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Sample records for technology mast common

  1. Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST). Common Ground: Toward a Standards-Based Training System for the U.S. Machine Tool and Metal Related Industries. Volume 1: Executive Summary, of a 15-Volume Set of Skills Standards and Curriculum Training Materials for the Precision Manufacturing Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas State Technical Coll., Waco.

    The Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST) consortium was formed to address the shortage of skilled workers for the machine tools and metals-related industries. Featuring six of the nation's leading advanced technology centers, the MAST consortium developed, tested, and disseminated industry-specific skill standards and model curricula for…

  2. Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST). Common Ground: Toward a Standards-Based Training System for the U.S. Machine Tool and Metal Related Industries. Volume 11: Computer-Aided Manufacturing & Advanced CNC, of a 15-Volume Set of Skill Standards and Curriculum Training Materials for the Precision Manufacturing Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas State Technical Coll., Waco.

    This document is intended to help education and training institutions deliver the Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST) curriculum to a variety of individuals and organizations. MAST consists of industry-specific skill standards and model curricula for 15 occupational specialty areas within the U.S. machine tool and metals-related…

  3. High Gain, Very Low Areal Density, Scalable RF Apertures Enabled by Membrane Aperture Shell Technology (MAST), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose that the Membrane Aperture Shell Technology (MAST) approach be expanded with a specific focus on space exploration orbiting comm network RF aperture...

  4. Conceptualizing Student Affect for Science and Technology at the Middle School Level: Development and Implementation of a Measure of Affect in Science and Technology (MAST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romine, William L.; Sadler, Troy D.; Wulff, Eric P.

    2017-10-01

    We describe the development of the Measure of Affect in Science and Technology (MAST), and study its usefulness for measuring science affect in middle school students via both classical and Rasch measurement perspectives. We then proceed to utilize the measurement structure of the MAST to understand how middle school students at varying levels of affect express their interest and attitudes toward science and technology and gender differences in how students express their affect. We found that affect in science and technology comprises a main dimension, science interest, and four peripheral dimensions: interest in careers in science and technology, attitudes toward science, and interest in attending science class. Of these, careers in science and technology carry the highest affective demand. While males showed higher levels of personal and situational interest in science, a greater interest in careers in science and technology was the biggest contributor to males' higher affect toward science and technology. We argue that whether the MAST is used as a measure of a single construct or multiple subconstructs depends upon specific research or evaluation goals; however, both uses of the MAST yield measures which produce valid inferences for student affect.

  5. Radiation survey of mobile and wireless technology masts in public places in Kaduna metropolis Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onoh, N. I.; Ogbanje, G. O.; Jonah, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    Work was done to measure radiation exposure of the populace in Kaduna metropolis from radiation emitted from global satellite communication masts. Base stations were surveyed in residential, school and office areas. Parameters sampled include the electric field strength, magnetic field strength, power density and ionizing radiation dose rate of the 20 surveyed masts belonging to four service providers. The instruments deployed include the Rf- EMF strength meter Model 480836 used to measure the first three parameters and Radiation Monitor Radex RD 1503 used to determine the forth parameter. The result obtained in this work was compared with the limits set by international regulatory bodies. Our result shows that electromagnetic and ionizing radiation exposures from the surveyed masts are far below the standard limits. Based on this, the population in Kaduna metropolis is not subjected to any adverse health effects from the Global System of Mobile Communication/Universal Mobile Telecommunication System masts at the moment.

  6. Architecture for persistent surveillance using mast and UAS-based autonomous sensing with bio-inspired technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burman, Jerry

    2014-06-01

    A sophisticated real time architecture for capturing relevant battlefield information of personnel and terrestrial events from a network of mast based imaging and unmanned aerial systems (UAS) with target detection, tracking, classification and visualization is presented. Persistent surveillance of personnel and vehicles is achieved using a unique spatial and temporally invariant motion detection and tracking algorithm for mast based cameras in combination with aerial remote sensing to autonomously monitor unattended ground based sensor networks. UAS autonomous routing is achieved using bio-inspired algorithms that mimic how bacteria locate nutrients in their environment. Results include field test data, performance and lessons learned. The technology also has application to detecting and tracking low observables (manned and UAS), counter MANPADS, airport bird detection and search and rescue operations.

  7. 46 CFR 154.805 - Vent masts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....805 Vent masts. Relief valves or common vent headers from relief valves must discharge to a vent mast... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vent masts. 154.805 Section 154.805 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF...

  8. Common Elements in Operational Events across Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bley, Dennis C.; Wreathall, John; Cooper, Susan E.

    1998-01-01

    The ATHEANA project, sponsored by the US NRC, began as a study of operational events during low power and shutdown conditions at US commercial nuclear power plants. The purpose was to develop an approach for human reliability analysis that is supported by the experience; i.e., with the history of operational events. As the analysis of operational events progressed, a multidisciplinary framework evolved that can structure the analysis, highlighting significant aspects of each event. The ATHEANA multidisciplinary framework has been used as the basis for retrospective analysis of human performance in operational events in the nuclear power, chemical process, aviation, and medical technologies. The results of these analyses are exemplified by three operational events from different industries. Attention is drawn to those common elements in serious operational events that have negative impacts on human performance. (authors)

  9. Information Technology Trends, Creative Commons Licenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felician ALECU

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Creative Commons licenses, also known as CC, allow the authors to retain the copyright over the works while granting some right to the others, like the permission to modify or to use the work for commercial purposes.

  10. How innovation commons contribute to discovering and developing new technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcy W.E. Allen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In modern economics, the institutions surrounding the creation and development of new technologies are firms, markets and governments. We propose an alternative theory that locates the institutional origin of new technologies further back in the commons when self-organizing groups of technology enthusiasts develop effective governance rules to pool distributed information resources. The ‘innovation commons’ alleviates uncertainty around a nascent technology by pooling distributed information about uses, costs, problems and opportunities. While innovation commons are mostly temporary, because the resource itself – the information about opportunities – is only temporarily valuable, they are a further addition to the Pantheon of commons, and suggest that the institutions of the commons – and the common pool resource of information about applications of the technology – may be far more important in the study of innovation than previously thought.

  11. Mast Wake Reduction by Shaping

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beauchamp, Charles H

    2005-01-01

    The present invention relates to various mast shapes, in which the mast shapes minimize the production of visible, electro-optic, infrared and radar cross section wake signatures produced by water surface piercing masts...

  12. First results from MAST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sykes, A.; Akers, R.J.; Appel, L.C.

    2001-01-01

    MAST is one of the new generation of large, purpose-built spherical tokamaks (STs) now becoming operational, designed to investigate the properties of the ST in large, collisionless plasmas. The first six months of MAST operations have been remarkably successful. Operationally, both merging-compr...

  13. Mast Cell Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Elaine Zayas Marcelino; Jamur, Maria Célia

    2014-01-01

    Since first described by Paul Ehrlich in 1878, mast cells have been mostly viewed as effectors of allergy. It has been only in the past two decades that mast cells have gained recognition for their involvement in other physiological and pathological processes. Mast cells have a widespread distribution and are found predominantly at the interface between the host and the external environment. Mast cell maturation, phenotype and function are a direct consequence of the local microenvironment and have a marked influence on their ability to specifically recognize and respond to various stimuli through the release of an array of biologically active mediators. These features enable mast cells to act as both first responders in harmful situations as well as to respond to changes in their environment by communicating with a variety of other cells implicated in physiological and immunological responses. Therefore, the critical role of mast cells in both innate and adaptive immunity, including immune tolerance, has gained increased prominence. Conversely, mast cell dysfunction has pointed to these cells as the main offenders in several chronic allergic/inflammatory disorders, cancer and autoimmune diseases. This review summarizes the current knowledge of mast cell function in both normal and pathological conditions with regards to their regulation, phenotype and role. PMID:25062998

  14. Mast cell activation disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EL-HAKIM

    Blood basophils also participate in allergic and other inflammatory reactions in the same way as mast cells.4. The capacity of mast cells and basophil to release mediators of anaphylaxis in response to cell activation, also termed releasability, depends on a number of different factors, including the primary underlying disease ...

  15. Information Commons Features Cutting-Edge Conservation and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilroy, Marilyn

    2011-01-01

    This article features Richard J. Klarchek Information Commons (IC) at Loyola University Chicago, an all-glass library building on the shore of Chicago's Lake Michigan that is not only a state-of-the-art digital research library and study space--it also runs on cutting-edge energy technology. The building has attracted attention and visitors from…

  16. The mast on the house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landberg, L.

    1997-01-01

    . The knowledge gained will be used to give guide-lines as to the use of the WASP program to correct the observations. Should the house/hut simply be treated as an extension of the mast, should the house/hut be treated as a hill with speed-up effects, or should the house/hill be ignored completely? The paper...... will show that the house/hut should indeed be treated as a hill with speed-up effects. Placing meteorological masts on houses or huts is common practice in quite a few countries in the world. The problem is therefore one which most people involved in detailed wind resource assessment will face sooner...

  17. Common Technologies for Environmental Research Infrastructures in ENVRIplus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Jean-Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Environmental and geoscientific research infrastructures (RIs) are dedicated to distinct aspects of the ocean, atmosphere, ecosystems, or solid Earth research, yet there is significant commonality in the way they conceive, develop, operate and upgrade their observation systems and platforms. Many environmental Ris are distributed network of observatories (be it drifting buoys, geophysical observatories, ocean-bottom stations, atmospheric measurements sites) with needs for remote operations. Most RIs have to deal with calibration and standardization issues. RIs use a variety of measurements technologies, but this variety is based on a small, common set of physical principles. All RIs have set their own research and development priorities, and developed their solution to their problems - however many problems are common across RIs. Finally, RIs may overlap in terms of scientific perimeter. In ENVRIplus we aim, for the first time, to identify common opportunities for innovation, to support common research and development across RIs on promising issues, and more generally to create a forum to spread state of the art techniques among participants. ENVRIplus activities include 1) measurement technologies: where are the common types of measurement for which we can share expertise or common development? 2) Metrology : how do we tackle together the diversified challenge of quality assurance and standardization? 3) Remote operations: can we address collectively the need for autonomy, robustness and distributed data handling? And 4) joint operations for research: are we able to demonstrate that together, RIs are able to provide relevant information to support excellent research. In this process we need to nurture an ecosystem of key players. Can we involve all the key technologists of the European RIs for a greater mutual benefit? Can we pave the way to a growing common market for innovative European SMEs, with a common programmatic approach conducive to targeted R&D? Can we

  18. Common pressure vessel development for the nickel hydrogen technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleck, G.

    1981-01-01

    The design of a pressure vessel nickel hydrogen cell is described. The cell has the following key features: it eliminates electrolyte bridging; provides for independent electrolyte management for each unit stack; provides for independent oxygen management for each unit stack; has good heat dissipation; has a mechanically sound and practical interconnection; and has the maximum in common with state of the art individual pressure vessel technology.

  19. Mast cells & Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friederike eJönsson

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Classically, allergy depends on IgE antibodies and on high-affinity IgE receptors expressed by mast cells and basophils. This long accepted IgE/FcεRI/mast cell paradigm, on which the definition of immediate hypersensitivity was based in the Gell and Coomb’s classification, appears too reductionist. Recently accumulated evidence indeed requires that not only IgE but also IgG antibodies, that not only FcεRI but also FcγR of the different types, that not only mast cells and basophils but also neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, eosinophils, and other myeloid cells by considered as important players in allergy. This view markedly changes our understanding of allergic diseases and, possibly, their treatment.

  20. The MAST improved divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darke, A.C.; Hayward, R.J.; Counsell, G.F.; Hawkins, K.

    2005-01-01

    The Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST) at Culham is one of the leading world machines studying the spherical tokamak (ST) concept. At the time of the initial construction in 1998 little was known about the sort of divertor structures that would be required in an ST. The machine was therefore provided with relatively rudimentary structures that were designed mostly to protect important components from the hot plasma. While these have served the machine well it was accepted that they might not be suitable when operating MAST to its full potential. The years of experience of operating MAST have led to the design, manufacture and now installation of a new divertor, the MAST improved divertor (MID), that should be able to cope with the full performance of the machine. The design is based on imbricated (fan-shaped) disks of tiles at the top and bottom of the machine for the outer strike points, giving an excellent compromise between power handling and diagnostic access, with substantial new centre column strike point armour and a shaped plate in between. High purity graphite is chosen as the plasma facing material in preference to CFC since in this case it has a better balance of performance and cost. The lower imbricated disk is insulated in alternate sectors for studies of divertor biasing and extensive diagnostics and additional inboard gas injection are included

  1. Overview of MAST results

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chapman, I.T.; Adámek, Jiří; Akers, R.J.; Allan, S.; Appel, L.; Asunta, O.; Barnes, M.; Ben Ayed, N.; Bigelow, T.; Boeglin, W.; Bradley, J.; Brünner, J.; Cahyna, Pavel; Carr, M.; Caughman, J.; Cecconelo, M.; Challis, C.; Chapman, S.; Chorley, J.; Colyer, G.; Conway, N.; Cooper, W.A.; Cox, M.; Crocker, N.; Crowley, B.J.; Cunningham, G.; Danilov, A.; Darrow, D.; Dendy, R.; Diallo, A.; Dickinson, D.; Diem, S.; Dorland, W.; Dudson, B.; Dunai, D.; Easy, L.; Elmore, S.; Field, A.; Fishpool, G.; Fox, M.; Fredrickson, E.; Freethy, S.; Garzotti, L.; Ghim, Y.C.; Gibson, K.; Graves, J.; Gurl, C.; Guttenfelder, W.; Ham, C.; Harrison, J.; Harting, D.; Havlickova, E.; Hawke, J.; Hawkes, N.; Hender, T.; Henderson, S.; Highcock, E.; Hillesheim, J.; Hnat, B.; Holgate, J.; Horáček, Jan; Howard, J.; Huang, B.; Imada, K.; Jones, O.; Kaye, S.; Keeling, D.; Kirk, A.; Klimek, I.; Kocan, M.; Leggate, H.; Lilley, M.; Lipschutz, B.; Lisgo, S.; Liu, Y.Q.; Lloyd, B.; Lomanowski, B.; Lupelli, I.; Maddison, G.; Mailloux, J.; Martin, R.; McArdle, G.; McClements, K.; McMillan, B.; Meakins, A.; Meyer, H.; Michael, C.; Militello, F.; Milnes, J.; Morris, A.W.; Motojima, G.; Muir, D.; Nardon, E.; Naulin, V.; Naylor, G.; Nielsen, A.; O’Brien, M.; O’Gorman, T.; Ono, Y.; Oliver, H.; Pamela, S.; Pangione, L.; Parra, F.; Patel, A.; Peebles, W.; Peng, M.; Perez, R.; Pinches, S.; Piron, L.; Podesta, M.; Price, M.; Reinke, M.; Ren, Y.; Roach, C.; Robinson, J.; Romanelli, M.; Rozhansky, V.; Saarelma, S.; Sangaroon, S.; Saveliev, A.; Scannell, R.; Schekochihin, A.; Sharapov, S.; Sharples, R.; Shevchenko, V.; Silburn, S.; Simpson, J.; Storrs, J.; Takase, Y.; Tanabe, H.; Tanaka, H.; Taylor, D.; Taylor, G.; Thomas, D.; Thomas-Davies, N.; Thornton, A.; Turnyanskiy, M.; Valovic, M.; Vann, R.; Walkden, N.; Wilson, H.; Wyk, L.V.; Yamada, T.; Zoletnik, S.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 10 (2015), s. 104008-104008 ISSN 0029-5515. [Fusion Energy Conference 2014 (FEC) /25./. St Petersburg, 13.10.2014-18.10.2014] Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : numerical model * MAST * high confinement operation Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 4.040, year: 2015

  2. The mast on the house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landberg, L.

    2000-01-01

    will show that the house/hut should indeed be treated as a hill with speed-up effects. Placing meteorological masts on houses or huts is common practice in quite a few countries in the world. The problem is therefore one which most people involved in detailed wind resource assessment will face sooner......An often encountered problem when preparing the basic input data for a wind atlas study is the correction for the influence of the house or hut on which the mast—whose data form the basis of this wind atlas—is placed. The article will describe an experiment where this problem has been addressed....... The knowledge gained will be used to give guidelines as to the use of the WAsP program to correct the observations. Should the house/hut simply be treated as an extension of the mast, should the house/hut be treated as a hill with speed-up effects, or should the house/hill be ignored completely? The paper...

  3. A global renewable mix with proven technologies and common materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Olivares, Antonio; Ballabrera-Poy, Joaquim; García-Ladona, Emili; Turiel, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    A global alternative mix to fossil fuels is proposed, based on proven renewable energy technologies that do not use scarce materials. The mix consists of a combination of onshore and offshore wind turbines, concentrating solar power stations, hydroelectricity and wave power devices attached to the offshore turbines. Solar photovoltaic power could contribute to the mix if its dependence on scarce materials is solved. The most adequate deployment areas for the power stations are studied, as well as the required space. Material requirements are studied for the generation, power transport and for some future transport systems. The order of magnitude of copper, aluminium, neodymium, lithium, nickel, zinc and platinum that may be required for the proposed solution is obtained and compared with available reserves. Overall, the proposed global alternative to fossil fuels seems technically feasible. However, lithium, nickel and platinum could become limiting materials for future vehicles fleet if no global recycling systems were implemented and rechargeable zinc–air batteries would not be developed; 60% of the current copper reserves would have to be employed in the implementation of the proposed solution. Altogether, they may become a long-term physical constraint, preventing the continuation of the usual exponential growth of energy consumption. - Highlights: ▶ A global renewable mix with proven energy technologies and common materials. ▶ Wind turbines, concentrating solar power, hydroelectricity and wave attenuators. ▶ Mix technically feasible. Lithium, nickel and platinum may limit vehicles fleet. ▶ Sixty per cent of copper reserves used in the mix and in societal electrification. ▶ Power cannot growth exponentially. Future “spaceship economy” scenario expected.

  4. The Virtual Learning Commons: Supporting Science Education with Emerging Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, D. D.; Gandara, A.; Gris, I.

    2012-12-01

    The Virtual Learning Commons (VLC), funded by the National Science Foundation Office of Cyberinfrastructure CI-Team Program, is a combination of Semantic Web, mash up, and social networking tools that supports knowledge sharing and innovation across scientific disciplines in research and education communities and networks. The explosion of scientific resources (data, models, algorithms, tools, and cyberinfrastructure) challenges the ability of educators to be aware of resources that might be relevant to their classes. Even when aware, it can be difficult to understand enough about those resources to develop classroom materials. Often emerging data and technologies have little documentation, especially about their application. The VLC tackles this challenge by providing mechanisms for individuals and groups of educators to organize Web resources into virtual collections, and engage each other around those collections in order to a) learn about potentially relevant resources that are available; b) design classes that leverage those resources; and c) develop course syllabi. The VLC integrates Semantic Web functionality for structuring distributed information, mash up functionality for retrieving and displaying information, and social media for discussing/rating information. We are working to provide three views of information that support educators in different ways: 1. Innovation Marketplace: supports users as they find others teaching similar courses, where they are located, and who they collaborate with; 2. Conceptual Mapper: supports educators as they organize their thinking about the content of their class and related classes taught by others; 3. Curriculum Designer: supports educators as they generate a syllabus and find Web resources that are relevant. This presentation will discuss the innovation and learning theories that have informed design of the VLC, hypotheses about the use of emerging technologies to support innovation in classrooms, and will include a

  5. Study of mast cell count in skin tags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaher Hesham

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Skin tags or acrochordons are common tumors of middle-aged and elderly subjects. They consist of loose fibrous tissue and occur mainly on the neck and major flexures as small, soft, pedunculated protrusions. Objectives: The aim was to compare the mast cells count in skin tags to adjacent normal skin in diabetic and nondiabetic participants in an attempt to elucidate the possible role of mast cells in the pathogenesis of skin tags. Participants and Methods: Thirty participants with skin tags were divided into group I (15 nondiabetic participants and group II (15 diabetic participants. Three biopsies were obtained from each participant: a large skin tag, a small skin tag and adjacent normal skin. Mast cell count from all the obtained sections was carried out, and the mast cell density was expressed as the average mast cell count/high power field (HPF. Results: A statistically significant increase in mast cells count in skin tags in comparison to normal skin was detected in group I and group II. There was no statistically significant difference between mast cell counts in skin tags of both the groups. Conclusion: Both the mast cell mediators and hyperinsulinemia are capable of inducing fibroblast proliferation and epidermal hyperplasia that are the main pathologic abnormalities seen in all types of skin tags. However, the presence of mast cells in all examined skin tags regardless of diabetes and obesity may point to the possible crucial role of mast cells in the etiogenesis of skin tags through its interaction with fibroblasts and keratinocytes.

  6. Nuclear fission and nuclear safeguards: Common technologies and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keepin, G.R.

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear fission and nuclear safeguards have much in common, including the basic physical phenomena and technologies involved as well as the commitments and challenges posed by expanding nuclear programs in many countries around the world. The unique characteristics of the fission process -- such as prompt and delayed neutron and gamma ray emission -- not only provide the means of sustaining and controlling the fission chain reaction, but also provide unique ''signatures'' that are essential to quantitative measurement and effective safeguarding of key nuclear materials (notably 239 Pu and 235 U) against theft, loss, or diversion. In this paper, we trace briefly the historical emergence of safeguards as an essential component of the expansion of the nuclear enterprise worldwide. We then survey the major categories of passive and active nondestructive assay techniques that are currently in use or under development for rapid, accurate measurement and verification of safe-guarded nuclear materials in the many forms in which they occur throughout the nuclear fuel cycle. 23 refs., 14 figs

  7. The Role of Mast Cells in Parathyroid Bone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Russell T; Iwaniec, Urszula T; Marley, Kevin; Sibonga, Jean D

    2010-01-01

    Chronic hyperparathyroidism (HPT) is a common cause of metabolic bone disease. These studies investigated the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the detrimental actions of elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH) on the skeleton. Bone biopsies from hyperparathyroid patients revealed an association between parathyroid bone disease and increased numbers of bone marrow mast cells. We therefore evaluated the role of mast cells in the etiology of parathyroid bone disease in a rat model for chronic HPT. In rats, mature mast cells were preferentially located at sites undergoing bone turnover, and the number of mast cells at the bone–bone marrow interface was greatly increased following treatment with PTH. Time-course studies and studies employing parathyroid hormone–related peptide (PTHrP), as well as inhibitors of platelet-derived growth factor-A (PDGF-A, trapidil), kit (gleevec), and PI3K (wortmannin) signaling revealed that mature mast cell redistribution from bone marrow to bone surfaces precedes and is associated with osteitis fibrosa, a hallmark of parathyroid bone disease. Importantly, mature mast cells were not observed in the bone marrow of mice. Mice, in turn, were resistant to the development of PTH-induced bone marrow fibrosis. These findings suggest that the mast cell may be a novel target for treatment of metabolic bone disease. © 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:20200965

  8. Mast cells and their activations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Bayramgürler

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Mast cells which are traditionally known as the major cells of IgE-dependent immediate hypersensitivity reactions are currently recognized to have a role as effector cells in many settings of the both innate and adaptive immunity. Mast cells secrete a wide spectrum of preformed or newly synthesized biologically active mediators with proinflammatory, anti-inflammatory and/or immunosupressive functions, in response to several stimuli. Current knowledge about mast cells and their activation, mast cell mediators, their roel s in inflammation and immune system will be discussed in thisr eview.

  9. Assay of mast cell mediators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rådinger, Madeleine; Jensen, Bettina M; Swindle, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Mediator release from activated mast cells is a major initiator of the symptomology associated with allergic disorders such as anaphylaxis and asthma. Thus, methods to monitor the generation and release of such mediators have widespread applicability in studies designed to understand the processes...... regulating mast cell activation and for the identification of therapeutic approaches to block mast cell-driven disease. In this chapter, we discuss approaches used for the determination of mast cell degranulation, lipid-derived inflammatory mediator production, and cytokine/chemokine gene expression as well...

  10. The Virtual Learning Commons: An Emerging Technology for Learning About Emerging Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, D. D.; Del Rio, N.; Fierro, C.; Gandara, A.; Garcia, A.; Garza, J.; Giandoni, M.; Ochoa, O.; Padilla, E.; Salamah, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Virtual Learning Commons (VLC), funded by the National Science Foundation Office of Cyberinfrastructure CI-Team Program, is a combination of semantic, visualization, and social media tools that support knowledge sharing and innovation across research disciplines. The explosion of new scientific tools and techniques challenges the ability of researchers to be aware of emerging technologies that might benefit them. Even when aware, it can be difficult to understand enough about emerging technologies to become potential adopters or re-users. Often, emerging technologies have little documentation, especially about the context of their use. The VLC tackles this challenge by providing mechanisms for individuals and groups of researchers to collectively organize Web resources through social bookmarking, and engage each other around those collections in order to a) learn about potentially relevant technologies that are emerging; and b) get feedback from other researchers on innovative ideas and designs. Concurrently, developers of emerging technologies can learn about potential users and the issues they encounter, and they can analyze the impact of their tools on other projects. The VLC aims to support the 'fuzzy front end' of innovation, where novel ideas emerge and there is the greatest potential for impact on research design. It is during the fuzzy front end that conceptual collisions across disciplines and exposure to diverse perspectives provide opportunity for creative thinking that can lead to inventive outcomes. This presentation will discuss the innovation theories that have informed design of the VLC, and hypotheses about the flow of information in virtual settings that can enable the process of innovation. The presentation will include a brief demonstration of key capabilities within the VLC that enable learning about emerging technologies, including the technologies that are presented in this session.

  11. MAST magnetic diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlington, T.; Martin, R.; Pinfold, T.

    2001-01-01

    The mega-ampere spherical tokamak (MAST) experiment is a new, large, low aspect ratio device (R=0.7-0.8 m, a=0.5-0.65 m, maximum BT˜0.63 T at R=0.7 m) operating its first experimental physics campaign. Designed to study a wide variety of plasma shapes with up to 2 MA of plasma current with an aspect ratio down to 1.3, the poloidal field (PF) coils used for plasma formation, equilibrium and shaping are inside the main vacuum vessel. For plasma control and to investigate a wide range of plasma phenomena, an extensive set of magnetic diagnostics have been installed inside the vacuum vessel. More than 600 vacuum compatible, bakeable diagnostic coils are configured in a number of discrete arrays close to the plasma edge with about half the coils installed behind the graphite armour tiles covering the center column. The coil arrays measure the toroidal and poloidal variation in the equilibrium field and its high frequency fluctuating components. Internal coils also measure currents in the PF coils, plasma current, stored energy and induced currents in the mechanical support structures of the coils and graphite armour tiles. The latter measurements are particularly important when halo currents are induced following a plasma termination, for example, when the plasma becomes vertically unstable. The article describes the MAST magnetic diagnostic coil set and their calibration. The way in which coil signals are used to control the plasma equilibrium is described and data from the first MAST experimental campaign presented. These coil data are used as input to the code EFIT [L. Lao et al., Nucl. Fusion 25, 1611 (1985)], for measurement of halo currents in the vacuum vessel structure and for measurements of the structure of magnetic field fluctuations near the plasma edge.

  12. Immune regulation by mast cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suurmond, Jolien

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this PhD thesis is to understand mast cell (and basophil) functions and their role in autoimmune disease by focusing on three main aims: 1. To characterize the interaction between innate and Fc receptor triggers on mast cell and basophil function 2. To analyze the interaction

  13. Mast cells, peptides and cardioprotection - an unlikely marriage?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, S K

    2012-01-31

    1 Mast cells have classically been regarded as the \\'bad guys\\' in the setting of acute myocardial ischaemia, where their released contents are believed to contribute both to tissue injury and electrical disturbances resulting from ischaemia. Recent evidence suggests, however, that if mast cell degranulation occurs in advance of ischaemia onset, this may be cardioprotective by virtue of the depletion of mast cell contents that can no longer act as instruments of injury when the tissue becomes ischaemic. 2 Many peptides, such as ET-1, adrenomedullin, relaxin and atrial natriuretic peptide, have been demonstrated to be cardioprotective when given prior to the onset of myocardial ischaemia, although their physiological functions are varied and the mechanisms of their cardioprotective actions appear to be diverse and often ill defined. However, one common denominator that is emerging is the ability of these peptides to modulate mast cell degranulation, raising the possibility that peptide-induced mast cell degranulation or stabilization may hold the key to a common mechanism of their cardioprotection. 3 The aim of this review was to consolidate the evidence implying that mast cell degranulation could play both a detrimental and protective role in myocardial ischaemia, depending upon when it occurs, and that this may underlie the cardioprotective effects of a range of diverse peptides that exerts physiological effects within the cardiovascular system.

  14. Most common misconceptions about informational communication technologies in education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pešikan Ana Ž.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to discuss analytically the use of informational communication technologies (ICT in education so that education system could have greater benefits from its carefully planned use. In this paper we tried to show the specificity of the relations between education and ICT. Many things in that relation are accepted for granted, often without much analyzing. We selected some of typical misconceptions which contribute to erroneous ideas about education and ICT relation resulting in limited opportunities for using up new technologies in education. When analyzing ICT in education there is no room for the question whether to use new technologies in the teaching/ learning process or not, but when, why and how to use them. In order to bring these decisions and use ICT potentials for educational purposes, thorough understanding of the nature of teaching and learning is necessary. Education should not be just a buyer or a prudent user of numerous ICT possibilities but it should carefully and thoughtfully transform the teaching/learning process in order equip future and nowadays citizens with skills necessary for living and working in the environment with significantly changed technology. Much more researching and theoretical work is needed in order to fully understand how ICT really influences the learning process and how to use that influence in order to enhance the quality of education.

  15. Commonalities in Educational Technology Policy Initiatives among Nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitz, James E.; Azbell, Janet

    While education systems from nation to nation differ significantly according to national character and local requirements, developments in public policy initiatives regarding the use of technology in schools have followed similar patterns among nations as diverse as the United States, Great Britain, Denmark, Italy, Viet Nam, Germany, France,…

  16. The Mast Cell, Contact, and Coagulation System Connection in Anaphylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar Guilarte

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Anaphylaxis is the most severe form of allergic reaction, resulting from the effect of mediators and chemotactic substances released by activated cells. Mast cells and basophils are considered key players in IgE-mediated human anaphylaxis. Beyond IgE-mediated activation of mast cells/basophils, further mechanisms are involved in the occurrence of anaphylaxis. New insights into the potential relevance of pathways other than mast cell and basophil degranulation have been unraveled, such as the activation of the contact and the coagulation systems. Mast cell heparin released upon activation provides negatively charged surfaces for factor XII (FXII binding and auto-activation. Activated FXII, the initiating serine protease in both the contact and the intrinsic coagulation system, activates factor XI and prekallikrein, respectively. FXII-mediated bradykinin (BK formation has been proven in the human plasma of anaphylactic patients as well as in experimental models of anaphylaxis. Moreover, the severity of anaphylaxis is correlated with the increase in plasma heparin, BK formation and the intensity of contact system activation. FXII also activates plasminogen in the fibrinolysis system. Mast cell tryptase has been shown to participate in fibrinolysis through plasmin activation and by facilitating the degradation of fibrinogen. Some usual clinical manifestations in anaphylaxis, such as angioedema or hypotension, or other less common, such as metrorrhagia, may be explained by the direct effect of the activation of the coagulation and contact system driven by mast cell mediators.

  17. Mast cells in viral infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Witczak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available  There are some premises suggesting that mast cells are involved in the mechanisms of anti-virus defense and in viral disease pathomechanisms. Mast cells are particularly numerous at the portals of infections and thus may have immediate and easy contact with the external environment and invading pathogens. These cells express receptors responsible for recognition of virus-derived PAMP molecules, mainly Toll-like receptors (TLR3, TLR7/8 and TLR9, but also RIG-I-like and NOD-like molecules. Furthermore, mast cells generate various mediators, cytokines and chemokines which modulate the intensity of inflammation and regulate the course of innate and adaptive anti-viral immunity. Indirect evidence for the role of mast cells in viral infections is also provided by clinical observations and results of animal studies. Currently, more and more data indicate that mast cells can be infected by some viruses (dengue virus, adenoviruses, hantaviruses, cytomegaloviruses, reoviruses, HIV-1 virus. It is also demonstrated that mast cells can release pre formed mediators as well as synthesize de novo eicosanoids in response to stimulation by viruses. Several data indicate that virus-stimulated mast cells secrete cytokines and chemokines, including interferons as well as chemokines with a key role in NK and Tc lymphocyte influx. Moreover, some information indicates that mast cell stimulation via TLR3, TLR7/8 and TLR9 can affect their adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins and chemotaxis, and influence expression of some membrane molecules. Critical analysis of current data leads to the conclusion that it is not yet possible to make definitive statements about the role of mast cells in innate and acquired defense mechanisms developing in the course of viral infection and/or pathomechanisms of viral diseases.

  18. Mast Cells: Key Contributors to Cardiac Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott P. Levick

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Historically, increased numbers of mast cells have been associated with fibrosis in numerous cardiac pathologies, implicating mast cells in the development of cardiac fibrosis. Subsequently, several approaches have been utilised to demonstrate a causal role for mast cells in animal models of cardiac fibrosis including mast cell stabilising compounds, rodents deficient in mast cells, and inhibition of the actions of mast cell-specific proteases such as chymase and tryptase. Whilst most evidence supports a pro-fibrotic role for mast cells, there is evidence that in some settings these cells can oppose fibrosis. A major gap in our current understanding of cardiac mast cell function is identification of the stimuli that activate these cells causing them to promote a pro-fibrotic environment. This review will present the evidence linking mast cells to cardiac fibrosis, as well as discuss the major questions that remain in understanding how mast cells contribute to cardiac fibrosis.

  19. Missile signal processing common computer architecture for rapid technology upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinkin, Daniel V.; Rutledge, Edward; Monticciolo, Paul

    2004-10-01

    Interceptor missiles process IR images to locate an intended target and guide the interceptor towards it. Signal processing requirements have increased as the sensor bandwidth increases and interceptors operate against more sophisticated targets. A typical interceptor signal processing chain is comprised of two parts. Front-end video processing operates on all pixels of the image and performs such operations as non-uniformity correction (NUC), image stabilization, frame integration and detection. Back-end target processing, which tracks and classifies targets detected in the image, performs such algorithms as Kalman tracking, spectral feature extraction and target discrimination. In the past, video processing was implemented using ASIC components or FPGAs because computation requirements exceeded the throughput of general-purpose processors. Target processing was performed using hybrid architectures that included ASICs, DSPs and general-purpose processors. The resulting systems tended to be function-specific, and required custom software development. They were developed using non-integrated toolsets and test equipment was developed along with the processor platform. The lifespan of a system utilizing the signal processing platform often spans decades, while the specialized nature of processor hardware and software makes it difficult and costly to upgrade. As a result, the signal processing systems often run on outdated technology, algorithms are difficult to update, and system effectiveness is impaired by the inability to rapidly respond to new threats. A new design approach is made possible three developments; Moore's Law - driven improvement in computational throughput; a newly introduced vector computing capability in general purpose processors; and a modern set of open interface software standards. Today's multiprocessor commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) platforms have sufficient throughput to support interceptor signal processing requirements. This application

  20. A global renewable mix with proven technologies and common materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballabrera, J.; Garcia-Olivares, A.; Garcia-Ladona, E.; Turiel, A.

    2012-04-01

    A global alternative mix to fossil fuels is proposed, based on proven renewable energy technologies that do not use scarce materials. Taking into account the availability of materials, the resulting mix consists of a combination of onshore and offshore wind turbines, concentrating solar power stations, hydroelectricity and wave power devices attached to the offshore turbines. Solar photovoltaic power could contribute to the mix if its dependence on scarce materials is solved. Material requirements are studied for the generation, power transport and for some future transport systems. The order of magnitude of copper, aluminium, neodymium, lithium, nickel, zinc and platinum that might be required for the proposed solution is obtained and compared with available reserves. While the proposed global alternative to fossil fuels seems technically feasible, lithium, nickel and platinum could become limiting materials for future vehicles fleet if no global recycling system were implemented and rechargeable zinc-air batteries could not be developed. As much as 60% of the current copper reserves would have to be employed in the implementation of the proposed solution. Altogether, the availability of materials may become a long-term physical constraint, preventing the continuation of the usual exponential growth of energy consumption.

  1. Are mast cells still good biomarkers for bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamper, Marianne; Regauer, Sigrid; Welter, JoEllen; Eberhard, Jakob; Viereck, Volker

    2015-06-01

    ESSIC identifies mast cell infiltrates of detrusor muscle as a diagnostic criterion for bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis. However, an increased mast cell count is also characteristic of overactive bladder syndrome. The lack of uniformity in mast cell detection methods hampers data comparison. Using state-of-the-art techniques we investigated whether mast cells differ among bladder conditions. We analyzed bladder biopsies from 56 patients, including 31 with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis with (12) or without (19) Hunner lesions, 13 with overactive bladder syndrome and 12 without bladder symptoms to determine the quantity, location, distribution and activation of mast cells using immunohistochemistry with anti-mast cell tryptase. Patients were allocated to study groups by key bladder symptoms commonly used to define conditions (pain and major urgency). Subepithelial mast cell localization (p interstitial cystitis with Hunner lesions. The optimal cutoff of 32 detrusor mast cells per mm(2) achieved only 68% accuracy with 38% positive predictive value. No difference was observed between bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis without Hunner lesions and overactive bladder syndrome. Patient groups differed in lymphocyte infiltration (p = 0.001), nodular lymphocyte aggregates (p interstitial cystitis with Hunner lesions. Detrusor mastocytosis had poor predictive value for bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis. Mast cell assessment did not distinguish bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis without Hunner lesions from overactive bladder syndrome. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Technology and intellectual property strategy of a firm: A view through the commons theory lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukundan Raghavan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Strategy theory positions technology as a crucial resource of private value creation while commons theory provides governance structures pertinent to resource utilisation. The widening disconnect in the approach towards leveraging a resource and its governance increases the pressure on intellectual property that links strategy and commons. We discern in this work the existence of an implicit relationship between strategy and commons. Based on a multidisciplinary study of strategy, commons, and intellectual property theories, we propose patent pools in the form of semicommons as a strategic appropriation mechanism that balances technology strategy, IP strategy and commons in the pursuit of value creation.

  3. e Ciências Afins (MAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Granato

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available MAST is a science and technology museum located in the grounds and architectural complex belonging to the former Observatório Nacional in Rio de Janeiro. This complex, concluded in 1921, comprises of 16 buildings, and was listed by the Artistic and Historic National (1986 and State (1987 Heritage. This complex features three pavilions sheltering the equatorial telescopes, typical examples of Architecture and Engineering buildings for Astronomic purposes. Two of these pavilions, all of which are under the care of MAST, shelter the 21 cm and 32 cm telescopes, plus a third, part of the National Observatory, which houses the 46 cm equatorial telescope. The present study is the result of the work undertaken by MAST to preserve and restore the historical buildings under its responsibility. Thanks to a partnership set up with the Vitae Foundation, it has been possible to develop restoration work covering all aspects of the pavilions (moving metal dome, building, scientific instrument, as well as the area’s museography, with a view to informing visitors about the restoration work undertaken. The project, based on the historical research on the complex, was carried out by a multidisciplinary team over two years. Each stage of the work was comprehensively photographed, including the intervention project design, which was based on architectural surveys and the diagnosis of the complex’s state of repair, plus the restoration per se. This is a groundbreaking initiative in Latin America and will serve as an example for future actions to be taken on historical buildings, especially those built for scientific and technological purposes.

  4. Cytoskeleton in Mast Cell Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dráber, Pavel; Sulimenko, Vadym; Dráberová, Eduarda

    2012-01-01

    Mast cell activation mediated by the high affinity receptor for IgE (FcεRI) is a key event in allergic response and inflammation. Other receptors on mast cells, as c-Kit for stem cell factor and G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) synergistically enhance the FcεRI-mediated release of inflammatory mediators. Activation of various signaling pathways in mast cells results in changes in cell morphology, adhesion to substrate, exocytosis, and migration. Reorganization of cytoskeleton is pivotal in all these processes. Cytoskeletal proteins also play an important role in initial stages of FcεRI and other surface receptors induced triggering. Highly dynamic microtubules formed by αβ-tubulin dimers as well as microfilaments build up from polymerized actin are affected in activated cells by kinases/phosphatases, Rho GTPases and changes in concentration of cytosolic Ca2+. Also important are nucleation proteins; the γ-tubulin complexes in case of microtubules or Arp 2/3 complex with its nucleation promoting factors and formins in case of microfilaments. The dynamic nature of microtubules and microfilaments in activated cells depends on many associated/regulatory proteins. Changes in rigidity of activated mast cells reflect changes in intermediate filaments build up from vimentin. This review offers a critical appraisal of current knowledge on the role of cytoskeleton in mast cells signaling. PMID:22654883

  5. The Role of Mast Cells in Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Nyeong Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is one of the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders, but its treatment is unsatisfactory as its pathophysiology is multifactorial. The putative factors of IBS pathophysiology are visceral hypersensitivity and intestinal dysmotility, also including psychological factors, dysregulated gut-brain axis, intestinal microbiota alterations, impaired intestinal permeability, and mucosal immune alterations. Recently, mucosal immune alterations have received much attention with the role of mast cells in IBS. Mast cells are abundant in the intestines and function as intestinal gatekeepers at the interface between the luminal environment in the intestine and the internal milieu under the intestinal epithelium. As a gatekeeper at the interface, mast cells communicate with the adjacent cells such as epithelial, neuronal, and other immune cells throughout the mediators released when they themselves are activated. Many studies have suggested that mast cells play a role in the pathophysiology of IBS. This review will focus on studies of the role of mast cell in IBS and the limitations of studies and will also consider future directions.

  6. Mast cells and histamine enhance the proliferation of non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanov, Evgeniy; Uddin, Mohib; Mankuta, David; Dubinett, Steven M; Levi-Schaffer, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common form of lung cancer with an extremely low survival rate. It is characterized by a chronic inflammatory process with intense mast cell infiltrate that is associated with reduced survival. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that mast cells have an enhancing effect on NSCLC proliferation. To assess the tumor-promoting potential of mast cells, we used the human alveolar basal adenocarcinoma (A549) and the mouse Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cell lines, umbilical cord blood-derived mast cells (CBMC) and the mast cell-deficient mouse Sash model. The proliferation rate of A549/LLC cells was markedly increased by mast cells and histamine. Histamine proliferating activity was mediated via H(1), H(2) and H(4) receptors and caused ERK phosphorylation. LLC induced in Sash mice or in wild-type mice treated with the mast cell stabilizer nedocromil sodium displayed an accelerated growth (number of metastic colonies in the lungs, total lung area and lung/total mice weight ratio). In summary, we have shown a significant effect of mast cells and histamine in enhancing NSCLC/LLCX growth in vitro, while in a mouse LLC model in vivo we have found that mast cells are important negative regulators of cancer development. Therefore our results would indicate a pro-tumorogenic effect of the mast cells in vitro on established lung tumor cell lines, and anti-tumorogenic effect in mice at lung cancer induction. In conclusion, mast cell/anti-histamine targeted therapies should carefully consider this dual effect. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Proof of concept for using unmanned aerial vehicles for high mast pole and bridge inspections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Bridges and high mast luminaires (HMLs) are key components of transportation infrastructures. Effective inspection : processes are crucial to maintain the structural integrity of these components. The most common approach for : inspections is visual ...

  8. MAST Upgrade – Construction Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milnes, Joe, E-mail: Joe.Milnes@ccfe.ac.uk; Ayed, Nizar Ben; Dhalla, Fahim; Fishpool, Geoff; Hill, John; Katramados, Ioannis; Martin, Richard; Naylor, Graham; O’Gorman, Tom; Scannell, Rory

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Outlines unique capability of MAST-U, including divertor and diagnostic capability. • Describes progress made in the manufacture and assembly of key MAST-U components. • Highlights the design challenges that have been overcome. • Lists the key lessons learned thus far in the project. - Abstract: The Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST) is the centre piece of the UK fusion research programme. In 2010, a MAST Upgrade programme was initiated with three primary objectives, to contribute to: (1) testing reactor concepts (in particular exhaust solutions via a flexible divertor allowing Super-X and other extended leg configurations); (2) adding to the knowledge base for ITER (by addressing important plasma physics questions and developing predictive models to help optimise ITER performance of ITER) and (3) exploring the feasibility of using a spherical tokamak as the basis for a fusion Component Test Facility. With the project mid-way through its construction phase, progress will be reported on a number of the critical subsystems. This will include manufacture and assembly of the coils, armour and support structures that make up the new divertors, construction of the new set coils that make up the centre column, installation of the new power supplies for powering the divertor coils and enhanced TF coil set, progress in delivering the upgraded diagnostic capability, the modification and upgrading of the NBI heating systems and the complete overhaul of the machine control infrastructure, including a new control room with full remote participation facilities.

  9. Emerging Technologies: The Technological Imperative in Teaching and Learning Less Commonly Taught Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin-Jones, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Anyone in the United States who wants to learn Spanish can easily find local instructional options. Opportunities abound as well for maintaining one's Spanish: all-Spanish television stations, widely distributed print media, and an abundance of native speakers. Learning opportunities and resources for other commonly taught languages (CTL) such as…

  10. Comparative immunohistochemical study of the presence of mast cells in apical granulomas and periapical cysts: possible role of mast cells in the course of human periapical lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Rodini, Camila; Batista, Aline Carvalho; Lara, Vanessa Soares

    2004-01-01

    Cells other than macrophages and lymphocytes have recently been shown capable of producing cytokines and mediators. Among these are mast cells, a cell population now recognized for its immunoregulatory properties. Little is known about the complex interactions between cells, cytokines, and other inflammatory elements in periapical lesions. The objective of this investigation was to determine the immunohistochemical pattern of expression of mast cells tryptase in periapical lesions based on study of 20 apical granulomas and 20 periapical cysts. Microscopic analysis revealed mast cells to be present in greater numbers in periapical cysts than in apical granulomas, and in cysts were more numerous in regions of active inflammation. Mast cells tended to be more common in the peripheral regions of both periapical lesions, and were often found in close proximity to lymphocytes. These findings lead us to propose a functional relationship between these two cell populations that may facilitate elicitation of an immune response contributory to the pathogenesis of periapical lesions.

  11. Zipper mast for enhanced communications and surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, George; Muench, Paul; Witus, Gary

    2011-05-01

    In this project, we further developed and tested a "ZipperMast" for small robots and legacy manned vehicles. The ZipperMast knits three coiled bands of spring steel together to form a rigid mast. As the mast is extended, it draws up a cable connecting the host platform to the payload, typically antennas and sensors. Elevating the payload improves line of sight, and thus improves radio communication and surveillance situation awareness. When the mast is retracted, the interior cable slides into a horizontal tray. The ZipperMast is a scaleable design. We have made systems that elevate to 8 and 20 feet. The 8 foot ZipperMast collapses to less that 8 inches high and 8 inches wide. The 20 foot ZipperMast collapses to less that 12 inches high and 18 inches wide. In this paper we report on tests of the mechanical properties of the mast, specifically the strength and stiffness under quasi-static and impulsive loading. These properties are important for specifying constraints on height as a function of speed and payload and on speed as a function of height and payload in order to ensure that the mast will not fail in the event of sudden stop, as in the event of a collision.

  12. Mast cell-deficient kit mice develop house dust mite-induced lung inflammation despite impaired eosinophil recruitment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, J. Daan; Yang, Jack; van den Boogaard, Florry E.; Hoogendijk, Arie J.; de Beer, Regina; van der Zee, Jaring S.; Roelofs, Joris J. T. H.; van 't Veer, Cornelis; de Vos, Alex F.; van der Poll, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Mast cells are implicated in allergic and innate immune responses in asthma, although their role in models using an allergen relevant for human disease is incompletely understood. House dust mite (HDM) allergy is common in asthma patients. Our aim was to investigate the role of mast cells in

  13. Genome-Wide Association Study of Golden Retrievers Identifies Germ-Line Risk Factors Predisposing to Mast Cell Tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arendt, Maja L; Melin, Malin; Tonomura, Noriko; Koltookian, Michele; Courtay-Cahen, Celine; Flindall, Netty; Bass, Joyce; Boerkamp, Kim|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313929149; Megquir, Katherine; Youell, Lisa; Murphy, Sue; McCarthy, Colleen; London, Cheryl; Rutteman, Gerard R|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074076663; Starkey, Mike; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    Canine mast cell tumours (CMCT) are one of the most common skin tumours in dogs with a major impact on canine health. Certain breeds have a higher risk of developing mast cell tumours, suggesting that underlying predisposing germ-line genetic factors play a role in the development of this disease.

  14. Definition of common support equipment and space station interface requirements for IOC model technology experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Richard A.; Waiss, Richard D.

    1988-01-01

    A study was conducted to identify the common support equipment and Space Station interface requirements for the IOC (initial operating capabilities) model technology experiments. In particular, each principal investigator for the proposed model technology experiment was contacted and visited for technical understanding and support for the generation of the detailed technical backup data required for completion of this study. Based on the data generated, a strong case can be made for a dedicated technology experiment command and control work station consisting of a command keyboard, cathode ray tube, data processing and storage, and an alert/annunciator panel located in the pressurized laboratory.

  15. Cytoskeleton in mast cell signaling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dráber, Pavel; Sulimenko, Vadym; Dráberová, Eduarda

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 3, May (2012), s. 130 ISSN 1664-3224 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP302/10/1701; GA ČR GPP302/11/P709; GA ČR GAP302/12/1673 Grant - others:ECST(XE) Action BM1007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : cytoskeleton * mast cell activation * signal transduction Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  16. Opportunity from Crisis: A Common Agenda for Higher Education and Science, Technology and Innovation Policy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Merle; Hellström, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    This paper makes a plea for the construction of a common agenda for higher education and science, technology and innovation (STI) policy research. The public higher education and research sector in all countries is currently in the grip of several challenges arising from increased accountability, internationalization and in some cases dwindling…

  17. The need for a common standard for voltage levels of HVDC VSC technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Müller, H.K.; Torbaghan, S. Shariat; Gibescu, M.; Roggenkamp, M.M.; Meijden, M.A.M.M. van der

    2013-01-01

    The expansion of offshore wind energy as well as the increase in electricity trade between the North Sea countries leads to a growing need for additional transmission capacity. Due to the predominantly remote locations of offshore wind farms, the majority of future connections will be high-voltage direct current (HVDC) connections. In order to make the construction of offshore infrastructure more efficient, the North Sea states are currently discussing the development of a common offshore grid. Although this development still stands at the very beginning, we argue in this paper that some crucial elements should be standardized from the outset; the most important one being a common voltage level. Without such standardization, the development of a European offshore grid may be suboptimal, not cost-efficient and might even be prevented from coming into existence. We examine the technical and legal issues associated with introducing a common voltage level for the use of HVDC VSC technology, and discuss the optimal standard as well as the way in which this common standard can best be achieved. - Highlights: • We highlight the need for a common standard for HVDC VSC technology. • We outline that a standardized voltage level at ± 500 kV should be the initial focus. • We discuss the developments regarding standardization of HVDC VSC technology. • We conclude that current developments are not sufficient

  18. Vibrational Based Inspection Of A Steel Mast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Rytter, A.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the results from a research project concerning vibrational based inspection of a 20 meter high steel mast containing well defined damages. Introductory analyses dealing with among other things evaluation of potential damage indicators and determination of accep...... of acceptable damage levels are described. The modal parameters of the mast are determined by using ARMA-models on signals from wind induced response of the mast. Two different damage detection methods are tested, evaluated and compared....

  19. Mast cells in chronic inflammation, pelvic pain and depression in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziottin, Alessandra; Skaper, Stephen D; Fusco, Mariella

    2014-07-01

    Inflammatory and neuroinflammatory processes are increasingly recognized as critical pathophysiologic steps in the development of multiple chronic diseases and in the etiology of persistent pain and depression. Mast cells are immune cells now viewed as cellular sensors in inflammation and immunity. When stimulated, mast cells release an array of mediators to orchestrate an inflammatory response. These mediators can directly initiate tissue responses on resident cells, and may also regulate the activity of other immune cells, including central microglia. New evidence supports the involvement of peripheral and central mast cells in the development of pain processes as well as in the transition from acute, to chronic and neuropathic pain. That behavioral and endocrine states can increase the number and activation of peripheral and brain mast cells suggests that mast cells represent the immune cells that peripherally and centrally coordinate inflammatory processes in neuropsychiatric diseases such as depression and anxiety which are associated with chronic pelvic pain. Given that increasing evidence supports the activated mast cell as a director of common inflammatory pathways/mechanisms contributing to chronic and neuropathic pelvic pain and comorbid neuropsychiatric diseases, mast cells may be considered a viable target for the multifactorial management of both pain and depression.

  20. Any Defining Role of Mast Cell or Mast Cell Density in Oral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Any Defining Role of Mast Cell or. Mast Cell Density in. Oral Squamous Cell. Carcinoma? Dear Sir,. I read an article by Zaidi et al. titled to “A study on assessment of mast cell (MCs) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC)” with great interest.[1] We are concerned about their meandering conclusion presuming close ...

  1. Multi-Axial Simulation Table (MAST)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The MAST delivers an extensive array of testing applications providing rapid, flexible and reliable analysis for ground vehicle components and subassemblies. Using...

  2. Measuring originality: common patterns of invention in research and technology organizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, D.L.; Wiseman, E.; Keating, T.; Archambeault, J.

    2016-07-01

    The National Research Council of Canada (NRC) co-chairs an international working group on performance benchmarking and impact assessment of Research and Technology Organizations (RTO). The Knowledge Management branch of the NRC conducted the patent analysis portion of the benchmarking study. In this paper, we present a Weighted Originality index that can more accurately measure the spread of technological combinations in terms of hierarchical patent classifications. Using this patent indicator, we revealed a common pattern of distribution of invention originality in RTOs. Our work contributes to the methodological advancement of patent measures for the scientometric community. (Author)

  3. TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT TO ELABORATE COMMON WHITE WINE IN MISIONES, WITH ECONOMIC EVALUATION AT INDUSTRIAL SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miño Valdés, Juan Esteban

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to develop a sustainable technology on an industrial scale to produce common white wine with non viniferous grapes cultivated in Misiones. This technological project was initiated at a laboratory scale, continued in the pilot plant and industrial-scale project. It was considered as a productive unit to 12 rural families with 27 hectares of vines each. The 8 stages followed with inductive and deductive methodology were: The development of dry white wine at laboratory scale. The evaluation of process variables in the vivification. The mathematical modeling of the alcoholic fermentation in oenological conditions. The valuation of the aptitude of wines for human consumption. The establishment of a technological procedure for wine in the pilot plant. The evaluation of the pilot plant in technological procedure established. The calculation and selection of industrial equipment. The estimate of the costs and profitability of industrial technological process. It reached a technology for a production capacity of 5,834 L day-1, with dynamic economic indicators whose values were: net present value of 6,602,666 U$D, an internal rate of return of 60 % for a period of recovery of investment to net present value of 3 years.

  4. Genetic diversity and selection of common bean lines based on technological quality and biofortification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckling, S de M; Ribeiro, N D; Arns, F D; Mezzomo, H C; Possobom, M T D F

    2017-03-22

    The development of common bean cultivars with high technological quality that are biofortified with minerals, is required to meet the demand for food with health benefits. The objectives of this study were to evaluate whether common bean genotypes differ in terms of technological and mineral biofortification traits, to study the correlations between these characters, to analyze the genetic dissimilarity of common bean genotypes, and to select superior lines for these traits. For this, 14 common bean genotypes were evaluated in experiments conducted in three growing seasons in the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. A significant genotype x environment interaction was observed for technological quality (mass of 100 grains and cooking time) and biofortification traits (concentration of potassium, phosphorus, calcium, iron, zinc, and copper). Positive correlation estimates were obtained between phosphorus and potassium (r = 0.575), iron and zinc (r = 0.641), copper and iron (r = 0.729), and copper and phosphorus (r = 0.533). In the main component cluster analysis, four groups of genotypes were formed. The following lines are recommended for selection: LP 11-363 for fast-cooking, CNFC 11 948 for high iron concentration, and LEC 03-14 for high potassium, phosphorus, and calcium concentrations in grains. Common bean lines with high phosphorus and iron concentrations in grains can be indirectly selected based on higher potassium, copper, and zinc concentrations. Controlled crossings between LP 11-363 x CNFC 11 948 and LP 11-363 x LEC 03-14 are recommended to obtain segregating lines that are fast-cooking and biofortified with minerals.

  5. Comparison Study of Three Common Technologies for Freezing-Thawing Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinbao Yu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a comparison study on three different technologies (i.e., thermocouple, electrical resistivity probe and Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR that are commonly used for frost measurement. Specially, the paper developed an analyses procedure to estimate the freezing-thawing status based on the dielectric properties of freezing soil. Experiments were conducted where the data of temperature, electrical resistivity, and dielectric constant were simultaneously monitored during the freezing/thawing process. The comparison uncovered the advantages and limitations of these technologies for frost measurement. The experimental results indicated that TDR measured soil dielectric constant clearly indicates the different stages of the freezing/thawing process. Analyses method was developed to determine not only the onset of freezing or thawing, but also the extent of their development. This is a major advantage of TDR over other technologies.

  6. Mast cell distribution in normal adult skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.S. Janssens (Artiena Soe); R. Heide (Rogier); J.C. den Hollander (Jan); P.G.M. Mulder (P. G M); B. Tank (Bhupendra); A.P. Oranje (Arnold)

    2005-01-01

    markdownabstract__AIMS:__ To investigate mast cell distribution in normal adult skin to provide a reference range for comparison with mastocytosis. __METHODS:__ Mast cells (MCs) were counted in uninvolved skin adjacent to basal cell carcinomas and other dermatological disorders in adults.

  7. Vibration Measurements on the Frejlev Mast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Hansen, Lars Pilegaard

    The present report presents full-scale measurements on the Frejlev-mast which is a 200 meter hight guyed steel mast located 10 km. from Aalborg. The goal of the research was to investigate various techniques which could be used to estimate cable forces from vibration measurements. The cables...

  8. Mast Cell Quantification in Orofacial Granulomatosis | Nwizu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study points to a possible association between mast cells and orofacial granulomatosis, as oedematous area usually associated with OFG showed less numbers of mast cells. This is probably due to degranulation, releasing mediators of inflammation, which is responsible for oedema formation. Further light needs to be ...

  9. Mast cells in neuroinflammation and brain disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, Erik; van Bergeijk, Doris; Oosting, Ronald S; Redegeld, Frank A

    2017-01-01

    It is well recognized that neuroinflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative diseases. Microglia and astrocytes are major pathogenic components within this process and known to respond to proinflammatory mediators released from immune cells such as mast cells. Mast cells

  10. Mast cells in lung of rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ivanova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a short review of scientific literature on lung mast cells in norm and pathology that shows the current state of this problem. Particular attention is paid to the quantity, location and arrangement of the mast cells. The mast cells are a part of immune system whom origin are myeloid stem cells. They are a kind of white blood cells. Many authors from the 19th century to the present day have traced and described the role of mast cells in the human body, their structure and changes depending on the functional state of the organism. Paul Ehrlich is the first author that described in his doctoral thesis the mast cells as effectors of allergy particularly in the beginning of reaction and in acute phase of the process. Research has continued through out the 20th century and researchers' efforts are primarily focused on clarifying the structure and function of mast cells and identifying their role in pathological responses in the human body. Mast cells are found in all organs, but they predominate in peripheral blood, spleen and bone marrow. There are cells in the rat skin that live for about 12 weeks, and more recent studies have found that proliferation of mature mast cells is caused by various factors.

  11. Mast Cell Leukemia: Review of a Rare Disease and Case Report of Prolonged Survival after Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Bauer, MD, PhD

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Mast cell leukemia is a rare and aggressive form of mastocytosis characterized by >20% mast cells found in the bone marrow aspirates of patients with signs of systemic mastocytosis-related organ damage. The prognosis for patients with mast cell leukemia is extremely poor, with resistance to both cytoreductive therapies and tyrosine kinase inhibitors being relatively common. While allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been associated with long-term survival in patients with advanced systemic mastocytosis, reports regarding its effectiveness in mast cell leukemia are limited to fewer than 20 cases described in the literature. Here, we report a patient with mast cell leukemia who remains in complete remission 24 months after allogeneic HSCT at the time of this writing, and briefly review the clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic approaches to this rare disease.

  12. Mast fruiting is a frequent strategy in woody species of eastern South America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Norden

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is thought that mast seeding is a rare reproductive strategy in the tropics, since tropical climates are less variable, and fruit consumers tend to be more generalist in these regions. However, previous tests of this hypothesis were based on only few tropical datasets, and none from tropical South America. Moreover, reproductive strategies have been quantified based on the coefficient of variation of interannual seed production, an index that potentially confounds masting and high interannual variability in seed production. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We developed a new approach to model the monthly variability in seed production for 28 tree species, and 20 liana species monitored during 5 years in a tropical forest of Central French Guiana. We found that 23% of the species showed a masting pattern, 54% an annual fruiting pattern, and 23% an irregular fruiting pattern. The majority of masting species were trees (8 out of 11, most of them animal-dispersed. The classification into reproductive strategies based on the coefficient of variation was inconsistent with our results in nearly half of the cases. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study is the first to clearly evidence the frequency of the masting strategy in a tropical forest community of Eastern South America. The commonness of the masting strategy in tropical plants may promote species coexistence through storage dynamics.

  13. Asthma: Eosinophil Disease, Mast Cell Disease, or Both?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradding Peter

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Although there is much circumstantial evidence implicating eosinophils as major orchestrators in the pathophysiology of asthma, recent studies have cast doubt on their importance. Not only does anti-interleukin-5 treatment not alter the course of the disease, but some patients with asthma do not have eosinophils in their airways, whereas patients with eosinophilic bronchitis exhibit a florid tissue eosinophilia but do not have asthma. In contrast, mast cells are found in all airways and localize specifically to key tissue structures such as the submucosal glands and airway smooth muscle within asthmatic bronchi, irrespective of disease severity or phenotype. Here they are activated and interact exclusively with these structural cells via adhesive pathways and through the release of soluble mediators acting across the distance of only a few microns. The location of mast cells within the airway smooth muscle bundles seems particularly important for the development and propagation of asthma, perhaps occurring in response to, and then serving to aggravate, an underlying abnormality in asthmatic airway smooth muscle function. Targeting this mast cell-airway smooth muscle interaction in asthma offers exciting prospects for the treatment of this common disease.

  14. A comparative study on the mast cells count in oral squamous cell carcinoma and normal oral mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Dastpak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC is one of the 10 most common malignant tumors and SCC accounts 94% of all oral malignancies. Mast cells are regarded as complex and multifunctional cells, playing a significant role in immunopathology . The aim of this study is to evaluate the number of mast cells in tissue sections of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC in comparison with normal mucosa. Materials & Methods: Sixty paraffin-embedded specimens were obtained from the archives of the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology,dental school of Babol university of medical science (15 high grade,15 low grade and 30 Iritation Fibroma. Classification of OSCC cases was according to the BRODER`S malignancy grading system. Hematoxylin and Eosin-stained slides were re-evaluated before entering the samples in our study. Toluidine blue(1% staining was used to identify Mast cells in samples . We used SPSS software version 18 and one way ANOVA test for analyzing data. Results: The highest mast cell count was seen in normal tissue and it was higher in low grade OSCC in comparison with high grade, but the differences between groups weren’t statistically significant. The Mean count of mast cell between OSCC and normal oral mucosa was statistically significant different(p=0.019.We didn’t observe any statistically significant difference between Mast cell counts of control group and low grade OSCC . The same result was seen between high garde and low grade OSCC . The Mean mast cell count difference between male and female groups weren’t statistically significant. The Mean mast cell count difference between high grade OSCC and control group was significant (p<0.05. Conclusion: According to the results, the average amount of mast cells decreased in OSCC in comparison with normal oral mucosa . It does not seem that mast cells play an important role in tumor progression, although further study is needed. 

