical role for the immune system and in particular, for mast cells, in the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension (PH) has emerged. However, the way in which mast cells promote PH is still poorly understood. Here, we investigated the mechanisms by which mast cells may contribute to PH, specifically focusing on the interaction between the innate and adaptive immune response and the role of B-cells and autoimmunity. Experiments were performed in Sprague Dawley rats and B-cell deficient JH-KO rats in the monocrotaline, sugen-hypoxia and the aortic banding model of PH. Hemodynamics, cell infiltration, IL-6 expression, and vascular remodeling were analyzed. Gene array analyses revealed constituents of immunoglobulins as most prominently regulated mast cell dependent genes in the lung in experimental PH. IL-6 was shown to link mast cells to B-cells, as a) IL-6 was upregulated and colocalized with mast cells and was reduced by mast cell stabilizers, and b) IL-6 or mast cell blockade reduced B-cells in lungs of monocrotaline-treated rats. A functional role for B-cells in PH was demonstrated, in that either blocking B-cells by an anti-CD20 antibody or B-cell deficiency in JH-KO rats attenuated right ventricular systolic pressure and vascular remodeling in experimental PH. We here identify a mast cell - B-cell axis driven by IL-6 as critical immune pathway in the pathophysiology of PH. Our results provide novel insights into the role of the immune system in PH, which may be therapeutically exploited by targeted immunotherapy.

  7. Histamine from brain resident MAST cells promotes wakefulness and modulates behavioral states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikahisa, Sachiko; Kodama, Tohru; Soya, Atsushi; Sagawa, Yohei; Ishimaru, Yuji; Séi, Hiroyoshi; Nishino, Seiji

    2013-01-01

    Mast cell activation and degranulation can result in the release of various chemical mediators, such as histamine and cytokines, which significantly affect sleep. Mast cells also exist in the central nervous system (CNS). Since up to 50% of histamine contents in the brain are from brain mast cells, mediators from brain mast cells may significantly influence sleep and other behaviors. In this study, we examined potential involvement of brain mast cells in sleep/wake regulations, focusing especially on the histaminergic system, using mast cell deficient (W/W(v)) mice. No significant difference was found in the basal amount of sleep/wake between W/W(v) mice and their wild-type littermates (WT), although W/W(v) mice showed increased EEG delta power and attenuated rebound response after sleep deprivation. Intracerebroventricular injection of compound 48/80, a histamine releaser from mast cells, significantly increased histamine levels in the ventricular region and enhanced wakefulness in WT mice, while it had no effect in W/W(v) mice. Injection of H1 antagonists (triprolidine and mepyramine) significantly increased the amounts of slow-wave sleep in WT mice, but not in W/W(v) mice. Most strikingly, the food-seeking behavior observed in WT mice during food deprivation was completely abolished in W/W(v) mice. W/W(v) mice also exhibited higher anxiety and depression levels compared to WT mice. Our findings suggest that histamine released from brain mast cells is wake-promoting, and emphasizes the physiological and pharmacological importance of brain mast cells in the regulation of sleep and fundamental neurobehavior.

  8. Spatio-temporal availability of soft mast in clearcuts in the Southern Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds-Hogland, M. J.; Mitchell, M.S.; Powell, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Soft mast is an important resource for many wild populations in the Southern Appalachians, yet the way clear-cutting affects availability of soft mast though time is not fully understood. We tested a theoretical model of temporal availability of soft mast in clearcuts using empirical data on percent cover and berry production of Gaylussacia, Vaccinium, and Rubus spp. plants in 100 stands that were clearcut (0-122 years old) in the Southern Appalachian Mountains. We modeled the relationship between soft mast availability and stand age, evaluated the effects of topography and forest type on soft mast, developed statistical models for predicting the spatio-temporal distribution of soft mast, and tested the hypothesis that percent cover of berry plants and berry production provided similar information about soft mast availability. We found temporal dynamics explained berry production better than it predicted percent plant cover, whereas topographic variables influenced percent plant cover more than they influenced berry production. Berry production and percent plant cover were highest in ???2-9-year-old stands. Percent plant cover was lowest in 10-69-year-old stands and intermediate in 70+-year-old stands. Three of our spatio-temporal models performed well during model testing and they were not biased by the training data, indicating the inferences about spatio-temporal availability of soft mast extended beyond our sample data. The methods we used to estimate the distribution of soft mast may be useful for modeling distributions of other resources. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. New magnetic real time shape control for MAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pangione, L., E-mail: luigi.pangione@ccfe.ac.uk [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association – Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); McArdle, G.; Storrs, J. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association – Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► New magnetic shape control system has been implemented. ► It has been intensively tested in a simulation environment. ► A tool chain to produce LTI model and simulate its behaviour has been implemented. ► Experimental results are shown. -- Abstract: The Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST) real time plasma position controller is based on an optical linear camera placed on the mid plane of the vessel. This solution has the advantage of being a direct observation of the D{sub α} emissions coming from the interaction between the boundary of the plasma and neutral gas, but, on the other hand, it restricts the control to the outer radius of the plasma only. A complete chain of tools has been set up to implement, test and simulate a new real time magnetic plasma shape controller based on the rtEFIT code. The complete working path consists of three elements: a linear static relationship between control parameters and current demands, a linear state space model needed to represent the plasma dynamic response in closed loop simulations, and the possibility to run simulations inside the Plasma Control System (PCS). The linear relationship has been calculated using the FIESTA code, which is developed using Matlab at CCFE. The linear state space model was generated using the CREATE-L code developed by the CREATE Consortium. It has already been successfully used to model JET, FTU and TCV tokamaks. Using this working path many simulations have been carried out allowing fine tuning of the control gains before the real experiment. The simulation testing includes the plasma shape control law as implemented in PCS itself, so intensive debugging has been possible prior to operation. Successful control using rtEFIT was established in the second dedicated experiment during the MAST 2011–12 campaign. This work is a stepping stone towards divertor control which is ultimately intended for application to the super-X divertor in the MAST Upgrade experiment.

  10. Relationship between numerous mast cells and early follicular development in neonatal MRL/MpJ mouse ovaries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teppei Nakamura

    Full Text Available In the neonatal mouse ovary, clusters of oocytes called nests break into smaller cysts and subsequently form individual follicles. During this period, we found numerous mast cells in the ovary of MRL/MpJ mice and investigated their appearance and morphology with follicular development. The ovarian mast cells, which were already present at postnatal day 0, tended to localize adjacent to the surface epithelium. Among 11 different mouse strains, MRL/MpJ mice possessed the greatest number of ovarian mast cells. Ovarian mast cells were also found in DBA/1, BALB/c, NZW, and DBA/2 mice but rarely in C57BL/6, NZB, AKR, C3H/He, CBA, and ICR mice. The ovarian mast cells expressed connective tissue mast cell markers, although mast cells around the surface epithelium also expressed a mucosal mast cell marker in MRL/MpJ mice. Some ovarian mast cells migrated into the oocyte nests and directly contacted the compressed and degenerated oocytes. In MRL/MpJ mice, the number of oocytes in the nest was significantly lower than in the other strains, and the number of oocytes showed a positive correlation with the number of ovarian mast cells. The gene expression of a mast cell marker also correlated with the expression of an oocyte nest marker, suggesting a link between the appearance of ovarian ? 4mast cells and early follicular development. Furthermore, the expression of follicle developmental markers was significantly higher in MRL/MpJ mice than in C57BL/6 mice. These results indicate that the appearance of ovarian mast cells is a unique phenotype of neonatal MRL/MpJ mice, and that ovarian mast cells participate in early follicular development, especially nest breakdown.

  11. The role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in mast cell-stimulated fibroblast proliferation and collagen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ningyan, Gu; Xu, Yao; Hongfei, Shi; Jingjing, Chen; Min, Chen

    2015-01-01

    Current clinical and translational studies have shown that mast cell plays a pivotal role in multiple fibrotic diseases including scleroderma. However, the lack of mature human mast cell culture model exhibits a major obstacle for further dissection of cytokines and signaling molecules required for mast cell mediated fibrosis in various diseases. Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor is a mast cell released pro-inflammatory cytokine which is deregulated in scleroderma patients and is also involved in non-scleroderma related fibrosis. In the current study, we successfully generated a practical and reliable human mast cell culture system with bone marrow CD34+ hematopietic precursors. The derivative mast cell is normal in terms of both morphology and function as manifested by normal degranulation. More importantly, we were able to show mast cell conditioned medium as well as MIF supplementation augments fibroblast proliferation and collagen synthesis. This positive regulatory effect of mast cell conditioned medium can be dampened by MIF antibody. In addition, MIF-knockdown significantly inhibits pro-fibrotic activities of CD34+ hematopietic precursor derived mast cells. These data strongly suggest that mast cell released MIF is required for mast cell mediated fibrogenic activities. The current manuscript seems to be the first mechanistic report showing the significance of MIF in mast cell mediated fibrosis, which may pave the way for the development of potential MIF-targeted therapy for fibrotic diseases to a further extent. Moreover, we strongly believe mast cell culture and differentiation model as well as corresponding genetic manipulation methodology will be helpful in characterizing novel mast cell based therapeutic targets.

  12. Cromoglycate, not ketotifen, ameliorated the injured effect of warm ischemia/reperfusion in rat liver: role of mast cell degranulation, oxidative stress, proinflammatory cytokine, and inducible nitric oxide synthase

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shitany, Nagla A; El-Desoky, Karema

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (ISCH/REP) is a major clinical problem that is considered to be the most common cause of postoperative liver failure. Recently, mast cells have been proposed to play an important role in the pathophysiology of ISCH/REP in many organs. In contrast, the role played by mast cells during ISCH/REP-induced liver damage has remained an issue of debate. This study aimed to investigate the protective role of mast cells in order to search for an effective therapeutic agent that could protect against fatal ISCH/REP-induced liver damage. A model of warm ISCH/REP was induced in the liver of rats. Four groups of rats were used in this study: Group I: SHAM (normal saline, intravenously [iv]); Group II: ISCH/REP; Group III: sodium cromoglycate + ISCH/REP (CROM + ISCH/REP), and Group IV: ketotifen (KET) + ISCH/REP (KET + ISCH/REP). Liver damage was assessed both histopathologically and biochemically. Mast cell degranulation was assessed histochemically. Lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde [MDA]) as well as the levels of glutathione (GSH), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), the formation of nitric oxide (NO), and the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) were determined. The results of this study revealed increased mast cell degranulation in the liver during the acute phase of ISCH/REP. Moreover, CROM, but not KET, decreased the activity of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactic dehydrogenase and maintained normal liver tissue histology. Both CROM and KET protected against mast cell degranulation in the liver. In addition, both CROM and KET decreased IL-6 and TNF-α. However, CROM, but not KET, decreased MDA formation and increased GSH. Furthermore, KET, but not CROM, increased both NO formation and iNOS expression. In conclusion, this study clearly demonstrated mast cell degranulation in warm ISCH/REP in the liver of rats. More importantly, CROM, but not KET, ameliorated the effect of ISCH

  13. Cromoglycate, not ketotifen, ameliorated the injured effect of warm ischemia/reperfusion in rat liver: role of mast cell degranulation, oxidative stress, proinflammatory cytokine, and inducible nitric oxide synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shitany, Nagla A; El-Desoky, Karema

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (ISCH/REP) is a major clinical problem that is considered to be the most common cause of postoperative liver failure. Recently, mast cells have been proposed to play an important role in the pathophysiology of ISCH/REP in many organs. In contrast, the role played by mast cells during ISCH/REP-induced liver damage has remained an issue of debate. This study aimed to investigate the protective role of mast cells in order to search for an effective therapeutic agent that could protect against fatal ISCH/REP-induced liver damage. A model of warm ISCH/REP was induced in the liver of rats. Four groups of rats were used in this study: Group I: SHAM (normal saline, intravenously [iv]); Group II: ISCH/REP; Group III: sodium cromoglycate + ISCH/REP (CROM + ISCH/REP), and Group IV: ketotifen (KET) + ISCH/REP (KET + ISCH/REP). Liver damage was assessed both histopathologically and biochemically. Mast cell degranulation was assessed histochemically. Lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde [MDA]) as well as the levels of glutathione (GSH), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), the formation of nitric oxide (NO), and the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) were determined. The results of this study revealed increased mast cell degranulation in the liver during the acute phase of ISCH/REP. Moreover, CROM, but not KET, decreased the activity of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactic dehydrogenase and maintained normal liver tissue histology. Both CROM and KET protected against mast cell degranulation in the liver. In addition, both CROM and KET decreased IL-6 and TNF-α. However, CROM, but not KET, decreased MDA formation and increased GSH. Furthermore, KET, but not CROM, increased both NO formation and iNOS expression. In conclusion, this study clearly demonstrated mast cell degranulation in warm ISCH/REP in the liver of rats. More importantly, CROM, but not KET, ameliorated the effect of ISCH

  14. Increased dermal mast cell prevalence and susceptibility to development of basal cell carcinoma in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimbaldeston, Michele A; Skov, Lone; Finlay-Jones, John J

    2002-01-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation (280-320 nm) is the primary etiologic factor associated with the development of basal cell carcinoma (BCC). The outgrowth of these keratinocyte-derived skin lesions is enhanced by the ability of UVB to impair an immune response that would otherwise...... by sun exposure. Two sections (4 microm) per biopsy were immunohistochemically stained for detection of histamine-containing dermal mast cells. Computer-generated image analysis evaluated dermal mast cell prevalence in both sections by quantifying the total number of mast cells according to the total...

