WorldWideScience

Sample records for technology marine mechanics

  1. China Lags behind in Marine Resources Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢布; 杨瑞珍; 陈印军; 吴凯; 张燕卿

    2007-01-01

    With the growing need for resources brought about by economic development, countries throughout the world have attached greater importance to the development and exploitation of marine resources.However,the scope and sphere of marine resources development are limited by the development level of marine resources technology.This paper introduces the achievements and problems of China’s marine resources development and exploitation,as well as the achievements,advantages and disadvantages in the scientific and technological development of our marine resources.It also discusses the general aims,key fields,preferred options and advanced techniques in the development of marine resources technology during the 11th Five-Year Plan,and offers policy suggestions for enhancing the creative abilities of marine resources technology.

  2. Marine information technology - Indian Ocean scenario

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nayak, M.R.; Gouveia, A.D.; Navelkar, G.S.; Singh, K.

    explorers, the marine data has not turned into information. The information thus gathered needs to lead into knowledge, knowledge to intelligence and finally the intelligence leads to wisdom. Information technology (IT) is a tool to this transformation...

  3. Integration technology research on marine geographical information system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Cunjin; SU Fenzhen; DU Yunyan; YANG Xiaomei

    2008-01-01

    It is urgent and necessary to integrate a marine geographical information system (MGIS) with marine remote sensing detection modules.On the basis of the current technology and features of applications,an open three-layer integration framework is de-signed.At the data layer,a two-level three-base integration mechanism based on the plug-in technology is applied;At the func-tion layer,an integration mode based on API,DLL,EXE and COM is discussed;and at the application layer,a sharing mecha-nism based on the clients/service is adopted.As an example,the remote sensing integrated application information system of Chinas coastal zone and offshore (MaXplorer1.0) with multiecology remote sensing fusion and assimilation module,surge detec-tion module as well as eight other thematic application modules is integrated,and the key technology of integration is discussed at different layers and in different modules.The result shows that it is possible to realize the conformity of technology and resources and to provide the incorporate technology platform for marine information operational functioning after applying the integration framework.

  4. Deployment Effects of Marin Renewable Energy Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian Polagye; Mirko Previsic

    2010-06-17

    Given proper care in siting, design, deployment, operation and maintenance, marine and hydrokinetic technologies could become one of the more environmentally benign sources of electricity generation. In order to accelerate the adoption of these emerging hydrokinetic and marine energy technologies, navigational and environmental concerns must be identified and addressed. All developing hydrokinetic projects involve a wide variety of stakeholders. One of the key issues that site developers face as they engage with this range of stakeholders is that many of the possible conflicts (e.g., shipping and fishing) and environmental issues are not well-understood, due to a lack of technical certainty. In September 2008, re vision consulting, LLC was selected by the Department of Energy (DoE) to apply a scenario-based approach to the emerging wave and tidal technology sectors in order to evaluate the impact of these technologies on the marine environment and potentially conflicting uses. The project’s scope of work includes the establishment of baseline scenarios for wave and tidal power conversion at potential future deployment sites. The scenarios will capture variations in technical approaches and deployment scales to properly identify and characterize environmental impacts and navigational effects. The goal of the project is to provide all stakeholders with an improved understanding of the potential effects of these emerging technologies and focus all stakeholders onto the critical issues that need to be addressed. This groundwork will also help in streamlining siting and associated permitting processes, which are considered key hurdles for the industry’s development in the U.S. today. Re vision is coordinating its efforts with two other project teams funded by DoE which are focused on regulatory and navigational issues. The results of this study are structured into three reports: 1. Wave power scenario description 2. Tidal power scenario description 3. Framework for

  5. Marine Ecological Environment Management Based on Ecological Compensation Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qunzhen Qu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The level of marine environmental management is a key factor in the successful implementation of marine power strategies. The improvement in management levels of marine environments requires innovation in marine management. In other words, the transformation of marine environmental management into marine ecological environment management must be done in order to achieve sustainable development of the marine economy. As an environmental economic policy that combines both administrative and market measures, ecological compensation mechanisms have significant advantages in marine ecological environment management. Based on the study of the current development of ecological compensation mechanisms in China, through the analysis of the connotation of marine ecological civilization, existing marine ecological protection practices and marine environmental management methods, this paper posits that the current marine ecological environment management in China should be established on the basis of ecological compensation mechanisms. At present, a lack of laws and regulations for overall marine ecological environment management is the key factor restricting the practice of marine ecological environment management. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the current path of marine ecological environment management in China from the perspective of the construction of legal system of ecological compensation law, the establishment of ecological compensation fees, ecological taxes and ecological compensation fund systems, and the clear status for a marine ecological management and supervision body.

  6. Deployment Effects of Marin Renewable Energy Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian Polagye; Mirko Previsic

    2010-06-17

    Given proper care in siting, design, deployment, operation and maintenance, marine and hydrokinetic technologies could become one of the more environmentally benign sources of electricity generation. In order to accelerate the adoption of these emerging hydrokinetic and marine energy technologies, navigational and environmental concerns must be identified and addressed. All developing hydrokinetic projects involve a wide variety of stakeholders. One of the key issues that site developers face as they engage with this range of stakeholders is that many of the possible conflicts (e.g., shipping and fishing) and environmental issues are not well-understood, due to a lack of technical certainty. In September 2008, re vision consulting, LLC was selected by the Department of Energy (DoE) to apply a scenario-based approach to the emerging wave and tidal technology sectors in order to evaluate the impact of these technologies on the marine environment and potentially conflicting uses. The project’s scope of work includes the establishment of baseline scenarios for wave and tidal power conversion at potential future deployment sites. The scenarios will capture variations in technical approaches and deployment scales to properly identify and characterize environmental impacts and navigational effects. The goal of the project is to provide all stakeholders with an improved understanding of the potential effects of these emerging technologies and focus all stakeholders onto the critical issues that need to be addressed. This groundwork will also help in streamlining siting and associated permitting processes, which are considered key hurdles for the industry’s development in the U.S. today. Re vision is coordinating its efforts with two other project teams funded by DoE which are focused on regulatory and navigational issues. The results of this study are structured into three reports: 1. Wave power scenario description 2. Tidal power scenario description 3. Framework for

  7. Lightening the Load: Toning the Marine Corps’ Information Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-18

    other services Marine Corps information technology was, and the first time I was ever embarrassed by that knowledge. Today the Marine Corps is just...its efforts and develop lighter, smaller, simpler, scalable, autonomous, and common information technology for all echelons of Command throughout the...MAGTF to maintain its expeditionary nature. To maintain its edge as the nation’s force-in-readiness, the Corps needs its information technology equipment

  8. Bioreactor technology in marine microbiology: from design to future application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Arends, Jan B A; Van de Wiele, Tom; Boon, Nico

    2011-01-01

    Marine micro-organisms have been playing highly diverse roles over evolutionary time: they have defined the chemistry of the oceans and atmosphere. During the last decades, the bioreactors with novel designs have become an important tool to study marine microbiology and ecology in terms of: marine microorganism cultivation and deep-sea bioprocess characterization; unique bio-chemical product formation and intensification; marine waste treatment and clean energy generation. In this review we briefly summarize the current status of the bioreactor technology applied in marine microbiology and the critical parameters to take into account during the reactor design. Furthermore, when we look at the growing population, as well as, the pollution in the coastal areas of the world, it is urgent to find sustainable practices that beneficially stimulate both the economy and the natural environment. Here we outlook a few possibilities where innovative bioreactor technology can be applied to enhance energy generation and food production without harming the local marine ecosystem.

  9. Mechanics for materials and technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Goldstein, Robert; Murashkin, Evgenii

    2017-01-01

    This book shows impressively how complex mathematical modeling of materials can be applied to technological problems. Top-class researchers present the theoretical approaches in modern mechanics and apply them to real-world problems in solid mechanics, creep, plasticity, fracture, impact, and friction. They show how they can be applied to technological challenges in various fields like aerospace technology, biological sciences and modern engineering materials.

  10. The Antiviral Activities and Mechanisms of Marine Polysaccharides: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Shi-Xin; Guan, Hua-Shi

    2012-01-01

    Recently, the studies on the antiviral activities of marine natural products, especially marine polysaccharides, are attracting more and more attention all over the world. Marine-derived polysaccharides and their lower molecular weight oligosaccharide derivatives have been shown to possess a variety of antiviral activities. This paper will review the recent progress in research on the antiviral activities and the mechanisms of these polysaccharides obtained from marine organisms. In particular, it will provide an update on the antiviral actions of the sulfated polysaccharides derived from marine algae including carrageenans, alginates, and fucans, relating to their structure features and the structure–activity relationships. In addition, the recent findings on the different mechanisms of antiviral actions of marine polysaccharides and their potential for therapeutic application will also be summarized in detail. PMID:23235364

  11. The Antiviral Activities and Mechanisms of Marine Polysaccharides: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Shi Guan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the studies on the antiviral activities of marine natural products, especially marine polysaccharides, are attracting more and more attention all over the world. Marine-derived polysaccharides and their lower molecular weight oligosaccharide derivatives have been shown to possess a variety of antiviral activities. This paper will review the recent progress in research on the antiviral activities and the mechanisms of these polysaccharides obtained from marine organisms. In particular, it will provide an update on the antiviral actions of the sulfated polysaccharides derived from marine algae including carrageenans, alginates, and fucans, relating to their structure features and the structure–activity relationships. In addition, the recent findings on the different mechanisms of antiviral actions of marine polysaccharides and their potential for therapeutic application will also be summarized in detail.

  12. MarineMap: Web-Based Technology for Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, W.; Ferdana, Z.; Merrifield, M.; Steinback, C.; Marinemap Consortium

    2010-12-01

    Science, technology and stakeholder engagement are at the heart of marine spatial planning (MSP). Yet, most stakeholders are not scientists or technologists. MarineMap (http://northcoast.marinemap.org) is a web-based decision support tool developed specifically for use by non-technical stakeholders in marine protected area (MPA) planning. However, MarineMap has been developed so that it may be extended to virtually any MSP project where there is a need for (a) visualization and analysis of geospatial data, (b) siting prospective use areas (e.g., for wind or wave energy sites, MPAs, transportation routes), (c) collaboration and communication amongst stakeholders, and (d) transparency of the process to the public. MarineMap is extremely well documented, is based on free and open source technologies and, therefore, may be implemented by anyone without licensing fees. Furthermore, the underlying technologies are extremely flexible and extensible, making it ideal for incorporating new models (e.g., tradeoff analyses, cumulative impacts, etc.) as they are identified for specific MSP projects. We will demonstrate how MarineMap has been developed for MPA planning in California, human impact assessment and MSP on the West Coast, energy and conservation planning in Oregon, and explain how interested parties may access MarineMap's source code and contribute to development.

  13. Marine proteomics: a critical assessment of an emerging technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Marc; Ankisetty, Sridevi; Corrales, Jone; Marsh-Hunkin, K Erica; Gochfeld, Deborah J; Willett, Kristine L; Rimoldi, John M

    2012-10-26

    The application of proteomics to marine sciences has increased in recent years because the proteome represents the interface between genotypic and phenotypic variability and, thus, corresponds to the broadest possible biomarker for eco-physiological responses and adaptations. Likewise, proteomics can provide important functional information regarding biosynthetic pathways, as well as insights into mechanism of action, of novel marine natural products. The goal of this review is to (1) explore the application of proteomics methodologies to marine systems, (2) assess the technical approaches that have been used, and (3) evaluate the pros and cons of this proteomic research, with the intent of providing a critical analysis of its future roles in marine sciences. To date, proteomics techniques have been utilized to investigate marine microbe, plant, invertebrate, and vertebrate physiology, developmental biology, seafood safety, susceptibility to disease, and responses to environmental change. However, marine proteomics studies often suffer from poor experimental design, sample processing/optimization difficulties, and data analysis/interpretation issues. Moreover, a major limitation is the lack of available annotated genomes and proteomes for most marine organisms, including several "model species". Even with these challenges in mind, there is no doubt that marine proteomics is a rapidly expanding and powerful integrative molecular research tool from which our knowledge of the marine environment, and the natural products from this resource, will be significantly expanded.

  14. 77 FR 55482 - Public Workshop on Marine Technology and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... Arlington, VA. This public workshop will provide a unique opportunity for classification societies, industry... technological impacts on the marine industry, corresponding coverage in related codes and standards, and... register for the workshop. ADDRESSES: The workshop will be held at The Double Tree by Hilton Hotel, in...

  15. Marine bioacoustics and technology: The new world of marine acoustic ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Mardi C.; Au, Whitlow W. L.

    2012-11-01

    Marine animals use sound for communication, navigation, predator avoidance, and prey detection. Thus the rise in acoustic energy associated with increasing human activity in the ocean has potential to impact the lives of marine animals. Thirty years ago marine bioacoustics primarily focused on evaluating effects of human-generated sound on hearing and behavior by testing captive animals and visually observing wild animals. Since that time rapidly changing electronic and computing technologies have yielded three tools that revolutionized how bioacousticians study marine animals. These tools are (1) portable systems for measuring electrophysiological auditory evoked potentials, (2) miniaturized tags equipped with positioning sensors and acoustic recording devices for continuous short-term acoustical observation rather than intermittent visual observation, and (3) passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) systems for remote long-term acoustic observations at specific locations. The beauty of these breakthroughs is their direct applicability to wild animals in natural habitats rather than only to animals held in captivity. Hearing capabilities of many wild species including polar bears, beaked whales, and reef fishes have now been assessed by measuring their auditory evoked potentials. Miniaturized acoustic tags temporarily attached to an animal to record its movements and acoustic environment have revealed the acoustic foraging behavior of sperm and beaked whales. Now tags are being adapted to fishes in effort to understand their behavior in the presence of noise. Moving and static PAM systems automatically detect and characterize biological and physical features of an ocean area without adding any acoustic energy to the environment. PAM is becoming a powerful technique for understanding and managing marine habitats. This paper will review the influence of these transformative tools on the knowledge base of marine bioacoustics and elucidation of relationships between marine

  16. Trends in the development of unmanned marine technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olejnik Adam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article constitutes an attempt to identify current tendencies regarding the development of unmanned marine technologies such as unmanned surface and underwater vehicles. The analyses were performed on the basis of available literature, databases on research projects and internet sources. The material has been divided with regard to the location the research was conducted, the following groups being identified: the European Union, the United States of America and Poland. On the basis of the review of objectives and final effects of projects, tendencies in the development of the discussed marine technology have been identified. An interesting result of the review consists in an observation that Polish R&D works in this area are placed within the main identified developmental trends. Unfortunately, their effects are incomparable due to the minuteness of national funds allocated to R&D as opposed to other countries.

  17. On Physical and Mechanical Behavior of Natural Marine Intermediate Deposites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Ming-lei; DENG Xue-jun

    2005-01-01

    Coastal structures may be built on natural sedimentary intermediate grounds, which mainly consist of silty soils and fine sandy soils. In this study, extensive field and laboratory tests were performed on the natural marine intermediate deposits to demonstrate the difference in behavior between natural marine clayey soils and natural marine intermediate deposits. The natural intermediate deposits have almost the same ratios of natural water content to liquid limit as those of the soft natural marine clays, but the former have much higher in-situ strength and sensitivity than the latter. The research results indicate that grain size distributions of soils affect significantly tip resistance obtained in field cone penetration tests. The mechanical parameters of natural marine intermediate deposits are also significantly affected by sample disturbance due to their high sensitivity and relatively large permeability. Unconfined compression shear tests largely underestimate the strength of natural marine intermediate soils. The triaxial consolidated compression shear tests with simulated in-situ confined pressure give results much better than those of uncomfined compression shear tests.

  18. "BOTTLENECK" AND COUNTERMEASURE OF HIGH-TECHNOLOGIZATION OF MARINE INDUSTRY IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUAN Wei-xin

    2004-01-01

    This article deeply researched into the existent five problems and four main "bottlenecks" in the high-technologization of marine industry in China on the basis of analyzing the new trends in international marine problems and the necessity of implementing the strategy of developing China based on marine. This article brought up specific measures to the five "bottlenecks" according to the situations, and pointed out that new marine industry should be high-technologization and the traditional marine industry should be reformed by high-technique. The research results may provide the scientific basis for realizing the high-technologization of marine industry in China.

  19. PV Systems Installed in Marine Vessels: Technologies and Specifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Kobougias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerations are held about the specificationin whichthe PV plants have to fulfill so that they can be installed on marine vessels. Initially, a brief description of the typical electrical grid of ships is presented, distinguishing the main parts, reporting the typical electrical magnitudes, and choosing the most preferable installation areas. The technical specifications,in whichthe PV plants have to be compatible with, are fully described. They are determined by the special marine environmental conditions, taking into consideration parameters like wind, humidity, shading, corrosion, and limited installation area. The work is carried out with the presentation of the most popular trends in the field of solar cell types and PV system technologies and their ability to keep up with the aforementioned specifications.

  20. Visualising Actor Network for Cooperative Systems in Marine Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pan, Yushan; Finken, Sisse

    2016-01-01

    are created to tackle challenges concerning human activities and their social interactions with regards to safety concerns in operation. This paper draws on fieldwork conducted in a marine setting of offshore operations. It presents an attempt to visualise the importance of cooperative work activities......Awareness is a concept familiar to specialists within the field of Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW). It is superior for analysing and describing some of the ad hoc work activities that unfold in cooperation. Such informal activities are outside the scope of engineers’ formal models, which...... that shape computer systems. The aim, thus, is to portray cooperative work in a way that can be valuable for engineers implementing marine technology. We do so by way of presenting a transferring technique (2T) using insights from the CSCW field and Actor Network Theory (ANT)....

  1. Advances in Inertial Measurement Technology for Marine Motion Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Håndlykken

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the function of an inertial "strap down" attitude sensor based on solid state Coriolis force rate gyros, accelerometers and magnetic sensor. Performance is analyzed taking into account the typical excitations in attitude and linear motion seen in marine applications. The use is for control of fast crafts, ROV and AUV heading, roll, pitch and heave control. The influence on performance given by utilization of external information from velocity log and more accurate heading devices is also analyzed. Typical performance of this low cost type of technology is shown.

  2. Phosphorus physiological ecology and molecular mechanisms in marine phytoplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Senjie; Litaker, Richard Wayne; Sunda, William G

    2016-02-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for marine phytoplankton and indeed all life forms. Current data show that P availability is growth-limiting in certain marine systems and can impact algal species composition. Available P occurs in marine waters as dissolved inorganic phosphate (primarily orthophosphate [Pi]) or as a myriad of dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) compounds. Despite numerous studies on P physiology and ecology and increasing research on genomics in marine phytoplankton, there have been few attempts to synthesize information from these different disciplines. This paper is aimed to integrate the physiological and molecular information on the acquisition, utilization, and storage of P in marine phytoplankton and the strategies used by these organisms to acclimate and adapt to variations in P availability. Where applicable, we attempt to identify gaps in our current knowledge that warrant further research and examine possible metabolic pathways that might occur in phytoplankton from well-studied bacterial models. Physical and chemical limitations governing cellular P uptake are explored along with physiological and molecular mechanisms to adapt and acclimate to temporally and spatially varying P nutrient regimes. Topics covered include cellular Pi uptake and feedback regulation of uptake systems, enzymatic utilization of DOP, P acquisition by phagotrophy, P-limitation of phytoplankton growth in oceanic and coastal waters, and the role of P-limitation in regulating cell size and toxin levels in phytoplankton. Finally, we examine the role of P and other nutrients in the transition of phytoplankton communities from early succession species (diatoms) to late succession ones (e.g., dinoflagellates and haptophytes).

  3. Integrating Augmented Reality Technology to Enhance Children's Learning in Marine Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Su-Ju; Liu, Ying-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    Marine education comprises rich and multifaceted issues. Raising general awareness of marine environments and issues demands the development of new learning materials. This study adapts concepts from digital game-based learning to design an innovative marine learning program integrating augmented reality (AR) technology for lower grade primary…

  4. Integrating Augmented Reality Technology to Enhance Children's Learning in Marine Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Su-Ju; Liu, Ying-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    Marine education comprises rich and multifaceted issues. Raising general awareness of marine environments and issues demands the development of new learning materials. This study adapts concepts from digital game-based learning to design an innovative marine learning program integrating augmented reality (AR) technology for lower grade primary…

  5. Marine and Hydrokinetic Technology Development Risk Management Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snowberg, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Weber, Jochem [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Over the past decade, the global marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) industry has suffered a number of serious technological and commercial setbacks. To help reduce the risks of industry failures and advance the development of new technologies, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed an MHK Risk Management Framework. By addressing uncertainties, the MHK Risk Management Framework increases the likelihood of successful development of an MHK technology. It covers projects of any technical readiness level (TRL) or technical performance level (TPL) and all risk types (e.g. technological risk, regulatory risk, commercial risk) over the development cycle. This framework is intended for the development and deployment of a single MHK technology—not for multiple device deployments within a plant. This risk framework is intended to meet DOE’s risk management expectations for the MHK technology research and development efforts of the Water Power Program (see Appendix A). It also provides an overview of other relevant risk management tools and documentation.1 This framework emphasizes design and risk reviews as formal gates to ensure risks are managed throughout the technology development cycle. Section 1 presents the recommended technology development cycle, Sections 2 and 3 present tools to assess the TRL and TPL of the project, respectively. Section 4 presents a risk management process with design and risk reviews for actively managing risk within the project, and Section 5 presents a detailed description of a risk registry to collect the risk management information into one living document. Section 6 presents recommendations for collecting and using lessons learned throughout the development process.