  15. Histamine Release from Mast Cells and Basophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borriello, Francesco; Iannone, Raffaella; Marone, Gianni

    2017-01-01

    Mast cells and basophils represent the most relevant source of histamine in the immune system. Histamine is stored in cytoplasmic granules along with other amines (e.g., serotonin), proteases, proteoglycans, cytokines/chemokines, and angiogenic factors and rapidly released upon triggering with a variety of stimuli. Moreover, mast cell and basophil histamine release is regulated by several activating and inhibitory receptors. The engagement of different receptors can trigger different modalities of histamine release and degranulation. Histamine released from mast cells and basophils exerts its biological activities by activating four G protein-coupled receptors, namely H1R, H2R, H3R (expressed mainly in the brain), and the recently identified H4R. While H1R and H2R activation accounts mainly for some mast cell- and basophil-mediated allergic disorders, the selective expression of H4R on immune cells is uncovering new roles for histamine (possibly derived from mast cells and basophils) in allergic, inflammatory, and autoimmune disorders. Thus, the in-depth knowledge of mast cell and basophil histamine release and its biologic effects is poised to uncover new therapeutic avenues for a wide spectrum of disorders.

  16. Overview of physics results from MAST towards ITER/DEMO and the MAST Upgrade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, H.; Abel, I.G.; Akers, R.J.

    2013-01-01

    New diagnostic, modelling and plant capability on the Mega Ampère Spherical Tokamak (MAST) have delivered important results in key areas for ITER/DEMO and the upcoming MAST Upgrade, a step towards future ST devices on the path to fusion currently under procurement. Micro-stability analysis of the...

  17. Overview of physics results from MAST towards ITER/DEMO and the MAST Upgrade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, H.; Abel, I. G.; Akers, R. J.; Allan, A.; Allan, S. Y.; Appel, L. C.; Asunta, O.; Barnes, M.; Barratt, N. C.; N. Ben Ayed,; Bradley, J. W.; Canik, J.; Cahyna, P.; Cecconello, M.; Challis, C. D.; Chapman, I.T.; Ciric, D.; Colyer, G.; Conway, N. J.; Cox, M.; Crowley, B. J.; Cowley, S. C.; Cunningham, G.; Danilov, A.; Darke, A.; de Bock, M. F. M.; De Temmerman, G.; Dendy, R. O.; Denner, P.; Dickinson, D.; Dnestrovskij, A. Y.; Dnestrovsky, Y.; Driscoll, M. D.; Dudson, B.; Dunai, D.; Dunstan, M.; Dura, P.; Elmore, S.; Field, A. R.; Fishpool, G.; Freethy, S.; Fundamenski, W.; Garzotti, L.; Ghim, Y. C.; Gibson, K. J.; Gryaznevich, M. P.; Harrison, J.; E. Havlíčková,; Hawkes, N. C.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Hender, T. C.; Highcock, E.; Higgins, D.; Hill, P.; Hnat, B.; Hole, M. J.; J. Horáček,; Howell, D. F.; Imada, K.; Jones, O.; Kaveeva, E.; Keeling, D.; Kirk, A.; M. Kočan,; Lake, R. J.; Lehnen, M.; Leggate, H. J.; Liang, Y.; Lilley, M. K.; Lisgo, S. W.; Liu, Y. Q.; Lloyd, B.; Maddison, G. P.; J. Mailloux,; Martin, R.; McArdle, G. J.; McClements, K. G.; McMillan, B.; Michael, C.; Militello, F.; Molchanov, P.; Mordijck, S.; Morgan, T.; Morris, A. W.; Muir, D. G.; Nardon, E.; Naulin, V.; Naylor, G.; Nielsen, A. H.; O' Brien, M. R.; O' Gorman, T.; Pamela, S.; Parra, F. I.; Patel, A.; Pinches, S. D.; Price, M. N.; Roach, C. M.; Robinson, J. R.; Romanelli, M.; Rozhansky, V.; Saarelma, S.; Sangaroon, S.; Saveliev, A.; Scannell, R.; Seidl, J.; Sharapov, S. E.; Schekochihin, A. A.; Shevchenko, V.; Shibaev, S.; Stork, D.; Storrs, J.; Sykes, A.; Tallents, G. J.; Tamain, P.; Taylor, D.; Temple, D.; Thomas-Davies, N.; Thornton, A.; Turnyanskiy, M. R.; M. Valovič,; Vann, R. G. L.; Verwichte, E.; Voskoboynikov, P.; Voss, G.; Warder, S. E. V.; Wilson, H. R.; Wodniak, I.; Zoletnik, S.; Zagorski, R.; MAST Team,; NBI Team,

    2013-01-01

    New diagnostic, modelling and plant capability on the Mega Ampère Spherical Tokamak (MAST) have delivered important results in key areas for ITER/DEMO and the upcoming MAST Upgrade, a step towards future ST devices on the path to fusion currently under procurement. Micro-stability analysis of the

  18. Cavitation processes as a preparation technology basis for burning of common and alternative energy fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormilitsyn, V. I.; Ganiev, S. R.; Shmyrkov, O. V.

    2017-11-01

    The present work contains the results of an experimental research of the flow characteristics and the mechanism occurring in flat passages during liquid flow around of various figures and by formation of the enhanced turbulence stream at the input aimed at improvement of fuel preparation for combustion. Below are implementation ways of non-linear wave mechanics effects and border layer turbulence intensification for formation of finely dispersed emulsions and components of liquid compounds that are non-soluble in each other providing for improvement of technological processes of common and alternative energy fuels preparation for combustion. It is shown that effects of acquiring finely dispersed fuel-water emulsions (high quality energy fuel based on either common or alternative products) are achieved at flow of liquids in shaped passages in a wide range of Re numbers with high pressure falls in a generator with different cavitation booster figures and various arrangement with topping area containing holes in front of cavity zones formation area.

  19. Mast Cell Activation Disease and Microbiotic Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrin, Lawrence B; Khoruts, Alexander

    2015-05-01

    This article reviews the diagnostically challenging presentation of mast cell activation disease (MCAD) and current thoughts regarding interactions between microbiota and MCs. A search for all studies on interactions between mast cells, mast cell activation disease, and microbiota published on pubmed.gov and scholar.google.com between 1960 and 2015 was conducted using the search terms mast cell, mastocyte, mastocytosis, mast cell activation, mast cell activation disease, mast cell activation syndrome, microbiome, microbiota. A manual review of the references from identified studies was also conducted. Studies were excluded if they were not accessible electronically or by interlibrary loan. Research increasingly is revealing essential involvement of MCs in normal human biology and in human disease. Via many methods, normal MCs-present sparsely in every tissue-sense their environment and reactively exert influences that, directly and indirectly, locally and remotely, improve health. The dysfunctional MCs of the "iceberg" of MCAD, on the other hand, sense abnormally, react abnormally, activate constitutively, and sometimes (in mastocytosis, the "tip" of the MCAD iceberg) even proliferate neoplastically. MCAD causes chronic multisystem illness generally, but not necessarily, of an inflammatory ± allergic theme and with great variability in behavior among patients and within any patient over time. Furthermore, the range of signals to which MCs respond and react include signals from the body's microbiota, and regardless of whether an MCAD patient has clonal mastocytosis or the bulk of the iceberg now known as MC activation syndrome (also suspected to be clonal but without significant MC proliferation), dysfunctional MCs interact as dysfunctionally with those microbiota as they interact with other human tissues, potentially leading to many adverse consequences. Interactions between microbiota and MCs are complex at baseline. The potential for both pathology and benefit

  20. Nerve growth factor interactions with mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritas, S K; Caraffa, A; Antinolfi, P; Saggini, A; Pantalone, A; Rosati, M; Tei, M; Speziali, A; Saggini, R; Pandolfi, F; Cerulli, G; Conti, P

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptides are involved in neurogenic inflammation where there is vasodilation and plasma protein extravasion in response to this stimulus. Nerve growth factor (NGF), identified by Rita Levi Montalcini, is a neurotrophin family compound which is important for survival of nociceptive neurons during their development. Therefore, NGF is an important neuropeptide which mediates the development and functions of the central and peripheral nervous system. It also exerts its proinflammatory action, not only on mast cells but also in B and T cells, neutrophils and eosinophils. Human mast cells can be activated by neuropeptides to release potent mediators of inflammation, and they are found throughout the body, especially near blood vessels, epithelial tissue and nerves. Mast cells generate and release NGF after degranulation and they are involved in iperalgesia, neuroimmune interactions and tissue inflammation. NGF is also a potent degranulation factor for mast cells in vitro and in vivo, promoting differentiation and maturation of these cells and their precursor, acting as a co-factor with interleukin-3. In conclusion, these studies are focused on cross-talk between neuropeptide NGF and inflammatory mast cells.

  1. n-Butyrate inhibits Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase activation and cytokine transcription in mast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diakos, Christos; Prieschl, Eva E.; Saeemann, Marcus D.; Boehmig, Georg A.; Csonga, Robert; Sobanov, Yury; Baumruker, Thomas; Zlabinger, Gerhard J.

    2006-01-01

    Mast cells are well known to contribute to type I allergic conditions but only recently have been brought in association with chronic relapsing/remitting autoimmune diseases such as celiac disease and ulcerative colitis. Since the bacterial metabolite n-butyrate is considered to counteract intestinal inflammation we investigated the effects of this short chain fatty acid on mast cell activation. Using RNAse protection assays and reporter gene technology we show that n-butyrate downregulates TNF-α transcription. This correlates with an impaired activation of the Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) but not other MAP kinases such as ERK and p38 that are largely unaffected by n-butyrate. As a consequence, we observed a decreased nuclear activity of AP-1 and NF-AT transcription factors. These results indicate that n-butyrate inhibits critical inflammatory mediators in mast cells by relatively selectively targeting the JNK signalling

  2. n-Butyrate inhibits Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase activation and cytokine transcription in mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diakos, Christos; Prieschl, Eva E; Säemann, Marcus D; Böhmig, Georg A; Csonga, Robert; Sobanov, Yury; Baumruker, Thomas; Zlabinger, Gerhard J

    2006-10-20

    Mast cells are well known to contribute to type I allergic conditions but only recently have been brought in association with chronic relapsing/remitting autoimmune diseases such as celiac disease and ulcerative colitis. Since the bacterial metabolite n-butyrate is considered to counteract intestinal inflammation we investigated the effects of this short chain fatty acid on mast cell activation. Using RNAse protection assays and reporter gene technology we show that n-butyrate downregulates TNF-alpha transcription. This correlates with an impaired activation of the Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) but not other MAP kinases such as ERK and p38 that are largely unaffected by n-butyrate. As a consequence, we observed a decreased nuclear activity of AP-1 and NF-AT transcription factors. These results indicate that n-butyrate inhibits critical inflammatory mediators in mast cells by relatively selectively targeting the JNK signalling.

  3. CD117 immunoexpression in canine mast cell tumours: correlations with pathological variables and proliferation markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pires Maria A

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cutaneous mast cell tumours are one of the most common neoplasms in dogs and show a highly variable biologic behaviour. Several prognosis tools have been proposed for canine mast cell tumours, including histological grading and cell proliferation markers. CD117 is a receptor tyrosine kinase thought to play a key role in human and canine mast cell neoplasms. Normal (membrane-associated and aberrant (cytoplasmic, focal or diffuse CD117 immunoexpression patterns have been identified in canine mast cell tumours. Cytoplasmic CD117 expression has been found to correlate with higher histological grade and with a worsened post-surgical prognosis. This study addresses the role of CD117 in canine mast cell tumours by studying the correlations between CD117 immunoexpression patterns, two proliferation markers (Ki67 and AgNORs histological grade, and several other pathological variables. Results Highly significant (p Conclusion These findings highlight the key role of CD117 in the biopathology of canine MCTs and confirm the relationship between aberrant CD117 expression and increased cell proliferation and higher histological grade. Further studies are needed to unravel the cellular mechanisms underlying focal and diffuse cytoplasmic CD117 staining patterns, and their respective biopathologic relevance.

  4. Mast cell adenosine receptors function: a focus on the A3 adenosine receptor and inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noam eRudich

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Adenosine is a metabolite, which has long been implicated in a variety of inflammatory processes. Inhaled adenosine provokes bronchoconstriction in asthmatics or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients, but not in non-asthmatics. This hyper responsiveness to adenosine appears to be mediated by mast cell activation. These observations have marked the receptor that mediates the bronchoconstrictor effect of adenosine on mast cells, as an attractive drug candidate. Four subtypes (A1, A2a, A2b and A3 of adenosine receptors have been cloned and shown to display distinct tissue distributions and functions. Animal models have firmly established the ultimate role of the A3 adenosine receptor (A3R in mediating hyper responsiveness to adenosine in mast cells, although the influence of the A2b adenosine receptor was confirmed as well. In contrast, studies of the A3R in humans have been controversial. In this review, we summarize data on the role of different adenosine receptors in mast cell regulation of inflammation and pathology, with a focus on the common and distinct functions of the A3R in rodent and human mast cells. The relevance of mouse studies to the human is discussed.

  5. Television alignment of mast assembly in refueling of nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, J.W.; Swidwa, K.J.; Hornak, L.P.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes the refueling of a nuclear reactor having component assemblies of at least one type and being disposed in a pit in a containment under water, the refueling being carried out with a mast movable axially and circumferentially for raising and lowering the component assemblies, a mechanism, connected to an end of the mast, cooperative with the mast, for engaging a component assembly to be raised by the mast, a television camera, and a television monitor having an image-reference indication, the mechanism being connected to the mast movable with the mast; the method of positioning the mechanism to engage the component assembly appropriately for raising and lowering. It comprises: mounting the camera on the mechanism movable therewith, suspending the mast in the water of the pit with the mechanism extending from the end of the mast in the pit in position to engage the component assembly

  6. The emerging role of mast cells in liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarido, Veronica; Kennedy, Lindsey; Hargrove, Laura; Demieville, Jennifer; Thomson, Joanne; Stephenson, Kristen; Francis, Heather

    2017-08-01

    The depth of our knowledge regarding mast cells has widened exponentially in the last 20 years. Once thought to be only important for allergy-mediated events, mast cells are now recognized to be important regulators of a number of pathological processes. The revelation that mast cells can influence organs, tissues, and cells has increased interest in mast cell research during liver disease. The purpose of this review is to refresh the reader's knowledge of the development, type, and location of mast cells and to review recent work that demonstrates the role of hepatic mast cells during diseased states. This review focuses primarily on liver diseases and mast cells during autoimmune disease, hepatitis, fatty liver disease, liver cancer, and aging in the liver. Overall, these studies demonstrate the potential role of mast cells in disease progression.

  7. Extendable mast used in one shot soil penetrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotz, G. M.; Howard, G. A.

    1966-01-01

    Penetrometer to test soil characteristics has a piercing head with soil instrumentation equipment attached to an expandable mast actuated by compressed air. The penetrometer gives continuous measurements as the mast pushes the piercing head through the soil.

  8. Technological Language as a Common Language for Euro-Mediterranean Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Sebastio

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The internet and social networks provide new forms of public spaces, virtual continents populated by people of different races, languages, and religions that communicate with a single language, in one unique mode and with one unique tool. In the era of extreme social participation, it is impossible not to consider the role of future policies of education. We cannot ignore the basic language in which the Euro-Mediterranean people recognize themselves, allowing them to interact on all sides of the Mediterranean basin. Technology provides a dialogue bridge, as well as mutual recognition and accreditation for the people who share the Mediterranean Sea and the world. The Internet is the true centre of the Union membership and provides a common good, which generates shared recognition and willingness to communicate; furthermore, it results in the renunciation of personal data protection, as well as the management of its powers to private entities. The aim of this paper is to envisage the effects of the electronic society on the Mediterranean Policies.

  9. Computed tomography evaluation of mast cell tumours; Avaliacao por tomografia computadorizada dos mastocitomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorigados, Carla Aparecida Batista; Matera, Julia Maria; Macedo, Thais; Pinto, Ana Carolina Brandao Fonseca, E-mail: clorigados@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia. Dept. de Cirurgia

    2012-07-01

    The mast cell tumours are common tumours of the canine skin. Computed tomography (CT) has assumed an important role in tumours evaluation and staging. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of CT as a method of assessing characteristics of mast cell tumors. Ten dogs with mast cell tumor were evaluated. CT was performed before and after the intravenous injection of hydro soluble ionic iodine. Attenuation, contrast enhancement, cleavage with adjacent tissues and the unidimensional measurement of each lesion was determined in it maximum diameter, in transversal plane. Concerning the attenuation characteristic, 50% were homogeneous and 50% heterogeneous. The contrast enhancement was homogeneous in 50% of cases, heterogeneous in 40% and peripheral in 10%. Fifty percent of the tumours showed loss of plane of cleavage and 30% partial loss. This information can help in directing the patients that will be undergoing chemotherapy or surgery. (author)

  10. Mast cells trigger epithelial barrier dysfunction, bacterial translocation and postoperative ileus in a mouse model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoek, S. A.; Dhawan, S.; van Bree, S. H.; Cailotto, C.; van Diest, S. A.; Duarte, J. M.; Stanisor, O. I.; Hilbers, F. W.; Nijhuis, L.; Koeman, A.; van den Wijngaard, R. M.; Zuurbier, C. J.; Boeckxstaens, G. E.; de Jonge, W. J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Abdominal surgery involving bowel manipulation commonly results in inflammation of the bowel wall, which leads to impaired intestinal motility and postoperative ileus (POI). Mast cells have shown to play a key role in the pathogenesis of POI in mouse models and human studies. We studied

  11. Gene expression profiles in adenosine-treated human mast cells ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of mast cells in allergic diseases and innate immunity has been widely researched and much is known about the expression profiles of immune-related genes in mast cells after bacterial challenges. However, little is known about the gene expression profiles of mast cells in response to adenosine. Herein, we ...

  12. Quantification and Localization of Mast Cells in Periapical Lesions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Mast cells were more in number in radicular cyst. Based on the concept that mast cells play a critical role in the induction of inflammation, it is logical to use therapeutic agents to alter mast cell function and secretion, to thwart inflammation at its earliest phases. These findings may suggest the possible role of ...

  13. The Virtual Learning Commons: Supporting the Fuzzy Front End of Scientific Research with Emerging Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, D. D.; Gandara, A.; Gris, I.

    2012-12-01

    The Virtual Learning Commons (VLC), funded by the National Science Foundation Office of Cyberinfrastructure CI-Team Program, is a combination of Semantic Web, mash up, and social networking tools that supports knowledge sharing and innovation across scientific disciplines in research and education communities and networks. The explosion of scientific resources (data, models, algorithms, tools, and cyberinfrastructure) challenges the ability of researchers to be aware of resources that might benefit them. Even when aware, it can be difficult to understand enough about those resources to become potential adopters or re-users. Often scientific data and emerging technologies have little documentation, especially about the context of their use. The VLC tackles this challenge by providing mechanisms for individuals and groups of researchers to organize Web resources into virtual collections, and engage each other around those collections in order to a) learn about potentially relevant resources that are available; b) design research that leverages those resources; and c) develop initial work plans. The VLC aims to support the "fuzzy front end" of innovation, where novel ideas emerge and there is the greatest potential for impact on research design. It is during the fuzzy front end that conceptual collisions across disciplines and exposure to diverse perspectives provide opportunity for creative thinking that can lead to inventive outcomes. The VLC integrates Semantic Web functionality for structuring distributed information, mash up functionality for retrieving and displaying information, and social media for discussing/rating information. We are working to provide three views of information that support researchers in different ways: 1. Innovation Marketplace: supports users as they try to understand what research is being conducted, who is conducting it, where they are located, and who they collaborate with; 2. Conceptual Mapper: supports users as they organize their

  14. CLIpSAT for Interplanetary Missions: Common Low-cost Interplanetary Spacecraft with Autonomy Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, C.

    2015-10-01

    Blue Sun Enterprises, Inc. is creating a common deep space bus capable of a wide variety of Mars, asteroid, and comet science missions, observational missions in and near GEO, and interplanetary delivery missions. The spacecraft are modular and highly autonomous, featuring a common core and optional expansion for variable-sized science or commercial payloads. Initial spacecraft designs are targeted for Mars atmospheric science, a Phobos sample return mission, geosynchronous reconnaissance, and en-masse delivery of payloads using packetized propulsion modules. By combining design, build, and operations processes for these missions, the cost and effort for creating the bus is shared across a variety of initial missions, reducing overall costs. A CLIpSAT can be delivered to different orbits and still be able to reach interplanetary targets like Mars due to up to 14.5 km/sec of delta-V provided by its high-ISP Xenon ion thruster(s). A 6U version of the spacecraft form fits PPOD-standard deployment systems, with up to 9 km/s of delta-V. A larger 12-U (with the addition of an expansion module) enables higher overall delta-V, and has the ability to jettison the expansion module and return to the Earth-Moon system from Mars orbit with the main spacecraft. CLIpSAT utilizes radiation-hardened electronics and RF equipment, 140+ We of power at earth (60 We at Mars), a compact navigation camera that doubles as a science imager, and communications of 2000 bps from Mars to the DSN via X-band. This bus could form the cornerstone of a large number asteroid survey projects, comet intercept missions, and planetary observation missions. The TugBot architecture uses groups of CLIpSATs attached to payloads lacking innate high-delta-V propulsion. The TugBots use coordinated trajectory following by each individual spacecraft to move the payload to the desired orbit - for example, a defense asset might be moved from GEO to lunar transfer orbit in order to protect and hide it, then returned

  15. No country is an island: comment on the House of Commons report Human Reproductive Technologies and the Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Edgar

    2005-07-01

    In its recent report Human Reproductive Technologies and the Law, the House of Commons' Select Committee on Science and Technology insisted that the United Kingdom 'does not take a purely insular view' on sex selection but to carefully consider the impact on other countries before allowing changes to current legislation. True, no country is an island, not even the British Isles. Still, outlawing a harmless practice in Great Britain because of its alleged harmful effects in other countries is bad public policy.

  16. Overview of recent physics results from MAST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirk, A.; Adamek, J.; Akers, R.J.

    2017-01-01

    New results from MAST are presented that focus on validating models in order to extrapolate to future devices. Measurements during start-up experiments have shown how the bulk ion temperature rise scales with the square of the reconnecting field. During the current ramp-up, models are not able to...

  17. NESREA and NCC Regulations on Telecommunication Masts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There have been conflicting findings in studies conducted to determine whether or not electromagnetic radiations (EMR) emitted by telecommunication masts are injurious to human health and the environment. The recent imbroglio between the National Environmental Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency ...

  18. Role of mast cells in cow metritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Guo-Qing

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bovine postpartum metritis causes great losses. Mast cell (MC-released mediators participate in uterine inflammation and immune response, but their role in postpartum metritis in cows has not been reported. This study investigated the effect of endometrial MC on the disorder.

  19. Drug hypersensitivity in clonal mast cell disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonadonna, P; Pagani, M; Aberer, W

    2015-01-01

    Mastocytosis is a clonal disorder characterized by the proliferation and accumulation of mast cells (MC) in different tissues, with a preferential localization in skin and bone marrow (BM). The excess of MC in mastocytosis as well as the increased releasability of MC may lead to a higher frequenc...

  20. A Comparative Study of virtual and operational met mast data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orhan, Dr Ö Emre; Ahmet, Gökhan

    2014-01-01

    Performance of wind assessment studies depend on the adequacy and duration of the wind data. For a reasonable wind assessment, at least one full year wind data is needed so that, all the variations throughout the year are represented. On the other hand, it is always a question of time and cost how to get the wind data. On-site measurements are the most common way of obtaining wind data but it is the most expensive and time consuming as well. Apart from onsite data, there are also reanalysis long term data sources like MERRA, NCAR, etc. Time and spatial resolution of these long term data are lower compared to on-site measurements but in cases where on-site measurements are not available, they are also utilized. On top of on-site and reanalysis wind data, weather forecasting models like WRF, MM5 are available. Although, these models mainly are used for forecasting services, flexibility of the models makes them suitable for preliminary resource assessment purposes. In this study, comparisons of annual energy production estimations are computed using virtual and on-site met mast data separately for a specific time range. The widely used weather research and forecasting model (WRF) is used to provide virtual met mast data. Once WRF simulations are completed, interpolation routines are employed in order to extract data for a specific location. The on-site met mast is located inside a wind farm project area which is under development. Project site is located in the south of Turkey. There are four different met masts, three of them recording wind data presently. On-site measurements together with WRF results are used to obtain energy yields for the project area. The performance of both methodologies is compared. It has been observed that WRF can as well serve as a preliminary model in cases where no other data source is available but the model has to be implemented with great care depending on the project site conditions

  1. Relating increasing hantavirus incidences to the changing climate: the mast connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maes Piet

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nephropathia epidemica (NE, an emerging rodent-borne viral disease, has become the most important cause of infectious acute renal failure in Belgium, with sharp increases in incidence occurring for more than a decade. Bank voles are the rodent reservoir of the responsible hantavirus and are known to display cyclic population peaks. We tried to relate these peaks to the cyclic NE outbreaks observed since 1993. Our hypothesis was that the ecological causal connection was the staple food source for voles, being seeds of deciduous broad-leaf trees, commonly called "mast". We also examined whether past temperature and precipitation preceding "mast years" were statistically linked to these NE outbreaks. Results Since 1993, each NE peak is immediately preceded by a mast year, resulting in significantly higher NE case numbers during these peaks (Spearman R = -0.82; P = 0.034. NE peaks are significantly related to warmer autumns the year before (R = 0.51; P Conclusion NE peaks in year 0 are induced by abundant mast formation in year-1, facilitating bank vole survival during winter, thus putting the local human population at risk from the spring onwards of year 0. This bank vole survival is further promoted by higher autumn temperatures in year-1, whereas mast formation itself is primed by higher summer temperatures in year-2. Both summer and autumn temperatures have been rising to significantly higher levels during recent years, explaining the virtually continuous epidemic state since 2005 of a zoonosis, considered rare until recently. Moreover, in 2007 a NE peak and an abundant mast formation occurred for the first time within the same year, thus forecasting yet another record NE incidence for 2008. We therefore predict that with the anticipated climate changes due to global warming, NE might become a highly endemic disease in Belgium and surrounding countries.

  2. The role of Lin28b in myeloid and mast cell differentiation and mast cell malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L D; Rao, T N; Rowe, R G; Nguyen, P T; Sullivan, J L; Pearson, D S; Doulatov, S; Wu, L; Lindsley, R C; Zhu, H; DeAngelo, D J; Daley, G Q; Wagers, A J

    2015-06-01

    Mast cells (MCs) are critical components of the innate immune system and important for host defense, allergy, autoimmunity, tissue regeneration and tumor progression. Dysregulated MC development leads to systemic mastocytosis (SM), a clinically variable but often devastating family of hematologic disorders. Here we report that induced expression of Lin28, a heterochronic gene and pluripotency factor implicated in driving a fetal hematopoietic program, caused MC accumulation in adult mice in target organs such as the skin and peritoneal cavity. In vitro assays revealed a skewing of myeloid commitment in LIN28B-expressing hematopoietic progenitors, with increased levels of LIN28B in common myeloid and basophil-MC progenitors altering gene expression patterns to favor cell fate choices that enhanced MC specification. In addition, LIN28B-induced MCs appeared phenotypically and functionally immature, and in vitro assays suggested a slowing of MC terminal differentiation in the context of LIN28B upregulation. Finally, interrogation of human MC leukemia samples revealed upregulation of LIN28B in abnormal MCs from patients with SM. This work identifies Lin28 as a novel regulator of innate immune function and a new protein of interest in MC disease.

  3. Mechanisms of glyceryl trinitrate provoked mast cell degranulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sara Hougaard; Ramachandran, Roshni; Amrutkar, Dipak Vasantrao

    2015-01-01

    inflammation and dural mast cell degranulation is supported by the effectiveness of prednisolone on glyceryl trinitrate-induced delayed headache. METHODS: Using a newly developed rat model mimicking the human glyceryl trinitrate headache model, we have investigated the occurrence of dural mast cell...... glyceryl trinitrate-induced mast cell degranulation whereas the calcitonin gene-related peptide-receptor antagonist olcegepant and the substance P receptor antagonist L-733,060 did not affect mast cell degranulation. However, topical application of two different nitric oxide donors did not cause mast cell...... degranulation ex vivo. CONCLUSIONS: Direct application of an exogenous nitric oxide donor on dural mast cells does not cause mast cell degranulation ex vivo. In vivo application of the nitric oxide donor glyceryl trinitrate leads to a prominent level of degranulation via a yet unknown mechanism. This effect can...

  4. Are mast cells instrumental for fibrotic diseases?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eOvered-Sayer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is a fatal lung disorder of unknown etiology characterised by accumulation of lung fibroblasts and extracellular matrix deposition, ultimately leading to compromised tissue architecture and lung function capacity. IPF has a heterogeneous clinical course; however the median survival after diagnosis is only 3-5 years. The pharmaceutical and biotechnology industry has made many attempts to find effective treatments for IPF, but the disease has so far defied all attempts at therapeutic intervention. Clinical trial failures may arise for many reasons, including disease heterogeneity, lack of readily measurable clinical end points other than overall survival, and, perhaps most of all, a lack of understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms of the progression of IPF.The precise link between inflammation and fibrosis remains unclear, but it appears that immune cells can promote fibrosis by releasing fibrogenic factors. So far, however, therapeutic approaches targeting macrophages, neutrophils, or lymphocytes have failed to alter disease pathogenesis. A new cell to garner research interest in fibrosis is the mast cell. Increased numbers of mast cells have long been known to be present in pulmonary fibrosis and clinically correlations between mast cells and fibrosis have been reported. More recent data suggests that mast cells may contribute to the fibrotic process by stimulating fibroblasts resident in the lung, thus driving the pathogenesis of the disease. In this review, we will discuss the mast cell and its physiological role in tissue repair and remodelling, as well as its pathological role in fibrotic diseases such as IPF, where the process of tissue repair and remodelling is thought to be dysregulated.

  5. The response of common building construction technologies to the urban poor and their environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wekesa, BW

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available of the technologies are not responsive in the regional context. That is, the technologies cannot provide a good quality dwelling unit and at the same time address the socio-economic needs of the urban poor while minimising the negative impact on the environment....

  6. Mast Cells Are Critical for Protection against Peptic Ulcers Induced by the NSAID Piroxicam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Daniel D.; Hale, Laura P.

    2011-01-01

    Many commonly used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) also cause gastrointestinal toxicity, including the development of life-threatening peptic ulcers. We report that mast cell-deficient mice have an extremely high incidence of severe peptic ulceration when exposed to the NSAID piroxicam. This enhanced ulcer susceptibility can be reversed by reconstitution with mast cells. Furthermore, wild type mice treated with diphenhydramine hydrochloride, a commonly used antihistamine that blocks histamine H1 receptors, develop a similarly high incidence of peptic ulcers following piroxicam exposure. The protective effect of mast cells is independent of TNF, blockade of H2 receptors, or acid secretion. These data indicate a critical role for mast cells and the histamine that they produce in prevention and/or repair of piroxicam-induced gastric mucosal injury. Additional studies will be required to determine whether this represents a NSAID class effect that can be exploited to develop novel therapeutic strategies to limit the incidence of NSAID-induced side effects in humans. PMID:21858200

  7. Mast cells are critical for protection against peptic ulcers induced by the NSAID piroxicam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel D Hampton

    Full Text Available Many commonly used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs also cause gastrointestinal toxicity, including the development of life-threatening peptic ulcers. We report that mast cell-deficient mice have an extremely high incidence of severe peptic ulceration when exposed to the NSAID piroxicam. This enhanced ulcer susceptibility can be reversed by reconstitution with mast cells. Furthermore, wild type mice treated with diphenhydramine hydrochloride, a commonly used antihistamine that blocks histamine H1 receptors, develop a similarly high incidence of peptic ulcers following piroxicam exposure. The protective effect of mast cells is independent of TNF, blockade of H2 receptors, or acid secretion. These data indicate a critical role for mast cells and the histamine that they produce in prevention and/or repair of piroxicam-induced gastric mucosal injury. Additional studies will be required to determine whether this represents a NSAID class effect that can be exploited to develop novel therapeutic strategies to limit the incidence of NSAID-induced side effects in humans.

  8. Electrogene therapy with interleukin-12 in canine mast cell tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlin, Darja; Cemazar, Maja; Cör, Andrej; Sersa, Gregor; Pogacnik, Azra; Tozon, Natasa

    2010-01-01

    Mast cell tumors (MCT) are the most common malignant cutaneous tumors in dogs with extremely variable biological behaviour. Different treatment approaches can be used in canine cutaneous MCT, with surgical excision being the treatment of choice. In this study, electrogene therapy (EGT) as a new therapeutic approach to canine MCTs, was established. Eight dogs with a total of eleven cutaneous MCTs were treated with intratumoral EGT using DNA plasmid encoding human interleukin-12 (IL-12). The local response to the therapy was evaluated by repeated measurements of tumor size and histological examination of treated tumors. A possible systemic response was assessed by determination of IL-12 and interferon- γ (IFN-γ) in patients’ sera. The occurence of side effects was monitored with weekly clinical examinations of treated animals and by performing basic bloodwork, consisting of the complete bloodcount and determination of selected biochemistry parameters. Intratumoral EGT with IL-12 elicits significant reduction of treated tumors’ size, ranging from 13% to 83% (median 50%) of the initial tumor volume. Additionally, a change in the histological structure of treated nodules was seen. There was a reduction in number of malignant mast cells and inflammatory cell infiltration of treated tumors. Systemic release of IL-12 in four patients was detected, without any noticeable local or systemic side effects. These data suggest that intratumoral EGT with plasmid encoding IL-12 may be useful in the treatment of canine MCTs, exerting a local antitumor effect

  9. Optimizing Safety Stock Levels in Modular Production Systems Using Component Commonality and Group Technology Philosophy: A Study Based on Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Edgar Hernandez-Ruiz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modular production and component commonality are two widely used strategies in the manufacturing industry to meet customers growing needs for customized products. Using these strategies, companies can enhance their performance to achieve optimal safety stock levels. Despite the importance of safety stocks in business competition, little attention has been paid to the way to reduce them without affecting the customer service levels. This paper develops a mathematical model to reduce safety stock levels in organizations that employ modular production. To construct the model, we take advantage of the benefits of aggregate inventories, standardization of components, component commonality, and Group Technology philosophy in regard to stock levels. The model is tested through the simulation of three years of operation of two modular product systems. For each system, we calculated and compared the safety stock levels for two cases: (1 under the only presence of component commonality and (2 under the presence of both component commonality and Group Technology philosophy. The results show a reduction in safety stock levels when we linked the component commonality with the Group Technology philosophy. The paper presents a discussion of the implications of each case, features of the model, and suggestions for future research.

  10. The Potential of Digital Technologies to Support Literacy Instruction Relevant to the Common Core State Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Amy C.; Colwell, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Digital tools have the potential to transform instruction and promote literacies outlined in the Common Core State Standards. Empirical research is examined to illustrate this potential in grades 6-12 instruction.

  11. Can commonly-used fan-driven air cleaning technologies improve indoor air quality? A literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yinping; Mo, Jinhan; Li, Yuguo

    2011-01-01

    technologies was able to effectively remove all indoor pollutants and many were found to generate undesirable by-products during operation. (2) Particle filtration and sorption of gaseous pollutants were among the most effective air cleaning technologies, but there is insufficient information regarding long......-term performance and proper maintenance. (3) The existing data make it difficult to extract information such as Clean Air Delivery Rate (CADR), which represents a common benchmark for comparing the performance of different air cleaning technologies. (4) To compare and select suitable indoor air cleaning devices......, a labeling system accounting for characteristics such as CADR, energy consumption, volume, harmful by-products, and life span is necessary. For that purpose, a standard test room and condition should be built and studied. (5) Although there is evidence that some air cleaning technologies improve indoor air...

  12. EBW simulation for MAST and NSTX experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preinhaelter, J.; Urban, J.; Pavlo, P.; Taylor, G.; Shevchenko, V.; Valovic, M.; Vahala, L.; Vahala, G.

    2005-01-01

    The interpretation of EBW emission from spherical tokamaks is nontrivial. We report on a 3D simulation model of this process that incorporates Gaussian beams for the antenna, a full wave solution of EBW-X and EBW-X-O conversions using adaptive finite elements, and EBW ray tracing to determine the radiative temperature. This model is then used to interpret the experimental results from MAST and NSTX. EBW for ELM free H-modes in MAST suggests that the magnetic equilibrium determined by the EFIT code does not adequately represent the B-field within the transport barrier. Using the EBW signal for the reconstruction of the radial profile of the magnetic field, we determine a new equilibrium and see that the EBW simulation now yields better agreement with experimental results. EBW simulations yield excellent results for the time development of the plasma temperature as measured by the EBW radiometer on NSTX

  13. The Model for Assessment of Telemedicine (MAST)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kidholm, Kristian; Clemensen, Jane; Caffery, Liam J

    2017-01-01

    The evaluation of telemedicine can be achieved using different evaluation models or theoretical frameworks. This paper presents a scoping review of published studies which have applied the Model for Assessment of Telemedicine (MAST). MAST includes pre-implementation assessment (e.g. by use of par...... the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. In this article, research design and methods used in the multidisciplinary assessment are described, strengths and weaknesses are analysed, and recommendations for future research are presented....... of participatory design), followed by multidisciplinary assessment, including description of the patients and the application and assessment of safety, clinical effectiveness, patient perspectives, economic aspects organisational aspects and socio-cultural, legal and ethical aspects. Twenty-two studies met...

  14. Social dilemmas, time preferences and technology adoption in a commons problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, Reinoud A.M.G.

    Agents interacting on a body of water choose between technologies to catch fish. One is harmless to the resource, as it allows full recovery; the other yields high immediate catches, but low(er) future catches. Strategic interaction in one 'objective'resource game may induce several 'subjective'

  15. Social dilemmas, time preferences and technology adoption in a commons problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, Reinoud A.M.G.

    2014-01-01

    Agents interacting on a body of water choose between technologies to catch fish. One is harmless to the resource, as it allows full recovery; the other yields high immediate catches, but low(er) future catches. Strategic interaction in one ‘objective’ resource game may induce several ‘subjective’

  16. New technologies in the paving process need to be based on 'common practice' and 'operator's heuristics'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Huerne, Henderikus L.; Miller, Seirgei Rosario; Doree, Andries G.; Lee, H-D.; Bhatti, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes an initiative that aims to integrate process mod-eling with the tacit knowledge of site personnel in order to accelerate profes-sionalism and widen the application of technology in the asphalt paving proc-ess. A preparatory study was conducted to gain insight into operational

  17. Mast cell chemotaxis - chemoattractants and signaling pathways

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hálová, Ivana; Dráberová, Lubica; Dráber, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 3, May (2012), s. 119 ISSN 1664-3224 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD12073; GA ČR GA301/09/1826; GA ČR GAP302/10/1759 Grant - others:ECST(XE) BM1007; AV ČR(CZ) MC200520901 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : mast cell * IgE receptor * plasma membrane Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  18. Signal transduction and chemotaxis in mast cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dráber, Petr; Hálová, Ivana; Polakovičová, Iva; Kawakami, T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 778, jaro (2016), s. 11-23 ISSN 0014-2999 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-09807S; GA ČR(CZ) GBP302/12/G101; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-00703S Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Mast cell * IgE receptor * KIT receptor * Signal transduction * Chemotaxis * Plasma membrane Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.896, year: 2016

  19. The validity of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, H; Nielsen, S D; Gluud, C

    1994-01-01

    This review examines the validity of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) as a screening instrument for alcohol problems. Studies that compare the MAST-questionnaire with other defined diagnostic criteria of alcohol problems were retrieved through MEDLINE and a cross-bibliographic check....... A total of 20 validity studies were included. The studies varied considerably regarding the prevalence of alcohol problems, the diagnostic criteria, and the examined patient categories. The MAST compared with other diagnostic criteria of alcohol problems gave validity measures with the following span...... and the specificities show substantial variations. The variables that seem to have the largest influence on the PVpos seem to be the prevalence of alcohol problems, the diagnostic method against which the MAST-questionnaire is validated, and the populations on which the MAST is applied. The MAST should in the future...

  20. Distribution of mast cells in benign odontogenic tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Assis Caldas Pereira, Francisco; Gurgel, Clarissa Araújo Silva; Ramos, Eduardo Antônio Gonçalves; Vidal, Manuela Torres Andion; Pinheiro, Antônio Luiz Barbosa; Jurisic, Vladimir; Sales, Caroline Brandi Schlaepfer; Cury, Patrícia Ramos; dos Santos, Jean Nunes

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of mast cells in a series of odontogenic tumors. Forty-five cases of odontogenic tumors were investigated using immunohistochemistry for mast cell triptase, and differences between groups were statistically evaluated. Mast cells were present in 96% of odontogenic tumors. Mast cells present in solid ameloblastoma were observed in the tumor stroma surrounding more solid and follicular epithelial islands, with or without squamous metaplasia. The odontogenic mixoma showed few mast cells. In odontogenic tumors with a cystic structure, the mast cells were distributed throughout all areas of the lesions, mainly in keratocystic odontogenic tumor. In addition, the total density of mast cells between all odontogenic tumors showed no significant difference (p > 0.05). A greater mast cells distribution was found in keratocystic odontogenic tumor in relation to adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (p < 0.01), and when the unicystic ameloblastoma and keratocistic odontogenic tumor were compared to the odontogenic myxoma (p < 0.05). Syndrome keratocystic odontogenic tumor showed a higher mean of mast cells when compared with the other tumors of the sample. Mast cells values presented by syndrome keratocystic odontogenic tumor were significantly greater than those of the sporadic keratocystic odontogenic tumor that were not associated with the syndrome (p = 0.03). Mast cells are probably one of the major components of the stromal scaffold in odontogenic tumors. We found significant differences of mast cells between syndrome nonsyndrome keratocystic odontogenic tumors, although their distribution did not seem to have any influence on the biologic behavior of benign odontogenic tumors.

  1. Central nervous system mast cells in peripheral inflammatory nociception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellmeier Wilfried

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional aspects of mast cell-neuronal interactions remain poorly understood. Mast cell activation and degranulation can result in the release of powerful pro-inflammatory mediators such as histamine and cytokines. Cerebral dural mast cells have been proposed to modulate meningeal nociceptor activity and be involved in migraine pathophysiology. Little is known about the functional role of spinal cord dural mast cells. In this study, we examine their potential involvement in nociception and synaptic plasticity in superficial spinal dorsal horn. Changes of lower spinal cord dura mast cells and their contribution to hyperalgesia are examined in animal models of peripheral neurogenic and non-neurogenic inflammation. Results Spinal application of supernatant from activated cultured mast cells induces significant mechanical hyperalgesia and long-term potentiation (LTP at spinal synapses of C-fibers. Lumbar, thoracic and thalamic preparations are then examined for mast cell number and degranulation status after intraplantar capsaicin and carrageenan. Intradermal capsaicin induces a significant percent increase of lumbar dural mast cells at 3 hours post-administration. Peripheral carrageenan in female rats significantly increases mast cell density in the lumbar dura, but not in thoracic dura or thalamus. Intrathecal administration of the mast cell stabilizer sodium cromoglycate or the spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk inhibitor BAY-613606 reduce the increased percent degranulation and degranulated cell density of lumbar dural mast cells after capsaicin and carrageenan respectively, without affecting hyperalgesia. Conclusion The results suggest that lumbar dural mast cells may be sufficient but are not necessary for capsaicin or carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia.

  2. Mast cells promote lung vascular remodelling in pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, J; Yin, J; Kukucka, M; Yin, N; Saarikko, I; Sterner-Kock, A; Fujii, H; Leong-Poi, H; Kuppe, H; Schermuly, R T; Kuebler, W M

    2011-06-01

    Left heart disease (LHD) frequently causes lung vascular remodelling and pulmonary hypertension (PH). Yet pharmacological treatment for PH in LHD is lacking and its pathophysiological basis remains obscure. We aimed to identify candidate mechanisms of PH in LHD and to test their relevance and therapeutic potential. In rats, LHD was induced by supracoronary aortic banding. Whole genome microarray analyses were performed, candidate genes were confirmed by RT-PCR and Western blots and functional relevance was tested in vivo by genetic and pharmacological strategies. In lungs of LHD rats, mast cell activation was the most prominently upregulated gene ontology cluster. Mast cell gene upregulation was confirmed at RNA and protein levels and remodelled vessels showed perivascular mast cell accumulations. In LHD rats treated with the mast cell stabiliser ketotifen, or in mast cell deficient Ws/Ws rats, PH and vascular remodelling were largely attenuated. Both strategies also reduced PH and vascular remodelling in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension, suggesting that the role of mast cells extends to non-cardiogenic PH. In PH of different aetiologies, mast cells accumulate around pulmonary blood vessels and contribute to vascular remodelling and PH. Mast cells and mast cell-derived mediators may present promising targets for the treatment of PH.

  3. Using Common Sense to Effectively Integrate Security Technologies within a School's Security Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gree, M.W.

    1998-11-03

    Security technologies are not the answer to all school security problems. However, they can be an excellent tool for school administrators and security personnel when incorporated into a total security strategy involving personnel, procedures, and facility layout. Unfortunately, very few of the tougher security problems in schools have solutions that are affordable, effective, and acceptable. Like any other type of facility, a school's security staff must understand the strengths and limitations of the security measures they are c

  4. Relating increasing hantavirus incidences to the changing climate: the mast connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Jan; Vercauteren, Jurgen; Verstraeten, Willem W; Ducoffre, Geneviève; Barrios, José M; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Maes, Piet; Van Ranst, Marc

    2009-01-16

    Nephropathia epidemica (NE), an emerging rodent-borne viral disease, has become the most important cause of infectious acute renal failure in Belgium, with sharp increases in incidence occurring for more than a decade. Bank voles are the rodent reservoir of the responsible hantavirus and are known to display cyclic population peaks. We tried to relate these peaks to the cyclic NE outbreaks observed since 1993. Our hypothesis was that the ecological causal connection was the staple food source for voles, being seeds of deciduous broad-leaf trees, commonly called "mast". We also examined whether past temperature and precipitation preceding "mast years" were statistically linked to these NE outbreaks. Since 1993, each NE peak is immediately preceded by a mast year, resulting in significantly higher NE case numbers during these peaks (Spearman R = -0.82; P = 0.034). NE peaks are significantly related to warmer autumns the year before (R = 0.51; P human population at risk from the spring onwards of year 0. This bank vole survival is further promoted by higher autumn temperatures in year-1, whereas mast formation itself is primed by higher summer temperatures in year-2. Both summer and autumn temperatures have been rising to significantly higher levels during recent years, explaining the virtually continuous epidemic state since 2005 of a zoonosis, considered rare until recently. Moreover, in 2007 a NE peak and an abundant mast formation occurred for the first time within the same year, thus forecasting yet another record NE incidence for 2008. We therefore predict that with the anticipated climate changes due to global warming, NE might become a highly endemic disease in Belgium and surrounding countries.

  5. Common strategies and technologies for the ecosafety assessment and design of nanomaterials entering the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, Ilaria; Cherr, Gary N; Lenihan, Hunter S; Labille, Jerome; Hassellov, Martin; Canesi, Laura; Dondero, Francesco; Frenzilli, Giada; Hristozov, Danail; Puntes, Victor; Della Torre, Camilla; Pinsino, Annalisa; Libralato, Giovanni; Marcomini, Antonio; Sabbioni, Enrico; Matranga, Valeria

    2014-10-28

    The widespread use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in a variety of technologies and consumer products inevitably causes their release into aquatic environments and final deposition into the oceans. In addition, a growing number of ENM products are being developed specifically for marine applications, such as antifouling coatings and environmental remediation systems, thus increasing the need to address any potential risks for marine organisms and ecosystems. To safeguard the marine environment, major scientific gaps related to assessing and designing ecosafe ENMs need to be filled. In this Nano Focus, we examine key issues related to the state-of-the-art models and analytical tools being developed to understand ecological risks and to design safeguards for marine organisms.

  6. SENDS criteria from the diversification of MAST procedures. Implementation of preoperative simulation; SENDS-Kriterien als Entwicklungstheorem der MAST-Prozeduren. Einfuehrung praeoperativer Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieger, B. [Universitaetsklinikum Carl Gustav Carus, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Neurochirurgie, Dresden (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Minimal access spinal technologies (MAST) lead to a diversification of surgical procedures, which requires careful selection of the procedure and outcome monitoring. For a rational selection of the procedure simulation, endoscopy, navigation, decompression and stabilization (SENDS) criteria can be derived from the development of the MAST procedures. Preoperative simulation has diagnostic and therapeutic values. The SENDS criteria can be verified indirectly via outcome control. Biomechanically meaningful diagnostic x-rays of the spinal segment to be surgically treated are currently carried out with the patient in inclination and reclination. Software-related preoperative simulation based on these x-ray images facilitates the selection and implementation of the MAST procedure. For preoperative simulation motion shots are needed in inclination, neutral position and reclination and the dimensions can be obtained using an x-ray ball or a computed tomography (CT) scan. The SENDS criteria are useful because established procedures based on these criteria reach a comparable outcome. Preoperative simulation appears to be a useful selection criterion. Preoperatively it is necessary to collate patient and segment information in order to provide each patient with individualized treatment. So far there is no evidence for a better outcome after preoperative simulation but a reduction of surgery time and intraoperative radiation exposure could already be demonstrated. Minimally invasive methods should be preferred if there is a comparable outcome. The establishment of new procedures has to be accompanied by the maintenance of a spine register. Minimally invasive surgical procedures should be individualized for each patient and segment. Mobility X-ray images should be prepared for use with the preoperative simulation as the information content significantly increases with respect to the MAST procedure. (orig.) [German] Die Minimal Access Spine Technology (MAST) fuehrt zur

  7. Mast cell-deficient kit mice develop house dust mite-induced lung inflammation despite impaired eosinophil recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, J Daan; Yang, Jack; van den Boogaard, Florry E; Hoogendijk, Arie J; de Beer, Regina; van der Zee, Jaring S; Roelofs, Joris J T H; van 't Veer, Cornelis; de Vos, Alex F; van der Poll, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Mast cells are implicated in allergic and innate immune responses in asthma, although their role in models using an allergen relevant for human disease is incompletely understood. House dust mite (HDM) allergy is common in asthma patients. Our aim was to investigate the role of mast cells in HDM-induced allergic lung inflammation. Wild-type (Wt) and mast cell-deficient Kit(w-sh) mice on a C57BL/6 background were repetitively exposed to HDM via the airways. HDM challenge resulted in a rise in tryptase activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of Wt mice, indicative of mast cell activation. Kit(w-sh) mice showed a strongly attenuated HDM- induced recruitment of eosinophils in BALF and lung tissue, accompanied by reduced pulmonary levels of the eosinophil chemoattractant eotaxin. Remarkably, Kit(w-sh) mice demonstrated an unaltered capacity to develop lung pathology and increased mucus production in response to HDM. The increased plasma IgE in response to HDM in Wt mice was absent in Kit(w-sh) mice. These data contrast with previous reports on the role of mast cells in models using ovalbumin as allergen in that C57BL/6 Kit(w-sh) mice display a selective impairment of eosinophil recruitment without differences in other features of allergic inflammation. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel

  8. Tongue-operated assistive technology with access to common smartphone applications via Bluetooth link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeonghee; Park, Hangue; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2012-01-01

    Tongue Drive System (TDS) is a wireless and wearable assistive technology (AT) that enables people with severe disabilities to control their computers, wheelchairs, and electronic gadgets using their tongue motion. We developed the TDS to control smartphone's (iPhone/iPod Touch) built-in and downloadable apps with a customized Bluetooth mouse module by emulating finger taps on the touchscreen. The TDS-iPhone Bluetooth mouse interface was evaluated by four able-bodied subjects to complete a scenario consisting of seven tasks, which were randomly ordered by using touch on the iPhone screen with index finger, a computer mouse on iPhone, and TDS-iPhone Bluetooth mouse interface with tongue motion. Preliminary results show that the average completion times of a scenario with touch, mouse, and TDS are 165.6 ± 14.50 s, 186.1 ± 15.37 s, and 651.6 ± 113.4 s, respectively, showing that the TDS is 84.37% and 81.16% slower than touch and mouse for speed of typing with negligible errors. Overall, considering the limited number of commands and unfamiliarity of the subjects with the TDS, we achieved acceptable results for hands-free functionality.

  9. Some common aspects between global warming and fusion nuclear technology from the perspective of thermofluid research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunugi, Tomoaki; Satake, Shin-ichi

    2000-01-01

    Scientific interest in the environmental and meteorological fields has been recently focused on the estimation of the temperature rise on the earth in the near and distant future. This problem is strongly related to the imbalance of the amount of carbon on the earth after the industrial revolution; termed the 'Missing Sink' problem. The temperature rise is estimated by the gas transfer flux=(gas transfer rate) x (partial pressure difference of CO 2 between air and sea surface). It is very difficult to measure and estimate the gas exchange coefficient resulting from the air-sea interaction because of the very high Schmidt number (Sc) turbulent fluid flow with free surface deformation. On the other hand, the utilization of a high Prandtl number (Pr) fluid flow with a free surface as a coolant in an advanced magnetic fusion reactor and as a chamber protection scheme in an inertial confinement fusion reactor have been considered. Because the diffusivities of high Pr or Sc fluids are very small, when the high temperature or concentration regions appear on the free surface, caused by plasma radiation or carbon-dioxide gas absorption, respectively, the scalar transport from the free surface to the bulk flow is very slow compared to the fluid motion. In this paper, some common aspects between the heat transfer of high Pr free surface flow in fusion engineering and the mass transfer of high Sc free surface flow in the global warming problem are discussed. (author)

  10. [Tonsillar mast cell infiltration and allergic tonsillitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Callejo, F J; Orts Alborch, M H; Roselló, P; Marco Algarra, J

    2003-04-01

    We report the case of a seven year-old boy bearing of exudative acute tonsillitis after strawberry ingestion with no previous infectious history. After having diagnosed it as hypersensitivity type I, this patient began to suffer repetitive episodes of exudative and purulent tonsillitis, related to cool drinks and direct manipulation of tonsils. These were hyperplastic and Staphylococcus sp. and Streptococcus sp. were isolated in them. The episodes were shortened by the use of corticosteroids. Tonsillectomy was the definitive therapy. Biopsy informed of mast cells infiltration in germinal centers of both palatine tonsils.

  11. Mast-sipping in EPR trademark plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langenberger, Jan; Schienbein, Marcel; Geier, Roland

    2010-01-01

    For more than 20 years, AREVA applies and develops different sipping techniques to identify fuel assemblies with leaking fuel rods. For the EPR trademark reactors a Mast Sipping System with newest developments will be implemented considering radiation protection and latest standards requirements. The innovative EPR trademark Sipping System differs from previous systems in many ways. One of the main innovations is that all the necessary processes of the Sipping system have been fully digitized. Second, several ALARA design modifications have been implemented to meet the current radiation protection requirements. An additional implementable multilingual assistance program facilitates the handling of the system and helps to prevent incorrect operation. (orig.)

  12. Overview of recent physics results from MAST.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kirk, A.; Adámek, Jiří; Akers, R.J.; Allan, S.; Appel, L.; Arese Lucini, F.; Barnes, M.; Barrett, T.; Ben Ayed, N.; Boeglin, W.; Bradley, J.; Browning, P.K.; Brünner, J.; Cahyna, Pavel; Cardnell, S.; Carr, M.; Casson, F.; Cecconello, M.; Challis, C.; Chapman, I.T.; Chapman, S.; Chorley, J.; Conroy, S.; Conway, N.; Cooper, W.A.; Cox, M.; Crocker, N.; Crowley, B.; Cunningham, G.; Danilov, A.; Darrow, D.; Dendy, R.; Dickinson, D.; Dorland, W.; Dudson, B.; Dunai, D.; Easy, L.; Elmore, S.; Evans, M.; Farley, T.; Fedorczak, N.; Field, A.; Fishpool, G.; Fitzgerald, I.; Fox, M.; Freethy, S.; Garzotti, L.; Ghim, Y.C.; Gi, K.; Gibson, K.; Gorelenkova, M.; Gracias, W.; Gurl, C.; Guttenfelder, W.; Ham, C.; Harrison, J.; Harting, D.; Havlickova, E.; Hawkes, N.; Hender, T.; Henderson, S.; Highcock, E.; Hillesheim, J.; Hnat, B.; Horáček, Jan; Howard, J.; Howell, D.; Huang, B.; Imada, K.; Inomoto, M.; Imazawa, R.; Jones, O.; Kadowaki, K.; Kaye, S.; Keeling, D.; Klimek, I.; Kocan, M.; Kogan, L.; Komm, Michael; Lai, W.; Leddy, J.; Leggate, H.; Hollocombe, J.; Lipschultz, B.; Lisgo, S.; Liu, Y.Q.; Lloyd, B.; Lomanowski, B.; Lukin, V.; Lupelli, I.; Maddison, G.; Madsen, J.; Mailloux, J.; Martin, R.; McArdle, G.; McClements, K.; McMillan, B.; Meakins, A.; Meyer, H.; Michael, C.; Militello, F.; Milnes, J.; Morris, A.W.; Motojima, G.; Muir, D.; Naylor, G.; Nielsen, A.; O’Brien, M.; O’Gorman, T.; O’Mullane, M.; Olsen, J.; Omotani, J.; Ono, Y.; Pamela, S.; Pangione, L.; Parra, F.; Patel, A.; Peebles, W.; Perez, R.; Pinches, S.; Piron, L.; Price, M.; Reinke, M.; Ricci, P.; Riva, F.; Roach, C.; Romanelli, M.; Ryan, D.; Saarelma, S.; Saveliev, A.; Scannell, R.; Schekochihin, A.; Sharapov, S.; Sharples, R.; Shevchenko, V.; Shinohara, K.; Silburn, S.; Simpson, J.; Stanier, A.; Storrs, J.; Summers, H.; Takase, Y.; Tamain, P.; Tanabe, H.; Tanaka, H.; Tani, K.; Taylor, D.; Thomas, D.; Thomas-Davies, N.; Thornton, A.; Turnyanskiy, M.; Valovic, M.; Vann, R.; Van Wyk, F.; Walkden, N.; Watanabe, T.; Wilson, H.; Wischmeier, M.; Yamada, T.; Young, J.; Zoletnik, S.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 10 (2017), č. článku 102007. ISSN 0029-5515. [IAEA Fusion Energy Conference/26./. Kyoto, 17.10.2016-22.10.2016] EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 633053 - EUROfusion Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : MAST upgrade * DBS system * edge and core turbulence Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 3.307, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1741-4326/aa65e0/meta

  13. Overview of physics results from MAST

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Meyer, H.; Akers, R.J.; Alladio, F.; Appel, L.C.; Axon, K.B.; Ben Ayed, N.; Boerner, P.; Buttery, R.J.; Carolan, P.G.; Ciric, D.; Challis, C.D.; Chapman, I.; Coyler, G.; Conner, J.W.; Conway, N.J.; Cowley, S.; Cox, M.; Counsell, G.F.; Cunningham, G.; Darke, A.; deBock, M.; deTemmerman, G.; Dendy, R.O.; Dowling, J.; Dnestrovskij, A.Yu.; Dnestrovskij, Yu.N.; Dudson, B.; Dunai, D.; Dunstan, M.; Field, A.R.; Foster, A.; Garzotti, L.; Gibbon, K.; Gryaznevich, M.P.; Guttenfelder, W.; Hawkes, N.C.; Harrison, J.; Helander, P.; Hnat, B.; Hole, M.J.; Howell, D.F.; Duc Hua, M.; Hubbard, A.; Istenic, M.; Joiner, N.; Keeling, D.; Kirk, A.; Koslowski, H.R.; Liang, Y.; Lilley, M.; Lisgo, S.; Lloyd, B.; Maddison, G.P.; Maingi, R.; Mancuso, A.; Manhood, S.J.; Martin, R.; McArdle, G.J.; McCone, J.; Michael, C.; Micozzi, P.; Morgan, T.; Morris, A.W.; Muir, D.G.; Nardon, E.; Naylor, G.; O’Brien, M.R.; O’Gorman, T.; Patel, A.; Pinches, S.; Preinhaelter, Josef; Price, M.N.; Rachlew, E.; Reiter, D.; Roach, C.M.; Rozhansky, V.; Saarelma, S.; Saveliev, A.; Scannell, R.; Sharapov, S.E.; Shevchenko, V.; Shibaev, S.; Smith, H.; Staebler, G.E.; Stork, D.; Storrs, J.; Sykes, A.; Tallents, S.; Tamain, P.; Taylor, D.; Temple, D.; Thomas-Davies, N.; Thornton, A.; Thyagaraja, A.; Turnyanskiy, M.R.; Urban, Jakub; Valovic, M.; Vann, R.G.L.; Volpe, F.; Voss, F.; Walsh, M.J.; Warder, S.E.V.; Watkins, R.; Wilson, H.R.; Windridge, M.; Wisse, M.; Zabolotski, A.; Zoletnik, S.; Zolotukhin, O.; MAST, Mast.Teams.; NBI, NBI.Teams.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 10 (2009), s. 104017-104017 ISSN 0029-5515. [IAEA Fusion Energy Conference/22nd./. Geneva, 13.10.2008-18.10.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/08/0419; GA MŠk 7G09042 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Overdense plasma * MAST * Tokamaks * Diagnostics * Elektron Bernstein waves Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 4.270, year: 2009 http://www.iop.org/EJ/abstract/0029-5515/49/10/104017

  14. Investigation of anchor nut loosening in high-mast light poles using field monitoring and finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    High mast lighting poles (HMLPs) are cost effective structures for lighting highways and intersections. They are 100 to 250 feet (30m to 76m) tall, and can hold a variety of lamp configurations. They are : commonly used at highway interchanges becaus...

  15. Preliminary validation of the Multi-Attitude Suicide Tendency (MAST ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective:The factor structure of the Multi-Attitude Suicide Tendency (MAST) scale was examined using a sample of non-white South African adolescents. Method: The MAST scale was administered to 205 secondary school students between 13 and 20 years of age. Results: The scale demonstrated satisfactory internal ...

  16. Measuring histamine and cytokine release from basophils and mast cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bettina M; Falkencrone, Sidsel; Skov, Per S

    2014-01-01

    Basophils and mast cells are known for their capability to release both preformed and newly synthesized inflammatory mediators. In this chapter we describe how to stimulate and detect histamine released from basophils in whole blood, purified basophils, in vitro cultured mast cells, and in situ s...

  17. Mast Cells: A Pivotal Role in Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerappan, Arul; O'Connor, Nathan J.; Brazin, Jacqueline; Reid, Alicia C.; Jung, Albert; McGee, David; Summers, Barbara; Branch-Elliman, Dascher; Stiles, Brendon; Worgall, Stefan; Kaner, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is characterized by an inflammatory response that includes macrophages, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and mast cells. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether mast cells play a role in initiating pulmonary fibrosis. Pulmonary fibrosis was induced with bleomycin in mast-cell-deficient WBB6F1-W/Wv (MCD) mice and their congenic controls (WBB6F1-+/+). Mast cell deficiency protected against bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, but protection was reversed with the re-introduction of mast cells to the lungs of MCD mice. Two mast cell mediators were identified as fibrogenic: histamine and renin, via angiotensin (ANG II). Both human and rat lung fibroblasts express the histamine H1 and ANG II AT1 receptor subtypes and when activated, they promote proliferation, transforming growth factor β1 secretion, and collagen synthesis. Mast cells appear to be critical to pulmonary fibrosis. Therapeutic blockade of mast cell degranulation and/or histamine and ANG II receptors should attenuate pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:23570576

  18. Histophysiology of mast cells in skin and other organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, H; Förster, F J

    1975-10-29

    Our observations demonstrate an intimate relationship between peripheral nerve fibers and mast cells. In addition, mast cells in various organs influence both the small blood vessels and the organ parenchyma cells. These relations are interpreted in the sence of a neuro-hormonale feedback-system.

  19. Stereological quantification of mast cells in human synovium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, T E; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Herlin, T

    1999-01-01

    Mast cells participate in both the acute allergic reaction as well as in chronic inflammatory diseases. Earlier studies have revealed divergent results regarding the quantification of mast cells in the human synovium. The aim of the present study was therefore to quantify these cells in the human...... synovium, using stereological techniques. Different methods of staining and quantification have previously been used for mast cell quantification in human synovium. Stereological techniques provide precise and unbiased information on the number of cell profiles in two-dimensional tissue sections of......, in this case, human synovium. In 10 patients suffering from osteoarthritis a median of 3.6 mast cells/mm2 synovial membrane was found. The total number of cells (synoviocytes, fibroblasts, lymphocytes, leukocytes) present was 395.9 cells/mm2 (median). The mast cells constituted 0.8% of all the cell profiles...