  15. Detection of Damage in a Lattice Mast Excited by Wind by Dynamic Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars

    2007-01-01

    are identified. By studying the recorded variations it seems reasonable to conclude that by implementing a vibration monitoring system on the mast it would be possible to reliably detect a damage corresponding to less than a 50% loss of cross sectional area of the diagonal. This would allow for issue...... under ambient loading conditions. The paper presents the instrumentation and considerations regarding layout of instrumentation and strategies for acquisition and processing of data. Damage in the mast is provoked using a hacksaw and the cross sectional area of one the diagonals of the mast (one located...

  16. Histamine release from gut mast cells from patients with inflammatory bowel diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nolte, Hendrik; Spjeldnæs, Nikolaj; Kruse, Aksel

    1990-01-01

    of macroscopically inflamed and normal tissue. Mast cells and corresponding basophils were challenged with anti-IgE, anti-IgG, subclass anti-IgG4, and formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) and results were compared with those from nine patient control subjects. The mast cell count in patients with ulcerative...... colitis was increased compared with that in control subjects and patients with Crohn's disease, and the mast cell count obtained from inflamed tissue was greater than that of normal tissue. The study also shows the heterogeneity of the responsiveness of the histamine releasing cells to various...

  17. Influence of ethanolic extract of Tephrosia purpurea Linn. on mast cells and erythrocytes membrane integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, A B; Dikshit, V J; Damre, A S; Kulkarni, K R; Saraf, M N

    2000-08-01

    The ethanolic extract of T. purpurea Linn. was studied for its in vitro effect on rat mast cell degranulation and erythrocyte membrane integrity in vitro. The extract in concentration of 25-200 microg/ml showed a dose-dependant inhibition of rat mast cell degranulation induded by compound 48/80 and egg albumin. T. purpurea extract was found to inhibit haemolysis of erythrocytes induced by hypotonic solution but accelerated haemolysis induced by heat at a concentration of 100 microg/ml. The studies reveal that the ethanolic extract of T. purpurea may inhibit degranulation of mast cells by a mechanism other than membrane stabilization.

  18. Use of Neural Networks for Damage Assessment in a Steel Mast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Rytter, A.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper the possibility of using a Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) network trained with the Backpropagation Algorithm for detecting location and size of a damage in a civil engineering structure is investigated. The structure considered is a 20 m high steel lattice mast subjected to wind excita...... as well as full-scale tests where the mast is identified by an ARMA-model. The results show that a neural network trained with simulated data is capable for detecting location of a damage in a steel lattice mast when the network is subjected to experimental data.·...

  19. Common Courses for Common Purposes:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub Jr, Gary John

    2014-01-01

    (PME)? I suggest three alternative paths that increased cooperation in PME at the level of the command and staff course could take: a Nordic Defence College, standardized national command and staff courses, and a core curriculum of common courses for common purposes. I conclude with a discussion of how...

  20. Common Courses for Common Purposes:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub Jr, Gary John

    2014-01-01

    (PME)? I suggest three alternative paths that increased cooperation in PME at the level of the command and staff course could take: a Nordic Defence College, standardized national command and staff courses, and a core curriculum of common courses for common purposes. I conclude with a discussion of how...

  1. QCI Common

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-11-18

    There are many common software patterns and utilities for the ORNL Quantum Computing Institute that can and should be shared across projects. Otherwise we find duplication of code which adds unwanted complexity. This is a software product seeks to alleviate this by providing common utilities such as object factories, graph data structures, parameter input mechanisms, etc., for other software products within the ORNL Quantum Computing Institute. This work enables pure basic research, has no export controlled utilities, and has no real commercial value.

  2. ELM mitigation via rotating resonant magnetic perturbations on MAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, A.J., E-mail: andrew.thornton@ccfe.ac.uk [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Kirk, A. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Cahyna, P. [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR v.v.i, Prague (Czech Republic); Chapman, I.T.; Fishpool, G.; Harrison, J.R.; Liu, Y.Q. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Kripner, L.; Peterka, M. [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR v.v.i, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2015-08-15

    The application of resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) produces splitting of the divertor strike point due to the interaction of the RMP field and the plasma field. The application of a rotating RMP field causes the strike point splitting to rotate, distributing the particle and heat flux evenly over the divertor. The RMP coils in MAST have been used to generate a rotating perturbation with a toroidal mode number n = 3. The ELM frequency is doubled with the application of the RMP rotating field, whilst maintaining the H mode. During mitigation, the ELM peak heat flux is seen to be reduced by 50% for a halving in the ELM energy and motion of the strike point, consistent with the rotation of the applied RMP field, is seen using high spatial resolution (1.5 mm at the target) heat flux profiles measured using infrared (IR) thermography.

  3. Mast cell leukemia with prolonged survival on PKC412/midostaurin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiangdong; Kreisel, Friederike H; Frater, John L; Hassan, Anjum

    2014-01-01

    Mast cell leukemia (MCL) is a rare and aggressive form of systemic mastocytosis. There are approximately 50 reported cases since 1950s. MCL is refractory to cytoreduction chemotherapy and the average survival is only six months. We report a MCL case in a 71 year-old woman with high tumor load at the initial presentation in 2005, who did not respond to either interleukin-2 or dasatinib therapy. After enrolled in a clinical trial of PKC412 (or Midostaurin) with a daily dose of 100 mg, the patient responded well to PKC412 and became transfusion independent in three months. Since then, her disease had been stably controlled. This is the first report of a high-tumor-load MCL case which achieved prolonged survival (101 months) by PKC 412. The 101-month overall survival is the longest among reported MCL cases in the English literature.

  4. Filamentary transport in the private flux region in MAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, J.R., E-mail: james.harrison@ccfe.ac.uk [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Fishpool, G.M. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Dudson, B.D. [York Plasma Institute, Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-15

    Measurements of intensity fluctuation of light emission within the divertor volume of MAST provide strong evidence for the existence of filamentary structures within the private flux region (PFR). These filaments are observed in L-mode and H-mode confinement regimes. Correlation analysis of the camera data supports the hypothesis that the filaments observed in the line integrated camera data are genuinely within the PFR, as fluctuations at a given location in the PFR in the image are correlated with fluctuations elsewhere in the PFR, and these two regions are connected by field lines. The filaments appear to move from a position in the PFR of the inner divertor leg, moving towards the inner divertor target, whilst ejecting secondary blobs of plasma deeper into the PFR away from the separatrix.

  5. New Developments in Mast Cell Biology: Clinical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Greer; Bradding, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Mast cells (MCs) are present in connective tissue and at mucosal surfaces in all classes of vertebrates. In health, they contribute to tissue homeostasis, host defense, and tissue repair via multiple receptors regulating the release of a vast stockpile of proinflammatory mediators, proteases, and cytokines. However, these potentially protective cells are a double-edged sword. When there is a repeated or long-term stimulus, MC activation leads to tissue damage and dysfunction. Accordingly, MCs are implicated in the pathophysiologic aspects of numerous diseases covering all organs. Understanding the biology of MCs, their heterogeneity, mechanisms of activation, and signaling cascades may lead to the development of novel therapies for many diseases for which current treatments are lacking or are of poor efficacy. This review will focus on updates and developments in MC biology and their clinical implications, with a particular focus on their role in respiratory diseases.

  6. Ion energy measurements on MAST using a midplane RFEA

    CERN Document Server

    Allan, S Y; Kirk, A; Kočan, M; Tamain, P

    2013-01-01

    Ion energy measurements have been made in the scrape off layer of the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST) using a midplane retarding field energy analyser (RFEA) in H-mode plasmas during the inter-edge localised mode (ELM) period and during type I and type III ELMs. During the inter-ELM period at distances of 3 to 8 cm from the last closed flux surface (LCFS), ion temperatures of 20 to 70 eV have been measured giving an ion to electron temperature ratio of 2 to 7 with a mean of 4. During type III ELMs, an ion temperature of 50 eV has been measured 3 to 6 cm from the LCFS which decreases to 30 eV at distances 11 to 16 cm from the LCFS. During type I ELMs, an ion temperature of 40 eV has been measured at a distance of 10 to 15 cm from the LCFS.

  7. ELM mitigation via rotating resonant magnetic perturbations on MAST

    CERN Document Server

    Thornton, A J; Cahyna, P; Chapman, I T; Fishpool, G; Harrison, J R; Liu, Y Q; Kripner, L; Peterka, M

    2014-01-01

    The application of resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) produces splitting of the divertor strike point due to the interaction of the RMP field and the plasma field. The application of a rotating RMP field causes the strike point splitting to rotate, distributing the particle and heat flux evenly over the divertor. The RMP coils in MAST have been used to generate a rotating perturbation with a toroidal mode number n=3. The ELM frequency is doubled with the application of the RMP rotating field, whilst maintaining the H mode. During mitigation, the ELM peak heat flux is seen to be reduced by 50% for a halving in the ELM energy and motion of the strike point, consistent with the rotation of the applied RMP field, is seen using high spatial resolution (1.5mm at the target) heat flux profiles measured using infrared (IR) thermography.

  8. Martian Arctic Dust Devil and Phoenix Meteorology Mast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander caught this dust devil in action west-southwest of the lander at 11:16 a.m. local Mars time on Sol 104, or the 104th Martian day of the mission, Sept. 9, 2008. Dust devils have not been detected in any Phoenix images from earlier in the mission, but at least six were observed in a dozen images taken on Sol 104. Dust devils are whirlwinds that often occur when the Sun heats the surface of Mars, or some areas on Earth. The warmed surface heats the layer of atmosphere closest to it, and the warm air rises in a whirling motion, stirring dust up from the surface like a miniature tornado. The vertical post near the left edge of this image is the mast of the Meteorological Station on Phoenix. The dust devil visible at the horizon just to the right of the mast is estimated to be 600 to 700 meters (about 2,000 to 2,300 feet) from Phoenix, and 4 to 5 meters (10 to 13 feet) in diameter. It is much smaller than dust devils that have been observed by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit much closer to the equator. It is closer in size to dust devils seen from orbit in the Phoenix landing region, though still smaller than those. The image has been enhanced to make the dust devil easier to see. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  9. First results from the MAST digital plasma control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McArdle, G.J. E-mail: graham.mcardle@ukaea.org.uk; Storrs, J

    2004-06-01

    The mega-amp spherical tokamak (MAST) has operated under a new digital plasma control system [Fusion Eng. Des. 66-68 (2003) 761]. The new system, based on commercially available VME hardware, has replaced most of the old analogue control electronics [Fusion Eng. Des. 56-57 (2001) 749] with algorithms implemented in the control software. General Atomics provided their PCS [B.G. Penaflor, J.R. Ferron, M.L. Walker, A structured architecture for advanced plasma control experiments, in: Proceedings of the 19th SOFT, vol. 1, Lisbon, Portugal, 1996, p. 965] software infrastructure as a generic framework for a plasma control system. A powerful configuration tool has been developed to generate the MAST-specific code from a set of structured documents written in extensible mark-up language (XML). This enables rapid development of new control algorithms and permits safe re-configuration of the code layout, whilst maintaining the coherence of multiple cross-references. The initial algorithm set emulates the behaviour of the original analogue control hardware where it is sensible to do so, but implements several new plant protection capabilities that were previously too difficult to provide with analogue electronics. Shots previously run with the old system can be converted to run in the new system, thus allowing previous campaigns to be continued without the need to develop new scenarios. During the present engineering break, a new suite of algorithms is being developed to provide plasma boundary reconstruction and control functions that fully exploit the capabilities of the digital system.

  10. Multiple bidirectional alterations of phenotype and changes in proliferative potential during the in vitro and in vivo passage of clonal mast cell populations derived from mouse peritoneal mast cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanakura, Y.; Thompson, H.; Nakano, T.; Yamamura, T.; Asai, H.; Kitamura, Y.; Metcalfe, D.D.; Galli, S.J.

    1988-09-01

    Mouse peritoneal mast cells (PMC) express a connective tissue-type mast cell (CTMC) phenotype, including reactivity with the heparin-binding fluorescent dye berberine sulfate and incorporation of (35S) sulfate predominantly into heparin proteoglycans. When PMC purified to greater than 99% purity were cultured in methylcellulose with IL-3 and IL-4, approximately 25% of the PMC formed colonies, all of which contained both berberine sulfate-positive and berberine sulfate-negative mast cells. When these mast cells were transferred to suspension culture, they generated populations that were 100% berberine sulfate-negative, a characteristic similar to that of mucosal mast cells (MMC), and that synthesized predominantly chondroitin sulfate (35S) proteoglycans. When ''MMC-like'' cultured mast cells derived from WBB6F1-+/+ PMC were injected into the peritoneal cavities of mast cell-deficient WBB6F1-W/Wv mice, the adoptively transferred mast cell population became 100% berberine sulfate-positive. In methylcellulose culture, these ''second generation PMC'' formed clonal colonies containing both berberine sulfate-positive and berberine sulfate-negative cells, but exhibited significantly less proliferative ability than did normal +/+ PMC. Thus, clonal mast cell populations initially derived from single PMC exhibited multiple and bidirectional alterations between CTMC-like and MMC-like phenotypes. However, this process was associated with a progressive diminution of the mast cells' proliferative ability.