  6. 78 FR 49287 - Environmental Assessment for Potential Lease Issuance and Marine Hydrokinetic Technology Testing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... well as identification of important environmental issues associated with data collection and technology... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Environmental Assessment for Potential Lease Issuance and Marine Hydrokinetic Technology Testing Offshore Florida AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM),...

  7. Basic theory and key technologies for marine geographic information system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Fenzhen; YANG Xiaomei; XU Jun; ZHANG Tianyu; LUO Jiancheng

    2006-01-01

    Marine geographic information system (MGIS) has great ability to deal with the spatio-temporal problems and has potential superiority when it is applied to oceanography. Using the feature extraction of oceanic phenomena as a case study, the functions of the MGIS are analyzed, and thus the position of MGIS in the oceanography is defined. Comparing the requirement of MGIS with that of the traditional GIS which has been developed in the terrestrial applications in the past four decades, the frame for the functions of MGIS is constructed. According to the established MGIS, some key technologies are discussed in detail with emphasis on the specialities which can distinguish the MGIS from the traditional GIS.

  8. Applying Sensor Web Technology to Marine Sensor Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirka, Simon; del Rio, Joaquin; Mihai Toma, Daniel; Nüst, Daniel; Stasch, Christoph; Delory, Eric

    2015-04-01

    In this contribution we present two activities illustrating how Sensor Web technology helps to enable a flexible and interoperable sharing of marine observation data based on standards. An important foundation is the Sensor Web Architecture developed by the European FP7 project NeXOS (Next generation Low-Cost Multifunctional Web Enabled Ocean Sensor Systems Empowering Marine, Maritime and Fisheries Management). This architecture relies on the Open Geospatial Consortium's (OGC) Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) framework. It is an exemplary solution for facilitating the interoperable exchange of marine observation data within and between (research) organisations. The architecture addresses a series of functional and non-functional requirements which are fulfilled through different types of OGC SWE components. The diverse functionalities offered by the NeXOS Sensor Web architecture are shown in the following overview: - Pull-based observation data download: This is achieved through the OGC Sensor Observation Service (SOS) 2.0 interface standard. - Push-based delivery of observation data to allow users the subscription to new measurements that are relevant for them: For this purpose there are currently several specification activities under evaluation (e.g. OGC Sensor Event Service, OGC Publish/Subscribe Standards Working Group). - (Web-based) visualisation of marine observation data: Implemented through SOS client applications. - Configuration and controlling of sensor devices: This is ensured through the OGC Sensor Planning Service 2.0 interface. - Bridging between sensors/data loggers and Sensor Web components: For this purpose several components such as the "Smart Electronic Interface for Sensor Interoperability" (SEISI) concept are developed; this is complemented by a more lightweight SOS extension (e.g. based on the W3C Efficient XML Interchange (EXI) format). To further advance this architecture, there is on-going work to develop dedicated profiles of selected OGC

  9. Key Drivers of Marines Willingness to Adopt Energy-Efficient Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    is reaping the reward. He doesn’t have to leave and go on a patrol to go get more batteries. He is able to just put a charger out. To me, that is...struggle right now to get Marines into courses—generator, mechanics courses and so forth. So if we get this influx of new technology, if we are...He is able to just put a charger out. To me, that is an easy sell but you are going to need to convince people that it is probably going to be at

  10. 75 FR 8099 - Public Workshop on Marine Technology and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... Composite Pressure Vessels Coating Selection Risk/Hazard Mitigation Transporting CNG as Cargo Shipboard Fire..., electrical & mechanical systems, lifesaving and fire safety equipment, and related equipment approval and..., including: Green Ship Technology Hydrogen Fuel Cell Propulsion Standards for H 2 Storage and...

  11. Bioreactor technology in marine microbiology: From design to future application

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yu; Arends, Jan B.A.; van de Wiele, Tom; Boon, Nico

    2011-01-01

    Marine micro-organisms have been playing highly diverse roles over evolutionary time: they have defined the chemistry of the oceans and atmosphere. During the last decades, the bioreactors with novel designs have become an important tool to study marine microbiology and ecology in terms of: marine microorganism cultivation and deep-sea bioprocess characterization; unique bio-chemical product formation and intensification; marine waste treatment and clean energy generation. In this review we b...

  12. Principles and application of transgenic technology in marine organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine organisms into which a foreign gene or noncoding DNA fragment is artificially introduced and stably integrated in their genomes are termed transgenic marine organisms. Since the first report in 1985, a wide range of transgenic fish and marine bivalve mollusks have been produced by microinjec...

  13. Research on the Evaluation of Marine Environmental Quality by Using the GIS Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立华; 李继龙; 葛常水; 李小恕; 贾静; 黄其泉

    2004-01-01

    Based on the biological resources surveys in China's exclusive economic zone, the paper discusses the application of the GIS technology in evaluating the marine environmental quality, establishes the basic concept and technological process for evaluating the environmental quality of the habitats of marine living resources, proposes the key points for the establishment of the relevant evaluationattributes database by applying the GIS technology and analyses several typical evaluation models and the data interpolation method for the model in GIS. Results show that the combination of the GIS technology with the quantitative evaluation model can be applied to the fast and accurate evaluation of the marine environmental quality.

  14. International Conference on Mechanical Engineering and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Mechanical Engineering and Technology

    2012-01-01

    The volume includes a set of selected papers extended and revised from the 2011 International Conference on Mechanical Engineering and Technology, held on London, UK, November 24-25, 2011.   Mechanical engineering technology is the application of physical principles and current technological developments to the creation of useful machinery and operation design. Technologies such as solid models may be used as the basis for finite element analysis (FEA) and / or computational fluid dynamics (CFD) of the design. Through the application of computer-aided manufacturing (CAM), the models may also be used directly by software to create "instructions" for the manufacture of objects represented by the models, through computer numerically controlled (CNC) machining or other automated processes, without the need for intermediate drawings.   This volume covers the subject areas of mechanical engineering and technology, and also covers interdisciplinary subject areas of computers, communications, control and automation...

  15. Creativity mechanism in technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, M.R.

    1986-01-01

    By training and experience in engineering I am able to converse in a few technical areas such as control systems and microprocessors. Today the subject is people and my only claim to credibility is as a person in the technical work force, enlightened by a certain amount of enthusiasm, observation and study. The subject is as important as it is interesting, and is literally the key to our collective future. I want to explore the mechanism of human innovation - the creative process. I will discuss the complementary roles of man and machines to provide a perspective of where man can function best. The mechanism we call the human mind is then briefly described. But the main thrust is a summary of the identifiable steps in the human creative process. Finally, I conclude with a statement on the evolution of ideas and offer suggestions on providing a supportive environment.

  16. Entrepreneurial awareness and skills in mechanical technology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in mechanical technology among technical education students in Tai Solarin University of Education. ... Journal Home > Vol 9, No 1 (2017) > ... The study applauded the management of the University for providing an enabling environment ...

  17. THE NEED TO ESTABLISH A MARINE SCIENCES TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM AT SHORELINE COMMUNITY COLLEGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TEEL, WARD; AND OTHERS

    DURING THE SUMMER OF 1966, FACULTY MEMBERS OF THE COLLEGE CONDUCTED AN INTERVIEW SURVEY TO DETERMINE THE FEASIBILITY OF ESTABLISHING A MARINE SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM. MANPOWER NEEDS OF 70 INDUSTRIES, INSTITUTIONS, AND GOVERNMENTAL AGENCIES CONCERNED WITH THE FIELDS OF OCEANOGRAPHY AND MARINE BIOLOGY WERE STUDIED IN TERMS OF JOBS PERFORMED BY…

  18. Deployment Effects of Marine Renewable Energy Technologies: Wave Energy Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirko Previsic

    2010-06-17

    Given proper care in siting, design, deployment, operation and maintenance, wave energy conversion could become one of the more environmentally benign sources of electricity generation. In order to accelerate the adoption of these emerging hydrokinetic and marine energy technologies, navigational and environmental concerns must be identified and addressed. All developing hydrokinetic projects involve a wide variety of stakeholders. One of the key issues that site developers face as they engage with this range of stakeholders is that, due to a lack of technical certainty, many of the possible conflicts (e.g., shipping and fishing) and environmental issues are not well-understood,. In September 2008, re vision consulting, LLC was selected by the Department of Energy (DoE) to apply a scenario-based assessment to the emerging hydrokinetic technology sector in order to evaluate the potential impact of these technologies on the marine environment and navigation constraints. The project’s scope of work includes the establishment of baseline scenarios for wave and tidal power conversion at potential future deployment sites. The scenarios capture variations in technical approaches and deployment scales to properly identify and characterize environmental effects and navigational effects. The goal of the project is to provide all stakeholders with an improved understanding of the potential range of technical attributes and potential effects of these emerging technologies and focus all stakeholders on the critical issues that need to be addressed. By identifying and addressing navigational and environmental concerns in the early stages of the industry’s development, serious mistakes that could potentially derail industry-wide development can be avoided. This groundwork will also help in streamlining siting and associated permitting processes, which are considered key hurdles for the industry’s development in the U.S. today. Re vision is coordinating its efforts with two

  19. [Halogenated natural products from the marine-derived actinobacteria and their halogenation mechanism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yi; Zhou, Hong-xia; Wang, Yi-guang; Gan, Mao-luo; Yang, Zhao-yong

    2013-09-01

    In the last decade, along with the development of taxonomy research in marine-derived actinobacteria, more and more halogenated natural products were discovered from marine actinobacteria. Most of them showed good biological activity and unique structure compared to those from land. The special halogenation mechanism in some compounds' biosynthesis has drawn great attention. So in this review, we focus on the halogenated natural products from marine actinobacteria and their halogenation mechanisms.

  20. Mechanical technology for higher engineering technicians

    CERN Document Server

    Black, Peter

    1972-01-01

    Mechanical Technology for Higher Engineering Technicians deals with the mechanics of machines, thermodynamics, and mechanics of fluids. This book presents discussions and examples that deal with the strength of materials, technology of machines, and techniques used by professional engineers. The book explains the strain energy of torsion, coil springs, and the effects of axial load. The author also discusses the forces that produce bending, shearing, and bending combined with direct stress, as well as beams subjected to a uniform bending moment or simply supported beams with concentrated non-c

  1. 77 FR 24734 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Renewable Energy Program Leasing for Marine Hydrokinetic Technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Renewable Energy Program Leasing for Marine Hydrokinetic Technology Testing Offshore Florida AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management...

  2. Using Hybrid Model to Evaluate Performance of Innovation and Technology Professionals in Marine Logistics Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qunzhen Qu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of marine logistics industry to grow, the government and corporate more and more attach importance to the performance evaluation of innovation and technology professionals. Combine the characteristics of marine logistics industry and innovative technology professionals to design a performance evaluation index of marine logistics industry in innovation and technology professionals, with the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP to determine the weights of the various performance indicatorsf and through the establishment of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model to make the problems of complex performance evaluation quantification and then come to their performance evaluation results, and provide reference methods and recommendations for innovation and technology professionals in performance evaluation theory and practice of marine logistics industry.

  3. The Technology of Non-thermal Plasma Assisted NH3-SCR Reduce Marine Diesel Emission and Aldehydes Byproducts Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Jiang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study describes briefly various after-treatment technologies in marine diesel engines and application difficulties of DPF and SCR are included. An experiment has been conducted using non-thermal plasma generated by Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD process assisted NH3-SCR catalyst to reduce the nitrogen oxides (NOx from diesel engine exhaust. The formation mechanism of byproducts-type such as HCHO and CH3CHO in the non-thermal plasma assisted NH3-SCR hybrid system.

  4. Profile and influence of the successful fisher-Inventor of marine conservation technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenkins Lekelia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Anecdotally it is often said that fishers are the best inventors of marine conservation technologies. In this paper I describe case studies of Turtle Excluder Devices (TEDs and dolphin conservation technology, offering empirical evidence that fishers are successful inventors of marine conservation technology. I describe the Local Inventor Effect, in which adoption of a technology is disproportionately high in the geographic area near the inventor′s home. In one case, the adoption of a local invention was 600% higher than that of the next most popular device. Further, I present the Successful Inventor Profile for inventors of marine conservation technologies. This profile consists of three characteristics (1 a successful conservation technology inventor will have extensive experience relevant to the problem and potential solutions, (2 he or she will have extensive experience in fabrication, and (3 he or she will have the ability and tendency to employ mental and/or physical models, to assemble and refine inventions.

  5. Marine and Hydrokinetic Technology (MHK) Instrumentation, Measurement, and Computer Modeling Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musial, W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lawson, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rooney, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-02-01

    The Marine and Hydrokinetic Technology (MHK) Instrumentation, Measurement, and Computer Modeling Workshop was hosted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Broomfield, Colorado, July 9–10, 2012. The workshop brought together over 60 experts in marine energy technologies to disseminate technical information to the marine energy community, and to collect information to help identify ways in which the development of a commercially viable marine energy industry can be accelerated. The workshop was comprised of plenary sessions that reviewed the state of the marine energy industry and technical sessions that covered specific topics of relevance. Each session consisted of presentations, followed by facilitated discussions. During the facilitated discussions, the session chairs posed several prepared questions to the presenters and audience to encourage communication and the exchange of ideas between technical experts. Following the workshop, attendees were asked to provide written feedback on their takeaways from the workshop and their best ideas on how to accelerate the pace of marine energy technology development. The first four sections of this document give a general overview of the workshop format, provide presentation abstracts, supply discussion session notes, and list responses to the post-workshop questions. The final section presents key findings and conclusions from the workshop that suggest what the most pressing MHK technology needs are and how the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and national laboratory resources can be utilized to assist the marine energy industry in the most effective manner.

  6. The Kyoto mechanisms and technological innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    Climate change response, including the implementation of the Kyoto targets as the first step, calls for technological innovation of future sustainable energy systems. Based on the Danish case, this paper evaluates the type of technological change necessary. During a period of 30 years, Denmark...... managed to stabilize primary energy supply, and CO2 emissions decreased by 10%, during a period of 20 years. However, after the introduction of the Kyoto Mechanisms, Denmark has changed its strategy. Instead of continuing the domestic CO2 emission controls, Denmark plans to buy CO2 reductions in other...... countries. Consequently, the innovative technological development has changed. This paper evaluates the character of such change and makes preliminary recommendations for policies to encourage the use of the Kyoto Mechanisms as an acceleration of the necessary technological innovation....

  7. Degradation and Mechanism of the Mechanics and Durability of Reinforced Concrete Slab in A Marine Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴胜兴; 刘冠国; 卞汉兵; 吕维波; 蒋建华

    2016-01-01

    An experimental research was conducted to determine the corrosion and bearing capacity of a reinforced concrete (RC) slab at different ages in a marine environment. Results showthat the development of corrosion-induced cracks on a slab in a marine environment can be divided into three stages according to crack morphology at the bottom of the slab. In the first stage, cracks appear. In the second stage, cracks develop from the edges to the middle of the slab. In the third stage, longitudinal and transverse corrosion-induced cracks coexist. The corrosion ratio of reinforcements nonlinearly increases with theage, and the relationship between the corrosion ratio of the reinforcements and the corrosion-induced crack width of the concrete is established. The flexural capacity of the corroded RC slab nonlinearly decreases with the age, and the model for the bearing capacity factor of the corroded RC slab is established. The mid-span deflection of the corroded RC slab that corresponds to the yield of the reinforcements linearly increases with the increase in corrosion ratio. Finally, the mechanisms of corrosion morphology and the degradation of the mechanical properties of an RC slab in a marine environment are discussed on the basis of the basic theories of steel corrosion in concrete and concrete structure design.

  8. Degradation and mechanism of the mechanics and durability of reinforced concrete slab in a marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sheng-xing; Liu, Guan-guo; Bian, Han-bing; Lv, Wei-bo; Jiang, Jian-hua

    2016-04-01

    An experimental research was conducted to determine the corrosion and bearing capacity of a reinforced concrete (RC) slab at different ages in a marine environment. Results show that the development of corrosion-induced cracks on a slab in a marine environment can be divided into three stages according to crack morphology at the bottom of the slab. In the first stage, cracks appear. In the second stage, cracks develop from the edges to the middle of the slab. In the third stage, longitudinal and transverse corrosion-induced cracks coexist. The corrosion ratio of reinforcements nonlinearly increases with the age, and the relationship between the corrosion ratio of the reinforcements and the corrosion-induced crack width of the concrete is established. The flexural capacity of the corroded RC slab nonlinearly decreases with the age, and the model for the bearing capacity factor of the corroded RC slab is established. The mid-span deflection of the corroded RC slab that corresponds to the yield of the reinforcements linearly increases with the increase in corrosion ratio. Finally, the mechanisms of corrosion morphology and the degradation of the mechanical properties of an RC slab in a marine environment are discussed on the basis of the basic theories of steel corrosion in concrete and concrete structure design.

  9. The Kyoto Mechanisms and Technological Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    Climate change response, including implementation of the Kyoto targets as the first step, calls for technological innovation of future sustainable energy systems. One of the important agreements in several declarations, including the Kyoto protocol, has been to promote and coordinate...... the collaboration between the countries in the necessary technological development. The paper encourage that the Kyoto mechanisms will be used for acceleration of the necessary technical innovation in Denmark....

  10. Food ingredients from the marine environment. Marine biotechnology meets food science and technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis S. Boziaris

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Marine environment disposes a plethora of bioactive compounds with unique properties and remarkable potential for biotechnological applications. A lot of those compounds can be used by the food industry as natural preservatives, pigments, stabilizers, gelling agents, etc., while others exhibits beneficial effects and can be used as functional food ingredients, nutraceuticals, dietary supplements and prebiotics. Interdisciplinary approach is required to increase our knowledge, explore the potential of marine environment and produce value-added food for all.

  11. Marine and Hydrokinetic Technology (MHK) Instrumentation, Measurement, and Computer Modeling Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musial, W.; Lawson, M.; Rooney, S.

    2013-02-01

    The Marine and Hydrokinetic Technology (MHK) Instrumentation, Measurement, and Computer Modeling Workshop was hosted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Broomfield, Colorado, July 9-10, 2012. The workshop brought together over 60 experts in marine energy technologies to disseminate technical information to the marine energy community and collect information to help identify ways in which the development of a commercially viable marine energy industry can be accelerated. The workshop was comprised of plenary sessions that reviewed the state of the marine energy industry and technical sessions that covered specific topics of relevance. Each session consisted of presentations, followed by facilitated discussions. During the facilitated discussions, the session chairs posed several prepared questions to the presenters and audience to encourage communication and the exchange of ideas between technical experts. Following the workshop, attendees were asked to provide written feedback on their takeaways and their best ideas on how to accelerate the pace of marine energy technology development. The first four sections of this document give a general overview of the workshop format, provide presentation abstracts and discussion session notes, and list responses to the post-workshop questions. The final section presents key findings and conclusions from the workshop that suggest how the U.S. Department of Energy and national laboratory resources can be utilized to most effectively assist the marine energy industry.

  12. Governance Mechanisms in Information Technology Outsourcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, Kiron

    2010-01-01

    While the dominance of Information Technology Outsourcing (ITO) as a sourcing strategy would seem to indicate successful and well-informed practice, frequent examples of unraveled engagements highlight the associated risks. Successful instances of outsourcing suggest that governance mechanisms effectively manage the related risks. This…

  13. Governance Mechanisms in Information Technology Outsourcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, Kiron

    2010-01-01

    While the dominance of Information Technology Outsourcing (ITO) as a sourcing strategy would seem to indicate successful and well-informed practice, frequent examples of unraveled engagements highlight the associated risks. Successful instances of outsourcing suggest that governance mechanisms effectively manage the related risks. This…

  14. Quantum Mechanics Fundamentals and Applications to Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Jasprit

    1996-01-01

    Explore the relationship between quantum mechanics and information-age applications. This volume takes an altogether unique approach to quantum mechanics. Providing an in-depth exposition of quantum mechanics fundamentals, it shows how these concepts are applied to most of today's information technologies, whether they are electronic devices or materials. No other text makes this critical, essential leap from theory to real-world applications. The book's lively discussion of the mathematics involved fits right in with contemporary multidisciplinary trends in education: Once the basic formulati

  15. 78 FR 23574 - Public Workshop on Marine Technology and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    .... The workshop will provide a unique opportunity for classification societies, industry groups... on the marine industry, corresponding coverage in related codes and standards, and government... workshop will be held at The Double Tree by Hilton Hotel, in the Crystal City neighborhood of Arlington...