  20. Mast cell function modulating IgE-mediated allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruby Pawankar

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic diseases, such as atopic rhinitis, bronchial asthma and urticaria, are prevalent and increasing in frequency. Mast cells are known to play a central role in the immediate phase reaction of allergic diseases through the IgE-mediated release of a variety of chemical mediators, such as histamine, leukotrienes and prostaglandins. In contrast, T lymphocytes, basophils and eosinophils are thought to be responsible for inducing the late phase response. However, whether the mast cell can be simplistically assigned a role in the immediate phase allergic response and whether mast cells are necessary for the ongoing allergic response, including the development of hyperresponsiveness, remains to be completely studied. In the present article, the author will discuss the integrated roles of mast cells in IgE-mediated allergic inflammation, with specific emphasis on the roles of mast cell-derived cytokines in the late phase allergic response and chronic allergic inflammation.

  1. Digital quantitative analysis of mast cell infiltration in interstitial cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Yoshiyuki; Maeda, Daichi; Morikawa, Teppei; Niimi, Aya; Nomiya, Akira; Yamada, Yukio; Igawa, Yasuhiko; Goto, Akiteru; Fukayama, Masashi; Homma, Yukio

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the significance of mast cell infiltration in interstitial cystitis (IC) by comparison with equally inflamed controls using a digital quantification technique. Bladder biopsy specimens from 31 patients with Hunner type IC and 38 patients with non-Hunner type IC were analyzed. Bladder biopsy specimens from 37 patients without IC, including 19 non-specific chronic cystitis ("non-IC cystitis") specimens and 18 non-inflamed bladder ("normal bladder") specimens, were used as controls. Mast cell tryptase-, CD3-, CD20-, and CD138-immunoreactive cells were quantified using digital image analysis software to evaluate both mast cell and lymphoplasmacytic cell densities. Mast cell and lymphoplasmacytic cell densities were counted independently in the entire lamina propria and detrusor areas and compared among the four groups. In the lamina propria, there were no significant differences in mast cell and lymphoplasmacytic cell densities between Hunner type IC and non-IC cystitis or between non-Hunner type IC and normal bladder specimens. In the detrusor, the mast cell densities were not significantly different among the four groups. Mast cell density was correlated with lymphoplasmacytic cell density, but not with clinical parameters. Mast cell density is not significantly different between IC specimens and non-IC control specimens with a similar degree of background inflammation. The intensity of mast cell infiltration generally correlated with that of lymphoplasmacytic cells. We conclude that mast cell count is of no value in the differential diagnosis between IC and other etiologies. © 2017 The Authors. Neurourology and Urodynamics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Non-immunological activation of peritoneal mast cells of rats by means of mast cell degranulating peptide from bee toxic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, W.

    1982-01-01

    The subject of this dissertation is the interaction of MCD-peptide with the mast cell with regard to binding properties and histamine-liberating activity. The peptide is labelled with Na 125 I, its binding characteristics on degranulating and deactivating mast cells recorded and compared to binding on periteneal macrophages and neutrophilic granulocytes. Further, the non-lytic mode of action of MCD-peptide is pointed out, whereby the surface-active toxic peptide of the bee, melittin, finds application in parallel studies. In order to establish to what extent the binding property of the peptide to the mast cell is inhibited by IgE-antibodies charged on the later, rats are immunized with dead Bordetella pertussis microorganisms as adjuvant and ovalbumin as antigen. The induced IgE specific immune response provides active sensitized mast cells and enriches reagin antibodies in the sera of immunized animals. The binding of peptides is studied on active and passive sensitized mast cells and compared to the situation found with normal mast cells. A further section of work deals with the question whether an altered binding pattern is caused by enzymatic treatment of the cell surface. A possible interference of the MCD-peptide with the IgE-receptor could thus be indicated or other types of binding position demonstrated. The influence of granular secretion on mast cell binding is illustrated by means of studies on isolated mast cell granula. (orig./MG) [de

  3. MAST's Integrated Data Access Management system: IDAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir, D.G.; Appel, L.; Conway, N.J.; Kirk, A.; Martin, R.; Meyer, H.; Storrs, J.; Taylor, D.; Thomas-Davies, N.; Waterhouse, J.

    2008-01-01

    A new Integrated Data Access Management system, IDAM, has been created to address specific data management issues of the MAST spherical Tokamak. For example, this system enables access to numerous file formats, both legacy and modern (IDA, Ufile, netCDF, HDF5, MDSPlus, PPF, JPF). It adds data quality values at the signal level, and automatically corrects for problems in data: in timings, calibrations, and labelling. It also builds new signals from signal components. The IDAM data server uses a hybrid XML-relational database to record how data are accessed, whether locally or remotely, and how alias and generic signal names are mapped to true names. Also, XML documents are used to encode the details of data corrections, as well as definitions of composite signals and error models. The simple, user friendly, API and accessor function library, written in C on Linux, is available for applications in C, C++, IDL and Fortran-90/95/2003 with good performance: a MAST plasma current trace (28 kbytes of data), requested using a generic name and with data corrections applied, is delivered over a 100 Mbit/s network in ∼13 ms

  4. Mast cell distribution in normal adult skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, A S; Heide, R; den Hollander, J C; Mulder, P G M; Tank, B; Oranje, A P

    2005-03-01

    To investigate mast cell distribution in normal adult skin to provide a reference range for comparison with mastocytosis. Mast cells (MCs) were counted in uninvolved skin adjacent to basal cell carcinomas and other dermatological disorders in adults. There was an uneven distribution of MCs in different body sites using the anti-tryptase monoclonal antibody technique. Numbers of MCs on the trunk, upper arm, and upper leg were similar, but were significantly different from those found on the lower leg and forearm. Two distinct groups were formed--proximal and distal. There were 77.0 MCs/mm2 at proximal body sites and 108.2 MCs/mm2 at distal sites. Adjusted for the adjacent diagnosis and age, this difference was consistent. The numbers of MCs in uninvolved skin adjacent to basal cell carcinomas and other dermatological disorders were not different from those in the control group. Differences in the numbers of MCs between the distal and the proximal body sites must be considered when MCs are counted for a reliable diagnosis of mastocytosis. A pilot study in patients with mastocytosis underlined the variation in the numbers of MCs in mastocytosis and normal skin, but showed a considerable overlap. The observed numbers of MCs in adults cannot be extrapolated to children. MC numbers varied significantly between proximal and distal body sites and these differences must be considered when MCs are counted for a reliable diagnosis of mastocytosis. There was a considerable overlap between the numbers of MCs in mastocytosis and normal skin.

  5. The Significance of Mast Cells and Eosinophils Counts in Surgically Resected Appendix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwini Kolur

    2014-06-01

    Materials and Methods: The material for study consisted of appendix specimens received for histopathological examination in the Department of pathology. A 5 year study was conducted, 3 years retrospective and 2 years prospective. Results: Out of 777 cases studied the incidence of appendicitis is high, in the first and second decades of life and slightly higher in females. Recurrent appendicitis was more common when compared to other inflamed appendices. Conclusions: Eosinophil counts in all the layers were very high in acute eosinophilic appendicitis compared to normal appendices. A higher mast cell count was seen in acute eosinophilic appendicitis and recurrent appendicitis. No correlation was found between mast cell and eosinophilic density. Our observations support the allergic theory of appendicitis rather than the obstructive theory. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2014; 2(3.000: 150-153

  6. Overview of physics results from MAST towards ITER/DEMO and the MAST Upgrade

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Meyer, H.; Abel, I.G.; Akers, R.J.; Allan, A.; Allan, S.Y.; Appel, L.C.; Asunta, O.; Barnes, M.; Barratt, N.C.; Ben Ayed, N.; Bradley, J.W.; Canik, J.; Cahyna, Pavel; Cecconelo, M.; Challis, C.D.; Chapman, I.T.; Ciric, D.; Colyer, G.; Conway, N.J.; Cox, M.; Crowley, B.J.; Cowley, S.C.; Cunningham, G.; Danilov, A.; Darke, A.; De Bock, M.F.M.; De Temmerman, G.; Dendy, R.O.; Denner, P.; Dickinson, D.; Dnestrovsky, A.Y.; Dnestrovsky, Y.; Driscoll, M.D.; Dudson, B.; Dunai, D.; Dunstan, M.; Dura, P.; Elmore, S.; Field, A.R.; Fishpool, G.; Freethy, S.; Fundameski, W.; Garzotti, L.; Ghim, Y.C.; Gibson, K.J.; Gryaznevich, M.P.; Harrison, J.; Havlíčková, E.; Hawkes, N.C.; Heidbrink, W.W.; Hender, T.C.; Highcock, E.; Higgins, D.; Hill, P.; Hnat, B.; Hole, M.J.; Horáček, Jan; Howell, D.F.; Imada, K.; Jones, O.; Kaveeva, E.; Keeling, D.; Kirk, A.; Kočan, M.; Lake, R.J.; Lehnen, M.; Leggate, H.J.; Liang, Y.; Lilley, M.K.; Lisgo, S.W.; Liu, Y.Q.; Lloyd, B.; Maddison, G.P.; Mailloux, J.; Martin, R.; McArdle, G.J.; McClements, K.G.; McMillan, B.; Michael, C.; Militello, F.; Molchanov, P.; Mordijck, S.; Morgan, T.; Morris, A.W.; Muir, D.G.; Nardon, E.; Naulin, V.; Naylor, G.; Nielsen, A.H.; O’Brien, M.R.; O’Gorman, T.; Pamela, S.; Parra, F.I.; Patel, A.; Pinches, S.D.; Price, M.N.; Roach, C.M.; Robinson, J.R.; Romanelli, M.; Rozhansky, V.; Saarelma, S.; Sangaroon, S.; Saveliev, A.; Scannell, R.; Seidl, J.; Sharapov, S.E.; Schekochihin, A.A.; Shevchenko, V.; Shibaev, S.; Stork, D.; Storrs, J.; Sykes, A.; Tallents, G. J.; Tamain, P.; Taylor, D.; Temple, D.; Thomas-Davies, N.; Thornton, A.; Turnyanskiy, M.R.; Valovič, M.; Vann, R.G.L.; Verwichte, E.; Voskoboynikov, P.; Voss, G.; Warder, S.E.V.; Wilson, H. R.; Wodniak, I.; Zoletnik, S.; Zagórski, R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 10 (2013), s. 104008-104008 ISSN 0029-5515. [IAEA Fusion Energy Conference/24./. San Diego, 08.10.2012-13.10.2012] Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : ITER * DEMO * MAST * spherical tokamak * JET Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.243, year: 2013 http://iopscience.iop.org/0029-5515/53/10/104008/pdf/0029-5515_53_10_104008.pdf

  7. Mast Cells in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Guo-Ping; Lindholt, Jes Sanddal

    2013-01-01

    Mast cells (MCs) are proinflammatory cells that play important roles in allergic responses, tumor growth, obesity, diabetes, atherosclerosis, and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Although the presence and function of MCs in atherosclerotic lesions have been thoroughly studied in human specimens......, in primary cultured vascular cells, and in atherosclerosis in animals, their role in AAA was recognized only recently. Via multiple activation pathways, MCs release a spectrum of mediators � including histamine, inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, proteoglycans, and proteases � to activate...... neighboring cells, degrade extracellular matrix proteins, process latent bioactive molecules, promote angiogenesis, recruit additional inflammatory cells, and stimulate vascular cell apoptosis. These activities associate closely with medial elastica breakdown, medial smooth-muscle cell loss and thinning...

  8. Mast Cells in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Guo-Ping; Lindholt, Jes Sanddal

    2013-01-01

    neighboring cells, degrade extracellular matrix proteins, process latent bioactive molecules, promote angiogenesis, recruit additional inflammatory cells, and stimulate vascular cell apoptosis. These activities associate closely with medial elastica breakdown, medial smooth-muscle cell loss and thinning......Mast cells (MCs) are proinflammatory cells that play important roles in allergic responses, tumor growth, obesity, diabetes, atherosclerosis, and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Although the presence and function of MCs in atherosclerotic lesions have been thoroughly studied in human specimens......, in primary cultured vascular cells, and in atherosclerosis in animals, their role in AAA was recognized only recently. Via multiple activation pathways, MCs release a spectrum of mediators � including histamine, inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, proteoglycans, and proteases � to activate...

  9. Changes in numbers and types of mast cell colony-forming cells in the peritoneal cavity of mice after injection of distilled water: evidence that mast cells suppress differentiation of bone marrow-derived precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanakura, Y.; Kuriu, A.; Waki, N.; Nakano, T.; Asai, H.; Yonezawa, T.; Kitamura, Y.

    1988-01-01

    Two different types of cells in the peritoneal cavity of mice produce mast cell colonies in methylcellulose. Large mast cell colonies are produced by bone marrow-derived precursors resembling lymphoid cells by light microscopy (L-CFU-Mast), whereas medium and small mast cell colonies are produced by morphologically identifiable mast cells (M-CFU-Mast and S-CFU-Mast, respectively). In the present study we eradicated peritoneal mast cells by intraperitoneal (IP) injection of distilled water. The regeneration process was investigated to clarify the relationship between L-CFU-Mast, M-CFU-Mast, and S-CFU-Mast. After injection of distilled water, M-CFU-Mast and S-CFU-Mast disappeared, but L-CFU-Mast increased, and then M-CFU-Mast and S-CFU-Mast appeared, suggesting the presence of a hierarchic relationship. When purified peritoneal mast cells were injected two days after the water injection, the L-CFU-Mast did not increase. In the peritoneal cavity of WBB6F1-+/+ mice that had been lethally irradiated and rescued by bone marrow cells of C57BL/6-bgJ/bgJ (beige, Chediak-Higashi syndrome) mice, L-CFU-Mast were of bgJ/bgJ type, but M-CFU-Mast and S-CFU-Mast were of +/+ type. The injection of distilled water to the radiation chimeras resulted in the development of bgJ/bgJ-type M-CFU-Mast and then S-CFU-Mast. The presence of mast cells appeared to suppress the recruitment of L-CFU-Mast from the bloodstream and to inhibit the differentiation of L-CFU-Mast to M-CFU-Mast

  10. Changes in numbers and types of mast cell colony-forming cells in the peritoneal cavity of mice after injection of distilled water: evidence that mast cells suppress differentiation of bone marrow-derived precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanakura, Y.; Kuriu, A.; Waki, N.; Nakano, T.; Asai, H.; Yonezawa, T.; Kitamura, Y.

    1988-03-01

    Two different types of cells in the peritoneal cavity of mice produce mast cell colonies in methylcellulose. Large mast cell colonies are produced by bone marrow-derived precursors resembling lymphoid cells by light microscopy (L-CFU-Mast), whereas medium and small mast cell colonies are produced by morphologically identifiable mast cells (M-CFU-Mast and S-CFU-Mast, respectively). In the present study we eradicated peritoneal mast cells by intraperitoneal (IP) injection of distilled water. The regeneration process was investigated to clarify the relationship between L-CFU-Mast, M-CFU-Mast, and S-CFU-Mast. After injection of distilled water, M-CFU-Mast and S-CFU-Mast disappeared, but L-CFU-Mast increased, and then M-CFU-Mast and S-CFU-Mast appeared, suggesting the presence of a hierarchic relationship. When purified peritoneal mast cells were injected two days after the water injection, the L-CFU-Mast did not increase. In the peritoneal cavity of WBB6F1-+/+ mice that had been lethally irradiated and rescued by bone marrow cells of C57BL/6-bgJ/bgJ (beige, Chediak-Higashi syndrome) mice, L-CFU-Mast were of bgJ/bgJ type, but M-CFU-Mast and S-CFU-Mast were of +/+ type. The injection of distilled water to the radiation chimeras resulted in the development of bgJ/bgJ-type M-CFU-Mast and then S-CFU-Mast. The presence of mast cells appeared to suppress the recruitment of L-CFU-Mast from the bloodstream and to inhibit the differentiation of L-CFU-Mast to M-CFU-Mast.

  11. Topical antihistamines and mast cell stabilisers for treating seasonal and perennial allergic conjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Mayret; Scott, Neil W; Mustafa, Mohammad Z; Mustafa, Mohammed S; Azuara-Blanco, Augusto

    2015-06-01

    Seasonal/perennial allergic conjunctivitis is the most common allergic conjunctivitis, usually with acute manifestations when a person is exposed to allergens and with typical signs and symptoms including itching, redness, and tearing. The clinical signs and symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis are mediated by the release of histamine by mast cells. Histamine antagonists (also called antihistamines) inhibit the action of histamine by blocking histamine H1 receptors, antagonising the vasoconstrictor, and to a lesser extent, the vasodilator effects of histamine. Mast cell stabilisers inhibit degranulation and consequently the release of histamine by interrupting the normal chain of intracellular signals. Topical treatments include eye drops with antihistamines, mast cell stabilisers, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, combinations of the previous treatments, and corticosteroids. Standard treatment is based on topical antihistamines alone or topical mast cell stabilisers alone or a combination of treatments. There is clinical uncertainty about the relative efficacy and safety of topical treatment. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of topical antihistamines and mast cell stabilisers, alone or in combination, for use in treating seasonal and perennial allergic conjunctivitis. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2014, Issue 7), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to July 2014), EMBASE (January 1980 to July 2014), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 17 July 2014. We also searched the

  12. TRPM8 mediates cold and menthol allergies associated with mast cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yeongyo; Jang, Yongwoo; Yang, Young Duk; Lee, Chang-Hun; Lee, Yunjong; Oh, Uhtaek

    2010-10-01

    Exposure to low temperatures often causes allergic responses or urticaria. Similarly, menthol, a common food additive is also known to cause urticaria, asthma, and rhinitis. However, despite the obvious clinical implications, the molecular mechanisms responsible for inducing allergic responses to low temperatures and menthol have not been determined. Because a non-selective cation channel, transient receptor potential subtype M8 (TRPM8) is activated by cold and menthol, we hypothesized that this channel mediates cold- and menthol-induced histamine release in mast cells. Here, we report that TRPM8 is expressed in the basophilic leukemia mast cell line, RBL-2H3, and that exposure to menthol or low temperatures induced Ca(2+) influx in RBL-2H3 cells, which was reversed by a TRPM8 blocker. Furthermore, menthol, a TRPM8 agonist, induced the dose-dependent release of histamine from RBL-2H3 cells. When TRPM8 transcripts were reduced by siRNA (small interfering RNA), menthol- and cold-induced Ca(2+) influx and histamine release were significantly reduced. In addition, subcutaneous injection of menthol evoked scratching, a typical histamine-induced response which was reversed by a TRPM8 blocker. Thus, our findings indicate that TRPM8 mediates the menthol- and cold-induced allergic responses of mast cells, and suggest that TRPM8 antagonists be viewed as potential treatments for cold- and menthol-induced allergies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Fatigue failure and cracking in high mast poles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    This report presents the findings of a comprehensive research project to investigate the fatigue : cracking and failure of galvanized high mast illumination poles (HMIP). Ultrasonic inspection of : poles throughout the state has revealed the presence...

  14. Regulation of mast cell activation by complement-derived peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdei, Anna; Andrásfalvy, Márton; Péterfy, Hajna; Tóth, Gábor; Pecht, Israel

    2004-03-29

    It is known for more than 25 years that the complement-derived anaphylatoxic peptides, C3a, C4a and C5a are potent activators of basophils and certain types of mast cells. Although tissue distribution of receptors for C3a and C5a well exceeds myeloid cells, apparently they are not expressed on mucosal type mast cells, consequently these cells are not activated by C3a and C5a. Our results do however demonstrate that C3a and peptides related to this complement activation product are able to inhibit FcRI-clustering induced activation of mucosal type mast cells-such as RBL-2H3 cells and bone-marrow derived mast cells. Based on the current results we propose the presence of separate "activator" and "inhibitor" sequence motifs in C3a which are in balance under physiologic conditions.

  15. On the functioning of folded dipole antennas on conducting masts

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mcnamara, DA

    1993-11-01

    Full Text Available The radiation properties of individual folded dipole antennas mounted at various radial distances from the centre of conducting masts of different diameters are described in compact fashion....

  16. Mast Cell Inhibition Improves Pulmonary Vascular Remodeling in Pulmonary Hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartelds, Beatrijs; van Loon, Rosa Laura E.; Mohaupt, Saffloer; Wijnberg, Hans; Dickinson, Michael G.; Takens, Janny; van Albada, Mirjam; Berger, Rolf M. F.; Boersma, B.

    Background: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive angioproliferative disease with high morbidity and mortality. Although the histopathology is well described, its pathogenesis is largely unknown. We previously identified the increased presence of mast cells and their markers in a

  17. Precision Deployable Mast for the SWOT KaRIn Instrument

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Design and prototype a lightweight, precision-deployable mast for the Ka-band Radar Interferometer (KaRIn) antennas in the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT)...

  18. Physiological and pathophysiological functions of intestinal mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Stephan C

    2009-07-01

    The normal gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa is equipped with mast cells that account for 2-3% of lamina propria cells under normal conditions. Mast cells are generally associated with allergic disease, and indeed, food allergy that manifests in the GI tract is usually mast cell dependent. On the other hand, mast cells have a number of physiological functions in the GI tract, namely regulatory functions such as control of blood flow and coagulation, smooth muscle contraction and peristalsis, and secretion of acid, electrolytes, and mucus by epithelial cells. One of the most intriguing functions of intestinal mast cells is their role in host defense against microbes like bacteria, viruses, or parasites. Mast cells recognize microbes by antibody-dependent mechanisms and through pattern-recognition receptors. They direct the subsequent immune response by attracting both granulocytes and lymphocytes to the site of challenge via paracrine cytokine release. Moreover, mast cells initiate, by releasing proinflammatory mediators, innate defense mechanisms such as enhanced epithelial secretion, peristalsis, and alarm programs of the enteric nervous This initiation can occur in response to a primary contact to the microbe or other danger signals, but becomes much more effective if the triggering antigen reappears and antibodies of the IgE or IgG type have been generated in the meantime by the specific immune system. Thus, mast cells operate at the interface between innate and adaptive immune responses to enhance the defense against pathogens and, most likely, the commensal flora. In this respect, it is important to note that mast cells are directly involved in controlling the function of the intestinal barrier that turned out to be a crucial site for the development of infectious and immune-mediated diseases. Hence, intestinal mast cells perform regulatory functions to maintain tissue homeostasis, they are involved in host defense mechanisms against pathogens, and they can induce

  19. Optimal Electrostatic Space Tower (Mast, New Space Elevator)

    OpenAIRE

    Bolonkin, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Author offers and researched the new and revolutionary inflatable electrostatic AB space towers (mast, new space elevator) up to one hundred twenty thousands kilometers (or more) in height. The main innovation is filling the tower by electron gas, which can create pressure up one atmosphere, has negligible small weight and surprising properties. The suggested mast has following advantages in comparison with conventional space elevator: 1. Electrostatic AB tower may be built from Earth surface...

  20. IL-9-Producing Mast Cell Precursors and Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0517 TITLE: IL-9-Producing Mast Cell Precursors and Food Allergy PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Simon P. Hogan PhD...IL-9-Producing Mast Cell Precursors and Food Allergy 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Yui Hsi Wang, Sunil...for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT: Food allergy is a harmful immune reaction driven by uncontrolled type-2

  1. Mast cell-derived histamine mediates cystitis pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles N Rudick

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Mast cells trigger inflammation that is associated with local pain, but the mechanisms mediating pain are unclear. Interstitial cystitis (IC is a bladder disease that causes debilitating pelvic pain of unknown origin and without consistent inflammation, but IC symptoms correlate with elevated bladder lamina propria mast cell counts. We hypothesized that mast cells mediate pelvic pain directly and examined pain behavior using a murine model that recapitulates key aspects of IC.Infection of mice with pseudorabies virus (PRV induces a neurogenic cystitis associated with lamina propria mast cell accumulation dependent upon tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF, TNF-mediated bladder barrier dysfunction, and pelvic pain behavior, but the molecular basis for pelvic pain is unknown. In this study, both PRV-induced pelvic pain and bladder pathophysiology were abrogated in mast cell-deficient mice but were restored by reconstitution with wild type bone marrow. Pelvic pain developed normally in TNF- and TNF receptor-deficient mice, while bladder pathophysiology was abrogated. Conversely, genetic or pharmacologic disruption of histamine receptor H1R or H2R attenuated pelvic pain without altering pathophysiology.These data demonstrate that mast cells promote cystitis pain and bladder pathophysiology through the separable actions of histamine and TNF, respectively. Therefore, pain is independent of pathology and inflammation, and histamine receptors represent direct therapeutic targets for pain in IC and other chronic pain conditions.

  2. Mast cells in rheumatoid arthritis: friends or foes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivellese, Felice; Nerviani, Alessandra; Rossi, Francesca Wanda; Marone, Gianni; Matucci-Cerinic, Marco; de Paulis, Amato; Pitzalis, Costantino

    2017-06-01

    Mast cells are tissue-resident cells of the innate immunity, implicated in the pathogenesis of many autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). They are present in synovia and their activation has been linked to the potentiation of inflammation in the course of RA. However, recent investigations questioned the role of mast cells in arthritis. In particular, animal models generated conflicting results, so that many of their pro-inflammatory, i.e. pro-arthritogenic functions, even though supported by robust experimental evidence, have been labelled as redundant. At the same time, a growing body of evidence suggests that mast cells can act as tunable immunomodulatory cells. These characteristics, not yet fully understood in the context of RA, could partially explain the inconsistent results obtained with experimental models, which do not account for the pro- and anti-inflammatory functions exerted in more chronic heterogeneous conditions such as RA. Here we present an overview of the current knowledge on mast cell involvement in RA, including the intriguing hypothesis of mast cells acting as subtle immunomodulatory cells and the emerging concept of synovial mast cells as potential biomarkers for patient stratification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Mast cells and atopic dermatitis. Stereological quantification of mast cells in atopic dermatitis and normal human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, T E; Olesen, A B; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1997-01-01

    Stereological quantification of mast cell numbers was applied to sections of punch biopsies from lesional and nonlesional skin of atopic dermatitis patients and skin of healthy volunteers. We also investigated whether the method of staining and/or the fixative influenced the results...... of the determination of the mast cell profile numbers. The punch biopsies were taken from the same four locations in both atopic dermatitis patients and normal individuals. The locations were the scalp, neck and flexure of the elbow (lesional skin), and nates (nonlesional skin). Clinical scoring was carried out...... yielded the following results: (1) in atopic dermatitis lesional skin an increased number of mast cell profiles was found as compared with nonlesional skin, (2) comparing atopic dermatitis skin with normal skin, a significantly increased number of mast cell profiles per millimetre squared was found...

  4. Mast cells and atopic dermatitis. Stereological quantification of mast cells in atopic dermatitis and normal human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, T E; Olesen, A B; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1997-01-01

    at the site of each biopsy. After fixation and plastic embedding, the biopsies were cut into 2 microns serial sections. Ten sections, 30 microns apart, from each biopsy were examined and stained alternately with either toluidine blue or Giemsa stain and mast cell profile numbers were determined. The study...... of the determination of the mast cell profile numbers. The punch biopsies were taken from the same four locations in both atopic dermatitis patients and normal individuals. The locations were the scalp, neck and flexure of the elbow (lesional skin), and nates (nonlesional skin). Clinical scoring was carried out...... the clinical score and the number of mast cell profiles per millimetre squared. Using stereological techniques, this study indicated that mast cells might participate in the inflammatory process in skin leading to atopic dermatitis....

  5. Improved H-mode access in connected DND in MAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, H; Carolan, P G; Conway, N J; Counsell, G F; Cunningham, G; Field, A R; Kirk, A; McClements, K G; Price, M; Taylor, D

    2005-01-01

    In the Mega-Amp Spherical Tokamak, MAST, the formation of the edge transport barrier leading to the high-confinement (H-mode) regime is greatly facilitated by operating in a double null diverted (DND) configuration where both X-points are practically on the same flux surface. Ohmic H-modes are presently only obtained in these connected double null diverted (CDND) configurations. The ease of H-mode access is lost if the two flux surfaces passing through the X-points are radially separated by more than one ion Larmor radius (ρ i ∼ 6 mm) at the low-field-side mid-plane. The change of the magnetic configuration from disconnected to CDND is accompanied by a change in the radial electric field of about ΔE ψ ∼ -1 kV m -1 and a reduction of the electron temperature decay length in the high-field-side scrape-off-layer. Other parameters at the plasma edge, in particular those affecting the H-mode access criteria of common L/H transition theories, are not affected by the slight changes to the magnetic configuration. It is believed that the observed change in E ψ , which may result from differences in ion orbit losses, leads to a higher initial E x B flow shear in CDND configurations which could lead to the easier H-mode access

  6. Canine mast cell tumors: diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrett LD

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Laura D Garrett Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, University of Illinois College of Veterinary Medicine, Urbana, IL, USA Abstract: Mast cell tumors (MCTs are the most common malignant skin cancer in dogs, and significant variability exists in their biological behavior. Most MCTs are cured with appropriate local therapy, but a subset shows malignant behavior with the potential to spread to lymph nodes, liver, spleen, and other areas and to thus become a systemic cancer. Because of this variable behavior, it is difficult to predict how any individual tumor is going to behave. The variability thus creates uncertainty in deciding what a particular dog's prognosis is, whether staging tests to assess for metastasis are needed, and even what treatments will be necessary for best outcome. In addition to controversies over the potential for development of systemic disease, or diffuse metastasis, controversies also exist over what treatment is needed to best attain local control of these tumors. This article will briefly discuss the diagnosis of MCTs in dogs and will summarize the literature in regards to the controversial topics surrounding the more aggressive form of this disease, with recommendations made based on published studies. Keywords: mitotic index, mastocytosis, tyrosine kinase inhibitor, histologic grade

  7. Introduction: Regionalising the Common Fisheries Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raakjær, Jesper; Hegland, Troels Jacob

    2012-01-01

    The idea of putting together a special issue of MAST on the issue of regionalisation of the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP), was born in late 2010. Having participated in an EU funded research project looking into how an eco-system based approach to fisheries management could be operationalised...

  8. Acupuncture causes serotonin release by mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, Nikolay; Atanasova, Dimitrinka; Tomov, Nikola; Sivrev, Dimitar; Lazarov, Nikolai

    2017-01-01

    Mast cells (MCs) are important object in experimental acupuncture due to their putative involvement in local reactions to needling. In the rat, they are shown to contain in their granules, among other tissue mediators, serotonin, also called 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). The aim of this study is to examine the normal distribution of 5-HT-containing MCs in soft tissues of Zusanli (ST36) acupuncture point (acupoint) and their morphological changes caused by experimental acupuncture. We observed 5-HT-immunopositive MCs in the tissues and in the vicinity of the needle tract formed after acupuncture. As a result of acupuncture needling, the tissue integrity is disrupted and certain folds are formed in the direction of the needle tract. Connective tissue in the vicinity of the needle tract gets compressed and displaced, together with the 5-HT-immunoreactive MCs seen there. Some of those 5-HT-immunopositive MCs showed signs of degranulation with numerous discharged granules, some of them found at a considerable distance form the cell. Furthermore, 5-HT-immunopositive MCs are unevenly distributed in soft tissues of ST36 acupoint. Larger numbers of 5-HT-containing MCs were visualized in subcutis and dermis, compared to the observed in striated muscles. Placing the acupuncture needle into the rat skin caused a formation of an apparent needle tract, tissue displacement and degranulation of 5-HT-immunopositive MCs. The demonstrated serotonin release by means of MC degranulation might be involved in the local tissue response to acupuncture.

  9. Mast cells express tyrosine hydroxylase and store dopamine in a serglycin-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönnberg, Elin; Calounova, Gabriela; Pejler, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    Here we show that mast cells contain dopamine and that mast cell activation causes dopamine depletion, indicating its presence within secretory granules. Dopamine storage increased during mast cell maturation from bone marrow precursors, and was dependent on the presence of serglycin. Moreover, the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase, the key enzyme in dopamine biosynthesis, was induced during mast cell maturation; histidine decarboxylase and tryptophan hydroxylase 1 were also induced. Mast cell activation caused a robust induction of histidine decarboxylase, but no stimulation of tyrosine hydroxylase or tryptophan hydroxylase 1 expression. The present study points toward a possible role of dopamine in mast cell function.

  10. Evaluation of Mast Cell and Blood Vessel Density in Inflammatory Periapical Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safoura Seifi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Radicular cystsand periapical granulomas are the most common periapical inflammatory lesions. However, the role of cellular immunity and microvessels in their pathogenesis remains unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mast cell density (MCD, mircovessel density (MVD and investigating the correlation between their densities with each other in the above mentioned lesions.Materials & Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 40 paraffin blocks of mentioned lesions were selected from achieves of School of Dentistry, Babol University of Medical Sciences. Three sections were prepared from each block and stained by hematoxylin-eosin, toluidine blue, and immunohistochemically for CD34 to determine the score of inflammation, presence of mast cells and degranulatedmast cells (DMCs, and MVD, respectively. The correlation between MCD and either inflammatory infiltrate or MVD was evaluated. Data analyzed by t student, Mann-Whitney and Spearman test.Results: Mast cells were present in all periapical inflammatory lesions; 15.4±14.8 for MCD, 7.2±6.1 for DMCs, and the ratio of DMCs to total number of MCs was 0.354±0.166 and 14.8+4.44 for blood vessel density in radicular cyst and 8.52±6.75, 2.91±2.1, 0.196±0.194 and 13±8.02 in periapical granulomas, respectively. There was a positive correlation between MCD and MVD in radicular cyst (P=0.03, r=0.341, but not in periapical granulomas (P=0.6, r=0.124. MCD and MVD increased with the score of inflammation in radicular cyst (P=0.001, r=0.7 and periapical granuloma (P=0.012, r=0.54.Conclusion: Mast cells and microvessels play a role in pathogenesis of periapical inflammatory lesions. In this study, the density of mast cells and DMCs in radicular cyst was higher than periapical granulomas, but no difference was observed regarding MVD in periapical inflammatory lesions. It seems that the relationship between MCD and MVD is different based on the clinical stage of periapical

  11. Blockade of mast cell activation reduces cutaneous scar formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chen

    Full Text Available Damage to the skin initiates a cascade of well-orchestrated events that ultimately leads to repair of the wound. The inflammatory response is key to wound healing both through preventing infection and stimulating proliferation and remodeling of the skin. Mast cells within the tissue are one of the first immune cells to respond to trauma, and upon activation they release pro-inflammatory molecules to initiate recruitment of leukocytes and promote a vascular response in the tissue. Additionally, mast cells stimulate collagen synthesis by dermal fibroblasts, suggesting they may also influence scar formation. To examine the contribution of mast cells in tissue repair, we determined the effects the mast cell inhibitor, disodium cromoglycate (DSCG, on several parameters of dermal repair including, inflammation, re-epithelialization, collagen fiber organization, collagen ultrastructure, scar width and wound breaking strength. Mice treated with DSCG had significantly reduced levels of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1α, IL-1β, and CXCL1. Although DSCG treatment reduced the production of inflammatory mediators, the rate of re-epithelialization was not affected. Compared to control, inhibition of mast cell activity caused a significant decrease in scar width along with accelerated collagen re-organization. Despite the reduced scar width, DSCG treatment did not affect the breaking strength of the healed tissue. Tryptase β1 exclusively produced by mast cells was found to increase significantly in the course of wound healing. However, DSCG treatment did not change its level in the wounds. These results indicate that blockade of mast cell activation reduces scar formation and inflammation without further weakening the healed wound.

  12. Mast cell chemotaxis – Chemoattractants and signaling pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana eHalova

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Migration of mast cells is essential for their recruitment within target tissues where they play an important role in innate and adaptive immune responses. These processes rely on the ability of mast cells to recognize appropriate chemotactic stimuli and react to them by a chemotactic response. Another level of intercellular communication is attained by production of chemoattractants by activated mast cells, which results in accumulation of mast cells and other hematopoietic cells at the sites of inflammation. Mast cells express numerous surface receptors for various ligands with properties of potent chemoattractants. They include the stem cell factor recognized by c-Kit, antigen, which binds to immunoglobulin E (IgE anchored to the high affinity IgE receptor (FcRI, highly cytokinergic IgE recognized by FcRI, lipid mediator sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P, which binds to G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs. Other large groups of chemoattractants are eicosanoids [prostaglandin E2 and D2, leukotriene (LT B4, LTD4 and LTC4, and others] and chemokines (CC, CXC, C and CX3X, which also bind to various GPCRs. Further noteworthy chemoattractants are isoforms of transforming growth factor (TGF , which are sensitively recognized by TGF- serine/threonine type I and II  receptors, adenosine, C1q, C3a, and C5a components of the complement, 5-hydroxytryptamine, neuroendocrine peptide catestatin, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor- and others. Here we discuss the major types of chemoattractants recognized by mast cells, their target receptors, as well as signaling pathways they utilize. We also briefly deal with methods used for studies of mast cell chemotaxis and with ways of how these studies profited from the results obtained in other cellular systems.

  13. The impact of technology on the wilderness experience: A review of common themes and approaches in three bodies of literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Shultis

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade, increasing concern has been expressed about the impact of new technologies - especially communication technologies - on the wilderness experience. Many authors have suggested a tipping point has been reached, with new technologies changing the very nature of the 'traditional' wilderness experience in various ways. The loss of direct...

  14. Effects of ionizing radiation on differentiation of murine bone marrow cells into mast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Sho; Yoshino, Hironori; Ishikawa, Junya; Yamaguchi, Masaru; Tsujiguchi, Takakiyo; Nishiyama, Ayaka; Yokoyama, Kouki; Kashiwakura, Ikuo

    2015-01-01

    Mast cells, immune effector cells produced from bone marrow cells, play a major role in immunoglobulin E–mediated allergic responses. Ionizing radiation affects the functions of mast cells, which are involved in radiation-induced tissue damage. However, whether ionizing radiation affects the differential induction of mast cells is unknown. Here we investigated whether bone marrow cells of X-irradiated mice differentiated into mast cells. To induce mast cells, bone marrow cells from X-irradiated and unirradiated mice were cultured in the presence of cytokines required for mast cell induction. Although irradiation at 0.5 Gy and 2 Gy decreased the number of bone marrow cells 1 day post-irradiation, the cultured bone marrow cells of X-irradiated and unirradiated mice both expressed mast cell–related cell-surface antigens. However, the percentage of mast cells in the irradiated group was lower than in the unirradiated group. Similar decreases in the percentage of mast cells induced in the presence of X-irradiation were observed 10 days post irradiation, although the number of bone marrow cells in irradiated mice had recovered by this time. Analysis of mast cell function showed that degranulation of mast cells after immunoglobulin E–mediated allergen recognition was significantly higher in the X-irradiated group compared with in the unirradiated group. In conclusion, bone marrow cells of X-irradiated mice differentiated into mast cells, but ionizing radiation affected the differentiation efficiency and function of mast cells. (author)

  15. Mercury induces inflammatory mediator release from human mast cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson Erika

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mercury is known to be neurotoxic, but its effects on the immune system are less well known. Mast cells are involved in allergic reactions, but also in innate and acquired immunity, as well as in inflammation. Many patients with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD have "allergic" symptoms; moreover, the prevalence of ASD in patients with mastocytosis, characterized by numerous hyperactive mast cells in most tissues, is 10-fold higher than the general population suggesting mast cell involvement. We, therefore, investigated the effect of mercuric chloride (HgCl2 on human mast cell activation. Methods Human leukemic cultured LAD2 mast cells and normal human umbilical cord blood-derived cultured mast cells (hCBMCs were stimulated by HgCl2 (0.1-10 μM for either 10 min for beta-hexosaminidase release or 24 hr for measuring vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and IL-6 release by ELISA. Results HgCl2 induced a 2-fold increase in β-hexosaminidase release, and also significant VEGF release at 0.1 and 1 μM (311 ± 32 pg/106 cells and 443 ± 143 pg/106 cells, respectively from LAD2 mast cells compared to control cells (227 ± 17 pg/106 cells, n = 5, p 2 (0.1 μM to the proinflammatory neuropeptide substance P (SP, 0.1 μM had synergestic action in inducing VEGF from LAD2 mast cells. HgCl2 also stimulated significant VEGF release (360 ± 100 pg/106 cells at 1 μM, n = 5, p 6 cells, and IL-6 release (466 ± 57 pg/106 cells at 0.1 μM compared to untreated cells (13 ± 25 pg/106 cells, n = 5, p 2 (0.1 μM to SP (5 μM further increased IL-6 release. Conclusions HgCl2 stimulates VEGF and IL-6 release from human mast cells. This phenomenon could disrupt the blood-brain-barrier and permit brain inflammation. As a result, the findings of the present study provide a biological mechanism for how low levels of mercury may contribute to ASD pathogenesis.

  16. Mast cell and histamine content of human bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agius, R M; Godfrey, R C; Holgate, S T

    1985-01-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed in 97 patients including control patients with bronchial carcinoma (24) and patients with sarcoidosis (20), cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (9), and asthma (4), and others. Cytocentrifuged slides were stained by two methods: May-Grünwald Giemsa and toluidine blue. In the last 32 subjects the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was separated into supernatant and cell pellet for the subsequent assay of the performed mast cell mediator, histamine. Comparison of the two methods of staining showed a bias towards toluidine blue. Controls had a differential mean (SE) mast cell count of 0.07% (0.01%). Higher counts were noted in cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis--0.61% (0.15%) (p less than 0.001)--and in sarcoidosis--0.14% (0.02%) (p less than 0.05). There was a strong correlation between absolute mast cell counts and cell lysate histamine concentration (r = 0.78, p less than 0.001). Less strong, significant, correlations between supernatant histamine concentration and absolute mast cell counts (r = 0.48, p less than 0.01) or cell lysate histamine concentration (r = 0.72, p less than 0.01) were also found. Derived mean values of histamine per mast cell ranged from 3.7 to 10.9 picograms. The mean histamine content of lavage fluid supernatant as a percentage of the total lavage fluid histamine was 24.9% (3.3%). The possible clinical significance of these findings is discussed. Images PMID:4060097

  17. Mast cell subsets and neuropeptides in leprosy reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antunes Sérgio Luiz Gomes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The immunohistochemical identification of neuropeptides (calcitonin gene-related peptide, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, substance P, alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone and gamma-melanocyte stimulating hormone quantification of mast cells and their subsets (tryptase/chymase-immunoreactive mast cells = TCMC and tryptase-immunoreactive mast cells = TMC were determined in biopsies of six patients with leprosy reactions (three patients with type I reaction and three with type II. Biopsies were compared with those taken from the same body site in the remission stage of the same patient. We found a relative increase of TMC in the inflammatory infiltrate of the reactional biopsies compared to the post-reactional biopsy. Also, the total number of mast cells and the TMC/TCMC ratio in the inflammatory infiltrate was significantly higher than in the intervening dermis of the biopsies of both periods. No significant difference was found regarding neuroptide expression in the reactional and post-reactional biopsies. The relative increase of TMC in the reactional infiltrates could implicate this mast cell subset in the reported increase of the immune response in leprosy reactions.

  18. Effect of methylmercury on the rat mast cell degranulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graevskaya, E. E.; Yasutake, A.; Aramai, R.; Rubin, A. B.

    2003-05-01

    Methylmercury is the well-known neurotoxicant as weil as a modulator of the immune system. We investigated the effects of MeHg on the rat mast cell degranulation induced by nonimmunological stimuli (the selective liberator of histamine, compound 48/80, and calcium ionophore A23187) both in vivo and in vitro. In 8, 12 and 15 days afterthe final administration of MeHg we observed the suppression of calcium ionophore A23187-and 48/80-induced histamine release, which enhanced with time. In experiments in vitro incubation of peritoneal mast cells with MeHg alone in the dose range 10^{-8} to 10^{-6} did not induce mast cell degranulation, however modified the activation of mast cells by compound 48/80, and calcium ionophore A23187. We observed activation of stimulated secretion by preliminary incubation with low dose of MeHg 10^{-8} M and inhibition by dose of MeHg 10^{-6} M. These results show that MeHg treatment can modify mast cell function in vivo and in vitro and provide insight into the understanding what role this cell has in the pathogenesis of Minamata disease-comlected disorders.

  19. Effect of propolis extract on guines pig lung mast cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. O. Orsi

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The direct effect of ethanolic extract of propolis on guinea pig lung cell suspension containing mast cells, as well as its influence on the histamine release induced by antigen (ovoalbumin 10 mug/ml and ionophore A 23187 (3 muM were investigated. Propolis ethanolic extract (300 mug/ml increased the histamine release in guinea pig lung suspension containing mast cells by a cytotoxic effect. Lower concentrations of propolis had no effect on histamine release. Our results demonstrated that propolis (3, 10, 30, and 100 mug/ml shows no significant effect on the histamine release induced by ionophore and antigen. Based on these results, we suggest that propolis could directly activate mast cells, promoting inflammatory mediators release by cytotoxic mechanisms, what could be related to allergic processes in propolis sensitive people.

  20. Cultured Mast Cells from Patients with Asthma and Controls Respond with Similar Sensitivity to Recombinant Der P2-Induced, IgE-Mediated Activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krohn, I K; Sverrild, A; Lund, G

    2013-01-01

    for mite allergen Der p2. The sensitivity of IgE-mediated activation of mast cells was investigated as FcεRI-mediated upregulation of CD63. Ten subjects were atopic, defined as a positive skin prick test (>3 mm) to at least one of ten common allergens. After activation with recombinant Der p2, the maximum...

  1. Degranulated mast cells and TNF-α in oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid reactions diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parichehr Ghalayani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study was to assess mast cells and TNF-α in oral lichen planus (OLP and oral lichenoid reactions (OLR patients as diagnostic marker to the differential diagnosis of OLP and OLR diseases. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, samples were obtained from 30 OLP and 30 OLR patients, between June 2010 and March 2011 in Dental clinic of the University of Isfahan, Iran. Mast cells in the reticular layer of the lamina propria for samples were evaluated using toluidine blue method and immunohistochemical technique. The clinical relevant data taken into account were: demographical data, total number and degranulated mast cells, ratio of degranulated mast cells and TNF-α positive degranulated mast cells. Results: In OLP and OLR, the total mast cells were 21.2 ± 7.9 and 20.3 ± 6.8, degranulated mast cells were 15.5 ± 6.9 and 19.2 ± 6.9, ratio of degranulated mast cells to total mast cells were 0.716 ± 0.067 and 0.946 ± 0.081, and TNF-α positive degranulated mast cells were 13.6 ± 6.3 and 17.1 ± 6.04, respectively. There was no significant difference for the total mast cells. But degranulated mast cells, ratio of degranulated mast cells and TNF-α positive degranulated mast cells in OLR were significantly higher than OLP patients. Conclusions: Our results showed that the degranulated mast cells, ratio of degranulated mast cells and TNF-α in OLR was significantly more than OLP patients and these may be able to be used as diagnostic markers to the differential diagnosis of OLP and OLR.

  2. Mast cells, glia and neuroinflammation: partners in crime?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaper, Stephen D; Facci, Laura; Giusti, Pietro

    2014-03-01

    Glia and microglia in particular elaborate pro-inflammatory molecules that play key roles in central nervous system (CNS) disorders from neuropathic pain and epilepsy to neurodegenerative diseases. Microglia respond also to pro-inflammatory signals released from other non-neuronal cells, mainly those of immune origin such as mast cells. The latter are found in most tissues, are CNS resident, and traverse the blood-spinal cord and blood-brain barriers when barrier compromise results from CNS pathology. Growing evidence of mast cell-glia communication opens new perspectives for the development of therapies targeting neuroinflammation by differentially modulating activation of non-neuronal cells that normally control neuronal sensitization - both peripherally and centrally. Mast cells and glia possess endogenous homeostatic mechanisms/molecules that can be up-regulated as a result of tissue damage or stimulation of inflammatory responses. Such molecules include the N-acylethanolamine family. One such member, N-palmitoylethanolamine is proposed to have a key role in maintenance of cellular homeostasis in the face of external stressors provoking, for example, inflammation. N-Palmitoylethanolamine has proven efficacious in mast-cell-mediated experimental models of acute and neurogenic inflammation. This review will provide an overview of recent progress relating to the pathobiology of neuroinflammation, the role of microglia, neuroimmune interactions involving mast cells and the possibility that mast cell-microglia cross-talk contributes to the exacerbation of acute symptoms of chronic neurodegenerative disease and accelerates disease progression, as well as promoting pain transmission pathways. We will conclude by considering the therapeutic potential of treating systemic inflammation or blockade of signalling pathways from the periphery to the brain in such settings. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Use of Commonly Available Technologies for Diabetes Information and Self-Management Among Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes and Their Parents: A Web-Based Survey Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaala, Sarah E; Hood, Korey K; Laffel, Lori; Kumah-Crystal, Yaa A; Lybarger, Cindy K; Mulvaney, Shelagh A

    2015-12-29

    For individuals with Type 1 diabetes (T1D), following a complicated daily medical regimen is critical to maintaining optimal health. Adolescents in particular struggle with regimen adherence. Commonly available technologies (eg, diabetes websites, apps) can provide diabetes-related support, yet little is known about how many adolescents with T1D use them, why they are used, or relationships between use and self-management. This study examined adolescent and parent use of 5 commonly available technologies for diabetes, including proportions who use each technology, frequency of use, and number of different technologies used for diabetes. Analyses also investigated the reasons adolescents reported for using or not using technologies for diabetes, and factors correlated with adolescents' technology use. Finally, this study examined relationships between the type and number of technologies adolescents use for diabetes and their self-management and glycemic control. Adolescents (12-17 years) and their parents (N=174 pairs), recruited from a pediatric diabetes clinic (n=134) and the Children with Diabetes community website (n=40), participated in this Web-based survey study. Glycosylated hemoglobin (A1C) values were obtained from medical records for pediatric clinic patients. Adolescents reported their use of 5 commonly available technologies for diabetes (ie, social networking, diabetes websites, mobile diabetes apps, text messaging, and glucometer/insulin pump software), reasons for use, and self-management behavior (Self-Care Inventory-Revised, SCI-R). Most adolescents and parents used at least one of the 5 technologies for diabetes. Among adolescents, the most commonly used technology for diabetes was text messaging (53%), and the least commonly used was diabetes websites (25%). Most adolescents who used diabetes apps, text messaging, or pump/glucometer software did so more frequently (≥2 times per week), compared to social networking and website use (≤1 time per

  4. An XML-based configuration system for MAST PCS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storrs, J.; McArdle, G.

    2008-01-01

    MAST PCS, a port of General Atomics' generic Plasma Control System, is a large software system comprising many source files in C and IDL. Application parameters can affect multiple source files in complex ways, making code development and maintenance difficult. The MAST PCS configuration system aims to make the task of the application developer easier, through the use of XML-based configuration files and a configuration tool which processes them. It is presented here as an example of a useful technique with wide application

  5. Mast cell mediator tryptase levels after inhalation or intravenous administration of high doses pharmaceutically prepared heroin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rook, E. J.; van Zanten, A. P.; van den Brink, W.; van Ree, J. M.; Beijnen, J. H.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Opioids like morphine and heroin induce mast cell degranulation in vitro. The release of mast cell mediators like histamine and tryptase may lead to allergic symptoms. In this study it was investigated whether mast cell mediator release also occurs in vivo in addicted patients who

  6. Initial Effects of Reproduction Cutting Treatments on Residual Hard Mast Production in the Ouachita Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger W. Perry; Ronald E. Thill

    2003-01-01

    We compared indices of total hard mast production (oak and hickory combined) in 20, second-growth, pine-hardwood stands under five treatments to determine the effects of different reproduction treatments on mast production in the Ouachita Mountains. We evaluated mast production in mature unharvested controls and stands under four reproduction cutting methods (single-...

  7. Effect of stocking biomass on solids, phytoplankton communities, common off-flavors, and production parameters in a channel catfish biofloc technology production system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of initial channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus, Rafinesque, 1818) fingerling biomass (1.4, 1.8, or 2.3 kg m-3) on phytoplankton communities, common off-flavors, and stocker catfish production parameters was evaluated in biofloc technology production tanks. Stocker catfish size (145.5 – 1...

  8. Mast cell density and angiogenesis in oral dysplastic epithelium and low- and high-grade oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtasham, Nooshin; Babakoohi, Shahab; Salehinejad, Jahanshah; Montaser-Kouhsari, Laleh; Shakeri, Mohammad Taghi; Shojaee, Setareh; Sistani, Noorieh Sharifi; Firooz, Alireza

    2010-09-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the 10 most common malignant tumors and SCC accounts for approximately 94% of all oral malignancies. The risk of malignant transformation in dysplastic lesions is greater than that of normal oral mucosa. The definite roles of mast cells and angiogenesis in OSCC have been under debate. The aim of this study was to compare mast cell count (MCC) and microvessel density (MVD) among normal oral mucosa, oral dysplastic epithelium and low- and high- grade OSCC. A total of 42 specimens of OSCC (21 high- and 21 low-grade) were collected, along with six normal and 22 dysplastic oral mucosa. The mean MCC and MVD, as well as the correlation between them, were evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. Statistically significant increases in mean MCC and MVD were observed between normal oral mucosa and epithelial dysplasia, normal oral mucosa and OSCC and epithelial dysplasia and OSCC (P epithelial dysplasia.

  9. Science commons

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    SCP: Creative Commons licensing for open access publishing, Open Access Law journal-author agreements for converting journals to open access, and the Scholar's Copyright Addendum Engine for retaining rights to self-archive in meaningful formats and locations for future re-use. More than 250 science and technology journals already publish under Creative Commons licensing while 35 law journals utilize the Open Access Law agreements. The Addendum Engine is a new tool created in partnership with SPARC and U.S. universities. View John Wilbanks's biography

  10. Influence of the Meteorology Mast on a Cup Anemometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin O. L.; Pedersen, B.M.

    1999-01-01

    The actuator disc model is applied on lattice-type meteorological masts to estimate the influence of the tower on the accuracy of the measured wind speed. Combining the results with corrections for the boom, on which the anemometer is mounted, good agreement is found for measurements made...

  11. The development of human mast cells. An historical reappraisal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribatti, Domenico, E-mail: domenico.ribatti@uniba.it

    2016-03-15

    The understanding of mast cell (MC) differentiation is derived mainly from in vitro studies of different stages of stem and progenitor cells. The hematopoietic lineage development of human MCs is unique compared to other myeloid-derived cells. Human MCs originate from CD34{sup +}/CD117{sup +}/CD13{sup +}multipotent hematopoietic progenitors, which undergo transendothelial recruitment into peripheral tissues, where they complete differentiation. Stem cell factor (SCF) is a major chemotactic factor for MCs and their progenitors. SCF also elicits cell-cell and cell-substratum adhesion, facilitates the proliferation, and sustains the survival, differentiation, and maturation, of MCs. Because MC maturation is influenced by local microenvironmental factors, different MC phenotypes can develop in different tissues and organs. - Highlights: • Human mast cells originate from CD34/CD117/CD13 positive multipotent hematopoietic progenitors. • Stem cell factor is a major chemotactic factor for mast cells and their progenitors. • Different mast cell phenotypes can develop in different tissues and organs.

  12. The Hazards of Non-Ionizing Radiation of Telecommunication Mast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The health hazards of non-ionizing radiation from telecommunication mast on the exposed community were assessed using a descriptive cross-sectional survey. The socio-demographic pattern and hazard profile of the respondent were documented. The results of the data showed that majority of respondents (60.8%) were ...

  13. Quantifying mast cells in bladder pain syndrome by immunohistochemical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, M.S.; Mortensen, S.; Nordling, J.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To evaluate a simple method for counting mast cells, thought to have a role in the pathophysiology of bladder pain syndrome (BPS, formerly interstitial cystitis, a syndrome of pelvic pain perceived to be related to the urinary bladder and accompanied by other urinary symptoms, e. g...

  14. Intestinal mast cells in gut inflammation and motility disturbances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Winter, Benedicte Y.; van den Wijngaard, Rene M.; de Jonge, Wouter J.

    2012-01-01

    Mast cells may be regarded as prototypes of innate immune cells that can be controlled by neuronal mediators. Their activation has been implicated in many types of neuro-inflammatory responses, and related disturbances of gut motility, via direct or indirect mechanisms that involve several

  15. Relevance of mast cell-nerve interactions in intestinal nociception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Diest, Sophie A.; Stanisor, Oana I.; Boeckxstaens, Guy E.; de Jonge, Wouter J.; van den Wijngaard, René M.

    2012-01-01

    Cross-talk between the immune- and nervous-system is considered an important biological process in health and disease. Because mast cells are often strategically placed between nerves and surrounding (immune)cells they may function as important intermediate cells. This review summarizes the current

  16. Design, construction and evaluation of a meteorological mobile mast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 30 metre meteorological mobile mast has been designed and constructed for upper air profile measurements. The parameters to be measured are wind speed, wind direction, temperature and relative humidity. The sensors for each parameter to be measured are constructed with locally available materials.

  17. Defense in Depth Added to Malicious Activities Simulation Tools (MAST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    RMF .......................................................70 2. MAST Rebuild Using OOP ...Activity Simulation Tool OOP Object Orientated Programming RMF Risk Management Framework RSA Rivest, Shamir, Adleman SE Scenario Execution Server SG...occurring letters in a language and use that information to decipher the encrypted message. An example of this would be to examine the English language and

  18. Purinergic Signaling in Mast Cell Degranulation and Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan-Guo Gao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Mast cells are responsible for the majority of allergic conditions. It was originally thought that almost all allergic events were mediated directly only via the high-affinity immunoglobulin E receptors. However, recent evidence showed that many other receptors, such as G protein-coupled receptors and ligand-gated ion channels, are also directly involved in mast cell degranulation, the release of inflammatory mediators such as histamine, serine proteases, leukotrienes, heparin, and serotonin. These mediators are responsible for the symptoms in allergic conditions such as allergic asthma. In recent years, it has been realized that purinergic signaling, induced via the activation of G protein-coupled adenosine receptors and P2Y nucleotide receptors, as well as by ATP-gated P2X receptors, plays a significant role in mast cell degranulation. Both adenosine and ATP can induce degranulation and bronchoconstriction on their own and synergistically with allergens. All three classes of receptors, adenosine, P2X and P2Y are involved in tracheal mucus secretion. This review will summarize the currently available knowledge on the role of purinergic signaling in mast cell degranulation and its most relevant disease, asthma.

  19. The protein tyrosine kinase Tec regulates mast cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Uwe; Abramova, Anastasia; Boucheron, Nicole; Eckelhart, Eva; Schebesta, Alexandra; Bilic, Ivan; Kneidinger, Michael; Unger, Bernd; Hammer, Martina; Sibilia, Maria; Valent, Peter; Ellmeier, Wilfried

    2009-11-01

    Mast cells play crucial roles in a variety of normal and pathophysiological processes and their activation has to be tightly controlled. Here, we demonstrate that the protein tyrosine kinase Tec is a crucial regulator of murine mast cell function. Tec was activated upon Fc epsilon RI stimulation of BM-derived mast cells (BMMC). The release of histamine in the absence of Tec was normal in vitro and in vivo; however, leukotriene C(4) levels were reduced in Tec(-) (/) (-) BMMC. Furthermore, the production of IL-4 was severely impaired, and GM-CSF, TNF-alpha and IL-13 levels were also diminished. Finally, a comparison of WT, Tec(-) (/) (-), Btk(-) (/) (-) and Tec(-) (/) (-)Btk(-) (/) (-) BMMC revealed a negative role for Btk in the regulation of IL-4 production, while for the efficient production of TNF-alpha, IL-13 and GM-CSF, both Tec and Btk were required. Our results demonstrate a crucial role for Tec in mast cells, which is partially different to the function of the well-characterized family member Btk.

  20. Quantification and Localization of Mast Cells in Periapical Lesions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Manjunatha BS,. Department of Dental Anatomy and Oral Biology, Basic Dental. Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry,. Taif University, Al‑Taif‑21944,. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. E‑mail: drmanju26@hotmail.com. Introduction. Mast cell is resident of connective tissue and contains many granules rich in histamine and heparin.

  1. Increased mast cell numbers in a calcaneal tendon overuse model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pingel, Jessica; Wienecke, Jacob; Kongsgaard Madsen, Mads

    2013-01-01

    Tendinopathy is often discovered late because the initial development of tendon pathology is asymptomatic. The aim of this study was to examine the potential role of mast cell involvement in early tendinopathy using a high-intensity uphill running (HIUR) exercise model. Twenty-four male Wistar ra...

  2. Key common determinants for adoption of wireless technology in healthcare for India and Pakistan: development of a conceptual model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafeez-Baig, Abdul; Gururajan, Raj

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the perception and views of healthcare professionals in the subcontinent (India and Pakistan) towards the wireless handheld technology in the healthcare setting. A mixed methodology was adopted to explore the determinants of the wireless handheld devices in the healthcare setting. Interviews were conducted with 30 healthcare professionals to explore the initial themes. This was followed up with a survey instrument, specifically developed for this study, and distributed to 300 healthcare professionals in Pakistan and India. 200 usable surveys from India and 97 from Pakistan were received. The results of the study indicate that healthcare professionals felt that to use the wireless technology, the integration of the clinical and operational process is essential. Factor analysis through SPSS showed that any development of technological solutions for handheld devices would benefit, by considering the clinical, technological, and operational influences of the wireless technology in addition to clinical influences, clinical preference, training, and technical support. The study culminated in the development of an initial conceptual framework. The scope of this study is restricted to wireless handheld devices such as the smart phones, handheld PCs and PDAs.

  3. Association of mast cell infiltration with gastric cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Bei; Li, Yu; Liu, Xiaodong; Wang, Dongsheng

    2018-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the expression of mast cells, C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL-2) and C-C motif chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) in gastric cancer tumor tissue; and the association of mast cells with the proliferation, migration, invasion and apoptosis of gastric cancer cells. In addition, whether the stem cell factor (SCF)/c-Kit pathway was associated with the secretion of CCL-2 by gastric cancer cells was explored. Flow cytometry analysis and immunohistochemistry were used to observe the relative number of mast cells, and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis were utilized to determine the expression of CCL-2 and CCR2 mRNA and protein. Following the co-culture of the mast cell line HMC-1 and the gastric cancer cell line BGC-823, a Transwell assay was used to validate the effect of mast cells on the migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells. Furthermore, Cell Counting kit-8 and dual acridine orange/ethidium bromide fluorescent staining assays were performed to determine the proliferation and apoptosis of gastric cancer cells, following co-culture with mast cells. The expression of SCF and c-Kit were also determined with a western blot analysis. A specific phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, wortmannin, was used to test the effect of PI3K inhibition on the secretion of CCL-2 in gastric cancer. The results demonstrated that the proportion of infiltrating mast cells, and the mRNA/protein expression of CCL-2 and CCR2, were significantly increased in tumor tissue relative to adjacent tissues. In addition, the migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells were significantly increased when mast cells were used as an attractant. When co-cultured with mast cells, the viability of gastric cancer cells was significantly increased and H 2 O 2 -induced apoptosis was inhibited. In gastric cancer tissue samples, the expression of SCF, c-Kit and phosphorylated (p)-Akt protein were significantly

  4. A geographical model of radio-frequency power density around mobile phone masts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, David; Beale, Linda; Bennett, James; Toledano, Mireille B.; Hoogh, Kees de

    2012-01-01

    Public concern about possible health effects of EMF radiation from mobile phone masts has led to an increase of epidemiological studies and health risk assessments which, in turn, require adequate methods of exposure estimation. Difficulties in exposure modelling are exacerbated both by the complexity of the propagation processes, and the need to obtain estimates for large study populations in order to provide sufficient statistical power to detect or exclude the small relative risks that might exist. Use of geographical information system (GIS) techniques offers the means to make such computations efficiently. This paper describes the development and field validation of a GIS-based exposure model (Geomorf). The model uses a modified Gaussian formulation to represent spatial variations in power densities around mobile phone masts, on the basis of power output, antenna height, tilt and the surrounding propagation environment. Obstruction by topography is allowed for, through use of a visibility function. Model calibration was done using field data from 151 measurement sites (1510 antenna-specific measurements) around a group of masts in a rural location, and 50 measurement sites (658 antenna-specific measurements) in an urban area. Different parameter settings were found to be necessary in urban and rural areas to obtain optimum results. The calibrated models were then validated against independent sets of data gathered from measurement surveys in rural and urban areas, and model performance was compared with that of two commonly used path-loss models (the COST-231 adaptations of the Hata and Walfisch–Ikegami models). Model performance was found to vary somewhat between the rural and urban areas, and at different measurement levels (antenna-specific power density, total power density), but overall gave good estimates (R 2 = 0.641 and 0.615, RMSE = 10.7 and 6.7 dB m at the antenna and site-level respectively). Performance was considerably better than that of both

  5. Spatial patterns and broad-scale weather cues of beech mast seeding in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacchiano, Giorgio; Hacket-Pain, Andrew; Turco, Marco; Motta, Renzo; Maringer, Janet; Conedera, Marco; Drobyshev, Igor; Ascoli, Davide

    2017-07-01

    Mast seeding is a crucial population process in many tree species, but its spatio-temporal patterns and drivers at the continental scale remain unknown . Using a large dataset (8000 masting observations across Europe for years 1950-2014) we analysed the spatial pattern of masting across the entire geographical range of European beech, how it is influenced by precipitation, temperature and drought, and the temporal and spatial stability of masting-weather correlations. Beech masting exhibited a general distance-dependent synchronicity and a pattern structured in three broad geographical groups consistent with continental climate regimes. Spearman's correlations and logistic regression revealed a general pattern of beech masting correlating negatively with temperature in the summer 2 yr before masting, and positively with summer temperature 1 yr before masting (i.e. 2T model). The temperature difference between the two previous summers (DeltaT model) was also a good predictor. Moving correlation analysis applied to the longest eight chronologies (74-114 yr) revealed stable correlations between temperature and masting, confirming consistency in weather cues across space and time. These results confirm widespread dependency of masting on temperature and lend robustness to the attempts to reconstruct and predict mast years using temperature data. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. Estimation of the total number of mast cells in the human umbilical cord. A methodological study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg Damsgaard, T M; Windelborg Nielsen, B; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1992-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the total number of mast cells in the human umbilical cord. Using 50 microns-thick paraffin sections, made from a systematic random sample of umbilical cord, the total number of mast cells per cord was estimated using a combination of the optical...... disector and fractionated sampling. The mast cell of the human umbilical cord was found in Wharton's jelly, most frequently in close proximity to the three blood vessels. No consistent pattern of variation in mast cell numbers from the fetal end of the umbilical cord towards the placenta was seen....... The total number of mast cells found in the umbilical cord was 5,200,000 (median), range 2,800,000-16,800,000 (n = 7), that is 156,000 mast cells per gram umbilical cord (median), range 48,000-267,000. Thus, the umbilical cord constitutes an adequate source of mast cells for further investigation...