  11. Instituting Commoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . STEALTH.unlimited

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the origins of the notion of management, this paper explores how commons governance is constituted by the earlier influential research of Elinor Ostrom, and pursues this with reference to scholars such as Saki Bailey, who emphasises that the choice of regulatory frame is ultimately a political one. We then argue that commons have to be ‘instituted’ in an open manner in order to remain accessible. This demands a set of scripts, rules or agreements that keep the process of commoning in place, and, simultaneously, keep commoning in a constant process of reproduction. We examine this tension and look at the shift in understanding about what ‘institutions of the commons’ have entailed in practice over the course of the last century and a half. Finally, we return to the political dimension to touch upon the question of whether, with the disappearance of the welfare state, a coherent concept of society can emerge from the current upsurge of commons initiatives.

  12. Creative Commons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lone

    2006-01-01

    En Creative Commons licens giver en forfatter mulighed for at udbyde sit værk i en alternativ licensløsning, som befinder sig på forskellige trin på en skala mellem yderpunkterne "All rights reserved" og "No rights reserved". Derved opnås licensen "Some rights reserved"......En Creative Commons licens giver en forfatter mulighed for at udbyde sit værk i en alternativ licensløsning, som befinder sig på forskellige trin på en skala mellem yderpunkterne "All rights reserved" og "No rights reserved". Derved opnås licensen "Some rights reserved"...

  13. Creative Commons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lone

    2006-01-01

    En Creative Commons licens giver en forfatter mulighed for at udbyde sit værk i en alternativ licensløsning, som befinder sig på forskellige trin på en skala mellem yderpunkterne "All rights reserved" og "No rights reserved". Derved opnås licensen "Some rights reserved"......En Creative Commons licens giver en forfatter mulighed for at udbyde sit værk i en alternativ licensløsning, som befinder sig på forskellige trin på en skala mellem yderpunkterne "All rights reserved" og "No rights reserved". Derved opnås licensen "Some rights reserved"...

  14. Mast Cells in Adjacent Normal Colon Mucosa rather than Those in Invasive Margin are Related to Progression of Colon Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Xia; Xiao-shi Zhang; Ying-bo Chen; Ya Ding; Xiao-jun Wu; Rui-qing Peng; Qiang Zhou; Jing Zeng; Jing-hui Hou; Xing Zhang; Yi-xin Zeng

    2011-01-01

    Objective:Mast cells (MC) reside in the mucosa of the digestive tract as the first line against bacteria and toxins.Clinical evidence has implied that the infiltration of mast cells in colorectal cancers is related to malignant phenotypes and a poor prognosis.This study compared the role of mast cells in adjacent normal colon mucosa and in the invasive margin during the progression of colon cancer.Methods:Specimens were obtained from 39 patients with colon adenomas and 155 patients with colon cancers treated at the Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center between January 1999 and July 2004.The density of mast cells was scored by an immunohistochemical assay.The pattern of mast cell distribution and its relationship with dinicopathologic parameters and 5-year survival were analyzed.Results:The majority of mast cells were located in the adjacent normal colon mucosa,followed by the invasive margin and least in the cancer stroma.Mast cell count in adjacent normal colon mucosa (MCCadjacent) was associated with pathologic classification,distant metastases and hepatic metastases,although it was not a prognostic factor.In contrast,mast cell count in the invasive margin (MCCinvasive) was associated with neither the clinicopathlogic parameters nor overall survival.Conclusion:Mast cells in the adjacent normal colon mucosa were related to the progression of colon cancer,suggesting that mast cells might modulate tumor progression via a long-distance mechanism.

  15. Effects of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), nocodazole, and taxol on mast cell histamine secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, E H; Johansen, Torben

    1986-01-01

    Nocodazole depolymerized microtubules and increased the number of microfilaments, and dimethylsulfoxide increased the number of microfilaments. Both drugs inhibited compound 48/80-induced histamine release from rat mast cells. Taxol, which increased the number of microtubules, had no effect...

  16. Incidence of Mast Cells in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Short Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Anuradha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mast cells are regarded as complex and multifunctional cells, playing a significant role in immunopathology and a substantial role in tumor angiogenesis. Angiogenesis is a complex process that is tightly regulated by various growth factors in which mast cells act directly by releasing angiogenic factors and henceforth promoting tumor growth and metastasis. The aim of this study is to evaluate the number of mast cells in tissue sections of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC in comparison with normal mucosa. A total of 40 cases (20 OSCC and 20 normal mucosa were stained with 1% toluidine blue and the quantitative analysis was done by using light microscope under 400x magnification. A significant increase in the mast cell count was observed in the sections of OSCC when compared to normal mucosa suggesting their contributing role in tumor growth and progression.

  17. Energy metabolism in rat mast cells in relation to histamine secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, T

    1987-01-01

    1. The relation between the energy metabolism and the secretory activity of rat peritoneal mast cells has been studied by determination of the cellular content of ATP and the rate of lactate production reflecting the rate of ATP synthesis under various experimental conditions. Secretion...... and the cellular ATP content at the time of cell activation was demonstrated. This may indicate a direct link between ATP and the secretory mechanism. 3. The possibility of an increased utilization of ATP during histamine secretion was explored in mast cells exposed to metabolic inhibitors. Incubation of mast...... cells with 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) decreased the ATP content of the cells, and a long-lasting and stable level of mast cell ATP was observed. This is explained by a small decrease in the rate of ATP-synthesis by 2-DG. In 2-DG-treated cells secretion of histamine in response to compound 48...

  18. Mast cells infiltration and decreased E-cadherin expression in ketamine-induced cystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengqiang Li

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Increased mast cells in bladder wall and downregulated expression of E-cadherin junction protein in epithelial cells were probably associated with interstitial inflammation and fissures in mucosa. It implied that ketamine induced an interstitial cystitis.

  19. Functionally recurrent rearrangements of the MAST kinase and Notch gene families in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Dan R; Kalyana-Sundaram, Shanker; Wu, Yi-Mi; Shankar, Sunita; Cao, Xuhong; Ateeq, Bushra; Asangani, Irfan A; Iyer, Matthew; Maher, Christopher A; Grasso, Catherine S; Lonigro, Robert J; Quist, Michael; Siddiqui, Javed; Mehra, Rohit; Jing, Xiaojun; Giordano, Thomas J; Sabel, Michael S; Kleer, Celina G; Palanisamy, Nallasivam; Natrajan, Rachael; Lambros, Maryou B; Reis-Filho, Jorge S; Kumar-Sinha, Chandan; Chinnaiyan, Arul M

    2011-11-20

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease that has a wide range of molecular aberrations and clinical outcomes. Here we used paired-end transcriptome sequencing to explore the landscape of gene fusions in a panel of breast cancer cell lines and tissues. We observed that individual breast cancers have a variety of expressed gene fusions. We identified two classes of recurrent gene rearrangements involving genes encoding microtubule-associated serine-threonine kinase (MAST) and members of the Notch family. Both MAST and Notch-family gene fusions have substantial phenotypic effects in breast epithelial cells. Breast cancer cell lines harboring Notch gene rearrangements are uniquely sensitive to inhibition of Notch signaling, and overexpression of MAST1 or MAST2 gene fusions has a proliferative effect both in vitro and in vivo. These findings show that recurrent gene rearrangements have key roles in subsets of carcinomas and suggest that transcriptome sequencing could identify individuals with rare, targetable gene fusions.

  20. Temporal and spatial distribution of mast cells and steroidogenic enzymes in the human fetal adrenal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naccache, Alexandre; Louiset, Estelle; Duparc, Céline; Laquerrière, Annie; Patrier, Sophie; Renouf, Sylvie; Gomez-Sanchez, Celso E; Mukai, Kuniaki; Lefebvre, Hervé; Castanet, Mireille

    2016-10-15

    Mast cells are present in the human adult adrenal with a potential role in the regulation of aldosterone secretion in both normal cortex and adrenocortical adenomas. We have investigated the human developing adrenal gland for the presence of mast cells in parallel with steroidogenic enzymes profile and serotonin signaling pathway. RT-QPCR and immunohistochemical studies were performed on adrenals at 16-41 weeks of gestation (WG). Tryptase-immunopositive mast cells were found from 18 WG in the adrenal subcapsular layer, close to 3βHSD- and CYP11B2-immunoreactive cells, firstly detected at 18 and 24 WG, respectively. Tryptophan hydroxylase and serotonin receptor type 4 expression increased at 30 WG before the CYP11B2 expression surge. In addition, HDL and LDL cholesterol receptors were expressed in the subcapsular zone from 24 WG. Altogether, our findings suggest the implication of mast cells and serotonin in the establishment of the mineralocorticoid synthesizing pathway during fetal adrenal development.

  1. Development of a continuous manufacturing method for a CFRP collapsible tube mast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, D. H.; Davidson, R.; Lee, R. J.; Thorpe, T.

    1986-06-01

    A sequential molding process was developed for forming continuous lengths of profiled carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) sheet, and for the edge-bonding of two identical profiles to produce a lenticular-shaped collapsible tube mast (CTM). The process was designed to enable a wide range of CTM sizes, characterized by the shape radius r, to be produced, and it will accept either thermosetting or thermoplastic matrix composites. The Tube Manufacturing Method (TMM) was proved by the construction of a laboratory scale rig and its use to produce continuously 10 m lengths of mast profile of uniform section and surface finish. The mechanical properties of the fabrics impregnated with the two resins were measured to provide basic tube mast design data. Viscoelastic relaxations in both types of composites were determined after storing sections of mast profile in the flattened condition over periods of time as a function of temperature.

  2. The effects of nonidet P40 on the function of rat peritoneal mast cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, K W; Stanworth, D R

    1981-01-01

    1 Treatment of purified rat peritoneal mast cells at 37 degrees C with concentrations of the non-ionic detergent nonidet P40 (NP40) up to 0.005% (v/v) failed to reduce their viability. 2 There was a marked reduction in the histamine releasing capacity of NP40-treated mast cells upon challenge with a variety of selective (adrenocorticotrophic hormone 1-24 (Synacthen), rabbit anti-rat IgE antiserum, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and the calcium ionophore, A 23187) and non-selective (rabbit anti-rat mast cell antiserum plus complement) histamine liberators. 3 Nonidet P40 (0.005%) was found to reduce the activity of a mast cell membrane 'ecto-enzyme', calcium-activated ATPase, by about 45% when presented at the time of its assay.

  3. Signal transduction pathways in mast cell granule-mediated endothelial cell activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luqi Chi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We have previously shown that incubation of human endothelial cells with mast cell granules results in potentiation of lipopolysaccharide-induced production of interleukin-6 and interleukin-8.

  4. A Role for Human Skin Mast Cells in Dengue Virus Infection and Systemic Spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troupin, Andrea; Shirley, Devon; Londono-Renteria, Berlin; Watson, Alan M; McHale, Cody; Hall, Alex; Hartstone-Rose, Adam; Klimstra, William B; Gomez, Gregorio; Colpitts, Tonya M

    2016-12-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes serious global human disease and mortality. Skin immune cells are an important component of initial DENV infection and systemic spread. Here, we show that mast cells are a target of DENV in human skin and that DENV infection of skin mast cells induces degranulation and alters cytokine and growth factor expression profiles. Importantly, to our knowledge, we also demonstrate for the first time that DENV localizes within secretory granules in infected skin mast cells. In addition, DENV within extracellular granules was infectious in vitro and in vivo, trafficking through lymph to draining lymph nodes in mice. We demonstrate an important role for human skin mast cells in DENV infection and identify a novel mechanism for systemic spread of DENV infection from the initial peripheral mosquito injection site. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  5. Precision Deployable Mast for the SWOT KaRIn Instrument Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Design and prototype a lightweight, precision-deployable mast for the Ka-band Radar Interferometer (KaRIn) antennas in the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT)...

  6. Differential effect of plant lectins on mast cells of different origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.C. Lopes

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Histamine release induced by plant lectins was studied with emphasis on the carbohydrate specificity, external calcium requirement, metal binding sites, and mast cell heterogeneity and on the importance of antibodies bound to the mast cell membrane to the lectin effect. Peritoneal mast cells were obtained by direct lavage of the rat peritoneal cavity and guinea pig intestine and hamster cheek pouch mast cells were obtained by dispersion with collagenase type IA. Histamine release was induced with concanavalin A (Con A, lectins from Canavalia brasiliensis, mannose-specific Cymbosema roseum, Maackia amurensis, Parkia platycephala, Triticum vulgaris (WGA, and demetallized Con A and C. brasiliensis, using 1-300 µg/ml lectin concentrations applied to Wistar rat peritoneal mast cells, peaking on 26.9, 21.0, 29.1, 24.9, 17.2, 10.7, 19.9, and 41.5%, respectively. This effect was inhibited in the absence of extracellular calcium. The lectins were also active on hamster cheek pouch mast cells (except demetallized Con A and on Rowett nude rat (animal free of immunoglobulins peritoneal mast cells (except for mannose-specific C. roseum, P. platycephala and WGA. No effect was observed in guinea pig intestine mast cells. Glucose-saturated Con A and C. brasiliensis also released histamine from Wistar rat peritoneal mast cells. These results suggest that histamine release induced by lectins is influenced by the heterogeneity of mast cells and depends on extracellular calcium. The results also suggest that this histamine release might occur by alternative mechanisms, because the usual mechanism of lectins is related to their binding properties to metals from which depend the binding to sugars, which would be their sites to bind to immunoglobulins. In the present study, we show that the histamine release by lectins was also induced by demetallized lectins and by sugar-saturated lectins (which would avoid their binding to other sugars. Additionally, the lectins

  7. 中国马铃薯疮痂病菌快速PCR检测技术%Rapid PCR Detection Technology of Common Scab Pathogens in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭凤柳; 张海颖; 于秀梅; 赵伟全; 刘大群

    2013-01-01

    had registered in the NCBI GenBank. All primers were used for amplification for screening a high specificity and stability primers. After temperature gradient filter for optimizing the reaction system, a detection technology of potato scab pathogens was established.[Result]The universal primers B1/B2 obtained in this work showed a good specificity to all tested pathogenic strains. The stable bands were amplified among the pathogenic strains, but nonpathogenic strains didn’t have that band. By using the spore dilution method, the sensitivity of PCR detection method was determined to 20 pg·μL-1. The detection value of the threshold was 4.0 CFU/μL for pathogen spores. The PCR detection results showed that the target bars could be observed in pathogenic Streptomyces, scabby tissue and diseased field soil samples. While the nonpathogenic Streptomyces, healthy potato tissues, scab-free field soil and other test strains did not have corresponding objective band. That suggested the PCR detection method established in this work was specific and stable to common scab pathogens. [Conclusion] A qualitative detection method for potato scab pathogens was established in this study, which can quickly detect pathogenic strains from diseased tissues and soil samples.