  16. Recent Advances and Applications of Experimental Technologies in Marine Natural Product Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Li

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Marine natural products are a rich source of novel and biologically active compounds. The number of identified marine natural compounds has grown 20% over the last five years from 2009 to 2013. Several challenges, including sample collection and structure elucidation, have limited the development of this research field. Nonetheless, new approaches, such as sampling strategies for organisms from extreme ocean environments, nanoscale NMR and computational chemistry for structural determination, are now available to overcome the barriers. In this review, we highlight the experimental technology innovations in the field of marine natural products, which in our view will lead to the development of many new drugs in the future.

  17. Recent Advances and Applications of Experimental Technologies in Marine Natural Product Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Chung-Davidson, Yu-Wen; Bussy, Ugo; Li, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    Marine natural products are a rich source of novel and biologically active compounds. The number of identified marine natural compounds has grown 20% over the last five years from 2009 to 2013. Several challenges, including sample collection and structure elucidation, have limited the development of this research field. Nonetheless, new approaches, such as sampling strategies for organisms from extreme ocean environments, nanoscale NMR and computational chemistry for structural determination, are now available to overcome the barriers. In this review, we highlight the experimental technology innovations in the field of marine natural products, which in our view will lead to the development of many new drugs in the future. PMID:25939037

  18. Quadrennial Technology Review 2015: Technology Assessments--Marine and Hydrokinetic Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sam Baldwin, Gilbert Bindewald, Austin Brown, Charles Chen, Kerry Cheung, Corrie Clark, Joe Cresko,

    2015-10-07

    Marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) technologies convert the energy of waves, tides, and river and ocean currents into electricity. With more than 50% of the U.S. population living within 50 miles of the nation’s coasts, MHK technologies hold significant potential to supply renewable electricity to consumers in coastal load centers, particularly in the near term in areas with high costs of electricity and longer term in high resource areas in close proximity to major coastal load centers. MHK resource assessments identify a total U.S. technical resource potential of approximately 1250–1850 terawatt-hours (TWh) of generation per year from ocean wave, ocean current, ocean tidal, and river current energy. Of this, the U.S. continental technical resource potential is approximately 500–750 TWh/year. For context, roughly 90,000 homes can be powered by 1 TWh of electricity generation each year. A cost-effective MHK industry could provide a substantial amount of electricity for the nation owing in large part to its unique advantages as a source of energy, including its vast resource potential, its close proximity to major coastal load centers, and its long-term predictability and near-term forecastability.

  19. Remediation Technologies for Marine Oil Spills: A Critical Review and Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Dave

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Anthropogenic activities pollute the oceans with oil through land run off, vessels accidents, periodic tanker discharges and bilge discharges. Oil spills are environmental disasters that impact human, plants and wild life including birds, fish and mammals. Approach: In this study, the International Guidelines for Preventing Oils Spills and Response to Disasters were reviewed and the characteristics of oil spills were discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of various oil spill response methods were evaluated. A comparative analysis were performed on the currently available remediation technologies using 10 evaluation criteria that included cost, efficiency, time, impact on wild life, reliability, level of difficulty, oil recovery, weather, effect on physical/chemical characteristics of oil and the need for further treatment. The advantages and disadvantages of each response method were used to determine the score assigned to that method. Results: There are many government regualtions for individual countries that serve as prevention mesures for oil spills in the offshore environment. They have to do with the design of equipment and machinery used in the offshore environment and performing the necessary safety inspections. The primary objectives of response to oil spill are: to prevent the spill from moving onto shore, reduce the impact on marine life and speed the degradation of any unrecovered oil. There are several physical, chemical, thermal and biological remediation technologies for oil spills including booms, skimmers, sorbents, dispersants, in-situ burning and bioremediation. Each technique has its advantages and disadvantages and the choice of a particular technique will depend on: type of oil, physical, biological and economical characteristics of the spill, location, weather and sea conditions, amount spilled and rate of spillage, depth of water column, time of the year and effectiveness of technique. Coclusion

  20. Report to Congress on the Potential Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cada, Glenn [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This report focuses on potential impacts of marine and hydrokinetic technologies to aquatic environments (i.e. rivers, estuaries, and oceans), fish and fish habitats, ecological relationships, and other marine and freshwater aquatic resources. The report does not address impacts to terrestrial ecosystems and organisms that are common to other electricity-generating technologies (e.g., construction and maintenance of transmission lines) or possible effects on the human environment, including: human use conflicts, aesthetics, viewsheds, noise in the terrestrial environment, light, recreation, transportation, navigation, cultural resources, socioeconomic impacts.

  1. Unlocking Marine Biotechnology in the Developing World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Cristiane C; Kruger, Ricardo H; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2017-09-07

    Fulfilling the promise of marine biotechnology as a source for environmental and biomedical applications remains challenging. New technologies will be necessary to harness marine biodiversity, and collaboration across government, academic, and private sectors will be crucial to create mechanisms of technology transfer and promote the development of new marine biotechnology companies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Marine Forces Reserve: Accelerating Knowledge Flow through Asynchronous Learning Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-19

    pedagogic techniques that are infeasible in the classroom , and they suggest that in some respects technologically intermediated learning can be even better...frameworks and technologies to examine I-I knowledge flows, and from the practitioner perspective, we bring to bear deep inside knowledge of the focal...ASYNCHRONOUS LEARNING TECHNOLOGIES by Mark Nissen, Robert McGuiness and Anthony Davis December 2014 Further distribution of all or part of this

  3. BWR mechanics and materials technology update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiss, E.

    1983-05-01

    This paper discusses technical results obtained from a variety of important programs underway at General Electric's Nuclear Engineering Division. The principal objective of these programs is to qualify and improve BWR product related technologies that fall broadly under the disciplines of Applied Mechanics and Materials Engineering. The paper identifies and deals with current technical issues that are of general importance to the LWR industry albeit the specific focus is directed to the development and qualification of analytical predictive methods and criteria, and improved materials for use in the design of the BWR. In this paper, specific results and accomplishments are summarized to provide a braod perspective of technology advances. Results are presented in sections which discuss: dynamic analysis and modeling; fatigue and fracture evaluation; materials engineering advances; and flow induced vibration.

  4. Mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of some titanium alloys in marine environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dupuis Jennifer

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Titanium alloys are used in several fields such as aerospace industry or biomedical. They are increasingly used in marine applications, a highly corrosive environment. We chose titanium alloys for their good properties such as high mechanical strength, low density and excellent corrosion resistance. This study is focused on titanium alloys potentially interesting to be used in marine transports, and mainly for the boats fittings such as a winch for example.

  5. Single-cell technologies in molecular marine studies

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2015-01-24

    Middle Eastern countries are experiencing a renaissance, with heavy investment in both in infrastructure and science. King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) is a new and modern university in Saudi Arabia. At the Computational Bioscience Research Center (CBRC) we are working on exploring the Red Sea and beyond, collaborating with Japanese and other research centers. We are using the environment to collect and analyze the microorganisms present. The platform being established at CBRC allows to process samples in a pipeline. The pipeline components consist of sample collection, processing and sequencing, following the in silico analysis, determining the gene functions, identifying the organisms. The genomes of microorganisms of interest are targeted modified by genome editing technology such as CRISPR and desired properties are selected by single cell instrumentation. The final output is to identify valuable microorganisms with production of bio-energy, nutrients, the food and fine chemicals.

  6. Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy Technologies: Potential Navigational Impacts and Mitigation Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cool, Richard, M.; Hudon, Thomas, J.; Basco, David, R.; Rondorf, Neil, E.

    2009-12-10

    On April 15, 2008, the Department of Energy (DOE) issued a Funding Opportunity Announcement for Advanced Water Power Projects which included a Topic Area for Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy Market Acceleration Projects. Within this Topic Area, DOE identified potential navigational impacts of marine and hydrokinetic renewable energy technologies and measures to prevent adverse impacts on navigation as a sub-topic area. DOE defines marine and hydrokinetic technologies as those capable of utilizing one or more of the following resource categories for energy generation: ocean waves; tides or ocean currents; free flowing water in rivers or streams; and energy generation from the differentials in ocean temperature. PCCI was awarded Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-08GO18177 from the DOE to identify the potential navigational impacts and mitigation measures for marine hydrokinetic technologies, as summarized herein. The contract also required cooperation with the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) and two recipients of awards (Pacific Energy Ventures and reVision) in a sub-topic area to develop a protocol to identify streamlined, best-siting practices. Over the period of this contract, PCCI and our sub-consultants, David Basco, Ph.D., and Neil Rondorf of Science Applications International Corporation, met with USCG headquarters personnel, with U.S. Army Corps of Engineers headquarters and regional personnel, with U.S. Navy regional personnel and other ocean users in order to develop an understanding of existing practices for the identification of navigational impacts that might occur during construction, operation, maintenance, and decommissioning. At these same meetings, “standard” and potential mitigation measures were discussed so that guidance could be prepared for project developers. Concurrently, PCCI reviewed navigation guidance published by the USCG and international community. This report summarizes the results of this effort, provides guidance in the form of a

  7. Sources, factors, mechanisms and possible solutions to pollutants in marine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostofa, Khan M G; Liu, Cong-Qiang; Vione, Davide; Gao, Kunshan; Ogawa, Hiroshi

    2013-11-01

    Algal toxins or red-tide toxins produced during algal blooms are naturally-derived toxic emerging contaminants (ECs) that may kill organisms, including humans, through contaminated fish or seafood. Other ECs produced either naturally or anthropogenically ultimately flow into marine waters. Pharmaceuticals are also an important pollution source, mostly due to overproduction and incorrect disposal. Ship breaking and recycle industries (SBRIs) can also release various pollutants and substantially deteriorate habitats and marine biodiversity. Overfishing is significantly increasing due to the global food crisis, caused by an increasing world population. Organic matter (OM) pollution and global warming (GW) are key factors that exacerbate these challenges (e.g. algal blooms), to which acidification in marine waters should be added as well. Sources, factors, mechanisms and possible remedial measures of these challenges to marine ecosystems are discussed, including their eventual impact on all forms of life including humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Ideas and perspectives: climate-relevant marine biologically driven mechanisms in Earth system models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hense, Inga; Stemmler, Irene; Sonntag, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    The current generation of marine biogeochemical modules in Earth system models (ESMs) considers mainly the effect of marine biota on the carbon cycle. We propose to also implement other biologically driven mechanisms in ESMs so that more climate-relevant feedbacks are captured. We classify these mechanisms in three categories according to their functional role in the Earth system: (1) biogeochemical pumps, which affect the carbon cycling; (2) biological gas and particle shuttles, which affect the atmospheric composition; and (3) biogeophysical mechanisms, which affect the thermal, optical, and mechanical properties of the ocean. To resolve mechanisms from all three classes, we find it sufficient to include five functional groups: bulk phyto- and zooplankton, calcifiers, and coastal gas and surface mat producers. We strongly suggest to account for a larger mechanism diversity in ESMs in the future to improve the quality of climate projections.

  9. Marine snow derived from abandoned larvacean houses: Sinking rates, particle content and mechanisms of aggregate formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J.L.S.; Kiørboe, Thomas; Alldredge, A.L.

    1996-01-01

    The dynamics and formation mechanisms of marine snow aggregates from abandoned larvacean houses were examined by laboratory experiments and field sampling during a spring diatom bloom in a shallow fjord on the west coast of the USA. Intact aggregates were sampled both from sediment traps and dire......The dynamics and formation mechanisms of marine snow aggregates from abandoned larvacean houses were examined by laboratory experiments and field sampling during a spring diatom bloom in a shallow fjord on the west coast of the USA. Intact aggregates were sampled both from sediment traps...

  10. Dynamic analysis of propulsion mechanism directly driven by wave energy for marine mobile buoy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhenjiang; Zheng, Zhongqiang; Yang, Xiaoguang; Chang, Zongyu

    2016-07-01

    Marine mobile buoy(MMB) have many potential applications in the maritime industry and ocean science. Great progress has been made, however the technology in this area is far from maturity in theory and faced with many difficulties in application. A dynamic model of the propulsion mechanism is very necessary for optimizing the parameters of the MMB, especially with consideration of hydrodynamic force. The principle of wave-driven propulsion mechanism is briefly introduced. To set a theory foundation for study on the MMB, a dynamic model of the propulsion mechanism of the MMB is obtained. The responses of the motion of the platform and the hydrofoil are obtained by using a numerical integration method to solve the ordinary differential equations. A simplified form of the motion equations is reached by omitting terms with high order small values. The relationship among the heave motion of the buoy, stiffness of the elastic components, and the forward speed can be obtained by using these simplified equations. The dynamic analysis show the following: The angle of displacement of foil is fairly small with the biggest value around 0.3 rad; The speed of mobile buoy and the angle of hydrofoil increased gradually with the increase of heave motion of buoy; The relationship among heaven motion, stiffness and attack angle is that heave motion leads to the angle change of foil whereas the item of speed or push function is determined by vertical velocity and angle, therefore, the heave motion and stiffness can affect the motion of buoy significantly if the size of hydrofoil is kept constant. The proposed model is provided to optimize the parameters of the MMB and a foundation is laid for improving the performance of the MMB.

  11. Simulation of Thermal-Mechanical Strength for Marine Engine Piston Using FEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Guo He

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Simulation of Thermal-Mechanical Strength for Marine Engine Piston Using FEA Abstract: This paper involves simulation of a 2-stroke 6S35ME marine diesel engine piston to determine its temperature field, thermal, mechanical and coupled thermal-mechanical stress. The distribution and magnitudes of the afore-mentioned strength parameters are useful in design, failure analysis and optimization of the engine piston. The piston model was developed in solid-works and imported into ANSYS for preprocessing, loading and post processing. Material model chosen was 10-node tetrahedral thermal solid 87. The simulation parameters used in this paper were piston material, combustion pressure, inertial effects and temperature. The highest calculated stress was the thermal-mechanical coupled stress and was below the yield stress of the piston material (580Mpa at elevated temperatures hence the piston would withstand the induced stresses during work cycles.

  12. Marine ecotoxicity of nitramines, transformation products of amine-based carbon capture technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutris, Claire; Macken, Ailbhe L; Collins, Andrew R; El Yamani, Naouale; Brooks, Steven J

    2015-09-15

    In the context of reducing CO2 emissions to the atmosphere, chemical absorption with amines is emerging as the most advanced technology for post-combustion CO2 capture from exhaust gases of fossil fuel power plants. Despite amine solvent recycling during the capture process, degradation products are formed and released into the environment, among them aliphatic nitramines, for which the environmental impact is unknown. In this study, we determined the acute and chronic toxicity of two nitramines identified as important transformation products of amine-based carbon capture, dimethylnitramine and ethanolnitramine, using a multi-trophic suite of bioassays. The results were then used to produce the first environmental risk assessment for the marine ecosystem. In addition, the in vivo genotoxicity of nitramines was studied by adapting the comet assay to cells from experimentally exposed fish. Overall, based on the whole organism bioassays, the toxicity of both nitramines was considered to be low. The most sensitive response to both compounds was found in oysters, and dimethylnitramine was consistently more toxic than ethanolnitramine in all bioassays. The Predicted No Effect Concentrations for dimethylnitramine and ethanolnitramine were 0.08 and 0.18 mg/L, respectively. The genotoxicity assessment revealed contrasting results to the whole organism bioassays, with ethanolnitramine found to be more genotoxic than dimethylnitramine by three orders of magnitude. At the lowest ethanolnitramine concentration (1mg/L), 84% DNA damage was observed, whereas 100mg/L dimethylnitramine was required to cause 37% DNA damage. The mechanisms of genotoxicity were also shown to differ between the two compounds, with oxidation of the DNA bases responsible for over 90% of the genotoxicity of dimethylnitramine, whereas DNA strand breaks and alkali-labile sites were responsible for over 90% of the genotoxicity of ethanolnitramine. Fish exposed to >3mg/L ethanolnitramine had virtually no DNA

  13. Trends in the marine aquarium trade: the influence of global economics and technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew L. Rhyne

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The marine aquarium hobby is a global industry with trade chains on six continents. This industry is undergoing rapid changes in hobbyistpreferences that are in part driven by global economies and technology. In an effort to better assess the past trends and help provide insightinto future growth and demand, we assessed three different trade data sources, the United States-State of Florida Marine Life Landings, CITESstony coral imports, and United States Fish and Wildlife Service’s Law Enforcement Information Systems import data for ‘live rock’. Data forthe past 10 years were analyzed and a clear trend of growth followed by decline was observed with the peak and degree of decline varying forthe different trade categories. While the global economic downturn decreased trade volumes across the board other forces have dramatically affectedthe importation of coral reef products. ‘Live Rock’ and Florida produced ‘live sand’ dramatically decreased two years prior to the globaleconomic recession. The decline of these trade categories coincides with rapid changes in technology used to maintain captive reef aquariumswhich allowed for the advent of the smaller “nano” reef tanks. Importing and exporting countries, CITES and other international governmentbodies, concerned Non-Governmental Organizations and scientist would greatly benefit from a deeper understanding of this industry from aproducer and consumer standpoint in order to better predict how the marine aquarium hobby will be shaped by external forces in the future.

  14. A sweet new wave: structures and mechanisms of enzymes that digest polysaccharides from marine algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehemann, Jan-Hendrik; Boraston, Alisdair B; Czjzek, Mirjam

    2014-10-01

    Marine algae contribute approximately half of the global primary production. The large amounts of polysaccharides synthesized by these algae are degraded and consumed by microbes that utilize carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes), thus creating one of the largest and most dynamic components of the Earth's carbon cycle. Over the last decade, structural and functional characterizations of marine CAZymes have revealed a diverse set of scaffolds and mechanisms that are used to degrade agars, carrageenan, alginate and ulvan-polysaccharides from red, brown and green seaweeds, respectively. The analysis of these CAZymes is not only expanding our understanding of their functions but is enabling the enhanced annotation of (meta)-genomic data sets, thus promoting an improved understanding of microbes that drive this marine component of the carbon cycle. Furthermore, this information is setting a foundation that will enable marine algae to be harnessed as a novel resource for biorefineries. In this review, we cover the most recent structural and functional analyses of marine CAZymes that are specialized in the digestion of macro-algal polysaccharides. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Anti-diabetic effects of brown algae derived phlorotannins, marine polyphenols through diverse mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Hong; Jeon, You-Jin

    2013-04-01

    Marine algae are popular and abundant food ingredients mainly in Asian countries, and also well known for their health beneficial effects due to the presence of biologically active components. The marine algae have been studied for biologically active components and phlorotannins, marine polyphenols are among them. Among marine algae, brown algae have extensively studied for their potential anti-diabetic activities. Majority of the investigations on phlorotannins derived from brown algae have exhibited their various anti-diabetic mechanisms such as α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory effect, glucose uptake effect in skeletal muscle, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP 1B) enzyme inhibition, improvement of insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic db/db mice, and protective effect against diabetes complication. In this review, we have made an attempt to discuss the various anti-diabetic mechanisms associated with phlorotannins from brown algae that are confined to in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Biogas from Marine Macroalgae: a New Environmental Technology — Life Cycle Inventory for a Further LCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romagnoli, Francesco; Blumberga, Dagnija; Gigli, Emanuele

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to analyze the innovative process of production of biogas (via fermentation processes) using marine macroalgae as feedstock in a pilot project plant in Augusta (Sicily, Italy). Algae, during their growth, have the capacity to assimilate nutrients and thus subsequent harvesting of the algal biomass recovers the nutrients from biowaste sources giving the possibility to transform negative environmental externalities in positive mainly in terms of eutrophication and climate change impact categories. The paper presents a novel environmental technology for the production of biogas and 2nd generation biofuel (liquid biomethane) after an upgrading process through the use of a cryogenic technology. The paper would also like to make the first attempt at understanding the possibility to implement this innovative technology in the Latvian context. The first calculations and assumptions for the Life Cycle Inventory for a further Life Cycle Assessment are presented.

  17. The Marine Technology Liguria District, an opportunity for Collaboration and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmisciano, C.; Tivegna, P.; Sgherri, R. G.; Gambetta, M.; Caratori Tontini, F.; Stefanelli, P.; Cocchi, L.