  7. Linearized models for a new magnetic control in MAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artaserse, G.; Maviglia, F.; Albanese, R.; McArdle, G.J.; Pangione, L.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We applied linearized models for a new magnetic control on MAST tokamak. ► A suite of procedures, conceived to be machine independent, have been used. ► We carried out model-based simulations, taking into account eddy currents effects. ► Comparison with the EFIT flux maps and the experimental magnetic signals are shown. ► A current driven model for the dynamic simulations of the experimental data have been performed. -- Abstract: The aim of this work is to provide reliable linearized models for the design and assessment of a new magnetic control system for MAST (Mega Ampère Spherical Tokamak) using rtEFIT, which can easily be exported to MAST Upgrade. Linearized models for magnetic control have been obtained using the 2D axisymmetric finite element code CREATE L. MAST linearized models include equivalent 2D axisymmetric schematization of poloidal field (PF) coils, vacuum vessel, and other conducting structures. A plasmaless and a double null configuration have been chosen as benchmark cases for the comparison with experimental data and EFIT reconstructions. Good agreement has been found with the EFIT flux map and the experimental signals coming from magnetic probes with only few mismatches probably due to broken sensors. A suite of procedures (equipped with a user friendly interface to be run even remotely) to provide linearized models for magnetic control is now available on the MAST linux machines. A new current driven model has been used to obtain a state space model having the PF coil currents as inputs. Dynamic simulations of experimental data have been carried out using linearized models, including modelling of the effects of the passive structures, showing a fair agreement. The modelling activity has been useful also to reproduce accurately the interaction between plasma current and radial position control loops

  8. Linearized models for a new magnetic control in MAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artaserse, G., E-mail: giovanni.artaserse@enea.it [Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, Via Enrico Fermi 45, I-00044 Frascati (RM) (Italy); Maviglia, F.; Albanese, R. [Associazione Euratom-ENEA-CREATE sulla Fusione, Via Claudio 21, I-80125 Napoli (Italy); McArdle, G.J.; Pangione, L. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► We applied linearized models for a new magnetic control on MAST tokamak. ► A suite of procedures, conceived to be machine independent, have been used. ► We carried out model-based simulations, taking into account eddy currents effects. ► Comparison with the EFIT flux maps and the experimental magnetic signals are shown. ► A current driven model for the dynamic simulations of the experimental data have been performed. -- Abstract: The aim of this work is to provide reliable linearized models for the design and assessment of a new magnetic control system for MAST (Mega Ampère Spherical Tokamak) using rtEFIT, which can easily be exported to MAST Upgrade. Linearized models for magnetic control have been obtained using the 2D axisymmetric finite element code CREATE L. MAST linearized models include equivalent 2D axisymmetric schematization of poloidal field (PF) coils, vacuum vessel, and other conducting structures. A plasmaless and a double null configuration have been chosen as benchmark cases for the comparison with experimental data and EFIT reconstructions. Good agreement has been found with the EFIT flux map and the experimental signals coming from magnetic probes with only few mismatches probably due to broken sensors. A suite of procedures (equipped with a user friendly interface to be run even remotely) to provide linearized models for magnetic control is now available on the MAST linux machines. A new current driven model has been used to obtain a state space model having the PF coil currents as inputs. Dynamic simulations of experimental data have been carried out using linearized models, including modelling of the effects of the passive structures, showing a fair agreement. The modelling activity has been useful also to reproduce accurately the interaction between plasma current and radial position control loops.

  9. Induction of Microglial Activation by Mediators Released from Mast Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Microglia are the resident immune cells in the brain and play a pivotal role in immune surveillance in the central nervous system (CNS. Brain mast cells are activated in CNS disorders and induce the release of several mediators. Thus, brain mast cells, rather than microglia, are the “first responders” due to injury. However, the functional aspects of mast cell-microglia interactions remain uninvestigated. Methods: Conditioned medium from activated HMC-1 cells induces microglial activation similar to co-culture of microglia with HMC-1 cells. Primary cultured microglia were examined by flow cytometry analysis and confocal microscopy. TNF- alpha and IL-6 were measured with commercial ELISA kits. Cell signalling was analysed by Western blotting. Results: In the present study, we found that the conditioned medium from activated HMC-1 cells stimulated microglial activation and the subsequent production of the pro-inflammatory factors TNF-α and IL-6. Co-culture of microglia and HMC-1 cells with corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH for 24, 48 and 72 hours increased TNF-α and IL-6 production. Antagonists of histamine receptor 1 (H1R, H4R, proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2 or Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 reduced HMC-1-induced pro-inflammatory factor production and MAPK and PI3K/AKT pathway activation. Conclusions: These results imply that activated mast cells trigger microglial activation. Interactions between mast cells and microglia could constitute a new and unique therapeutic target for CNS inflammation-related diseases.

  10. Technology and Curriculum Standards: How Well Do Internet-Based Learning Games Support Common Core Standards for Mathematics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Teri; Ray, Jan

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to keep up with the new generation of digital learners, educators are integrating multiple forms of technology into their teaching, including online learning game applications. The purpose of this study was to determine the degree to which internet-based learning game applications selected by preservice teachers were aligned with the…

  11. Generation, isolation, and maintenance of human mast cells and mast cell lines derived from peripheral blood or cord blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rådinger, Madeleine; Jensen, Bettina M; Kuehn, Hye Sun

    2010-01-01

    Antigen-mediated mast cell activation is a pivotal step in the initiation of allergic disorders including anaphylaxis and atopy. To date, studies aimed at investigating the mechanisms regulating these responses, and studies designed to identify potential ways to prevent them, have primarily been...

  12. The genetic basis of mast cell activation disease - looking through a glass darkly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molderings, Gerhard J

    2015-02-01

    Within the last decade, and in particular since 2012, research has greatly extended our understanding of the molecular basis of systemic mast cell activation disease (MCAD). Initial studies demonstrated that somatic mutations in the tyrosine kinase KIT led to the establishment of a clonal mast cell population. Recent studies, in particular those involving next generation sequencing analyses of advanced systemic mastocytosis, have revealed mutations in additional genes. The respective genes encode proteins for various signaling pathways, epigenetic regulators, the RNA splicing machinery, and transcription factors. Although almost all of the detected mutations are somatic in nature, transgenerational transmission of MCAD appears to be quite common. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying genetic predestination, e.g. germline mutations and the contribution of epigenetic processes, still await identification. The aim of the present review is to present and discuss available genetic findings, and to outline the relationship between adult-onset systemic MCAD and childhood-onset mastocytosis, often termed cutaneous mastocytosis, on the basis of current genetic data. Finally, the implications of increased knowledge of the molecular basis of MCAD in terms of diagnostics and therapy are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional answer card reading method using OMR (Optical Mark Reader, most commonly, OMR special card special use, less versatile, high cost, aiming at the existing problems proposed a method based on pattern recognition of the answer card identification method. Using the method based on Line Segment Detector to detect the tilt of the image, the existence of tilt image rotation correction, and eventually achieve positioning and detection of answers to the answer sheet .Pattern recognition technology for automatic reading, high accuracy, detect faster

  14. Technology update: Nickel-hydrogen Common Pressure Vessel (CPV) 2.5V twin stack cell designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Tim; Miller, Lee

    1992-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form on the nickel hydrogen common pressure vessel (CPV) 2.5V twin stack cell designs. Information given includes an energy analysis, a CPV design comparison, a summary of CPV characterization testing, a comparison of discharge voltage among designs, and life test performance summaries.

  15. Sister Earth, Our Common Home: Toward a Sustainable, Planet Friendly Approach to Dialysis, a Paradigm of High Technology Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccoli, Giorgina Barbara; Mery, David

    2017-11-01

    In our high-technology, highly polluted world, medicine plays an important role balancing saving lives with the expenses of growing amounts of waste products, not only biologically dangerous (the potentially "contaminated" or "hazardous" waste) but also potentially harmful for the planet (nonrecyclable, plastic waste). Dialysis, the prototype of high-technology medicine, is central to these problems, as the present treatment of about 2 million patients produces an enormous quantity of waste (considering hazardous waste only about 2 kg per session, with 160 sessions per year, that is 320 kg per patient, or about 640,000 tons of hazardous waste per year for 2 million patients, roughly corresponding to 6 nuclear aircraft carriers). Furthermore, obsolete dialysis machines, and water treatments are discharged, adding to the "technological waste." Water produced by the reverse osmosis is also discharged; this is the only nonhazardous, nonpolluting waste, but in particular in dry areas, wasting water is a great ecologic concern. The present review is aimed at discussing strategies already in place and to be further implemented for reducing this particular "uremic toxin" for the earth: dialysis waste, including dialysis disposables, water, and dialysis machines. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. PREFACE: 5th International Conference on Materials and Applications for Sensors and Transducers (IC-MAST2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristoforou, E.; Vlachos, D. S.; Giouroudi, I.; Kar-Narayan, S.; Potirakis, S.

    2016-03-01

    The 5th International Conference on Materials and Applications for Sensors and Transducers, Mykonos island, Greece, hosted about 110 oral and poster papers and more than 90 participants. IC-MAS, as an international annual conference which tries to meet the needs for various types of sensors, particularly those which may be manufactured by low cost methods (i.e. hybrid sensors, smart specialization devices, particular applications not necessarily requiring integrated micro-nano technologies), covering all types of materials and physical effects, appears to be a necessity. IC-MAST has been established as a high quality international conference by: I. Gathering together multinational researchers from all over the world, working in different materials for sensors and transducers and technical applications of sensors, but also in some cases in the management of the data coming from sensors and transducers. The careful selection of the conference place (like Aegean Sea, Budapest, Prague, Bilbao, Mykonos etc) allows for enjoying the local hospitality and sightseeing. II. Emphasizing in hybrid sensors and smart specialization devices produced by inexpensive methods, without excluding of course micro-nano technology, from all kinds of solid state, liquid and gaseous materials, as well as in particular transducer applications (design and development, as well as use of sensing data) III. Innovatively implementing the Virtual Paper Concept, allowing for large impact of research works presented in the conference by authors who either have no time or no funding support for visiting a conference; this year more than 12 virtual papers are presented in the 5th IC MAST, following a standardized procedure via the our robust and reliable Conference Site (www.icmast.net!) > IV. Allowing for lengthy technical and managerial discussions in terms of sensor, material and instrumentation development; furthermore, the different research groups gathered together are offered the particular

  17. Different radiosensitivities of mast-cell precursors in the bone marrow and skin of mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitamura, Y.; Yokoyama, M.; Sonoda, T.; Mori, K.J.

    1983-01-01

    Although tissue mast cells are derived from the bone marrow, some descendants of bone marrow-derived precursors retain the ability to proliferate and differentiate into mast cells even after localization in the skin. The purpose of the present study was to determine the D0 values for mast-cell precursors in the bone marrow and those localized in the skin. Bone marrow cells were removed from (WB X C57BL/6)F1-+/+ mice after various doses of irradiation and injected into the skin of the congenic W/Wv mice which were genetically without mast cells. Radiosensitivity of mast-cell precursors in the bone marrow was evaluated by determining the proportion of the injection sites at which mast cells did not appear. For the assay of the radiosensitivity of mast-cell precursors localized in the skin, pieces of skin were removed from beige C57BL/6 (bgJ/bgJ. Chediak-Higashi syndrome) mice after various doses of irradiation and grafted onto the back of the normal C57BL/6 mice. Radiosensitivity of mast-cell precursors in the skin was evaluated by determining the decrease of beige-type mast cells which possessed giant granules. Mast-cell precursors in the bone marrow were much more radiosensitive than those localized in the skin. D0 value was about 100 rad for the former and about 800 rad for the latter.

  18. Different radiosensitivities of mast-cell precursors in the bone marrow and skin of mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitamura, Y.; Yokoyama, M.; Sonoda, T.; Mori, K.J.

    1983-01-01

    Although tissue mast cells are derived from the bone marrow, some descendants of bone marrow-derived precursors retain the ability to proliferate and differentiate into mast cells even after localization in the skin. The purpose of the present study was to determine the D/sub 0/ values for mast-cell precursors in the bone marrow and those localized in the skin. Bone marrow cells were removed from (WB X C57BL/6)F/sub 1/+/+ mice after various doses of irradiation and injected into the skin of the congenic W/W/sup v/ mice which were genetically without mast cells. Radiosensitivity of mast-cell precursors in the bone marrow was evaluated by determining the proportion of the injection sites at which mast cells did not appear. For the assay of the radiosensitivity of mast-cell precursors localized in the skin, pieces of skin were removed from beige C57BL/6 (bg/sup J//bg/sup J/, Chediak-Higashi syndrome) mice after various doses of irradiation and grafted onto the backs of the normal C57BL/6 mice. Radiosensitivity of mast-cell precursors in the skin was evaluated by determining the decrease of beige-type mast cells which possessed giant granules. Mast-cell precursors in the bone marrow were much more radiosenitive than those localized in the skin. D/sup 0/ value was about 100 rad for the former and about 800 rad for the latter.

  19. Different radiosensitivities of mast-cell precursors in the bone marrow and skin of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Y.; Yokoyama, M.; Sonoda, T.; Mori, K.J.

    1983-01-01

    Although tissue mast cells are derived from the bone marrow, some descendants of bone marrow-derived precursors retain the ability to proliferate and differentiate into mast cells even after localization in the skin. The purpose of the present study was to determine the D0 values for mast-cell precursors in the bone marrow and those localized in the skin. Bone marrow cells were removed from (WB X C57BL/6)F1-+/+ mice after various doses of irradiation and injected into the skin of the congenic W/Wv mice which were genetically without mast cells. Radiosensitivity of mast-cell precursors in the bone marrow was evaluated by determining the proportion of the injection sites at which mast cells did not appear. For the assay of the radiosensitivity of mast-cell precursors localized in the skin, pieces of skin were removed from beige C57BL/6 (bgJ/bgJ. Chediak-Higashi syndrome) mice after various doses of irradiation and grafted onto the back of the normal C57BL/6 mice. Radiosensitivity of mast-cell precursors in the skin was evaluated by determining the decrease of beige-type mast cells which possessed giant granules. Mast-cell precursors in the bone marrow were much more radiosensitive than those localized in the skin. D0 value was about 100 rad for the former and about 800 rad for the latter

  20. Different radiosensitivities of mast-cell precursors in the bone marrow and skin of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Y.; Yokoyama, M.; Sonoda, T.; Mori, K.J.

    1983-01-01

    Although tissue mast cells are derived from the bone marrow, some descendants of bone marrow-derived precursors retain the ability to proliferate and differentiate into mast cells even after localization in the skin. The purpose of the present study was to determine the D 0 values for mast-cell precursors in the bone marrow and those localized in the skin. Bone marrow cells were removed from (WB X C57BL/6)F 1 +/+ mice after various doses of irradiation and injected into the skin of the congenic W/W/sup v/ mice which were genetically without mast cells. Radiosensitivity of mast-cell precursors in the bone marrow was evaluated by determining the proportion of the injection sites at which mast cells did not appear. For the assay of the radiosensitivity of mast-cell precursors localized in the skin, pieces of skin were removed from beige C57BL/6 (bg/sup J//bg/sup J/, Chediak-Higashi syndrome) mice after various doses of irradiation and grafted onto the backs of the normal C57BL/6 mice. Radiosensitivity of mast-cell precursors in the skin was evaluated by determining the decrease of beige-type mast cells which possessed giant granules. Mast-cell precursors in the bone marrow were much more radiosenitive than those localized in the skin. D 0 value was about 100 rad for the former and about 800 rad for the latter

  1. Heavy metal content in the meat of common carp (Cyprinuscarpio L.and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss W., cultivated under different technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    St. Stoyanova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Water pollution from industrial production and developing agriculture is a serious problem in aquaculture. The aim of this study was to determine the content of heavy metals Zn (zink, Pb(lead, Ni (nickel and Cd (cadmium in the muscles of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss W., grown under different technologies. In the current study were investigated common carp (Cyprinus carpio and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, cultivated in net cages, earthen ponds and raceways. The concentration of heavy metals in the muscles of fish was determined by the methods of AAS in the Scientific laboratory of the Faculty of Agriculture. The influence of different production technologies on the bioaccumulation of Zn, Pb, Ni and Cd (in the flesh of common carp and rainbow trout was found. The Ni content in muscles was 31.25% higher in common carp, cultured at earthen ponds, compared with its content in the flesh of the fish raised in net cages. The concentration of Pd and Ni in rainbow trout, raised in raceways was higher than that determinated for rainbow trout cultivated in net cages, by 25.0% and 7.14%, respectively. The concentration of Cd and Zn of these species, grown in raceways were lower by 33.33% and 2.14%, respectively, compared with their concentration in rainbow trout, cultivated in net cages.

  2. KIT mutation analysis in mast cell neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arock, M; Sotlar, K; Akin, C

    2015-01-01

    Although acquired mutations in KIT are commonly detected in various categories of mastocytosis, the methodologies applied to detect and quantify the mutant type and allele burden in various cells and tissues are poorly defined. We here propose a consensus on methodologies used to detect KIT mutat...

  3. Role And Relevance Of Mast Cells In Fungal Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit eSaluja

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In addition to their detrimental role in allergic diseases, mast cells (MCs are well known to be important cells of the innate immune system. In the last decade, they have been shown to contribute significantly to optimal host defense against numerous pathogens including parasites, bacteria, and viruses. The contribution of MCs to the immune responses in fungal infections, however, is largely unknown. In this review, we first discuss key features of mast cell responses to pathogens in general and then summarize the current knowledge on the function of MCs in the defense against fungal pathogens. We especially focus on the potential and proven mechanisms by which MC can detect fungal infections and on possible MC effector mechanisms in protecting from fungal infections.

  4. FAST Mast Structural Response to Axial Loading: Modeling and Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Elliott, Kenny B.; Templeton, Justin D.; Song, Kyongchan; Rayburn, Jeffery T.

    2012-01-01

    The International Space Station s solar array wing mast shadowing problem is the focus of this paper. A building-block approach to modeling and analysis is pursued for the primary structural components of the solar array wing mast structure. Starting with an ANSYS (Registered Trademark) finite element model, a verified MSC.Nastran (Trademark) model is established for a single longeron. This finite element model translation requires the conversion of several modeling and analysis features for the two structural analysis tools to produce comparable results for the single-longeron configuration. The model is then reconciled using test data. The resulting MSC.Nastran (Trademark) model is then extended to a single-bay configuration and verified using single-bay test data. Conversion of the MSC. Nastran (Trademark) single-bay model to Abaqus (Trademark) is also performed to simulate the elastic-plastic longeron buckling response of the single bay prior to folding.

  5. Vacuolin-1-modulated exocytosis and cell resealing in mast cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shaik, Gouse Mohiddin; Dráberová, Lubica; Heneberg, Petr; Dráber, Petr

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 8 (2009), s. 1337-1345 ISSN 0898-6568 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0506; GA MŠk LC545; GA ČR GA301/09/1826 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : vacuolin-1 * exocytosis * mast cells Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.094, year: 2009

  6. Asthma: Eosinophil Disease, Mast Cell Disease, or Both?

    OpenAIRE

    Bradding, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Although there is much circumstantial evidence implicating eosinophils as major orchestrators in the pathophysiology of asthma, recent studies have cast doubt on their importance. Not only does anti-interleukin-5 treatment not alter the course of the disease, but some patients with asthma do not have eosinophils in their airways, whereas patients with eosinophilic bronchitis exhibit a florid tissue eosinophilia but do not have asthma. In contrast, mast cells are found in all airways and loca...

  7. Control and acquisition for MAST Thomson scattering diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibaev, S.; Naylor, G.; Scannell, R.; McArdle, G.; O'Gorman, T.; Walsh, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    The MAST (mega-amp spherical tokamak) Thomson scattering (TS) diagnostics have been radically upgraded and expanded. Eight 30 Hz 1.6 J Nd:YAG lasers have been combined to produce a sampling rate of 240 Hz. The scattered signals are acquired by two spectrometer systems: core and edge. The core system has been built anew: collection optics, polychromators, digitizers, and control computers. It allows measurement of electron temperature and density at 130 spatial points with ∼10 mm resolution across the plasma. The Nd:YAG scattered light signals are registered in 650 channels as polychromator outputs; each channel is registered on two ADCs: at 1 GHz rate in a short interval around each laser pulse and at 100 kHz for background data. The fast ADCs are combined in 26 data acquisition units. Each unit is assembled in a 6 U PXI chassis with embedded controller and six 4-channel 1 GHz ADC cards. Some chassis contain a 96-channel slow ADC card with Ethernet control. The Ruby TS has been rebuilt with a new spectrometer and CCD camera to provide higher spatial resolution - 512 points; the laser has been modified to add double pulse capability. A new control and acquisition system has been developed; it has modular design allowing flexibility and seamless expansion. The system supports event-triggered and real-time operation (will be added in a later stage). A smart trigger device has been developed for TS timing and synchronisation. It provides complex pulse sequences for laser firing with resynchronisation on a number of digital and analogue inputs including plasma events. This device also triggers TS acquisition. The system is integrated by a TS master process running on the dedicated computer; it is represented as a standard MAST data acquisition unit. The Ruby TS is also implemented as a standard MAST unit linked with the Nd:YAG TS by MAST system services.

  8. IL-9-Producing Mast Cell Precursors and Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    signaling enhances or attenuates allergic responses to food allergens. Methods: Mice of an IL-25 transgenic mouse line (iIL-25Tg mice), which...developing experimental food allergy, we generated IL-25 transgenic mouse lines (iIL-25Tg mice) that constitutively overexpress murine IL-25 driven by the...AD______________ AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0517 TITLE: IL-9-Producing Mast Cell Precursors and Food Allergy PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Yui

  9. Closed loop lab tests of NASA's Mini-Mast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, C.; Kim, J. H.; Skelton, Robert E.

    1990-01-01

    A design strategy which integrates model reduction by modal cost analysis and a multiobjective controller synthesis algorithm is used to design controllers for NASA's Mini-Mast system. The necessary modeling and control algorithms are easily programmed in Matlab standard software. Hence, this method is very practical for controller design for large space structures. The design algorithm also presents a solution for the important problem of tuning multiple-loop controllers.

  10. Degranulating mast cells in fibrotic regions of human tumors and evidence that mast cell heparin interferes with the growth of tumor cells through a mechanism involving fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanakubo Emi

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that mast cells that are present in fibrotic regions of cancer can suppress the growth of tumor cells through an indirect mechanism involving peri-tumoral fibroblasts. Methods We first immunostained a wide variety of human cancers for the presence of degranulated mast cells. In a subsequent series of controlled in vitro experiments, we then co-cultured UACC-812 human breast cancer cells with normal fibroblasts in the presence or absence of different combinations and doses of mast cell tryptase, mast cell heparin, a lysate of the human mast cell line HMC-1, and fibroblast growth factor-7 (FGF-7, a powerful, heparin-binding growth factor for breast epithelial cells. Results Degranulating mast cells were localized predominantly in the fibrous tissue of every case of breast cancer, head and neck cancer, lung cancer, ovarian cancer, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and Hodgkin's disease that we examined. Mast cell tryptase and HMC-1 lysate had no significant effect on the clonogenic growth of cancer cells co-cultured with fibroblasts. By contrast, mast cell heparin at multiple doses significantly reduced the size and number of colonies of tumor cells co-cultured with fibroblasts, especially in the presence of FGF-7. Neither heparin nor FGF-7, individually or in combination, produced any significant effect on the clonogenic growth of breast cancer cells cultured without fibroblasts. Conclusion Degranulating mast cells are restricted to peri-tumoral fibrous tissue, and mast cell heparin is a powerful inhibitor of clonogenic growth of tumor cells co-cultured with fibroblasts. These results may help to explain the well-known ability of heparin to inhibit the growth of primary and metastatic tumors.

  11. Cannabinoid receptor-specific mechanisms to alleviate pain in sickle cell anemia via inhibition of mast cell activation and neurogenic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Lucile; Vang, Derek; Nguyen, Julia; Benson, Barbara; Lei, Jianxun; Gupta, Kalpna

    2016-05-01

    Sickle cell anemia is a manifestation of a single point mutation in hemoglobin, but inflammation and pain are the insignia of this disease which can start in infancy and continue throughout life. Earlier studies showed that mast cell activation contributes to neurogenic inflammation and pain in sickle mice. Morphine is the common analgesic treatment but also remains a major challenge due to its side effects and ability to activate mast cells. We, therefore, examined cannabinoid receptor-specific mechanisms to mitigate mast cell activation, neurogenic inflammation and hyperalgesia, using HbSS-BERK sickle and cannabinoid receptor-2-deleted sickle mice. We show that cannabinoids mitigate mast cell activation, inflammation and neurogenic inflammation in sickle mice via both cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2. Thus, cannabinoids influence systemic and neural mechanisms, ameliorating the disease pathobiology and hyperalgesia in sickle mice. This study provides 'proof of principle' for the potential of cannabinoid/cannabinoid receptor-based therapeutics to treat several manifestations of sickle cell anemia. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  12. Amarogentin Displays Immunomodulatory Effects in Human Mast Cells and Keratinocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ute Wölfle

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Keratinocytes express the bitter taste receptors TAS2R1 and TAS2R38. Amarogentin as an agonist for TAS2R1 and other TAS2Rs promotes keratinocyte differentiation. Similarly, mast cells are known to express bitter taste receptors. The aim of this study was to assess whether bitter compounds display immunomodulatory effects on these immunocompetent cells in the skin, so that they might be a target in chronic inflammatory diseases such as atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. Here, we investigated the impact of amarogentin on substance P-induced release of histamine and TNF-α from the human mast cell line LAD-2. Furthermore, the effect of amarogentin on HaCaT keratinocytes costimulated with TNF-α and histamine was investigated. Amarogentin inhibited in LAD-2 cells substance P-induced production of newly synthesized TNF-α, but the degranulation and release of stored histamine were not affected. In HaCaT keratinocytes histamine and TNF-α induced IL-8 and MMP-1 expression was reduced by amarogentin to a similar extent as with azelastine. In conclusion amarogentin displays immunomodulatory effects in the skin by interacting with mast cells and keratinocytes.

  13. Mediators of Mast Cells in Bullous Pemphigoid and Dermatitis Herpetiformis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Zebrowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bullous pemphigoid (BP and dermatitis herpetiformis (DH are skin diseases associated with inflammation. However, few findings exist concerning the role of mast cells in autoimmune blistering disease. Skin biopsies were taken from 27 BP and 14 DH patients, as well as 20 healthy individuals. Immunohistochemistry was used to identify the localization and mast cell expression of TNFα and MMP9 in skin lesions and perilesional skin. The serum concentrations of TNFα, MMP9, chymase, tryptase, PAF, and IL-4 were measured by immunoassay. TNFα and MMP9 expression in the epidermis and in inflammatory influxed cells in the dermis was detected in skin biopsies from patients. Although these mediators were found to be expressed in the perilesional skin of all patients, the level was much lower than that in lesional skin. Increased serum PAF levels were observed in BP patients. Mast cells may play an essential role in activating inflammation, which ultimately contributes to the tissue damage observed in BP and DH. Our findings suggest that differences in the pattern of cytokine expression directly contribute to variations in cellular infiltration in DH and BP.

  14. Acrolein induction of oxidative stress and degranulation in mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochman, Daniel J; Collaco, Christopher R; Brooks, Edward G

    2014-08-01

    Increases in asthma worldwide have been associated epidemiologically with expanding urban air pollution. The mechanistic relationship between airway hyper-responsiveness, inflammation, and ambient airborne triggers remains ambiguous. Acrolein, a ubiquitous aldehyde pollutant, is a product of incomplete combustion reactions. Acrolein is abundant in cigarette smoke, effluent from industrial smokestacks, diesel exhaust, and even hot oil cooking vapors. Acrolein is a potent airway irritant and can induce airway hyper-responsiveness and inflammation in the lungs of animal models. In the present study, we utilized the mast cell analog, RBL-2H3, to interrogate the responses of cells relevant to airway inflammation and allergic responses as a model for the induction of asthma-like conditions upon exposure to acrolein. We hypothesized that acrolein would induce oxidative stress and degranulation in airway mast cells. Our results indicate that acrolein at 1 ppm initiated degranulation and promoted the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Introduction of antioxidants to the system significantly reduced both ROS generation and degranulation. At higher levels of exposure (above 100 ppm), RBL-2H3 cells displayed signs of severe toxicity. This experimental data indicates acrolein can induce an allergic inflammation in mast cell lines, and the initiation of degranulation was moderated by the application of antioxidants. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company.

  15. Analysis of fuel retention on MAST by global gas balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J.; Lisgo, S.; Maddison, G.; MAST Team

    2010-07-01

    The retention of deuterium fuel during MAST discharges has been studied using the method of global gas balance. The results show that with inter-shot 4He-GDC, the total number of particles retained for a discharge increases with the total number of injected particles, and the total retention fraction stays very high, and can be almost 100%. However, it is observed that disruptions can reduce the wall inventory. With inter-shot 4He-GDC to recondition surfaces on MAST, the retention for all shots analysed has not been observed to saturate, while if there is no 4He-GDC before a shot, the following plasma density can become uncontrollable owing to lower wall pumping capacity. This indicates that a majority of injected particles is retained in the walls/divertor targets during each discharge and that most of them can be recovered with 4He-GDC, suggesting that on the short time-scale of MAST pulses, the particle balance is dominated by direct implantation of ions and neutral particles in shallow surface layers.

  16. Histamine release from gut mast cells from patients with inflammatory bowel diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nolte, Hendrik; Spjeldnæs, Nikolaj; Kruse, Aksel

    1990-01-01

    Inflammatory mediators from intestinal mast cells may serve as initiators of acute and delayed inflammation. Mast cell histamine release was measured in 19 patients with inflammatory bowel diseases using gut mast cells from enzymatically dispersed endoscopic forceps biopsy specimens...... of macroscopically inflamed and normal tissue. Mast cells and corresponding basophils were challenged with anti-IgE, anti-IgG, subclass anti-IgG4, and formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) and results were compared with those from nine patient control subjects. The mast cell count in patients with ulcerative...... colitis was increased compared with that in control subjects and patients with Crohn's disease, and the mast cell count obtained from inflamed tissue was greater than that of normal tissue. The study also shows the heterogeneity of the responsiveness of the histamine releasing cells to various...

  17. Relationship between Mast Cells and the Colitis with Relapse Induced by Trinitrobenzesulphonic Acid in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Luchini

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to clarify the role of mast cells in colitis with relapse induced in Wistar rats by trinitrobenzenosulphonic acid. Colitis induction increased the histamine concentration in the colon, which peaked on day 26. The number of mast cells, probably immature, was ten times higher on day 8. Different from animals infected with intestinal parasites, after colitis remission, mast cells do not migrate to the spleen, showing that mast cell proliferation presents different characteristics depending on the inflammation stimuli. Treatment with sulfasalazine, doxantrazole, quercetin, or nedocromil did not increase the histamine concentration or the mast cell number in the colon on day 26, thereby showing absence of degranulation of these cells. In conclusion, although mast cell proliferation is associated with colitis, these cells and their mediators appear to play no clear role in the colitis with relapses.

  18. iMAST FY2007 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    listing) The Nittany Lion Inn (on campus) (800) 233-7505 (814) 865-8500 Penn Stater Conference Center Hotel (PSU Research Park, shuttle, car/cab...A N N U A L R E P O R T F Y 2 0 0 7 Institute for Manufacturing and Sustainment Technologies The Pennsylvania State University Applied Research ...NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Penn State University,Applied Research Laboratory

  19. Mast cells, macrophages, and crown-like structures distinguish subcutaneous from visceral fat in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Altintas, Mehmet M.; Azad, Adiba; Nayer, Behzad; Contreras, Gabriel; Zaias, Julia; Faul, Christian; Reiser, Jochen; Nayer, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is accompanied by adipocyte death and accumulation of macrophages and mast cells in expanding adipose tissues. Considering the differences in biological behavior of fat found in different anatomical locations, we explored the distribution of mast cells, solitary macrophages, and crown-like structures (CLS), the surrogates for dead adipocytes, in subcutaneous and abdominal visceral fat of lean and diet-induced obese C57BL/6 mice. In fat depots of lean mice, mast cells were far less pre...

  20. Climate-influenced ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) seed masting trends in western Montana, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Keyes, Christopher R.; Gonzalez, Ruben Manso

    2015-01-01

    Aim of study: The aim of this study was to analyze 10-year records of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) seed production, in order to confirm synchronic seed production and to evaluate cyclical masting trends, masting depletion effect, and climate-masting relationships. Area of study: The study area was located in a P. ponderosa stand in the northern Rocky Mountains (western Montana, USA). Material and methods: The study was conducted in one stand that had been subjected to a silvicul...

  1. Macrophages and mast cells in dystrophic masseter muscle: a light and electron microscopic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, S; Mikkelsen, H

    1988-01-01

    Macrophages and mast cells in masseter muscle from normal and dystrophic mice were studied by light and electron microscopy. Acid phosphatase activity and FITC-dextran were used to identify and describe macrophages. Toluidine blue was used as a marker for mast cells. In dystrophic muscle, the num......Macrophages and mast cells in masseter muscle from normal and dystrophic mice were studied by light and electron microscopy. Acid phosphatase activity and FITC-dextran were used to identify and describe macrophages. Toluidine blue was used as a marker for mast cells. In dystrophic muscle...

  2. The relationship of mast cells and angiogenesis with prognosis in renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guldur, M.E.; Kocarslan, S.; Dincoglu, D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of mast cell count and angiogenesis on the prognosis of renal cell carcinoma. Methods: The retrospective study was conducted at the Harran University, Sanliurfa, Turkey, and included 64 cases with diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma between 2002 and 2012. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on paraffin sections using the standard streptavidin-biotin immunoperoxidase method. CD31 antibodies were used to identify microvessels in tumoural tissues. The microvessel density was calculated using a serological method. The mean vascular density was equivalent to the vascular surface area (in mm) per unit tissue volume (in mm) (MVD=mm). Mast cells tryptase antibody was used to evaluate the mast cell count in tumoural and non-tumoural tissues. The relationship between mast cell count and microvessel density was evaluated and compared with stage, grade, tumour diameter, and age. Results: The mast cell count in the tumoral tissue of renal cell carcinoma was significantly higher compared with non-neoplastic renal tissue (p 0.05). The intratumoural mast cell count in clear cell renal carcinoma was significantly higher compared with non-clear variety (p=0.001). No significant relationship was found between microvessel density, age, stage, diameter, or grade of the tumour and tumoral mast cell count (p>0.05). Conclusion: No significant association was found between the number of mast cells in tumoral tissue and microvessel density. Further studies are needed to demonstrate the effect of mast cells on angiogenesis in renal cell carcinoma. (author)

  3. Protective Role of Mast Cells in Primary Systemic Vasculitis: A Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason M. Springer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Mast cells are important cells of the immune system. Although traditionally considered as key players in allergic and hypersensitivity reactions, emerging evidence suggests that mast cells have many complex roles in vascular disease. These include regulation of vasodilation, angiogenesis, activation of matrix metalloproteinases, apoptosis of smooth muscle cells, and activation of the renin angiotensin system. Mast cells are also known to play an immunomodulatory role via modulation of regulatory T-cell (Treg, macrophage and endothelial cell functions. This dual role of the mast cells is evident in myeloperoxidase anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies-mouse model of glomerulonephritis in which mast cell deficiency worsens glomerulonephritis, whereas inhibition of mast cell degranulation is effective in abrogating the development of glomerulonephritis. Our previous work demonstrated that mast cell degranulation inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced interleukin 6 (IL-6 production in mice. This effect was not seen in histamine-1-receptor knockout (H1R−/− mice suggesting a role for histamine in IL-6 homeostasis. In addition, mast cell degranulation-mediated decrease in IL-6 production was associated with an upregulation of suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 protein in the aorta. We propose that mast cells regulate large artery inflammation through T-cells, shifting a primarily Th1 and Th17 toward a Th2 response and leading to enhanced IL-10 production, activation Treg cells, and the inhibition of macrophage functions.

  4. Endocytosis of erythrocytes in vivo and particulate substances in vitro by feline neoplastic mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madewell, B R; Munn, R J; Phillips, L P

    1987-01-01

    Clinical evidence for the phagocytic capability of neoplastic feline mast cells was provided by recognition of endocytosed erythrocytes in seven of 12 cytological smears of mast cell neoplasms, particularly in those cells collected from splenic tumors. The capability of these neoplastic mast cells to endocytose particulate substances was also studied in vitro. Evidence is presented that under cultural conditions, feline neoplastic mast cells are capable of endocytosing a variety of substances including polystyrene latex microspheres, zymosan particles, horse spleen ferritin, salmon sperm nuclei, horseradish peroxidase, and carbon particles. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:3134117

  5. Questioning the assumptions in the debate on assisted reproduction: comment on the House of Commons report Human Reproductive Technologies and the Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennings, Guido

    2005-08-01

    The House of Commons Science and Technology Committee has issued a series of non-dogmatic recommendations. Also regarding elective sex selection, it has adopted a controversial position. Sex selection should be allowed for family balancing. However, the acceptability of preimplantation genetic diagnosis as a method for selecting the embryos can be questioned on the basis of social harm. In countries with a shortage of medical personnel and a limited health care budget, elective procedures are a loss to society. This loss should be compensated by imposing a 'social compensation tax' for every application of elective sexing.

  6. Increased tissue leptin hormone level and mast cell count in skin tags: A possible role of adipoimmune in the growth of benign skin growths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Safoury Omar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Skin tags (ST are common tumors. They mainly consist of loose fibrous tissue and occur on the neck and major flexures as small, soft, pedunculated protrusions. Decrease in endocrine, hormone level and other factors are thought to play a role in the evolution of ST. Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone that acts as a major regulatory hormone for food intake and energy homeostasis. Leptin deficiency or resistance can result in profound obesity and diabetes in humans. A role of mast cell in the pathogenesis of ST is well recognized. Aims: To investigate the role of leptin in the pathogenesis of ST and to clarify whether there is a correlation between mast cell count and leptin level in ST. Methods: Forty-five skin biopsies were taken from 15 patients with ST. From each patient, a biopsy of a large ST (length >4 mm, a small ST (length <2 mm and a normal skin biopsy (as a control were taken. The samples were processed for leptin level. Skin biopsies were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and toluidine blue-uranyl nitrate metachromatic method for mast cell count was used. Results: There was a significant increased level of leptin in the ST compared to the normal skin. It was highly significant in small ST than in big ST (P = 0.0001 and it was highly significant in small and big ST compared to controls, P = 0.0001 and P = 0.001, respectively. There was a significant increase in mast cell count in the ST, which did not correlate with the increased levels of leptin. Conclusion: This is the first report to demonstrate that tissue leptin may play a role in the pathogenesis of ST. The significant increase in the levels of leptin and mast cell count in ST may indicate a possible role of adipoimmune in the benign skin growths.

  7. Revaluation of the concept of the human condition and the common heritage of mankind: Keys to the social benefits of space technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocca, Aldo Armando

    Men may do many things, but they must never forget the human condition in any act or relation with a fellow human being. Space Law has vindicated the supreme value of man as a legal subject par excellence. The dignity of the human being is a value that rates above any scientific or technological advance. A benefit, by definition and derivation, is anything contributing to an improvement in a condition. Social benefits pertain only to human beings, who are their sole beneficiaries. Developing countries are young nations that through their international relations may, and indeed must, realize the benefits of space technology. The principle of the "common heritage of Mankind" was created to satisfy the aspirations of all peoples and to meet the needs of both industrialized and developing countries. Only a groundless fear and lack of vision of the future can induce governments to delay its implementation. We must not forget that the concept was transformed into a principle of international positive law by the unanimous decision of the international community, which enshrined it in the Moon Agreement. The social and individual responsibility of the scientist is becoming even more clearly defined, and scientists play an important role in the conduct of nations. Through education, including education in the humanities and a graduation pledge, the scientist has embarked on the road leading to an active presence in society, facing his responsibility. Inter-generational equity contributes to strengthening the concept of the human condition and the legal principle of the common heritage of mankind.

  8. Flexible versus common technology to estimate economies of scale and scope in the water and sewerage industry: an application to England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinos-Senante, María; Maziotis, Alexandros

    2018-03-09

    The water industry presents several structures in different countries and also within countries. Hence, several studies have been conducted to evaluate the presence of economies of scope and scale in the water industry leading to inconclusive results. The lack of a common methodology has been identified as an important factor contributing to divergent conclusions. This paper evaluates, for the first time, the presence of economies of scale and scope in the water industry using a flexible technology approach integrating operational and exogenous variables of the water companies in the cost functions. The empirical application carried out for the English and Welsh water industry evidenced that the inclusion of exogenous variables accounts for significant differences in economies of scale and scope. Moreover, completely different results were obtained when the economies of scale and scope were estimated using common and flexible technology methodological approaches. The findings of this study reveal the importance of using an appropriate methodology to support policy decision-making processes to promote sustainable urban water activities.

  9. Airway responsiveness to mannitol in asthma is associated with chymase-positive mast cells and eosinophilic airway inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sverrild, Asger; Bergqvist, A; Baines, K J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to inhaled mannitol is associated with indirect markers of mast cell activation and eosinophilic airway inflammation. It is unknown how AHR to mannitol relates to mast cell phenotype, mast cell function and measures of eosinophilic inflammation in airway...... tissue. We compared the number and phenotype of mast cells, mRNA expression of mast cell-associated genes and number of eosinophils in airway tissue of subjects with asthma and healthy controls in relation to AHR to mannitol. METHODS: Airway hyperresponsiveness to inhaled mannitol was measured in 23 non......-smoking, corticosteroid-free asthmatic individuals and 10 healthy controls. Mast cells and eosinophils were identified in mucosal biopsies from all participants. Mast cells were divided into phenotypes based on the presence of chymase. mRNA expression of mast cell-associated genes was measured by real-time PCR. RESULTS...

  10. Masting by Betula-species; applying the resource budget model to north European data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranta, Hanna; Oksanen, Annukka; Hokkanen, Tatu; Bondestam, Kristoffer; Heino, Saini

    2005-01-01

    Masting, the intermittent production of large crops of flowers by a plant population, is a common feature among trees in boreal and temperate forests. The pollen of many broadleaved trees causes allergic diseases, which are major causes of increasing health-care costs in industrialised countries. As the prevalence and severity of allergic diseases are connected with the concentrations of airborne pollen, an universal model predicting the intensity of the coming flowering would be a valuable tool for pollen information services, and ultimately for allergic people and allergologists. We investigated whether a resource budget model created in Japan explains the fluctuations in the annual pollen sums of Betula-species in north European data sets (10 12 years at 4 sites, 20 years at 10 sites). Using the shorter data sets, the model explained 76 92% of the annual fluctuations at five study sites. Using the 20-year data set, the percentage for southern Finland was much lower, only 48%, compared with the 85% of the 12-year data set. The annual pollen sums have been higher during the 1990s than in the 1980s, which may explain the ineffectiveness of the model, while applied to the 20-year data set. Our results support the resource budget model: the masting of birch species is regulated by weather factors together with the system of resource allocation among years. The model can serve pollen information service. However, only the 10 most recent years should be used to avoid interference from trends in changing vegetation and/or climate.

  11. ELM mitigation via rotating resonant magnetic perturbations on MAST

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Thornton, A.J.; Kirk, A.; Cahyna, Pavel; Chapman, I.T.; Fishpool, G.; Harrison, J.R.; Liu, Y.Q.; Kripner, Lukáš; Peterka, Matěj

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 463, August (2015), s. 723-726 ISSN 0022-3115. [PLASMA-SURFACE INTERACTIONS 21: International Conference on Plasma-Surface Interactions in Controlled Fusion Devices. Kanazawa, 26.05.2014-30.05.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/11/2341 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : edge localised mode * resonant magnetic perturbation * MAST Subject RIV: JF - Nuclear Energetics OBOR OECD: Nuclear related engineering Impact factor: 2.199, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022311514006795

  12. Molecular targets on mast cells and basophils for novel therapies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Harvima, I.T.; Levi-Schaffer, F.; Dráber, Petr; Friedman, S.; Polakovičová, Iva; Gibbs, B.F.; Blank, U.; Nilsson, G.; Maurer, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 134, č. 3 (2014), s. 530-544 ISSN 0091-6749 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD12073; GA ČR(CZ) GBP302/12/G101; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-09807S; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-00703S Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : cell activation * mast cells and basophils * treatment of allergic diseases Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 11.476, year: 2014

  13. Mast cell numbers in airway smooth muscle and PC(20)AMP in asthma and COPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liesker, J. J. W.; ten Hacken, N. H. T.; Rutgers, S. R.; Zeinstra-Smith, M.; Postma, D. S.; Timens, W.

    Introduction: Most patients with asthma and many patients with COPD show bronchial hyperresponsiveness to adenosine (BHRAMP). BHRAMP may be caused by release of mast cell histamine, which induces smooth muscle contraction. Aim of the study: To evaluate whether mast cell numbers in airway smooth

  14. A Study on Assessment of Mast Cells in Oral Squamous Cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Apart from the role of mast cells in maintenance of homeostasis and inflammation, their association with tumors has been described recently. In several malignancies, mast cell density has been found to correlate with angiogenesis, increased risk of metastasis and poor prognosis. Aim: The aim of the following ...

  15. Comparison of four staining methods for detection of mast cells in equine bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclere, Mathilde; Desnoyers, Michel; Beauchamp, Guy; Lavoie, Jean-Pierre

    2006-01-01

    Mast cells normally are present in equine bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), but usually represent Romanowsky method to stain mast cell granules with that of 3 metachromatic stains: automated Romanowsky, May-Grünwald Giemsa, and toluidine blue stains. The BALF cells from 24 horses were studied. A differential cell count was performed blindly on 400 cells. The percentages of mast cells obtained were analyzed by means of repeated-measures analysis of variance and Fischer's PLSD test. The Bland and Altman method was used to assess agreement among stains. The mean percentage of mast cells in BALF was significantly lower with the fast Romanowsky than with the automated Romanowsky, May-Grünwald Giemsa, and toluidine blue stains. With the fast Romanowsky stain, the metachromatic granules of mast cells were not stained, and their identification was based on morphologic criteria. Toluidine blue staining allowed detection of the highest mean percentage of mast cells, but was inadequate for performing a differential cell count on other cell types. In conclusion, fast Romanosky stain may be inadequate for detection of mast cells in equine BALF, whereas automated Romanowsky, May-Grünwald Giemsa, and toluidine blue stains provide metachromatic staining of mast cell granules.

  16. Macrophages and mast cells in dystrophic masseter muscle: a light and electron microscopic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, S; Mikkelsen, H

    1988-01-01

    Macrophages and mast cells in masseter muscle from normal and dystrophic mice were studied by light and electron microscopy. Acid phosphatase activity and FITC-dextran were used to identify and describe macrophages. Toluidine blue was used as a marker for mast cells. In dystrophic muscle...

  17. Variable Acorn Crops: Responses of White-Tailed Deer and Other Mast Consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    William J. McShea; Georg Schwede

    1993-01-01

    We examined movements and behavior of female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) relative to the acorn mast-fall from 1986 through 1989 in a mature deciduous forest in Front Royal, Virginia. Ten white-tailed deer with radiotransmitters increased their home range to incorporate acorn-producing areas during mast-fall. Consumption of acorns by...

  18. A study on assessment of mast cells in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Apart from the role of mast cells in maintenance of homeostasis and inflammation, their association with tumors has been described recently. In several malignancies, mast cell density has been found to correlate with angiogenesis, increased risk of metastasis and poor prognosis. Aim: The aim of the following ...

  19. Changing the threshold-Signals and mechanisms of mast cell priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halova, Ivana; Rönnberg, Elin; Draberova, Lubica; Vliagoftis, Harissios; Nilsson, Gunnar P; Draber, Petr

    2018-03-01

    Mast cells play a key role in allergy and other inflammatory diseases involving engagement of multivalent antigen with IgE bound to high-affinity IgE receptors (FcεRIs). Aggregation of FcεRIs on mast cells initiates a cascade of signaling events that eventually lead to degranulation, secretion of leukotrienes and prostaglandins, and cytokine and chemokine production contributing to the inflammatory response. Exposure to pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, bacterial and viral products, as well as some other biological products and drugs, induces mast cell transition from the basal state into a primed one, which leads to enhanced response to IgE-antigen complexes. Mast cell priming changes the threshold for antigen-mediated activation by various mechanisms, depending on the priming agent used, which alone usually do not induce mast cell degranulation. In this review, we describe the priming processes induced in mast cells by various cytokines (stem cell factor, interleukins-4, -6 and -33), chemokines, other agents acting through G protein-coupled receptors (adenosine, prostaglandin E 2 , sphingosine-1-phosphate, and β-2-adrenergic receptor agonists), toll-like receptors, and various drugs affecting the cytoskeleton. We will review the current knowledge about the molecular mechanisms behind priming of mast cells leading to degranulation and cytokine production and discuss the biological effects of mast cell priming induced by several cytokines. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Modeling Pharmacological Inhibition of Mast Cell Degranulation as a Therapy for Insulinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Soucek

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Myc, a pleiotropic transcription factor that is deregulated and/or overexpressed in most human cancers, instructs multiple extracellular programs that are required to sustain the complex microenvironment needed for tumor maintenance, including remodeling of tumor stroma, angiogenesis, and inflammation. We previously showed in a model of pancreatic β-cell tumorigenesis that acute Myc activation in vivo triggers rapid recruitment of mast cells to the tumor site and that this is absolutely required for angiogenesis and macroscopic tumor expansion. More-over, systemic inhibition of mast cell degranulation with sodium cromoglycate induced death of tumor and endothelial cells in established tumors. Hence, mast cells are required both to establish and to maintain the tumors. Whereas this intimates that selective inhibition of mast cell function could be therapeutically efficacious, cromoglycate is not a practical drug for systemic delivery in humans, and no other systemic inhibitor of mast cell degranulation has hitherto been available. PCI-32765 is a novel inhibitor of Bruton tyrosine kinase (Btk that blocks mast cell degranulation and is currently in clinical trial as a therapy for B-cell non–Hodgkin lymphoma. Here, we show that systemic treatment of insulinoma-bearing mice with PCI-32765 efficiently inhibits Btk, blocks mast cell degranulation, and triggers collapse of tumor vasculature and tumor regression. These data reinforce the notion that mast cell function is required for maintenance of certain tumor types and indicate that the Btk inhibitor PCI-32765 may be useful in treating such diseases.

  1. Pharmacological targeting of the KIT growth factor receptor: a therapeutic consideration for mast cell disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bettina Margrethe; Akin, C; Gilfillan, A M

    2008-01-01

    KIT is a member of the tyrosine kinase family of growth factor receptors which is expressed on a variety of haematopoietic cells including mast cells. Stem cell factor (SCF)-dependent activation of KIT is critical for mast cell homeostasis and function. However, when KIT is inappropriately activa...

  2. Antibacterial agent triclosan suppresses RBL-2H3 mast cell function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, Rachel K.; Hutchinson, Lee M.; Burpee, Benjamin T.; Tupper, Emily J.; Pelletier, Jonathan H.; Kormendy, Zsolt; Hopke, Alex R.; Malay, Ethan T.; Evans, Brieana L.; Velez, Alejandro; Gosse, Julie A.

    2012-01-01

    Triclosan is a broad-spectrum antibacterial agent, which has been shown previously to alleviate human allergic skin disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that the mechanism of this action of triclosan is, in part, due to effects on mast cell function. Mast cells play important roles in allergy, asthma, parasite defense, and carcinogenesis. In response to various stimuli, mast cells degranulate, releasing allergic mediators such as histamine. In order to investigate the potential anti-inflammatory effect of triclosan on mast cells, we monitored the level of degranulation in a mast cell model, rat basophilic leukemia cells, clone 2H3. Having functional homology to human mast cells, as well as a very well defined signaling pathway leading to degranulation, this cell line has been widely used to gain insight into mast-cell driven allergic disorders in humans. Using a fluorescent microplate assay, we determined that triclosan strongly dampened the release of granules from activated rat mast cells starting at 2 μM treatment, with dose-responsive suppression through 30 μM. These concentrations were found to be non-cytotoxic. The inhibition was found to persist when early signaling events (such as IgE receptor aggregation and tyrosine phosphorylation) were bypassed by using calcium ionophore stimulation, indicating that the target for triclosan in this pathway is likely downstream of the calcium signaling event. Triclosan also strongly suppressed F-actin remodeling and cell membrane ruffling, a physiological process that accompanies degranulation. Our finding that triclosan inhibits mast cell function may explain the clinical data mentioned above and supports the use of triclosan or a mechanistically similar compound as a topical treatment for allergic skin disease, such as eczema. -- Highlights: ►The effects of triclosan on mast cell function using a murine mast cell model. ►Triclosan strongly inhibits degranulation of mast cells.

  3. Antibacterial agent triclosan suppresses RBL-2H3 mast cell function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, Rachel K., E-mail: rachel.palmer@maine.edu [Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469 (United States); Department of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469 (United States); Hutchinson, Lee M.; Burpee, Benjamin T.; Tupper, Emily J.; Pelletier, Jonathan H.; Kormendy, Zsolt; Hopke, Alex R.; Malay, Ethan T.; Evans, Brieana L.; Velez, Alejandro [Department of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469 (United States); Gosse, Julie A., E-mail: julie.gosse@umit.maine.edu [Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469 (United States); Department of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469 (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Triclosan is a broad-spectrum antibacterial agent, which has been shown previously to alleviate human allergic skin disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that the mechanism of this action of triclosan is, in part, due to effects on mast cell function. Mast cells play important roles in allergy, asthma, parasite defense, and carcinogenesis. In response to various stimuli, mast cells degranulate, releasing allergic mediators such as histamine. In order to investigate the potential anti-inflammatory effect of triclosan on mast cells, we monitored the level of degranulation in a mast cell model, rat basophilic leukemia cells, clone 2H3. Having functional homology to human mast cells, as well as a very well defined signaling pathway leading to degranulation, this cell line has been widely used to gain insight into mast-cell driven allergic disorders in humans. Using a fluorescent microplate assay, we determined that triclosan strongly dampened the release of granules from activated rat mast cells starting at 2 μM treatment, with dose-responsive suppression through 30 μM. These concentrations were found to be non-cytotoxic. The inhibition was found to persist when early signaling events (such as IgE receptor aggregation and tyrosine phosphorylation) were bypassed by using calcium ionophore stimulation, indicating that the target for triclosan in this pathway is likely downstream of the calcium signaling event. Triclosan also strongly suppressed F-actin remodeling and cell membrane ruffling, a physiological process that accompanies degranulation. Our finding that triclosan inhibits mast cell function may explain the clinical data mentioned above and supports the use of triclosan or a mechanistically similar compound as a topical treatment for allergic skin disease, such as eczema. -- Highlights: ►The effects of triclosan on mast cell function using a murine mast cell model. ►Triclosan strongly inhibits degranulation of mast cells.

  4. Ultraviolet B radiation increases hairless mouse mast cells in a dose-dependent manner and alters distribution of UV-induced mast cell growth factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kligman, L.H.; Murphy, G.F. [Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). School of Medicine

    1996-01-01

    In studies of the effects of chronic UVB irradiation on dermal connective tissue in the hairless mouse, we observed that the number and size of mast cells was increased. Because mast cells are known to be associated with connective tissue remodeling, we examined and quantified the effect of increasing UVB (290-320 nm)doses on this cell. Groups of mice were exposed to filtered FS-40 Westinghouse lamps (290-400 nm: peak irradiance 313 nm) for 1-5 minimal erythema doses (MED) thrice weekly for 10 weeks. Appropriate controls were included. Biopsies, processed for light microscopy, were stained with toluidine blue. Mast cells were counted in 15 high-magnification fields per specimen with upper and lower dermis scored separately. Significant increases in large densely granular mast cells occurred at 2 MED in the lower dermic in association with the UVB-exacerbated granulomatous reaction. In the upper dermis, mast cells were significantly increased with 3 MED. These findings suggest that mast cells may play a dual role in UV-irradiated skin with those in the lower dermis related to inflammation processes and those in the upper dermis involved in connective tissue modeling. To gain understanding of the mechanism of mast cell recruitment and maturation, we examined the effect of UVB on mast cell growth factor expression. This was enhanced in the epidermis by UVB, with a shift from cytoplasmic staining to membrane-associated or intercellular staining at 2 MED and higher. Dermal dendritic and mononuclear cells also showed increased reactivity. (Author).

  5. Increased dermal mast cell prevalence and susceptibility to development of basal cell carcinoma in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimbaldeston, Michele A; Skov, Lone; Finlay-Jones, John J

    2002-01-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation (280-320 nm) is the primary etiologic factor associated with the development of basal cell carcinoma (BCC). The outgrowth of these keratinocyte-derived skin lesions is enhanced by the ability of UVB to impair an immune response that would otherwise...... eliminate them. Studies in a range of inbred mouse strains as well as mast cell-depleted mice reconstituted with mast cell precursors support a functional link between histamine-staining dermal mast cells and the extent of susceptibility to UVB-induced systemic immunomodulation. Humans, like mouse strains......, display variations in dermal mast cell prevalence. In a study of Danish and South Australian BCC patients and control subjects, one 4-mm punch biopsy of non-sun-exposed buttock skin was sampled from each participant. This skin site was investigated to avoid any changes in mast cell prevalence caused...

  6. Human mast cells decrease SLPI levels in type II – like alveolar cell model, in vitro

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    Nyström Max

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mast cells are known to accumulate at sites of inflammation and upon activation to release their granule content, e.g. histamine, cytokines and proteases. The secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI is produced in the respiratory mucous and plays a role in regulating the activity of the proteases. Result We have used the HMC-1 cell line as a model for human mast cells to investigate their effect on SLPI expression and its levels in cell co-culture experiments, in vitro. In comparison with controls, we found a significant reduction in SLPI levels (by 2.35-fold, p Conclusion These results indicate that SLPI-producing cells may assist mast cell migration and that the regulation of SLPI release and/or consumption by mast cells requires interaction between these cell types. Therefore, a "local relationship" between mast cells and airway epithelial cells might be an important step in the inflammatory response.

  7. Isolation of Mature (Peritoneum-Derived Mast Cells and Immature (Bone Marrow-Derived Mast Cell Precursors from Mice.

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    Steffen K Meurer

    Full Text Available Mast cells (MCs are a versatile cell type playing key roles in tissue morphogenesis and host defence against bacteria and parasites. Furthermore, they can enhance immunological danger signals and are implicated in inflammatory disorders like fibrosis. This granulated cell type originates from the myeloid lineage and has similarities to basophilic granulocytes, both containing large quantities of histamine and heparin. Immature murine mast cells mature in their destination tissue and adopt either the connective tissue (CTMC or mucosal (MMC type. Some effector functions are executed by activation/degranulation of MCs which lead to secretion of a typical set of MC proteases (MCPT and of the preformed or newly synthesized mediators from its granules into the local microenvironment. Due to the potential accumulation of mutations in key signalling pathway components of corresponding MC cell-lines, primary cultured MCs are an attractive mean to study general features of MC biology and aspects of MC functions relevant to human disease. Here, we describe a simple protocol for the simultaneous isolation of mature CTMC-like murine MCs from the peritoneum (PMCs and immature MC precursors from the bone marrow (BM. The latter are differentiated in vitro to yield BM-derived MCs (BMMC. These cells display the typical morphological and phenotypic features of MCs, express the typical MC surface markers, and can be propagated and kept in culture for several weeks. The provided protocol allows simple amplification of large quantities of homogenous, non-transformed MCs from the peritoneum and bone marrow-derived mast cells for cell- and tissue-based biomedical research.

  8. Aspects of mast building and the fine structure of “amphipod silk” glands in Dyopedos bispinis (Amphipoda, Dulichiidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neretin, N.Y.; Zhadan, A.E.; Tzetlin, A.B.

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the biology of Dyopedos bispinis, a mast-building amphipod that is abundant near the N. Pertsov White Sea Biological Station. To examine the peculiarities of mast building in Dyopedos bispinis, we studied the social structure of individuals inhabiting the masts

  9. Strict mast fruiting for a tropical dipterocarp tree: a demographic cost–benefit analysis of delayed reproduction and seed predation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.D.; Jongejans, E.; Breugel, van M.; Zuidema, P.A.; Chen, Y.Y.; Kassim, A.R.; Kroon, de H.

    2011-01-01

    1. Masting, the production of large seed crops at intervals of several years, is a reproductive adaptation displayed by many tree species. The predator satiation hypothesis predicts that starvation of seed predators between mast years and satiation during mast years decreases seed predation and thus

  10. Immunoglobulin E and mast cell proteases are potential risk factors of human pre-diabetes and diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Wang

    Full Text Available Recent studies have suggested that mast-cell activation and inflammation are important in obesity and diabetes. Plasma levels of mast cell proteases and the mast cell activator immunoglobulin E (IgE may serve as novel inflammatory markers that associate with the risk of pre-diabetes and diabetes mellitus.A total of 340 subjects 55 to 75 years of age were grouped according to the American Diabetes Association 2003 criteria of normal glucose tolerance, pre-diabetes, and diabetes mellitus. The Kruskal-Wallis test demonstrated significant differences in plasma IgE levels (P = 0.008 among groups with different glucose tolerance status. Linear regression analysis revealed significant correlations between plasma levels of chymase (P = 0.030 or IgE (P = 0.022 and diabetes mellitus. Ordinal logistic regression analysis showed that IgE was a significant risk factor of pre-diabetes and diabetes mellitus (odds ratio [OR]: 1.674, P = 0.034. After adjustment for common diabetes risk factors, including age, sex, hypertension, body-mass index, cholesterol, homeostatic model assessment (HOMA index, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, and mast cell chymase and tryptase, IgE remained a significant risk factor (OR: 1.866, P = 0.015. Two-variable ordinal logistic analysis indicated that interactions between hs-CRP and IgE, or between IgE and chymase, increased further the risks of developing pre-diabetes and diabetes mellitus before (OR: 2.204, P = 0.044; OR: 2.479, P = 0.033 and after (OR: 2.251, P = 0.040; OR: 2.594, P = 0.026 adjustment for common diabetes risk factors.Both IgE and chymase associate with diabetes status. While IgE and hs-CRP are individual risk factors of pre-diabetes and diabetes mellitus, interactions of IgE with hs-CRP or with chymase further increased the risk of pre-diabetes and diabetes mellitus.