  8. Innervation of enteric mast cells by primary spinal afferents in guinea pig and human small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guo-Du; Wang, Xi-Yu; Liu, Sumei; Qu, Meihua; Xia, Yun; Needleman, Bradley J; Mikami, Dean J; Wood, Jackie D

    2014-10-01

    Mast cells express the substance P (SP) neurokinin 1 receptor and the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor in guinea pig and human small intestine. Enzyme-linked immunoassay showed that activation of intramural afferents by antidromic electrical stimulation or by capsaicin released SP and CGRP from human and guinea pig intestinal segments. Electrical stimulation of the afferents evoked slow excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) in the enteric nervous system. The slow EPSPs were mediated by tachykinin neurokinin 1 and CGRP receptors. Capsaicin evoked slow EPSP-like responses that were suppressed by antagonists for protease-activated receptor 2. Afferent stimulation evoked slow EPSP-like excitation that was suppressed by mast cell-stabilizing drugs. Histamine and mast cell protease II were released by 1) exposure to SP or CGRP, 2) capsaicin, 3) compound 48/80, 4) elevation of mast cell Ca²⁺ by ionophore A23187, and 5) antidromic electrical stimulation of afferents. The mast cell stabilizers cromolyn and doxantrazole suppressed release of protease II and histamine when evoked by SP, CGRP, capsaicin, A23187, electrical stimulation of afferents, or compound 48/80. Neural blockade by tetrodotoxin prevented mast cell protease II release in response to antidromic electrical stimulation of mesenteric afferents. The results support a hypothesis that afferent innervation of enteric mast cells releases histamine and mast cell protease II, both of which are known to act in a diffuse paracrine manner to influence the behavior of enteric nervous system neurons and to elevate the sensitivity of spinal afferent terminals.

  9. REACTIVE MILIEU OF HODGKIN LYMPHOMA WITH EMPHASIS ON MAST CELLS AND MACROPHAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhish Kumar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM OF STUDY To study the clinical importance of reactive microenvironment inHodgkin Lymphoma (HL with special reference to macrophages and mast cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present prospective and retrospective study was undertaken for a period ranging from January 2011 to June 2015 at the Department of Pathology, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore. The Haematoxylin and Eosin (H and E stained slides were reviewed and classified using WHO (2008 classification. Six immuno-histochemical markers were used in the study. CD 68 was for the macrophage count. Giemsa stain was done to highlight the mast cells. RESULTS AND ANALYSIS Thirty cases of HL were studied. Out of the 5 cases of Lymphocyte Depleted (LD Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma (cHL, all cases showed high macrophage count. Out of 30 cases of HL, only 6 cases showed increased mast cell count. DISCUSSION Mast cells act actively in various types of cancers. They can either have a pro-tumorigenic function or an anti-tumorigenic function depending on the type of cancer. Four (80% cases of LD-cHL showed macrophage count between 25-50% and 1 (20% case showed macrophage count >50% correlating with the aggressive nature and advanced stage of the disease. CONCLUSION In this study of microenvironment of HL mast cells and macrophages were analysed in each subtype. Though the mast cells were seen in all cases, an increased count of >10/10 (High power field HPF was observed only in 6 cases. The macrophage count was highest in LD-cHL and was statistically significant and thus correlated with this aggressive subtype of HL. The mast cell and macrophage count did not correlate with B-symptoms and stage of the disease a conclusion on survival versus the macrophage count and mast cell count was not possible in this study because of shorter follow up. A longer follow up and more number of cases are needed for a significant outcome.

  10. Abolishment of TNBS-induced visceral hypersensitivity in mast cell deficient rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Katsuyo; Sato, Yasushi; Kawai, Mitsuhisa; Kurebayashi, Yoichi

    2008-02-13

    Mucosal mast cells are implicated in visceral hypersensitivity associated with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). In this study, we investigated the role of mast cells in the development of visceral hypersensitivity by using mast cell deficient (Ws/Ws) rats and their control (W+/W+). In W+/W+ rats, an injection of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) into the proximal colon produced a significant decrease in pain threshold of the distal colon. Severe mucosal necrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration with concomitant increase in tissue myeloperoxidase activity were observed in the proximal colon that was directly insulted by TNBS, whereas neither necrosis nor increased myeloperoxidase activity occurred in the distal colon, indicating that TNBS-induced hypersensitivity is not caused by the local tissue damage or inflammation in the region of the gut where distention stimuli were applied. On the other hand, TNBS failed to elicit visceral hypersensitivity in Ws/Ws rats. This finding indicates that mast cells are essential for development of TNBS-induced visceral hypersensitivity in rats. Since the severity of TNBS-induced proximal colon injury and MPO activity was not affected by mast cell deficiency, it is unlikely that abolishment of visceral hypersensitivity in mast cell deficient rats was a result of altered development of the primary injury in the proximal colon. There was no difference between sham-operated Ws/Ws and W+/W+ rats in colonic pain threshold to distention stimuli, indicating that mast cells play no modulatory roles in normal colonic nociception. The present results support the view that mucosal mast cells play key roles in the pathogenesis of IBS.

  11. ENDOCANNABINOIDS INHIBIT RELEASE OF NERVE GROWTH FACTOR BY INFLAMMATION-ACTIVATED MAST CELLS

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a pleiotropic member of the neurotrophin family. Beside its neuronal effects, NGF plays a role in various processes, including angiogenesis. Mast cells release NGF and are among elements contributing to angiogenesis, a process regulated by arrays of factors, including the inhibitory cannabinoids. The possible inhibitory role of cannabinoids on mast cell-related NGF mitogenic effect on endothelial cells was then investigated. Human mastocytic ce...

  12. Active structural control design and experiment for the Mini-Mast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wie, Bong; Horta, Lucas; Sulla, Jeff

    1990-01-01

    Control system design and closed-loop test results for the Mini-Mast truss structure located at the NASA Langley Research Center are presented. The simplicity and effectiveness of a classical control approach to the active structural control design are demonstrated by ground experiments. The concepts of robust nonminimum phase compensation and periodic disturbance rejection are also experimentally validated. The practicality of a sensor output decoupling approach is demonstrated for the inherent, multivariable control problem of the Mini-Mast.

  13. Cloning of two adenosine receptor subtypes from mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, D L; Walker, L L; Heinemann, S

    1994-05-01

    Adenosine potentiates the stimulated release of mast cell mediators. Pharmacologic studies suggest the presence of two adenosine receptors, one positively coupled to adenylate cyclase and the other coupled to phospholipase C activation. To identify mast cell adenosine receptor subtypes, cDNAs for the A1 and A2a adenosine receptors were obtained by screening a mouse brain cDNA library with the use of PCR-derived probes. Mouse bone marrow-derived mast cell cDNA libraries were constructed and screened with the use of A1 and A2a cDNA probes, which revealed the presence of A2a, but not A1, receptor clones. A putative A2b receptor was identified by using low stringency mast cell library screening. Northern blotting of mast cell poly(A)+ RNA with the use of receptor subtype probes labeled single mRNA bands of 2.4 kb and 1.8 kb for the A2a and A2b receptors, respectively. In situ cells. An A2a receptor-specific agonist failed to enhance mast cell mediator release, which suggests that the secretory process is modulated through the A2b and/or another receptor subtype. By using RNase protection assays, we found that mast cells that had been cultured in the presence of N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine for 24 h exhibited a decrease in both A2a and A2b receptor RNA levels. Cells that had been cultured for 1 to 2 days in the presence of dexamethasone demonstrated increased amounts of A2a receptor mRNA, but no identifiable change in A2b receptor mRNA. Mast cells possess at least two adenosine receptor subtypes that may be differentially regulated.

  14. Association of mast cell-derived VEGF and proteases in Dengue shock syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahisa Furuta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent in-vitro studies have suggested that mast cells are involved in Dengue virus infection. To clarify the role of mast cells in the development of clinical Dengue fever, we compared the plasma levels of several mast cell-derived mediators (vascular endothelial cell growth factor [VEGF], soluble VEGF receptors [sVEGFRs], tryptase, and chymase and -related cytokines (IL-4, -9, and -17 between patients with differing severity of Dengue fever and healthy controls. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The study was performed at Children's Hospital No. 2, Ho Chi Minh City, and Vinh Long Province Hospital, Vietnam from 2002 to 2005. Study patients included 103 with Dengue fever (DF, Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF, and Dengue shock syndrome (DSS, as diagnosed by the World Health Organization criteria. There were 189 healthy subjects, and 19 febrile illness patients of the same Kinh ethnicity. The levels of mast cell-derived mediators and -related cytokines in plasma were measured by ELISA. VEGF and sVEGFR-1 levels were significantly increased in DHF and DSS compared with those of DF and controls, whereas sVEGFR-2 levels were significantly decreased in DHF and DSS. Significant increases in tryptase and chymase levels, which were accompanied by high IL-9 and -17 concentrations, were detected in DHF and DSS patients. By day 4 of admission, VEGF, sVEGFRs, and proteases levels had returned to similar levels as DF and controls. In-vitro VEGF production by mast cells was examined in KU812 and HMC-1 cells, and was found to be highest when the cells were inoculated with Dengue virus and human Dengue virus-immune serum in the presence of IL-9. CONCLUSIONS: As mast cells are an important source of VEGF, tryptase, and chymase, our findings suggest that mast cell activation and mast cell-derived mediators participate in the development of DHF. The two proteases, particularly chymase, might serve as good predictive markers of Dengue disease severity.

  15. Disodium Cromoglycate, A Mast-Cell Stabilizer, Alters Postradiation Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    ranD RISEARCH INSTITUTI SCIENTIFIC REPORTTC SR86-14 ELECTE JUL0186_ _ ~D DISODIUM CROMOGLYCATE , A MAST-CELL STABILIZER, ALTERS POSTRADIATION...were given the mast-cell stabilizers disodium cromoglycate (DSCC) or BRL 22321 (Beecham Phar- maceuticals, Research Division) before exposure to 100 Gy...flow could be mitigated by the pre- radiation administration of either disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) (Fisons Corporation, ledford, Mass.) or BRL 22321

  16. TRAF6 specifically contributes to FcepsilonRI-mediated cytokine production but not mast cell degranulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong Jun; Chen, Wei; Carrigan, Svetlana O; Chen, Wei-Min; Roth, Kristy; Akiyama, Taishin; Inoue, Jun-ichiro; Marshall, Jean S; Berman, Jason N; Lin, Tong-Jun

    2008-11-14

    TRAF6 (tumor necrosis factor-associated factor 6) is an essential adaptor downstream from the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor and Toll-like receptor superfamily members. This molecule is critical for dendritic cell maturation and T cell homeostasis. Here we show that TRAF6 is important in high affinity IgE receptor, FcepsilonRI-mediated mast cell activation. In contrast to dendritic cells and T cells, TRAF6-deficient mast cells matured normally and showed normal IgE-dependent degranulation. Importantly, TRAF6-deficient mast cells showed impaired production of cytokine interleukin-6, CCL-9, interleukin-13, and TNF following FcepsilonRI aggregation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed decreased NF-kappaB p65 binding to CCL-9 and TNF promoters in TRAF6-deficient mast cells. Antigen and IgE-induced IkappaB phosphorylation and NF-kappaB p65 translocation to the nucleus were diminished in TRAF6-deficient mast cells. NF-kappaB luciferase activity in response to antigen and IgE stimulation was severely impaired in TRAF6-deficient mast cells. In addition, antigen and IgE-induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 and JNK, but not ERK1/2, was significantly reduced in TRAF6-deficient mast cells. These results identified TRAF6 as an important signal transducer in FcepsilonRI-mediated signaling in mast cells. Our findings implicate TRAF6 as a new adaptor/regulator molecule for allergen-mediated inflammation in allergy.