    2008-05-01

    This work focus on the newly born DLTM, namely the Distretto Ligure delle Tecnologie Marine, based in La Spezia, Liguria Region (IT). The main involved partners are: Ministries, Regione Liguria Council, Spedia SpA Company, Industries, SMEs (SMBs), Universities and National Research Institutes. The DLTM has been created as an answer to the local versus global needs of marine products innovation, technology and science. In order to provide, both the local and international community, effective solutions the DLTM aims to: - promote Innovation and pre-competitiveness of activities related to industrial research; - enhance the value and visibility of excellence areas existing in the Ligurian region (in the big enterprises as well as in SMEs) concerning marine technology; - enhance the value of academic activities focusing their R&D on industrial products/processes, assuring, evaluating and preventing environmental sustainability also in case of extreme events; - harmonize/make sustainable the economy and the society promoting scientific innovation and technological development, by means of Universities, Public and Private Research Institutes (at regional, national and EU level); - help the exchange of ideas and realization of projects aimed at developing the District objectives; - increase the dissemination and valorisation of District results and achievements, build capacity in the sectors of interest to the District. The DLTM is characterized by two main macro-themes. The first concerns infrastructures, materials and processes, while the second is committed to eco-compatible solutions for harbours, ships and coastal scenarios, security and control management of human activities, risky operations and extreme natural events. The former macro-theme is expected to provide the community with innovative solutions, technologies, materials, processes applied to marine sectors, shipyard and related subsystems and components, in a wide sense such as leisure, commercial, navy

  18. Conversion of Marine Structures to Calcium Phosphate Materials: Mechanisms of Conversion Using Two Different Phosphate Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Macha, Innocent J.; Grossin, David; Ben-Nissan, Besim

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Marine structure, coralline materials were converted to calcium phosphate using twodifferent phosphate solutions. The aim was to study the conversion mechanisms under acidic andbasic environment at moderate conditions of temperature. Crystal growth and morphology ofconverted corals were characterized by XRD and SEM respectively. The results suggested thatunder acidic conditions (H3PO4), dissolution and precipitation control and direct the crystalformation and morpholog...

  19. Aerospace Mechanisms and Tribology Technology: Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, K.

    1999-01-01

    This paper focuses attention on tribology technology practice related to vacuum tribology. A case study describes an aspect of a real problem in sufficient detail for the engineer and scientist to understand the tribological situation and the failure. The nature of the problem is analyzed and the tribological properties are examined.

  20. Aerospace Mechanisms and Tribology Technology: Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1999-01-01

    This chapter focuses attention on tribology technology practice related to vacuum tribology and space tribology. Two case studies describe aspects of real problems in sufficient detail for the engineer and the scientist to understand the tribological situations and the failures. The nature of the problems is analyzed and the range of potential solutions is evaluated. Courses of action are recommended.

  1. Integrated network modelling for identifying microbial mechanisms of particulate organic carbon accumulation in coastal marine systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Karlie; Turk, Valentina; Mozetič, Patricija; Tinta, Tinkara; Malfatti, Francesca; Hannah, David; Krause, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Accumulation of particulate organic carbon (POC) has the potential to change the structure and function of marine ecosystems. High abidance of POC can develop into aggregates, known as marine snow or mucus aggregates that can impair essential marine ecosystem functioning and services. Currently marine POC formation, accumulation and sedimentation processes are being explored as potential pathways to remove CO2 from the atmosphere by CO2 sequestration via fixation into biomass by phytoplankton. However, the current ability of scientists, environmental managers and regulators to analyse and predict high POC concentrations is restricted by the limited understanding of the dynamic nature of the microbial mechanisms regulating POC accumulation events in marine environments. We present a proof of concept study that applies a novel Bayesian Networks (BN) approach to integrate relevant biological and physical-chemical variables across spatial and temporal scales in order to identify the interactions of the main contributing microbial mechanisms regulating POC accumulation in the northern Adriatic Sea. Where previous models have characterised only the POC formed, the BN approach provides a probabilistic framework for predicting the occurrence of POC accumulation by linking biotic factors with prevailing environmental conditions. In this paper the BN was used to test three scenarios (diatom, nanoflagellate, and dinoflagellate blooms). The scenarios predicted diatom blooms to produce high chlorophyll a at the water surface while nanoflagellate blooms were predicted to occur at lower depths (> 6m) in the water column and produce lower chlorophyll a concentrations. A sensitivity analysis identified the variables with the greatest influence on POC accumulation being the enzymes protease and alkaline phosphatase, which highlights the importance of microbial community interactions. The developed proof of concept BN model allows for the first time to quantify the impacts of

  2. On SD-oriented mechanism of technological innovation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yuwen; Zhang Juyong

    2007-01-01

    If one enterprise just takes technological innovation as the way for economic profit but not the combinational profit of economy,society and ecology,it will never survive in this fierce competition market.Based on the relationship between technological innovation and sustainable development,this paper brings forward that technological innovation must take the sustainablel development of society as the fundamental goal.Technological innovation should be the real impulse for the development of society,economy and ecology.On the basis of the analysis on previous technologicalinnovation impetus mechanism,combined with the influential factors,this paper puts forward SD-oriented mechanism oftechnological innovation.

  3. Mechanisms of silver nanoparticle toxicity to the coastal marine diatom Chaetoceros curvisetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodeiro, Pablo; Browning, Thomas J; Achterberg, Eric P; Guillou, Aurélie; El-Shahawi, Mohammad S

    2017-09-07

    Inputs of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) to marine waters continue to increase yet mechanisms of AgNPs toxicity to marine phytoplankton are still not well resolved. This study reports a series of toxicity experiments on a representative coastal marine diatom species Chaetoceros curvisetus using the reference AgNP, NM-300K. Exposure to AgNPs resulted in photosynthetic impairment and loss of diatom biomass in proportion to the supplied AgNP dose. The underlying mechanism of toxicity was explored via comparing biological responses in parallel experiments. Diatom responses to AgNP, free Ag(I) species, and dialysis bag-retained AgNP treatments showed marked similarity, pointing towards a dominant role of Ag(I) species uptake, rather than NPs themselves, in inducing the toxic response. In marked contrast to previous studies, addition of the organic complexing agent cysteine (Cys) alongside Ag only marginally moderated toxicity, implying AgCys(-) complexes were bioavailable to this diatom species. A preliminary field experiment with a natural phytoplankton community in the southeast Atlantic Ocean showed no significant toxic response at a NM-300 K concentration that resulted in ~40% biomass loss in the culture studies, suggesting a modulating effect of natural seawaters on Ag toxicity.

  4. Antibacterial Derivatives of Marine Algae: An Overview of Pharmacological Mechanisms and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Emer; Abu-Ghannam, Nissreen

    2016-04-22

    The marine environment is home to a taxonomically diverse ecosystem. Organisms such as algae, molluscs, sponges, corals, and tunicates have evolved to survive the high concentrations of infectious and surface-fouling bacteria that are indigenous to ocean waters. Both macroalgae (seaweeds) and microalgae (diatoms) contain pharmacologically active compounds such as phlorotannins, fatty acids, polysaccharides, peptides, and terpenes which combat bacterial invasion. The resistance of pathogenic bacteria to existing antibiotics has become a global epidemic. Marine algae derivatives have shown promise as candidates in novel, antibacterial drug discovery. The efficacy of these compounds, their mechanism of action, applications as antibiotics, disinfectants, and inhibitors of foodborne pathogenic and spoilage bacteria are reviewed in this article.

  5. Antibacterial Derivatives of Marine Algae: An Overview of Pharmacological Mechanisms and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emer Shannon

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The marine environment is home to a taxonomically diverse ecosystem. Organisms such as algae, molluscs, sponges, corals, and tunicates have evolved to survive the high concentrations of infectious and surface-fouling bacteria that are indigenous to ocean waters. Both macroalgae (seaweeds and microalgae (diatoms contain pharmacologically active compounds such as phlorotannins, fatty acids, polysaccharides, peptides, and terpenes which combat bacterial invasion. The resistance of pathogenic bacteria to existing antibiotics has become a global epidemic. Marine algae derivatives have shown promise as candidates in novel, antibacterial drug discovery. The efficacy of these compounds, their mechanism of action, applications as antibiotics, disinfectants, and inhibitors of foodborne pathogenic and spoilage bacteria are reviewed in this article.

  6. Composite purification technology and mechanism of recycled aluminum alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房文斌; 耿耀宏; 安阁英; 叶荣茂

    2002-01-01

    Iron-rich inclusions in aluminum alloys can be effectively removed by composite purification of sedimentation and filtration technology.The results show that the purposed method has no negative effects on aluminum alloys and obviously improve their mechanical properties.

  7. Florida commercial space initiatives and technology transfer mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Roger L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses commercial space policy for the State of Florida in the context of state initiatives for general technology and economic development. The paper also compares Florida's commercial space initiatives to national space policies and describes mechanisms for transferring space related technologies and research to Florida businesses for subsequent development and commercialization.

  8. Marine Pharmacology in 2012–2013: Marine Compounds with Antibacterial, Antidiabetic, Antifungal, Anti-Inflammatory, Antiprotozoal, Antituberculosis, and Antiviral Activities; Affecting the Immune and Nervous Systems, and Other Miscellaneous Mechanisms of Action †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Alejandro M. S.; Rodríguez, Abimael D.; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Fusetani, Nobuhiro

    2017-01-01

    The peer-reviewed marine pharmacology literature from 2012 to 2013 was systematically reviewed, consistent with the 1998–2011 reviews of this series. Marine pharmacology research from 2012 to 2013, conducted by scientists from 42 countries in addition to the United States, reported findings on the preclinical pharmacology of 257 marine compounds. The preclinical pharmacology of compounds isolated from marine organisms revealed antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antituberculosis, antiviral and anthelmitic pharmacological activities for 113 marine natural products. In addition, 75 marine compounds were reported to have antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory activities and affect the immune and nervous system. Finally, 69 marine compounds were shown to display miscellaneous mechanisms of action which could contribute to novel pharmacological classes. Thus, in 2012–2013, the preclinical marine natural product pharmacology pipeline provided novel pharmacology and lead compounds to the clinical marine pharmaceutical pipeline, and contributed significantly to potentially novel therapeutic approaches to several global disease categories. PMID:28850074

  9. Marine Pharmacology in 2012–2013: Marine Compounds with Antibacterial, Antidiabetic, Antifungal, Anti-Inflammatory, Antiprotozoal, Antituberculosis, and Antiviral Activities; Affecting the Immune and Nervous Systems, and Other Miscellaneous Mechanisms of Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro M. S. Mayer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The peer-reviewed marine pharmacology literature from 2012 to 2013 was systematically reviewed, consistent with the 1998–2011 reviews of this series. Marine pharmacology research from 2012 to 2013, conducted by scientists from 42 countries in addition to the United States, reported findings on the preclinical pharmacology of 257 marine compounds. The preclinical pharmacology of compounds isolated from marine organisms revealed antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antituberculosis, antiviral and anthelmitic pharmacological activities for 113 marine natural products. In addition, 75 marine compounds were reported to have antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory activities and affect the immune and nervous system. Finally, 69 marine compounds were shown to display miscellaneous mechanisms of action which could contribute to novel pharmacological classes. Thus, in 2012–2013, the preclinical marine natural product pharmacology pipeline provided novel pharmacology and lead compounds to the clinical marine pharmaceutical pipeline, and contributed significantly to potentially novel therapeutic approaches to several global disease categories.

  10. Commercial Mobile Device Technology Implementation Implications in United States Marine Corps Processes: A Case Study Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Martial Arts Program MCRC Marine Corps Recruiting Command MCRD Marine Corps Recruit Depot MCRP Marine Corps Reference Publication MCU Marine Corps... Martial Arts Program (MCMAP), Chemical Biological Radiological & Nuclear (CBRN) training, and annual administrative training. Additionally, the...K., & Garstka, J. J. (1998). Network-centric warfare: Its origin and future. US Naval Institute Proceedings, 124(1), 28–35. Retrieved from http

  11. Innovative mechanical technologies for agricultural and forest quality productions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Cavalli

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The quality of agricultural and forest products are related to the productive process in which innovative mechanical technologies are used. The innovation should be considered at product, process and enterprise level, the last one being considered as changes into enterprise organization, included services diversification. In the field of machinery used for agricultural products, from soil tillage to harvesting and post-harvesting processes the innovation dealing with products, but also with energy use, environmental protection, work safety has been important due to the mechanical technology output. In the forest sector working systems in which operations are carried out in totally mechanized way, with small turn to semi-mechanized operations, are growing. They are innovations that should change the relationship with young generation which could consider the mechanical technologies attractive for a working activity until now evaluated not much desiderable.

  12. Innovative mechanical technologies for agricultural and forest quality productions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Cavalli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The quality of agricultural and forest products are related to the productive process in which innovative mechanical technologies are used. The innovation should be considered at product, process and enterprise level, the last one being considered as changes into enterprise organization, included services diversification. In the field of machinery used for agricultural products, from soil tillage to harvesting and post-harvesting processes the innovation dealing with products, but also with energy use, environmental protection, work safety has been important due to the mechanical technology output. In the forest sector working systems in which operations are carried out in totally mechanized way, with small turn to semi-mechanized operations, are growing. They are innovations that should change the relationship with young generation which could consider the mechanical technologies attractive for a working activity until now evaluated not much desiderable.

  13. Mechanics of materials an introduction to engineering technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ghavami, Parviz

    2015-01-01

    This book, framed in the processes of engineering analysis and design, presents concepts in mechanics of materials for students in two-year or four-year programs in engineering technology, architecture, and building construction, as well as for students in vocational schools and technical institutes. Using the principles and laws of mechanics, physics, and the fundamentals of engineering, Mechanics of Materials: An Introduction for Engineering Technology will help aspiring and practicing engineers and engineering technicians from across disciplines—mechanical, civil, chemical, and electrical—apply concepts of engineering mechanics for analysis and design of materials, structures, and machine components. The book is ideal for those seeking a rigorous, algebra/trigonometry-based text on the mechanics of materials. This book also: ·       Elucidates concepts of engineering mechanics in materials, including stress and strain, force systems on structures, moment of inertia, and shear and bending moments...

  14. Research on mechanism of technological diffusion in industry cluster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Qin; Cheng Yong

    2006-01-01

    The main aim of the paper is to explain the reason and mechanism of technological diffusion in industry cluster. Following the idea showed in Zhou Qin's model, we further develop the theoretical analysis that how the technological gap between strong enterprises and weak enterprises determines the level and speed of technological diffusion. The bigger the technological disparity between strong enterprise and weak enterprise is, the quicker technology spreads and knowledge overflows; on the contrary, the smaller the technological disparity between strong enterprise and weak enterprise is, the slower technology spread and knowledge overflows. Therefore, this kind of mechanism is helpful for enterprises in an industry cluster to learn from each other and to enable each enterprise close to the "the average level" of technology or knowledge. As a result, we think that, there exists a close relation between technological gap and technological diffusion. The paper puts forward the way of knowledge overflows of the strong enterprises: imitation-demonstration effect, the longitudinal connection in the industrial chain, the labor force flow and transfer, informal exchange.

  15. Avoiding whales and wellheads: technology lightens impact of marine seismic on fragile Arctic ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaton, S.

    2001-09-01

    To minimize environmental impact, Anderson Exploration Ltd and WesternGeco are using new technologies that include state-of-the-art satellite systems for tracking whales, icebergs, ships and aircraft, and a pollutant-free means of keeping the streamers, or marine recording cables, from sinking. Using WesternGeco's satellite-based vehicle tracking system (VTS), ground personnel at a base camp can instantaneously determine the whereabouts of the icebreaker {sup G}eco Snapper' and the company's two vessels surveying the ocean floor. In the air, the VTS tracks the flight paths and altitudes of WesternGeco's Bell 212 helicopter and Twin Otter planes used to monitor whales and icebergs. From the bridge of the Geco Snapper, using GPS units located on the six air gun arrays and the three marine streamers which extend four kms behind the vessel, data are recorded in real time on the positions of the data acquisition equipment relative to the vessel and relative to water depth or proximity to the sea floor. The Geco Snapper has been retrofitted with the VTS equipment in preparation for its participation in a project for acquiring what may be the first-ever seismic survey in the frigid waters of the Beaufort Sea. Instead of being filled with gasoline, the streamers trailing the vessel are foam-filled, consequently, they are extremely safe and environmentally friendly.

  16. Structural diversity of marine cyclic peptides and their molecular mechanisms for anticancer, antibacterial, antifungal, and other clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeji; Phat, Chanvorleak; Hong, Soon-Cheol

    2017-09-01

    Many cyclic peptides and analogues derived from marine sources are known to possess biological properties, including anticancer, antitumor, antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic, anti-inflammation, anti-proliferative, anti-hypertensive, cytotoxic, and antibiotic properties. These compounds demonstrate different activities and modes of action according to their structure such as cyclic oligopeptide, cyclic lipopeptide, cyclic glycopeptide and cyclic depsipeptide. The recent advances in application of the above-mentioned cyclic peptides were reported in dolastatins, soblidotin, didemnin B, aplidine, salinosporamide A, kahalalide F and bryostatin 1 and they are currently in clinical trials. These cyclic peptides are possible novel drugs discovered and developed from marine origin. Literature data concerning the potential properties of marine cyclic peptides were reviewed here, and the structural diversity and biological activities of marine cyclic peptides are discussed in relation to the molecular mechanisms of these marine cyclic peptides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Scaling of the Transient Hydroelastic Response and Failure Mechanisms of Self-Adaptive Composite Marine Propellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Motley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The load dependent deformation responses and complex failure mechanisms of self-adaptive composite propeller blades make the design, analysis, and scaling of these structures nontrivial. The objective of this work is to investigate and verify the dynamic similarity relationships for the hydroelastic response and potential failure mechanisms of self-adaptive composite marine propellers. A fully coupled, three-dimensional boundary element method-finite element method is used to compare the model and full-scale responses of a self-adaptive composite propeller. The effects of spatially varying inflow, transient sheet cavitation, and load-dependent blade deformation are considered. Three types of scaling are discussed: Reynolds scale, Froude scale, and Mach scale. The results show that Mach scaling, which requires the model inflow speed to be the same as the full scale, will lead to discrepancies in the spatial load distributions at low speeds due to differences in Froude number, but the differences between model and full-scale results become negligible at high speeds. Thus, Mach scaling is recommended for a composite marine propeller because it allows the same material and layering scheme to be used between the model and the full scale, leading to similar 3D stress distributions, and hence similar failure mechanisms, between the model and the full scale.

  18. Use of signal-mediated amplification of RNA technology (SMART) to detect marine cyanophage DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, M J; Wharam, S D; Weston, A; Cardy, D L N; Wilson, W H

    2002-03-01

    Here, we describe the application of an isothermal nucleic acid amplification assay, signal-mediated amplification of RNA technology (SMART), to detect DNA extracted from marine cyanophages known to infect unicellular cyanobacteria from the genus Synechococcus. The SMART assay is based on the target-dependent production of multiple copies of an RNA signal, which is measured by an enzyme-linked oligosorbent assay. SMART was able to detect both synthetic oligonucleotide targets and genomic cyanophage DNA using probes designed against the portal vertex gene (g20). Specific signals were obtained for each cyanophage strain (S-PM2 and S-BnMI). Nonspecific genomic DNA did not produce false signals or inhibit the detection of a specific target. In addition, we found that extensive purification of target DNA may not be required since signals were obtained from crude cyanophage lysates. This is the first report of the SMART assay being used to discriminate between two similar target sequences.

  19. A Data Acquisition System (DAS) for marine and ecological research from aerospace technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    The efforts of researchers at Mississippi State University to utilize space-age technology in the development of a self-contained, portable data acquisition system for use in marine and ecological research are presented. The compact, lightweight data acquisition system is capable of recording 14 variables in its present configuration and is suitable for use in either a boat, pickup truck, or light aircraft. This system will provide the acquisition of reliable data on the structure of the environment and the effect of man-made and natural activities on the observed phenomenon. Utilizing both self-contained analog recording and a telemetry transmitter for real-time digital readout and recording, the prototype system has undergone extensive testing.

  20. Performance of Coral Reef Management within Marine Protected Areas: Integrating Ecological, Socioeconomic, Technological, and Institutional Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roni Bawole

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This research studied the characteristics and approaches that contributed to the successful of coral reef management (CRM efforts.  One such characteristic occurred in most case  studies was the importance of integrating ecological, socio-economic, technological use, and  institutional dimensions during all processes. Based on a multi-dimensional analysis,  the sustainability of CRM was 56.34% cumulatively, indicating a moderate level of management. This study  further suggested the importance to improve  technology and institution to achieve an effective CRM since both dimensions have  contributed only 38.80% and 49.26% respectively.  Stakeholder involvement was also central to the success of networking development within the management of Cenderawasih Bay National Park, specifically in facilitating the integration of ecological, socioeconomic, political will, and local cultural objectives in achieving an optimum planning objectives. Compilations of baselin information (both scientific and local knowledge were important to evaluate the effectiveness of all processes and for adaptive management to increase its potential in the management strategies. Balancing the integration of all management dimensions (ecology, socio-economic, technology, and institution in the whole processes with specific attributes in each case, would lead to an adaptive management for the implementation of conservation and management process.Keywords: coral  reef, management performance,  integrated dimensions, marine protected areas.