  11. 3T3 fibroblasts induce cloned interleukin 3-dependent mouse mast cells to resemble connective tissue mast cells in granular constituency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayton, E.T.; Pharr, P.; Ogawa, M.; Serafin, W.E.; Austen, K.F.; Levi-Schaffer, F.; Stevens, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    As assessed by ultrastructure, histochemical staining, and T-cell dependency, in vitro-differentiated interleukin 3-dependent mouse mast cells are comparable to the mast cells that reside in the gastrointestinal mucosa but not in the skin or the serosal cavity of the mouse. The authors now demonstrate that when cloned interleukin 3-dependent mast cells are cocultured with mouse skin-derived 3T3 fibroblasts in the presence of WEHI-3 conditioned medium for 28 days, the mast cells acquire the ability to stain with safranin, increase their histamine content ∼ 50-fold and their carboxypeptidase. A content ∼ 100-fold, and augment ∼ their biosynthesis of proteoglycans bearing 35 S-labeled haparin relative to 35 S-labeled chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycans. Thus, fibroblasts induce interleukin 3-dependent mouse mast cells to change phenotype from mucosal-like to connective tissue-like, indicating that the biochemical and functional characteristics of this mast cell type are strongly influenced by the connective tissue microenvironment

  12. Differential usage of COX-1 and COX-2 in prostaglandin production by mast cells and basophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bando, Tomoyuki; Fujita, Setsuko; Nagano, Naoko; Yoshikawa, Soichiro; Yamanishi, Yoshinori; Minami, Masashi; Karasuyama, Hajime

    2017-07-01

    Basophils have been erroneously considered as minor relatives of mast cells, due to some phenotypic similarity between them. While recent studies have revealed non-redundant roles for basophils in various immune responses, basophil-derived effector molecules, including lipid mediators, remain poorly characterized, compared to mast cell-derived ones. Here we analyzed and compared eicosanoids produced by mouse basophils and mast cells when stimulated with IgE plus allergens. The production of 5-LOX metabolites such as LTB4 and 5-HETE was detected as early as 0.5 h post-stimulation in both cell types, even though their amounts were much smaller in basophils than in mast cells. In contrast, basophils and mast cells showed distinct time course in the production of COX metabolites, including PGD2, PGE2 and 11-HETE. Their production by mast cells was detected at both 0.5 and 6 h post-stimulation while that by basophils was detectable only at 6 h. Of note, mast cells showed 8-9 times higher levels of COX-1 than did basophils at the resting status. In contrast to unaltered COX-1 expression with or without stimulation, COX-2 expression was up-regulated in both cell types upon activation. Importantly, when activated, basophils expressed 4-5 times higher levels of COX-2 than did mast cells. In accordance with these findings, the late-phase production of the COX metabolites by basophils was completely ablated by COX-2 inhibitor whereas the early-phase production by mast cells was blocked by COX-1 but not COX-2 inhibitor. Thus, the production of COX metabolites is differentially regulated by COX-1 and COX-2 in basophils and mast cells.

  13. Molecular mechanisms of glucocorticoid action in mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppong, Emmanuel; Flink, Nesrin; Cato, Andrew C B

    2013-11-05

    Glucocorticoids are compounds that have successfully been used over the years in the treatment of inflammatory disorders. They are known to exhibit their effects through the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) that acts to downregulate the action of proinflammatory transcription factors such as AP-1 and NF-κB. The GR also exerts anti-inflammatory effects through activation of distinct genes. In addition to their anti-inflammatory actions, glucocorticoids are also potent antiallergic compounds that are widely used in conditions such as asthma and anaphylaxis. Nevertheless the mechanism of action of this hormone in these disorders is not known. In this article, we have reviewed reports on the effects of glucocorticoids in mast cells, one of the important immune cells in allergy. Building on the knowledge of the molecular action of glucocorticoids and the GR in the treatment of inflammation in other cell types, we have made suggestions as to the likely mechanisms of action of glucocorticoids in mast cells. We have further identified some important questions and research directions that need to be addressed in future studies to improve the treatment of allergic disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Exhaust properties of centre-column-limited plasmas on MAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddison, G.P.; Akers, R.J.; Brickley, C.; Gryaznevich, M.P.; Lott, F.C.; Patel, A.; Sykes, A.; Turner, A.; Valovic, M.

    2007-01-01

    The lowest aspect ratio possible in a spherical tokamak is defined by limiting the plasma on its centre column, which might therefore maximize many physics benefits of this fusion approach. A key issue for such discharges is whether loads exhausted onto the small surface area of the column remain acceptable. A first series of centre-column-limited pulses has been examined on MAST using fast infra-red thermography to infer incident power densities as neutral-beam heating was scanned from 0 to 2.5 MW. Simple mapping shows that efflux distributions on the column armour are governed mostly by magnetic geometry, which moreover spreads them advantageously over almost the whole vertical length. Hence steady peak power densities between sawteeth remained low, -2 , comparable with the target strike-point value in a reference diverted plasma at lower power. Plasma purity and normalized thermal energy confinement through the centre-column-limited (CCL) series were also similar to properties of MAST diverted cases. A major bonus of CCL geometry is a propensity for exhaust to penetrate through its inner scrape-off layer connecting to the column into an expanding outer plume, which forms a 'natural divertor'. Effectiveness of this process may even increase with plasma heating, owing to rising Shafranov shift and/or toroidal rotation. A larger CCL device could potentially offer a simpler, more economic next-step design

  15. Piper nigrum extract ameliorated allergic inflammation through inhibiting Th2/Th17 responses and mast cells activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Thi Tho; Piao, Chun Hua; Song, Chang Ho; Shin, Hee Soon; Shon, Dong-Hwa; Chai, Ok Hee

    2017-12-01

    Piper nigrum (Piperaceae) is commonly used as a spice and traditional medicine in many countries. P. nigrum has been reported to have anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-tumor, anti-mutagenic, anti-diabetic, and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the effect of P. nigrum on allergic asthma has not been known. This study investigated the effect of P. nigrum ethanol extracts (PNE) on airway inflammation in asthmatic mice model. In the ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma model, we analysed the number of inflammatory cells and cytokines production in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissue; histological structure; as well as the total immunoglobulin (Ig)E, anti-OVA IgE, anti-OVA IgG 1 and histamine levels in serum. The oral administration (200 mg/kg) of PNE reduced the accumulation of inflammatory cells (eosinophils, neutrophils in BALF and mast cells in lung tissue); regulated the balance of the cytokines production of Th1, Th2, Th17 and Treg cells, specifically, inhibited the expressions of GATA3, IL-4, IL-6, IL-1β, RORγt, IL-17A, TNF-α and increased the secretions of IL-10, INF-γ in BALF and lung homogenate. Moreover, PNE suppressed the levels of total IgE, anti-OVA IgE, anti-OVA IgG 1 and histamine release in serum. The histological analysis showed that the fibrosis and infiltration of inflammatory cells were also ameliorated in PNE treated mice. On the other hand, PNE inhibited the allergic responses via inactivation of rat peritoneal mast cells degranulation. These results suggest that PNE has therapeutic potential for treating allergic asthma through inhibiting Th2/Th17 responses and mast cells activation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Mast cell gastritis: Children complaining of chronic abdominal pain with histologically normal gastric mucosal biopsies except for increase in mast cells, proposing a new entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pourpak Zahra

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mast cells reside within the connective tissue of a variety of tissues and all vascularized organs. Since 1996, few studies have been performed on mast cell density in gastrointestinal biopsies, mainly in adult age group. We recently studied mast cell density in pediatric age group on rather larger number of cases in a referral children hospital. Mast cell density was 12.6 ± 0.87 in 0.25 mm2 (range: 0-81 in our study. Since we frequently encounter cases with rather normal gastric biopsies with no H.pylori, which mainly complain of chronic abdominal pain, we gathered those cases with mast cell density more than 30/0.25 mm2. from 895 gastric biopsies and wanted to study their clinical and endoscopic findings and propose a new entity. Methods Between April 2005 and May 2008, 895 children (2, were chosen and a questionnaire was filled for each patient including clinical, endoscopic and pathologic findings. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS, version 13 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA. Results Over a 3 year period of study, of 895 selected children, 86 patients fulfilled the entrance criteria. The major complaint of patients was recurrent abdominal pain. The mean mast cell density was 45.59 ± 13.81 in 0.25 mm2 (range: 30-93. Among our cases, about 67.4% (n = 58 had 30 to 49, 23.3% (n = 20 had 50 to 69, 8.1% (n = 7 had 70 to 89 and 1.2% (n = 1 had 93 mast cells/0.25 mm2 in their specimens Discussion In 29% of our cases, neither endoscopic nor pathologic change was detected and only increase in mast cell number was reported and in others endoscopic and histopathological findings were negligible except increase in mast cells. In updated Sydney system (classification and grading of gastritis, no term is introduced which is in concordance with this group but we think that increased density of mast cells in these cases should not be overlooked and it may contribute to clinical manifestations in some way. We hope that

  17. Mast Cell, the Neglected Member of the Tumor Microenvironment: Role in Breast Cancer

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    Angélica Aponte-López

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mast cells are unique tissue-resident immune cells that secrete a diverse array of biologically active compounds that can stimulate, modulate, or suppress the immune response. Although mounting evidence supports that mast cells are consistently infiltrating tumors, their role as either a driving or an opposite force for cancer progression is still controversial. Particularly, in breast cancer, their function is still under discussion. While some studies have shown a protective role, recent evidence indicates that mast cells enhance blood and lymphatic vessel formation. Interestingly, one of the most important components of the mast cell cargo, the serine protease tryptase, is a potent angiogenic factor, and elevated serum tryptase levels correlate with bad prognosis in breast cancer patients. Likewise, histamine is known to induce tumor cell proliferation and tumor growth. In agreement, mast cell depletion reduces the size of mammary tumors and metastasis in murine models that spontaneously develop breast cancer. In this review, we will discuss the evidence supporting protumoral and antitumoral roles of mast cells, emphasizing recent findings placing mast cells as important drivers of tumor progression, as well as the potential use of these cells or their mediators as therapeutic targets.

  18. [Inhibitory effect of kaempferol on inflammatory response of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human mast cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yun-jiang; Wang, Hu; Li, Li; Sui, He-huan; Huang, Jia-jun

    2015-06-01

    This study is to investigate the inhibitory effect of kaempferol on inflammatory response of lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-stimulated HMC-1 mast cells. The cytotoxicity of kaempferol to HMC-1 mast cells were analyzed by using MTT assay and then the administration concentrations of kaempferol were established. Histamine, IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β and TNF-α were measured using ELISA assay in activated HMC-1 mast cells after incubation with various concentrations of kaempferol (10, 20 and 40 µmol.L-1). Western blot was used to test the protein expression of p-IKKβ, IκBα, p-IκBα and nucleus NF-κB of LPS-induced HMC-1 mast cells after incubation with different concentrations of kaempferol. The optimal concentrations of kaempferol were defined as the range from 5 µmol.L-1 to 40 µmol.L-1. Kaempferol significantly decreased the release of histamine, IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β and TNF-α of activated HMC-1 mast cells (Pkaempferol, the protein expression of p-IKKβ, p-IKBa and nucleus NF-κB (p65) markedly reduced in LPS-stimulated HMC-1 mast cells (Pkaempferol markedly inhibit mast cell-mediated inflammatory response. At the same time, kaempferol can inhibit the activation of IKKβ, block the phosphorylation of IκBα, prevent NF-KB entering into the nucleus, and then decrease the release of inflammatory mediators.

  19. Effect of Scour on the Natural Frequency Responses of the Meteorological Mast in the Taiwan Strait

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    Wei-Chen Tseng

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The meteorological mast (met mast for the Taiwan Power Company’s offshore wind farm is located in Taiwan Strait near Changhua County. The p–y curve method recommended in the current offshore foundation design codes does not account for the local scour around the pile foundation; it overestimates the lateral pile deformation and underestimates the foundation stiffness. This paper presents a method to correct the initial modulus of subgrade reaction and modify the ultimate lateral resistance caused by the local scour. The natural frequency of the met mast structure is also determined by a numerical model and verified with the measured data in situ. A comprehensive parameter study is performed to analyze the effect of scour on the dynamic responses of the met mast. Two types of foundation model, a coupled-springs foundation model and a distributed-springs foundation model, are considered in the dynamic analysis of the met mast. The results demonstrate that using a distributed-springs foundation model provides a relatively accurate estimate of the natural frequencies of the met mast structure. Furthermore, the scour exerted significant effects on certain modes of the vibration responses. The natural frequencies of the met mast structure can be reduced by approximately 14% due to scour, particularly in the horizontal bending modes. This paper also provides a preliminary strategy for structural monitoring and analysis to detect scour damage on offshore wind turbines with monopile foundations.

  20. Hydrogen inhalation ameliorated mast cell mediated brain injury after ICH in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaenko, Anatol; Lekic, Tim; Ma, Qingyi; Zhang, John H.; Tang, Jiping

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Hydrogen inhalation was neuroprotective in several brain injury models. Its mechanisms are believed to be related to anti-oxidative stress. We investigated the potential neurovascular protective effect of hydrogen inhalation especially effect on mast cell activation in a mouse model of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). DESIGN Controlled in vivo laboratory study. SETTING Animal research laboratory SUBJECTS 171, 8 weeks old male CD-1 mice were used. INTERVENTIONS Collagenase-induced ICH model in 8 weeks old, male, CD-1 mice was used. Hydrogen was administrated via spontaneous inhalation. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and neurological deficits were investigated at 24 and 72 hours after ICH. Mast cell activation was evaluated by Western blot and immuno-staining. The effects of hydrogen inhalation on mast cell activation were confirmed in an autologous blood injection model ICH. MEASURMENT AND MAIN RESULTS At 24 and 72 hours post-ICH, animals showed BBB disruption, brain edema, neurological deficits, accompanied with phosphorylation of Lyn kinase and release of tryptase, indicating mast cell activation. Hydrogen treatment diminished phosphorylation of Lyn kinase and release of tryptase, decreased accumulation and degranulation of mast cells, attenuated BBB disruption and improved neurobehavioral function. CONCLUSION Activation of mast cells following ICH contributed to increase of BBB permeability and brain edema. Hydrogen inhalation preserved BBB disruption by prevention of mast cell activation after ICH. PMID:23388512

  1. Mast Cell Subsets and Their Functional Modulation by the Acanthocheilonema viteae Product ES-62

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    Dimity H. Ball

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ES-62, an immunomodulator secreted by filarial nematodes, exhibits therapeutic potential in mouse models of allergic inflammation, at least in part by inducing the desensitisation of FcεRI-mediated mast cell responses. However, in addition to their pathogenic roles in allergic and autoimmune diseases, mast cells are important in fighting infection, wound healing, and resolving inflammation, reflecting that mast cells exhibit a phenotypic and functional plasticity. We have therefore characterised the differential functional responses to antigen (via FcεRI and LPS and their modulation by ES-62 of the mature peritoneal-derived mast cells (PDMC; serosal and those of the connective tissue-like mast cells (CTMC and the mucosal-like mast cells derived from bone marrow progenitors (BMMC as a first step to produce disease tissue-targeted therapeutics based on ES-62 action. All three mast cell populations were rendered hyporesponsive by ES-62 and whilst the mechanisms underlying such desensitisation have not been fully delineated, they reflect a downregulation of calcium and PKCα signalling. ES-62 also downregulated MyD88 and PKCδ in mucosal-type BMMC but not PDMC, the additional signals targeted in mucosal-type BMMC likely reflecting that these cells respond to antigen and LPS by degranulation and cytokine secretion whereas PDMC predominantly respond in a degranulation-based manner.

  2. Our perception of the mast cell from Paul Ehrlich to now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaven, Michael A

    2009-01-01

    Just over a century ago Paul Ehrlich received the Nobel Prize for his studies of immunity. This review describes one of his legacies, the histochemical description of the mast cell, and the research that has ensued since then. After a long period of largely descriptive studies, which revealed little about the biological role of the mast cell, the field was galvanized in the 1950s by the recognition that the mast cell was the main repository of histamine and a key participant in anaphylactic reactions. Although the mast cell was long-viewed in these terms, recent research has now shown that the mast cell also plays a key role in innate and adaptive immune responses, autoimmune disease, and possibly tissue homeostasis by virtue of its expression of a diverse array of receptors and biologically active products. In addition, the responsiveness of mast cells to immunological and pathological stimulants is highly modulated by the tissue cytokine environment and by synergistic, or inhibitory, interactions among the various mast cell receptor systems. This once enigmatic cell of Paul Ehrlich has proved to be both adaptable and multifunctional.

  3. Olopatadine Inhibits Exocytosis in Rat Peritoneal Mast Cells by Counteracting Membrane Surface Deformation

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    Asuka Baba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgroud/Aims: Besides its anti-allergic properties as a histamine receptor antagonist, olopatadine stabilizes mast cells by inhibiting the release of chemokines. Since olopatadine bears amphiphilic features and is preferentially partitioned into the lipid bilayers of the plasma membrane, it would induce some morphological changes in mast cells and thus affect the process of exocytosis. Methods: Employing the standard patch-clamp whole-cell recording technique, we examined the effects of olopatadine and other anti-allergic drugs on the membrane capacitance (Cm in rat peritoneal mast cells during exocytosis. Using confocal imaging of a water-soluble fluorescent dye, lucifer yellow, we also examined their effects on the deformation of the plasma membrane. Results: Low concentrations of olopatadine (1 or 10 µM did not significantly affect the GTP-γ-S-induced increase in the Cm. However, 100 µM and 1 mM olopatadine almost totally suppressed the increase in the Cm. Additionally, these doses completely washed out the trapping of the dye on the cell surface, indicating that olopatadine counteracted the membrane surface deformation induced by exocytosis. As shown by electron microscopy, olopatadine generated inward membrane bending in mast cells. Conclusion: This study provides electrophysiological evidence for the first time that olopatadine dose-dependently inhibits the process of exocytosis in rat peritoneal mast cells. Such mast cell stabilizing properties of olopatadine may be attributed to its counteracting effects on the plasma membrane deformation in degranulating mast cells.

  4. Myocardial remodeling in diabetic cardiomyopathy associated with cardiac mast cell activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Gang Huang

    Full Text Available Diabetic cardiomyopathy is a specific disease process distinct from coronary artery disease and hypertension. The disease features cardiac remodeling stimulated by hyperglycemia of the left ventricle wall and disrupts contractile functions. Cardiac mast cells may be activated by metabolic byproducts resulted from hyperglycermia and then participate in the remodeling process by releasing a multitude of cytokines and bioactive enzymes. Nedocromil, a pharmacologic stabilizer of mast cells, has been shown to normalize cytokine levels and attenuate cardiac remodeling. In this study, we describe the activation of cardiac mast cells by inducing diabetes in normal mice using streptozotocin (STZ. Next, we treated the diabetic mice with nedocromil for 12 weeks and then examined their hearts for signs of cardiac remodeling and quantified contractile function. We observed significantly impaired heart function in diabetic mice, as well as increased cardiac mast cell density and elevated mast cell secretions that correlated with gene expression and aberrant cytokine levels associated with cardiac remodeling. Nedocromil treatment halted contractile dysfunction in diabetic mice and reduced cardiac mast cell density, which correlated with reduced bioactive enzyme secretions, reduced expression of extracellular matrix remodeling factors and collagen synthesis, and normalized cytokine levels. However, the results showed nedocromil treatments did not return diabetic mice to a normal state. We concluded that manipulation of cardiac mast cell function is sufficient to attenuate cardiomyopathy stimulated by diabetes, but other cellular pathways also contribute to the disease process.

  5. Bone marrow-derived cultured mast cells and peritoneal mast cells as targets of a growth activity secreted by BALB/3T3 fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jozaki, K.; Kuriu, A.; Hirota, S.; Onoue, H.; Ebi, Y.; Adachi, S.; Ma, J.Y.; Tarui, S.; Kitamura, Y.

    1991-01-01

    When fibroblast cell lines were cultured in contact with bone marrow-derived cultured mast cells (CMC), both NIH/3T3 and BALB/3T3 cell lines supported the proliferation of CMC. In contrast, when contact between fibroblasts and CMC was prohibited by Biopore membranes or soft agar, only BALB/3T3 fibroblasts supported CMC proliferation, suggesting that BALB/3T3 but not NIH/3T3 cells secreted a significant amount of a mast cell growth activity. Moreover, the BALB/3T3-derived growth activity induced the incorporation of [3H]thymidine by CMC and the clonal growth of peritoneal mast cells in methylcellulose. The mast cell growth activity appeared to be different from interleukin 3 (IL-3) and interleukin 4 (IL-4), because mRNAs for these interleukins were not detectable in BALB/3T3 fibroblasts. Although mast cells are genetically deficient in tissues of W/Wv mice, CMC did develop when bone marrow cells of W/Wv mice were cultured with pokeweed mitogen-stimulated spleen cell-conditioned medium. Because BALB/3T3 fibroblast-conditioned medium (BALB-FCM) did not induce the incorporation of [3H]thymidine by W/Wv CMC, the growth activity in BALB-FCM appeared to be a ligand for the receptor encoded by the W (c-kit) locus. Because CMC and peritoneal mast cells are obtained as homogeneous suspensions rather easily, these cells may be potentially useful as targets for the fibroblast-derived mast cell growth activity

  6. Histamine from brain resident MAST cells promotes wakefulness and modulates behavioral states.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachiko Chikahisa

    Full Text Available Mast cell activation and degranulation can result in the release of various chemical mediators, such as histamine and cytokines, which significantly affect sleep. Mast cells also exist in the central nervous system (CNS. Since up to 50% of histamine contents in the brain are from brain mast cells, mediators from brain mast cells may significantly influence sleep and other behaviors. In this study, we examined potential involvement of brain mast cells in sleep/wake regulations, focusing especially on the histaminergic system, using mast cell deficient (W/W(v mice. No significant difference was found in the basal amount of sleep/wake between W/W(v mice and their wild-type littermates (WT, although W/W(v mice showed increased EEG delta power and attenuated rebound response after sleep deprivation. Intracerebroventricular injection of compound 48/80, a histamine releaser from mast cells, significantly increased histamine levels in the ventricular region and enhanced wakefulness in WT mice, while it had no effect in W/W(v mice. Injection of H1 antagonists (triprolidine and mepyramine significantly increased the amounts of slow-wave sleep in WT mice, but not in W/W(v mice. Most strikingly, the food-seeking behavior observed in WT mice during food deprivation was completely abolished in W/W(v mice. W/W(v mice also exhibited higher anxiety and depression levels compared to WT mice. Our findings suggest that histamine released from brain mast cells is wake-promoting, and emphasizes the physiological and pharmacological importance of brain mast cells in the regulation of sleep and fundamental neurobehavior.

  7. MAST CELLS AND ANGIOGENESIS IN ORAL EPITHELIAL DYSPLASTIC LESIONS AND ORAL SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veda, Marla Vinay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The progression of oral epithelial dysplastic lesions into oral squamous cell carcinoma is characterized by an ‘angiogenic switch’ which is characterized by an increase in neo-vascularization in the sub-epithelial lamina propria which can be considered an indicator of malignant transformation. Mast cells are a rich source of various angiogenic factors. Moreover mast cells secrete various proteolytic enzymes which degrade the extracellular matrix and create space for the developing blood vessels. Aims: This study was undertaken to determine the relationship between mast cell density and microvessel density in normal oral mucosa, oral epithelial dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma and to find out whether any correlation exists between these two parameters. Material and Methods: This retrospective study was performed using formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissues of previously diagnosed cases of oral epithelial dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Mast cells were stained using toluidine blue, whereas in the capillaries, immunohistochemical staining technique was performed using mouse monoclonal antibody against CD34. Results: Mast cell density and microvessel density were higher in oral epithelial dysplasia and in oral squamous cell carcinoma compared to the normal mucosa. However, statistically significant positive correlation was noted only in oral epithelial dysplasia Conclusion: The above results probably indicate a role of mast cells in ‘angiogenic switch’. These angiogenic factors secreted by mast cells promote angiogenesis either directly by stimulating the migration and/or proliferation of mast cells or indirectly through degradation of extracellular matrix. Targeting the mast cells may contribute in preventing the progression of the lesion.

  8. Endogenous suppression of mast cell development and survival by IL-4 and IL-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speiran, Kelly; Bailey, Daniel P; Fernando, Josephine; Macey, Matthew; Barnstein, Brian; Kolawole, Motunrayo; Curley, Dana; Watowich, Stephanie S; Murray, Peter J; Oskeritzian, Carole; Ryan, John J

    2009-05-01

    Mast cell development is an important component of atopic and chronic inflammatory diseases such as asthma, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and atherosclerosis. In this study, we found that IL-4 and IL-10 were produced constitutively in cultures of developing mast cells, correlating with mast cell purity. Deletion of either gene increased mast cell numbers and Fc epsilon RI expression during culture in IL-3 + stem cell factor (SCF). By adding exogenous IL-4 and IL-10 to bone marrow (BM) cultures containing IL-3 + SCF, we found that IL-4 + IL-10 suppressed mast cell development through mechanisms not used by either cytokine alone. IL-4 + IL-10 elicited a rapid cell death coincidental with reduced Kit receptor expression and signaling and enhanced mitochondrial damage and caspase activation. IL-4 or IL-10 costimulation, unlike either cytokine alone, altered mast cell ontogeny to yield predominantly macrophages in cultures that typically produce mast cells. This effect was observed consistently with unseparated BM cells, purified mouse BM stem cells, and erythrocyte-depleted human umbilical cord blood cells. These experiments demonstrated a major role for Stat6 and Stat3, but not the Stat3-induced transcriptional repressor Ets variant gene 3. Genetic background was also a critical factor, as BALB/c-derived BM cells were completely resistant to IL-10-mediated killing and expressed lower levels of IL-10R. Collectively, these results support the theory that IL-4 and IL-10 function as endogenous regulators of mast cell progenitor development, consistent with a role in immune homeostasis. Loss of this homeostasis, perhaps via genetic polymorphism, could contribute to the etiology of mast cell-associated disease.

  9. Histamine from brain resident MAST cells promotes wakefulness and modulates behavioral states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikahisa, Sachiko; Kodama, Tohru; Soya, Atsushi; Sagawa, Yohei; Ishimaru, Yuji; Séi, Hiroyoshi; Nishino, Seiji

    2013-01-01

    Mast cell activation and degranulation can result in the release of various chemical mediators, such as histamine and cytokines, which significantly affect sleep. Mast cells also exist in the central nervous system (CNS). Since up to 50% of histamine contents in the brain are from brain mast cells, mediators from brain mast cells may significantly influence sleep and other behaviors. In this study, we examined potential involvement of brain mast cells in sleep/wake regulations, focusing especially on the histaminergic system, using mast cell deficient (W/W(v)) mice. No significant difference was found in the basal amount of sleep/wake between W/W(v) mice and their wild-type littermates (WT), although W/W(v) mice showed increased EEG delta power and attenuated rebound response after sleep deprivation. Intracerebroventricular injection of compound 48/80, a histamine releaser from mast cells, significantly increased histamine levels in the ventricular region and enhanced wakefulness in WT mice, while it had no effect in W/W(v) mice. Injection of H1 antagonists (triprolidine and mepyramine) significantly increased the amounts of slow-wave sleep in WT mice, but not in W/W(v) mice. Most strikingly, the food-seeking behavior observed in WT mice during food deprivation was completely abolished in W/W(v) mice. W/W(v) mice also exhibited higher anxiety and depression levels compared to WT mice. Our findings suggest that histamine released from brain mast cells is wake-promoting, and emphasizes the physiological and pharmacological importance of brain mast cells in the regulation of sleep and fundamental neurobehavior.

  10. The mast cell-B cell axis in lung vascular remodeling and pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitling, Siegfried; Hui, Zhang; Zabini, Diana; Hu, Yijie; Hoffmann, Julia; Goldenberg, Neil M; Tabuchi, Arata; Buelow, Roland; Dos Santos, Claudia; Kuebler, Wolfgang M

    2017-05-01

    Over past years, a critical role for the immune system and, in particular, for mast cells in the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension (PH) has emerged. However, the way in which mast cells promote PH is still poorly understood. Here, we investigated the mechanisms by which mast cells may contribute to PH, specifically focusing on the interaction between the innate and adaptive immune response and the role of B cells and autoimmunity. Experiments were performed in Sprague-Dawley rats and B cell-deficient JH-KO rats in the monocrotaline, Sugen/hypoxia, and the aortic banding model of PH. Hemodynamics, cell infiltration, IL-6 expression, and vascular remodeling were analyzed. Gene array analyses revealed constituents of immunoglobulins as most prominently regulated mast cell-dependent genes in the lung in experimental PH. IL-6 was shown to link mast cells to B cells, as 1 ) IL-6 was upregulated and colocalized with mast cells and was reduced by mast-cell stabilizers and 2 ) IL-6 or mast cell blockade reduced B cells in lungs of monocrotaline-treated rats. A functional role for B cells in PH was demonstrated in that either blocking B cells by an anti-CD20 antibody or B-cell deficiency in JH-KO rats attenuated right ventricular systolic pressure and vascular remodeling in experimental PH. We here identify a mast cell-B cell axis driven by IL-6 as a critical immune pathway in the pathophysiology of PH. Our results provide novel insights into the role of the immune system in PH, which may be therapeutically exploited by targeted immunotherapy. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Mast cell lines HMC-1 and LAD2 in comparison with mature human skin mast cells--drastically reduced levels of tryptase and chymase in mast cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guhl, Sven; Babina, Magda; Neou, Angelos; Zuberbier, Torsten; Artuc, Metin

    2010-09-01

    To circumvent the costly isolation procedure associated with tissue mast cells (MC), two human MC lines, i.e. HMC-1 and LAD2, are frequently employed, but their relation to mature MC is unknown. Here, we quantitatively assessed their expression of MC markers in direct comparison to skin MC (sMC). sMC expressed all lineage markers at highest and HMC-1 cells at lowest levels. LAD2 cells expressed comparable high-affinity IgE receptor alpha (FcepsilonRIalpha) and FcepsilonRIgamma but less FcepsilonRIbeta than sMC and displayed slightly reduced, but robust FcepsilonRI-mediated histamine release. Only minor differences were found for total histamine content and c-Kit expression. Huge, and to this level unexpected, differences were found for MC tryptase and chymase, with sMC > LAD2 > HMC-1. Taken together, HMC-1 cells represent very immature malignantly transformed MC, whereas LAD2 cells can be considered intermediately differentiated. Because of the minute levels of MC proteases, MC lines can serve as surrogates of tissue MC to a limited degree only.

  12. Use of Neural Networks for Damage Assessment in a Steel Mast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Rytter, A.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper the possibility of using a Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) network trained with the Backpropagation Algorithm for detecting location and size of a damage in a civil engineering structure is investigated. The structure considered is a 20 m high steel lattice mast subjected to wind excita...... as well as full-scale tests where the mast is identified by an ARMA-model. The results show that a neural network trained with simulated data is capable for detecting location of a damage in a steel lattice mast when the network is subjected to experimental data.·...

  13. Detection of Damage in a Lattice Mast Excited by Wind by Dynamic Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars; Brincker, Rune

    2007-01-01

    under ambient loading conditions. The paper presents the instrumentation and considerations regarding layout of instrumentation and strategies for acquisition and processing of data. Damage in the mast is provoked using a hacksaw and the cross sectional area of one the diagonals of the mast (one located...... are identified. By studying the recorded variations it seems reasonable to conclude that by implementing a vibration monitoring system on the mast it would be possible to reliably detect a damage corresponding to less than a 50% loss of cross sectional area of the diagonal. This would allow for issue...

  14. Adaptive and innate immune reactions regulating mast cell activation: from receptor-mediated signaling to responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tkaczyk, Christine; Jensen, Bettina M; Iwaki, Shoko

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we have described studies that have demonstrated that mast cells can be activated as a consequence of adaptive and innate immune reactions and that these responses can be modified by ligands for other receptors expressed on the surface of mast cells. These various stimuli...... differentially activate multiple signaling pathways within the mast cells required for the generation and/or release of inflammatory mediators. Thus, the composition of the suite of mediators released and the physiologic ramifications of these responses are dependent on the stimuli and the microenvironment...

  15. Adrenergic nerve fibres and mast cells: correlation in rat thymus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artico, Marco; Cavallotti, Carlo; Cavallotti, Daniela

    2002-10-21

    The interactions between adrenergic nerve fibres and mast cells (MCs) were studied in the thymus of adult and old rats by morphological methods and by quantitative analysis of images (QAIs). The whole thymus was drawn in adult (12 months old) rats: normal, sympathectomized or electrostimulated. Thymuses from the above-mentioned animals were weighed, measured and dissected. Thymic slices were stained with eosin orange for detection of microanatomical details and with Bodian's method for identification of the whole nerve fibres. Thymic MCs were stained with Astrablau. Histofluorescence microscopy was used for staining of adrenergic nerve fibres. Finally, all morphological results were submitted to the QAIs and statistical analysis of data. Our results suggest that after surgical sympathectomy, the greater part of adrenergic nerve fibres disappear while related MCs appear to show less evident fluorescence and few granules. On the contrary, electrostimulation of the cervical superior ganglion induced an increase in the fluorescence of adrenergic nerve fibres and of related MCs.

  16. Localization of calcium changes in stimulated rat mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horoyan, M; Soler, M; Benoliel, A M; Fraterno, M; Passerel, M; Subra, H; Martin, J M; Bongrand, P; Foa, C

    1992-01-01

    We studied intracellular free, bound, and sequestered calcium in rat mast cells after various stimulations. The use of a fluorescent probe combined with digitized imaging on individual living cells demonstrated transient increases of free Ca2+ in the micromolar range. The use of histochemical techniques (K pyroantimonate and anhydrous fixation), together with X-ray microanalysis, energy electron-loss spectroscopy, and electron spectroscopic imaging, revealed large amounts of stored calcium within the cells (in the millimolar range). Chelation experiments and stimulations enabled us to identify at least two pools of bound calcium which exhibited different dynamic behaviors. Stimulation in the presence of EGTA did not modify calcium from granules, granule membranes, and heterochromatin, whereas it decreased calcium from other cell compartments. Stimulation triggered variations in the amount of bound calcium but they did not parallel free calcium movements. Hence, whereas free calcium is implicated in exocytosis, bound calcium may be involved in altogether different cell functions.

  17. STIM1-Directed Reorganization of Microtubules in Activated Mast Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hájková, Zuzana; Bugajev, Viktor; Dráberová, Eduarda; Vinopal, Stanislav; Dráberová, Lubica; Janáček, Jiří; Dráber, Petr; Dráber, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 186, č. 2 (2011), s. 913-923 ISSN 0022-1767 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GD204/09/H084; GA ČR GA204/09/1777; GA ČR GA301/09/1826; GA ČR GAP302/10/1759; GA MŠk LC545; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06063; GA AV ČR KAN200520701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514; CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : STIM1 * bonemarrow-derived mast cells * microtubules Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.788, year: 2011

  18. Mast cell sarcoma with megakaryocytic differentiation in a calf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Ayako; Wada, Yoshihiro; Kanada, Toshiaki; Ishikawa, Yoshiharu; Kadota, Koichi

    2012-12-01

    A case of mast cell sarcoma in a 5-month-old Holstein female calf is described. Macroscopically, enlargement of the spleen, lymph nodes, tonsils and kidneys was noted, and there were tumor masses in the neck region and on the pleura and peritoneum. The pericardium and uterine and ureter walls were also involved by tumor. Most neoplastic cells had eosinophilic granules, which were metachromatic and positive for naphthol AS-D chloroacetate esterase and tryptase, whereas smaller numbers of cells were positive for factor VIII-related antigen, a marker of megakaryocytes. Some of the predominant type of these tumor cells were found within the epithelia of the lungs, tonsils, gastrointestinal tract, liver, ureters, urinary bladder and uterus. Their normal counterparts were considered to be globule leukocytes.

  19. STIM1-Directed Reorganization of Microtubules in Activated Mast Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hájková, Zuzana; Bugajev, Viktor; Dráberová, Eduarda; Vinopal, Stanislav; Dráberová, Lubica; Janáček, Jiří; Dráber, Petr; Dráber, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 186, č. 2 (2011), s. 913-923 ISSN 0022-1767 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GD204/09/H084; GA ČR GA204/09/1777; GA ČR GA301/09/1826; GA ČR GAP302/10/1759; GA MŠk LC545; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06063; GA AV ČR KAN200520701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514; CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : STIM1 * bone marrow-derived mast cells * microtubules Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.788, year: 2011

  20. Opa-typing can identify epidemiologically distinct subgroups within Neisseria gonorrhoeae multi-antigen sequence type (NG-MAST) clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, A K; Palmer, H M; Young, H

    2008-03-01

    A collection of 106 Neisseria gonorrhoeae ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates were typed using Neisseria gonorrhoeae multi-antigen sequence typing (NG-MAST). Opa-typing was performed on 74 isolates which had non-unique sequence types to determine if further discrimination could be achieved and if so whether this had any epidemiological basis. The 74 isolates were separated into 12 sequence types and 20 opa-types (OT). Seven opa-type clusters were congruent with the sequence types and five sequence types could be subdivided by opa-typing. These results demonstrate that opa-typing can add a further level of discrimination compared with NG-MAST. The surveillance data for isolates in the largest sequence type cluster (ST 147) indicated that two major subdivisions OT 1 and OT 2 differed epidemiologically by patients' sexual preference and geographical location. ST 147 is a common strain that has been isolated in several countries since 1999; our results suggest that it has diverged into at least two epidemiologically discrete forms.

  1. Genome-Wide Association Study of Golden Retrievers Identifies Germ-Line Risk Factors Predisposing to Mast Cell Tumours.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja L Arendt

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Canine mast cell tumours (CMCT are one of the most common skin tumours in dogs with a major impact on canine health. Certain breeds have a higher risk of developing mast cell tumours, suggesting that underlying predisposing germ-line genetic factors play a role in the development of this disease. The genetic risk factors are largely unknown, although somatic mutations in the oncogene C-KIT have been detected in a proportion of CMCT, making CMCT a comparative model for mastocytosis in humans where C-KIT mutations are frequent. We have performed a genome wide association study in golden retrievers from two continents and identified separate regions in the genome associated with risk of CMCT in the two populations. Sequence capture of associated regions and subsequent fine mapping in a larger cohort of dogs identified a SNP associated with development of CMCT in the GNAI2 gene (p = 2.2x10-16, introducing an alternative splice form of this gene resulting in a truncated protein. In addition, disease associated haplotypes harbouring the hyaluronidase genes HYAL1, HYAL2 and HYAL3 on cfa20 and HYAL4, SPAM1 and HYALP1 on cfa14 were identified as separate risk factors in European and US golden retrievers, respectively, suggesting that turnover of hyaluronan plays an important role in the development of CMCT.

  2. Lipopolysaccharide suppresses IgE-mast cell-mediated reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, N; McKell, M; Dang, A; Yamani, A; Waggoner, L; Vanoni, S; Noah, T; Wu, D; Kordowski, A; Köhl, J; Hoebe, K; Divanovic, S; Hogan, S P

    2017-12-01

    Clinical and experimental analyses have identified a central role for IgE/FcεRI/mast cells in promoting IgE-mediated anaphylaxis. Recent data from human studies suggest that bacterial infections can alter susceptibility to anaphylaxis. We examined the effect of LPS exposure on the induction of IgE-mast cell (MC) mediated reactions in mice. C57BL/6 WT, tlr4 -/- and IL10 -/- mice were exposed to LPS, and serum cytokines (TNF and IL-10) were measured. Mice were subsequently treated with anti-IgE, and the symptoms of passive IgE-mediated anaphylaxis, MC activation, Ca 2+ -mobilization and the expression of FcεRI on peritoneal MCs were quantitated. We show that LPS exposure of C57BL/6 WT mice constraints IgE-MC-mediated reactions. LPS-induced suppression of IgE-MC-mediated responses was TLR-4-dependent and associated with increased systemic IL-10 levels, decreased surface expression of FcεRI on MCs and loss of sensitivity to IgE activation. Notably, LPS-induced desensitization of MCs was short term with MC sensitivity to IgE reconstituted within 48 hours, which was associated with recapitulation of FcεRI expression on the MCs. Mechanistic analyses revealed a requirement for IL-10 in LPS-mediated decrease in MC FcεRI surface expression. Collectively, these studies suggest that LPS-induced IL-10 promotes the down-regulation of MC surface FcεRI expression and leads to desensitization of mice to IgE-mediated reactions. These studies indicate that targeting of the LPS-TLR-4-IL-10 pathway may be used as a therapeutic approach to prevent adverse IgE-mediated reactions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Martian Arctic Dust Devil and Phoenix Meteorology Mast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander caught this dust devil in action west-southwest of the lander at 11:16 a.m. local Mars time on Sol 104, or the 104th Martian day of the mission, Sept. 9, 2008. Dust devils have not been detected in any Phoenix images from earlier in the mission, but at least six were observed in a dozen images taken on Sol 104. Dust devils are whirlwinds that often occur when the Sun heats the surface of Mars, or some areas on Earth. The warmed surface heats the layer of atmosphere closest to it, and the warm air rises in a whirling motion, stirring dust up from the surface like a miniature tornado. The vertical post near the left edge of this image is the mast of the Meteorological Station on Phoenix. The dust devil visible at the horizon just to the right of the mast is estimated to be 600 to 700 meters (about 2,000 to 2,300 feet) from Phoenix, and 4 to 5 meters (10 to 13 feet) in diameter. It is much smaller than dust devils that have been observed by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit much closer to the equator. It is closer in size to dust devils seen from orbit in the Phoenix landing region, though still smaller than those. The image has been enhanced to make the dust devil easier to see. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  4. Health technology assessment of drugs for rare diseases: insights, trends, and reasons for negative recommendations from the CADTH common drug review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janoudi, Ghayath; Amegatse, William; McIntosh, Brendan; Sehgal, Chander; Richter, Trevor

    2016-12-01

    A shift in biochemical research towards drugs for rare diseases has created new challenges for the pharmaceutical industry, government regulators, health technology assessment agencies, and public and private payers. In this article, we aim to comprehensively review, characterize, identify possible trends, and explore reasons for negative reimbursement recommendations in submissions made to the Common Drug Review (CDR) for drugs for rare diseases (DRD) at the Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH), a publicly funded pan-Canadian health technology assessment agency. A public database (cadth.ca) was screened to identify DRD submissions to CDR. A diseases prevalence of ≤50 per 100,000 people was considered a rare disease. We calculated descriptive statistics for prevalence, study design, study size, treatment cost, reimbursement recommendation types, and reasons for negative reimbursement recommendations. From 2004 to 2015, 63 of 434 submissions to the CDR were for DRD (range: 1 submission in 2005 to 10 submissions in 2013). Most (74.6%) submissions included at least one double-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT). The average study size was 190 patients (range: 20 to 742). The average annual treatment cost was C$215,631 (range: $9,706 to $940,084). Reimbursement recommendations were positive for 54% of the submissions. Negative reimbursement recommendations were made due to a lack of clinical effectiveness (38.5%), insufficient evidence (30.8%), multiple reasons (23.1%), or lack of cost effectiveness/high cost (7.7%). The number of DRD submissions to CDR increased since 2013; from 4 to 5 per year between 2004 and 2012, to 10, 9, and 8 in 2013, 2014, and 2015 respectively. More than half of DRD submissions received positive reimbursement recommendation. Poor quality evidence and/or lack of supportive clinical evidence was at least partly responsible for a negative reimbursement recommendation in all cases. Although the average cost of DRD

  5. Stimulation of mast cells leads to cholesterol accumulation in macrophages in vitro by a mast cell granule-mediated uptake of low density lipoprotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokkonen, J.O.; Kovanen, P.T.

    1987-01-01

    The uptake of low density lipoprotein (LDL) by cultured mouse macrophages was markedly promoted by isolated rat mast cell granules present in the culture medium. The granule-mediated uptake of 125 I-LDL enhanced the rate of cholesteryl ester synthesis in the macrophages, the result being accumulation of cholesteryl esters in these cells. Binding of LDL to the granules was essential for the granule-mediated uptake of LDL by macrophages, for the uptake process was prevented by treating the granules with avidin or protamine chloride or by treating LDL with 1,2-cyclohexanedione, all of which inhibit the binding of LDL to the granules. Inhibition of granule phagocytosis by the macrophages with cytochalasin B also abolished the granule-mediated uptake of LDL. Finally, mouse macrophage monolayers and LDL were incubated in the presence of isolated rat serosal mast cells. Stimulation of the mast cells with compound 48/80, a degranulating agent, resulted in dose-dependent release of secretory granules from the mast cells and a parallel increase in 14 C cholesteryl ester synthesis in the macrophages. The results show that, in this in vitro model, the sequence of events leading to accumulation of cholesteryl esters in macrophages involves initial stimulation of mast cells, subsequent release of their secretory granules, binding of LDL to the exocytosed granules, and, finally, phagocytosis of the LDL-containing granules by macrophages

  6. Informatics and Decisions support in Galway Bay (SmartBay) using ERDDAP, OGC Technologies and Third Party Data Sources to Provide Services to the Marine Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Conor; Gaughan, Paul; Smyth, Damian

    2013-04-01

    The global marine sector generates and consumes vast quantities of operational and forecast data on a daily basis. One of the key challenges facing the sector relates to the management and transformation of that data into knowledge. The Irish Marine Institute (MI) generates oceanographic and environmental data on a regular and frequent basis. This data comes from operational ocean models run on the MI's high performance computer (HPC) and various environmental observation sensors systems. Some of the data published by the Marine Institute is brokered by the Environmental Research Division's Data Access Program (ERDDAP) data broker, which is a broker technology that uses technology based on OPeNDAP and Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards. The broker provides a consistent web service interface to the data services of the Marine Institute; these services include wave, tide and weather sensors and numerical model output. An ERDDAP server publishes data in a number of standard and developer friendly ways, including some OGC formats. The data on the MI ERDDAP (http://erddap.marine.ie) server is published as OpenData. The marine work package of the FP7 funded ENVIROFI project (http://www.envirofi.eu/) has used the ERDDAP data broker as a core resource in the development of its Marine Asset management decision Support Tool (MAST) portal and phone App. Communication between MAST and ERDDAP is via a Uniform Resource Identifier (Linked Data). A key objective of the MAST prototype is to demonstrate the potential of next-generation dynamic web-based products and services and how they can be harnessed to facilitate growth of both the marine and IT sectors. The use case driving the project is the management of ocean energy assets in the marine environment. In particular the provision of information that aid in the decision making process surrounding maintenance at sea. This question is common to any offshore industry and solution proposed here is applicable to other users

  7. Evaluation of the technological characteristics and bread-making quality of alternative wheat cereals in comparison with common and durum wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualone, A; Piergiovanni, A R; Caponio, F; Paradiso, V M; Summo, C; Simeone, R

    2011-04-01

    The growing sensibility toward those foods that are characterized by natural and healthy features has raised the interest toward alternative wheat cereals. This research was carried out to compare the technological characteristics and the bread-making quality of Khorasan wheat, type Kamut and spelt (cv. Forenza), to those of common (cv. Rio) and durum wheat (cv. Norba). The results obtained show that both Forenza and Kamut gave an acceptable bread-making performance. A certain variability affected flour characteristics (protein content, carotenoid pigments and alveograph indices) over the 2 years of experimentation, due to environmental effects. This reflected on the corresponding breads but the statistical analysis indicated that, on the whole, Kamut bread was characterized by a high content of carotenoid pigments. Regarding sensory properties (profiled by means of 11 descriptors of visual appearance, texture, odor and flavor) and loaf volumes, breads from Forenza and Kamut appeared different from each other but similar to those obtained from Rio and Norba grown in the same environment, respectively.

  8. The importance of using open source technologies and common standards for interoperability within eHealth: perspectives from the Millennium Villages Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Andrew S; Borland, Rob; Barasa, Mourice; Iiams-Hauser, Casey; Velez, Olivia; Kaonga, Nadi Nina; Berg, Matt

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to illustrate the importance of using open source technologies and common standards for interoperability when implementing eHealth systems, and to illustrate this through case studies, where possible. The sources used to inform this chapter draw from the implementation and evaluation of the eHealth Program in the context of the Millennium Villages Project (MVP). As the eHealth Team was tasked to deploy an eHealth architecture, the Millennium Villages Global-Network (MVG-Net), across all 14 of the MVP sites in sub-Saharan Africa, the team not only recognized the need for standards and uniformity but also realized that context would be an important factor. Therefore, the team decided to utilize open source solutions. The MVP implementation of MVG-Net provides a model for those looking to implement informatics solutions across disciplines and countries. Furthermore, there are valuable lessons learned that the eHealth community can benefit from. By sharing lessons learned and developing an accessible, open source eHealth platform, we believe that we can more efficiently and rapidly achieve the health-related and collaborative Millennium Development Goals.

  9. The importance of using open source technologies and common standards for interoperability within eHealth: Perspectives from the Millennium Villages Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borland, Rob; Barasa, Mourice; Iiams-Hauser, Casey; Velez, Olivia; Kaonga, Nadi Nina; Berg, Matt

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the importance of using open source technologies and common standards for interoperability when implementing eHealth systems and illustrate this through case studies, where possible. The sources used to inform this paper draw from the implementation and evaluation of the eHealth Program in the context of the Millennium Villages Project (MVP). As the eHealth Team was tasked to deploy an eHealth architecture, the Millennium Villages Global-Network (MVG-Net), across all fourteen of the MVP sites in Sub-Saharan Africa, the team recognized the need for standards and uniformity but also realized that context would be an important factor. Therefore, the team decided to utilize open source solutions. The MVP implementation of MVG-Net provides a model for those looking to implement informatics solutions across disciplines and countries. Furthermore, there are valuable lessons learned that the eHealth community can benefit from. By sharing lessons learned and developing an accessible, open-source eHealth platform, we believe that we can more efficiently and rapidly achieve the health-related and collaborative Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). PMID:22894051

  10. Stress, the neuroendocrine system and mast cells: current understanding of their role in psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvima, Ilkka T; Nilsson, Gunnar

    2012-03-01

    Psychological stress can activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and sensory nerves in the brain and skin, resulting in the release of neuroendocrine and neural mediators such as, corticotropin-releasing hormone, neuropeptides, neurotrophins and α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone. These factors can activate mast cells to release proinflammatory mediators and some of them, for example, histamine, tryptase and nerve growth factor, can stimulate sensory C-fibers. Since corticotropin-releasing hormone, sensory nerves and mast cell numbers are increased in the psoriatic lesion, a feedforward loop can exist potentiating the inflammation. Studies in rats and mice have shown that mast cells are activated during standardized stress through corticotropin-releasing hormone and sensory nerves. Therefore, the role of stress, the neuroendocrine system and mast cells in psoriasis is discussed in this article.

  11. Scaling Issues in the Determination of Wind loads on Lattice Masts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koss, Holger; Srouji, Robin G.

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a study conducted to investigate the influence of geometric scale and flow condition on the wind load coefficients for lattice masts structures. An initial study in 2008 on a full size mast section indicated a possible contingency, which could be used to add equipment...... reflecting model scale behavior than full scale aerodynamics. This reveals the main challenge if for reasons of economic production and operation of telecommunication towers and masts a more accurate wind load description is required: full size testing....... on telecommunication towers without further structural strengthening. This study focuses on the role of scaling. A 1:6 scaled mast model was tested in two different flow conditions and in three layout variations. It was found that scaling does play a large role and that some of the codified loads are in fact more...

  12. Fatigue Resistant Design Criteria for MD SHA Cantilevered Mast Arm Signal Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    The fatigue design of the mast arm structures and connections vary significantly based on the Category of Importance factor adopted and the load cases for fatigue design loads. Consideration should include the cost and size of the structures for both...

  13. Mast cells infiltration and decreased E-cadherin expression in ketamine-induced cystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengqiang Li

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Increased mast cells in bladder wall and downregulated expression of E-cadherin junction protein in epithelial cells were probably associated with interstitial inflammation and fissures in mucosa. It implied that ketamine induced an interstitial cystitis.

  14. Lysophosphatidic acid triggers mast cell-driven atherosclerotic plaque destabilization by increasing vascular inflammation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bot, M.; , van, Berkel T.J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a bioactive lysophospholipid, accumulates in the atherosclerotic plaque. It has the capacity to activate mast cells, which potentially exacerbates plaque progression. In this study, we thus aimed to investigate whether LPA contributes to plaque destabilization by

  15. Full-scale investigation of wind-induced vibrations of mast-arm traffic signal structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Because of their inherent : fl : exibility and low damping ratios, cantilevered mast : - : arm : tra : ffi : c signal structures are suscepti : b : le to : wind : - : induced vibrations. : These vibrations : cause stru : ctural stresses and strains t...

  16. Differential effect of plant lectins on mast cells of different origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.C. Lopes

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Histamine release induced by plant lectins was studied with emphasis on the carbohydrate specificity, external calcium requirement, metal binding sites, and mast cell heterogeneity and on the importance of antibodies bound to the mast cell membrane to the lectin effect. Peritoneal mast cells were obtained by direct lavage of the rat peritoneal cavity and guinea pig intestine and hamster cheek pouch mast cells were obtained by dispersion with collagenase type IA. Histamine release was induced with concanavalin A (Con A, lectins from Canavalia brasiliensis, mannose-specific Cymbosema roseum, Maackia amurensis, Parkia platycephala, Triticum vulgaris (WGA, and demetallized Con A and C. brasiliensis, using 1-300 µg/ml lectin concentrations applied to Wistar rat peritoneal mast cells, peaking on 26.9, 21.0, 29.1, 24.9, 17.2, 10.7, 19.9, and 41.5%, respectively. This effect was inhibited in the absence of extracellular calcium. The lectins were also active on hamster cheek pouch mast cells (except demetallized Con A and on Rowett nude rat (animal free of immunoglobulins peritoneal mast cells (except for mannose-specific C. roseum, P. platycephala and WGA. No effect was observed in guinea pig intestine mast cells. Glucose-saturated Con A and C. brasiliensis also released histamine from Wistar rat peritoneal mast cells. These results suggest that histamine release induced by lectins is influenced by the heterogeneity of mast cells and depends on extracellular calcium. The results also suggest that this histamine release might occur by alternative mechanisms, because the usual mechanism of lectins is related to their binding properties to metals from which depend the binding to sugars, which would be their sites to bind to immunoglobulins. In the present study, we show that the histamine release by lectins was also induced by demetallized lectins and by sugar-saturated lectins (which would avoid their binding to other sugars. Additionally, the lectins

  17. Mast Cell Activation in Brain Injury, Stress, and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and Alzheimer's Disease Pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraisamy Kempuraj

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Mast cells are localized throughout the body and mediate allergic, immune, and inflammatory reactions. They are heterogeneous, tissue-resident, long-lived, and granulated cells. Mast cells increase their numbers in specific site in the body by proliferation, increased recruitment, increased survival, and increased rate of maturation from its progenitors. Mast cells are implicated in brain injuries, neuropsychiatric disorders, stress, neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration. Brain mast cells are the first responders before microglia in the brain injuries since mast cells can release prestored mediators. Mast cells also can detect amyloid plaque formation during Alzheimer's disease (AD pathogenesis. Stress conditions activate mast cells to release prestored and newly synthesized inflammatory mediators and induce increased blood-brain barrier permeability, recruitment of immune and inflammatory cells into the brain and neuroinflammation. Stress induces the release of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH from paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus and mast cells. CRH activates glial cells and mast cells through CRH receptors and releases neuroinflammatory mediators. Stress also increases proinflammatory mediator release in the peripheral systems that can induce and augment neuroinflammation. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is a traumatic-chronic stress related mental dysfunction. Currently there is no specific therapy to treat PTSD since its disease mechanisms are not yet clearly understood. Moreover, recent reports indicate that PTSD could induce and augment neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Mast cells play a crucial role in the peripheral inflammation as well as in neuroinflammation due to brain injuries, stress, depression, and PTSD. Therefore, mast cells activation in brain injury, stress, and PTSD may accelerate the pathogenesis of neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases

  18. Mast Cell Activation in Brain Injury, Stress, and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and Alzheimer's Disease Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempuraj, Duraisamy; Selvakumar, Govindhasamy P; Thangavel, Ramasamy; Ahmed, Mohammad E; Zaheer, Smita; Raikwar, Sudhanshu P; Iyer, Shankar S; Bhagavan, Sachin M; Beladakere-Ramaswamy, Swathi; Zaheer, Asgar

    2017-01-01

    Mast cells are localized throughout the body and mediate allergic, immune, and inflammatory reactions. They are heterogeneous, tissue-resident, long-lived, and granulated cells. Mast cells increase their numbers in specific site in the body by proliferation, increased recruitment, increased survival, and increased rate of maturation from its progenitors. Mast cells are implicated in brain injuries, neuropsychiatric disorders, stress, neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration. Brain mast cells are the first responders before microglia in the brain injuries since mast cells can release prestored mediators. Mast cells also can detect amyloid plaque formation during Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Stress conditions activate mast cells to release prestored and newly synthesized inflammatory mediators and induce increased blood-brain barrier permeability, recruitment of immune and inflammatory cells into the brain and neuroinflammation. Stress induces the release of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) from paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus and mast cells. CRH activates glial cells and mast cells through CRH receptors and releases neuroinflammatory mediators. Stress also increases proinflammatory mediator release in the peripheral systems that can induce and augment neuroinflammation. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a traumatic-chronic stress related mental dysfunction. Currently there is no specific therapy to treat PTSD since its disease mechanisms are not yet clearly understood. Moreover, recent reports indicate that PTSD could induce and augment neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Mast cells play a crucial role in the peripheral inflammation as well as in neuroinflammation due to brain injuries, stress, depression, and PTSD. Therefore, mast cells activation in brain injury, stress, and PTSD may accelerate the pathogenesis of neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases including AD. This

  19. Human lung mast cells modulate the functions of airway smooth muscle cells in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhouri, H; Hollins, F; Moir, L M; Brightling, C E; Armour, C L; Hughes, J M

    2011-09-01

    Activated mast cell densities are increased on the airway smooth muscle in asthma where they may modulate muscle functions and thus contribute to airway inflammation, remodelling and airflow obstruction. To determine the effects of human lung mast cells on the secretory and proliferative functions of airway smooth muscle cells from donors with and without asthma. Freshly isolated human lung mast cells were stimulated with IgE/anti-IgE. Culture supernatants were collected after 2 and 24 h and the mast cells lysed. The supernatants/lysates were added to serum-deprived, subconfluent airway smooth muscle cells for up to 48 h. Released chemokines and extracellular matrix were measured by ELISA, proliferation was quantified by [(3) H]-thymidine incorporation and cell counting, and intracellular signalling by phospho-arrays. Mast cell 2-h supernatants reduced CCL11 and increased CXCL8 and fibronectin production from both asthmatic and nonasthmatic muscle cells. Leupeptin reversed these effects. Mast cell 24-h supernatants and lysates reduced CCL11 release from both muscle cell types but increased CXCL8 release by nonasthmatic cells. The 24-h supernatants also reduced asthmatic, but not nonasthmatic, muscle cell DNA synthesis and asthmatic cell numbers over 5 days through inhibiting extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and phosphatidylinositol (PI3)-kinase pathways. However, prostaglandins, thromboxanes, IL-4 and IL-13 were not involved in reducing the proliferation. Mast cell proteases and newly synthesized products differentially modulated the secretory and proliferative functions of airway smooth muscle cells from donors with and without asthma. Thus, mast cells may modulate their own recruitment and airway smooth muscle functions locally in asthma. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Defective bone repair in mast cell-deficient Cpa3Cre/+ mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Ramirez-GarciaLuna

    Full Text Available In the adult skeleton, cells of the immune system interact with those of the skeleton during all phases of bone repair to influence the outcome. Mast cells are immune cells best known for their pathologic role in allergy, and may be involved in chronic inflammatory and fibrotic disorders. Potential roles for mast cells in tissue homeostasis, vascularization and repair remain enigmatic. Previous studies in combined mast cell- and Kit-deficient KitW-sh/W-sh mice (KitW-sh implicated mast cells in bone repair but KitW-sh mice suffer from additional Kit-dependent hematopoietic and non- hematopoietic deficiencies that could have confounded the outcome. The goal of the current study was to compare bone repair in normal wild type (WT and Cpa3Cre/+ mice, which lack mast cells in the absence of any other hematopoietic or non- hematopoietic deficiencies. Repair of a femoral window defect was characterized using micro CT imaging and histological analyses from the early inflammatory phase, through soft and hard callus formation, and finally the remodeling phase. The data indicate 1 mast cells appear in healing bone of WT mice but not Cpa3Cre/+ mice, beginning 14 days after surgery; 2 re-vascularization of repair tissue and deposition of mineralized bone was delayed and dis-organised in Cpa3Cre/+ mice compared with WT mice; 3 the defects in Cpa3Cre/+ mice were associated with little change in anabolic activity and biphasic alterations in osteoclast and macrophage activity. The outcome at 56 days postoperative was complete bridging of the defect in most WT mice and fibrous mal-union in most Cpa3Cre/+ mice. The results indicate that mast cells promote bone healing, possibly by recruiting vascular endothelial cells during the inflammatory phase and coordinating anabolic and catabolic activity during tissue remodeling. Taken together the data indicate that mast cells have a positive impact on bone repair.

  1. Mast cells modulate acute ozone-induced inflammation of the murine lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleeberger, S.R.; Seiden, J.E.; Levitt, R.C.; Zhang, L.Y. (Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States))

    1993-11-01

    We hypothesized that mast cells modulate lung inflammation that develops after acute ozone (O3) exposure. Two tests were done: (1) genetically mast-cell-deficient (WBB6F1-W/Wv, WCB6F1-SI/SId) and bone-marrow-transplanted W/Wv mice were exposed to O3 or filtered air, and the inflammatory responses were compared with those of mast-cell-sufficient congenic mice (WBB6F1-(+)/+, WCB6F1-(+)/+); (2) genetically O3-susceptible C57BL/6J mice were treated pharmacologically with putative mast-cell modulators or vehicle, and the O3-induced inflammatory responses were compared. Mice were exposed to 1.75 ppm O3 or air for 3 h, and lung inflammation was assessed by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) 6 and 24 h after exposure. Relative to O3-exposed W/Wv and SI/SId mice, the mean numbers of lavageable polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and total BAL protein concentration (a marker of permeability) were significantly greater in the respective O3-exposed normal congenic +/+ mice (p < 0.05). Mast cells were reconstituted in W/Wv mice by transplantation of bone marrow cells from congenic +/+ mice, and O3-induced lung inflammation was assessed in the mast-cell-replete W/Wv mice. After O3 exposure, the changes in lavageable PMNs and total protein of mast-cell-replete W/Wv mice were not different from age-matched normal +/+ control mice, and they were significantly greater than those of sham-transplanted W/Wv mice (p < 0.05). Genetically susceptible C57BL/6J mice were pretreated with a mast-cell stabilizer (nedocromil sodium), secretagogue (compound 48/80), or vehicle, and the mice were exposed to O3.

  2. MAST CELLS AND ANGIOGENESIS IN ORAL EPITHELIAL DYSPLASTIC LESIONS AND ORAL SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA

    OpenAIRE

    Veda, Marla Vinay

    2015-01-01

    Background: The progression of oral epithelial dysplastic lesions into oral squamous cell carcinoma is characterized by an ‘angiogenic switch’ which is characterized by an increase in neo-vascularization in the sub-epithelial lamina propria which can be considered an indicator of malignant transformation. Mast cells are a rich source of various angiogenic factors. Moreover mast cells secrete various proteolytic enzymes which degrade the extracellular matrix and create space for the developing...