  17. Aspergillus oryzae lectin induces anaphylactoid oedema and mast cell activation through its interaction with fucose of mast cell-bound non-specific IgE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaki, K; Yoshino, S

    2011-11-01

    We investigated whether Aspergillus oryzae lectin (AOL), a fucose-specific lectin, induces anaphylactoid reactions and mast cell activation. The injection of AOL into footpads of mice produced a dose-related acute paw oedema. The AOL-induced oedema was attenuated by predose of histamine H1 receptor blocker or pretreatment of the lectin with fucose before injection and was not observed in SCID and mast cell-deficient WBB6F1-W/Wv mice. These results suggested that the AOL-induced anaphylactoid reaction was mediated by histamine released from mast cells. In addition, the activation of mast cells was seemed to be induced by the crosslinking of IgE on the cell surface following the binding of AOL to fucose residues in IgE. Consistent with the in vivo results, AOL induced the degranulation of the rat mast cell line RBL2H3 sensitized with monoclonal IgE. As AOL induced the increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration of IgE-sensitized RBL2H3 cells as well as antigen stimulation, AOL could input signals from FcεRI. The degranulation of IgE-sensitized RBL2H3 cells by AOL was diminished by pretreatment of AOL with fucose. Defucosylated IgE did not induce degranulation of RBL2H3 cells in response to AOL stimulation, in spite of its ability to induce degranulation by antigen stimulation as intact IgE. These results indicated that AOL bound to fucose residue of IgE causing antigen-independent IgE-mediated mast cell activation and anaphylactoid reactions in vitro and in vivo, respectively. AOL bound to human IgE as well as to mouse IgE, suggesting the possible implication of AOL in the allergic response to Aspergillus oryzae in humans.

  18. Targeting Human Mast Cells Expressing G-Protein-Coupled Receptors in Allergic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimichi Okayama

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs are the largest known group of integral membrane receptor proteins and are the most common targets of pharmacotherapy. Mast cells (MCs have been reported to play an important role in allergic diseases, such as urticaria and bronchial asthma. There is an increasing body of clinical evidence that MCs are recruited into allergic reactions by non-IgE-dependent mechanisms. Human MCs are activated and secrete histamine in response to neuropeptides, such as substance P and somatostatin, mediated by a GPCR, MRGX2. The microenvironment surrounding MCs in their resident tissues is likely to contain multiple factors that modify antigen-dependent MC activation. MCs express various GPCRs, and since the function of human MCs is modulated by various GPCR ligands, such as adenosine and sphingosine-1-phosphate, which are present in high levels in the bronchial alveolar lavage fluid of asthmatic patients, the GPCRs expressed on MCs may play an important role in human allergic diseases. The GPCRs expressed on MCs may serve as drug targets for the treatment of allergic diseases.

  19. Velocity statistics and spectra over a forested site measured with a tall mast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segalini, Antonio; Alfredsson, Henrik; Dellwik, Ebba; Arnqvist, Johan; Bergström, Hans

    2012-11-01

    In the large expansion of wind power it becomes necessary to use also non-ideal sites for the placement of turbines. Such sites may have a complex terrain in terms of surface elevation as well as being forested. The atmospheric boundary layer is assumed to be severely different as compared to the one over flat, low-vegetation areas, which changes the mean velocity distribution as well as the turbulence intensity, thereby negatively affecting both the power production and loads on the turbines. In this study we use data from a 140 m tall mast in a forest in South-Eastern Sweden, where a unique measurement campaign with sonic anemometers has been running since November 2010 for 16 months. The sonic anemometers give the three velocity components with a frequency resolution of about 10 Hz. The site is covered by approximately 20 m high trees and a 40 degree sector, representative of an approximately homogeneous forest flow, is selected for the analysis of the velocity statistics. The screening of the results indicates the presence of a constant stress layer up to 3-5 canopy heights from the ground. An evaluation of the turbulence statistics in this layer and the levels above is presented. In addition, the spectra are evaluated and compared with the commonly used turbulence models.

  20. Mast cell mediators: Their differential release and the secretory pathways involved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Chul eMoon

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Mast cells (MC are widely distributed throughout the body and are common at mucosal surfaces, a major host-environment interface. MC are functionally and phenotypically heterogeneous depending on the microenvironment in which they mature. Although MC have been classically viewed as effector cells of IgE-mediated allergic diseases, they are also recognized as important in host defense, innate and acquired immunity, homeostatic responses, and immunoregulation. MC activation can induce release of preformed mediators such as histamine from their granules, as well as release of de novo synthesized lipid mediators, cytokines and chemokines that play diverse roles, not only in allergic reactions but also in numerous physiological and pathophysiological responses. Indeed, MC release their mediators in a discriminating and chronological manner, depending upon the stimuli involved and their signaling cascades (e.g., IgE-mediated or Toll Like Receptor-mediated. However, the precise mechanisms underlying differential mediator release in response to these stimuli are poorly known. This review summarizes our knowledge of MC mediators and will focus on what is known about the discriminatory release of these mediators dependent upon diverse stimuli, MC phenotypes and species of origin, as well as on the intracellular synthesis, storage and secretory processes involved.

  1. The Role of c-KIT in Tumorigenesis: Evaluation in Canine Cutaneous Mast Cell Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D. Webster

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The c-KIT proto-oncogene has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several neoplastic diseases, including gastrointestinal stromal tumors and mastocytosis in humans, and mast cell tumors (MCTs in canines. Cutaneous MCTs are common neoplasms in dogs and have a variable biologic behavior. The goal of this study was to define the prognostic significance of c-KIT mutations identified in canine MCTs and the associations between c-KIT mutations, KIT localization, and KIT expression levels. Microdissection and polymerase chain reaction were performed on 60 MCTs to identify c-KIT mutations. Anti-KIT antibodies were used for immunohistochemical evaluation of KIT localization. Forty-two MCTs were included in a tissue microarray, and KIT expression was quantified using immunofluorescence. Canine MCTs with c-KIT mutations were significantly associated with an increased incidence of recurrent disease and death. c-KIT mutations were also significantly associated with aberrant protein localization; however, the level of KIT expression did not correlate with either c-KIT mutations or changes in protein localization. Considering the high prevalence of canine MCTs and the central role of c-KIT in the tumorigenesis of certain tumors, canine MCTs are an excellent model for characterizing the role of c-KIT in neoplastic diseases and is a potential target for novel therapeutic agents in clinical trials.

  2. Colonic mast cell infiltration in rats with TNBS-induced visceral hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Katsuyo; Sato, Yasushi; Iwata, Hiroshi; Kawai, Mitsuhisa; Kurebayashi, Yoichi

    2007-12-01

    Colonic mucosal mast cells are implicated in the pathogenesis of visceral hypersensitivity associated with irritable bowel syndromes. This study was designed to investigate the roles of mucosal mast cells in development of an experimental visceral hypersensitivity induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) in rats. TNBS, when injected into the proximal colon through laparotomy, produced a significant decrease in pain threshold of the distal colon to mechanical distention, indicating a visceral hypersensitivity. In the proximal colon that was directly insulted by TNBS, mucosal necrosis and extensive inflammatory cell infiltration were observed with concomitant increase in tissue myeloperoxide (MPO) activity. In the distal colon where distention stimuli were applied, the number of mucosal mast cells significantly increased following TNBS treatment, although neither mucosal injury nor increase in tissue MPO activity was observed. In an organ culture, spontaneous release of a mucosal mast cell-specific protease (RMCP-2) from the distal colon tissue of TNBS-treated rats was significantly larger than that of sham animals. Furthermore, TNBS-induced visceral hypersensitivity was significantly suppressed by subcutaneous pretreatment with a mast cell stabilizer doxantrazole in a dose-dependent manner. These findings suggest that prominent colonic mast cell infiltration associated with an enhanced spontaneous mediator release is responsible, at least partly, for development of visceral hypersensitivity induced by TNBS in rats.

  3. Mast cells in renal inflammation and fibrosis: lessons learnt from animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madjene, Lydia Celia; Pons, Maguelonne; Danelli, Luca; Claver, Julien; Ali, Liza; Madera-Salcedo, Iris K; Kassas, Asma; Pellefigues, Christophe; Marquet, Florian; Dadah, Albert; Attout, Tarik; El-Ghoneimi, Alaa; Gautier, Gregory; Benhamou, Marc; Charles, Nicolas; Daugas, Eric; Launay, Pierre; Blank, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Mast cells are hematopoietic cells involved in inflammation and immunity and have been recognized also as important effector cells in kidney inflammation. In humans, only a few mast cells reside in kidneys constitutively but in progressive renal diseases their numbers increase substantially representing an essential part of the interstitial infiltrate of inflammatory cells. Recent data obtained in experimental animal models have emphasized a complex role of these cells and the mediators they release as they have been shown both to promote, but also to protect from disease and fibrosis development. Sometimes conflicting results have been reported in similar models suggesting a very narrow window between these activities depending on the pathophysiological context. Interestingly in mice, mast cell or mast cell mediator specific actions became also apparent in the absence of significant mast cell kidney infiltration supporting systemic or regional actions via draining lymph nodes or kidney capsules. Many of their activities rely on the capacity of mast cells to release, in a timely controlled manner, a wide range of inflammatory mediators, which can promote anti-inflammatory actions and repair activities that contribute to healing, but in some circumstances or in case of inappropriate regulation may also promote kidney disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Inhibition of tryptase release from human colon mast cells by histamine receptor antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shao-Heng; Xie, Hua; Fu, Yi-Ling

    2005-03-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the ability of histamine receptor antagonists to modulate tryptase release from human colon mast cells induced by histamine. Enzymatically dispersed cells from human colon were challenged with histamine in the absence or presence of the histamine receptor antagonists, and the tryptase release was determined. It was found that histamine induced tryptase release from colon mast cells was inhibited by up to approximately 61.5% and 24% by the H1 histamine receptor antagonist terfenadine and the H2 histamine receptor antagonist cimetidine, respectively, when histamine and its antagonists were added to cells at the same time. The H3 histamine receptor antagonist clobenpropit had no effect on histamine induced tryptase release from colon mast cells at all concentrations tested. Preincubation of terfenadine, cimetidine or clobenpropit with cells for 20 minutes before challenging with histamine did not enhance the ability of these antihistamines to inhibit histamine induced tryptase release. Apart from terfenadine at 100 microg/ml, the antagonists themselves did not stimulate tryptase release from colon mast cells following both 15 minutes and 35 minutes incubation periods. It was concluded that H1 and H2 histamine receptor antagonists were able to inhibit histamine induced tryptase release from colon mast cells. This not only added some new data to our hypothesis of self-amplification mechanisms of mast cell degranulation, but also suggested that combining these two types of antihistamine drugs could be useful for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

  5. Strongyloides ratti: implication of mast cell-mediated expulsion through FcεRI-independent mechanisms

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    Watanabe K.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to examine whether FcεRI-dependent degranulation of intestinal mast cells is required for expulsion of intestinal nematode Strongyloides ratti, CD45 exon6-deficient (CD45-/- mice were inoculated with S. ratti. In CD45-/- mice, egg excretion in feces persisted for more than 30 days following S. ratti larvae inoculation, whereas in wild-type (CD45+/+ mice, the eggs completely disappeared by day 20 post-infection. The number of intestinal mucosal mast cells, which are known effector cells for the expulsion of S. ratti, was 75% lower in CD45-/- mice compared with that in CD45+/+ mice. Adoptive transfer of wild-type T cells from CD45+/+ mice into CD45-/- mice reduced the duration of S. ratti infection to comparable levels observed in CD45+/+ mice, with concomitant increases in intestinal mucosal mast cells. These results showed that CD45 is not involved in the effector function of intestinal mucosal mast cells against S. ratti infection. Since FcεRI-dependent degranulation of mast cells is completely impaired in these CD45 knockout mice, we conclude that FcεRIdependent degranulation is not required in the protective function of intestinal mucosal mast cells against primary infection of S. ratti.

  6. Liver tryptase-positive mast cells and fibrosis in children with hepatic echinococcosis

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    Gulubova Maya

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The hepatic echinococcosis in children is a serious surgical problem. The aim of this study is to investigate the participation of mast cells in liver inflammatory reactions triggered by echinococcal cysts. Liver biopsy samples were collected from the tissue surrounding the cysts from 16 sick children (11 boys and 5 girls in the course of abdominal surgery and from 5 controls. Light and ultrastructural immunocytochemistry was performed using monoclonal antibody against tryptase. Light microscopical immunocytochemistry revealed abundance of tryptase-positive (MCT mast cells in the capsules of the cysts (43.58 cells/mm2. There were also observed greatly increased numbers of mast cells in portal tracts surrounding the cyst, compared to those of control biopsies (26.49 vs. 1.78 cells/mm2, p=0.0009, Mann-Whitney U test. Based on the ultrastructural appearance of tryptase-positive mast cell granules, morphological sings of activation of most of the mast cells were distinguished. In conclusion, we suggest that the accumulated and activated tryptase-positive mast cells in liver tissues surrounding the echinococcal cysts play a crucial role in modulation of the inflammatory liver response and could induce chronic inflammation and fibrogenesis, resulting in serious liver injury such as nonspecific reactive hepatitis.