  1. Impacts of electromagnetic fields associated with marine and hydrokinetic surrogate technologies on fish movements and behaviors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claisse, Jeremy T. [Vantuna Research Group, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Pondella, Daniel J. [Vantuna Research Group, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Williams, Chelsea M. [Vantuna Research Group, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Zahn, Laurel A. [Vantuna Research Group, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Williams, Jonathan P. [Vantuna Research Group, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Marine and hydrokinetic energy (MHK) and offshore wind devices are being developed and deployed in U.S. and international waters. Electric current flowing through subsea transmission cables associated with these devices will generate electromagnetic fields (EMF), which may interact with, and potentially impact, marine fishes. Some marine fishes can detect electric and/or magnetic fields and use them to navigate, orientate, and sense prey, mates and predators. Over the past five years there have been multiple comprehensive reviews and studies evaluating the potential vulnerability of marine fishes to EMF produced by MHK devices. Most documented effects involve sub-lethal behavioral responses of individual fish when in close proximity to EMF (e.g., fish being repelled by or attracted to fields). These reviews reach conclusions that the current state of research on this topic is still in its infancy and evaluations of potential impacts are associated with great uncertainty. A variety of MHK technologies are likely to be considered for deployment offshore of the Hawaiian Islands, and there is a need to be able to better predict and assess potential associated environmental impacts. The goal of this study was to provide a complementary piece to these previous reviews (e.g., Normandeau et al. 2011) by focusing on marine fish species in the Hawaii region. We compiled the relevant available information, then prioritized fish species as candidates for various paths of future research. To address this, we first developed a list of Hawaii Region Focal Species, which included fishes that are more likely to be sensitive to EMF. We then compiled species-specific information available in the literature on their sensitivity to EMF, as well as life history, movement and habitat use information that could inform an analysis of their likelihood of encountering EMF from subsea cables associated with MHK devices. Studies have only documented EMF sensitivity in 11 of the marine fish

  2. The Ligurian Cluster for Marine Technologies (DLTM): matching local research and industrial needs on oceanographic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroobant, M.; Locritani, M.; Marini, D.; Sabbadini, L.; Carmisciano, C.; Manzella, G.; Magaldi, M.; Aliani, S.

    2012-04-01

    DLTM is the Ligurian Region (north Italy) cluster of Centre of Excellence (CoE) in waterborne technologies, that involves about 120 enterprises - of which, more than 100 SMEs -, the University of Genoa, all the main National Research Centres dealing with maritime and marine technologies established in Liguria (CNR, INGV, ENEA-UTMAR), the NATO Undersea Research Centre (NURC) and the Experimental Centre of the Italian Navy (CSSN), the Bank, the Port Authority and the Chamber of Commerce of the city of La Spezia. Following its mission, DLTM has recently established three Collaborative Research Laboratories focused on: 1. Computational Fluid dynamics (CFD_Lab) 2. High Performance Computing (HPC_Lab) 3. Monitoring and Analysis of Marine Ecosystems (MARE_Lab). The main role of them is to improve the relationships among the research centres and the enterprises, encouraging a systematic networking approach and sharing of knowledge, data, services, tools and human resources. Two of the key objectives of Lab_MARE are the establishment of: - an integrated system of observation and sea forecasting; - a Regional Marine Instrument Centre (RMIC) for oceanographic and metereological instruments (assembled using 'shared' tools and facilities). Besides, an important and innovative research project has been recently submitted to the Italian Ministry for Education, University and Research (MIUR). This project, in agreement with the European Directives (COM2009 (544)), is aimed to develop a Management Information System (MIS) for oceanographic and meteorological data in the Mediterranean Sea. The availability of adequate HPC inside DLTM is, of course, an important asset for achieving useful results; for example, the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) model is currently running on a high-resolution mesh on the cluster to simulate and reproduce the circulation within the Ligurian Sea. ROMS outputs will have broad and multidisciplinary impacts because ocean circulation affects the

  3. Anti-cancer mechanism and possibility of nano-suspension formulations for a marine algae product fucoxanthin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthuirulappan, Srinivasan; Francis, Steffi Pulikodan

    2013-01-01

    Recently, use of natural products available from marine sources, and especially algae products, are receiving more attention. Scientific evidence for claimed nutraceutical and therapeutical effects of one such marine algae product, fucoxanthin, is discussed in this paper with a summary of the currently available literature regarding its antioxidant, anti-obesity and anticancer activities. It is safe for use in humans, but as it has poor solubility a nano-suspension mode of delivery may be adopted to improve efficacy of supplements. We conclude from our literature review that the marine algae product fucoxanthin has significant antioxidant, anti-obesity and anticancer activity with established mechanisms of action.

  4. ANALYSIS OF THE MECHANISM MODELS OF TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION DIFFUSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jiuping; HU Minan

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes the mechanism and principle of diffusion of technology diffusion on the basis of quantitative analysis. Then it sets up the diffusion model of innovation incorporating price, advertising and distribution, the diffusion model of innovation including various kinds of consumers, and the substitute model between the new technology and the old one applied systems dynamics, optimization method, probabilistic method and simulation method on computer. Finally this paper concludes with some practical observations from a case study.

  5. Marine Fisheries Case Studies. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Case Study No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakroff, Marilyn; DuBois, Random

    This guide was developed to aid Peace Corps volunteers interested in programming marine fisheries projects. Although these projects are not new to the Peace Corps, new staff members may not be aware of the history of marine fisheries efforts in their country. Chapter 1 discusses all past marine fisheries projects initiated by the Peace Corps in…

  6. Biosynthesis of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Marine Invertebrates: Recent Advances in Molecular Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroig, Óscar; Tocher, Douglas R.; Navarro, Juan C.

    2013-01-01

    Virtually all polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) originate from primary producers but can be modified by bioconversions as they pass up the food chain in a process termed trophic upgrading. Therefore, although the main primary producers of PUFA in the marine environment are microalgae, higher trophic levels have metabolic pathways that can produce novel and unique PUFA. However, little is known about the pathways of PUFA biosynthesis and metabolism in the levels between primary producers and fish that are largely filled by invertebrates. It has become increasingly apparent that, in addition to trophic upgrading, de novo synthesis of PUFA is possible in some lower animals. The unequivocal identification of PUFA biosynthetic pathways in many invertebrates is complicated by the presence of other organisms within them. These organisms include bacteria and algae with PUFA biosynthesis pathways, and range from intestinal flora to symbiotic relationships that can involve PUFA translocation to host organisms. This emphasizes the importance of studying biosynthetic pathways at a molecular level, and the continual expansion of genomic resources and advances in molecular analysis is facilitating this. The present paper highlights recent research into the molecular and biochemical mechanisms of PUFA biosynthesis in marine invertebrates, particularly focusing on cephalopod molluscs. PMID:24152561

  7. Non-thermal plasma based technologies for the after-treatment of automotive exhaust particulates and marine diesel exhaust NOx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAdams, R; Beech, P; Gillespie, R; Guy, C; Jones,S; Liddell, T; Morgan, R; Shawcross, J; Weeks, D; Hughes, D; Oesterle, J; Eberspdcher,

    2003-08-24

    The trend in environmental legislation is such that primary engine modifications will not be sufficient to meet all future emissions requirements and exhaust aftertreatment technologies will need to be employed. One potential solution that is well placed to meet those requirements is non-thermal plasma technology. This paper will describe our work with some of our partners in the development of a plasma based diesel particulate filter (DPF) and plasma assisted catalytic reduction (PACR) for NOx removal. This paper describes the development of non-thermal plasma technology for the aftertreatment of particulates from a passenger car engine and NOx from a marine diesel exhaust application.

  8. Mechanization of Continuous Production of Powdered Cellulose Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosvirnikov, D. B.; Safin, R. G.; Akhmetshin, I. R.; Taimarov, M. A.; Timerbaev, N. F.

    2017-07-01

    The article presents the mechanization of the process for obtaining powdered cellulose using the technology of steam explosion treatment of lignocellulosic material. The presented unit combines the methods of steam explosion treatment and acid hydrolysis of cellulose-containing raw materials.

  9. Mechanical characterization of an unusual elastic biomaterial from the egg capsules of marine snails (Busycon spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapoport, H Scott; Shadwick, Robert E

    2002-01-01

    Egg capsule material serves as a putative protection mechanism for developing snail embryos facing the perils of the marine environment. We conducted the first quantitative study of this acellular structural protein with the goals of characterizing its chemical and mechanical properties and the relationship of these properties to its biological protective function. We have found that this protein polymer exhibits long-range elasticity with an interesting recoverable yield evidenced by an order of magnitude decrease in elastic modulus (apparent failure) that begins at 3%-5% strain. This material differs significantly from other common structural proteins such as collagen and elastin in mechanical response to strain. Qualitative similarities in stress/strain behavior to keratin, another common structural protein, are more than coincidental when composition and detailed mechanical quantification are considered. This suggests the possibility of alpha-helical structure and matrix organization that might be similar in these two proteins. Indeed, the egg capsule protein may be closely related to vertebrate keratins such as intermediate filaments. We conclude that while this material's bimodal tensile properties may serve as useful protection against the impact loading egg capsules encounter in the intertidal zone, the full biological importance of these capsules is not known.

  10. The Micro-mechanism Involved and Wollastonite Signature in the Calcareous Precipitates of Marine Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarayu, K; Iyer, Nagesh R; Annaselvi, M; Ramachandra Murthy, A

    2016-03-01

    Micro-mechanical studies connecting the influence of extrinsic factors over intrinsic factors on 30 calcareous isolates obtained from marine sediment biofilms of the Bay of Bengal (Indian Ocean) revealed that the fate of calcareous crystal precipitation is highly dependent on factors like extracellular polysaccharides (EPS), organic carbon and nutrition. Further studies exemplified that EPS and the organic carbon secreted by the isolates controlled the dissemination of the calcareous crystals precipitated. From the study, it is evident that an EPS concentration of 7-15 mg l(-1) was found to enhance the dissemination of the calcareous crystals. Atomic force micrographs explain the nucleation behaviour and morphology of the calcareous crystals precipitated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX) showed that the crystals were mainly composed of calcite and partially wollastonite.

  11. The design and analysis of the mechanical property test platform frame for marine structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-xian Tang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to realize mechanical properties test of the emergency towing arrangements, anchor chain and other large marine components, a large-tonnage and multi-function horizontal tension test platform is put forward in this paper. The paper analyzes the disadvantages of the frame structure of the existing experimental platform and designs the composite structure of the concrete and steel. The steel has good elasticity and toughness, the concrete has good performance of high rigidity and compression resistance, so the composite structure takes the advantages of both. The sharp of the frame is like “L”, which can be used to testing different projects. The paper gives the detailed size and analysis procedure of the frame. And it finds a more reasonable structure by means of finite element to analyze and optimize. The frame structure has the advantages of low weight and cost. The platform has been installed in Zhoushan, China successfully.

  12. Data Sharing of Mechanical Design Formulas Using Semantic Web Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Watanuki, Keiichi

    Speed and efficiency are necessary in the field of mechanical design. CAD/CAM/CAE technologies have advanced and attention has also been paid to increasing the efficiency of data sharing and agent processes in the web environment. In this paper, Semantic Web technology is used to enable the sharing of metadata. The metadata consists of design documents and design formulas, with additional semantic information inserted. Mathematical information is expressed by adding metadata into conventional mechanical design formulas using a Resource Description Framework (RDF). The design formulas are later written in MathML (Mathematical Markup Language) for the sake of data sharing. In this way, data sharing and advanced searching is made easy, because the relevant information is made machine readable in the web environment. The calculation of design formulas is made possible using a mathematical processing system, thus increasing the efficiency of mechanical design.

  13. Alternative landfill cover technology demonstration at Kaneohe Marine Corps Base Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karr, L.A.; Harre, B. [Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center, Port Hueneme, CA (United States); Hakonson, T.E. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Surface covers to control water infiltration to waste buried in landfills will be the remediation alternative of choice for most hazardous and sanitary landfills operated by the Department of Defense. Although surface covers are the least expensive method of remediation for landfills, they can still be expensive solutions. Conventional wisdom suggests that landfill capping technology is well developed as evidenced by the availability of EPA guidance for designing and constructing what has become known as the {open_quotes}RCRA Cap{close_quotes}. In practice, however, very little testing of the RCRA cap, or any other design, has been done to evaluate how effective these designs are in limiting infiltration of water into waste. This paper describes a low cost alternative to the {open_quotes}RCRA Cap{close_quotes} that is being evaluated at Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH) Kaneohe Bay. This study uses an innovative, simple and inexpensive concept to manipulate the fate of water falling on a landfill. The infiltration of water through the cap will be controlled by combining the evaporative forces of vegetation to remove soil water, with engineered structures that limit infiltration of precipitation into the soil. This approach relies on diverting enough of the annual precipitation to runoff, so that the water that does infiltrate into the soil can easily be removed by evapotranspiration.

  14. The evolution of advanced mechanical defenses and potential technological applications of diatom shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Christian E

    2005-01-01

    Diatoms are unicellular algae with silicified cell walls, which exhibit a high degree of symmetry and complexity. Their diversity is extraordinarily high; estimates suggest that about 10(5) marine and limnic species may exist. Recently, it was shown that diatom frustules are mechanically resilient, statically sophisticated structures made of a tough glass-like composite. Consequently, to break the frustules, predators have to generate large forces and invest large amounts of energy. In addition, they need feeding tools (e.g., mandibles or gastric mills) which are hard, tough, and resilient enough to resist high stress and wear, which are bound to occur when they feed on biomineralized objects such as diatoms or other biomineralized protists. Indeed, many copepods feeding on diatoms possess, in analogy to the enamelcoated teeth of mammals, amazingly complex, silica-laced mandibles. The highly developed adaptations both to protect and to break diatoms indicate that selection pressure is high to optimize material properties and the geometry of the shells to achieve mechanical strength of the overall structure. This paper discusses the mechanical challenges which force the development of mechanical defenses, and the structural components of the diatom frustules which indicate that evolutionary optimization has led to mechanically sophisticated structures. Understanding the diatom frustule from the nanometer scale up to the whole shell will provide new insights to advanced combinations of nanostructured composite ceramic materials and lightweight architecture for technological applications.

  15. ACOUSTICAL IMAGING AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SOFT ROCK AND MARINE SEDIMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurman E. Scott, Jr., Ph.D.; Younane Abousleiman, Ph.D.; Musharraf Zaman, Ph.D., P.E.

    2001-07-01

    Mechanically weak formations, such as chalks, high porosity sandstones, and marine sediments, pose significant problems for oil and gas operators. Problems such as compaction, subsidence, and loss of permeability can affect reservoir production operations. For example, the unexpected subsidence of the Ekofisk chalk in the North Sea required over one billion dollars to re-engineer production facilities to account for losses created during that compaction (Sulak 1991). Another problem in weak formations is that of shallow water flows (SWF). Deep water drilling operations sometimes encounter cases where the marine sediments, at shallow depths just below the seafloor, begin to uncontrollably flow up and around the drill pipe. SWF problems created a loss of $150 million for the Ursa development project in the U.S. Gulf Coast SWF (Furlow 1998a,b; 1999a,b). The goal of this project is to provide a database on both the rock mechanical properties and the geophysical properties of weak rocks and sediments. These could be used by oil and gas companies to detect, evaluate, and alleviate potential production and drilling problems. The results will be useful in, for example, pre-drill detection of events such as SWF's by allowing a correlation of seismic data (such as hazard surveys) to rock mechanical properties. The data sets could also be useful for 4-D monitoring of the compaction and subsidence of an existing reservoir and imaging the zones of damage. During the second quarter of the project the research team has: (1) completed acoustic sensor construction, (2) conducted reconnaissance tests to map the deformational behaviors of the various rocks, (3) developed a sample assembly for the measurement of dynamic elastic and poroelastic parameters during triaxial testing, and (4) conducted a detailed review of the scientific literature and compiled a bibliography of that review. During the first quarter of the project the research team acquired several rock types for

  16. Tethys: The Marine and Hydrokinetic Technology Environmental Impacts Knowledge Management System -- Requirements Specification -- Version 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butner, R. Scott; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Ellis, Peter C.

    2010-11-09

    The marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) environmental impacts knowledge management system (KMS), dubbed Tethys after the mythical Greek goddess of the seas, is being developed for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Wind and Hydropower Technologies Program (WHTP) by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). This requirements specification establishes the essential capabilities required of Tethys and clarifies for WHTP and the Tethys development team the results that must be achieved by the system.

  17. Regime shifts in exploited marine food webs: detecting mechanisms underlying alternative stable states using size- structured community dynamics theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gårdmark, A.; Casini, M.; Huss, M.; van Leeuwen, A.; Hjelm, J.; Persson, L.; de Roos, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Many marine ecosystems have undergone ‘regime shifts’, i.e. abrupt reorgan- izations across trophic levels. Establishing whether these constitute shifts between alternative stable states is of key importance for the prospects of eco- system recovery and for management. We show how mechanisms underly

  18. 2012 U. S. Marine Corps S&T Strategic Plan: Leading Edge Technology for the Marines of Tomorrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    ROMO ) including attended and unattended space, air, ground and sea sensors down to the individual warfighter. Flagpole to fighting hole, forces...SEA-STO-4: Forecasting adverse sea conditions Develop technologies and decision support tools to forecast wind , waves, and ship motions far...range of military operations ( ROMO ) Goal: The Naval Medicine S &T planning process will identify and prioritize relevant capability gaps

  19. Balanced technology initiative on computational mechanics of materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaro, Robert J.

    1993-04-01

    The goal of this project, which was part of the DARPA Balanced Technology Initiative on Computational Mechanics, was to develop a comprehensive approach to the numerical modeling of the mechanical behavior of materials. Particular areas for focus in the project were the inelastic deformation of highly anisotropic materials such as single crystals and textured polycrystals, as well as evolving microstructural damage in ceramics and ductile metals in both slow and high rate deformation processes. While the contract was awarded for a period of three years, it was actually funded only for the first year. Nonetheless, significant progress can be reported as a direct result of this project.

  20. Mechanical spring technology improves running economy in endurance runners

    OpenAIRE

    Riess, Kenneth James

    2014-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increase in participation in timed running events. With this increase, the motivation for individuals to run their best has motivated the running shoe industry to make design changes to traditional running foot wear in an effort to improve running economy (RE) and decrease running times. One such design change has been to incorporate mechanical springs (MS) into the midsole of the running shoe. Evaluation of this technology has yet to be performed. This study...

  1. Building functional groups of marine benthic macroinvertebrates on the basis of general community assembly mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandridis, Nikolaos; Bacher, Cédric; Desroy, Nicolas; Jean, Fred

    2017-03-01

    The accurate reproduction of the spatial and temporal dynamics of marine benthic biodiversity requires the development of mechanistic models, based on the processes that shape macroinvertebrate communities. The modelled entities should, accordingly, be able to adequately represent the many functional roles that are performed by benthic organisms. With this goal in mind, we applied the emergent group hypothesis (EGH), which assumes functional equivalence within and functional divergence between groups of species. The first step of the grouping involved the selection of 14 biological traits that describe the role of benthic macroinvertebrates in 7 important community assembly mechanisms. A matrix of trait values for the 240 species that occurred in the Rance estuary (Brittany, France) in 1995 formed the basis for a hierarchical classification that generated 20 functional groups, each with its own trait values. The functional groups were first evaluated based on their ability to represent observed patterns of biodiversity. The two main assumptions of the EGH were then tested, by assessing the preservation of niche attributes among the groups and the neutrality of functional differences within them. The generally positive results give us confidence in the ability of the grouping to recreate functional diversity in the Rance estuary. A first look at the emergent groups provides insights into the potential role of community assembly mechanisms in shaping biodiversity patterns. Our next steps include the derivation of general rules of interaction and their incorporation, along with the functional groups, into mechanistic models of benthic biodiversity.

  2. [PROTEOMIC ANALYSIS OF ADAPTIVE MECHANISMS TO SALINITY STRESS IN MARINE GASTROPODS LITTORINA SAXATILIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraeva, O A; Maltseva, A L; Mikhailova, N A; Granovitch, A I

    2015-01-01

    Salinity is one of the most important abiotic environmental factors affecting marine animals. If salinity deviate from optimum, adaptive mechanisms switch on to maintain organism's physiological activity. In this study, the reaction of the snails Littorina saxatilis from natural habitats and in response to experimental salinity decreasing was analyzed on proteomic level. The isolation of all snails inside their shells and gradually declining mortality was observed under acute experimental salinity decrease (down to 10 per hundred). Proteomic changes were evaluated in the surviving experimental mollusks compared to control individual using differential 2D gel-electrophoresis (DIGE) and subsequent LC-MS/MS-identification of proteins. Approximately 10% of analyzed proteins underwent up- or down regulation during the experiment. Proteins of folding, antioxidant response, intercellular matrix, cell adhesion, cell signaling and metabolic enzymes were identified among them. Proteome changes observed in experimental hypoosmotic stress partially reproduced in the proteomes of mollusks that live in conditions of natural freshening (estuaries). Possible mechanisms involved in the adaptation process of L. saxatilis individuals to hypo-osmotic stress are discussed.