  3. Association of mast cell-derived VEGF and proteases in Dengue shock syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahisa Furuta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent in-vitro studies have suggested that mast cells are involved in Dengue virus infection. To clarify the role of mast cells in the development of clinical Dengue fever, we compared the plasma levels of several mast cell-derived mediators (vascular endothelial cell growth factor [VEGF], soluble VEGF receptors [sVEGFRs], tryptase, and chymase and -related cytokines (IL-4, -9, and -17 between patients with differing severity of Dengue fever and healthy controls. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The study was performed at Children's Hospital No. 2, Ho Chi Minh City, and Vinh Long Province Hospital, Vietnam from 2002 to 2005. Study patients included 103 with Dengue fever (DF, Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF, and Dengue shock syndrome (DSS, as diagnosed by the World Health Organization criteria. There were 189 healthy subjects, and 19 febrile illness patients of the same Kinh ethnicity. The levels of mast cell-derived mediators and -related cytokines in plasma were measured by ELISA. VEGF and sVEGFR-1 levels were significantly increased in DHF and DSS compared with those of DF and controls, whereas sVEGFR-2 levels were significantly decreased in DHF and DSS. Significant increases in tryptase and chymase levels, which were accompanied by high IL-9 and -17 concentrations, were detected in DHF and DSS patients. By day 4 of admission, VEGF, sVEGFRs, and proteases levels had returned to similar levels as DF and controls. In-vitro VEGF production by mast cells was examined in KU812 and HMC-1 cells, and was found to be highest when the cells were inoculated with Dengue virus and human Dengue virus-immune serum in the presence of IL-9. CONCLUSIONS: As mast cells are an important source of VEGF, tryptase, and chymase, our findings suggest that mast cell activation and mast cell-derived mediators participate in the development of DHF. The two proteases, particularly chymase, might serve as good predictive markers of Dengue disease severity.

  4. Association of Mast Cell-Derived VEGF and Proteases in Dengue Shock Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Takahisa; Murao, Lyre Anni; Lan, Nguyen Thi Phuong; Huy, Nguyen Tien; Huong, Vu Thi Que; Thuy, Tran Thi; Tham, Vo Dinh; Nga, Cao Thi Phi; Ha, Tran Thi Ngoc; Ohmoto, Yasukazu; Kikuchi, Mihoko; Morita, Kouichi; Yasunami, Michio; Hirayama, Kenji; Watanabe, Naohiro

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent in-vitro studies have suggested that mast cells are involved in Dengue virus infection. To clarify the role of mast cells in the development of clinical Dengue fever, we compared the plasma levels of several mast cell-derived mediators (vascular endothelial cell growth factor [VEGF], soluble VEGF receptors [sVEGFRs], tryptase, and chymase) and -related cytokines (IL-4, -9, and -17) between patients with differing severity of Dengue fever and healthy controls. Methodology/Principal Findings The study was performed at Children's Hospital No. 2, Ho Chi Minh City, and Vinh Long Province Hospital, Vietnam from 2002 to 2005. Study patients included 103 with Dengue fever (DF), Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), and Dengue shock syndrome (DSS), as diagnosed by the World Health Organization criteria. There were 189 healthy subjects, and 19 febrile illness patients of the same Kinh ethnicity. The levels of mast cell-derived mediators and -related cytokines in plasma were measured by ELISA. VEGF and sVEGFR-1 levels were significantly increased in DHF and DSS compared with those of DF and controls, whereas sVEGFR-2 levels were significantly decreased in DHF and DSS. Significant increases in tryptase and chymase levels, which were accompanied by high IL-9 and -17 concentrations, were detected in DHF and DSS patients. By day 4 of admission, VEGF, sVEGFRs, and proteases levels had returned to similar levels as DF and controls. In-vitro VEGF production by mast cells was examined in KU812 and HMC-1 cells, and was found to be highest when the cells were inoculated with Dengue virus and human Dengue virus-immune serum in the presence of IL-9. Conclusions As mast cells are an important source of VEGF, tryptase, and chymase, our findings suggest that mast cell activation and mast cell-derived mediators participate in the development of DHF. The two proteases, particularly chymase, might serve as good predictive markers of Dengue disease severity. PMID:22363824

  5. Resveratrol inhibits IgE-mediated basophilic mast cell degranulation and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seon-Young; Bae, Ji-Young; Park, Sin-Hye; Kim, Yun-Ho; Park, Jung Han Yoon; Kang, Young-Hee

    2013-05-01

    Resveratrol is a phytoalexin abundantly found in red grape skin and is effective in antitumor and antiinflammation associated with immune responses. This study investigated whether resveratrol suppressed immunoglobulin (Ig)E-mediated allergic responses and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) in rat RBL-2H3 mast cells and in BALB/c mice. The release of β-hexosaminidase and histamine was enhanced in mast cells sensitized with anti-dinitrophenyl (DNP)-IgE and subsequently stimulated by DNP-human serum albumin (HSA), indicative of mast cell degranulation. When mast cells were pretreated with nontoxic resveratrol at 1-25 μmol/L, such induction was dose dependently diminished. Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) and phospholipase Cγ (PLCγ) of sensitized mast cells were activated by stimulation with DNP-HSA antigen, which was dampened by ≥5 μmol/L resveratrol. The phosphorylation of protein kinase C (PKC)μ and PKCθ was attenuated by administering resveratrol to DNP-HSA-exposed mast cells, whereas quiescent PKCζ/λ in sensitized cells was dose-dependently activated by resveratrol. Male BALB/c mice were sensitized for 24 h with DNP-IgE and orally administered with resveratrol 1 h before the DNP-HSA challenge. The histamine concentration was enhanced in sensitized mice challenged to DNP-HSA, which was reversed by administration of 10 mg/kg resveratrol. Additionally, it encumbered the tissue activation of Syk, PLCγ, and PKCμ in antigen-exposed mice. Resveratrol decreased IgE-mediated PCA and alleviated allergic edema of mouse ear and dorsal skin. Mast cell degranulation and allergic inflammation, accompanying the induction of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and macrophage inflammatory protein-2, were inhibited by supplementing resveratrol to antigen-challenged mice. Resveratrol inhibited mast cell-derived, immediate-type allergic reactions, and these responses of resveratrol suggest possible therapeutic strategies in preventing allergic inflammatory diseases.

  6. Tumor-infiltrating tryptase+mast cells predict unfavorable clinical outcome in solid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guoming; Wang, Shimin; Cheng, Pu

    2018-02-15

    The prognostic role of tumor-infiltrating tryptase + mast cells in human solid tumors remains controversial. Herein, we conducted a meta-analysis including 28 published studies with 4224 patients identified from PubMed and EBSCO to assess the prognostic impact of tumor-infiltrating tryptase + mast cells in human solid tumors. We found that tryptase + mast cell infiltration significantly decreased overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in all types of solid tumors. In stratified analyses, tryptase + mast cell infiltration was significantly associated with worse OS in non-small cell lung cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma and 5-year survival in colorectal cancer. And these cells were inversely associated with DFS in hepatocellular and colorectal cancer. In addition, high density of intratumoral tryptase + mast cells significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis of solid tumor. In conclusion, Tryptase + mast cell infiltration leads to an unfavorable clinical outcome in solid tumors, implicating that it is a valuable biomarker for prognostic prediction for human solid malignances and targeting it may have a potential for effective treatment. © 2017 UICC.

  7. IgE and mast cells in host defense against parasites and venoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Kaori; Tsai, Mindy; Galli, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    IgE-dependent mast cell activation is a major effector mechanism underlying the pathology associated with allergic disorders. The most dramatic of these IgE-associated disorders is the fatal anaphylaxis which can occur in some people who have developed IgE antibodies to otherwise innocuous antigens, such as those contained in certain foods and medicines. Why would such a highly “maladaptive” immune response develop in evolution, and be retained to the present day? Host defense against parasites has long been considered the only beneficial function that might be conferred by IgE and mast cells. However, recent studies have provided evidence that, in addition to participating in host resistance to certain parasites, mast cells and IgE are critical components of innate (mast cells) and adaptive (mast cells and IgE) immune responses that can enhance host defense against the toxicity of certain arthropod and animal venoms, including enhancing the survival of mice injected with such venoms. Yet, in some people, developing IgE antibodies to insect or snake venoms puts them at risk for having a potentially fatal anaphylactic reaction upon subsequent exposure to such venoms. Delineating the mechanisms underlying beneficial versus detrimental innate and adaptive immune responses associated with mast cell activation and IgE is likely to enhance our ability to identify potential therapeutic targets in such settings, not only for reducing the pathology associated with allergic disorders but perhaps also for enhancing immune protection against pathogens and animal venoms. PMID:27225312

  8. Strongyloides ratti: implication of mast cell-mediated expulsion through FcεRI-independent mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe K.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to examine whether FcεRI-dependent degranulation of intestinal mast cells is required for expulsion of intestinal nematode Strongyloides ratti, CD45 exon6-deficient (CD45-/- mice were inoculated with S. ratti. In CD45-/- mice, egg excretion in feces persisted for more than 30 days following S. ratti larvae inoculation, whereas in wild-type (CD45+/+ mice, the eggs completely disappeared by day 20 post-infection. The number of intestinal mucosal mast cells, which are known effector cells for the expulsion of S. ratti, was 75% lower in CD45-/- mice compared with that in CD45+/+ mice. Adoptive transfer of wild-type T cells from CD45+/+ mice into CD45-/- mice reduced the duration of S. ratti infection to comparable levels observed in CD45+/+ mice, with concomitant increases in intestinal mucosal mast cells. These results showed that CD45 is not involved in the effector function of intestinal mucosal mast cells against S. ratti infection. Since FcεRI-dependent degranulation of mast cells is completely impaired in these CD45 knockout mice, we conclude that FcεRIdependent degranulation is not required in the protective function of intestinal mucosal mast cells against primary infection of S. ratti.

  9. Liver tryptase-positive mast cells and fibrosis in children with hepatic echinococcosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulubova Maya

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The hepatic echinococcosis in children is a serious surgical problem. The aim of this study is to investigate the participation of mast cells in liver inflammatory reactions triggered by echinococcal cysts. Liver biopsy samples were collected from the tissue surrounding the cysts from 16 sick children (11 boys and 5 girls in the course of abdominal surgery and from 5 controls. Light and ultrastructural immunocytochemistry was performed using monoclonal antibody against tryptase. Light microscopical immunocytochemistry revealed abundance of tryptase-positive (MCT mast cells in the capsules of the cysts (43.58 cells/mm2. There were also observed greatly increased numbers of mast cells in portal tracts surrounding the cyst, compared to those of control biopsies (26.49 vs. 1.78 cells/mm2, p=0.0009, Mann-Whitney U test. Based on the ultrastructural appearance of tryptase-positive mast cell granules, morphological sings of activation of most of the mast cells were distinguished. In conclusion, we suggest that the accumulated and activated tryptase-positive mast cells in liver tissues surrounding the echinococcal cysts play a crucial role in modulation of the inflammatory liver response and could induce chronic inflammation and fibrogenesis, resulting in serious liver injury such as nonspecific reactive hepatitis.

  10. Mast cells in renal inflammation and fibrosis: lessons learnt from animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madjene, Lydia Celia; Pons, Maguelonne; Danelli, Luca; Claver, Julien; Ali, Liza; Madera-Salcedo, Iris K; Kassas, Asma; Pellefigues, Christophe; Marquet, Florian; Dadah, Albert; Attout, Tarik; El-Ghoneimi, Alaa; Gautier, Gregory; Benhamou, Marc; Charles, Nicolas; Daugas, Eric; Launay, Pierre; Blank, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Mast cells are hematopoietic cells involved in inflammation and immunity and have been recognized also as important effector cells in kidney inflammation. In humans, only a few mast cells reside in kidneys constitutively but in progressive renal diseases their numbers increase substantially representing an essential part of the interstitial infiltrate of inflammatory cells. Recent data obtained in experimental animal models have emphasized a complex role of these cells and the mediators they release as they have been shown both to promote, but also to protect from disease and fibrosis development. Sometimes conflicting results have been reported in similar models suggesting a very narrow window between these activities depending on the pathophysiological context. Interestingly in mice, mast cell or mast cell mediator specific actions became also apparent in the absence of significant mast cell kidney infiltration supporting systemic or regional actions via draining lymph nodes or kidney capsules. Many of their activities rely on the capacity of mast cells to release, in a timely controlled manner, a wide range of inflammatory mediators, which can promote anti-inflammatory actions and repair activities that contribute to healing, but in some circumstances or in case of inappropriate regulation may also promote kidney disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Association of mast cells with helicobacter pylori infection in the antral mucosa

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    SR KC

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with mixed inflammatory cell infiltrate consisting of neutrophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes and plasma cells. Helicobacter pylori lead to mast cell degranulation and release of active chemical compounds in in-vitro conditions. The objective of this study was to find out the association of mast cell density and Helicobacter pylori in the antral mucosa of the stomach. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 endoscopic biopsies were included in the study. In addition to routine Hematoxylin and Eosin stained slides, Giemsa stain was done in each case for the evaluation of Helicobacter pylori and mast cell density in the gastric mucosa. Results: Out of 150 gastric biopsies with histopathological diagnosis of chronic gastritis, 36 cases (24% were positive for Helicobacter pylori. In the antral mucosa, mast cell density was significantly higher in the Helicobacter pylori-positive group than in the Helicobacter pylori-negative group (P<0.01. Conclusion: Mast cells may play a role in the development of Helicobacter pylori gastritis. Keywords: Gastritis; Mast Cell; Helicobacter pylori DOI: 10.3126/jpn.v1i1.4448 Journal of Pathology of Nepal (2011 Vol.1, 34-36

  12. The Role of Adenoid Mast Cells in the Pathogenesis of Secretory Otitis Media

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    M. Faruk Oktay

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the possible role of adenoid mast cells in the etiology of secretory otitis media. Between 2001-2002, 25 patients with chronic adenoitis and chronic secretory otitis media and 25 patients with isolated adenoid hypertrophy were included to the study. Adenoidectomy performed to the all patients under general anesthesia. Adenoidectomy specimens were evaluated under the light microscopy and the number of mast cells were calculated for each patient. The number of mast cells were compared between two groups. The number of mast cells were between 4-84 in the otitis media with effusion and adenoid hypertrophy group (median:52, however it was between 2-63 (median: 23 in the isolated adenoid hypertrophy group. When comparing the two groups using Mann-Withney U test, the number of mast cells found to be significantly higher in the chronic secretory otitis media group (p<0.001.Based on our findings there is a relationship between increased adenoid mast cells and otitis media with effusion and these cells may have a possible role in the etiology of chronic secretory otitis media.

  13. Effect of oestradiol on mast cell number and histamine level in the mammary glands of rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, H; Wang, Z; Chen, Y

    2012-06-01

    Variations of mast cell number, histamine concentration and oestrogen receptor (ER) expression in mammary glands with the fluctuation of plasma oestradiol level were identified either in the intact rats at different oestrous stages or in the ovary-ectomized rats administrated with different doses of oestradiol benzoate. The results showed that the number of mast cells and histamine concentration fluctuated concomitantly with plasma oestradiol level during the oestrous cycle. More mast cell number and higher histamine concentrations were observed in the oestrous stage than that in the prooestrous and dioestrous stages. Ovariectomy decreased the mast cell number and histamine concentration, which were reconstituted by exogenous oestradiol. ER was mainly found in the nuclear of epithelial cells and interstitial cells of mammary glands. In addition, ER was also expressed in the cytoplasm of some stromal cells. These stromal cells were verified to be mast cells. In conclusion, our results suggested that oestradiol modulated mast cell number and its degranulation in the mammary gland through the ERs pathway. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Different Patterns of Mast Cells Distinguish Diffuse from Encapsulated Neurofibromas in Patients with Neurofibromatosis 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Tracy; Riccardi, Vincent M.; Sutcliffe, Margaret; Vielkind, Juergen; Wechsler, Janine; Wolkenstein, Pierre; Friedman, Jan M.

    2011-01-01

    Multiple neurofibromas are cardinal features of neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1). Several different types of NF1-associated neurofibromas occur, each distinct in terms of pathological details, clinical presentation, and natural history. Mast cells are present in most neurofibromas and have been shown to be critical to the origin and progression of neurofibromas in both human NF1 and relevant mouse models. In this investigation, the authors determined whether mast cell involvement is the same for all types of NF1-associated neurofibromas. They examined the density and distribution of mast cells within 49 NF1-associated neurofibromas classified histopathologically as diffuse or encapsulated on the basis of the presence or absence of the perineurium or its constituent cells. They made two observations: (1) Diffuse neurofibromas had significantly higher densities of mast cells than did encapsulated neurofibromas, and (2) mast cells were evenly distributed throughout diffuse neurofibromas but were primarily restricted to the periphery of encapsulated neurofibromas. The differences in mast cell density and distribution differentiate the two basic types of NF1-associated neurofibromas, suggesting that the pathogenesis of diffuse and encapsulated neurofibromas may be significantly different. PMID:21525187

  15. Role of Mast Cells in Oral Lichen Planus and Oral Lichenoid Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalingam, Suganya; Malathi, Narasimhan; Thamizhchelvan, Harikrishnan; Sangeetha, Narasimhan; Rajan, Sharada T

    2018-01-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic T cell mediated disease of oral mucosa, skin, and its appendages with a prevalence of 0.5 to 2.6% worldwide. Oral lichenoid reactions (OLR) are a group of lesions with diverse aetiologies but have clinical and histological features similar to OLP, thereby posing a great challenge in differentiating both lesions. Mast cells are multifunctional immune cells that play a major role in the pathogenesis of lichen planus by release of certain chemical mediators. Increased mast cell densities with significant percentage of degranulation have been observed as a consistent finding in pathogenesis of oral lichen planus. The current study was aimed at quantifying the mast cells in histopathological sections of OLP and OLR thereby aiding a means of distinguishing these lesions. The study group involved 21 cases of oral lichen planus, 21 cases of oral lichenoid reactions, and 10 control specimens of normal buccal mucosa. All the cases were stained with Toluidine Blue and routine haematoxylin and eosin and the mast cells were quantified. The results were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test and an intergroup analysis was performed using Mann-Whitney U test. The number of mast cells showed an increased value in oral lichen planus when compared to oral lichenoid reaction and thus an estimation of mast cells count could aid in distinguishing OLP from OLR histopathologically.

  16. Brain mast cells link the immune system to anxiety-like behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nautiyal, Katherine M.; Ribeiro, Ana C.; Pfaff, Donald W.; Silver, Rae

    2008-01-01

    Mast cells are resident in the brain and contain numerous mediators, including neurotransmitters, cytokines, and chemokines, that are released in response to a variety of natural and pharmacological triggers. The number of mast cells in the brain fluctuates with stress and various behavioral and endocrine states. These properties suggest that mast cells are poised to influence neural systems underlying behavior. Using genetic and pharmacological loss-of-function models we performed a behavioral screen for arousal responses including emotionality, locomotor, and sensory components. We found that mast cell deficient KitW−sh/W−sh (sash−/−) mice had a greater anxiety-like phenotype than WT and heterozygote littermate control animals in the open field arena and elevated plus maze. Second, we show that blockade of brain, but not peripheral, mast cell activation increased anxiety-like behavior. Taken together, the data implicate brain mast cells in the modulation of anxiety-like behavior and provide evidence for the behavioral importance of neuroimmune links. PMID:19004805

  17. Application of cultured human mast cells (CHMC) for the design and structure-activity relationship of IgE-mediated mast cell activation inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argade, Ankush; Bhamidipati, Somasekhar; Li, Hui; Carroll, David; Clough, Jeffrey; Keim, Holger; Sylvain, Catherine; Rossi, Alexander B; Coquilla, Christina; Issakani, Sarkiz D; Masuda, Esteban S; Payan, Donald G; Singh, Rajinder

    2015-01-01

    Here we report the optimization of small molecule inhibitors of human mast cell degranulation via anti-IgE-mediated tryptase release following cross-linking and activation of IgE-loaded FcεR1 receptors. The compounds are selective upstream inhibitors of FcεR1-dependent human mast cell degranulation and proved to be devoid of activity in downstream ionomycin mediated degranulation. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) leading to compound 26 is outlined. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Mast Cell Infiltration in Human Brain Metastases Modulates the Microenvironment and Contributes to the Metastatic Potential

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    Ananya Roy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic brain tumors continue to be a clinical problem, despite new therapeutic advances in cancer treatment. Brain metastases (BMs are among the most common mass lesions in the brain that are resistant to chemotherapies, have a very poor prognosis, and currently lack any efficient diagnostic tests. Predictions estimate that about 40% of lung and breast cancer patients will develop BM. Despite this, very little is known about the immunological and genetic aberrations that drive tumorigenesis in BM. In this study, we demonstrate the infiltration of mast cells (MCs in a large cohort of human BM samples with different tissues of origin for primary cancer. We applied patient-derived BM cell models to the study of BM cell–MC interactions. BM cells when cocultured with MCs demonstrate enhanced growth and self-renewal capacity. Gene set enrichment analyses indicate increased expression of signal transduction and transmembrane proteins related genes in the cocultured BM cells. MCs exert their effect by release of mediators such as IL-8, IL-10, matrix metalloprotease 2, and vascular endothelial growth factor, thereby permitting metastasis. In conclusion, we provide evidence for a role of MCs in BM. Our findings indicate MCs’ capability of modulating gene expression in BM cells and suggest that MCs can serve as a new target for drug development against metastases in the brain.

  19. Nuclear receptor 4a3 (nr4a3 regulates murine mast cell responses and granule content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Garcia-Faroldi

    Full Text Available Nuclear receptor 4a3 (Nr4a3 is a transcription factor implicated in various settings such as vascular biology and inflammation. We have recently shown that mast cells dramatically upregulate Nuclear receptor 4a3 upon activation, and here we investigated the functional impact of Nuclear receptor 4a3 on mast cell responses. We show that Nuclear receptor 4a3 is involved in the regulation of cytokine/chemokine secretion in mast cells following activation via the high affinity IgE receptor. Moreover, Nuclear receptor 4a3 negatively affects the transcript and protein levels of mast cell tryptase as well as the mast cell's responsiveness to allergen. Together, these findings identify Nuclear receptor 4a3 as a novel regulator of mast cell function.

  20. Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,…

  1. Climate-influenced ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa seed masting trends in western Montana, USA

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    Christopher R. Keyes

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The aim of this study was to analyze 10-year records of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa seed production, in order to confirm synchronic seed production and to evaluate cyclical masting trends, masting depletion effect, and climate-masting relationships. Area of study: The study area was located in a P. ponderosa stand in the northern Rocky Mountains (western Montana, USA. Material and methods: The study was conducted in one stand that had been subjected to a silvicultural study of uneven-aged management techniques that was carried out in 1984, and which resulted in three separate units consisting of one control, one cut/no-burn treatment, and one cut/burn treatment. Seeds were collected during the 10 years following treatment in 15 traps systematically deployed within each of the stand’s three units. The total numbers of seeds collected in each unit were plotted over time to analyze crop synchrony, with Spearman rank correlation coefficient used to test for masting cycles and crop depletion after a mast year. Meteorological records over the period 1983-1994 were related to the occurrence of a mast event (defined as crops exceeding 50,000 viable seeds/ha. Main results: The seed production pattern was non-cyclical, synchronous, and independent of silvicultural treatment history. A mast-depletion effect was evident but was not statistically significant. Mast events seem to be promoted by the occurrence of optimum mean temperatures at the beginning of spring during both the first (11 °C and second (9 °C years of cone maturation. The probability of a mast year was also affected by summer temperature (number of late frost days; negative effect and precipitation amount (positive effect. All these factors would seemingly explain the observed synchronous pattern in cone production. Research highlights: The non-cyclical trend of ponderosa pine seed mast years is influenced by specific climate determinants. Fluctuations in mean early

  2. Mast cells as effector cells of innate immunity and regulators of adaptive immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardamone, Chiara; Parente, Roberta; Feo, Giulia De; Triggiani, Massimo

    2016-10-01

    Mast cells are widely distributed in human organs and tissues and they are particularly abundant at major body interfaces with the external environment such as the skin, the lung and the gastrointestinal tract. Moreover, mast cells are located around blood vessels and are highly represented within central and peripheral lymphoid organs. The strategic distribution of mast cells closely reflects the primary role of these cells in providing first-line defense against environmental dangers, in regulating local and systemic inflammatory reactions and in shaping innate and adaptive immune responses. Human mast cells have pleiotropic and multivalent functions that make them highly versatile cells able to rapidly adapt responses to microenvironmental changes. They express a wide variety of surface receptors including immunoglobulin receptors, pathogen-associated molecular pattern receptors and danger signal receptors. The abundance of these receptors makes mast cells unique and effective surveillance cells able to detect promptly aggression by viral, bacterial and parasitic agents. In addition, mast cells express multiple receptors for cytokines and chemokines that confer them the capacity of being recruited and activated at sites of inflammation. Once activated by immunological or nonimmunological stimuli mast cells secrete a wide spectrum of preformed (early) and de novo synthesized (late) mediators. Preformed mediators are stored within granules and are rapidly released in the extracellular environment to provide a fast vascular response that promotes inflammation and local recruitment of other innate immunity cells such as neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils and monocyte/macrophages. Later on, delayed release of multiple cytokines and chemokines from mast cells further induce modulation of cells of adaptive immunity and regulates tissue injury and, eventually, resolution of inflammation. Finally, mast cells express several costimulatory and inhibitory surface molecules

  3. Long Pulse EBW Start-up Experiments in MAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevchenko V.F.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Start-up technique reported here relies on a double mode conversion (MC for electron Bernstein wave (EBW excitation. It consists of MC of the ordinary (O mode, entering the plasma from the low field side of the tokamak, into the extraordinary (X mode at a mirror-polarizer located at the high field side. The X mode propagates back to the plasma, passes through electron cyclotron resonance (ECR and experiences a subsequent X to EBW MC near the upper hybrid resonance (UHR. Finally the excited EBW mode is totally absorbed at the Doppler shifted ECR. The absorption of EBW remains high even in cold rarefied plasmas. Furthermore, EBW can generate significant plasma current giving the prospect of a fully solenoid-free plasma start-up. First experiments using this scheme were carried out on MAST [1]. Plasma currents up to 33 kA have been achieved using 28 GHz 100kW 90ms RF pulses. Recently experimental results were extended to longer RF pulses showing further increase of plasma currents generated by RF power alone. A record current of 73kA has been achieved with 450ms RF pulse of similar power. The current drive enhancement was mainly achieved due to RF pulse extension and further optimisation of the start-up scenario.

  4. Physical urticarias: mast cell disfunction. Preventive, diagnostic and therapeutical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Geller

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present and discuss the current classification of physicalurticarias based on immunologic and pathophysiological mechanisms.To describe clinical symptoms, triggering and worsening factors,different diagnostic tools, and to list the available pharmacologicaltherapeutic approaches as well as the methods of physicaldesensitization. Methods: The literature search was carried out usingMedline. Forty studies were evaluated including case-control series,meta-analyses, case reports and reviews in the English language. Thekeywords used were physical urticarias, classification, and physicaldesensitization. A didactic diagnostic classification of differentgroups of physical urticarias was made, as well as a description ofthe several modalities of these dermatatologic conditions causedby physical stimuli, as localized or diffuse, classical or atypical,acquired or familial, with or without IgE involvement. The geneticpredisposing factors were determined. Results: Physical urticaria isdue to mast cell dysfunction with lowered threshold for the releaseof cytoplasmic anaphylactic mediators triggered by physical factors.These precipitating environmental physical factors include cold, heat,mechanical stimuli, exercises, exposure to sunlight and skin contactwith water. Conclusions: Physical urticarias occur in approximately17% of chronic urticaria patients and different forms may coexist inthe same individual. Treatments include prevention, antihistamines(classical and non-sedating presentations and, occasionally,corticosteroids, dapsone and other anti-inflammatory drugs, and thepotential use of specific physical desensitization.

  5. Mast Cell Function and Death in Trypanosoma cruzi Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuser-Batista, Marcelo; Corrêa, José Raimundo; Carvalho, Vinícius Frias; de Carvalho Britto, Constança Felícia De Paoli; da Cruz Moreira, Otacilio; Batista, Marcos Meuser; Soares, Maurílio José; Filho, Francisco Alves Farias; e Silva, Patrícia Machado R.; Lannes-Vieira, Joseli; Silva, Robson Coutinho; Henriques-Pons, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Although the roles of mast cells (MCs) are essential in many inflammatory and fibrotic diseases, their role in Trypanosoma cruzi–induced cardiomyopathy is unexplored. In this study, we treated infected CBA mice with cromolyn, an MC stabilizer, and observed much greater parasitemia and interferon-γ levels, higher mortality, myocarditis, and cardiac damage. Although these data show that MCs are important in controlling acute infection, we observed MC apoptosis in the cardiac tissue and peritoneal cavity of untreated mice. In the heart, pericardial mucosal MC die, perhaps because of reduced amounts of local stem cell factor. Using RT-PCR in purified cardiac MCs, we observed that infection induced transcription of P2X7 receptor and Fas, two molecules reportedly involved in cell death and inflammatory regulation. In gld/gld mice (FasL−/−), apoptosis of cardiac, but not peritoneal, MCs was decreased. Conversely, infection of P2X7−/− mice led to reduced peritoneal, but not cardiac, MC death. These data illustrate the immunomodulatory role played by MCs in T. cruzi infection and the complexity of molecular interactions that control inflammatory pathways in different tissues and compartments. PMID:21819958

  6. Mast cell: an emerging partner in immune interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgia eGri

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Mast cells (MCs are currently recognized as effector cells in many settings of the immune response, including host defense, immune regulation, allergy, chronic inflammation and autoimmune diseases. MC pleiotropic functions reflect their ability to secrete a wide spectrum of preformed or newly synthesized biologically active products with pro-inflammatory, anti-inflammatory and/or immunosuppressive properties, in response to multiple signals. Moreover, the modulation of MC effector phenotypes relies on the interaction of a wide variety of membrane molecules involved in cell-cell or cell-extracellular-matrix interaction. The delivery of co-stimulatory signals allow MC to specifically communicate with immune cells belonging to both innate and acquired immunity, as well as with non-immune tissue-specific cell types. This article reviews and discuss the evidence that MC membrane-expressed molecules play a central role in regulating MC priming and activation and in modulation of innate and adaptive immune response not only against host injury, but also in peripheral tolerance and tumor-surveillance or -escape. The complex expression of MC surface molecules may be regarded as a measure of connectivity, with altered patterns of cell-cell interaction representing functionally distinct MC state. We will focalize our attention on role and functions of recently discovered molecules involved in the cross-talk of MCs with other immune partners.

  7. Core heat transport in the MAST Spherical Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, A.R.; Akers, R.J.; Brickley, C.; Carolan, P.G.; Challis, C.; Conway, N.J.; Cunningham, G.; Meyer, H.; Patel, A.; Roach, C.; Valovie, M.; Applegate, D.J.; Cowley, S.C.; Joiner, N.; Walsh, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    High-β spherical tokamak (ST) plasmas have intrinsic properties which favour the suppression of anomalous transport. Transport has been studied in NBI heated plasmas in the MAST ST device, where it is found that ion thermal transport is typically close to the neo-classical level. Calculations of the ITG microstability with the GS2 gyro-kinetic code suggest that this form of turbulence may be suppressed by the high ExB shearing rates in these plasmas. Electron transport is somewhat higher and cannot be explained from mixing length estimates of ETG turbulence. This is perhaps due instead either to micro-tearing modes in the core plasma or extended radial structures in the saturated turbulence. Micro-stability is also favoured by low magnetic shear and this has been used to produce high-performance L- and H-mode plasmas with improved core confinement as well as plasmas exhibiting ITBs in both the ion and electron channels. Broad electron ITBs have been produced with counter-NBI heating in which anomalous electron transport apparently has been reduced by the very high ExB shearing rates prevailing in these plasmas. Such studies also contribute towards testing the transport and ITB physics basis for the ITER device. (author)

  8. Leptin deficiency-induced obesity affects the density of mast cells in abdominal fat depots and lymph nodes in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintas, Mehmet M; Nayer, Behzad; Walford, Eric C; Johnson, Kevin B; Gaidosh, Gabriel; Reiser, Jochen; De La Cruz-Munoz, Nestor; Ortega, Luis M; Nayer, Ali

    2012-02-07

    Mast cells are implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity and insulin resistance. Here, we explored the effects of leptin deficiency-induced obesity on the density of mast cells in metabolic (abdominal fat depots, skeletal muscle, and liver) and lymphatic (abdominal lymph nodes, spleen, and thymus) organs. Fourteen-week-old male leptin-deficient ob/ob mice and their controls fed a standard chow were studied. Tissue sections were stained with toluidine blue to determine the density of mast cells. CD117/c-kit protein expression analysis was also carried out. Furthermore, mast cells containing immunoreactive tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), a proinflammatory cytokine involved in obesity-linked insulin resistance, were identified by immunostaining. ob/ob mice demonstrated adiposity and insulin resistance. In abdominal fat depots, mast cells were distributed differentially. While most prevalent in subcutaneous fat in controls, mast cells were most abundant in epididymal fat in ob/ob mice. Leptin deficiency-induced obesity was accompanied by a 20-fold increase in the density of mast cells in epididymal fat, but a 13-fold decrease in subcutaneous fat. This finding was confirmed by CD117/c-kit protein expression analysis. Furthermore, we found that a subset of mast cells in epididymal and subcutaneous fat were immunoreactive for TNF-α. The proportion of mast cells immunoreactive for TNF-α was higher in epididymal than in subcutaneous fat in both ob/ob and control mice. Mast cells were also distributed differentially in retroperitoneal, mesenteric, and inguinal lymph nodes. In both ob/ob mice and lean controls, mast cells were more prevalent in retroperitoneal than in mesenteric and inguinal lymph nodes. Leptin deficiency-induced obesity was accompanied by increased mast cell density in all lymph node stations examined. No significant difference in the density of mast cells in skeletal muscle, liver, spleen, and thymus was noted between ob/ob and control mice. This study

  9. A new role for mast cells as scavengers for clearance of erythrocytes damaged due to oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Priyanka; Puri, Niti

    2018-04-07

    Anemia, inflammation, and oxidative stress are interconnected. Erythrocytes are continuously exposed to oxidative stress, normally and during inflammatory diseases. Systemic mastocytosis and genetic depletion of mast cells affect anemia. In the present study, a direct role for mast cells in clearance of erythrocytes was explored. We show, for the first time, direct phagocytosis of opsonized as well as oxidatively damaged erythrocytes in vitro by mast cell lines, bone marrow derived mast cells (BMMCs) and in vivo by murine peritoneal mast cells. Also, activated mast cells, as may be present in inflammatory conditions, showed a significantly higher uptake of oxidatively damaged erythrocytes than resting mast cells. This suggests the involvement of mast cells in erythrocyte clearance during oxidative stress or inflammatory disorders. Partial inhibition of phagocytosis by various inhibitors indicated that this process may be controlled by several pathways. Our study provides important evidence for a scavenging role for mast cells in anemia due to inflammation and oxidative stress. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Leptin deficiency-induced obesity affects the density of mast cells in abdominal fat depots and lymph nodes in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altintas Mehmet M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mast cells are implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity and insulin resistance. Here, we explored the effects of leptin deficiency-induced obesity on the density of mast cells in metabolic (abdominal fat depots, skeletal muscle, and liver and lymphatic (abdominal lymph nodes, spleen, and thymus organs. Fourteen-week-old male leptin-deficient ob/ob mice and their controls fed a standard chow were studied. Tissue sections were stained with toluidine blue to determine the density of mast cells. CD117/c-kit protein expression analysis was also carried out. Furthermore, mast cells containing immunoreactive tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, a proinflammatory cytokine involved in obesity-linked insulin resistance, were identified by immunostaining. Results ob/ob mice demonstrated adiposity and insulin resistance. In abdominal fat depots, mast cells were distributed differentially. While most prevalent in subcutaneous fat in controls, mast cells were most abundant in epididymal fat in ob/ob mice. Leptin deficiency-induced obesity was accompanied by a 20-fold increase in the density of mast cells in epididymal fat, but a 13-fold decrease in subcutaneous fat. This finding was confirmed by CD117/c-kit protein expression analysis. Furthermore, we found that a subset of mast cells in epididymal and subcutaneous fat were immunoreactive for TNF-α. The proportion of mast cells immunoreactive for TNF-α was higher in epididymal than in subcutaneous fat in both ob/ob and control mice. Mast cells were also distributed differentially in retroperitoneal, mesenteric, and inguinal lymph nodes. In both ob/ob mice and lean controls, mast cells were more prevalent in retroperitoneal than in mesenteric and inguinal lymph nodes. Leptin deficiency-induced obesity was accompanied by increased mast cell density in all lymph node stations examined. No significant difference in the density of mast cells in skeletal muscle, liver, spleen, and thymus was

  11. Inhibitory effect of putranjivain A on allergic inflammation through suppression of mast cell activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hui-Hun; Park, Seung-Bin; Lee, Soyoung [CMRI, Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Taeg Kyu [Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Keimyung University, Daegu 704-701 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Tae-Yong [College of Pharmacy, Woosuk University, Jeonju 565-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Pil-Hoon; Lee, Seung-Ho [College of Pharmacy, Youngnam University, Kyungsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang-Hyun, E-mail: shkim72@knu.ac.kr [CMRI, Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-01

    A great number of people are suffering from allergic inflammatory disease such as asthma, atopic dermatitis, and sinusitis. Therefore discovery of drugs for the treatment of these diseases is an important subject in human health. Putranjivain A (PJA), member of ellagitannin, is known to possess beneficial effects including anti-cancer and anti-viral activities. The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether PJA modulates the allergic inflammatory reaction and to study its possible mechanisms of action using mast cell-based in vitro and in vivo models. The study was performed in anaphylaxis mouse model and cultured mast cells. PJA inhibited the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in immunoglobulin E-stimulated mast cells. PJA reduced this expression by inhibiting nuclear factor (NF)-κB and nuclear factor of activated T cell. The oral administration of PJA reduced systemic and cutaneous anaphylaxis, the release of serum histamine, and the expression of the histamine H{sub 1} receptor. In addition, PJA attenuated the activation of mast cells. PJA inhibited the release of histamine from various types of mast cells by the suppression of intracellular calcium. The inhibitory activity of PJA on the allergic reaction was similar to that of disodium cromoglycate, a known anti-allergic drug. These results suggest that PJA can facilitate the prevention or treatment of allergic inflammatory diseases mediated by mast cells. - Highlights: • PJA reduced the degranulation of mast cells. • PJA inhibited the production of inflammatory cytokines. • The effect of PJA on allergic reaction was comparable to the DSCG. • PJA might be a candidate for the treatment of allergic inflammatory diseases.

  12. Increased mast cell tryptase in sudden infant death - anaphylaxis, hypoxia or artefact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edston, E; Gidlund, E; Wickman, M; Ribbing, H; Van Hage-Hamsten, M

    1999-12-01

    Increased concentrations of mast cell tryptase in post mortem blood have frequently been observed in sudden infant deaths but the cause of this has not yet been clarified. The aim was to evaluate factors (immunological, morphological and anamnestic data) behind the observed increase in mast cell tryptase in sudden infant deaths with elevated tryptase. Mast cell tryptase and total immunoglobulin (Ig) E were measured in post mortem sera from 44 infants younger than 1.5 years. Radioallergosorbent tests were performed for possible allergens (mixture for relevant food allergens, Phadiatop and latex). IgG subclasses, IgM, and complement factors (C3, C4 and factor B) were measured with radial immunodiffusion. Mast cells, labelled with antibodies against mast cell tryptase, were counted in the lungs and heart. The circumstances of death and medical history of the deceased infant and family were obtained through police and hospital records. In 40% of the SIDS cases tryptase was elevated (>10 microg/L). Total IgE in serum was increased in 33% compared with clinical reference values but showed no association with mast cell tryptase. RAST tests were positive in three cases. In one of these cases both tryptase and total IgE were elevated. The only variable that was associated with high tryptase values was prone position at death (P Children with elevated total IgE also displayed high concentrations of IgG1 and IgG2. Infants who died in the spring had significantly higher IgE than the others (P < or = 0.05). The results do not support the hypothesis that the elevated tryptase concentrations in sudden infant death are caused by allergy. The association between prone position at death and elevated tryptase could hypothetically be explained by mast cell degranulation due to, for example, a hypoxic stimulus in these infants.

  13. Omalizumab may not inhibit mast cell and basophil activation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gericke, J; Ohanyan, T; Church, M K; Maurer, M; Metz, M

    2015-09-01

    In March 2014, omalizumab, a monoclonal anti-IgE antibody, was approved for the treatment of chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU). The primary mode of action of omalizumab is considered to be the reduction in free IgE serum levels and the subsequent down-regulation of FcεRI, the high affinity receptor for IgE, on mast cells and basophils. Recently, it has been suggested that most CSU patients have an autoimmune aetiology which may lead to chronic activation of mast cells and basophils. To understand more of the mechanisms by which omalizumab may exert its effects in CSU, its efficacy was tested on human mast cells and basophils. Omalizumab, which was or was not preincubated with serum from healthy donors or CSU patients, was coincubated with isolated healthy donor skin mast cells or peripheral blood-derived monocytes containing 1-2% basophils. Degranulation was induced using anti-human IgE, C5a, or substance P and histamine release determined. Anti-human IgE-induced histamine release from mast cells or basophils was not altered in the presence or absence of omalizumab. In contrast, preincubation of mast cells with DARPin Fc fusion protein, a positive control for negative signalling via FcεRI-FcγRIIb cross activation, significantly diminished histamine release. Moreover, omalizumab, that was preincubated with healthy donor serum, CSU patient serum or auto-reactive CSU serum to allow for the formation of potential immune complexes, did not alter induced histamine release in a coincubation setup with mast cells or basophils as compared to the absence of omalizumab. In vivo, blood basophil numbers and basophil histamine content increase under omalizumab therapy. Our results suggest that the rapid response to omalizumab therapy is more likely to result from the elimination of an activating signal rather than the generation of a negative, inhibitory signal. © 2014 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  14. Human mast cells are major IL-22 producers in patients with psoriasis and atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashiko, Shunya; Bouguermouh, Salim; Rubio, Manuel; Baba, Nobuyasu; Bissonnette, Robert; Sarfati, Marika

    2015-08-01

    Psoriasis is a systemic inflammatory disease in which IL-17 and IL-22 levels are markedly increased in the skin and blood. The prevalent concept, using skin cells that are isolated from psoriatic plaques and examined after cell expansion and in vitro stimulation, is that IL-17 and IL-22 production essentially results from T cells and the rare type 3 innate lymphoid cells. We sought to examine the cellular source of IL-17A and IL-22 at the protein and transcriptional single-cell level immediately after ex vivo skin cell isolation from psoriatic plaques. Skin biopsy specimens were collected from patients with psoriasis, as well as from patients with atopic dermatitis. Cell suspensions were prepared by combining mild enzymatic digestion and mechanical dissociation and analyzed for cytokine expression without prior in vitro culture and stimulation. Expression of IL-17 and IL-22 was quantified at the protein and mRNA single-cell level by using flow cytometry. IL-22 is predominantly expressed by CD3(-)c-Kit(+) cells relative to CD3(+) T cells in lesional skin of patients with psoriasis and patients with atopic dermatitis. Strikingly, we identified c-Kit(+)FcεRI(+) mast cells as major IL-22 producers. The proportion of mast cells that produce IL-22 ranges from 20% to 80% in patients with psoriasis or those with atopic dermatitis. Skin mast cells express IL-22 and IL-17 mRNA. Conversely, IL-17-producing T cells outnumber IL-17-producing mast cells, which also express IL-17 receptor. Human skin mast cells are previously unrecognized IL-22 producers. We further established that skin mast cells express IL-17. Thus mast cells might play an important role in the physiopathology of chronic inflammatory skin disorders. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Mast Cell Stabilizers as Host Modulatory Drugs to Prevent and Control Periodontal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhoom Singh Mehta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mast cells are among the first cells to get in-volved in periodontal inflammation. Their numbers have been shown to be in-creased in cases of gingivitis and periodontal disease. The hypothesis: Since mast cell stabilizers like sodium cromogly-cate (SCG and nedocromil sodium (NS have been used in the prophylaxis of bronchial asthma without any significant adverse effects and also the fact that drugs like SCG show significant anti-inflammatory activities, it would be logical to use mast cell stabilizers as host modulating drugs for the treatment and prevention of peri-odontal disease. Evaluation of the hypothesis: Safety and efficacy of both SCG and NS are well documented. So, it will be systemically safe to use in humans. However, oral administration SCG or delivery of the drug by means local irrigation will not be very useful because SCG may not be secreted in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF(as in the case of oral administraion or the drug may get washed out from periodontal pocket due to the constant flow of GCF(as in the case of irrigation. A local or targeted drug delivery of mast cell stabilizers can be used in patients with periodontal disease. Role of mast cells in periodontal disease has been dealt in-depth in many studies and articles. However, limited amount of research has been done on using mast cell stabilizers in the prevention and control of periodontal diseases. More studies are needed to study the efficacy and effective-ness of mast cell stabilizers as an adjunct to phase I therapy in the control of periodontal disease.

  16. Bait stations, hard mast, and black bear population growth in Great Smoky Mountains National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Joseph D.; van Manen, Frank T.; Pelton, Michael R.

    2005-01-01

    Bait-station surveys are used by wildlife managers as an index to American black bear (Ursus americanus) population abundance, but the relationship is not well established. Hard mast surveys are similarly used to assess annual black bear food availability which may affect mortality and natality rates. We used data collected in Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP) from 1989 to 2003 to determine whether changes in the bait-station index (ΔBSI) were associated with estimated rates of bear population growth (λ) and whether hard mast production was related to bear visitation to baits. We also evaluated whether hard mast production from previous years was related to λ. Estimates of λ were based on analysis of capture-recapture data with the Pradel temporal symmetry estimator. Using the Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC), our analysis revealed no direct relationship between ΔBSI and λ. A simulation analysis indicated that our data were adequate to detect a relationship had one existed. Model fit was marginally improved when we added total oak mast production of the previous year as an interaction term suggesting that the BSI was confounded with environmental variables. Consequently the utility of the bait-station survey as a population monitoring technique is questionable at the spatial and temporal scales we studied. Mast survey data, however, were valuable covariates of λ. Population growth for a given year was negatively related to oak mast production 4 and 5 years prior. That finding supported our hypothesis that mast failures can trigger reproductive synchrony, which may not be evident from the trapped sample until years later.

  17. Nonclinical evaluation of the potential for mast cell activation by an erythropoietin analog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, James L., E-mail: James.Weaver@fda.hhs.gov [Division of Applied Regulatory Science, OCP/OTS/CDER/FDA, Silver Spring, MD (United States); Boyne, Michael, E-mail: mboyne@biotechlogic.com [Division of Pharmaceutical Analysis, OTR/OPQ/CDER/FDA, Silver Spring, MD (United States); Pang, Eric, E-mail: Eric.Pang@fda.hhs.gov [Division of Applied Regulatory Science, OCP/OTS/CDER/FDA, Silver Spring, MD (United States); Chimalakonda, Krishna, E-mail: Krishna.Chimalakonda@fda.hhs.gov [Division of Applied Regulatory Science, OCP/OTS/CDER/FDA, Silver Spring, MD (United States); Howard, Kristina E., E-mail: Kristina.Howard@fda.hhs.gov [Division of Applied Regulatory Science, OCP/OTS/CDER/FDA, Silver Spring, MD (United States)

    2015-09-15

    The erythropoietin analog peginesatide was withdrawn from marketing due to unexpected severe anaphylactic reactions associated with administration of the multi-use formulation. The adverse events occurred rapidly following the first ever administration of the drug with most affected patients becoming symptomatic in less than 30 min. This is most consistent with an anaphylactoid reaction due to direct activation of mast cells. Laboratory evaluation was undertaken using rat peritoneal mast cells as the model system. Initial studies showed that high concentrations of the formulated drug as well as formulated vehicle alone could cause mast cell degranulation as measured by histamine release. The purified active drug was not able to cause histamine release whereas the vehicle filtrate and lab created drug vehicle were equally potent at causing histamine release. Individual formulations of vehicle leaving one component out showed that histamine release was due to phenol. Dose response studies with phenol showed a very sharp dose response curve that was similar in three buffer systems. Cellular analysis by flow cytometry showed that the histamine release was not due to cell death, and that changes in light scatter parameters consistent with degranulation were rapidly observed. Limited testing with primary human mast cells showed a similar dose response of histamine release with exposure to phenol. To provide in vivo confirmation, rats were injected with vehicle formulated with various concentrations of phenol via a jugular vein cannula. Significant release of histamine was detected in blood samples taken 2 min after dosing at the highest concentrations tested. - Highlights: • Peginesatide caused severe anaphylactoid reactions in 0.2% of patients. • Both formulated drug and vehicle cause degranulation of rat mast cells. • Phenol was identified as the vehicle component causing degranulation. • Human mast cells show similar dose response to phenol as rat mast cells

  18. Common Warts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from spreading Common warts Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  19. Common Warts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with HIV/AIDS or people who've had organ transplants Prevention To reduce your risk of common warts: Avoid direct contact with warts. This includes your own warts. Don't pick at warts. Picking may spread the ...

  20. Common Courses for Common Purposes:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub Jr, Gary John

    2014-01-01

    (PME)? I suggest three alternative paths that increased cooperation in PME at the level of the command and staff course could take: a Nordic Defence College, standardized national command and staff courses, and a core curriculum of common courses for common purposes. I conclude with a discussion of how...

  1. The Commons

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, D.

    2004-01-01

    Over a three-year period, David Moore made repeated early morning visits to the chamber of the House of Commons, making photographs of unseen and overlooked areas and submitting this political environment to the scrutiny of the document. The Commons pursues archaeology of our most important debating chamber, exploring how an environment can act as a metaphor for wider societal issues. In doing so Moore creates an incisive survey of the epicentre of British politics.

  2. Evaluation of prognostic markers for canine mast cell tumors treated with vinblastine and prednisone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzbasiyan-Gurkan Vilma

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Canine cutaneous mast cell tumor (MCT is a common neoplastic disease associated with a variable biologic behavior. Surgery remains the primary treatment for canine MCT; however, radiation therapy (RT and chemotherapy are commonly used to treat aggressive MCT. The goals of this study were to evaluate the prognostic utility of histologic grade, c-KIT mutations, KIT staining patterns, and the proliferation markers Ki67 and AgNORs in dogs postoperatively treated with vinblastine and prednisone +/- RT, and to compare the outcome of dogs treated with post-operative chemotherapy +/- RT to that of a prognostically matched group treated with surgery alone. Associations between prognostic markers and survival were evaluated. Disease-free intervals (DFI and overall survival times (OS of dogs with similar pretreatment prognostic indices postoperatively treated with chemotherapy were compared to dogs treated with surgery alone. Results Histologic grade 3 MCTs, MCTs with c-KIT mutations, MCTs with increased cytoplasmic KIT, and MCTs with increased Ki67 and AgNOR values were associated with decreased DFI and OS. Dogs with histologic grade 3 MCT had significantly increased DFI and OS when treated with chemotherapy vs. surgery alone. Although not statistically significant due to small sample sizes, MCTs with c-KIT mutations had increased DFI and OS when treated with chemotherapy vs. surgery alone. Conclusion and clinical importance This study confirms the prognostic value of histologic grade, c-KIT mutations, KIT staining patterns, and proliferation analyses for canine MCT. Additionally, the results of this study further define the benefit of postoperative vinblastine and prednisone for histologic grade 3 MCTs.

  3. Fine-tuning of mast cell activation by FceRIbeta chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chisei eRa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Mast cells play the key role in allergic reaction and disorders, being activated by the high affinity receptor for IgE, FceRI. There are two types of FceRI expressed on the cell surface of human mast cells, abg2 type and ag2 type (without b chain, while in mouse mast cells only the tetrameric abg2 type is expressed. In the lesion of allergic inflammation such as atopic conjunctivitis and atopic dermatitis, mast cells increase in number and exclusively express the abg2 type FceRI, in contrast in healthy conjunctiva and skin most mast cells express the ag2 type. The human and mouse FceRI genes contain seven exons and in the human gene we found a repressor element locates in the forth intron. Through the repressor element HDACs are recruited to the FceRIb gene by MZF-1/FHL3/NFY complex and repress b transcription by deacetylation of histones in the presence of GM-CSF. It has been long recognized that the function of the b chain ITAM is a signal amplifier, but we have recently revealed bidirectional (positive and negative functions of the b chain ITAM in the regulation of the mast cell activation and effector functions. Namely, the b chain enhances the mast cell activation signal triggered with low intensity stimulation such as lower dose antigen than threshold while it suppresses the signal of high intensity stimulation. Employing mouse model of CHS induced by oxazolone, we have revealed that IgE-mediated mast cell activation is required for CHS and that the b chain is crucially involved in this model. On the other hand diverse immune receptors including TLRs, SCF receptor and GPCRs are known to mediate signals which modulate FceRI・adenosine receptors, one of GPCRs, trigger synergistic degranulation response in mast cells even when the FceRI stimulation is of ‘lower intensity’ than the threshold. We have recently elucidated, in this synergistic degranulation response, b chain ITAM plays positive role, possibly reflecting in vivo allergic

  4. Immunity to Schistosoma mansoni in congenitally athymic, irradiated and mast cell-depleted rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, M.J.; Bickle, Q.D.; Taylor, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    Immunity to Schistosoma mansoni was investigated in congenitally athymic (Nu/Nu) rats, irradiated rats and in mast cell-depleted rats. Nu/Nu rats failed to develop significant resistance following vaccination with irradiated cercariae, although Nu/Nu recipients of serum from vaccinated Fischer rats (VRS) manifested resistance comparable to heterozygous controls, suggesting that T-cells were required in the induction of resistance but were not involved in the efferent arm of antibody-dependent elimination. Radiosensitive cells (including eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes and mast cells) were apparently not essential for the antibody-dependent elimination of lung or post-lung stages since irradiated (700-750 rad.) recipients of VRS manifested comparable degrees of resistance to unirradiated controls in spite of a greater than 85% reduction in total blood leucocyte counts after irradiation. Depletion of 99% of tissue mast cells by treatment of rats with Compound 48/80 had no significant effect on the attrition of a challenge infection in rats rendered immune by vaccination with irradiated cercariae or by transfer of VRS. However, there was a significant increase in worm recovery in unimmunized and mast cell-depleted or irradiated rats, indicating that mast cells and perhaps other radio-isotope sensitive cells may be involved in innate resistance. (author)

  5. Human mast cell activation through Fc receptors and Toll-like receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimichi Okayama

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Mast cells express high-affinity IgE receptors (FcεRI on their surface and can be activated to secrete a variety of biologically active mediators by cross-linking of receptor-bound IgE. Recent studies in animal models indicate that mouse mast cells may play a protective role in host defense against bacteria through the production of tumor necrosis factor-α, mainly as a result of Toll-like receptor (TLR 4- or CD48-mediated activation. Moreover, several recent observations in animal models have indicated that mast cells may also play a pivotal role in coordinating the early phases of autoimmune diseases, particularly those involving auto-antibodies. We recently identified functional TLR4 and FcγRI on human mast cells, in which their expression had been upregulated by interferon-γ. We compared each of the receptor-mediated gene expression profiles with the FcεRI-mediated gene expression profile using high-density oligonucleotide probe arrays and discovered that human mast cells may modulate the immune system in a receptor-specific manner.

  6. Effect of Omegaven on mast cell concentration in diabetic wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaei, Saeid; Ansarihadipour, Hadi; Nakhaei, Mahmoodreza; Darabi, Mohammadreza; Bayat, Parvindokht; Sakhaei, Mohammadhassan; Baazm, Maryam; Mohammadhoseiny, Atefe

    2017-05-01

    Diabetic wound healing is a complicated process. In all over the world 15% of 200 million diabetic people suffer from diabetic foot problems. Mast cells are known to participate in three phases of wound healing: the inflammatory reaction, angiogenesis and extracellular-matrix reabsorption. The inflammatory reaction is mediated by released histamine and arachidonic acid metabolites. Omega-3 fatty acids alter proinflammatory cytokine production during wound healing which affects the presence of inflammatory cells in wound area as well, but how this events specifically influences the presence of mast cells in wound healing is not clearly understood. This study is conducted to determine the effect of Omegaven, eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) on pattern of presence of mast cells in diabetic wound area. Diabetic male wistar rats were euthanized at 1, 3, 5, 7 and 15 days after the excision was made. To estimate the number of mast cells histological sections were provided from wound area and stained with toluidine blue. In this relation wound area (8400 microscopic field, 45.69 mm 2 ) were examined by stereological methods by light microscope. We found that comparing experimental and control group, omega-3 fatty acids significantly decreased wound area in day 7 and also the number of grade three mast cells in day 3 and 5. We also found that wound strength has significantly increased in experimental group at day 15. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Critical Role for Mast Cell Stat5 Activity in Skin Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoaki Ando

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is a chronic inflammatory skin disease. Here, we show that phospholipase C-β3 (PLC-β3-deficient mice spontaneously develop AD-like skin lesions and more severe allergen-induced dermatitis than wild-type mice. Mast cells were required for both AD models and remarkably increased in the skin of Plcb3−/− mice because of the increased Stat5 and reduced SHP-1 activities. Mast cell-specific deletion of Stat5 gene ameliorated allergen-induced dermatitis, whereas that of Shp1 gene encoding Stat5-inactivating SHP-1 exacerbated it. PLC-β3 regulates the expression of periostin in fibroblasts and TSLP in keratinocytes, two proteins critically involved in AD pathogenesis. Furthermore, polymorphisms in PLCB3, SHP1, STAT5A, and STAT5B genes were associated with human AD. Mast cell expression of PLC-β3 was inversely correlated with that of phospho-STAT5, and increased mast cells with high levels of phospho-STAT5 were found in lesional skin of some AD patients. Therefore, STAT5 regulatory mechanisms in mast cells are important for AD pathogenesis.

  8. Polyamines are present in mast cell secretory granules and are important for granule homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Faroldi, Gianni; Rodríguez, Carlos E; Urdiales, José L; Pérez-Pomares, José M; Dávila, José C; Pejler, Gunnar; Sánchez-Jiménez, Francisca; Fajardo, Ignacio

    2010-11-30

    Mast cell secretory granules accommodate a large number of components, many of which interact with highly sulfated serglycin proteoglycan (PG) present within the granules. Polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) are absolutely required for the survival of the vast majority of living cells. Given the reported ability of polyamines to interact with PGs, we investigated the possibility that polyamines may be components of mast cell secretory granules. Spermidine was released by mouse bone marrow derived mast cells (BMMCs) after degranulation induced by IgE/anti-IgE or calcium ionophore A23187. Additionally, both spermidine and spermine were detected in isolated mouse mast cell granules. Further, depletion of polyamines by culturing BMMCs with α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) caused aberrant secretory granule ultrastructure, impaired histamine storage, reduced serotonin levels and increased β-hexosaminidase content. A proteomic approach revealed that DFMO-induced polyamine depletion caused an alteration in the levels of a number of proteins, many of which are connected either with the regulated exocytosis or with the endocytic system. Taken together, our results show evidence that polyamines are present in mast cell secretory granules and, furthermore, indicate an essential role of these polycations during the biogenesis and homeostasis of these organelles.

  9. Polyamines are present in mast cell secretory granules and are important for granule homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni García-Faroldi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Mast cell secretory granules accommodate a large number of components, many of which interact with highly sulfated serglycin proteoglycan (PG present within the granules. Polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine are absolutely required for the survival of the vast majority of living cells. Given the reported ability of polyamines to interact with PGs, we investigated the possibility that polyamines may be components of mast cell secretory granules.Spermidine was released by mouse bone marrow derived mast cells (BMMCs after degranulation induced by IgE/anti-IgE or calcium ionophore A23187. Additionally, both spermidine and spermine were detected in isolated mouse mast cell granules. Further, depletion of polyamines by culturing BMMCs with α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO caused aberrant secretory granule ultrastructure, impaired histamine storage, reduced serotonin levels and increased β-hexosaminidase content. A proteomic approach revealed that DFMO-induced polyamine depletion caused an alteration in the levels of a number of proteins, many of which are connected either with the regulated exocytosis or with the endocytic system.Taken together, our results show evidence that polyamines are present in mast cell secretory granules and, furthermore, indicate an essential role of these polycations during the biogenesis and homeostasis of these organelles.

  10. Chronic Pain Treatment: The Influence of Tricyclic Antidepressants on Serotonin Release and Uptake in Mast Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilonka Ferjan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The involvement of serotonin (5-HT in chronic pain mechanisms is established. 5-HT inhibits central painful stimuli, but recent data suggests that 5-HT could also enhance pain stimulus from the periphery, where mast cells play an important role. We aimed in our study to clarify the influence of selected tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs on mast cell function: secretion, uptake, and reuptake of 5-HT, that could interfere with 5-HT levels and in this way contribute to the generation of pain. As an experimental model, we used isolated rat peritoneal mast cells and incubated them with selected TCAs (clomipramine, amitriptyline, doxepin, and imipramine under different experimental conditions. 5-HT release, uptake, and reuptake were determined spectrofluorometrically. We showed that TCAs were able to inhibit 5-HT secretion from mast cells, as well as uptake of exogenous 5-HT and reuptake of secreted 5-HT back into mast cells. The effects of TCAs were concentration dependent; higher concentrations of TCAs inhibited the secretion of 5-HT induced by compound 48/80, whereas lower concentrations of TCAs inhibited 5-HT uptake. The most effective TCA was halogenated clomipramine. As TCAs are well introduced in chronic pain treatment, the insight into mechanisms of action is important for an understanding of their effect in various pain conditions.

  11. Effect of fruits of Opuntia elatior Mill on mast cell degranulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Sanjay P.; Sheth, N. R.; Suhagia, B. N.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The presence of potentially active nutrients and their multifunctional properties make prickly pear a perfect candidate for the production of phytopharmaceutical products. Among the numerous Opuntia species, bioactive compounds have been isolated and characterized primarily from Opuntia ficus-indica, Opuntia polycantha, Opuntia stricta, Opuntia dilleni for various medicinal properties. Objective: Based on the traditional use of prickly pear for enhancement of immune function, the objective of the present study to evaluate the effect of prickly pear on mast cell degranulation function. Materials and Methods: The Opuntia fruit juice (OFJ) (10-200 μl/ml) were studied for the effect on sensitized rat peritoneal mast cell degranulation induced by immunological (egg albumin), and nonimmunological (compound 48/80) stimuli and compared with that of the reference standard, sodium cromoglycate and ketotifen (10 μg/ml). Results and Conclusion: The OFJ exhibited significantly (P < 0.001) concentration dependent inhibition of mast cell degranulation. The IC50 value of OFJ was found 12.24 and 18 μl/ml for immunological and nonimmunological induced mast cell degranulation, respectively. The betacyanin is an active principle compound in prickly pear that may responsible for mast cell stabilizing action. PMID:25883521

  12. Tyrosol Suppresses Allergic Inflammation by Inhibiting the Activation of Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase in Mast Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Gyu Je

    Full Text Available Allergic diseases such as atopic dermatitis, rhinitis, asthma, and anaphylaxis are attractive research areas. Tyrosol (2-(4-hydroxyphenylethanol is a polyphenolic compound with diverse biological activities. In this study, we investigated whether tyrosol has anti-allergic inflammatory effects. Ovalbumin-induced active systemic anaphylaxis and immunoglobulin E-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis models were used for the immediate-type allergic responses. Oral administration of tyrosol reduced the allergic symptoms of hypothermia and pigmentation in both animal models. Mast cells that secrete allergic mediators are key regulators on allergic inflammation. Tyrosol dose-dependently decreased mast cell degranulation and expression of inflammatory cytokines. Intracellular calcium levels and activation of inhibitor of κB kinase (IKK regulate cytokine expression and degranulation. Tyrosol blocked calcium influx and phosphorylation of the IKK complex. To define the molecular target for tyrosol, various signaling proteins involved in mast cell activation such as Lyn, Syk, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K, and Akt were examined. Our results showed that PI3K could be a molecular target for tyrosol in mast cells. Taken together, these findings indicated that tyrosol has anti-allergic inflammatory effects by inhibiting the degranulation of mast cells and expression of inflammatory cytokines; these effects are mediated via PI3K. Therefore, we expect tyrosol become a potential therapeutic candidate for allergic inflammatory disorders.

  13. Effect of LED phototherapy (λ630 +/- 20nm) on mast cells during wound healing in hypothyroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraguassú, Gardênia M.; De Castro, Isabele Cardoso V.; Vasconcelos, Rebeca M.; da Guarda, Milena G.; Rodriguez, Tânia T.; Ramalho, Maria José P.; Pinheiro, Antônio Luiz B.; Ramalho, Luciana Maria P.