  7. Mast cells in the eyes of Calomys callosus(Rodentia: Cricetidae) infected by Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Cristiane D; Mineo, José R; Smith, Ricardo L; Oliani, Sonia M

    2002-06-01

    The mast cell is a powerful effector cell for the innate immune system, acting through the secretion of several distinct mediators. Few studies have demonstrated the relationship between mast cells and toxoplasmosis. In this study, mast cells were investigated in two experimental Toxoplasma infections using Calomys callosus (Rodentia: Cricetidae) as the host. Animals were inoculated either intraperitoneally or via the conjunctiva with tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii (RH strain) and sacrificed after 5 days or 24 h, respectively. Enucleated eyes were processed for histological and ultrastructural analysis. Neither experimental infection altered the localization of mast cells compared to control eyes, but they did lead to an accumulation in some tissues as well as to their activation. There was a significant increase in the number of mast cells within 5 days and 24 h after infection. The ocular lesions were characterized by the presence of tachyzoites, inflammatory cells and vasodilatation in the iris and retina. In conclusion, mast cells were mobilized in these experimental infections, suggesting that they play an important role in the host inflammatory response after infection with T. gondii.

  8. Quantification of mast cells and blood vessels in the skin of patients with cutaneous mucinosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Clarice; Nascimento, Adriana Paulino; Monte-Alto-Costa, Andréa; Alves, Maria de Fátima Scotelaro; Carneiro, Sueli Coelho; Porto, Luís Cristóvão de Moraes Sobrino

    2010-07-01

    Recent studies have suggested that mast cell numbers are increased in the skin of patients with cutaneous mucinosis and that these cells may have an important role in angiogenesis and production of mucin. Then, skin biopsies from 30 patients with cutaneous mucinosis (papular mucinosis, focal mucinosis, and mucinosis associated with lupus erythematosus) and from 10 healthy subjects were analyzed. Mast cells and blood vessels were immunolabeled with anti-tryptase and anti-CD34 antibodies, respectively, and then quantified stereologically. Counting was performed in papillary and reticular dermis. An increase in the number of mast cells was observed in the skin of patients with cutaneous mucinosis compared with the control group. Only minimal differences were observed in vessel stereology. There was no correlation between the increase in the number of mast cells and the number of blood vessels in the patients studied. There was no significant difference in the numbers of mast cells or blood vessels between the 3 subgroups of cutaneous mucinosis. Although many clinical forms of mucinosis have been described, neither mast cell number nor vessel distribution seems to distinguish the 3 different forms studied here.

  9. Association of mast cells with helicobacter pylori infection in the antral mucosa

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    SR KC

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with mixed inflammatory cell infiltrate consisting of neutrophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes and plasma cells. Helicobacter pylori lead to mast cell degranulation and release of active chemical compounds in in-vitro conditions. The objective of this study was to find out the association of mast cell density and Helicobacter pylori in the antral mucosa of the stomach. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 endoscopic biopsies were included in the study. In addition to routine Hematoxylin and Eosin stained slides, Giemsa stain was done in each case for the evaluation of Helicobacter pylori and mast cell density in the gastric mucosa. Results: Out of 150 gastric biopsies with histopathological diagnosis of chronic gastritis, 36 cases (24% were positive for Helicobacter pylori. In the antral mucosa, mast cell density was significantly higher in the Helicobacter pylori-positive group than in the Helicobacter pylori-negative group (P<0.01. Conclusion: Mast cells may play a role in the development of Helicobacter pylori gastritis. Keywords: Gastritis; Mast Cell; Helicobacter pylori DOI: 10.3126/jpn.v1i1.4448 Journal of Pathology of Nepal (2011 Vol.1, 34-36

  10. Effect of sugammadex on rocuronium induced changes in pancreatic mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Yıldıray; Tumkaya, Levent; Bostan, Habib; Tomak, Yakup; Altuner, Durdu; Yilmaz, Adnan; Erdivanli, Başar; Bedir, Recep; Yalcin, Alper; Turan, Alparslan

    2015-08-01

    Mast cells play a vital role in hypersensitivity reactions. Rocuronium is known to cause mast cell mobilization, hypersensitivity, and pancreatitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sugammadex on pancreatic changes due to rocuronium. A total of 42 Sprague-Dawley male rats were divided into six equal groups to receive either rocuronium 1 mg/kg intravenously (i.v., R group), rocuronium 1 mg/kg + sugammadex 16 mg/kg i.v. (RS16 group), rocuronium 1 mg/kg + sugammadex 96 mg/kg i.v. (RS96 group), sugammadex 16 mg/kg (S16), sugammadex 96 mg/kg i.v. (S96 group), or 0.9% sodium chloride (control group). Sugammadex was administered 5s later following rocuronium. In R group, mast count was higher, and the distribution rate of granules and nuclear changes were different compared with other groups. Distribution rate of granules in groups S16 and S96 were similar to the control group and lower compared with other groups. The amount of mast cells and granule density in groups RS16 and RS96 was lower compared with R group. The amount of mast cells in groups RS16 and RS96 was significantly lower compared with other treatment groups. These results suggest that sugammadex may have an inhibitory effect on mobilization and morphological changes in pancreatic mast cells induced by administration of rocuronium and sugammadex in rats. © The Author(s) 2013.

  11. Impaired expression of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter suppresses mast cell degranulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuno, Tadahide; Shinkai, Narumi; Inoh, Yoshikazu; Nakanishi, Mamoru

    2015-12-01

    Calcium ion (Ca(2+)) uptake into the mitochondrial matrix influences ATP production, Ca(2+) homeostasis, and apoptosis regulation. Ca(2+) uptake across the ion-impermeable inner mitochondrial membrane is mediated by the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter (MCU) complex. The MCU complex forms a pore structure composed of several proteins. MCU is a Ca(2+)-selective channel in the inner-mitochondrial membrane that allows electrophoretic Ca(2+) entry into the matrix. Mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake 1 (MICU1) functions as a Ca(2+)-sensing regulator of the MCU complex. Previously, by microscopic analysis at the single-cell level, we found that during mast cell activation, mitochondria capture cytosolic Ca(2+) in two steps. Consequently, mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake likely plays a role in cellular function through cytosolic Ca(2+) buffering. Here, we investigate the role of MCU and MICU1 in mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake and mast cell degranulation using MCU- and MICU1-knockdown (KD) mast cells. Whereas MCU- and MICU1-KD mast cells show normal proliferation rates and mitochondrial membrane potential, they exhibit slow and reduced cytosolic and mitochondrial Ca(2+) elevation after antigen stimulation. Moreover, β-hexosaminidase release induced by antigen was significantly suppressed in MCU-KD cells but not MICU1-KD cells. This suggests that both MCU and MICU1 are involved in mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake in mast cells, while MCU plays a role in mast cell degranulation.

  12. IgE and mast cells in host defense against parasites and venoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Kaori; Tsai, Mindy; Starkl, Philipp; Marichal, Thomas; Galli, Stephen J

    2016-09-01

    IgE-dependent mast cell activation is a major effector mechanism underlying the pathology associated with allergic disorders. The most dramatic of these IgE-associated disorders is the fatal anaphylaxis which can occur in some people who have developed IgE antibodies to otherwise innocuous antigens, such as those contained in certain foods and medicines. Why would such a highly "maladaptive" immune response develop in evolution and be retained to the present day? Host defense against parasites has long been considered the only beneficial function that might be conferred by IgE and mast cells. However, recent studies have provided evidence that, in addition to participating in host resistance to certain parasites, mast cells and IgE are critical components of innate (mast cells) and adaptive (mast cells and IgE) immune responses that can enhance host defense against the toxicity of certain arthropod and animal venoms, including enhancing the survival of mice injected with such venoms. Yet, in some people, developing IgE antibodies to insect or snake venoms puts them at risk for having a potentially fatal anaphylactic reaction upon subsequent exposure to such venoms. Delineating the mechanisms underlying beneficial versus detrimental innate and adaptive immune responses associated with mast cell activation and IgE is likely to enhance our ability to identify potential therapeutic targets in such settings, not only for reducing the pathology associated with allergic disorders but perhaps also for enhancing immune protection against pathogens and animal venoms.

  13. Different Patterns of Mast Cells Distinguish Diffuse from Encapsulated Neurofibromas in Patients with Neurofibromatosis 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Tracy; Riccardi, Vincent M.; Sutcliffe, Margaret; Vielkind, Juergen; Wechsler, Janine; Wolkenstein, Pierre; Friedman, Jan M.

    2011-01-01

    Multiple neurofibromas are cardinal features of neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1). Several different types of NF1-associated neurofibromas occur, each distinct in terms of pathological details, clinical presentation, and natural history. Mast cells are present in most neurofibromas and have been shown to be critical to the origin and progression of neurofibromas in both human NF1 and relevant mouse models. In this investigation, the authors determined whether mast cell involvement is the same for all types of NF1-associated neurofibromas. They examined the density and distribution of mast cells within 49 NF1-associated neurofibromas classified histopathologically as diffuse or encapsulated on the basis of the presence or absence of the perineurium or its constituent cells. They made two observations: (1) Diffuse neurofibromas had significantly higher densities of mast cells than did encapsulated neurofibromas, and (2) mast cells were evenly distributed throughout diffuse neurofibromas but were primarily restricted to the periphery of encapsulated neurofibromas. The differences in mast cell density and distribution differentiate the two basic types of NF1-associated neurofibromas, suggesting that the pathogenesis of diffuse and encapsulated neurofibromas may be significantly different. PMID:21525187

  14. Mast cell activation contributes to sickle cell pathobiology and pain in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Lucile; Vang, Derek; Nguyen, Julia; Gupta, Mihir; Luk, Kathryn; Ericson, Marna E; Simone, Donald A; Gupta, Kalpna

    2013-09-12

    Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is an inherited disorder associated with severe lifelong pain and significant morbidity. The mechanisms of pain in SCA remain poorly understood. We show that mast cell activation/degranulation contributes to sickle pain pathophysiology by promoting neurogenic inflammation and nociceptor activation via the release of substance P in the skin and dorsal root ganglion. Mast cell inhibition with imatinib ameliorated cytokine release from skin biopsies and led to a correlative decrease in granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and white blood cells in transgenic sickle mice. Targeting mast cells by genetic mutation or pharmacologic inhibition with imatinib ameliorates tonic hyperalgesia and prevents hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced hyperalgesia in sickle mice. Pretreatment with the mast cell stabilizer cromolyn sodium improved analgesia following low doses of morphine that were otherwise ineffective. Mast cell activation therefore underlies sickle pathophysiology leading to inflammation, vascular dysfunction, pain, and requirement for high doses of morphine. Pharmacological targeting of mast cells with imatinib may be a suitable approach to address pain and perhaps treat SCA.

  15. Morphometric evaluation of murine pulmonary mast cells in experimental hemorrhagic shock

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    I Kasacka

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory failure resulting frequently in death is one of the complications in the course of post-hemorrhagic changes. A systemic inflammatory reaction plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of this syndrome. Mast cells also contribute to this effect. To broaden our knowledge of the pathogenesis of respiratory insufficiency, we evaluated morphometrically lung mast cells in hemorrhagically shocked rats. Lung sections were stained with alcian blue and safranin, and four separate locations were distinguished: under the lung pleura, around the bronchi and the large vessels, and in the interalveolar septa. A decrease in the area and volume of mast cells and an increase in their circularity index in interalveolar septa and around the bronchi was observed. An enlargement of mast cells around lung vessels was also found. There were no changes in the morphometric parameters of mast cells under pleura. The results suggest an activation and degranulation of mast cells and a role in the inflammatory process causing acute lung injury in hemorrhagic shock.

  16. Mast cells are present in the choroid of the normal eye in most vertebrate classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMenamin, Paul Gerard; Polla, Emily

    2013-07-01

    Mast cells are bone marrow-derived tissue-homing leukocytes, which have traditionally been regarded as effector cells in allergic disorders, responses against parasites, and regulation of blood flow, but a broader perspective of their functional heterogeneity, such as immunomodulation, angiogenesis, tissue repair, and remodeling after injury, is now emerging. The persistence of mast cells in connective tissues throughout the evolution of vertebrates is evidence of strong selective pressure suggesting that these cells must have multiple beneficial and important roles in normal homeostasis. While mast cells are present within the uveal tract of eutherian mammals, there is little known about their presence in the choroid of other vertebrate classes. Eye tissues from a range of vertebrate species (fish, amphibian, reptiles, birds, marsupials, monotreme, and eutherian mammals) were investigated. Tissues were fixed in either 2% glutaraldehyde, 2% paraformaldehyde or a mixture of both and processed for resin embedding. Semi-thin sections of the retina and choroid were cut and stained with toluidine blue. Mast cells were identified in the choroid of all classes of vertebrates investigated except sharks. Their morphology, location, and staining characteristics were remarkably similar from teleost fish through to eutherian mammals and bore close morphological resemblance to mammalian connective tissue mast cells. The similar morphology and distribution of mast cells in the choroid of all vertebrate classes studied suggest a basic physiological function that has been retained since the evolution of the vertebrate eye. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  17. The Role of Adenoid Mast Cells in the Pathogenesis of Secretory Otitis Media

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    M. Faruk Oktay

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the possible role of adenoid mast cells in the etiology of secretory otitis media. Between 2001-2002, 25 patients with chronic adenoitis and chronic secretory otitis media and 25 patients with isolated adenoid hypertrophy were included to the study. Adenoidectomy performed to the all patients under general anesthesia. Adenoidectomy specimens were evaluated under the light microscopy and the number of mast cells were calculated for each patient. The number of mast cells were compared between two groups. The number of mast cells were between 4-84 in the otitis media with effusion and adenoid hypertrophy group (median:52, however it was between 2-63 (median: 23 in the isolated adenoid hypertrophy group. When comparing the two groups using Mann-Withney U test, the number of mast cells found to be significantly higher in the chronic secretory otitis media group (p<0.001.Based on our findings there is a relationship between increased adenoid mast cells and otitis media with effusion and these cells may have a possible role in the etiology of chronic secretory otitis media.