  3. Marine Pharmacology in 2009–2011: Marine Compounds with Antibacterial, Antidiabetic, Antifungal, Anti-Inflammatory, Antiprotozoal, Antituberculosis, and Antiviral Activities; Affecting the Immune and Nervous Systems, and other Miscellaneous Mechanisms of Action †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Alejandro M. S.; Rodríguez, Abimael D.; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Fusetani, Nobuhiro

    2013-01-01

    The peer-reviewed marine pharmacology literature from 2009 to 2011 is presented in this review, following the format used in the 1998–2008 reviews of this series. The pharmacology of structurally-characterized compounds isolated from marine animals, algae, fungi and bacteria is discussed in a comprehensive manner. Antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antituberculosis, and antiviral pharmacological activities were reported for 102 marine natural products. Additionally, 60 marine compounds were observed to affect the immune and nervous system as well as possess antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory effects. Finally, 68 marine metabolites were shown to interact with a variety of receptors and molecular targets, and thus will probably contribute to multiple pharmacological classes upon further mechanism of action studies. Marine pharmacology during 2009–2011 remained a global enterprise, with researchers from 35 countries, and the United States, contributing to the preclinical pharmacology of 262 marine compounds which are part of the preclinical pharmaceutical pipeline. Continued pharmacological research with marine natural products will contribute to enhance the marine pharmaceutical clinical pipeline, which in 2013 consisted of 17 marine natural products, analogs or derivatives targeting a limited number of disease categories. PMID:23880931

  4. SOLID RADIOACTIVE WASTE STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES: PERFORMANCE OF A POLYMER SEALANT COATING IN AN ARCTIC MARINE ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COWGILL,M.G.; MOSKOWITZ,P.D.; CHERNAENKO,L.M.; NAZARIAN,A.; GRIFFITH,A.; DIASHEV,A.; ENGOY,T.

    2000-06-14

    This first project, under the auspices of the Arctic Military Environmental Cooperation (AMEC) forum, Project 1.4-1 Solid Radioactive Waste Storage Technologies, successfully demonstrated the feasibility of using a polymer-based coating to seal concrete and steel surfaces from permanent radioactive contamination in an Arctic marine environment. A mobile, self-sufficient spraying device, was developed to specifications provided by the Russian Ministry of Defence Northern Navy and was deployed at the RTP Atomflot site, Murmansk, Russia. Demonstration coatings of Polibrid 705 were applied to concrete surfaces exposed to conditions ranging from indoor pedestrian usage to heavy vehicle passage and container handling in a loading bay. A large steel container was also coated with the polymer, filled with solid radwaste, sealed, and left out of doors and exposed to the full 12 month Arctic weather cycle. The field tests were accompanied by a series of laboratory qualification tests carried out at the research laboratory of ICC Nuclide in St. Petersburg. During the 12-month field tests, the sealant coating showed little sign of degradation except for a few chips and gouge marks on the loading bay surface that were readily repaired. Contamination resulting from radwaste handling was easily removed and the surface was not degraded by contact with the decontamination agents. In the laboratory testing, Polibrid 705 met all the Russian qualification requirements with the exception of flammability. In this last instance, it was decided to restrict application of the coating to land-based facilities. The Russian technical experts from the Ministry of Defence quickly familiarized themselves with the equipment and were able to identify several areas of potential improvement as deployment of the equipment progressed. The prime among these was the desirability of extending the range of the equipment through enlarged gasoline tanks (to permit extended operational times) and longer

  5. Aerosciences, Aero-Propulsion and Flight Mechanics Technology Development for NASA's Next Generation Launch Technology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockrell, Charles E., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) program, Vehicle Systems Research and Technology (VSR&T) project is pursuing technology advancements in aerothermodynamics, aeropropulsion and flight mechanics to enable development of future reusable launch vehicle (RLV) systems. The current design trade space includes rocket-propelled, hypersonic airbreathing and hybrid systems in two-stage and single-stage configurations. Aerothermodynamics technologies include experimental and computational databases to evaluate stage separation of two-stage vehicles as well as computational and trajectory simulation tools for this problem. Additionally, advancements in high-fidelity computational tools and measurement techniques are being pursued along with the study of flow physics phenomena, such as boundary-layer transition. Aero-propulsion technology development includes scramjet flowpath development and integration, with a current emphasis on hypervelocity (Mach 10 and above) operation, as well as the study of aero-propulsive interactions and the impact on overall vehicle performance. Flight mechanics technology development is focused on advanced guidance, navigation and control (GN&C) algorithms and adaptive flight control systems for both rocket-propelled and airbreathing vehicles.

  6. Mechanisms of metal tolerance in marine macroalgae, with emphasis on copper tolerance in Chlorophyta and Rhodophyta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moenne, Alejandra; González, Alberto; Sáez, Claudio A

    2016-07-01

    Green and red macroalgae are closely related organisms, and with terrestrial plants, and constitute the base of marine food webs in coastal ecosystems. Green and red seaweeds, as all living organisms, require essential metals, such as copper, iron, zinc, which can act as co-factors for several proteins and enzymes; however, these metals in excess can induce stress and impair cell viability. Most important negative effects of metal excess are related to the induction of an oxidative stress condition, characterized by the over-accumulation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). In this respect, copper, abundant in wastewaters disposed to coastal environments from domestic and industrial activities, has been one of the most studied metals. Different investigations have provided evidence that green and red macroalgae display several defenses against copper excess to prevent, or at least reduce, stress and damage, among which are cellular exclusion mechanisms, synthesis of metal-chelating compounds, and the activation of the antioxidant system. Most important defense mechanisms identified in green and red seaweed involve: metal-binding to cell wall and epibionts; syntheses of metallothioneins and phytochelatins that accumulate in the cytoplasm; and the increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase, and greater production of antioxidant metabolites as glutathione and ascorbate in organelles and the cytoplasm. In this review, we go through historical records, latest advances, and pending tasks aiming to expand our current knowledge on defense mechanisms to copper excess in green and red macroalgae, with emphasis on biochemical and molecular aspects.

  7. Effective Information Technology Governance Mechanisms: An Australian Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syaiful Ali

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing importance of information technology (IT, as a strategic factor for organizations in achieving their objectives, have raised the concern of organizations in establishing and implementing effective IT governance. This study seeks to empirically examine the individual IT governance mechanisms that influence the overall effectiveness of IT governance. The data were obtained by using web based survey from 176 members of ISACA (Information Systems and Audit Control Association Australia. This study examines the influences of six proposed IT governance mechanisms on the overall effectiveness of IT governance. Using Factor Analysis and Multiple Regression techniques, the current study finds significant positive relationships between the overall level of effective IT governance and the following four IT governance mechanisms: the existence of ethics/ culture of compliance in IT, corporate communication systems, an IT strategy committee, and the involvement of senior management in IT.

  8. 2014 Water Power Program Peer Review: Marine and Hydrokinetic Technologies, Compiled Presentations (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-02-01

    This document represents a collection of all presentations given during the EERE Wind and Water Power Program's 2014 Marine and Hydrokinetic Peer Review. The purpose of the meeting was to evaluate DOE-funded hydropower and marine and hydrokinetic R&D projects for their contribution to the mission and goals of the Water Power Program and to assess progress made against stated objectives.

  9. Humidity Sensors Principle, Mechanism, and Fabrication Technologies: A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Farahani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Humidity measurement is one of the most significant issues in various areas of applications such as instrumentation, automated systems, agriculture, climatology and GIS. Numerous sorts of humidity sensors fabricated and developed for industrial and laboratory applications are reviewed and presented in this article. The survey frequently concentrates on the RH sensors based upon their organic and inorganic functional materials, e.g., porous ceramics (semiconductors, polymers, ceramic/polymer and electrolytes, as well as conduction mechanism and fabrication technologies. A significant aim of this review is to provide a distinct categorization pursuant to state of the art humidity sensor types, principles of work, sensing substances, transduction mechanisms, and production technologies. Furthermore, performance characteristics of the different humidity sensors such as electrical and statistical data will be detailed and gives an added value to the report. By comparison of overall prospects of the sensors it was revealed that there are still drawbacks as to efficiency of sensing elements and conduction values. The flexibility offered by thick film and thin film processes either in the preparation of materials or in the choice of shape and size of the sensor structure provides advantages over other technologies. These ceramic sensors show faster response than other types.

  10. Numerical simulation for accuracy of velocity analysis in small-scale high-resolution marine multichannel seismic technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Di; Cai, Feng; Wu, Zhiqiang

    2017-06-01

    When used with large energy sparkers, marine multichannel small-scale high-resolution seismic detection technology has a high resolution, high-detection precision, a wide applicable range, and is very flexible. Positive results have been achieved in submarine geological research, particularly in the investigation of marine gas hydrates. However, the amount of traveltime difference information is reduced for the velocity analysis under conditions of a shorter spread length, thus leading to poorer focusing of the velocity spectrum energy group and a lower accuracy of the velocity analysis. It is thus currently debatable whether the velocity analysis accuracy of short-arrangement multichannel seismic detection technology is able to meet the requirements of practical application in natural gas hydrate exploration. Therefore, in this study the bottom boundary of gas hydrates (Bottom Simulating Reflector, BSR) is used to conduct numerical simulation to discuss the accuracy of the velocity analysis related to such technology. Results show that a higher dominant frequency and smaller sampling interval are not only able to improve the seismic resolution, but they also compensate for the defects of the short-arrangement, thereby improving the accuracy of the velocity analysis. In conclusion, the accuracy of the velocity analysis in this small-scale, high-resolution, multi-channel seismic detection technology meets the requirements of natural gas hydrate exploration.

  11. Development of mechanical design technology for integral reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Keun Bae; Choi, Suhn; Kim, Kang Soo; Kim, Tae Wan; Jeong, Kyeong Hoon; Lee, Gyu Mahn

    1999-03-01

    While Korean nuclear reactor strategy seems to remain focused on the large capacity power generation, it is expected that demand of small and medium size reactor will arise for multi-purpose application such as small capacity power generation, co-generation and sea water desalination. With this in mind, an integral reactor SMART is under development. Design concepts, system layout and types of equipment of integral reactor are significantly different from those of loop type reactor. Conceptual design development of mechanical structures of integral reactor SMART is completed through the first stage of the project. Efforts were endeavored for the establishment of design basis and evaluation of applicable codes and standards. Design and functional requirements of major structural components were setup, and three dimensional structural modelling of SMART reactor vessel assembly was prepared. Also, maintenance and repair scheme as well as preliminary fabricability evaluation were carried out. Since small integral reactor technology includes sensitive technologies and know-how's, it is hard to achieve systematic and comprehensive technology transfer from nuclear-advanced countries. Thus, it is necessary to develop the related design technology and to verify the adopted methodologies through test and experiments in order to assure the structural integrity of reactor system. (author)

  12. Fucoxanthin: A Marine Carotenoid Exerting Anti-Cancer Effects by Affecting Multiple Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeetha Ravi Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fucoxanthin is a marine carotenoid exhibiting several health benefits. The anti-cancer effect of fucoxanthin and its deacetylated metabolite, fucoxanthinol, is well documented. In view of its potent anti-carcinogenic activity, the need to understand the underlying mechanisms has gained prominence. Towards achieving this goal, several researchers have carried out studies in various cell lines and in vivo and have deciphered that fucoxanthin exerts its anti-proliferative and cancer preventing influence via different molecules and pathways including the Bcl-2 proteins, MAPK, NFκB, Caspases, GADD45, and several other molecules that are involved in either cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, or metastasis. Thus, in addition to decreasing the frequency of occurrence and growth of tumours, fucoxanthin has a cytotoxic effect on cancer cells. Some studies show that this effect is selective, i.e., fucoxanthin has the capability to target cancer cells only, leaving normal physiological cells unaffected/less affected. Hence, fucoxanthin and its metabolites show great promise as chemotherapeutic agents in cancer.

  13. The toxic mechanism of high lethality of herbicide butachlor in marine flatfish flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Huarong; Yin, Licheng; Zhang, Shicui; Feng, Wenrong

    2010-09-01

    The toxic mechanism of herbicide butachlor to induce extremely high lethality in marine flatfish flounder, Paralichthys Olivaceus, was analyzed by histopathological examination, antioxidant enzymes activities and ATP content assay. Histopathological examination of gill, liver and kidney of exposed fishes showed that gill was a target organ of butachlor. The butachlor seriously impaired the respiration of gills by a series of lesions such as edema, lifting and detachment of lamellar epithelium, breakdown of pillar cells, and blood congestion. The dysfunction of gill respiration caused suffocation to the exposed flounder with extremely high acute lethality. Antioxidant enzyme activity assay of the in vitro cultured flounder gill (FG) cells exposed to butachlor indicated that butachlor markedly inhibited the antioxidant enzyme activities of Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX). Furthermore, along with the decline of antioxidant enzyme activities, ATP content in the exposed FG cells decreased, too. This infers that the oxidative stress induced by butachlor can inhibit the production of cellular ATP. Similar decrease of ATP content was also observed in the exposed flounder gill tissues. Taken together, as in FG cells, butachlor possibly induced a short supply of ATP in pillar cells by inhibiting the antioxidant enzyme activities and then affecting the contractibility of the pillar cells, which in turn resulted in the blood congestion and suffocation of exposed flounder.

  14. MECHANICAL DESIGN OF AN AUTONOMOUS MARINE ROBOTIC SYSTEM FOR INTERACTION WITH DIVERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Stilinović

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available SCUBA diving, professional or recreational, remains one of the most hazardous activities known by man, mostly due to the fact that the human survival in the underwater environment requires use of technical equipment such as breathing regulators. Loss of breathing gas supply, burst eardrum, decompression sickness and nitrogen narcosis are just a few problems which can occur during an ordinary dive and result in injuries, long-term illnesses or even death. Most common way to reduce the risk of diving is to dive in pairs, thus allowing divers to cooperate with each other and react when uncommon situation occurs. Having the ability to react before an unwanted situation happens would improve diver safety. This paper describes an autonomous marine robotic system that replaces a human dive buddy. Such a robotic system, developed within an FP7 project “CADDY – Cognitive Autonomous Diving Buddy” provides a symbiotic link between robots and human divers in the underwater. The proposed concept consists of a diver, an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV Buddy and an autonomous surface vehicle (ASV PlaDyPos, acting within a cooperative network linked via an acoustic communication channel. This is a first time that an underwater human-robot system of such a scale has ever been developed. In this paper, focus is put on mechanical characteristics of the robotic vehicles.

  15. The role of containerships as transfer mechanisms of marine biofouling species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Ian C; Brown, Christopher W; Sytsma, Mark D; Ruiz, Gregory M

    2009-10-01

    Fouling of ships is an important historical and enduring transfer mechanism of marine nonindigenous species (NIS). Although containerships have risen to the forefront of global maritime shipping since the 1950s, few studies have directly sampled fouling communities on their submerged surfaces, and little is known about differences in the fouling characteristics among commercial ship types. Twenty-two in-service containerships at the Port of Oakland (San Francisco Bay, California) were sampled to test the hypothesis that the extent and taxonomic richness of fouling would be low on this type of ship, resulting from relatively fast speeds and short port durations. The data showed that the extent of macroorganisms (invertebrates and algae) was indeed low, especially across the large surface areas of the hull. Less than 1% of the exposed hull was colonized for all apart from one vessel. These ships had submerged surface areas of >7000 m(2), and fouling coverage on this area was estimated to be dry dock block areas did not support many organisms, despite little antifouling deterrence in some cases. Comparisons with previous studies suggest that the accumulation of fouling on containerships may be lower than on other ship types (eg bulkers and general cargo vessels), but more data are needed to determine the hierarchy of factors contributing to differences in the extent of macrofouling and non-native species vector risks within the commercial fleet.

  16. Removal of Heavy Metal Ions from Wastewater by Using Biosorbents from Marine Algae-A Cost Effective New Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution from industrial wastewater is a worldwide environmental issue. Biosorption of heavy metals by using biosorbents derived from various types of biomass has been shown to be effective for the uptake of heavy metal ions. In this study, biosorbents derived from the biomass of a group of marine macroalgae were used for the removal and recovery of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions. Results indicated that the biosorbents have high uptake capacities and affinities for a number of heavy metal ions. The uptake capacities of the biosorbents were in the range of 1.0 to 1.5mmol·g-1 for divalent heavy metal ions. The kinetics of the uptake process was fast and the process can be used in both batch and fixed-bed operations. It appears that the biosorption process by using biosorbents from marine macroalgae can be an efficient and cost effective technology for the treatment of heavy metal containing wastewater.

  17. Innovative Mechanical Engineering Technologies, Equipment and Materials-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilnaz Izailovich, Fayrushin; Nail Faikovich, Kashapov; Mahmut Mashutovich, Ganiev

    2014-12-01

    In the period from 25 to 27 September 2013 the city of Kazan hosted the International Scientific Conference "Innovative mechanical engineering technologies, equipment and materials - 2013" (IRTC "IMETEM - 2013"). The conference was held on the grounds of "Kazanskaya Yarmarka" (Kazan). The conference plenary meeting was held with the participation of the Republic of Tatarstan, breakout sessions, forum "Improving the competitiveness and efficiency of engineering enterprises in the WTO" and a number of round tables. Traditionally, the event was followed by the 13th International specialized exhibition "Engineering. Metalworking. Kazan ", in which were presented the development of innovative enterprises in the interests of the Russian Federation of Industry of Republic of Tatarstan, to support the "Foundation for Assistance to Small Innovative Enterprises in Science and Technology" and the 8th specialized exhibition "TechnoWelding". Kashapov Nail, D.Sc., professor (Kazan Federal University)

  18. Mechanism of salt-induced activity enhancement of a marine-derived laccase, Lac15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Xie, Yanan; Wang, Rui; Fang, Zemin; Fang, Wei; Zhang, Xuecheng; Xiao, Yazhong

    2017-09-05

    Laccase (benzenediol: oxygen oxidoreductases, EC1.10.3.2) is a multi-copper oxidase capable of oxidizing a variety of phenolic and other aromatic organic compounds. The catalytic power of laccase makes it an attractive candidate for potential applications in many areas of industry including biodegradation of organic pollutants and synthesis of novel drugs. Most laccases are vulnerable to high salt and have limited applications. However, some laccases are not only tolerant to but also activated by certain concentrations of salt and thus have great application potential. The mechanisms of salt-induced activity enhancement of laccases are unclear as yet. In this study, we used dynamic light scattering, size exclusion chromatography, analytical ultracentrifugation, intrinsic fluorescence emission, circular dichroism, ultraviolet-visible light absorption, and an enzymatic assay to investigate the potential correlation between the structure and activity of the marine-derived laccase, Lac15, whose activity is promoted by low concentrations of NaCl. The results showed that low concentrations of NaCl exert little influence on the protein structure, which was partially folded in the absence of the salt; moreover, the partially folded rather than the fully folded state seemed to be favorable for enzyme activity, and this partially folded state was distinctive from the so-called 'molten globule' occasionally observed in active enzymes. More data indicated that salt might promote laccase activity through mechanisms involving perturbation of specific local sites rather than a change in global structure. Potential binding sites for chloride ions and their roles in enzyme activity promotion are proposed.

  19. Affect and technology acceptance: A test of two mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Grunert, Klaus G.; Søndergaard, Helle Alsted

    to strong changes in consumer attitudes (effect size d = .40). Furthermore, preferences for genetically modified products were found to be mainly dependent on the quality of the product participants had tried. Both effects were robust under contextual variations. Results are discussed in terms of theory...... GM organisms or their derivatives. In the absence of product experience, consumers tend to evaluate this technology by means of affective mechanisms, setting it in relation to other, even more abstract and general socio-political attitudes. Previous research has shown that these attitudes...