    2014-02-01

    Hypothyroidism has been associated with the disruption of the body's metabolism, including the healing process. LED phototherapy has been studied using several healing models, but their effects on mast cells proliferation associated to hypothyroidism remains unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the effect LED (λ630+/-20nm) phototherapy on mast cells proliferation during tissue repair in hypothyroid rats. Under general anesthesia, a standard surgical wound (1cm2) was created on the dorsum of 24 male Wistar rats divided into 4 groups of 6 animals each: EC-Control Euthyroid; ED-Euthyroid+LED; HC-Control Hypothyroid and HD-Hypothyroid+LED. The irradiation started immediately after surgery and was repeated every other day for 7 days, when animals death occurred. Hypothyroidism was induced in rats with propylthiouracil (0.05g/100mL) administered orally for 4 weeks and maintained until the end of the experiment. The specimens removed were processed to wax and stained with toluidine blue for mast cell identification. The mast cell proliferation was significantly higher in HC group than in EC group (Mann Whitney, pLED light has a biomodulative effect on mast cell population, even when hipothyroidism was present.

  14. Mast cells and eosinophils in rat mammary gland tumours induced by N-Nitroso-N-methylurea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kissová Viktória

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the distribution and number of mast cells and eosinophils in rat mammary gland tumours induced by N-Nitroso-N-methylurea. The highest density of mast cells was found in cystic papillary adenocarcinomas of grade II. Eosinophils were detected only in the cystic papillary adenocarcinoma of grades I and II, in non-invasive cribriform adenocarcinoma and comedo-type carcinoma. Mast cell populations were observed perivascularly in the tumour stroma, in the host tumour interface, as well as in necrotic areas of neoplasms. Mast cells were observed to be intact according to their morphological changes, collectively referred to as degranulation. The obtained results indicate that mast cells and eosinophils play an important role in tumour micro-environment formation. The increased density of these cells in experimentally-induced rat mammary gland tumours suggests a poor prognosis in these cancers. Our results also confirmed that rat mammary gland tumours are good models for the study of breast cancers.

  15. Tyrosine hydroxylase positive nerves and mast cells in the porcine gallbladder

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    I. Stefanov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to detect the localisation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH positive nerve fibres (THN and distribution of tyrosine hydroxylase positive mast cells (THMC in the wall of porcine gallbladder. THN were observed as single fibres, nerve fibres forming perivascular plexuses and nerve fibres grouped within the nerve fascicles. In the gallbladder`s fundus, body and neck, the TH+ fibres formed mucosal, muscular and serosal nonganglionated nerve plexuses. Toluidine blue (TB staining was used to confirm that the TH positive cells were mast cells. The number of THMC in the propria of gallbladder`s fundus, body and neck was significantly higher than in the muscular and serosal layers in both genders. The number of mast cells in the musculature was higher than in the serosa. The density and location of the THMC were similar to the TB positive (with gamma meta-chromasia mast cells in both males and females, and statistically significant difference was not established. In conclusion, original data concerning the existence and localisation of catecholaminergic nerves and THMC distribution in the porcine gallbladder’s wall are presented. The results could con-tribute to the body of knowledge of functional communication between autonomic nerves and mast cells in the gallbladder.

  16. Anti-apoptotic BFL-1 is the major effector in activation-induced human mast cell survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ekoff

    Full Text Available Mast cells are best known for their role in allergic reactions, where aggregation of FcεRI leads to the release of mast cell mediators causing allergic symptoms. The activation also induces a survival program in the cells, i.e., activation-induced mast cell survival. The aim of the present study was to investigate how the activation-induced survival is mediated. Cord blood-derived mast cells and the mast cell line LAD-2 were activated through FcεRI crosslinking, with or without addition of chemicals that inhibit the activity or expression of selected Bcl-2 family members (ABT-737; roscovitine. Cell viability was assessed using staining and flow cytometry. The expression and function of Bcl-2 family members BFL-1 and MCL-1 were investigated using real-time quantitative PCR and siRNA treatment. The mast cell expression of Bfl-1 was investigated in skin biopsies. FcεRI crosslinking promotes activation-induced survival of human mast cells and this is associated with an upregulation of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member Bfl-1. ABT-737 alone or in combination with roscovitine decreases viability of human mast cells although activation-induced survival is sustained, indicating a minor role for Bcl-X(L, Bcl-2, Bcl-w and Mcl-1. Reducing BFL-1 but not MCL-1 levels by siRNA inhibited activation-induced mast cell survival. We also demonstrate that mast cell expression of Bfl-1 is elevated in birch-pollen-provocated skin and in lesions of atopic dermatitis and psoriasis patients. Taken together, our results highlight Bfl-1 as a major effector in activation-induced human mast cell survival.

  17. Novel anti-ulcer alpha,beta-unsaturated lactones inhibit compound 48/80-induced mast cell degranulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penissi, Alicia B; Vera, Mariano E; Mariani, María L; Rudolph, María I; Ceñal, Juan P; de Rosas, Juan C; Fogal, Teresa H; Tonn, Carlos E; Favier, Laura S; Giordano, Oscar S; Piezzi, Ramón S

    2009-06-10

    The present study was designed to examine the effects of a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from Artemisia douglasiana Besser (dehydroleucodine), a xanthanolide sesquiterpene isolated from Xanthium cavanillesii Schouw (xanthatin) and a semisynthetic butenolide (3-benzyloxymethyl-5H-furan-2-one) on mast cell degranulation induced by compound 48/80. Peritoneal mast cells from male adult Sprague-Dawley rats were purified in Percoll, preincubated in the presence of test lactones (dehydroleucodine, xanthatin or 3-benzyloxymethyl-5H-furan-2-one) and then challenged with the mast cell activator compound 48/80 (10 microg/ml). Concentration-response and kinetic studies of mast cell serotonin release evoked by compound 48/80, evaluation of mast cell viability and morphology by light and electron microscopy, and comparative studies using ketotifen and sodium chromoglycate were carried out. Serotonin release studies, carried out together with morphological studies, showed the effectiveness of the above lactones to stabilize mast cells. The comparative study with ketotifen and sodium chromoglycate, well known mast cell stabilizers, showed the following order of potency dehydroleucodine=xanthatin>3-benzyloxymethyl-5H-furan-2-one> or =ketotifen/sodium chromoglycate to inhibit mast cell serotonin release induced by compound 48/80. The present study provides the first strong evidence in favour of the hypothesis that dehydroleucodine, xanthatin and 3-benzyloxymethyl-5H-furan-2-one inhibit compound 48/80-induced serotonin release from peritoneal mast cells, acting thus as mast cell stabilizers. Our findings may provide an insight into the design of novel pharmacological agents which may be used to regulate the mast cell response.

  18. Mast cells express CYP27A1 and CYP27B1 in epithelial skin cancers and psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaukinen, Antti; Pelkonen, Jukka; Harvima, Ilkka T

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation and the vitamin D system are involved in immunosuppression in the skin. Previous in vitro and animal studies suggest a role for mast cells in these mechanisms. To study vitamin D3 metabolizing enzymes, CYP27A1 and CYP27B1, in mast cells in epithelial skin cancers and psoriasis. Biopsies were collected from the non-lesional and lesional skin of patients with actinic keratosis (AK), Bowen's disease/squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and psoriasis. CYP27A1 and CYP27B1 in mast cells were analysed using a sequential double-staining method. The percentage of mast cells containing CYP27A1 was significantly higher in lesional than non-lesional skin in all diseases, especially in SCC and BCC. In addition, the percentage of mast cells containing CYP27B1 was significantly increased in BCC, AK, and psoriatic lesions as well. Interestingly, only about 5-6% and 2% of the mast cells expressed CYP27A1 and CYP27B1, respectively, in the non-lesional skin of psoriatic and AK patients. In contrast, 23-38% and 6-9% of the mast cells were immunopositive for CYP27A1 and CYP27B1, respectively, in the non-lesional skin of BCC and SCC patients. In human LAD2 mast cell cultures, about 30% and 15% of the mast cells showed CYP27A1 and CYP27B1, respectively, though the immunostainings of these enzymes were not markedly affected by UVB irradiation. Increased proportions of mast cells express vitamin D3 metabolizing enzymes in the lesional skin. Therefore, mast cells may promote an immunosuppressive environment, e.g., in skin carcinoma.

  19. Comparing systems approaches to innovation and technological change for sustainable and competitive economies: anm explorative study into conceptual commonalities, differences and complementarities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, L.; Diaz Lopez, F.J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper makes a distinction between three theoretical frameworks that have been highly influential in the discourse on innovation, competitiveness and sustainability: sectoral systems of innovation (SSI), technological innovation systems (TIS) and socio-technical systems (ST-Systems). These

  20. Creative Commons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lone

    2006-01-01

    En Creative Commons licens giver en forfatter mulighed for at udbyde sit værk i en alternativ licensløsning, som befinder sig på forskellige trin på en skala mellem yderpunkterne "All rights reserved" og "No rights reserved". Derved opnås licensen "Some rights reserved"......En Creative Commons licens giver en forfatter mulighed for at udbyde sit værk i en alternativ licensløsning, som befinder sig på forskellige trin på en skala mellem yderpunkterne "All rights reserved" og "No rights reserved". Derved opnås licensen "Some rights reserved"...

  1. 3 February 2011 - British Members of the Science and Technology Committee (Commons)led by A. Miller MP signing the guest book with CERN Director for Accelerators and Technology S. Myers; in the ATLAS experimental cavern at LHC Point 1 with Spokesperson F. Gianotti and Deputy D. Charlton.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2011-01-01

    3 February 2011 - British Members of the Science and Technology Committee (Commons)led by A. Miller MP signing the guest book with CERN Director for Accelerators and Technology S. Myers; in the ATLAS experimental cavern at LHC Point 1 with Spokesperson F. Gianotti and Deputy D. Charlton.

  2. Ultra-estrutura dos mastócitos de diferentes tipos histológicos de mastocitoma em cães Mast cell ultrastructure in different types of canine mast cell tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A.R. Sueiro

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo estudar as diferenças ultraestruturais de mastócitos neoplásicos de diferentes tipos histológicos de mastocitoma em cães, usando microscopia eletrônica de transmissão Os resultados mostraram que o núcleo e os grânulos citoplasmáticos são as estruturas mais indicadas para se avaliar o grau de anaplasia celular e o estádio de indiferenciação do tumor.The objective of this work was study the ultrastructural differences among the different histologic types of mast cell tumors in dogs collected in vivo. The ultrastructural analyses showed that the nuclei and cytoplasmic granules characteristics are the best structures to be appointed on evaluating the undifferentiation stage of this tumor.

  3. Modular Autonomous Systems Technology Framework: A Distributed Solution for System Monitoring and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badger, Julia M.; Claunch, Charles; Mathis, Frank

    2017-01-01

    The Modular Autonomous Systems Technology (MAST) framework is a tool for building distributed, hierarchical autonomous systems. Originally intended for the autonomous monitoring and control of spacecraft, this framework concept provides support for variable autonomy, assume-guarantee contracts, and efficient communication between subsystems and a centralized systems manager. MAST was developed at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) and has been applied to an integrated spacecraft example scenario.

  4. Study of the effects of wind power and vortex-induced vibrations to establish fatigue design criteria for high-mast poles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Traffic signal and high-mast poles are used by transportation agencies to control and illuminate intersections; their structural design is governed by national specifications. High-mast poles are luminaire supports located near highway interchanges t...

  5. Effects of the ether phospholipid AMG-PC on mast cells are similar to that of the ether lipid AMG but different from that of the analogue hexadecylphosphocholine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grosman, Nina

    1991-01-01

    Farmakologi, ether phospholipid, hexacylphosphocholine, miltefosine, protein kinase C, AMG-PC(alkyl-methyl-glycero-phosphocholine), Histamine release, mast cell......Farmakologi, ether phospholipid, hexacylphosphocholine, miltefosine, protein kinase C, AMG-PC(alkyl-methyl-glycero-phosphocholine), Histamine release, mast cell...

  6. Potential role of masting by introduced bamboos in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus population irruptions holds public health consequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa C Smith

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that the ongoing naturalization of frost/shade tolerant Asian bamboos in North America could cause environmental consequences involving introduced bamboos, native rodents and ultimately humans. More specifically, we asked whether the eventual masting by an abundant leptomorphic ("running" bamboo within Pacific Northwest coniferous forests could produce a temporary surfeit of food capable of driving a population irruption of a common native seed predator, the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus, a hantavirus carrier. Single-choice and cafeteria-style feeding trials were conducted for deer mice with seeds of two bamboo species (Bambusa distegia and Yushania brevipaniculata, wheat, Pinus ponderosa, and native mixed diets compared to rodent laboratory feed. Adult deer mice consumed bamboo seeds as readily as they consumed native seeds. In the cafeteria-style feeding trials, Y. brevipaniculata seeds were consumed at the same rate as native seeds but more frequently than wheat seeds or rodent laboratory feed. Females produced a median litter of 4 pups on a bamboo diet. Given the ability of deer mice to reproduce frequently whenever food is abundant, we employed our feeding trial results in a modified Rosenzweig-MacArthur consumer-resource model to project the population-level response of deer mice to a suddenly available/rapidly depleted supply of bamboo seeds. The simulations predict rodent population irruptions and declines similar to reported cycles involving Asian and South American rodents but unprecedented in deer mice. Following depletion of a mast seed supply, the incidence of Sin Nombre Virus (SNV transmission to humans could subsequently rise with dispersal of the peridomestic deer mice into nearby human settlements seeking food.

  7. Empty seeds are not always bad: simultaneous effect of seed emptiness and masting on animal seed predation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Perea

    Full Text Available Seed masting and production of empty seeds have often been considered independently as different strategies to reduce seed predation by animals. Here, we integrate both phenomena within the whole assemblage of seed predators (both pre and post-dispersal and in two contrasting microsites (open vs. sheltered to improve our understanding of the factors controlling seed predation in a wind-dispersed tree (Ulmus laevis. In years with larger crop sizes more avian seed predators were attracted with an increase in the proportion of full seeds predated on the ground. However, for abundant crops, the presence of empty seeds decreased the proportion of full seeds predated. Empty seeds remained for a very long period in the tree, making location of full seeds more difficult for pre-dispersal predators and expanding the overall seed drop period at a very low cost (in dry biomass and allocation of C, N and P. Parthenocarpy (non-fertilized seeds was the main cause of seed emptiness whereas seed abortion was produced in low quantity. These aborted seeds fell prematurely and, thus, could not work as deceptive seeds. A proportion of 50% empty seeds significantly reduced ground seed predation by 26%. However, a high rate of parthenocarpy (beyond 50% empty seeds did not significantly reduce seed predation in comparison to 50% empty seeds. We also found a high variability and unpredictability in the production of empty seeds, both at tree and population level, making predator deception more effective. Open areas were especially important to facilitate seed survival since rodents (the main post-dispersal predators consumed seeds mostly under shrub cover. In elm trees parthenocarpy is a common event that might work as an adaptive strategy to reduce seed predation. Masting per se did not apparently reduce the overall proportion of seeds predated in this wind-dispersed tree, but kept great numbers of seeds unconsumed.

  8. Empty seeds are not always bad: simultaneous effect of seed emptiness and masting on animal seed predation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Ramón; Venturas, Martin; Gil, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Seed masting and production of empty seeds have often been considered independently as different strategies to reduce seed predation by animals. Here, we integrate both phenomena within the whole assemblage of seed predators (both pre and post-dispersal) and in two contrasting microsites (open vs. sheltered) to improve our understanding of the factors controlling seed predation in a wind-dispersed tree (Ulmus laevis). In years with larger crop sizes more avian seed predators were attracted with an increase in the proportion of full seeds predated on the ground. However, for abundant crops, the presence of empty seeds decreased the proportion of full seeds predated. Empty seeds remained for a very long period in the tree, making location of full seeds more difficult for pre-dispersal predators and expanding the overall seed drop period at a very low cost (in dry biomass and allocation of C, N and P). Parthenocarpy (non-fertilized seeds) was the main cause of seed emptiness whereas seed abortion was produced in low quantity. These aborted seeds fell prematurely and, thus, could not work as deceptive seeds. A proportion of 50% empty seeds significantly reduced ground seed predation by 26%. However, a high rate of parthenocarpy (beyond 50% empty seeds) did not significantly reduce seed predation in comparison to 50% empty seeds. We also found a high variability and unpredictability in the production of empty seeds, both at tree and population level, making predator deception more effective. Open areas were especially important to facilitate seed survival since rodents (the main post-dispersal predators) consumed seeds mostly under shrub cover. In elm trees parthenocarpy is a common event that might work as an adaptive strategy to reduce seed predation. Masting per se did not apparently reduce the overall proportion of seeds predated in this wind-dispersed tree, but kept great numbers of seeds unconsumed.

  9. Common approach to common interests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    In referring to issues confronting the energy field in this region and options to be exercised in the future, I would like to mention the fundamental condition of the utmost importance. That can be summed up as follows: any subject in energy area can never be solved by one country alone, given the geographical and geopolitical characteristics intrinsically possessed by energy. So, a regional approach is needed and it is especially necessary for the main players in the region to jointly address problems common to them. Though it may be a matter to be pursued in the distant future, I am personally dreaming a 'Common Energy Market for Northeast Asia,' in which member countries' interests are adjusted so that the market can be integrated and the region can become a most economically efficient market, thus formulating an effective power to encounter the outside. It should be noted that Europe needed forty years to integrate its market as the unified common market. It is necessary for us to follow a number of steps over the period to eventually materialize our common market concept, too. Now is the time for us to take a first step to lay the foundation for our descendants to enjoy prosperity from such a common market.

  10. Mastocytemia associated with a visceral mast cell tumor in a Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graille, Mélanie; Huyghe, François-Pierre; Nicolier, Alexandra

    2013-03-01

    A 6-yr-old male Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris) with no significant past clinical history was anesthetized for clinical examination after 5 days of lethargy. Clinically, the animal presented with anorexia, pale mucous membranes, and icterus. Hematologic results indicated moderate anemia and severe thrombocytopenia and showed a circulating population of atypical mast cells. The tiger died during anesthesia. On postmortem examination, abdominal hemorrhage associated with marked diffuse hepato-splenomegaly and mesenteric, hepatic, and splenic lymph node hypertrophy were observed. A visceral mast cell tumor was confirmed by histologic examination and toluidine blue staining, with splenic, hepatic, lymphoid, renal, and pulmonary infiltration. Hematologic, postmortem, and histologic findings were consistent with mastocytemia associated with the splenic form of mast cell tumor described in domestic cats.

  11. Energy metabolism in rat mast cells in relation to histamine secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, T

    1987-01-01

    of histamine was induced by the antigen-antibody reaction, the polymeric amine compound 48/80, and the divalent ionophore A23187. 2. In presence of low concentrations of metabolic inhibitors (oligomycin or antimycin A) a linear relation between the secretion of histamine induced by all three liberators...... and the cellular ATP content at the time of cell activation was demonstrated. This may indicate a direct link between ATP and the secretory mechanism. 3. The possibility of an increased utilization of ATP during histamine secretion was explored in mast cells exposed to metabolic inhibitors. Incubation of mast...... cells with 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) decreased the ATP content of the cells, and a long-lasting and stable level of mast cell ATP was observed. This is explained by a small decrease in the rate of ATP-synthesis by 2-DG. In 2-DG-treated cells secretion of histamine in response to compound 48...

  12. Modified Bismarck brown staining for demonstration of soft tissue mast cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Tomov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Bismarck brown staining is a suitable method for demonstration of mast cells in peripheral tissues. However, apart from the intensive color of the mast cell granules, almost no other structures are visible after this staining, which may compromise the results and discourage the investigator. In the present report, we validate the applicability of the Bismarck brown staining of soft tissue and introduce a modification of the method to improve the quality of the histological preparation. Counterstaining with haematoxylin produces specimens with superb contrast and high analytical value. We consider our method involving counterstaining to be superior to the classical Toluidine blue staining, because of the greater contrast of mast cells, which makes evaluation easier, while the preparations are suitable for automated image analysis as well

  13. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate interferes with mast cell adhesiveness, migration and its potential to recruit monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melgarejo, E; Medina, M A; Sánchez-Jiménez, F; Botana, L M; Domínguez, M; Escribano, L; Orfao, A; Urdiales, J L

    2007-10-01

    Mast cells are multipotent effector cells of the immune system. They are able to induce and enhance angiogenesis via multiple pathways. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major component of green tea and a putative chemopreventive agent, was reported to inhibit tumor invasion and angiogenesis, processes that are essential for tumor growth and metastasis. Using the human mast cell line HMC-1 and commercial cDNA macroarrays, we evaluated the effect of EGCG on the expression of angiogenesis-related genes. Our data show that among other effects, EGCG treatment reduces expression of two integrins (alpha5 and beta3) and a chemokine (MCP1), resulting in a lower adhesion of mast cells associated with a decreased potential to produce signals eliciting monocyte recruitment. These effects on gene expression levels are functionally validated by showing inhibitory effects in adhesion, aggregation, migration and recruitment assays.

  14. A compact, smart Langmuir Probe control module for MAST-Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, J.; Stephen, R.; Bray, S.; Naylor, G.; Elmore, S.; Willett, H.; Peterka, M.; Dimitrova, M.; Havranek, A.; Hron, M.; Sharples, R.

    2017-11-01

    A new control module for the MAST-Upgrade Langmuir Probe system has been developed. It is based on a Xilinx Zynq FPGA, which allows for excellent configurability and ease of retrieving data. The module is capable of arbitrary bias voltage waveform generation, and digitises current and voltage readings from 16 probes. The probes are biased and measured one at a time in a time multiplexed fashion, with the multiplexing sequence completely configurable. In addition, simultaneous digitisation of the floating potential of all unbiased probes is possible. A suite of these modules, each coupled with a high voltage amplifier, enables biasing and digitisation of 640 Langmuir Probes in the MAST-Upgrade Super-X divertor. The system has been successfully tested on the York Linear Plasma Device and on the COMPASS tokamak. It will be installed on MAST-Upgrade ready for operations in 2018.

  15. Chronic mast cell leukemia: a novel leukemia-variant with distinct morphological and clinical features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valent, Peter; Sotlar, Karl; Sperr, Wolfgang R; Reiter, Andreas; Arock, Michel; Horny, Hans-Peter

    2015-01-01

    Mast cell leukemia (MCL) is a rare form of systemic mastocytosis characterized by leukemic expansion of mostly immature mast cells, organ damage, drug-resistance, and a poor prognosis. Even when treated with chemotherapy, most patients have a life-expectancy of less than one year. However, there are rare patients with MCL in whom the condition is less aggressive and does not cause organ damage within a short time. In these patients, mast cells exhibit a more mature morphology when compared to acute MCL. A recently proposed classification suggests that these cases are referred to as chronic MCL. In the present article, we discuss clinical, histopathological and morphological aspects of acute and chronic MCL. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Tec family kinases: regulation of FcεRI-mediated mast-cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellmeier, Wilfried; Abramova, Anastasia; Schebesta, Alexandra

    2011-06-01

    Mast cells express the high-affinity receptor for IgE (FcεRI) and are key players in type I hypersensitivity reactions. They are critically involved in the development of allergic rhinitis, allergic asthma and systemic anaphylaxis, however, they also regulate normal physiological processes that link innate and adaptive immune responses. Thus, their activation has to be tightly controlled. One group of signaling molecules that are activated upon FcεRI stimulation is formed by Tec family kinases, and three members of this kinase family (Btk, Itk and Tec) are expressed in mast cells. Many studies have revealed important functions of Tec kinases in signaling pathways downstream of the antigen receptors in lymphocytes. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the function of Tec family kinases in FcεRI-mediated signaling pathways in mast cell. © 2011 The Authors Journal compilation © 2011 FEBS.

  17. Drag coefficients of lattice masts from full-scale wind-tunnel tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgakis, Christos; Støttrup-Andersen, Ulrik; Johnsen, Marie

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the drag coefficients obtained from a series of full-scale section model wind-tunnel tests of several lattice mast configurations are presented and compared to those provided in Eurocode 3 and ESDU. The drag coefficients provided in Eurocode are conservative interpretations of 1......:5 scale section model tests performed at the National Physics Laboratory and the National Maritime Institute in the UK in the 1970´s. ESDU provides velocity-dependent drag coefficients equivalent to those obtained from the same series of tests. In all cases, the mast legs and diagonals are comprised...... primarily of circular hollow sections, putting into question the validity of the scaled tests from the 70’s. The results of the full-scale tests show that the drag coefficients of the masts have lower values than those obtained from the scaled tests for turbulent wind and higher for winds with low...

  18. A comparative study of the FcepsilonRI molecule on human mast cell and basophil cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bettina Margrethe; Dissing, S; Skov, P S

    2005-01-01

    Mast cells and basophils express the high-affinity IgE receptor FcepsilonRI. We have analysed the human mast cell line LAD2 and four subclones of the basophil cell line KU812 in order to reveal possible differences concerning the FcepsilonRI surface regulation, anti-IgE-triggered activation...

  19. The mast cell stabiliser ketotifen decreases visceral hypersensitivity and improves intestinal symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klooker, Tamira K.; Braak, Breg; Koopman, Karin E.; Welting, Olaf; Wouters, Mira M.; van der Heide, Sicco; Schemann, Michael; Bischoff, Stephan C.; van den Wijngaard, Rene M.; Boeckxstaens, Guy E.

    Background Mast cell activation is thought to be involved in visceral hypersensitivity, one of the main characteristics of the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). A study was therefore undertaken to investigate the effect of the mast cell stabiliser ketotifen on rectal sensitivity and symptoms in

  20. Effects of low-level laser therapy on mast cell number and degranulation in third-degree burns of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, Mohammad; Vasheghani, Mohammad Mehdi; Razavie, Naser; Jalili, Mohammad Reza

    2008-01-01

    Mast cells have been shown to participate in the wound healing process. We investigated the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on mast cell number in the inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling phases of the wound healing process of experimental burns. Sixty rats subjected to third-degree burns were divided into four groups: two laser-treated, one control, and one nitrofurazone-treated group. In the two laser-treated groups, burned areas received LLLT with a helium-neon laser at energy densities of 38.2 J/cm(2) and 76.4 J/cm(2), respectively. The effects on mast cell number and degranulation were assessed 7, 16, and 30 days postburn (inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling phases of wound healing, respectively). Intact and degranulated mast cells were counted. Five rats with no burns were used for baseline studies. On day 7 in the first laser group, the total number of mast cells was significantly higher than in the other groups. On day 16 in the nitrofurazone-treated group, the total number of mast cells was significantly higher than in the control, first laser, and normal groups. LLLT on the experimental third-degree burns significantly increased the total number of mast cells during the inflammation phase of wound healing; also, topical application of 0.2% nitrofurazone ointment on the same burns significantly increased the total number of mast cells during the proliferation phase of burn healing.

  1. Comparing the Effect of Pentoxifylline Administration on Mast Cells Maturing Process in a Diabetic and Normoglycemic Rat Wound Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Babaei

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wound healing is a complicated process that is influenced by many factors. Studies at molecular level on human and animal models have revealed several molecular changes related to the effect of diabetes on wound healing process. Increasing number of researches implicates the influence of mast cells on skin wounds healing. The present experimental study was conducted to compare systemic pentoxifylline administration on maturing process of mast cells during skin wound healing in diabetic and normoglycemic rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 48 wistar rats were divided into 2 groups of normoglycemic and diabetic and each group was divided into experimental and control. Experimental group received intraperitoneal (25 mg/kg twice a day and control group received distilled water. The number of mast cells and their maturing process was evaluated by microscopically counting of the types of mast cells (types 1, 2, 3 by stereological methods on day 3 and 7 after surgery. Results: In all experimental groups receiving pentoxifylline there were significant difference in the number of total mast cells, comparing normoglycemic groups (p<0.05 and also we found that in wound healing process pentoxifylline caused increasing the number of type 2 mast cells in all experimental groups (p<0.05. Conclusion: In all pentoxifylline treated groups delay in converting type 2 into type 3 mast cell was seen. Pentoxifylline causes decreasing mast cell degranulation during wound healing process.

  2. The mast cell stabiliser ketotifen decreases visceral hypersensitivity and improves intestinal symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klooker, T.K.; Braak, B.; Koopman, K.E.; Welting, O.; Wouters, M.M.; van der Heide, S.; Schemann, M.; Bischoff, S.C.; van den Wijngaard, R.M.; Boeckxstaens, G.E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Mast cell activation is thought to be involved in visceral hypersensitivity, one of the main characteristics of the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). A study was therefore undertaken to investigate the effect of the mast cell stabiliser ketotifen on rectal sensitivity and symptoms in

  3. Refined diagnostic criteria and classification of mast cell leukemia (MCL) and myelomastocytic leukemia (MML) : a consensus proposal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valent, P.; Sotlar, K.; Sperr, W. R.; Escribano, L.; Yavuz, S.; Reiter, A.; George, T. I.; Kluin-Nelemans, H. C.; Hermine, O.; Butterfield, J. H.; Hagglund, H.; Ustun, C.; Hornick, J. L.; Triggiani, M.; Radia, D.; Akin, C.; Hartmann, K.; Gotlib, J.; Schwartz, L. B.; Verstovsek, S.; Orfao, A.; Metcalfe, D. D.; Arock, M.; Horny, H. -P.

    Mast cell leukemia (MCL), the leukemic manifestation of systemic mastocytosis (SM), is characterized by leukemic expansion of immature mast cells (MCs) in the bone marrow (BM) and other internal organs; and a poor prognosis. In a subset of patients, circulating MCs are detectable. A major

  4. Adenosine triphosphate levels during anaphylactic histamine release in rat mast cells in vitro. Effects of glycolytic and respiratory inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Torben

    1979-01-01

    The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content of rat mast cells was studied during and after anaphylactic histamine release. The almost identical time course of ATP decrease from mast cells treated with either glycolytic or respiratory inhibitors supports the view that the ATP depletion was largely re...

  5. The mast cell degranulator compound 48/80 directly activates neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schemann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Compound 48/80 is widely used in animal and tissue models as a "selective" mast cell activator. With this study we demonstrate that compound 48/80 also directly activates enteric neurons and visceral afferents. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used in vivo recordings from extrinsic intestinal afferents together with Ca(++ imaging from primary cultures of DRG and nodose neurons. Enteric neuronal activation was examined by Ca(++ and voltage sensitive dye imaging in isolated gut preparations and primary cultures of enteric neurons. Intraluminal application of compound 48/80 evoked marked afferent firing which desensitized on subsequent administration. In egg albumen-sensitized animals, intraluminal antigen evoked a similar pattern of afferent activation which also desensitized on subsequent exposure to antigen. In cross-desensitization experiments prior administration of compound 48/80 failed to influence the mast cell mediated response. Application of 1 and 10 µg/ml compound 48/80 evoked spike discharge and Ca(++ transients in enteric neurons. The same nerve activating effect was observed in primary cultures of DRG and nodose ganglion cells. Enteric neuron cultures were devoid of mast cells confirmed by negative staining for c-kit or toluidine blue. In addition, in cultured enteric neurons the excitatory action of compound 48/80 was preserved in the presence of histamine H(1 and H(2 antagonists. The mast cell stabilizer cromolyn attenuated compound 48/80 and nicotine evoked Ca(++ transients in mast cell-free enteric neuron cultures. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results showed direct excitatory action of compound 48/80 on enteric neurons and visceral afferents. Therefore, functional changes measured in tissue or animal models may involve a mast cell independent effect of compound 48/80 and cromolyn.

  6. The role of mast cells and fibre type in ischaemia reperfusion injury of murine skeletal muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bortolotto Susan K

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ischaemia reperfusion (IR injury of skeletal muscle, is a significant cause of morbidity following trauma and surgical procedures, in which muscle fibre types exhibit different susceptibilities. The relative degree of mast cell mediated injury, within different muscle types, is not known. Methods In this study we compared susceptibility of the fast-twitch, extensor digitorum longus (EDL, mixed fast/slow-twitch gastrocnemius and the predominately slow-twitch soleus, muscles to ischemia reperfusion (IR injury in four groups of mice that harbour different mast cell densities; C57/DBA mast cell depleted (Wf/Wf, their heterozygous (Wf/+ and normal littermates (+/+ and control C57BL/6 mice. We determined whether susceptibility to IR injury is associated with mast cell content and/or fibre type and/or mouse strain. In experimental groups, the hind limbs of mice were subjected to 70 minutes warm tourniquet ischemia, followed by 24 h reperfusion, and the muscle viability was assessed on fresh whole-mount slices by the nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT histochemical assay. Results Viability was remarkably higher in the Wf/Wf strain irrespective of muscle type. With respect to muscle type, the predominately slow-twitch soleus muscle was significantly more resistant to IR injury than gastrocnemius and the EDL muscles in all groups. Mast cell density was inversely correlated to muscle viability in all types of muscle. Conclusion These results show that in skeletal muscle, IR injury is dependent upon both the presence of mast cells and on fibre type and suggest that a combination of preventative therapies may need to be implemented to optimally protect muscles from IR injury.

  7. Stimulated human mast cells secrete mitochondrial components that have autocrine and paracrine inflammatory actions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodi Zhang

    Full Text Available Mast cells are hematopoietically-derived tissue immune cells that participate in acquired and innate immunity, as well as in inflammation through release of many chemokines and cytokines, especially in response to the pro-inflammatory peptide substance P (SP. Inflammation is critical in the pathogenesis of many diseases, but the trigger(s is often unknown. We investigated if mast cell stimulation leads to secretion of mitochondrial components and whether these could elicit autocrine and/or paracrine inflammatory effects. Here we show that human LAD2 mast cells stimulated by IgE/anti-IgE or by the SP led to secretion of mitochondrial particles, mitochondrial (mt mtDNA and ATP without cell death. Mitochondria purified from LAD2 cells and, when mitochondria added to mast cells trigger degranulation and release of histamine, PGD(2, IL-8, TNF, and IL-1β. This stimulatory effect is partially inhibited by an ATP receptor antagonist and by DNAse. These results suggest that the mitochondrial protein fraction may also contribute. Purified mitochondria also stimulate IL-8 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF release from cultured human keratinocytes, and VEGF release from primary human microvascular endothelial cells. In order to investigate if mitochondrial components could be secreted in vivo, we injected rats intraperiotoneally (ip with compound 48/80, which mimicks the action of SP. Peritoneal mast cells degranulated and mitochondrial particles were documented by transimission electron microscopy outside the cells. We also wished to investigate if mitochondrial components secreted locally could reach the systemic circulation. Administration ip of mtDNA isolated from LAD2 cells in rats was detected in their serum within 4 hr, indicating that extravascular mtDNA could enter the systemic circulation. Secretion of mitochondrial components from stimulated live mast cells may act as "autopathogens" contributing to the pathogenesis of inflammatory

  8. Mast cells dysregulate apoptotic and cell cycle genes in mucosal squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Paul

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mucosal squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck is a disease of high mortality and morbidity. Interactions between the squamous cell carcinoma and the host's local immunity, and how the latter contributes to the biological behavior of the tumor are unclear. In vivo studies have demonstrated sequential mast cell infiltration and degranulation during squamous cell carcinogenesis. The degree of mast cell activation correlates closely with distinct phases of hyperkeratosis, dysplasia, carcinoma in-situ and invasive carcinoma. However, the role of mast cells in carcinogenesis is unclear. Aim This study explores the effects of mast cells on the proliferation and gene expression profile of mucosal squamous cell carcinoma using human mast cell line (HMC-1 and human glossal squamous cell carcinoma cell line (SCC25. Methods HMC-1 and SCC25 were co-cultured in a two-compartment chamber, separated by a polycarbonate membrane. HMC-1 was stimulated to degranulate with calcium ionophore A23187. The experiments were done in quadruplicate. Negative controls were established where SCC25 were cultured alone without HMC-1. At 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours, proliferation and viability of SCC25 were assessed with MTT colorimetric assay. cDNA microarray was employed to study differential gene expression between co-cultured and control SCC25. Results HMC-1/SCC25 co-culture resulted in suppression of growth rate for SCC-25 (34% compared with 110% for the control by 72 hours, p Conclusion We show that mast cells have a direct inhibitory effect on the proliferation of mucosal squamous cell carcinoma in vitro by dysregulating key genes in apoptosis and cell cycle control.

  9. VEGF secretion during hypoxia depends on free radicals-induced Fyn kinase activity in mast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Roman, Jonathan; Ibarra-Sanchez, Alfredo; Lamas, Monica; Gonzalez Espinosa, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) secrete functional VEGF but do not degranulate after Cobalt chloride-induced hypoxia. → CoCl 2 -induced VEGF secretion in mast cells occurs by a Ca 2+ -insensitive but brefeldin A and Tetanus toxin-sensitive mechanism. → Trolox and N-acetylcysteine inhibit hypoxia-induced VEGF secretion but only Trolox inhibits FcεRI-dependent anaphylactic degranulation in mast cells. → Src family kinase Fyn activation after free radical production is necessary for hypoxia-induced VEGF secretion in mast cells. -- Abstract: Mast cells (MC) have an important role in pathologic conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), where hypoxia conduce to deleterious inflammatory response. MC contribute to hypoxia-induced angiogenesis producing factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), but the mechanisms behind the control of hypoxia-induced VEGF secretion in this cell type is poorly understood. We used the hypoxia-mimicking agent cobalt chloride (CoCl 2 ) to analyze VEGF secretion in murine bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs). We found that CoCl 2 promotes a sustained production of functional VEGF, able to induce proliferation of endothelial cells in vitro. CoCl 2 -induced VEGF secretion was independent of calcium rise but dependent on tetanus toxin-sensitive vesicle-associated membrane proteins (VAMPs). VEGF exocytosis required free radicals formation and the activation of Src family kinases. Interestingly, an important deficiency on CoCl 2 -induced VEGF secretion was observed in Fyn kinase-deficient BMMCs. Moreover, Fyn kinase was activated by CoCl 2 in WT cells and this activation was prevented by treatment with antioxidants such as Trolox and N-acetylcysteine. Our results show that BMMCs are able to release VEGF under hypoxic conditions through a tetanus toxin-sensitive mechanism, promoted by free radicals-dependent Fyn kinase activation.

  10. VEGF secretion during hypoxia depends on free radicals-induced Fyn kinase activity in mast cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Roman, Jonathan; Ibarra-Sanchez, Alfredo; Lamas, Monica [Departamento de Farmacobiologia, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN (Cinvestav, IPN) (Mexico); Gonzalez Espinosa, Claudia, E-mail: cgonzal@cinvestav.mx [Departamento de Farmacobiologia, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN (Cinvestav, IPN) (Mexico)

    2010-10-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) secrete functional VEGF but do not degranulate after Cobalt chloride-induced hypoxia. {yields} CoCl{sub 2}-induced VEGF secretion in mast cells occurs by a Ca{sup 2+}-insensitive but brefeldin A and Tetanus toxin-sensitive mechanism. {yields} Trolox and N-acetylcysteine inhibit hypoxia-induced VEGF secretion but only Trolox inhibits Fc{epsilon}RI-dependent anaphylactic degranulation in mast cells. {yields} Src family kinase Fyn activation after free radical production is necessary for hypoxia-induced VEGF secretion in mast cells. -- Abstract: Mast cells (MC) have an important role in pathologic conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), where hypoxia conduce to deleterious inflammatory response. MC contribute to hypoxia-induced angiogenesis producing factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), but the mechanisms behind the control of hypoxia-induced VEGF secretion in this cell type is poorly understood. We used the hypoxia-mimicking agent cobalt chloride (CoCl{sub 2}) to analyze VEGF secretion in murine bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs). We found that CoCl{sub 2} promotes a sustained production of functional VEGF, able to induce proliferation of endothelial cells in vitro. CoCl{sub 2}-induced VEGF secretion was independent of calcium rise but dependent on tetanus toxin-sensitive vesicle-associated membrane proteins (VAMPs). VEGF exocytosis required free radicals formation and the activation of Src family kinases. Interestingly, an important deficiency on CoCl{sub 2}-induced VEGF secretion was observed in Fyn kinase-deficient BMMCs. Moreover, Fyn kinase was activated by CoCl{sub 2} in WT cells and this activation was prevented by treatment with antioxidants such as Trolox and N-acetylcysteine. Our results show that BMMCs are able to release VEGF under hypoxic conditions through a tetanus toxin-sensitive mechanism, promoted by free radicals

  11. 4-Chlorotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline inhibits activation of Syk kinase to suppress mast cells in vitro and mast cell-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kui Lea [Center for Drug Development Assistance, National Institute of Food Drug Safety Evaluation (NIFDS), KFDA, Cheongwon-gun (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Na Young; Lee, Jun Ho; Kim, Do Kyun; Kim, Hyuk Soon; Kim, A-Ram; Her, Erk; Kim, Bokyung [Department of Immunology and physiology, College of Medicine, Konkuk University, Chungju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyung Sik [College of Pharmacy, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Eun-Yi [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, College of Biological Science, Sejong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Mi [College of Pharmacy, Duksung Women' s University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hang-Rae, E-mail: hangrae2@snu.ac.kr [Department of Anatomy, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Wahn Soo, E-mail: wahnchoi@kku.ac.kr [Department of Immunology and physiology, College of Medicine, Konkuk University, Chungju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    4-Chlorotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline is a quinoxaline derivative. We aimed to study the effects of 4-chlorotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline on activation of mast cells in vitro and in mice. 4-Chlorotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline reversibly inhibited degranulation of mast cells in a dose-dependent manner, and also suppressed the expression and secretion of TNF-{alpha} and IL-4 in mast cells. Mechanistically, 4-chlorotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline inhibited activating phosphorylation of Syk and LAT, which are crucial for early Fc{epsilon}RI-mediated signaling events, as well as Akt and MAP kinases, which play essential roles in the production of various pro-inflammatory cytokines in mast cells. Notably, although 4-chlorotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline inhibited the activation of Fyn and Syk, minimal inhibition was observed in mast cells in the case of Lyn. Furthermore, consistent with its in vitro activity, 4-chlorotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline significantly suppressed mast cell-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in mice. In summary, the results from this study demonstrate that 4-chlorotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline shows an inhibitory effect on mast cells in vitro and in vivo, and that this is mediated by inhibiting the activation of Syk in mast cells. Therefore, 4-chlorotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline could be useful in the treatment of mast cell-mediated allergic diseases. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 4-chlorotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline is a quinoxaline derivative. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of 4-chlorotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline on mast cells was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 4-chlorotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline reversibly inhibited Syk activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 4-chlorotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline could be useful for IgE-mediated allergy.

  12. 4-Chlorotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline inhibits activation of Syk kinase to suppress mast cells in vitro and mast cell-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kui Lea; Ko, Na Young; Lee, Jun Ho; Kim, Do Kyun; Kim, Hyuk Soon; Kim, A-Ram; Her, Erk; Kim, Bokyung; Kim, Hyung Sik; Moon, Eun-Yi; Kim, Young Mi; Kim, Hang-Rae; Choi, Wahn Soo

    2011-01-01

    4-Chlorotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline is a quinoxaline derivative. We aimed to study the effects of 4-chlorotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline on activation of mast cells in vitro and in mice. 4-Chlorotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline reversibly inhibited degranulation of mast cells in a dose-dependent manner, and also suppressed the expression and secretion of TNF-α and IL-4 in mast cells. Mechanistically, 4-chlorotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline inhibited activating phosphorylation of Syk and LAT, which are crucial for early FcεRI-mediated signaling events, as well as Akt and MAP kinases, which play essential roles in the production of various pro-inflammatory cytokines in mast cells. Notably, although 4-chlorotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline inhibited the activation of Fyn and Syk, minimal inhibition was observed in mast cells in the case of Lyn. Furthermore, consistent with its in vitro activity, 4-chlorotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline significantly suppressed mast cell-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in mice. In summary, the results from this study demonstrate that 4-chlorotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline shows an inhibitory effect on mast cells in vitro and in vivo, and that this is mediated by inhibiting the activation of Syk in mast cells. Therefore, 4-chlorotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline could be useful in the treatment of mast cell-mediated allergic diseases. -- Highlights: ► 4-chlorotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline is a quinoxaline derivative. ► The effect of 4-chlorotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline on mast cells was investigated. ► 4-chlorotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline reversibly inhibited Syk activation. ► 4-chlorotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline could be useful for IgE-mediated allergy.

  13. Accuracy Verification of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Technology for Lower-Limb Prosthetic Research: Utilising Animal Soft Tissue Specimen and Common Socket Casting Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Safari, Mohammad Reza; Rowe, Philip; Buis, Arjan

    2012-01-01

    Lower limb prosthetic socket shape and volume consistency can be quantified using MRI technology. Additionally, MRI images of the residual limb could be used as an input data for CAD-CAM technology and finite element studies. However, the accuracy of MRI when socket casting materials are used has to be defined. A number of six, 46 mm thick, cross-sections of an animal leg were used. Three specimens were wrapped with Plaster of Paris (POP) and the other three with commercially available silico...

  14. Utilization of adenosine triphosphate in rat mast cells during histamine release induced by the ionophore A23187

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Torben

    1979-01-01

    The role of endogenous adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in histamine release from rat mast cells induced by the ionophore A23187 in vitro has been studied. 2 The amount of histamine released by calcium from rat mast cells primed with the ionophore A23187 was dependent on the ATP content of the mast...... cells. 3 In aerobic experiments a drastic reduction in mast cell ATP content was found during the time when histamine release induced by A23187 takes place. 4 Anaerobic experiments were performed with metabolic inhibitors (antimycin A, oligomycin, and carbonyl cyanide p...... The observations are consistent with the view that energy requiring processes are involved in ionophore-induced histamine release from rat mast cells although part of the ATP reduction in the aerobic experiments may be due to an uncoupling effect of calcium on the oxidative phosphorylation....

  15. Psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST-C) for patients with alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, Yu-Jung; Chu, Hsin; Huang, Chang-Chih; Ou, Keng-Liang; Chen, Chiung-Hua; Chou, Kuei-Ru

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST-C). The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for the MAST-C were examined in this study. The MAST-C had an internal consistency of 0.83 and a test-retest reliability of 0.89. It had a good content validity index of 0.92. Factor analysis identified four factors and the optimal cutoff point for the MAST-C was a score of 6/7, which yielded a sensitivity of 0.92, a specificity of 0.83, a positive predictive value of 0.92, and a negative predictive value of 0.83. The MAST-C provides a fast, accurate, and sensitive method for clinically diagnosing alcoholism and clinical management. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Identification of microRNAs regulating the developmental pathways of bone marrow derived mast cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xiang

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs play important roles in leukocyte differentiation, although those utilised for specific programs and key functions remain incompletely characterised. As a global approach to gain insights into the potential regulatory role of miRNA in mast cell differentiation we characterised expression in BM cultures from the initiation of differentiation. In cultures enriched in differentiating mast cells we characterised miRNA expression and identified miRNA targeting the mRNA of putative factors involved in differentiation pathways and cellular identity. Detailed pathway analysis identified a unique miRNA network that is intimately linked to the mast cell differentiation program.We identified 86 unique miRNAs with expression patterns that were up- or down- regulated at 5-fold or more during bone marrow derived mast cells (BMMC development. By employing TargetScan and MeSH databases, we identified 524 transcripts involved in 30 canonical pathways as potentially regulated by these specific 86 miRNAs. Furthermore, by applying miRanda and IPA analyses, we predict that 7 specific miRNAs of this group are directly associated with the expression of c-Kit and FcεRIα and likewise, that 18 miRNAs promote expression of Mitf, GATA1 and c/EBPα three core transcription factors that direct mast cell differentiation. Furthermore, we have identified 11 miRNAs that may regulate the expression of STATs-3, -5a/b, GATA2 and GATA3 during differentiation, along with 13 miRNAs that target transcripts encoding Ndst2, mMCP4 and mMCP6 and thus may regulate biosynthesis of mast cell secretory mediators.This investigation characterises changes in miRNA expression in whole BM cultures during the differentiation of mast cells and predicts functional links between miRNAs and their target mRNAs for the regulation of development. This information provides an important resource for further investigations of the contributions of miRNAs to mast cell differentiation and

  17. Estimation of Cable Forces of a Guyed Mast from Dynamic Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Hansen, Lars Pilegaard

    This paper presents how the tension forces in the cables of a 200 m. high guyed mast have been estimated from natural frequencies obtained from acceleration measurements.The mast is guyed at five levels with three guys at 120 degree intervals at each level. The accelerations in three directions...... were measured in five cables. The relationship between frequencies and cable forces have been establish assuming the cables to behave in linear manner. The results show that estimated cables forces correspond very well to the expected. The results obtained showed that it was possible to obtain reliable...... estimates for cables forces based on measured natural frequencies....

  18. Clock-dependent temporal regulation of IL-33/ST2-mediated mast cell response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawauchi, Takahiro; Ishimaru, Kayoko; Nakamura, Yuki; Nakano, Nobuhiro; Hara, Mutsuko; Ogawa, Hideoki; Okumura, Ko; Shibata, Shigenobu; Nakao, Atsuhito

    2017-07-01

    Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is an alarmin cytokine that binds to the interleukin 1 receptor-like 1 protein ST2. Clock is a key circadian gene that is essential for endogenous clockworks in mammals. This study investigated whether Clock temporally regulated IL-33-mediated responses in mast cells. The kinetics of IL-33-mediated IL-6, IL-13, and TNF-α productions were compared between bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) from wild-type and Clock-mutated mice (Clock Δ19/Δ19 mice). The kinetics of the neutrophil influx into the peritoneal cavity or expression of IL-13 and Gob-5 in the lung in response to IL-33 were compared between wild-type and Clock Δ19/Δ19 mice. We also examined the kinetics of ST2 expression in mast cells and its association with Clock expression. There was a time-of-day-dependent variation in IL-33-mediated IL-6, IL-13, and TNF-α production in wild-type BMMCs, which was absent in Clock-mutated BMMCs. IL-33-induced neutrophil infiltration into the peritoneal cavity also showed a time-of-day-dependent variation in wild-type mice, which was absent in Clock Δ19/Δ19 mice. Furthermore, IL-33-induced IL-13 and Gob-5 expression in the lung exhibited a time-of-day-dependent variation in wild-type mice. These temporal variations in IL-33-mediated mast cell responses were associated with temporal variations of ST2 expression in mast cells. In addition, CLOCK bound to the promoter region of ST2 and Clock deletion resulted in down-regulation of ST2 expression in mast cells. CLOCK temporally gates mast cell responses to IL-33 via regulation of ST2 expression. Our findings provide novel insights into IL-33/mast cell-associated physiology and pathologies. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), nocodazole, and taxol on mast cell histamine secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, E H; Johansen, Torben

    1986-01-01

    Nocodazole depolymerized microtubules and increased the number of microfilaments, and dimethylsulfoxide increased the number of microfilaments. Both drugs inhibited compound 48/80-induced histamine release from rat mast cells. Taxol, which increased the number of microtubules, had no effect...... on histamine release. These observations support the view that microtubules may not be directly involved in secretion, but apparently an increased number of microfilaments is associated with a decreased capacity of the mast cells for histamine release. We suggest that microfilaments have to be depolymerized...

  20. Reorganization of the subplasmalemmal cytoskeleton in association with exocytosis in rat mast cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, E H; Braun, K; Johansen, Torben

    1989-01-01

    The subplasmalemmal cytoskeleton in mast cells has been studied by scanning electron microscopy of the internal side of the plasma membrane. Rearrangement of the dense subplasmalemmal network of actin filaments took place following cell activation by compound 48/80 and secretion of histamine....... The rearrangement was a withdrawal of the subplasmalemmal cytoskeleton from the exocytotic sites and the development of bare, filament-free areas around the sites. In calcium-depleted mast cells we demonstrated a dense network that was difficult to break. Activation of the calcium-depleted cells by compound 48...

  1. Experimental and numerical characterization of the turbulence in the scrape-off layer of MAST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Militello, F.; Tamain, P.; Fundamenski, W.

    2013-01-01

    Numerical simulations of interchange turbulence in the scrape-off layer are performed in a regime relevant for a specific L-mode Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST) discharge. Such a discharge was diagnosed with a reciprocating arm equipped with a Gundestrup probe. A detailed comparison of the a......Numerical simulations of interchange turbulence in the scrape-off layer are performed in a regime relevant for a specific L-mode Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST) discharge. Such a discharge was diagnosed with a reciprocating arm equipped with a Gundestrup probe. A detailed comparison...

  2. Development of phytoplankton communities and common off-flavors in a biofloc technology system used for the culture of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of biofloc technology production systems continues to increase in the aquaculture industry worldwide. Recent research demonstrated that outdoor biofloc systems can be used to produce high yields of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). However, studies have not yet been performed to deter...

  3. Development of phytoplankton communities and common off-flavors in a biofloc technology system used to culture channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of biofloc technology production systems continues to increase in the aquaculture industry worldwide. Recent research demonstrated that outdoor biofloc systems can be used to produce high yields of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). However, studies have not yet been performed to deter...

  4. Protecting the health of the @hlete: how online technology may aid our common goal to prevent injury and illness in sport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, E.A.L.M.; Bolling, C.

    2015-01-01

    Online technology dominates our era and eHealth has become a reality for sports clinicians and researchers. Contemporary online platforms enable self-monitoring and provide tailored feedback to the different stakeholders who play a role in the health and care of athletes. Innovations such as digital

  5. Comparison between the concentration of mast cells and risk criteria of malignancy in intestinal adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Luz Custódio Camargo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal adenomas are benign neoplasms that present a risk of malignancy associated with three independent characteristics: the polyp size, the histological architecture and the severity of epithelial dysplasia (or atypia. Current evidence suggests that mast cells (CM contribute to the tumorigenesis of colorectal carcinomas. Objective: Compare the concentration of CM in intestinal adenomas and risk criteria for malignancy in these tumors (size, histological type and degree of cellular atypia. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study with 102 anatomopathological reports of intestinal adenoma excision. We selected paraffin blocks with the central area of the tumor. The CM were stained with toluidine blue. RESULTS: In most cases (89.2%, n=91, the mast cells concentration (MC was less than 6 CM/10 high power field (HPF (p=0.0001. Most adenomas, regardless of their histological type, showed 0 CM/10 HPF (p=0.083. In most adenomas, regardless of their size, MC was 0 CM/10 HPF (p=0.665. Presence or absence of atypia was associated, in most cases, with MC of 0 CM/10 HPF (p=0.524. Conclusion: This study did not show association between the MC and histological type, size or presence of atypical cells in intestinal adenomas.Adenomas intestinais são neoplasias benignas que apresentam risco de malignização relacionado a três características independentes: o tamanho do pólipo, a arquitetura histológica e a gravidade da displasia (ou atipia epitelial. Evidências atuais sugerem que os mastócitos contribuem para a tumorigênese do carcinoma colorretal. OBJETIVO: Analisar comparativamente a concentração de mastócitos em adenomas intestinais e os critérios de risco para malignização nesses tumores (tamanho, tipo histológico e grau de atipia celular. Métodos: Realizou-se um estudo retrospectivo, com seleção de 102 laudos anatomopatológicos de exérese de adenoma intestinal. Foram selecionados os blocos de parafina com a área central da

  6. Inhibition of IgE-dependent histamine release from human dispersed lung mast cells by anti-allergic drugs and salbutamol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, M K; Hiroi, J

    1987-02-01

    The ability of the anti-allergic drugs, sodium cromoglycate (SCG), lodoxamide, traxanox, RU31156 and the beta-adrenoceptor agonist salbutamol to inhibit IgE-dependent histamine and prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) release was assessed using human dispersed lung mast cells. The anti-allergic drugs were weak inhibitors of histamine release, high concentrations (100-1000 microM) producing less than 35% inhibition. Salbutamol produced 39% inhibition at 10 microM. The efficacy of both SCG and salbutamol was inversely related to the concentration of anti-IgE used for challenge and to the degree of histamine release. Rapid tachyphylaxis was observed with all anti-allergic drugs but not with salbutamol. Cross-tachyphylaxis was observed between SCG and the other anti-allergic drugs, suggesting a common mechanism of action. No cross-tachyphylaxis was observed between SCG and salbutamol. SCG was significantly (P less than 0.001) more effective in inhibiting PGD2 than it was histamine release. Preferential inhibition of PGD2 compared with histamine release was less marked (P less than 0.05) with salbutamol and not significant with the other anti-allergic drugs. Mast cells dispersed by enzymatic digestion of human lung released more histamine on immunological challenge than mechanically dispersed cells obtained by fine chopping of tissue. Enzyme treatment of mechanically dispersed cells removed this difference. Enzymatically and mechanically dispersed cells responded similarly to the inhibitory effects of SCG and salbutamol. Our results suggest that salbutamol is a more effective inhibitor of mediator release from human lung mast cells than anti-allergic drugs. However, with the low levels of mediator release achieved during an allergic reaction in man in vivo, both salbutamol and SCG are likely to be effective inhibitors of both preformed and newly generated mediators.

  7. Accuracy Verification of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI Technology for Lower-Limb Prosthetic Research: Utilising Animal Soft Tissue Specimen and Common Socket Casting Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Safari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lower limb prosthetic socket shape and volume consistency can be quantified using MRI technology. Additionally, MRI images of the residual limb could be used as an input data for CAD-CAM technology and finite element studies. However, the accuracy of MRI when socket casting materials are used has to be defined. A number of six, 46 mm thick, cross-sections of an animal leg were used. Three specimens were wrapped with Plaster of Paris (POP and the other three with commercially available silicone interface liner. Data was obtained by utilising MRI technology and then the segmented images compared to corresponding calliper measurement, photographic imaging, and water suspension techniques. The MRI measurement results were strongly correlated with actual diameter, surface area, and volume measurements. The results show that the selected scanning parameters and the semiautomatic segmentation method are adequate enough, considering the limit of clinical meaningful shape and volume fluctuation, for residual limb volume and the cross-sectional surface area measurements.

  8. Accuracy verification of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology for lower-limb prosthetic research: utilising animal soft tissue specimen and common socket casting materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Mohammad Reza; Rowe, Philip; Buis, Arjan

    2012-01-01

    Lower limb prosthetic socket shape and volume consistency can be quantified using MRI technology. Additionally, MRI images of the residual limb could be used as an input data for CAD-CAM technology and finite element studies. However, the accuracy of MRI when socket casting materials are used has to be defined. A number of six, 46 mm thick, cross-sections of an animal leg were used. Three specimens were wrapped with Plaster of Paris (POP) and the other three with commercially available silicone interface liner. Data was obtained by utilising MRI technology and then the segmented images compared to corresponding calliper measurement, photographic imaging, and water suspension techniques. The MRI measurement results were strongly correlated with actual diameter, surface area, and volume measurements. The results show that the selected scanning parameters and the semiautomatic segmentation method are adequate enough, considering the limit of clinical meaningful shape and volume fluctuation, for residual limb volume and the cross-sectional surface area measurements.

  9. Guiding device for a manipulator mast for internal inspection of a reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, W.; Schlueter, H.

    1977-01-01

    A remote-controlled supporting device centering a manipulator mast is described which is mounted and operated above a reactor pressure vessel under water in such a way that rotations and vertical movements necessary for the internal inspection of the pressure vessel remain possible. (RW) [de

  10. Oak mast production and animal impacts on acorn survival in the central hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth F. Kellner; Jeffery K. Riegel; Nathanael I. Lichti; Robert K. Swihart

    2013-01-01

    As part of the Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment we measured mast production in white (Quercus alba) and black (Q. velutina) oak, and quantified the impacts of seed predators on acorn survival over a 3-year period. Specifically, we measured the proportion of acorns of each species infested with weevils (Curculio spp...

  11. Drug hypersensitivity in clonal mast cell disorders : ENDA/EAACI position paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonadonna, P.; Pagani, M.; Aberer, W.; Bilo, M. B.; Brockow, K.; Elberink, H. Oude; Garvey, L.; Mosbech, H.; Romano, A.; Zanotti, R.; Torres, M. J.

    Mastocytosis is a clonal disorder characterized by the proliferation and accumulation of mast cells (MC) in different tissues, with a preferential localization in skin and bone marrow (BM). The excess of MC in mastocytosis as well as the increased releasability of MC may lead to a higher frequency

  12. High heat flux engineering for the upgraded neutral beam injection systems of MAST-U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhalla, F., E-mail: Fahim.dhalla@ccfe.ac.uk; Mistry, S.; Turner, I.; Barrett, T.R.; Day, I.; McAdams, R.

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A new Residual Ion Dump (RID) and bend magnet system for the upgraded NBI systems have been designed for the 5 s MAST-U pulse requirements. • Design scoping was performed using numerical ion-tracing analysis software (MAGNET and OPERA codes). • A more powerful bending magnet will separate the residual ions into full, half and third energy components. • Three separate CuCrZr dumps spread the power loading resulting in acceptable power footprints. • FE thermo-mechanical analyses using ANSYS to validate the designs against the ITER SDC-IC code. • New bend magnet coils, yoke and CuCrZr water-cooled plates are in the procurement phase. - Abstract: For the initial phase of MAST-U operation the two existing neutral beam injection systems will be used, but must be substantially upgraded to fulfil expected operational requirements. The major elements are the design, manufacture and installation of a bespoke bending magnet and Residual Ion Dump (RID) system. The MAST-design full energy dump is being replaced with new actively-cooled full, half and third energy dumps, designed to receive 2.4 MW of ion power deflected by an iron-cored electromagnet. The main design challenge is limited space available in the vacuum vessel, requiring ion-deflection calculations to ensure acceptable heat flux distribution on the dump panels. This paper presents engineering and physics analysis of the upgraded MAST beamlines and reports the current status of manufacture.

  13. Mast cell concentration and skin wound contraction in rats treated with Ximenia americana L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Souza Junior Neto, José de; Estevão, Lígia Reis de Moura; Baratella-Evêncio, Liriane; Vieira, Marcela Gabriela Feitosa; Simões, Ricardo Santos; Florencio-Silva, Rinaldo; Evêncio-Luz, Luís; Evêncio-Neto, Joaquim

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate wound contraction and the concentration of mast cells in skin wounds treated with wild plum (Ximenia americana) essential oil-based ointment in rats. Sixty rats were submitted to two cutaneous wounds in the thoracic region, on the right and left antimeres. Thereon, they were divided into three groups: GX (wounds treated once a day with hydro alcoholic branch extract of Ximenia americana), GP (wounds that received vehicle), and GC (wounds without product application). Wounds were measured immediately after the injury as well as 4, 7, 14 and 21 days post-topical application of the extract. At these days, five rats from each group were euthanatized. Thereafter, samples were fixed in 10% formaldehyde and processed for paraffin embedding. Sections were stained with H.E, Masson's Trichrome and toluidine blue for morphological, morphometrical and histopathological analysis, under light microscopy. The degree of epithelial contraction was measured and mast cell concentrations were also evaluated with an image analyzer (Image Pro-plus®software) . The extract treated group showed lower mast cell concentrations in the 4th day of lesion, as compared to GP (GX GP = GC; pamericana induces a decrease in mast cell concentration, at the beginning of the healing process, and promotes early skin wound contraction in rats.

  14. Effect of amiloride on arachidonic acid and histamine release from rat mast cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnebjerg, H.; Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of a putative Na/H exchange inhibition on histamine and [C]arachidonic acid ([C]AA) release has been examined in rat peritoneal mast cells, using either addition of amiloride or removal of extracellular Na. The cells were stimulated by non-immunological agents, i.e. calcium ionophore A...

  15. Sources and methods to reconstruct past masting patterns in European oak species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Szabó, Péter

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 4 (2012), s. 203-214 ISSN 0307-1375 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600050812 Grant - others:ERC - European Union(XE) FP7/2007-2013 ERC no. 278065 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : mast * oak * historical ecology Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  16. Prototype crawling robotics system for remote visual inspection of high-mast light poles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This report presents the results of a project to develop a crawling robotics system for the remote visual inspection of high-mast light poles in Virginia. The first priority of this study was to develop a simple robotics application that would reduce...