  18. Masting in Fagus crenata and its influence on the nitrogen content and dry mass of winter buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qingmin; Kabeya, Daisuke; Iio, Atsuhiro; Kakubari, Yoshitaka

    2008-08-01

    In Fagus, full-mast seeding years are invariably followed by at least one non-mast year. Both flower and leaf primordia develop during the summer within the same winter buds. Flower bud initiation occurs when the N content of developing seeds is increasing rapidly. We hypothesized that competition for nitrogen (N) between developing seeds and buds limits flower primordium formation in mast years and, hence, limits seed production in years following mast years. We tested this hypothesis in three Fagus crenata Blume forests at elevations of 550, 900 and 1500 m. Bud N concentration (N con), amount of N per bud (N bud) and dry mass per bud (DM) were compared between a mast year (2005) and the following non-mast year (2006), and between winter buds containing both leaf and flower primoridia (BF), which were formed during the non-mast year, and winter buds containing leaf primordia only (BL), which were formed in both mast and non-mast years. In addition, leaf numbers per shoot corresponding to the analyzed buds were counted, and the effect of masting on litter production was analyzed by quantifying the amounts of litter that fell in the years 2004 to 2007. The dry mass and N content of BF formed in 2006 by trees at both 550 and 1500 m were 2.1-3.4-fold higher than the corresponding amounts in BL, although the numbers of leaves per current-year shoot in 2007 that developed from the two bud types in the same individuals did not differ significantly. These results indicate that more N and carbohydrate are expended in producing BF than in producing BL. The amount of litter from reproductive organs produced in the mast year was similar to the amount of leaf litter at 900 and 1500 m, but three times as much at 550 m. Leaf numbers per shoot were significantly lower at all elevations in the mast year than in the non-mast years (and the amount of leaf litter at 550 and 1500 m tended to be lower in the mast year than in the non-mast years. In conclusion, preferential allocation

  19. California Diploma Project Technical Report II: Alignment Study--Alignment Study of the Health Sciences and Medical Technology Draft Standards and California's Exit Level Common Core State Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaughy, Charis; de Gonzalez, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    The California Department of Education is in the process of revising the Career and Technical Education (CTE) Model Curriculum Standards. The Educational Policy Improvement Center (EPIC) conducted an investigation of the draft version of the Health Sciences and Medical Technology Standards (Health Science). The purpose of the study is to…

  20. Evaluation of Minichromosome Maintenance Protein 7 and c-KIT as Prognostic Markers in Feline Cutaneous Mast Cell Tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobromylskyj, M J; Rasotto, R; Melville, K; Smith, K C; Berlato, D

    2015-11-01

    Mast cell tumours (MCTs) are a common skin tumour in cats, but there is currently no histological grading system or reliable prognostic marker for this species (unlike the situation for dogs). This study utilized a set of 71 feline cutaneous MCTs with known clinical outcomes to assess the potential of various prognostic markers, including the cellular proliferation marker minichromosome maintenance protein (MCM)-7, mitotic index and various KIT labelling characteristics, including KIT positivity, KIT labelling pattern and KIT immunoreactivity score (IS). Of the factors studied, the mitotic index and the KIT labelling pattern were the only features associated significantly with survival times, while the proliferation marker MCM7 and the KIT IS were not. The study also highlights the variability of KIT labelling characteristics between tumours, which may prevent use of this marker as a diagnostic and prognostic tool.

  1. Nuclear receptor 4a3 (nr4a3 regulates murine mast cell responses and granule content.

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    Gianni Garcia-Faroldi

    Full Text Available Nuclear receptor 4a3 (Nr4a3 is a transcription factor implicated in various settings such as vascular biology and inflammation. We have recently shown that mast cells dramatically upregulate Nuclear receptor 4a3 upon activation, and here we investigated the functional impact of Nuclear receptor 4a3 on mast cell responses. We show that Nuclear receptor 4a3 is involved in the regulation of cytokine/chemokine secretion in mast cells following activation via the high affinity IgE receptor. Moreover, Nuclear receptor 4a3 negatively affects the transcript and protein levels of mast cell tryptase as well as the mast cell's responsiveness to allergen. Together, these findings identify Nuclear receptor 4a3 as a novel regulator of mast cell function.

  2. Down-regulation of the A3 adenosine receptor in human mast cells upregulates mediators of angiogenesis and remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudich, Noam; Dekel, Ornit; Sagi-Eisenberg, Ronit

    2015-05-01

    Adenosine activated mast cells have been long implicated in allergic asthma and studies in rodent mast cells have assigned the A3 adenosine receptor (A3R) a primary role in mediating adenosine responses. Here we analyzed the functional impact of A3R activation on genes that are implicated in tissue remodeling in severe asthma in the human mast cell line HMC-1 that shares similarities with lung derived human mast cells. Quantitative real time PCR demonstrated upregulation of IL6, IL8, VEGF, amphiregulin and osteopontin. Moreover, further upregulation of these genes was noted upon the addition of dexamethasone. Unexpectedly, activated A3R down regulated its own expression and knockdown of the receptor replicated the pattern of agonist induced gene upregulation. This study therefore identifies the human mast cell A3R as regulator of tissue remodeling gene expression in human mast cells and demonstrates a heretofore-unrecognized mode of feedback regulation that is exerted by this receptor.

  3. Perturbative momentum transport in MAST L-mode plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttenfelder, W.; Field, A. R.; Lupelli, I.; Tala, T.; Kaye, S. M.; Ren, Y.; Solomon, W. M.

    2017-05-01

    Non-axisymmetric magnetic fields are used to perturbatively probe momentum transport physics in MAST L-mode plasmas. The low beta L-mode target was chosen to complement previous experiments conducted in high beta NSTX H-mode plasmas (β N  =  3.5-4.6) where an inward momentum pinch was measured. In those cases quasi-linear gyrokinetic simulations of unstable ballooning micro-instabilities predict weak or outward momentum convection, in contrast to the measurements. The weak pinch was predicted to be due to both electromagnetic effects at high beta and low aspect ratio minimizing the symmetry-breaking of the instabilities responsible for momentum transport. In an attempt to lessen these electromagnetic effects at low aspect ratio, perturbative experiments were run in MAST L-mode discharges at lower beta (β N  =  2). The perturbative transport analysis used the time-dependent response following the termination of applied 3D fields that briefly brake the plasma rotation (similar to the NSTX H-mode experiments). Assuming time-invariant diffusive (χ φ ) and convective (V φ ) transport coefficients, an inward pinch is inferred with magnitudes, (RV φ /χ φ )  =  (-1)-(-9), similar to those found in NSTX H-modes and in conventional tokamaks. However, if experimental uncertainties due to non-stationary conditions during and after the applied 3D field are considered, a weak pinch or even outward convection is inferred, (RV φ /χ φ )  =  (-1)-(+5). Linear gyrokinetic simulations indicate that for these lower beta L-modes, the predicted momentum pinch is predicted to be relatively small, (RV φ /χ φ )sim  ≈  -1. While this falls within the experimentally inferred range, the uncertainties are practically too large to quantitatively validate the predictions. Challenges and implications for this particular experimental technique are discussed, as well as additional possible physical mechanisms that may be important in

  4. Development of Technology Competencies for Public Services’ Staff Has Limited External Validity. A Review of: Wong, G. K. W. (2010. Information commons help desk transactions study. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 36(3, 235-241.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Martin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective - To develop an understanding of the types of technology questions asked at an information commons help desk for the purposes of staffing the desk and training. Specifically, the study looked to answer the following questions:1. What kind of assistance do users seek from the help desk?2. How complex is it to handle the technology questions?3. What are the key competencies desirable of the help desk staff?Design - Qualitative analysis of transactions completed at an information commons help desk.Setting - A medium sized academic library located in Hong Kong.Data - 1,636 transactions completed at an information commons help desk between January 2007 and May 2009.Methods - From the opening in 2006, the staff of the information commons help desk recorded all transactions electronically using a modified version of the open source software LibStats. The author examined the transactions for roughly the second and third weeks of each month from January 2007 to May 2009 in an effort to determine the types of questions asked and their complexity.Main Results - In response to question one, 86.3% of questions asked at the help desk concerned technology; the majority of those questions (76.5% were about printing, wireless connection, and various software operation. For question two, 82% of technology questions were determined to be of the lowest tier (Tier 1 of complexity, one-third of the questions required only “direct answers,” and 80% of questions could be answered consistently via the creation of a “knowledge base of answers for these foreseeable questions.” For question three, a list of fourteen competencies for help desk staff were created.Conclusion - With the low complexity of the technology questions asked, the creation of a knowledge base of common questions and answers, and proper training of staff based on the competencies identified in the study, an information commons could be effective with one integrated desk staffed by a

  5. Masting in wind-pollinated trees: system-specific roles of weather and pollination dynamics in driving seed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdziewicz, Michał; Szymkowiak, Jakub; Kasprzyk, Idalia; Grewling, Łukasz; Borowski, Zbigniew; Borycka, Katarzyna; Kantorowicz, Władysław; Myszkowska, Dorota; Piotrowicz, Katarzyna; Ziemianin, Monika; Pesendorfer, Mario B

    2017-10-01

    Masting, the highly variable production of synchronized large seed crops, is a common reproductive strategy in plant populations. In wind-pollinated trees, flowering and pollination dynamics are hypothesized to provide the mechanistic link for the well-known relationship between weather and population-level seed production. Several hypotheses make predictions about the effect of weather on annual pollination success. The pollen coupling hypothesis predicts that weather and plant resources drive the flowering effort of trees, which directly translates into the size of seed crops through efficient pollination. In contrast, the pollination Moran effect hypothesis predicts that weather affects pollination efficiency, leading to occasional bumper crops. Furthermore, the recently formulated phenology synchrony hypothesis predicts that Moran effects can arise because of weather effects on flowering synchrony, which, in turn, drives pollination efficiency. We investigated the relationship between weather, airborne pollen, and seed production in common European trees, two oak species (Quercus petraea and Q. robur) and beech (Fagus sylvatica) with a 19-yr data set from three sites in Poland. Our results show that warm summers preceding flowering correlated with high pollen abundance and warm springs resulted in short pollen seasons (i.e., high flowering synchrony) for all three species. Pollen abundance was the best predictor for seed crops in beech, as predicted under pollen coupling. In oaks, short pollen seasons, rather than pollen abundance, correlated with large seed crops, providing support for the pollination Moran effect and phenology synchrony hypotheses. Fundamentally different mechanisms may therefore drive masting in species of the family Fagacae. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  6. Jan Åge Riseth; Sámi reindeer management under technological change 1960-1990: Implications for Common-Pool Resource Use Under Various Natural and Instututional Conditions. A comparative analysis of regional development paths....

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Egil Haugerud (ed.

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available On June 22, Cand. Agric. Jan Åge Riseth successfully defended his dissertation "Sami reindeer management under technological change 1960-1990: Implications for Common-Pool Resource Use Under Various Natural And Institutional Conditions. A comparative analysis of regional development paths in West Finnmark, North Trøndelag, and South Trøndelag/Hedmark, Norway." for the degree Dr. Scient, at the Agricultural University of Norway (AUN, Dept. of Economics and Social Sciences.

  7. Jan Åge Riseth; Sámi reindeer management under technological change 1960-1990: Implications for Common-Pool Resource Use Under Various Natural and Instututional Conditions. A comparative analysis of regional development paths....

    OpenAIRE

    Rolf Egil Haugerud (ed. in chief)

    2000-01-01

    On June 22, Cand. Agric. Jan Åge Riseth successfully defended his dissertation "Sami reindeer management under technological change 1960-1990: Implications for Common-Pool Resource Use Under Various Natural And Institutional Conditions. A comparative analysis of regional development paths in West Finnmark, North Trøndelag, and South Trøndelag/Hedmark, Norway." for the degree Dr. Scient, at the Agricultural University of Norway (AUN), Dept. of Economics and Social Sciences.

  8. Role of mast cells and protease-activated receptor-2 in cyclooxygenase-2 expression in urothelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zun-Yi; Wang, Peiqing; Bjorling, Dale E.

    2009-01-01

    Mast cells have been shown to play a role in development and persistence of various inflammatory bladder disorders. Mast cell-derived tryptase specifically activates protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2), and PAR-2 is known to be involved in inflammation. We investigated whether mast cells participate in increase of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein abundance in urothelium/suburothelium of bladders of mice subsequent to cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced bladder inflammation. We also used primary ...

  9. EFFECT OF ENDOCANNABINOID SYSTEM AND CANNABIMIMETIC COMPOUNDS IN THE CONTROL OF MAST CELLS: POSSIBLE IMPLICATION IN ACUTE AND CHRONIC INFLAMMATION

    OpenAIRE

    De Filippis, Daniele

    2009-01-01

    The present work aims to elucidate the emerging role played by cannabimimetic compounds in the control of mast cell activation. Mast cells are immune competent cells strategically located at sites directly interfacing with the external environment which, in case of injury, may regulate the immune response by the release of a plethora of both pre-formed and newly-synthesised mediators. However, although the main goal of mast cell activation is to initiate the inflammatory reaction, and thus to...