  20. Discussion of gas enrichment mechanism and natural gas origin in marine sedimentary basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    There are abundant natural gas resources in Chinese marine sedimentary basin. The exploration hot shots of natural gas are the Palaeozoic marine strata here in recent years, and several large scale gas fields have been discovered. Chinese Palaeozoic high-post matured and coal measure hydrocarbon source rocks are mainly prone to gas generation in the present. This research considered that gas source rocks and TSR are the key cause of gas enrichment of marine strata. High-quality argillaceous and coal measure hydrocarbon rocks are distributed widely in the Palaeozoic marine strata, which have been in highly matured phase in the present. The argillaceous source rock generally contains various sulfates that could accelerate crude oil cracking to gas for TSR occurrence, and coal measure source rock mainly generates gas, so Chinese marine basin gives priority to accumulating gas. Marine strata have not founded oil reservoirs in the Sichuan Basin and Ordos Basin, and they consist mainly of dry gas. Marine natural gases are the mixed gases of oil cracking gas and coal-formed gas in a general way,oil cracking gases contain usually some H2S and CO2. Hydrocarbon carbon isotopes are very complicated, and methane and ethane isotopic values bear apparent reversal caused by thermal evolution and mixing among different genetic types of natural gas. Coal-formed gases are the main component of Chinese marine natural gas. The Upper Permian of the Sichuan Basin and the Carboniferous-Permian of the Ordos Basin coal measure hydrocarbon source rock present large hydrocarbon generation potential, which are the prospecting highlight of marine natural gas hereafter. Oil cracking gas exploration will be paid much attention to in the Tarim Basin because of the lack of coal measure hydrocarbon source rock.

  1. Emerging strategies and integrated systems microbiology technologies for biodiscovery of marine bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Martin, Javier; Harrington, Catriona; Dobson, Alan D W; O'Gara, Fergal

    2014-06-10

    Marine microorganisms continue to be a source of structurally and biologically novel compounds with potential use in the biotechnology industry. The unique physiochemical properties of the marine environment (such as pH, pressure, temperature, osmolarity) and uncommon functional groups (such as isonitrile, dichloroimine, isocyanate, and halogenated functional groups) are frequently found in marine metabolites. These facts have resulted in the production of bioactive substances with different properties than those found in terrestrial habitats. In fact, the marine environment contains a relatively untapped reservoir of bioactivity. Recent advances in genomics, metagenomics, proteomics, combinatorial biosynthesis, synthetic biology, screening methods, expression systems, bioinformatics, and the ever increasing availability of sequenced genomes provides us with more opportunities than ever in the discovery of novel bioactive compounds and biocatalysts. The combination of these advanced techniques with traditional techniques, together with the use of dereplication strategies to eliminate known compounds, provides a powerful tool in the discovery of novel marine bioactive compounds. This review outlines and discusses the emerging strategies for the biodiscovery of these bioactive compounds.

  2. Emerging Strategies and Integrated Systems Microbiology Technologies for Biodiscovery of Marine Bioactive Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Rocha-Martin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine microorganisms continue to be a source of structurally and biologically novel compounds with potential use in the biotechnology industry. The unique physiochemical properties of the marine environment (such as pH, pressure, temperature, osmolarity and uncommon functional groups (such as isonitrile, dichloroimine, isocyanate, and halogenated functional groups are frequently found in marine metabolites. These facts have resulted in the production of bioactive substances with different properties than those found in terrestrial habitats. In fact, the marine environment contains a relatively untapped reservoir of bioactivity. Recent advances in genomics, metagenomics, proteomics, combinatorial biosynthesis, synthetic biology, screening methods, expression systems, bioinformatics, and the ever increasing availability of sequenced genomes provides us with more opportunities than ever in the discovery of novel bioactive compounds and biocatalysts. The combination of these advanced techniques with traditional techniques, together with the use of dereplication strategies to eliminate known compounds, provides a powerful tool in the discovery of novel marine bioactive compounds. This review outlines and discusses the emerging strategies for the biodiscovery of these bioactive compounds.

  3. Mechanical properties and production quality of hand-layup and vacuum infusion processed hybrid composite materials for GFRP marine structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Young Kim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic (GFRP structures are primarily manufactured using hand lay-up or vacuum infusion techniques, which are cost-effective for the construction of marine vessels. This paper aims to investigate the mechanical properties and failure mechanisms of the hybrid GFRP composites, formed by applying the hand lay-up processed exterior and the vacuum infusion processed interior layups, providing benefits for structural performance and ease of manufacturing. The hybrid GFRP composites contain one, two, and three vacuum infusion processed layer sets with consistent sets of hand lay-up processed layers. Mechanical properties assessed in this study include tensile, compressive and in-plane shear properties. Hybrid composites with three sets of vacuum infusion layers showed the highest tensile mechanical properties while those with two sets had the highest mechanical properties in compression. The batch homogeneity, for the GFRP fabrication processes, is evaluated using the experimentally obtained mechanical properties.

  4. Mechanisms of the antifungal action of marine metagenome-derived peptide, MMGP1, against Candida albicans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthuirulan Pushpanathan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Development of resistant variants to existing antifungal drugs continues to be the serious problem in Candida albicans-induced fungal pathogenesis, which has a considerable impact on animal and human health. Identification and characterization of newer drugs against C. albicans is, therefore, essential. MMGP1 is a direct cell-penetrating peptide recently identified from marine metagenome, which was found to possess potent antifungal activity against C. albicans. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we investigated the mechanism of antifungal action of MMGP1 against C. albicans. Agarose gel shift assay found the peptide to be having a remarkable DNA-binding ability. The modification of the absorption spectra and fluorescence quenching of the tryptophyl residue correspond to the stacking between indole ring and nucleotide bases. The formation of peptide-DNA complexes was confirmed by fluorescence quenching of SYTO 9 probe. The interaction of peptide with plasmid DNA afforded protection of DNA from enzymatic degradation by DNase I. In vitro transcription of mouse β-actin gene in the presence of peptide led to a decrease in the level of mRNA synthesis. The C. albicans treated with MMGP1 showed strong inhibition of biosynthetic incorporation of uridine analog 5-ethynyluridine (EU into nascent RNA, suggesting the peptide's role in the inhibition of macromolecular synthesis. Furthermore, the peptide also induces endogenous accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in C. albicans. MMGP1 supplemented with glutathione showed an increased viability of C. albicans cells. The hyper-produced ROS by MMGP1 leads to increased levels of protein carbonyls and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and it also causes dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential and DNA fragmentation in C. albicans cells. CONCLUSION: And Significance: Therefore, the antifungal activity of MMGP1 could be attributed to its binding with DNA, causing

  5. Marine Litter, Eutrophication and Noise Assessment Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazov, Atanas; Velcheva, Maya; Milkova, Tanya; Slabakova, Violeta; Marinova, Veselka

    2017-04-01

    MARLEN - Marine Litter, Eutrophication and Noise Assessment Tools is a project under the Programme BG02.03: Increased capacity for assessing and predicting environmental status in marine and inland waters, managed by Bulgarian Ministry of environment and waters and co-financed by the Financial Mechanism of the European Economic Area (EEA FM) 2009 - 2014. Project Beneficiary is the Institute of oceanology - Bulgarian Academy of Sciences with two partners: Burgas municipality and Bulgarian Black Sea Basin Directorate. Initial assessment of ecological state of Bulgarian marine waters showed lack of data for some descriptors of MSFD. The main goal of MARLEN is to build up tools for assessment of marine environment by implementing new technologies and best practices for addressing three main areas of interest with lack of marine data in particular: a) Marine litter detection and classification in coastal areas; b) Regular near real time surface water eutrophication monitoring on large aquatory; c) Underwater noise monitoring. Developed tools are an important source of real time, near real time and delay mode marine data for Bulgarian Black Sea waters. The partnership within the project increased capacity for environmental assessments and training of personnel and enhances collaboration between scientific institutes, regional and local authorities. Project results supported implementation of MSFD in Bulgarian marine waters for the benefit of coastal population, marine industry, tourism, marine research and marine spatial planning.

  6. Fatigue Technology Assessment and Strategies for Fatigue Avoidance in Marine Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    Endurance, cycles Figure 9-4 Comparison of Fatigue Strength Improvement Techniques (From Reference 9.7) I- CA a :, ., a , a MS M w a us 4-4 4. 4.1 4- M...1991 SSC-365 Marine Structural Integrity Programs ( MSIP ) by Robert G. Bea 1992 SSC-366 Threshold Corrosion Fatigue of Welded Shipbuilding Steels by G

  7. Using DNA Technology to Explore Marine Bacterial Diversity in a Coastal Georgia Salt Marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yihe; Guerrero, Stella; Moran, Mary Ann

    2008-01-01

    An important aspect of teaching biology is to expose students to the concept of biodiversity. For this purpose, bacteria are excellent examples. The advanced placement (AP) biology class at Cedar Shoals High School in Athens, Georgia, learned how to explore bacterial biodiversity using molecular fingerprinting. They collected marine water samples,…

  8. Bioremediation of Industrial Waste Through Enzyme Producing Marine Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaperumal, P; Kamala, K; Rajaram, R

    2017-01-01

    Bioremediation process using microorganisms is a kind of nature-friendly and cost-effective clean green technology. Recently, biodegradation of industrial wastes using enzymes from marine microorganisms has been reported worldwide. The prospectus research activity in remediation area would contribute toward the development of advanced bioprocess technology. To minimize industrial wastes, marine enzymes could constitute a novel alternative in terms of waste treatment. Nowadays, the evidence on the mechanisms of bioremediation-related enzymes from marine microorganisms has been extensively studied. This review also will provide information about enzymes from various marine microorganisms and their complexity in the biodegradation of comprehensive range of industrial wastes.

  9. Study of Green Shipping Technologies - Harnessing Wind, Waves and Solar Power in New Generation Marine Propulsion Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Rutkowski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose and scope of this paper is to describe the complexity of the new generation marine propulsion technologies implemented in the shipping industry to promote green ships concept and change the view of sea transportation to a more ecological and environment-friendly. Harnessing wind, waves and solar power in shipping industry can help the ship’s owners reduce the operational costs. Reducing fuel consumption results in producing less emissions and provides a clean source of renewable energy. Green shipping technologies can also effectively increase the operating range of vessels and help drive sea transportation towards a greener future and contribute to the global reduction of harmful gas emissions from the world's shipping fleets.

  10. Microfluidic Technology: Uncovering the Mechanisms of Nanocrystal Nucleation and Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lignos, Ioannis; Maceiczyk, Richard; deMello, Andrew J

    2017-05-16

    The controlled and reproducible formation of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals (or quantum dots) is of central importance in nanoscale science and technology. The tunable size- and shape-dependent properties of such materials make them ideal candidates for the development of efficient and low-cost displays, solar cells, light-emitting devices, and catalysts. The formidable difficulties associated with the macroscale preparation of semiconductor nanocrystals (possessing bespoke optical and chemical properties) result from the fact that underlying reaction mechanisms are complex and that the reactive environment is difficult to control. Automated microfluidic reactors coupled with monitoring systems and optimization algorithms aim to elucidate complex reaction mechanisms that govern both nucleation and growth of nanocrystals. Such platforms are ideally suited for the efficient optimization of reaction parameters, assuring the reproducible synthesis of nanocrystals with user-defined properties. This Account aims to inform the nanomaterials community about how microfluidic technologies can supplement flask experimentation for the ensemble investigation of formation mechanisms and design of semiconductor nanocrystals. We present selected studies outlining the preparation of quantum dots using microfluidic systems with integrated analytics. Such microfluidic reaction systems leverage the ability to extract real-time information regarding optical, structural, and compositional characteristics of quantum dots during nucleation and growth stages. The Account further highlights our recent research activities focused on the development and application of droplet-based microfluidics with integrated optical detection systems for the efficient and rapid screening of reaction conditions and a better understanding of the mechanisms of quantum dot synthesis. We describe the features and operation of fully automated microfluidic reactors and their subsequent application to high

  11. A new mechanism for energy conservation technology services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Feng

    1996-12-31

    In the ninth-five year plan of China, the socialist market economy model will be developed. In the stage of transferring from planning economy to market economy, the energy conservation technology services industry in China has met new challenges. Over the past ten to fifteen years, there has developed a new mechanism for financing energy efficiency investments in market economies. The process is simple. After inspecting an enterprise or an entity for energy saving opportunities, an Energy Service Company (ESCO) which business aimed at making money will review the recommended energy conservation opportunities with the enterprise or the entity (user) and implement those measures acceptable to the user at no front end cost to the user. The ESCO then guarantees that the energy savings will cover the cost of the capital renovations using the Performance Contracting.

  12. Development of mechanical structure design technology for LMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Bong; Lee, Jae Han; Joo, Young Sang [and others

    2000-05-01

    In this project, fundamentals for conceptual design of mechanical structure system for LMR are independently established. The research contents are as follow; at first, conceptual design for SSC, design integration of interfaces, design consistency to keep functions and interfaces by developing arrangement of reactor system and 3 dimensional concept drawings, development and revision of preliminary design requirements and structural design basis, and evaluation of structural integrity for SSC following structural design criteria to check the conceptual design to be proper, at second, development of high temperature structure design and analysis technology and establishment of high temperature structural analysis codes and scheme, development of seismic isolation design concept to reduce seismic design loads to SCC and establishment of seismic analysis codes and scheme.

  13. The technology of mobile robot with articulated crawler mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Ho; Kim, Byung Soo; Kim, Chang Hoi; Hwang, Suk Yong; Suh, Yong Chil; Lee, Yung Kwang; Sin, Jae Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-01-01

    The main application of a mobile robot are to do the inspection and maintenance tasks in the primary and auxiliary building, and to meet with the radiological emergency response in nuclear power plant. Our project to develop crawler-type mobile robot has been divided into 3 phases. In 1 st phase, the-state-of-the-arts of mobile robot technology were studied and analyzed. And then the technical report `development of mobile robot technology for the light work` was published on July, 1993. In current phase, the articulated crawler type mobile robot named as ANDROS Mark VI was purchased to evaluate deeply its mechanism and control system. Then we designed the autonomous track surface, to get the inclination angle of robot, and to control the front and rear auxiliary track autonomously during climbing up and down stairs. And also, the autonomous stair-climbing algorithm has been developed to going over stairs with high stability. For the final phase, the advanced model of articulated crawler type mobile robot is going to be developed. (Author) 13 refs., 30 figs., 12 tabs.

  14. Fluid Mechanics of Biological Surfaces and their Technological Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechert, D. W.; Bruse, M.; Hage, W.; Meyer, R.

    A survey is given on fluid-dynamic effects caused by the structure and properties of biological surfaces. It is demonstrated that the results of investigations aiming at technological applications can also provide insights into biophysical phenomena. Techniques are described both for reducing wall shear stresses and for controlling boundary-layer separation. (a) Wall shear stress reduction was investigated experimentally for various riblet surfaces including a shark skin replica. The latter consists of 800 plastic model scales with compliant anchoring. Hairy surfaces are also considered, and surfaces in which the no-slip condition is modified. Self-cleaning surfaces such as that of lotus leaves represent an interesting option to avoid fluid-dynamic deterioration by the agglomeration of dirt. An example of technological implementation is discussed for riblets in long-range commercial aircraft. (b) Separation control is also an important issue in biology. After a few brief comments on vortex generators, the mechanism of separation control by bird feathers is described in detail. Self-activated movable flaps (=artificial bird feathers) represent a high-lift system enhancing the maximum lift of airfoils by about 20%. This is achieved without perceivable deleterious effects under cruise conditions. Finally, flight experiments on an aircraft with laminar wing and movable flaps are presented.

  15. ELECTROCHEMICAL REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES (ECRTS) - IN SITU REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED MARINE SEDIMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Innovative Technology Evaulation Report summarizes the results of the evaluation of the Electrochemical Remediation Technologies (ECRTs) process, developed by P2-Soil Remediation, Inc. (in partnership with Weiss Associates and Electro-Petroleum, Inc.). This evaluation was co...

  16. Molecular biology in marine science: Scientific questions, technological approaches, and practical implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This report describes molecular techniques that could be invaluable in addressing process-oriented problems in the ocean sciences that have perplexed oceanographers for decades, such as understanding the basis for biogeochemical processes, recruitment processes, upper-ocean dynamics, biological impacts of global warming, and ecological impacts of human activities. The coupling of highly sophisticated methods, such as satellite remote sensing, which permits synoptic monitoring of chemical, physical, and biological parameters over large areas, with the power of modern molecular tools for ``ground truthing`` at small scales could allow scientists to address questions about marine organisms and the ocean in which they live that could not be answered previously. Clearly, the marine sciences are on the threshold of an exciting new frontier of scientific discovery and economic opportunity.

  17. Remote sensing for the control of marine pollution. Preliminary inventory of available technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massin, J.

    1978-03-01

    As regards damage to the marine environment, oil spills at sea are considered to be one of the main sources of pelagic pollution: at the present time, it is estimated that more than six million tons of hydrocarbons enter the marine environment as a result of shipping and certain coastal, industrial and urban activities, river-borne pollution, oil prospecting and mining at sea and, finally, natural seepage from certain sea bottoms. This pollution is mainly due to intentional discharge, i.e. the routine evacuation of hydrocarbon-carrying effluents, or to accidental discharge, as a result of damage to installations or ships. Because of the rapid development of techniques and the multiplicity of studies and research undertaken, particularly with a view to developing integrated remote detection systems to meet the overall requirements of users, it has been found desirable to take stock of present knowledge in this field (excluding satellites for the time being) so that the lines to be followed in the mentioned areas can be determined and assessed. This manual is a first inventory of available techniques, instrumentation, and research centers in the field of remote sensing of the marine environment for detection of pollution. Inclusion in this inventory of information from specific organizations or firms does not in any way imply approval or endorsement of the organizations or firms, or of particular equipment, by the CCMS, NATO, or the Alliance Nations.

  18. 船用燃料电池技术初探%Research on Fuel Cell Technology for Marine Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶伟强; 宋艳琼

    2015-01-01

    总结了各种燃料电池及其潜在的船舶应用,并将燃料电池的特点和性质在效率、功率密度、排放等方面与传统的能源系统进行比较,例如,柴油发动机和燃气涡轮机。同时指出燃料电池应用于船舶的主要问题,并指导选择适当的燃料与氢能。案例研究表明。燃料电池堆可应用于船舶推进系统,燃料电池优良的排放性能有利于新技术在环境敏感的区域使用,同时要特别关注可用燃料的适用性、瞬时响应和安全可靠性。%A brief summary is presented for various fuel cells and their potential for marine applica‐tions .And the characteristics and properties of fuel cells are compared with conventional energy sys‐tems ,such as diesel engines and gas turbines ,based on efficiency ,power density ,emissions ,etc .The significant barriers to implement fuel cell technology into marine applications are identified as well in this study .Fuel and the choice of suitable hydrogen supply are addressed .By a case study ,the results show that a fuel cell stack can be applied to a ship propulsion system ,and meanw hile ,excellent emis‐sion performance of fuel cells benefits the application of new technology in the environmentally sensi‐tive areas .But the most significant problems to adopt the new technology are the suitability of availa‐ble fuels ,transient response and reliability/safety concerns .

  19. GIS-based technology for marine geohazards in LW3-1 Gas Field of the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tianyun; Liu, Lejun; Li, Xishuang; Hu, Guanghai; Liu, Haixing; Zhou, Lin

    2013-04-01

    The exploration and exploitation of deep-water oil-gas are apt to be suffered from high-risk geo-hazards such as submarine landslide, soft clay creep, shallow gas, excess pore-water pressure, mud volcano or mud diaper, salt dome and so on. Therefore, it is necessary to survey the seafloor topography, identify the unfavourable geological risks and investigate their environment and mechanism before exploiting the deep-water oil-gas. Because of complex environment, the submarine phenomenon and features, like marine geohazards, can not be recognized directly. Multi-disciplinary data are acquired and analysed comprehensively in order to get more clear understanding about the submarine processes. The data include multi-beam bathymetry data, sidescan sonar images, seismic data, shallow-bottom profiling images, boring data, etc.. Such data sets nowadays increase rapidly to large amounts, but may be heterogeneous and have different resolutions. It is difficult to make good management and utilization of such submarine data with traditional means. GIS technology can provide efficient and powerful tools or services in such aspects as spatial data management, processing, analysis and visualization. They further promote the submarine scientific research and engineering development. The Liwan 3-1 Gas Field, the first deep-water gas field in China, is located in the Zhu II Depression in the Zhujiang Basin along the continental slope of the northern South China Sea. The exploitation of this field is designed to establish subsea wellhead and to use submarine pipeline for the transportation of oil. The deep-water section of the pipeline route in the gas field is to be selected to pass through the northern continental slope of the South China Sea. To avoid huge economic loss and ecological environmental damage, it is necessary to evaluate the geo-hazards for the establishment and safe operation of the pipeline. Based on previous scientific research results, several survey cruises have

  20. The innovational mining technology of fully mechanized mining on thin coal seam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, G.; Sun, Q.; Song, H. [China Ocean University, Qingdao (China)

    2007-03-15

    The paper describes the innovational fully mechanized mining technology practised on thin coal seams in Tianchen coal mine. This mining technology combined fully mechanized mining and orthodox working face mining. The technology is suitable for mining of particularly thin coal seams. 7 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  1. The Danish Marine Monitoring System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ærtebjerg, G.