  17. Parasitic infection improves survival from septic peritonitis by enhancing mast cell responses to bacteria in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E Sutherland

    Full Text Available Mammals are serially infected with a variety of microorganisms, including bacteria and parasites. Each infection reprograms the immune system's responses to re-exposure and potentially alters responses to first-time infection by different microorganisms. To examine whether infection with a metazoan parasite modulates host responses to subsequent bacterial infection, mice were infected with the hookworm-like intestinal nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, followed in 2-4 weeks by peritoneal injection of the pathogenic bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae. Survival from Klebsiella peritonitis two weeks after parasite infection was better in Nippostrongylus-infected animals than in unparasitized mice, with Nippostrongylus-infected mice having fewer peritoneal bacteria, more neutrophils, and higher levels of protective interleukin 6. The improved survival of Nippostrongylus-infected mice depends on IL-4 because the survival benefit is lost in mice lacking IL-4. Because mast cells protect mice from Klebsiella peritonitis, we examined responses in mast cell-deficient Kit(W-sh/Kit(W-sh mice, in which parasitosis failed to improve survival from Klebsiella peritonitis. However, adoptive transfer of cultured mast cells to Kit(W-sh/Kit(W-sh mice restored survival benefits of parasitosis. These results show that recent infection with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis protects mice from Klebsiella peritonitis by modulating mast cell contributions to host defense, and suggest more generally that parasitosis can yield survival advantages to a bacterially infected host.

  18. Examining habituation and sensitization across repetitive laboratory stress inductions using the MAST

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quaedflieg, C.W.E.M.; Meyer, T.; Ruitenbeek, P. van; Smeets, T.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Reliably eliciting acute stress repeatedly over time is of indispensable value for research into stress vulnerability and for developing interventions aimed at increasing stress resiliency. Here, we evaluated whether the Maastricht Acute Stress Test (MAST), a potent stress protocol that combines

  19. Numerical investigation of Scrape Off Layer anomalous particle transport for MAST parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Militello, F.; Fundamenski, W.; Naulin, Volker

    2013-01-01

    Numerical simulations of L-mode plasma turbulence in the Scrape Off Layer of MAST are presented. Relevant features of the boundary plasma, such as the thickness of the density layer or the statistics of the fluctuations are related to the edge density and temperature, plasma current and parallel ...

  20. Pacific island 'Awa (Kava) extracts, but not isolated kavalactones, promote proinflammatory responses in model mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoda, Lori M N; Park, Christy; Stokes, Alexander J; Gomes, Henry Halenani; Turner, Helen

    2012-12-01

    Kava ('Awa) is a traditional water-based beverage in Pacific island communities, prepared from the ground root and stems of Piper methysticum. Kava use is associated with an ichthyotic dermatitis and delayed type hypersensitivity reactions. In the current study we collated preparative methodologies from cultural practitioners and recreational kava users in various Pacific communities. We standardized culturally informed aqueous extraction methods and prepared extracts that were subjected to basic physicochemical analysis. Mast cells exposed to these extracts displayed robust intracellular free calcium responses, and concomitant release of proinflammatory mediators. In contrast, mast cells were refractory to single or combinatorial stimulation with kavalactones, including methysticin, dihydromethysticin and kavain. Moreover, we reproduced a traditional modification of the kava preparation methodology, pre-mixing with the mucilage of Hibiscus tiliaceus, and observed its potentiating effect on the activity of aqueous extracts in mast cells. Taken together, these data indicate that water extractable active ingredients may play a role in the physiological and pathophysiological effects of kava, and suggests that mast cell activation may be a mechanistic component of kava-related skin inflammations. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Mast cell, the peculiar member of the immune system: A homeostatic aspect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csaba, György

    2015-09-01

    The mast cell is a member of the immune system having a basic role in allergic (anaphylactic) reactions. However, it contains, synthesizes, stores and secretes lots of substances, which initiates other reactions or participates in them. These are in connection with the deterioration of tissue correlation, as malignant tumors, angiogenesis, wound healing, pregnancy and different pathological conditions. In addition - as other members of the immune system - mast cells can synthesize, store and secrete hormones characteristic to the endocrine glands and can transport them to the site of requirement (packed transport), or produce and employ them locally. The effect of mast cells is controversial and frequently dual, stimulatory or inhibitory to the same organ or process. This is likely due to the heterogeneity of the mast cells, in morphology and cell content alike and dependent on the actual condition of the targeted tissue. The cells are transported in an unmatured form by the blood circulation and are exposed to microenvironmental effects, which influence their maturation. Their enrichment around tumors suggested using them as targets for tumor therapy more than fifty years ago (by the author), however, this idea lives its renaissance now. The review discusses the facts and ideas critically.

  2. Regulation of cytokine expression in mast cells: pro- and antiinflammatory potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olszewski, M.B.

    2007-01-01

    Mast cells are tissue-dwelling cells that are predominantly located at the interfaces of the organism and the exterior, such as skin, gut mucosal membranes and lung. They contain cytoplasmic granules: an organelle that contains highly bioactive mediators and that can be rapidly released upon

  3. Mast cell-associated alveolar inflammation in patients with atopic uncontrolled asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Cecilia; Bergqvist, Anders; Mori, Michiko; Mauad, Thais; Bjermer, Leif; Erjefält, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    Background: A significant proportion of patients with asthma have persistent symptoms despite treatment with inhaled glucocorticosteroids. Objective: We hypothesized that in these patients, the alveolar parenchyma is subjected to mast cell-associated alterations. Methods: Bronchial and transbronchial biopsies from healthy controls (n = 8), patients with allergic rhinitis (n = 8), and patients with atopic uncontrolled asthma (symptoms despite treatment with inhaled glucocorticosteroids; mean d...

  4. Histopathology of a spontaneously developing mast cell sarcoma in a Wistar rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baselmans, A.H.C.; Kuijpers, M.H.M.; Dijk, J.E. van

    1996-01-01

    A case report is given of a very rare spontaneous mast cell tumor in the eyelid of the left eye of a female Wistar rat used in a long-term oral toxicity study. Metastasis of the tumor had occurred in the mandibular lymph nodes and in the liver. Clinically, the animal showed blepharospasm,

  5. Fyn kinase iniates complementary signals required for IgE-dependent mast cell degranulation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Parravicini, V.; Massimo, G.; Kovářová, Martina; Odom, S.; Gonzales-Espinosa, C.; Furumoto, Y.; Saitoh, S.; Samelson, L.; Oshea, J.; Rivera, J.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 8 (2002), s. 741-748 ISSN 1529-2908 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : mast cell * IGE receptor Fyn kinase * Lyn kinase Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 27.868, year: 2002

  6. Vesicular trafficking and signaling for cytokine and chemokine secretion in mast cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich eBlank

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Upon activation mast cells (MC secrete numerous inflammatory compounds stored in their cytoplasmic secretory granules (SG by a process called anaphylactic degranulation, which is responsible for type I hypersensitivity responses. Prestored mediators include histamine and mast cell proteases but also some cytokines and growth factors making them available within minutes for a maximal biological effect. Degranulation is followed by the de novo synthesis of lipid mediators such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes as well as a vast array of cytokines, chemokines and growth factors, which are responsible for late phase inflammatory responses. While lipid mediators diffuse freely out of the cell through lipid bilayers, both anaphylactic degranulation and secretion of cytokines, chemokines and growth factors depends on highly regulated vesicular trafficking steps that occur along the secretory pathway starting with the translocation of proteins to the ER. Vesicular trafficking in mast cells also intersects with endocytic routes, notably to form specialized cytoplasmic granules called secretory lysosomes. Some of the mediators like histamine reach granules via specific vesicular monoamine transporters directly from the cytoplasm. In this review, we try to summarize the available data on granule biogenesis and signaling events that coordinate the complex steps that lead to the release of the inflammatory mediators from the various vesicular carriers in mast cells.

  7. Interleukin-17-positive mast cells contribute to synovial inflammation in spondylarthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordenbos, Troy; Yeremenko, Nataliya; Gofita, Ioana; van de Sande, Marleen; Tak, Paul P.; Caňete, Juan D.; Baeten, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Objective Studies comparing spondylarthritis (SpA) to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovitis suggest that innate immune cells may play a predominant role in the pathogenesis of SpA. Recent observations have indicated a marked synovial mast cell infiltration in psoriatic SpA. We therefore undertook the

  8. Eosinophil and mast cell parameters in children with stable moderate asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, MO; Grol, MH; Hovenga, H; Bouman, K; Stijnen, T; Koeter, GH; Gerritsen, J; Kauffman, HF

    Mast cells and eosinophils are important cells that contribute to the process of inflammation in asthma either by activating other cells or by secreting products which are potentially toxic to the respiratory epithelium. The influx of these cells in the airways and the secretion of toxic products by

  9. Intestinal handling-induced mast cell activation and inflammation in human postoperative ileus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    The, F. O.; Bennink, R. J.; Ankum, W. M.; Buist, M. R.; Busch, O. R. C.; Gouma, D. J.; van der Heide, S.; van den Wijngaard, R. M.; de Jonge, W. J.; Boeckxstaens, G. E.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Murine postoperative ileus results from intestinal inflammation triggered by manipulation-induced mast cell activation. As its extent depends on the degree of handling and subsequent inflammation, it is hypothesised that the faster recovery after minimal invasive surgery results from

  10. Intestinal handling-induced mast cell activation and inflammation in human postoperative ileus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    The, F. O.; Bennink, R. J.; Ankum, W. M.; Buist, M. R.; Busch, O. R. C.; Gouma, D. J.; Van der Heide, S.; van den Wijngaard, R. M.; Boeckxstaens, G. E.; de Jonge, Wouter J.

    Background: Murine postoperative ileus results from intestinal inflammation triggered by manipulation-induced mast cell activation. As its extent depends on the degree of handling and subsequent inflammation, it is hypothesised that the faster recovery after minimal invasive surgery results from

  11. Mast cell degranulation during abdominal surgery initiates postoperative ileus in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, Wouter J.; The, Frans O.; van der Coelen, Dennis; Bennink, Roelof J.; Reitsma, Pieter H.; van Deventer, Sander J.; van den Wijngaard, René M.; Boeckxstaens, Guy E.

    2004-01-01

    Background & Aims: Inflammation of the intestinal muscularis following manipulation during surgery plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of postoperative ileus. Here, we evaluate the role of mast cell activation in the recruitment of infiltrates in a murine model. Methods: Twenty-four hours after

  12. Nanotextured titanium surfaces stimulate spreading, migration, and growth of rat mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcatti Amarú Maximiano, William; Marino Mazucato, Vivian; Tambasco de Oliveira, Paulo; Célia Jamur, Maria; Oliver, Constance

    2017-08-01

    Titanium is a biomaterial widely used in dental and orthopedic implants. Since tissue-implant interactions occur at the nanoscale level, nanotextured titanium surfaces may affect cellular activity and modulate the tissue response that occurs at the tissue-implant interface. Therefore, the characterization of diverse cell types in response to titanium surfaces with nanotopography is important for the rational design of implants. Mast cells are multifunctional cells of the immune system that release a range of chemical mediators involved in the inflammatory response that occurs at the tissue-implant interface. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the nanotopography of titanium surfaces on the physiology of mast cells. The results show that the nanotopography of titanium surfaces promoted the spreading of mast cells, which was accompanied by the reorganization of the cytoskeleton. Also, the nanotopography of titanium surfaces enhanced cell migration and cell growth, but did not alter the number of adherent cells in first hours of culture or affect focal adhesions and mediator release. Thus, the results show that nanotopography of titanium surfaces can affect mast cell physiology, and represents an improved strategy for the rational production of surfaces that stimulate tissue integration with the titanium implants. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 2150-2161, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Vacuole formation in mast cells responding to osmotic stress and to F-actin disassembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koffer, Anna; Williams, Mark; Johansen, Torben

    2002-01-01

    Fluorescent probes were used to visualize the morphology of membranes and of F-actin in rat peritoneal mast cells, exposed to hyperosmotic medium and consequently reversed to isotonicity. Hypertonicity induced cell shrinkage followed by a regulatory volume increase, and cell alkalinization...

  14. Multi-code analysis of scrape-off layer filament dynamics in MAST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Militello, F.; Walkden, N. R.; Farley, T.

    2016-01-01

    Four numerical codes are employed to investigate the dynamics of scrape-off layer filaments in tokamak relevant conditions. Experimental measurements were taken in the MAST device using visual camera imaging, which allows the evaluation of the perpendicular size and velocity of the filaments...

  15. Estimating mast production: an evaluation of visual surveys and comparison with seed traps using white oaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger W. Perry; Ronald E. Thill

    1999-01-01

    Perry and Thill compared five types of visual mast surveyed with seed trap data from 105 white oaks (Quercus alba L.) during 1996-1997 in the Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas. They also evaluated these visual survey methods for their usefulness in detecting differences in acorn density among areas. Indices derived from all five methods were highly...

  16. Galectin-9 enhances cytokine secretion, but suppresses survival and degranulation, in human mast cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiji Kojima

    Full Text Available Galectin-9 (Gal-9, a lectin having a β-galactoside-binding domain, can induce apoptosis of Th1 cells by binding to TIM-3. In addition, Gal-9 inhibits IgE/Ag-mediated degranulation of mast cell/basophilic cell lines by binding to IgE, thus blocking IgE/Ag complex formation. However, the role of Gal-9 in mast cell function in the absence of IgE is not fully understood. Here, we found that recombinant Gal-9 directly induced phosphorylation of Erk1/2 but not p38 MAPK in a human mast cell line, HMC-1, which does not express FcεRI. Gal-9 induced apoptosis and inhibited PMA/ionomycin-mediated degranulation of HMC-1 cells. On the other hand, Gal-9 induced cytokine and/or chemokine production by HMC-1 cells, dependent on activation of ERK1/2 but not p38 MAPK. In addition, the lectin activity of Gal-9 was required for Gal-9-mediated cytokine secretion by HMC-1 cells. These observations suggest that Gal-9 has dual properties as both a regulator and an activator of mast cells.

  17. Reorganization of the subplasmalemmal cytoskeleton in association with exocytosis in rat mast cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, E H; Braun, K; Johansen, Torben

    1989-01-01

    The subplasmalemmal cytoskeleton in mast cells has been studied by scanning electron microscopy of the internal side of the plasma membrane. Rearrangement of the dense subplasmalemmal network of actin filaments took place following cell activation by compound 48/80 and secretion of histamine. The...

  18. Vacuole formation in mast cells responding to osmotic stress and to F-actin disassembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koffer, Anna; Williams, Mark; Johansen, Torben

    2002-01-01

    Fluorescent probes were used to visualize the morphology of membranes and of F-actin in rat peritoneal mast cells, exposed to hyperosmotic medium and consequently reversed to isotonicity. Hypertonicity induced cell shrinkage followed by a regulatory volume increase, and cell alkalinization that w...

  19. Involvement of mast cells in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.K. Dahal (Bhola); D. Kosanovic (Djuro); C. Kaulen (Christina); T. Cornitescu (Teodora); R. Savai (Rajkumar); J. Hoffmann (Julia); I.K.M. Reiss (Irwin); H.A. Ghofrani; N. Weissmann; W.M. Kuebler (Wolfgang); W. Seeger (Werner); F. Grimminger (Friedrich); R.T. Schermuly (Ralph Theo)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Mast cells (MCs) are implicated in inflammation and tissue remodeling. Accumulation of lung MCs is described in pulmonary hypertension (PH); however, whether MC degranulation and c-kit, a tyrosine kinase receptor critically involved in MC biology, contribute to the

  20. Perivascular Mast Cells Govern Shear Stress-Induced Arteriogenesis by Orchestrating Leukocyte Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omary Chillo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The body has the capacity to compensate for an occluded artery by creating a natural bypass upon increased fluid shear stress. How this mechanical force is translated into collateral artery growth (arteriogenesis is unresolved. We show that extravasation of neutrophils mediated by the platelet receptor GPIbα and uPA results in Nox2-derived reactive oxygen radicals, which activate perivascular mast cells. These c-kit+/CXCR-4+ cells stimulate arteriogenesis by recruiting additional neutrophils as well as growth-promoting monocytes and T cells. Additionally, mast cells may directly contribute to vascular remodeling and vascular cell proliferation through increased MMP activity and by supplying growth-promoting factors. Boosting mast cell recruitment and activation effectively promotes arteriogenesis, thereby protecting tissue from severe ischemic damage. We thus find that perivascular mast cells are central regulators of shear stress-induced arteriogenesis by orchestrating leukocyte function and growth factor/cytokine release, thus providing a therapeutic target for treatment of vascular occlusive diseases.

  1. Transmural changes in mast cell density in rat heart after infarct induction in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engels, W.; Reiters, P. H.; Daemen, M. J.; Smits, J. F.; van der Vusse, G. J.

    1995-01-01

    The cardiac distribution of mast cells was investigated after the induction of acute myocardial infarction in the rat. The left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) was occluded by ligation in the infarct group, whereas in sham rats only a superficial ligature was placed beside the LAD. Rats of

  2. A study of Association of Mast Cell Count in Different Grades of Oral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Belgaumi UI

    ... 3Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, A. B Shetty. Memorial Institute of Dental sciences, NITTE University, Mangalore, Karnataka, India. Introduction. Following the discovery of Mast cells (Mastzellen) by Paul. Ehrlich many advances have improved our understanding of these cells and their fascinating biology.

  3. Prolonged nasal eosinophilia in allergic patients after common cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Benten, I J; KleinJan, A; Neijens, H J; Osterhaus, A D; Fokkens, W J

    2001-10-01

    Viral respiratory tract infections may cause both harmless common colds and severe asthma exacerbations; the differences in disease expression probably depend on the allergic status of the patient. To determine whether altered immunologic mechanisms underlie these differences, we investigated nasal inflammation during naturally acquired common cold. In a group of 16 patients (eight allergic), nasal brush samples were taken, and nasal symptoms were recorded during common cold, 2 weeks later (convalescence), and at baseline (>4 weeks without nasal symptoms). Nasal brush cells were stained immunohistochemically for Langerhans cells, T cells, monocytes, neutrophils, B cells, macrophages, natural killer (NK) cells, mast cells, eosinophils, eotaxin, and RANTES. Four rhinovirus, four coronavirus, three RSV, one Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and one influenza A/enterovirus double infection were confirmed. Increased numbers of T cells, monocytes, macrophages, NK cells, eosinophils, and RANTES- and eotaxin-positive cells, but not neutrophils, were observed during common cold in allergic and nonallergic patients, and increased numbers of mast cells in allergic patients. Compared to nonallergic patients, in allergic patients eosinophil influx persisted into convalescence. Prolonged nasal eosinophil influx was observed in allergic patients after common cold. What immunologic factors can induce prolonged eosinophil influx and whether this may increase the risk of subsequent allergen-induced hypersensitivity reactions must be studied further.

  4. Protecting the health of the @hlete: how online technology may aid our common goal to prevent injury and illness in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Evert; Bolling, Caroline

    2015-09-01

    Online technology dominates our era and eHealth has become a reality for sports clinicians and researchers. Contemporary online platforms enable self-monitoring and provide tailored feedback to the different stakeholders who play a role in the health and care of athletes. Innovations such as digital monitoring, mobile applications and connected hardware provide the critical tools to solve current enigmas in sports medicine research, and to streamline and facilitate injury prevention, management and rehabilitation. eHealth is not an emerging future of sports medicine-the technology to move our field forward in terms of research and practice is already available. This Analysis is based on Evert Verhagen's keynote presentation at the IOC World Conference on Injury and Illness Prevention in Sport (Monaco, 12 April 2014). It outlines the use of eHealth in research, implementation and practice, and provides an overview of possibilities and opportunities that existing and emerging eHealth solutions provide for sports and exercise medicine and physiotherapy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Histamine H4 Receptor mediates interleukin-8 and TNF-α release in human mast cells via multiple signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X-F; Zhang, Z; Dou, X; Li, J-J; Zhang, W; Yu, Y-Y; Yu, B; Yu, B

    2016-01-27

    Histamine, mainly produced by mast cells, is an important inflammatory mediator in immune response. Recently Histamine H4 Receptor (H4R) was also identified in mast cells, from which pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines are released. However, the mechanism of how H4R mediates these cytokines and chemokines release in mast cells was still unclear. To further explore the role of H4R in the immune inflammatory response in mast cells, we tested the release of inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8) and the relevant signaling pathways activated by H4R on LAD2 cells (a human mast cell line). We found that the release of IL-8 and TNF-α were blocked by inhibitors of PI3K, ERK and Ca2+-Calcineurin-NFAT signaling pathways, while the release of these cytokines and chemokines were enhanced by the inhibitor of P38 signaling pathway. However, inhibitors of the JNK and NF-κB signaling pathways had little effect on the expression of the pro-inflammatory mediators. Moreover, activation of the H4R could induce phosphorylation of ERK, p38 and AKT in mast cells. In conclusion, we found that H4R mediates the release of inflammatory cytokine TNF-α and chemokine IL-8 in human mast cells via PI3K, Ca2+-Calcineurin-NFAT and MAPKs signaling pathways.

  6. Induction of E-selectin-dependent leukocyte recruitment by mast cell degranulation in human skin grafts transplanted on SCID mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofidou-Solomidou, M.; Murphy, G. F.; Albelda, S. M.

    1996-01-01

    Previous in vitro data indicate that degranulation of human mast cells triggers the induction of endothelial molecules important in leukocyte adhesion. In vivo experimental systems have not previously existed, however, to determine whether human mast cell degranulation is sufficient stimulus for leukocyte recruitment. To study this question, neonatal foreskins were transplanted onto immunodeficient mice. The grafts contained physiological numbers of human dermal mast cells that could be degranulated by a number of secretagogues that activate mast cells by different mechanisms. Degranulation was associated with an inflammatory response characterized by edema, up-regulation primarily of microvessel E-selectin, and influx of neutrophils. Leukocyte emigration associated with mast cell degranulation was inhibited by a monoclonal antibody against human E-selectin. These data indicate that degranulation of human mast cells in the human/SCID mouse model provokes cellular inflammation in skin. The ability to significantly inhibit early leukocyte infiltration with an antibody against E-selectin in this model supports the hypothesis that this molecule plays an important role in mast-cell-induced inflammation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 6 PMID:8546205

  7. Mast-Cell-Derived TNF Amplifies CD8+ Dendritic Cell Functionality and CD8+ T Cell Priming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Dudeck

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Mast cells are critical promoters of adaptive immunity in the contact hypersensitivity model, but the mechanism of allergen sensitization is poorly understood. Using Mcpt5-CreTNFFL/FL mice, we show here that the absence of TNF exclusively in mast cells impaired the expansion of CD8+ T cells upon sensitization and the T-cell-driven adaptive immune response to elicitation. T cells primed in the absence of mast cell TNF exhibited a diminished efficiency to transfer sensitization to naive recipients. Specifically, mast cell TNF promotes CD8+ dendritic cell (DC maturation and migration to draining lymph nodes. The peripherally released mast cell TNF further critically boosts the CD8+ T-cell-priming efficiency of CD8+ DCs, thereby linking mast cell effects on T cells to DC modulation. Collectively, our findings identify the distinct potential of mast cell TNF to amplify CD8+ DC functionality and CD8+ T-cell-dominated adaptive immunity, which may be of great importance for immunotherapy and vaccination approaches.

  8. Role of protein phosphatases inhibitors on the histamine release and the functional desensitization in human lung mast cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Bastan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The β2-adrenoceptor agonist, isoprenaline, is an effective inhibitor of histamine release from human lung mast cells (HLMC. Since phosphorylations of the β2-adrenoceptors are probably important in inducing desensitization, we sought to investigate the importance of phosphorylation events by targeting protein phosphatases (PPs in mast cells. To this end, the effects of the inhibitor of on the functional desensitization of β-adrenoceptor-mediated responses in mast cells were investigated. Materials and Methods: In this study the effects of PP inhibitors on the inhibition of histamine release from HLMC, on β-agonists in mast cells and on desensitization were investigated. Results: Long-term exposure of mast cells to both isoprenaline and salbutamol substantially reduced the extent to which isoprenaline inhibited histamine release. Pretreatments of up to 24 h with inhibitors alone had no effect on immunoglobulin E-mediated histamine release. Shorter (≤4 h pretreatments had little effect on the activity of isoprenaline and salbutamol to inhibit histamine release from mast cells. Conclusion: Collectively, these data suggest that PP has an important role in regulating mast cell β2-adrenoceptors.

  9. Identification of chondroitin sulfate E proteoglycans and heparin proteoglycans in the secretory granules of human lung mast cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, R.L.; Austen, K.F. (Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (USA)); Fox, C.C.; Lichtenstein, L.M. (Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (USA))

    1988-04-01

    The predominant subclasses of mast cells in both the rat and the mouse can be distinguished from one another by their preferential synthesis of {sup 35}S-labeled proteoglycans that contain either heparin or oversulfated chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycans. Although ({sup 35}S)heparin proteoglycans have been isolated from human lung mast cells of 40-70% purity and from a skin biopsy specimen of a patient with urticaria pigmentosa, no highly sulfated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan has been isolated from any enriched or highly purified population of human mast cells. The authors demonstrate that human lung mast cells of 96% purity incorporate ({sup 35}S)sulfate into separate heparin and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in an {approx}2:1 ratio. As assessed by HPLC of the chondroitinase ABC digests, the chondroitin ({sup 35}S)sulfate proteoglycans isolated from these human lung mast cells contain the same unusual chondroitin sulfate E disaccharide that is present in proteoglycans produced by interleukin 3-dependent mucosal-like mouse mast cells. Both the chondroitin ({sup 35}S)sulfate E proteoglycans and the ({sup 35}S)heparin proteoglycans were exocytosed from the ({sup 35}S)sulfate-labeled cells via perturbation of the IgE receptor, indicating that both types of {sup 35}S-labeled proteoglycans reside in the secretory granules of these human lung mast cells.

  10. Mast cell depletion in the preclinical phase of collagen-induced arthritis reduces clinical outcome by lowering the inflammatory cytokine profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velden, Daniël; Lagraauw, H Maxime; Wezel, Anouk; Launay, Pierre; Kuiper, Johan; Huizinga, Tom W J; Toes, René E M; Bot, Ilze; Stoop, Jeroen N

    2016-06-13

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a multifactorial autoimmune disease, which is characterized by inflammation of synovial joints leading to the destruction of cartilage and bone. Infiltrating mast cells can be found within the inflamed synovial tissue, however their role in disease pathogenesis is unclear. Therefore we have studied the role of mast cells during different phases of experimental arthritis. We induced collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), the most frequently used animal model of arthritis, in an inducible mast cell knock-out mouse and determined the effect of mast cell depletion on the development and severity of arthritis. Depletion of mast cells in established arthritis did not affect clinical outcome. However, depletion of mast cells during the preclinical phase resulted in a significant reduction in arthritis. This reduction coincided with a decrease in circulating CD4(+) T cells and inflammatory monocytes but not in the collagen-specific antibody levels. Mast cell depletion resulted in reduced levels of IL-6 and IL-17 in serum. Furthermore, stimulation of splenocytes from mast cell-depleted mice with collagen type II resulted in reduced levels of IL-17 and enhanced production of IL-10. Here we show that mast cells contribute to the preclinical phase of CIA. Depletion of mast cells before disease onset resulted in an altered collagen-specific T cell and cytokine response. These data may suggest that mast cells play a role in the regulation of the adaptive immune response during the development of arthritis.

  11. Experimental Evaluation of Incorporating Digital and Analog Integrated Circuit Die on a Common Substrate Utilizing Silicon-Hybrid Wafer-Scale Integration Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    an uncoated optical alignment flat surface ... ............. . 5-4 5.2. Profilometer measurement of a polished Teflon coating on the optical...as interlevel dielectrics. The most common examples are: silicon dioxide, silicon nitride, spin- on glass (SOG), benzocyclobutene ( BCB ), and the...Glass 3.0 0.2-0.5 - 0.9 BCB 2.75 2.5 30-60 0.2-0.3 Polyimide 3.4 3 5-60 0.5-1.5 the area of vias tend to absorb moisture which adversely affects metal

  12. Induction of mast cell accumulation, histamine release and skin edema by N49 phospholipase A2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo Ya-Zhen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been recognized that phospholipase A2 (PLA2 is a crucial component of snake venom, which contributes greatly to snake venom induced inflammation in man. However, the mechanisms through which N49 PLA2 provoke inflammation remain unclear. Recently, a N49 PLA2, TM-N49 from Protobothrops mucrosquamatus crude venom was characterized in our laboratory. Since the purification procedure developed is able to supply us with relatively large quantity of highly purified TM-N49, we investigated the ability of TM-N49 in induction of inflammation. Results The results showed that TM-N49 provoked a dose dependent increase in microvascular leakage in the skin of rats. The potency of TM-N49 in induction of skin edema appeared similar potency of bradykinin and histamine. Pretreatment of rats with compound 48/80 diminished TM-N49 induced skin reaction and reduced mast cell numbers in rats. Ginkgolide B and cyproheptadine, but not terfenadine and quinacrine, inhibited TM-N49 elicited microvascular leakage when they were co-injected with the stimulus to rat skin. Moreover, TM-N49 was found to induce histamine release from human colon, lung and tonsil mast cells, and both metabolic inhibitors and pertussis toxin were capable of inhibiting TM-N49 elicited histamine release. TM-N49 induced mast cell accumulation in the peritoneum of mice, which was inhibited by co-injection of ginkgolide B, cyproheptadine and terfenadine. Intravenous injection of monoclonal antibodies against CD18, ICAM-1 and CD11a also blocked TM-N49 induced mast cell accumulation. Conclusion TM-N49 is a potent stimulus for skin edema, mast cell activation and accumulation.

  13. Glia and mast cells as targets for palmitoylethanolamide, an anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective lipid mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaper, Stephen D; Facci, Laura; Giusti, Pietro

    2013-10-01

    Glia are key players in a number of nervous system disorders. Besides releasing glial and neuronal signaling molecules directed to cellular homeostasis, glia respond also to pro-inflammatory signals released from immune-related cells, with the mast cell being of particular interest. A proposed mast cell-glia communication may open new perspectives for designing therapies to target neuroinflammation by differentially modulating activation of non-neuronal cells normally controlling neuronal sensitization-both peripherally and centrally. Mast cells and glia possess endogenous homeostatic mechanisms/molecules that can be upregulated as a result of tissue damage or stimulation of inflammatory responses. Such molecules include the N-acylethanolamines, whose principal family members are the endocannabinoid N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide), and its congeners N-stearoylethanolamine, N-oleoylethanolamine, and N-palmitoylethanolamine (PEA). A key role of PEA may be to maintain cellular homeostasis when faced with external stressors provoking, for example, inflammation: PEA is produced and hydrolyzed by microglia, it downmodulates mast cell activation, it increases in glutamate-treated neocortical neurons ex vivo and in injured cortex, and PEA levels increase in the spinal cord of mice with chronic relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. Applied exogenously, PEA has proven efficacious in mast cell-mediated experimental models of acute and neurogenic inflammation. This fatty acid amide possesses also neuroprotective effects, for example, in a model of spinal cord trauma, in a delayed post-glutamate paradigm of excitotoxic death, and against amyloid β-peptide-induced learning and memory impairment in mice. These actions may be mediated by PEA acting through "receptor pleiotropism," i.e., both direct and indirect interactions of PEA with different receptor targets, e.g., cannabinoid CB2 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha.

  14. Seedling establishment in a masting desert shrub parallels the pattern for forest trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Susan E.; Pendleton, Burton K.

    2015-05-01

    The masting phenomenon along with its accompanying suite of seedling adaptive traits has been well studied in forest trees but has rarely been examined in desert shrubs. Blackbrush (Coleogyne ramosissima) is a regionally dominant North American desert shrub whose seeds are produced in mast events and scatter-hoarded by rodents. We followed the fate of seedlings in intact stands vs. small-scale disturbances at four contrasting sites for nine growing seasons following emergence after a mast year. The primary cause of first-year mortality was post-emergence cache excavation and seedling predation, with contrasting impacts at sites with different heteromyid rodent seed predators. Long-term establishment patterns were strongly affected by rodent activity in the weeks following emergence. Survivorship curves generally showed decreased mortality risk with age but differed among sites even after the first year. There were no detectable effects of inter-annual precipitation variability or site climatic differences on survival. Intraspecific competition from conspecific adults had strong impacts on survival and growth, both of which were higher on small-scale disturbances, but similar in openings and under shrub crowns in intact stands. This suggests that adult plants preempted soil resources in the interspaces. Aside from effects on seedling predation, there was little evidence for facilitation or interference beneath adult plant crowns. Plants in intact stands were still small and clearly juvenile after nine years, showing that blackbrush forms cohorts of suppressed plants similar to the seedling banks of closed forests. Seedling banks function in the absence of a persistent seed bank in replacement after adult plant death (gap formation), which is temporally uncoupled from masting and associated recruitment events. This study demonstrates that the seedling establishment syndrome associated with masting has evolved in desert shrublands as well as in forests.

  15. The association of mast cells and serotonin in children with chronic abdominal pain of unknown etiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Ravi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abdominal pain of unknown origin affects up to 20% of school-aged children. Evaluation of children is symptom-based without clear guidelines to investigate molecular mechanisms of abdominal pain. Aberrant molecular mechanisms may increase intestinal permeability leading to interactions between the immune and nervous systems, subclinical inflammation, and visceral pain. This study evaluated the association between interleukin-6 (IL-6, mast cell infiltrates, and serotonin (5-HT levels in gastrointestinal (GI biopsies, with perceived abdominal pain in a pediatric cohort. Methods Clinical data and biopsy samples from pediatric patients (n = 48 with chronic abdominal pain, with and without inflammation were included. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded GI biopsies were sectioned and immunohistochemistry performed for IL-6 and 5-HT; mast cells were identified with toluidine blue stain. Histological findings were compared to self-reported abdominal pain between groups. Results There was significantly greater IL-6 immunoreactivity in biopsies with confirmed histologic inflammation (p = 0.004. There was a greater number of mast cells per HPF in non-inflammatory biopsies (3.5 ± 2.9 compared to the inflammatory biopsies (2.6 ± 1.8 p = 0.049. The non-inflammatory biopsy group was significantly less likely to respond to standard treatment as evidenced by higher pain reports (p = .018. Mast cells (p = .022 and 5-HT (p = .02 were significantly related to abdominal pain scores. Conclusions A potential association between self-reported abdominal pain, number of mast cells, and 5-HT levels, which may contribute to perceived GI pain in pediatric patients may exist.

  16. Mast cell degranulation following adenosine A3 receptor activation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fozard, J R; Pfannkuche, H J; Schuurman, H J

    1996-03-18

    The present studies were carried out to provide further evidence for the hypothesis that the hypotensive response to adenosine A3 receptor activation in the anaesthetized rat involves mediator release from mast cells. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were anaesthetized and given just supramaximal hypotensive doses of either the non-selective A3 receptor agonist, N6(-2)-(4-aminophenyl)ethyladenosine (APNEA: 100 micrograms/kg, preceded by the A1/A2 receptor antagonist, 8-p-(sulphophenyl)theophylline, to "isolate' the A3 receptor-mediated component of the response), the mast cell degranulating agent, compound 48/80 (300 micrograms/kg) or the vehicle for APNEA, intravenously. Blood was withdrawn from a carotid artery between 2 and 10 min after the injection and plasma and serum histamine concentrations measured. Samples of connective tissue (surrounding the abdominal musculature), thymus, mesenteric lymph node, kidney, skin and diaphragm were removed for histological analysis. The plasma and serum histamine concentrations were markedly and significantly higher in the APNEA- or compound 48/80-treated animals compared to vehicle-treated controls. Consistent with this, a substantially greater proportion of mast cells was seen to be undergoing degranulation in all tissues removed from animals treated with APNEA or compound 48/80 compared to those from rats treated with vehicle. Thus, adenosine A3 receptor activation results in rapid mast cell degranulation in the anaesthetized rat. The data provide further evidence of a key role for the mast cell in adenosine A3 receptor-mediated hypotension in this species.

  17. Regulation of endothelial cell adhesion molecule expression by mast cells, macrophages, and neutrophils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Leukocyte adhesion to the vascular endothelium and subsequent transendothelial migration play essential roles in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. The leukocyte adhesion is mediated by localized activation of the endothelium through the action of inflammatory cytokines. The exact proinflammatory factors, however, that activate the endothelium and their cellular sources remain incompletely defined.Using bone marrow-derived mast cells from wild-type, Tnf(-/-, Ifng(-/-, Il6(-/- mice, we demonstrated that all three of these pro-inflammatory cytokines from mast cells induced the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, P-selectin, and E-selectin in murine heart endothelial cells (MHEC at both mRNA and protein levels. Compared with TNF-α and IL6, IFN-γ appeared weaker in the induction of the mRNA levels, but at protein levels, both IL6 and IFN-γ were weaker inducers than TNF-α. Under physiological shear flow conditions, mast cell-derived TNF-α and IL6 were more potent than IFN-γ in activating MHEC and in promoting neutrophil adhesion. Similar observations were made when neutrophils or macrophages were used. Neutrophils and macrophages produced the same sets of pro-inflammatory cytokines as did mast cells to induce MHEC adhesion molecule expression, with the exception that macrophage-derived IFN-γ showed negligible effect in inducing VCAM-1 expression in MHEC.Mast cells, neutrophils, and macrophages release pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL6 that induce expression of adhesion molecules in endothelium and recruit of leukocytes, which is essential to the pathogenesis of vascular inflammatory diseases.

  18. Less contribution of mast cells to the progression of renal fibrosis in Rat kidneys with chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Asuka; Tachi, Masahiro; Ejima, Yutaka; Endo, Yasuhiro; Toyama, Hiroaki; Saito, Kazutomo; Abe, Nozomu; Yamauchi, Masanori; Miura, Chieko; Kazama, Itsuro

    2017-02-01

    Chronic renal failure (CRF) is histopathologically characterized by tubulointerstitial fibrosis in addition to glomerulosclerosis. Although mast cells are known to infiltrate into the kidneys with chronic inflammation, we know little about their contribution to the pathogenesis of renal fibrosis associated with CRF. The aim of this study was to reveal the involvement of mast cells in the progression of renal fibrosis in CRF. Using a rat model with CRF resulting from 5/6 nephrectomy, we examined the histopathological features of the kidneys and the infiltration of mast cells into the renal interstitium. By treating the rats with a potent mast cell stabilizer, tranilast, we also examined the involvement of mast cells in the progression of renal fibrosis associated with CRF. The CRF rat kidneys were characterized by the wide staining of collagen III and increased number of myofibroblasts, indicating the progression of renal fibrosis. Compared to T-lymphocytes or macrophages, the number of tryptase-positive mast cells was much smaller within the fibrotic kidneys and they did not proliferate in situ. The mRNA expression of mast cell-derived fibroblast-activating factors was not increased in the renal cortex isolated from CRF rat kidneys. Treatment with tranilast did not suppress the progression of renal fibrosis, nor did it ameliorate the progression of glomerulosclerosis and the interstitial proliferation of inflammatory leukocytes. This study demonstrated for the first time that mast cells are neither increased nor activated in the fibrotic kidneys of CRF rats. Compared to T-lymphocytes or macrophages that proliferate in situ within the fibrotic kidneys, mast cells were less likely to contribute to the progression of renal fibrosis associated with CRF. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  19. Development of Well-Balanced Regulation in the Sphere of Innovative Financial Technologies for Digitalization of the Common Measure of Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotlyarevskyy Yaroslav V.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the modern financial technologies in the sphere of monetary and credit circulation, in particular, the ontology of so-called virtual currencies is investigated, theoretical, methodological and practical aspects of their implementation are defined both in the retrospective and in modern contexts. Along with the analysis of theoretical developments of domestic and foreign scholars, a comparative analysis of the international financial and economic issues of establishing effective regulation was conducted, the main provisions for further improving the coordination of the monetary, financial and economic policies in the mentioned sphere with regard to aspects of sustainable development, institutional economy, tax policy and counteracting the money laundering have been expounded.

  20. Adenosine triphosphate levels during anaphylactic histamine release in rat mast cells in vitro. Effects of glycolytic and respiratory inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Torben

    1979-01-01

    The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content of rat mast cells was studied during and after anaphylactic histamine release. The almost identical time course of ATP decrease from mast cells treated with either glycolytic or respiratory inhibitors supports the view that the ATP depletion was largely...... related to the histamine release process and not to an uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation by an increased concentration of cytosol Ca2+. The ATP content of the cells was not restored within the 2 h of observation. No inhibition of lactate production from mast cells exposed to antigen in the presence...

  1. Changes in mast cells and in permeability of mesenteric microvessels under the effect of immobilization and electrostimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorizontova, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    It was shown that a reduction in the amount of mast cells in the mesentery and an increase in their degranulation was accompanied by an increase in vascular permeability of rat mesentery. It is supposed that immobilization and electrostimulation causing degranulation of mast cells prompted histamine and serotonin release from them, thus increasing the permeability of the venular portion of the microvascular bed. Prophylactic use of esculamin preparation with P-vitaminic activity decreased mast cell degranulation, which apparently prolonged the release of histamine and serotonin from them and normalized vascular permeability.

  2. Polyphenols differentially inhibit degranulation of distinct subsets of vesicles in mast cells by specific interaction with granule-type-dependent SNARE complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yoosoo; Oh, Jung-Mi; Heo, Paul; Shin, Jae Yoon; Kong, Byoungjae; Shin, Jonghyeok; Lee, Ji-Chun; Oh, Jeong Su; Park, Kye Won; Lee, Choong Hwan; Shin, Yeon-Kyun; Kweon, Dae-Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    Anti-allergic effects of dietary polyphenols were extensively studied in numerous allergic disease models, but the molecular mechanisms of anti-allergic effects by polyphenols remain poorly understood. In the present study, we show that the release of granular cargo molecules, contained in distinct subsets of granules of mast cells, is specifically mediated by two sets of SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) proteins, and that various polyphenols differentially inhibit the formation of those SNARE complexes. Expression analysis of RBL-2H3 cells for 11 SNARE genes and a lipid mixing assay of 24 possible combinations of reconstituted SNAREs indicated that the only two active SNARE complexes involved in mast cell degranulation are Syn (syntaxin) 4/SNAP (23 kDa synaptosome-associated protein)-23/VAMP (vesicle-associated membrane protein) 2 and Syn4/SNAP-23/VAMP8. Various polyphenols selectively or commonly interfered with ternary complex formation of these two SNARE complexes, thereby stopping membrane fusion between granules and plasma membrane. This led to the differential effect of polyphenols on degranulation of three distinct subsets of granules. These results suggest the possibility that formation of a variety of SNARE complexes in numerous cell types is controlled by polyphenols which, in turn, might regulate corresponding membrane trafficking. PMID:23252429

  3. GPR30 decreases cardiac chymase/angiotensin II by inhibiting local mast cell number

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Zhuo [Department of Anesthesiology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, NC 27159-1009 (United States); Department of Cardiology, Jinan Central Hospital, Affiliated with Shandong University, 105 Jiefang Road, Jinan, 250013 (China); Wang, Hao; Lin, Marina [Department of Anesthesiology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, NC 27159-1009 (United States); Groban, Leanne, E-mail: lgroban@wakehealth.edu [Department of Anesthesiology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, NC 27159-1009 (United States); Hypertension and Vascular Disease Center, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, NC 27157 (United States); Office of Women in Medicine and Science, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, NC 27157 (United States)

    2015-03-27

    Chronic activation of the novel estrogen receptor GPR30 by its agonist G1 mitigates the adverse effects of estrogen (E2) loss on cardiac structure and function. Using the ovariectomized (OVX) mRen2.Lewis rat, an E2-sensitive model of diastolic dysfunction, we found that E2 status is inversely correlated with local cardiac angiotensin II (Ang II) levels, likely via Ang I/chymase-mediated production. Since chymase is released from cardiac mast cells during stress (e.g., volume/pressure overload, inflammation), we hypothesized that GPR30-related cardioprotection after E2 loss might occur through its opposing actions on cardiac mast cell proliferation and chymase production. Using real-time quantitative PCR, immunohistochemistry, and immunoblot analysis, we found mast cell number, chymase expression, and cardiac Ang II levels were significantly increased in the hearts of OVX-compared to ovary-intact mRen2.Lewis rats and the GPR30 agonist G1 (50 mg/kg/day, s.c.) administered for 2 weeks limited the adverse effects of estrogen loss. In vitro studies revealed that GPR30 receptors are expressed in the RBL-2H3 mast cell line and G1 inhibits serum-induced cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner, as determined by cell counting, BrdU incorporation assay, and Ki-67 staining. Using specific antagonists to estrogen receptors, blockage of GPR30, but not ERα or ERβ, attenuated the inhibitory effects of estrogen on BrdU incorporation in RBL-2H3 cells. Further study of the mechanism underlying the effect on cell proliferation showed that G1 inhibits cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) mRNA and protein expression in RBL-2H3 cells in a dose-dependent manner. - Highlights: • GPR30 activation limits mast cell number in hearts from OVX mRen2.Lewis rats. • GPR30 activation decreases cardiac chymase/angiotensin II after estrogen loss. • GPR30 activation inhibits RBL-2H3 mast cell proliferation and CDK1 expression.

  4. 20(S-Protopanaxatriol inhibits release of inflammatory mediators in immunoglobulin E-mediated mast cell activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae Yong Kim

    2015-07-01

    Conclusion: PPT reduces the release of inflammatory mediators via inhibiting multiple cellular signaling pathways comprising the Ca2+ influx, protein kinase C, and PLA2, which are propagated by Syk activation upon allergic stimulation of mast cells.

  5. High-mast light poles anchor nut loosening in Alaska : an investigation of field monitoring and finite-element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    High mast lighting poles (HMLPs) are tall, roadside structures effective for lighting large areas of highways and intersections. The Alaska Department of Transportation : and Public Facilities (AKDOT&PF) maintains 118 such poles in the greater Anchor...

  6. Ultraviolet B irradiation of skin induces mast cell degranulation and release of tumour necrosis factor-{alpha}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, L.J. [University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD (Australia). Dept. of Dentistry, Immunopathology Unit

    1995-06-01

    In the `sunburn` response in skin, dermal blood vessels are activated and traffic of dendritic Langerhans` cells altered. While these changes have been attributed to the cytokine TNF-{alpha}, the source of this acutely released TNF has not been identified. This report demonstrates that the `sunburn` response, both in vivo and in vitro, is accompanied by rapid degranulation of cutaneous mast cells, with consequential release of intracellular stores of TNF. Epidermal keratinocytes were only minor contributors to local TNF production. Expression of the TNF-inducible CD62E (E-selectin/ELAM-1) and CD54 adhesion molecules on cutaneous endothelium occurred 2 hours following mast cell degranulation, and this event was sensitive to blockade of mast cells with disodium cromoglycate. These results indicate that TNF release in skin in the acute sunburn response can largely be attributed to mast cells. 47 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs.

  7. Statistical analysis of electromagnetic radiation measurements in the vicinity of GSM/UMTS base station antenna masts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprivica, Mladen; Neskovic, Natasa; Neskovic, Aleksandar; Paunovic, George

    2014-01-01

    As a result of dense installations of public mobile base station, additional electromagnetic radiation occurs in the living environment. In order to determine the level of radio-frequency radiation generated by base stations, extensive electromagnetic field strength measurements were carried out for 664 base station locations. Base station locations were classified into three categories: indoor, masts and locations with installations on buildings. Having in mind the large percentage (47 %) of sites with antenna masts, a detailed analysis of this location category was performed, and the measurement results were presented. It was concluded that the total electric field strength in the vicinity of base station antenna masts in no case exceeded 10 V m(-1), which is quite below the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection reference levels. At horizontal distances >50 m from the mast bottom, the median and maximum values were <1 and 2 V m(-1), respectively.

  8. Mast cell deficiency results in the accumulation of preadipocytes in adipose tissue in both obese and non-obese mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasushi Ishijima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mast cells have been suggested to play key roles in adipogenesis. We herein show that the expression of preadipocyte, but not adipocyte, marker genes increases in the white adipose tissue of mast cell-deficient (KitW-sh/W-sh mice under both obese and non-obese conditions. In vitro culturing with adipogenic factors revealed increased adipocytes differentiated from the KitW-sh/W-sh stromal vascular fraction, suggesting the accumulation of preadipocytes. Moreover, the increased expression of preadipocyte genes was restored by mast cell reconstitution in the KitW-sh/W-sh mice. These results suggest positive effects of mast cells on the preadipocyte to adipocyte transition under both physiological and pathological conditions.

  9. The anti-anaphylactic and histamine-releasing properties of the antihistamines. Their effect on the mast cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, I.; Da Silva, W. Dias

    1960-01-01

    It has been shown that, depending upon their concentration, antihistamines act in three different ways: (a) by competitive inhibition of histamine as already known; (b) by destroying mast cells and releasing histamine; and (c) by preventing mast cell damage and histamine release in anaphylaxis. Furthermore, antihistamines potentiated mast cell damage and histamine release by compound 48/80, when acting on guinea-pig tissues, and inhibited these same phenomena when acting on rat tissues. It is concluded that the effect of antihistamines in anaphylaxis is possibly due both to their competitive inhibition of histamine on smooth muscle receptors and to their inhibition of mast cell damage and histamine release by antigen. PMID:13773171

  10. Although Abundant in Tumor Tissue, Mast Cells Have No Effect on Immunological Micro-milieu or Growth of HPV-Induced or Transplanted Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanawaz Mohammed Ghouse

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary: High numbers of mast cells populate the stroma of many types of neoplasms, including human papilloma virus-induced benign and malignant tumors in man and mouse. Equipped with numerous pattern recognition receptors and capable of executing important pro-inflammatory responses, mast cells are considered innate sentinels that significantly impact tumor biology. Mast cells were reported to promote human papilloma virus (HPV-induced epithelial hyperproliferation and neo-angiogenesis in an HPV-driven mouse model of skin cancer. We analyzed HPV-induced epithelial hyperplasia and squamous cell carcinoma formation, as well as growth of tumors inoculated into the dermis, in mice lacking skin mast cells. Unexpectedly, the absence of mast cells had no effect on HPV-induced epithelial growth or angiogenesis, on growth kinetics of inoculated tumors, or on the immunological tumor micro-milieu. Thus, the conspicuous recruitment of mast cells into tumor tissues cannot necessarily be equated with important mast cell functions in tumor growth. : Mast cells accumulate in high numbers in many human tumors, and they are widely viewed as important promoters of tumor growth. Ghouse et al. show that growth, angiogenesis, and the immunological micro-milieu of tumors growing in mice genetically deficient for mast cells are unchanged compared to control tumors. Keywords: mast cells, HPV-induced skin cancer, tumor angiogenesis, tumor micro-milieu

  11. NASA Affordable Vehicle Avionics (AVA). Common Modular Avionics System for Nanolaunchers Offering Affordable Access to Space; [Space Technology: Game Changing Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilina, Rudy

    2017-01-01

    Small satellites are becoming ever more capable of performing valuable missions for both government and commercial customers. However, currently these satellites can be launched affordably only as secondary payloads. This makes it difficult for the small satellite mission to launch when needed, to the desired orbit, and with acceptable risk. What is needed is a class of low-cost launchers, so that launch costs to low-Earth orbit (LEO) are commensurate with payload costs. Several private and government-sponsored launch vehicle developers are working toward just that-the ability to affordably insert small payloads into LEO. But until now, cost of the complex avionics remained disproportionately high. AVA (Affordable Vehicle Avionics) solves this problem. Significant contributors to the cost of launching nanosatellites to orbit are the avionics and software systems that steer and control the launch vehicles, sequence stage separation, deploy payloads, and telemeter data. The high costs of these guidance, navigation and control (GNC) avionics systems are due in part to the current practice of developing unique, single-use hardware and software for each launch. High-performance, high-reliability inertial sensors components with heritage from legacy launchers also contribute to costs-but can low-cost commercial inertial sensors work just as well? NASA Ames Research Center has developed and tested a prototype low-cost avionics package for space launch vehicles that provides complete GNC functionality in a package smaller than a tissue box (100 millimeters by 120 millimeters by 69 millimeters; 4 inches by 4.7 inches by 2.7 inches), with a mass of less than 0.84 kilogram (2 pounds. AVA takes advantage of commercially available, low-cost, mass-produced, miniaturized sensors, filtering their more noisy inertial data with real-time GPS (Global Positioning Satellite) data. The goal of the AVA project is to produce and light-verify a common suite of avionics and software that

  12. Determination of Safety Distance for Installing GSM Mast in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    DANLADI, A; GAYA, GK; ALIYU, BM; STEPHEN, M; MICHAEL, Y;. NA'IMU, A. Department of Pure and Applied Physics, Adamawa State University, Mubi, Nigeria. *E-mail: deshalangs3g@yahoo.com; Phone: +2347063853164. ABSTRACT: Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) technology is one of the fastest ...

  13. Interference with the PTEN-MAST2 interaction by a viral protein leads to cellular relocalization of PTEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrien, Elouan; Chaffotte, Alain; Lafage, Mireille; Khan, Zakir; Préhaud, Christophe; Cordier, Florence; Simenel, Catherine; Delepierre, Muriel; Buc, Henri; Lafon, Monique; Wolff, Nicolas

    2012-08-14

    PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10) and MAST2 (microtubule-associated serine and threonine kinase 2) interact with each other through the PDZ domain of MAST2 (MAST2-PDZ) and the carboxyl-terminal (C-terminal) PDZ domain-binding site (PDZ-BS) of PTEN. These two proteins function as negative regulators of cell survival pathways, and silencing of either one promotes neuronal survival. In human neuroblastoma cells infected with rabies virus (RABV), the C-terminal PDZ domain of the viral glycoprotein (G protein) can target MAST2-PDZ, and RABV infection triggers neuronal survival in a PDZ-BS-dependent fashion. These findings suggest that the PTEN-MAST2 complex inhibits neuronal survival and that viral G protein disrupts this complex through competition with PTEN for binding to MAST2-PDZ. We showed that the C-terminal sequences of PTEN and the viral G protein bound to MAST2-PDZ with similar affinities. Nuclear magnetic resonance structures of these complexes exhibited similar large interaction surfaces, providing a structural basis for their binding specificities. Additionally, the viral G protein promoted the nuclear exclusion of PTEN in infected neuroblastoma cells in a PDZ-BS-dependent manner without altering total PTEN abundance. These findings suggest that formation of the PTEN-MAST2 complex is specifically affected by the viral G protein and emphasize how disruption of a critical protein-protein interaction regulates intracellular PTEN trafficking. In turn, the data show how the viral protein might be used to decipher the underlying molecular mechanisms and to clarify how the subcellular localization of PTEN regulates neuronal survival.

  14. Mast cell chymase potentiates histamine-induced wheal formation in the skin of ragweed-allergic dogs.

    OpenAIRE

    Rubinstein, I; Nadel, J A; Graf, P D; Caughey, G H

    1990-01-01

    Skin mast cells release the neutral protease chymase along with histamine during degranulation. To test the hypothesis that chymase modulates histamine-induced plasma extravasation, we measured wheal formation following intradermal injection of purified mast cell chymase and histamine into the skin of ragweed-allergic dogs. We found that chymase greatly augments histamine-induced wheal formation. The magnitude of the potentiating effect increases with increasing doses of chymase and becomes m...

  15. Mast cell stabilization alleviates acute lung injury after orthotopic autologous liver transplantation in rats by downregulating inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailan Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acute lung injury (ALI is one of the most severe complications after orthotopic liver transplantation. Amplified inflammatory response after transplantation contributes to the process of ALI, but the mechanism underlying inflammation activation is not completely understood. We have demonstrated that mast cell stabilization attenuated inflammation and ALI in a rodent intestine ischemia/reperfusion model. We hypothesized that upregulation of inflammation triggered by mast cell activation may be involve in ALI after liver transplantation. METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received orthotopic autologous liver transplantation (OALT and were executed 4, 8, 16, and 24 h after OALT. The rats were pretreated with the mast cell stabilizers cromolyn sodium or ketotifen 15 min before OALT and executed 8 h after OALT. Lung tissues and arterial blood were collected to evaluate lung injury. β-hexosaminidase and mast cell tryptase levels were assessed to determine the activation of mast cells. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, interleukin (IL-1β and IL-6 in serum and lung tissue were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB p65 translocation was assessed by Western blot. RESULTS: The rats that underwent OALT exhibited severe pulmonary damage with a high wet-to-dry ratio, low partial pressure of oxygen, and low precursor surfactant protein C levels, which corresponded to the significant elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, β-hexosaminidase, and tryptase levels in serum and lung tissues. The severity of ALI progressed and maximized 8 h after OALT. Mast cell stabilization significantly inhibited the activation of mast cells, downregulated pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and translocation of NF-κB, and attenuated OALT-induced ALI. CONCLUSIONS: Mast cell activation amplified inflammation and played an important role in the process of post-OALT related ALI.

  16. Roles for NHERF1 and NHERF2 on the regulation of C3a receptor signaling in human mast cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hariharan Subramanian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The anaphylatoxin C3a binds to the G protein coupled receptor (GPCR, C3aR and activates divergent signaling pathways to induce degranulation and cytokine production in human mast cells. Adapter proteins such as the Na(+/H(+ exchange regulatory factor (NHERF1 and NHERF2 have been implicated in regulating functions of certain GPCRs by binding to the class I PDZ (PSD-95/Dlg/Zo1 motifs present on their cytoplasmic tails. Although C3aR possesses a class I PDZ motif, the possibility that it interacts with NHERF proteins to modulate signaling in human mast cells has not been determined. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using reverse transcription PCR and Western blotting, we found that NHERF1 and NHERF2 are expressed in human mast cell lines (HMC-1, LAD2 and CD34(+-derived primary human mast cells. Surprisingly, however, C3aR did not associate with these adapter proteins. To assess the roles of NHERFs on signaling downstream of C3aR, we used lentiviral shRNA to stably knockdown the expression of these proteins in human mast cells. Silencing the expression of NHERF1 and NHERF2 had no effect on C3aR desensitization, agonist-induced receptor internalization, ERK/Akt phosphorylation or chemotaxis. However, loss of NHERF1 and NHERF2 resulted in significant inhibition of C3a-induced mast cell degranulation, NF-κB activation and chemokine production. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrates that although C3aR possesses a class I PDZ motif, it does not associate with NHERF1 and NHERF2. Surprisingly, these proteins provide stimulatory signals for C3a-induced degranulation, NF-κB activation and chemokine generation in human mast cells. These findings reveal a new level of complexity for the functional regulation of C3aR by NHERFs in human mast cells.

  17. Mast Cells Density in Fibrotic Capsule of Enchondroma and Well-Differentiated Chondrosarcoma: A Method for Histopathologic Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Kharazi Fard

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: An enchondroma is a benign and a well-differentiated chondrosarcoma is an invasive chondroid tumor with high recurrence potential. In spite of biologic differences, these two tumors have very similar histopathologic appearance. It has been shown that the biologic nature of the connective tissue around benign and malignant tumors varies in the number of mast cells. The aim of this study was to study the histopathologic distinction of enchondroma and well-differentiated chondrosarcoma using the density of the mast cells in fibrotic capsule. Methods: Twelve enchondroma and 15 well-differentiated chondrosarcoma were collected from Pathology department of Cancer Institute and Central Pathology department of Imam Khomeini Hospital in Tehran. 3 micron paraffin embedded tissue sections were stained by toluidine blue for mast cells counting. Mast cells were counted in fibrous capsule of all cases. Mast cells counts were accomplished in 10 high power fields .The average number of mast cells in 10HPF was determined as an index for each lesion. Mann-Whitney U test was used for statistical analysis. Results: Mean index in enchondroma and well-differentiated chondrosarcoma groups were 0.1±0.12 and 0.31±0.33 respectively, showing a significant difference between number of mast cells in the fibrotic capsule in these two lesions (p=0.028. Comparison of the corresponding points in ROC curve, showed a cut-off point = 0.15, with positive predictive value of 61%, negative predictive value 71%, specificity of 33.3% and sensitivity of 66.7%, (p=0.025. Conclusion: Average density of the mast cells in the surrounding fibrotic capsules of enchondroma and well-differentiated chondrosarcoma along with other criterions, could be a beneficial factor for histologically differentiation between these two lesions.

  18. FoxP3+ regulatory T cells, interleukin 17 and mast cells in chronic inflammatory periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parachuru, V P B; Coates, D E; Milne, T J; Rich, A M; Seymour, G J

    2018-04-06

    T cells are known to play a pivotal role in periodontal disease; however, less is known about the T-helper subsets of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and Th17 cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the cell types expressing FoxP3 and interleukin (IL)-17A within periodontal disease tissues and to determine gene and protein expression profiles associated with periodontitis. A total of 10 healthy/gingivitis and 10 chronic periodontitis tissues were investigated. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence techniques were used to identify the FoxP3 and IL17-positive cells and to determine the cell types respectively. Gene expression was determined using semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction array technology that allowed the analysis of 84 pathway-focused genes known to be associated with Tregs and Th17 cells. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, IL10 and IL17A protein levels were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Double immunofluorescence labeling revealed that all FoxP3 + cells were CD4 + , while IL17 + cells were neither CD4 + nor CD8 + but were tryptase + , suggestive of mast cells. More FoxP3 + cells than IL17 + cells were found in all the tissues examined and overall there were few IL17 + cells. Statistically significant increases in gene expression were found for STAT5A, STAT3, SOCS1, TGFβ1 and IL10 in the chronic periodontitis specimens predominantly infiltrated with B cells and plasma cells when compared with healthy/gingivitis specimens predominantly infiltrated with T cells. Protein analysis demonstrated higher levels of the TGFβ1 and IL10 cytokines in periodontitis tissues and in B-cell and plasma cell predominant gingival tissues than in healthy/gingivitis tissues and T-cell predominant gingival tissues. IL17A gene and protein expression was not detected in any of the tissues. Based on the findings of this study, we suggest that the source of low levels of IL17A in periodontal tissues is mast cells not Th17 cells and that

  19. Ameliorative effects of type-A procyanidins polyphenols from cinnamon bark in compound 48/80-induced mast cell degranulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandhare, Amit D.; Aswar, Urmila M.; Mohan, Vishwaraman

    2017-01-01

    Allergic diseases are a significant health concern in developing countries. Type-A procyanidin polyphenols from cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume) bark (TAPP-CZ) possesses antiasthmatic and antiallergic potential. The present study was aimed at the possible anti-allergic mechanism of TAPP-CZ against the compound 48/80 (C48/80)–induced mast cell degranulation in isolated rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMCs). TAPP-CZ (1, 3, 10, and 30 µg/ml) was incubated for 3 hours with isolated, purified RPMCs. The C48/80 (1 µg/ml) was used to induce mast cell degranulation. The mast cell viability was assessed using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay whereas histamine, β-hexosaminidase (β-HEX), and interleukin-4 (IL-4) levels were determined in RPMCs. TAPP-CZ (3, 10, and 30 µg/ml) showed significant and dose-dependent decrease in a number of degranulated cells and levels of markers (histamine, β-HEX, and IL-4) as compared with C48/80 control. In conclusion, TAPP-CZ stabilizes mast cell and cause inhibition of the allergic markers such as histamine, IL-4, and β-HEX in IgE-mediated manner. The present study supports mast cell stabilization as a possible mechanism of action of TAPP-CZ against immune respiratory disorders such as asthma and allergic rhinitis. PMID:29354299

  20. Lipid mediator metabolic profiling demonstrates differences in eicosanoid patterns in two phenotypically distinct mast cell populations[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundström, Susanna L.; Saluja, Rohit; Adner, Mikael; Haeggström, Jesper Z.; Nilsson, Gunnar; Wheelock, Craig E.

    2013-01-01

    Mast cells are inflammatory cells that play key roles in health and disease. They are distributed in all tissues and appear in two main phenotypes, connective tissue and mucosal mast cells, with differing capacities to release inflammatory mediators. A metabolic profiling approach was used to obtain a more comprehensive understanding of the ability of mast cell phenotypes to produce eicosanoids and other lipid mediators. A total of 90 lipid mediators (oxylipins) were characterized using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), representing the cyclooxygenase (COX), lipoxygenase (LO), and cytochrome P450 (CYP) metabolic pathways. In vitro-derived murine mucosal-like mast cells (MLMC) and connective tissue-like mast cells (CTLMC) exhibited distinct mRNA expression patterns of enzymes involved in oxylipin biosynthesis. Oxylipins produced by 5-LO and COX pathways were the predominant species in both phenotypes, with 5-LO products constituting 90 ± 2% of the CTLMCs compared with 58 ± 8% in the MLMCs. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that CTLMCs and MLMCs secrete differing oxylipin profiles at baseline and following calcium ionophore stimulation, evidencing specificity in both a time- and biosynthetic pathway-dependent manner. In addition to the COX-regulated prostaglandin PGD2 and 5-LO-regulated cysteinyl-leukotrienes (e.g., LTC4), several other mediators evidenced phenotype-specificity, which may have biological implications in mast cell-mediated regulation of inflammatory responses. PMID:23034214