  10. Climate-influenced ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa seed masting trends in western Montana, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Keyes

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The aim of this study was to analyze 10-year records of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa seed production, in order to confirm synchronic seed production and to evaluate cyclical masting trends, masting depletion effect, and climate-masting relationships. Area of study: The study area was located in a P. ponderosa stand in the northern Rocky Mountains (western Montana, USA. Material and methods: The study was conducted in one stand that had been subjected to a silvicultural study of uneven-aged management techniques that was carried out in 1984, and which resulted in three separate units consisting of one control, one cut/no-burn treatment, and one cut/burn treatment. Seeds were collected during the 10 years following treatment in 15 traps systematically deployed within each of the stand’s three units. The total numbers of seeds collected in each unit were plotted over time to analyze crop synchrony, with Spearman rank correlation coefficient used to test for masting cycles and crop depletion after a mast year. Meteorological records over the period 1983-1994 were related to the occurrence of a mast event (defined as crops exceeding 50,000 viable seeds/ha. Main results: The seed production pattern was non-cyclical, synchronous, and independent of silvicultural treatment history. A mast-depletion effect was evident but was not statistically significant. Mast events seem to be promoted by the occurrence of optimum mean temperatures at the beginning of spring during both the first (11 °C and second (9 °C years of cone maturation. The probability of a mast year was also affected by summer temperature (number of late frost days; negative effect and precipitation amount (positive effect. All these factors would seemingly explain the observed synchronous pattern in cone production. Research highlights: The non-cyclical trend of ponderosa pine seed mast years is influenced by specific climate determinants. Fluctuations in mean early

  11. Accuracy Verification of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI Technology for Lower-Limb Prosthetic Research: Utilising Animal Soft Tissue Specimen and Common Socket Casting Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Safari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lower limb prosthetic socket shape and volume consistency can be quantified using MRI technology. Additionally, MRI images of the residual limb could be used as an input data for CAD-CAM technology and finite element studies. However, the accuracy of MRI when socket casting materials are used has to be defined. A number of six, 46 mm thick, cross-sections of an animal leg were used. Three specimens were wrapped with Plaster of Paris (POP and the other three with commercially available silicone interface liner. Data was obtained by utilising MRI technology and then the segmented images compared to corresponding calliper measurement, photographic imaging, and water suspension techniques. The MRI measurement results were strongly correlated with actual diameter, surface area, and volume measurements. The results show that the selected scanning parameters and the semiautomatic segmentation method are adequate enough, considering the limit of clinical meaningful shape and volume fluctuation, for residual limb volume and the cross-sectional surface area measurements.

  12. Accuracy verification of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology for lower-limb prosthetic research: utilising animal soft tissue specimen and common socket casting materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Mohammad Reza; Rowe, Philip; Buis, Arjan

    2012-01-01

    Lower limb prosthetic socket shape and volume consistency can be quantified using MRI technology. Additionally, MRI images of the residual limb could be used as an input data for CAD-CAM technology and finite element studies. However, the accuracy of MRI when socket casting materials are used has to be defined. A number of six, 46 mm thick, cross-sections of an animal leg were used. Three specimens were wrapped with Plaster of Paris (POP) and the other three with commercially available silicone interface liner. Data was obtained by utilising MRI technology and then the segmented images compared to corresponding calliper measurement, photographic imaging, and water suspension techniques. The MRI measurement results were strongly correlated with actual diameter, surface area, and volume measurements. The results show that the selected scanning parameters and the semiautomatic segmentation method are adequate enough, considering the limit of clinical meaningful shape and volume fluctuation, for residual limb volume and the cross-sectional surface area measurements.

  13. Induction of mast cell proliferation, maturation, and heparin synthesis by the rat c-kit ligand, stem cell factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, M.; Takeishi, Takashi; Geissler, E.N. (Beth Israel Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)); Thompson, H.; Metcalfe, D.D. (National Inst. of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)); Langley, K.E.; Zsebo, K.M.; Galli, S.J. (Amgen, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA (United States))

    1991-07-15

    The authors investigated the effects of a newly recognized multifunctional growth factor, the c-kit ligand stem cell factor (SCF), on mouse mast cell proliferation and phenotype. Recombinant rat SCF{sup 164} (rrSCF{sup 164}) induced the development of large numbers of dermal mast cells in normal mice in vivo. Many of these mast cells had features of connective tissue-type mast cells (CTMC), in that they were reactive both with the heparin-binding fluorescent dye berberine sulfate and with safranin. In vitro, rrSCF{sup 164} induced the proliferation of cloned interleukin 3 (IL-3)-dependent mouse mast cells and primary populations of IL-3-dependent, bone marrow-derived cultured mast cells (BMCMC), which represent immature mast cells, and purified peritoneal mast cells, which represent a type of mature CTMC> BMCMC maintained in rrSCF{sup 164} not only proliferated but also matured. These findings identify SCF as a single cytokine that can induce immature, IL-3-dependent mast cells to mature and to acquire multiple characteristics of CTMC. These findings also directly demonstrate that SCF can regulate the development of a cellular lineage expressing c-kit through effects on both proliferation and maturation.

  14. Leptin deficiency-induced obesity affects the density of mast cells in abdominal fat depots and lymph nodes in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altintas Mehmet M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mast cells are implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity and insulin resistance. Here, we explored the effects of leptin deficiency-induced obesity on the density of mast cells in metabolic (abdominal fat depots, skeletal muscle, and liver and lymphatic (abdominal lymph nodes, spleen, and thymus organs. Fourteen-week-old male leptin-deficient ob/ob mice and their controls fed a standard chow were studied. Tissue sections were stained with toluidine blue to determine the density of mast cells. CD117/c-kit protein expression analysis was also carried out. Furthermore, mast cells containing immunoreactive tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, a proinflammatory cytokine involved in obesity-linked insulin resistance, were identified by immunostaining. Results ob/ob mice demonstrated adiposity and insulin resistance. In abdominal fat depots, mast cells were distributed differentially. While most prevalent in subcutaneous fat in controls, mast cells were most abundant in epididymal fat in ob/ob mice. Leptin deficiency-induced obesity was accompanied by a 20-fold increase in the density of mast cells in epididymal fat, but a 13-fold decrease in subcutaneous fat. This finding was confirmed by CD117/c-kit protein expression analysis. Furthermore, we found that a subset of mast cells in epididymal and subcutaneous fat were immunoreactive for TNF-α. The proportion of mast cells immunoreactive for TNF-α was higher in epididymal than in subcutaneous fat in both ob/ob and control mice. Mast cells were also distributed differentially in retroperitoneal, mesenteric, and inguinal lymph nodes. In both ob/ob mice and lean controls, mast cells were more prevalent in retroperitoneal than in mesenteric and inguinal lymph nodes. Leptin deficiency-induced obesity was accompanied by increased mast cell density in all lymph node stations examined. No significant difference in the density of mast cells in skeletal muscle, liver, spleen, and thymus was

  15. Localization of Cyclo-Oxygenase and Prostaglandin E2 in the Secretory Granule of the Mast Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    cascade during exocytosis. Keywords: Cyclo-oxygenase; Prostaglandin E2; Secretory granules; Mast cell ; Exocytosis; Lipid mediators; Inflammation; Arachidonic acid; Eicosanoids; Immunocytochemistry; Reprints. (KT)

  16. T Cell-Mediated Modulation of Mast Cell Function: Heterotypic Adhesion-Induced Stimulatory or Inhibitory Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoseph A. Mekori

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Close physical proximity between mast cells and T cells has been demonstrated in several T cell mediated inflammatory processes such as rheumatoid arthritis and sarcoidosis. However, the way by which mast cells are activated in these T cell-mediated immune responses has not been fully elucidated. We have identified and characterized a novel mast cell activation pathway initiated by physical contact with activated T cells, and showed that this pathway is associated with degranulation and cytokine release. The signaling events associated with this pathway of mast cell activation have also been elucidated confirming the activation of the Ras MAPK systems. More recently, we hypothesized and demonstrated that mast cells may also be activated by microparticles released from activated T cells that are considered as miniature version of a cell. By extension, microparticles might affect the activity of mast cells, which are usually not in direct contact with T cells at the inflammatory site. Recent works have also focused on the effects of regulatory T cells on mast cells. These reports highlighted the importance of the cytokines IL-2 and IL-9, produced by mast cells and T cells, respectively, in obtaining optimal immune suppression. Finally, physical contact, associated by OX40-OX40L engagement has been found to underlie the down-regulatory effects exerted by regulatory T cells on mast cell function.

  17. PGE2 Promotes Apoptosis Induced by Cytokine Deprivation through EP3 Receptor and Induces Bim in Mouse Mast Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovarova, Martina; Koller, Beverly H.

    2014-01-01

    Increased mast cell numbers are observed at sites of allergic inflammation and restoration of normal mast cell numbers is critical to the resolution of these responses. Early studies showed that cytokines protect mast cells from apoptosis, suggesting a simple model in which diminished cytokine levels during resolution leads to cell death. The report that prostaglandins can contribute both to recruitment and to the resolution of inflammation together with the demonstration that mast cells express all four PGE2 receptors raises the question of whether a single PGE2 receptor mediates the ability of PGE2 to regulate mast cell survival and apoptosis. We report here that PGE2 through the EP3 receptor promotes cell death of mast cells initiated by cytokine withdrawal. Furthermore, the ability of PGE2 to limit reconstitution of tissues with cultured mast cells is lost in cell lacking the EP3 receptor. Apoptosis is accompanied by higher dissipation of mitochondrial potential (ΔΨm), increased caspase-3 activation, chromatin condensation, and low molecular weight DNA cleavage. PGE2 augmented cell death is dependent on an increase in intracellular calcium release, calmodulin dependent kinase II and MAPK activation. Synergy between the EP3 pathway and the intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic pathway results in increased Bim expression and higher sensitivity of mast cells to cytokine deprivation. This supports a model in which PGE2 can contribute to the resolution of inflammation in part by augmenting the removal of inflammatory cells in this case, mast cells. PMID:25054560

  18. Serum Total Tryptase Level Confirms Itself as a More Reliable Marker of Mast Cells Burden in Mast Cell Leukaemia (Aleukaemic Variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Savini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mast cell leukemia (MCL is a very rare form of systemic mastocytosis (SM with a short median survival of 6 months. We describe a case of a 65-year-old woman with aleukaemic variant of MCL with a very high serum total tryptase level of 2255 μg/L at diagnosis, which occurred following an episode of hypotensive shock. She fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of SM, with a bone marrow smear infiltration of 50–60% of atypical mast cells (MCs. She tested negative for the KIT D816V mutation, without any sign of organ damage (no B- or C-findings and only few mediator-related symptoms. She was treated with antihistamine alone and then with imatinib for the appearance of anemia. She maintained stable tryptase level and a very indolent clinical course for twenty-two months; then, she suddenly progressed to acute MCL with a serum tryptase level up to 12960 μg/L. The patient died due to haemorrhagic diathesis twenty-four months after diagnosis. This clinical case maybe represents an example of the chronic form of mast cell leukemia, described as unpredictable disease, in which the serum total tryptase level has confirmed itself as a reliable marker of mast cells burden regardless of the presence of other signs or symptoms.

  19. New magnetic real time shape control for MAST

    CERN Document Server

    Pangione, L; Storrs, J

    2013-01-01

    The MAST (Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak) real time plasma position controller is based on an optical linear camera placed on the mid plane of the vessel. This solution has the advantage of being a direct observation of the D [alpha]emissions coming from the interaction between the boundary of the plasma and neutral gas, but, on the other hand, it restricts the control to the outer radius of the plasma only. A complete chain of tools has been set up to implement, test and simulate a new real time magnetic plasma shape controller based on the rtEFIT code. The complete working path consists of three elements: a linear static relationship between control parameters and current demands, a linear state space model needed to represent the plasma dynamic response in closed loop simulations, and the possibility to run simulations inside the Plasma Control System (PCS). The linear relationship has been calculated using the FIESTA code, which is developed using Matlab at CCFE. The linear state space model was generated ...

  20. Observations of 2D Doppler backscattering on MAST

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, D A; Freethy, S J; Huang, B K; Shevchenko, V F; Vann, R G L

    2015-01-01

    The Synthetic Aperture Microwave Imaging (SAMI) diagnostic has conducted proof-of-principle 2D Doppler backscattering (DBS) experiments on MAST. SAMI actively probes the plasma edge using a wide (+-40 degrees vertical and horizontal) and tuneable (10-35.5 GHz) beam. The Doppler backscattered signal is digitised in vector form using an array of eight Vivaldi PCB antennas. This allows the receiving array to be focused in any direction within the field of view simultaneously to an angular range of 6-24 degrees FWHM at 10-34.5 GHz. This capability is unique to SAMI and is an entirely novel way of conducting DBS experiments. In this paper the feasibility of conducting 2D DBS experiments is explored. Initial measurements of phenomena observed on conventional DBS experiments are presented; such as momentum injection from neutral beams and an abrupt change in power and turbulence velocity coinciding with the onset of H-mode. In addition, being able to carry out 2D DBS imaging allows a measurement of magnetic pitch an...