    1997-01-01

    Indeholder abstracts fra Workshop on Marine Monitoring Systems and Technology, Risø, 17-18 April 1996.......Indeholder abstracts fra Workshop on Marine Monitoring Systems and Technology, Risø, 17-18 April 1996....

  2. Informatics and Decisions support in Galway Bay (SmartBay) using ERDDAP, OGC Technologies and Third Party Data Sources to Provide Services to the Marine Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Conor; Gaughan, Paul; Smyth, Damian

    2013-04-01

    The global marine sector generates and consumes vast quantities of operational and forecast data on a daily basis. One of the key challenges facing the sector relates to the management and transformation of that data into knowledge. The Irish Marine Institute (MI) generates oceanographic and environmental data on a regular and frequent basis. This data comes from operational ocean models run on the MI's high performance computer (HPC) and various environmental observation sensors systems. Some of the data published by the Marine Institute is brokered by the Environmental Research Division's Data Access Program (ERDDAP) data broker, which is a broker technology that uses technology based on OPeNDAP and Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards. The broker provides a consistent web service interface to the data services of the Marine Institute; these services include wave, tide and weather sensors and numerical model output. An ERDDAP server publishes data in a number of standard and developer friendly ways, including some OGC formats. The data on the MI ERDDAP (http://erddap.marine.ie) server is published as OpenData. The marine work package of the FP7 funded ENVIROFI project (http://www.envirofi.eu/) has used the ERDDAP data broker as a core resource in the development of its Marine Asset management decision Support Tool (MAST) portal and phone App. Communication between MAST and ERDDAP is via a Uniform Resource Identifier (Linked Data). A key objective of the MAST prototype is to demonstrate the potential of next-generation dynamic web-based products and services and how they can be harnessed to facilitate growth of both the marine and IT sectors. The use case driving the project is the management of ocean energy assets in the marine environment. In particular the provision of information that aid in the decision making process surrounding maintenance at sea. This question is common to any offshore industry and solution proposed here is applicable to other users

  3. Molecular Mechanisms by Which Marine Phytoplankton Respond to Their Dynamic Chemical Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palenik, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Marine scientists have long been interested in the interactions of marine phytoplankton with their chemical environments. Nutrient availability clearly controls carbon fixation on a global scale, but the interactions between phytoplankton and nutrients are complex and include both short-term responses (seconds to minutes) and longer-term evolutionary adaptations. This review outlines how genomics and functional genomics approaches are providing a better understanding of these complex interactions, especially for cyanobacteria and diatoms, for which the genome sequences of multiple model organisms are available. Transporters and related genes are emerging as the most likely candidates for biomarkers in stress-specific studies, but other genes are also possible candidates. One surprise has been the important role of horizontal gene transfer in mediating chemical-biological interactions.

  4. High CO₂ and marine animal behaviour: potential mechanisms and ecological consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briffa, Mark; de la Haye, Kate; Munday, Philip L

    2012-08-01

    Exposure to pollution and environmental change can alter the behaviour of aquatic animals and here we review recent evidence that exposure to elevated CO₂ and reduced sea water pH alters the behaviour of tropical reef fish and hermit crabs. Three main routes through which behaviour might be altered are discussed; elevated metabolic load, 'info-disruption' and avoidance behaviour away from polluted locations. There is clear experimental evidence that exposure to high CO₂ disrupts the ability to find settlement sites and shelters, the ability to detect predators and the ability to detect prey and food. In marine vertebrates and marine crustaceans behavioural change appears to occur via info-disruption. In hermit crabs and other crustaceans impairment of performance capacities might also play a role. We discuss the implications for such behavioural changes in terms of potential impacts at the levels of population health and ecosystem services, and consider future directions for research.

  5. Cultivation of marine shrimp in biofloc technology (BFT system under different water alkalinities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Piérri

    Full Text Available AbstractThe aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different levels of alkalinity for the superintensive cultivation of marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in biofloc system. A total of 12 experimental circular units of 1000L were used supplied with 850L water from a nursery, populated at a density of 165 shrimps.m–3 and average weight of 5.6 g. The treatments, in triplicate, consisted in four levels of alkalinity in the water: 40, 80, 120 and 160 mg.L–1 of calcium carbonate. To correct the alkalinity was used calcium hydroxide (CaOH. It was observed a decrease in pH of the water in the treatments with lower alkalinity (p<0.05. The total suspended settleable solids were also lower in the treatment of low alkalinity. No significant difference was observed in other physico-chemical and biological parameters in the water quality assessed, as well as the zootechnical parameters of cultivation between treatments (p≥0.05. The results of survival and growth rate of shrimps were considered suitable for the cultivation system used in the different treatments. The cultivation of marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in biofloc at density of 165 shrimps.m–3 can be performed in waters with alkalinity between 40 and 160 mg.L–1 of CaCO3, without compromising the zootechnical indexes of cultivation.

  6. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Remote Sensing Applications in Marine Science and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    1983-01-01

    This summer school was a sequel to the summer school on Remote Sensing in Meteorology, Oceanography and Hydrology which was held in Dundee in 1980 and the proceedings of which were published by Ellis Horwood Ltd., Chichester, England. At the present summer scnool we concentrated on only part of the subject area that was covered in 1980. Although there was some repetit­ ion of material that was presented in 1980, because by and large we had a new set of participants, most subjects were treated in considerably greater detail than had been possible previously. The major topics covered in the present summer school were (i) the general principles of remote sensing with particular reference to marine applications, (ii) applications to physical oceanography, (iii) marine resources applications and (iv) coastal monitoring and protection. The material contained in this volume represents the written texts of most of the lectures presented at the summer school. One important set of lecture notes was not available; this...

  7. Exploring Technology Supported Collaborative and Cooperative Group Formation Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carapina, Mia; Boticki, Ivica

    2015-01-01

    This paper reflects on the systematic literature review paper (in progress), which analyzes technology enhanced collaborative and cooperative learning in elementary education worldwide from 2004 to 2015, focusing on the exploration of technology mediated group formation. The review paper reports on only a few cases of technology supported methods…

  8. Mechanical impact of sea-ice/mélange on marine terminating glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, D. S.; Dupont, T. K.

    2011-12-01

    Observations indicate that large portions of ice-sheet margins are currently undergoing rapid dynamic change. The role of the ocean and sea-ice in altering glacier dynamics is currently an active field of research. Sea-ice, along with encased icebergs and marine ice (known as mélange), has been hypothesized to potentially affect glacier calving rates. In winter, sea-ice forms, stiffening the mélange, forming something akin to a thin ice-shelf. In an embayment, the sea-ice/mélange connects embayment walls to the glacial terminus potentially weakening longitudinal strain-rates. As calving rates are strongly dependent on longitudinal strain-rates, a decrease in strain-rate decreases calving. In certain cases decreased calving can lead to a terminus advance resulting in increased lateral drag and decreased glacier velocity. The outlined process is one of several competing theories that help explain the winter terminus advance and associated decrease in velocity at Jakobshavn Isbræ in Greenland. This work assesses the potential mechanical impact sea-ice/mélange (referred hereafter as winter mélange) can have on glacier dynamics. We examine the conditions under which winter mélange can have a significant impact on longitudinal strain-rates. We utilize two calving parameterizations, one depending on ice strain-rate, and the other based on a crevasse depth criterion. Results are presented from a 1-D force balance analysis and 2D plan-view diagnostic model. The 2D model explicitly incorporates the winter mélange as a thin shelf of uniform thickness within the interior of the domain. The model can account for variations in density, thickness, and ice hardness between glacier and winter mélange. Several questions ultimately drive this research. Under what geometric and rheological conditions can winter mélange affect longitudinal strain-rates? How sensitive is the calving rate to a decrease in glacier strain-rate? More specifically, can a small change in

  9. 舰艇惯性导航技术现状及发展趋势%Status Quo and Trends of Marine Inertial Navigation Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘飞; 马林

    2011-01-01

    讲述了国内外海军舰艇用惯性导航技术的现状,分析并预测了发展趋势.简述了“舰艇用惯性导航技术”的技术特点和使用需求特点,从惯性敏感器技术和系统技术两个方面对“惯性导航系统”产品进行了分类.通过阐述技术特点与不同使用需求之间的对应关系,探寻技术发展方向;并以国内外舰艇惯性导航技术发展的历程进行佐证.%The status of domestic and overseas marine inertial navigation technology is introduced and the development trends of the technology are analyzed and forecasted, the characteristics and requirements in the use of marine inertial navigation technology are described. The productions of inertial navigation system are classified from inertial sensors technology and inertial navigation system technology. The correct development direction is selected by means of exactly grasping the characteristic of technology and the corresponding connection of the different requirements. The directions of development are clarified by retrospect of the development course of marine inertial navigation technology.

  10. Cultivation of marine shrimp in biofloc technology (BFT) system under different water alkalinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piérri, V; Valter-Severino, D; Goulart-de-Oliveira, K; Manoel-do-Espírito-Santo, C; Nascimento-Vieira, F; Quadros-Seiffert, W

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different levels of alkalinity for the superintensive cultivation of marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in biofloc system. A total of 12 experimental circular units of 1000L were used supplied with 850L water from a nursery, populated at a density of 165 shrimps.m-3 and average weight of 5.6 g. The treatments, in triplicate, consisted in four levels of alkalinity in the water: 40, 80, 120 and 160 mg.L-1 of calcium carbonate. To correct the alkalinity was used calcium hydroxide (CaOH). It was observed a decrease in pH of the water in the treatments with lower alkalinity (pLitopenaeus vannamei in biofloc at density of 165 shrimps.m-3 can be performed in waters with alkalinity between 40 and 160 mg.L-1 of CaCO3, without compromising the zootechnical indexes of cultivation.

  11. The regional electricity generation mix in Scotland: A portfolio selection approach incorporating marine technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, Grant, E-mail: grant.j.allan@strath.ac.u [Fraser of Allander Institute, Department of Economics, University of Strathclyde, Sir William Duncan Building, 130 Rottenrow, Glasgow G4 0GE (United Kingdom); Eromenko, Igor; McGregor, Peter [Fraser of Allander Institute, Department of Economics, University of Strathclyde, Sir William Duncan Building, 130 Rottenrow, Glasgow G4 0GE (United Kingdom); Swales, Kim [Department of Economics, University of Strathclyde, Sir William Duncan Building, 130 Rottenrow, Glasgow G4 0GE (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    Standalone levelised cost assessments of electricity supply options miss an important contribution that renewable and non-fossil fuel technologies can make to the electricity portfolio: that of reducing the variability of electricity costs, and their potentially damaging impact upon economic activity. Portfolio theory applications to the electricity generation mix have shown that renewable technologies, their costs being largely uncorrelated with non-renewable technologies, can offer such benefits. We look at the existing Scottish generation mix and examine drivers of changes out to 2020. We assess recent scenarios for the Scottish generation mix in 2020 against mean-variance efficient portfolios of electricity-generating technologies. Each of the scenarios studied implies a portfolio cost of electricity that is between 22% and 38% higher than the portfolio cost of electricity in 2007. These scenarios prove to be mean-variance 'inefficient' in the sense that, for example, lower variance portfolios can be obtained without increasing portfolio costs, typically by expanding the share of renewables. As part of extensive sensitivity analysis, we find that Wave and Tidal technologies can contribute to lower risk electricity portfolios, while not increasing portfolio cost. - Research Highlights: {yields} Portfolio analysis of scenarios for Scotland's electricity generating mix in 2020. {yields} Reveals potential inefficiencies of selecting mixes based on levelised cost alone. {yields} Portfolio risk-reducing contribution of Wave and Tidal technologies assessed.

  12. OCEANOGRAPHY & MARINE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20150652 Jiang Yuxuan(Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology,Ministry of Education,Ocean University of China,Qingdao 266100,China);Xing Lei Study on the Degradation of Marine Sedimentary Organic Matter and Model Development(Marine Geology&Quaternary; Geology,ISSN0256-1492,CN37-1117/P,34(4),

  13. Epigenomics in marine fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, David C H; Schulte, Patricia M

    2016-12-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms are an underappreciated and often ignored component of an organism's response to environmental change and may underlie many types of phenotypic plasticity. Recent technological advances in methods for detecting epigenetic marks at a whole-genome scale have launched new opportunities for studying epigenomics in ecologically relevant non-model systems. The study of ecological epigenomics holds great promise to better understand the linkages between genotype, phenotype, and the environment and to explore mechanisms of phenotypic plasticity. The many attributes of marine fish species, including their high diversity, variable life histories, high fecundity, impressive plasticity, and economic value provide unique opportunities for studying epigenetic mechanisms in an environmental context. To provide a primer on epigenomic research for fish biologists, we start by describing fundamental aspects of epigenetics, focusing on the most widely studied and most well understood of the epigenetic marks: DNA methylation. We then describe the techniques that have been used to investigate DNA methylation in marine fishes to date and highlight some new techniques that hold great promise for future studies. Epigenomic research in marine fishes is in its early stages, so we first briefly discuss what has been learned about the establishment, maintenance, and function of DNA methylation in fishes from studies in zebrafish and then summarize the studies demonstrating the pervasive effects of the environment on the epigenomes of marine fishes. We conclude by highlighting the potential for ongoing research on the epigenomics of marine fishes to reveal critical aspects of the interaction between organisms and their environments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Research and mechanism on plant allelopathy inhibition marine red tide: A reviw%植物化感作用抑制海洋赤潮的研究与机理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    边归国

    2013-01-01

    A fully introduce the terrestrial,freshwater aquatic,large algae and so on various plant allelopathy inhibit 19 species of marine red tide algae method,allelochemicals and inhibition mechanism.Preliminary analysis of the large algae and micro algae mutual inhibition,and plant allelopathy inhibition Marine red tide algae technology was discussed.%较全面地介绍了陆生、淡水水生、大型海藻等各种植物化感作用抑制19种海洋赤潮藻类的方法、化感物质和抑制机理,初步分析了大型海藻和微藻之间的相互抑制作用,并对植物化感作用抑制海洋赤潮藻类技术进行展望.

  15. Factors influencing adsorption and desorption of trimethoprim on marine sediments: mechanisms and kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Zhang, Hua

    2017-08-05

    Adsorption-desorption behavior of ionic antibiotics in natural aquatic environment is complex, especially in coastal or estuary area where influencing factors such as pH and salinity usually varied in a wide range. In this study, batch-type and stirred flow chamber (SFC) experiments were carried out to simulate the sorption-desorption behavior of trimethoprim (TMP) in seawater-sediment system. Equilibrium and kinetic modeling were carried out to determine the rate and extent of TMP sorption on two marine sediments with different properties. Sediment BHB (K d , 6.40 L kg(-1)) has a greater sorption capacity compared with sediment LZB (K d , 3.40 L kg(-1)), which is related to the higher content of organic carbon and clay of sediment BHB. Adsorption of TMP varied in the pH range of 6.9 to 8.1 with maximum adsorption at pH 7.4. Increasing salinity and presence of phosphate and nitrate led to decreased TMP sorption. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) analysis demonstrated the formation of hydrogen bond between TMP and marine sediments. Adsorption of TMP on marine sediments was a non-equilibrium process that can be described with second-order kinetic model. Our analysis suggested that chemical non-equilibrium was the rate controlling process and intraparticle diffusion was also involved in TMP adsorption. A moderate desorption percentage (16.4-22.8% for LZB and 32.5-42.0%for BHB) was observed. Overall, the results showed that environmental factors and time-dependent processes need to be considered in modeling the fate and transport of TMP in coastal/estuarine waters.

  16. The regional electricity generation mix in Scotland. A portfolio selection approach incorporating marine technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, Grant; Eromenko, Igor; McGregor, Peter [Fraser of Allander Institute, Department of Economics, University of Strathclyde, Sir William Duncan Building, 130 Rottenrow, Glasgow G4 0GE (United Kingdom); Swales, Kim [Department of Economics, University of Strathclyde, Sir William Duncan Building, 130 Rottenrow, Glasgow G4 0GE (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    Standalone levelised cost assessments of electricity supply options miss an important contribution that renewable and non-fossil fuel technologies can make to the electricity portfolio: that of reducing the variability of electricity costs, and their potentially damaging impact upon economic activity. Portfolio theory applications to the electricity generation mix have shown that renewable technologies, their costs being largely uncorrelated with non-renewable technologies, can offer such benefits. We look at the existing Scottish generation mix and examine drivers of changes out to 2020. We assess recent scenarios for the Scottish generation mix in 2020 against mean-variance efficient portfolios of electricity-generating technologies. Each of the scenarios studied implies a portfolio cost of electricity that is between 22% and 38% higher than the portfolio cost of electricity in 2007. These scenarios prove to be mean-variance 'inefficient' in the sense that, for example, lower variance portfolios can be obtained without increasing portfolio costs, typically by expanding the share of renewables. As part of extensive sensitivity analysis, we find that Wave and Tidal technologies can contribute to lower risk electricity portfolios, while not increasing portfolio cost. (author)

  17. An evaluation of underlying mechanisms for “fishing down marine food webs”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Qi; CHEN Xinjun; YU Wei; TIAN Siquan; CHEN Yong

    2016-01-01

    Since the concept of “fishing down marine food webs” was first proposed in 1998, mean trophic level of fisheries landings (MTL) has become one of the most widely used indicators to assess the impacts of fishing on the integrity of marine ecosystem and guide the policy development by many management agencies. Recent studies suggest that understanding underlying causes for changes in MTL is vital for an appropriate use of MTL as an indicator of fishery sustainability. Based on the landing data compiled by Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and trophic information of relevant species in Fishbase, we evaluated MTL trends in 14 FAO fishing areas and analyzed catches of upper and lower trophic level groups under different trends of MTL and found that both the cases of a recovered MTL trend and a generally increasing MTL trend could be accompanied by decreasing catches of lower trophic level species. Further, community structure and exploitation history should be considered in using MTL after excluding species with trophic levels lower than 3.25 to distinguish “fishing-through” from “fishing-down”. We conclude that MTL used as an indicator to measure fishery sustainability can benefit from a full consideration of both upper and lower trophic level species and masking effects of community structure and exploitation history.

  18. Soil and Sediment remediation, mechanisms, technologies and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lens, P.N.L.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.; Malina, G.; Tabak, H.H.

    2005-01-01

    Technologies for the treatment of soils and sediments in-situ (landfarming, bioscreens, bioventing, nutrient injection, phytoremediation) and ex-situ (landfarming, bio-heap treatment, soil suspension reactor) will be discussed. The microbiological, process technological and socio-economical aspects

  19. Soil and Sediment remediation, mechanisms, technologies and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lens, P.N.L.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.; Malina, G.; Tabak, H.H.

    2005-01-01

    Technologies for the treatment of soils and sediments in-situ (landfarming, bioscreens, bioventing, nutrient injection, phytoremediation) and ex-situ (landfarming, bio-heap treatment, soil suspension reactor) will be discussed. The microbiological, process technological and socio-economical aspects

  20. Formation mechanism of authigenic gypsum in marine methane hydrate settings: Evidence from the northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qi; Wang, Jiasheng; Algeo, Thomas J.; Su, Pibo; Hu, Gaowei

    2016-09-01

    During the last decade, gypsum has been discovered widely in marine methane hydrate-bearing sediments. However, whether this gypsum is an in-situ authigenic precipitate remains controversial. The GMGS2 expedition carried out in 2013 by the Guangzhou Marine Geological Survey (GMGS) in the northern South China Sea provided an excellent opportunity for investigating the formation of authigenic minerals and, in particular, the relationship between gypsum and methane hydrate. In this contribution, we analyzed the morphology and sulfur isotope composition of gypsum and authigenic pyrite as well as the carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions of authigenic carbonate in a drillcore from Site GMGS2-08. These methane-derived carbonates have characteristic carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions (δ13C: -57.9‰ to -27.3‰ VPDB; δ18O: +1.0‰ to +3.8‰ VPDB) related to upward seepage of methane following dissociation of underlying methane hydrates since the Late Pleistocene. Our data suggest that gypsum in the sulfate-methane transition zone (SMTZ) of this core precipitated as in-situ authigenic mineral. Based on its sulfur isotopic composition, the gypsum sulfur is a mixture of sulfate derived from seawater and from partial oxidation of authigenic pyrite. Porewater Ca2+ ions for authigenic gypsum were likely generated from carbonate dissolution through acidification produced by oxidation of authigenic pyrite and ion exclusion during methane hydrate formation. This study thus links the formation mechanism of authigenic gypsum with the oxidation of authigenic pyrite and evolution of underlying methane hydrates. These findings suggest that authigenic gypsum may be a useful proxy for recognition of SMTZs and methane hydrate zones in modern and ancient marine methane hydrate geo-systems.

  1. Microencapsulation: concepts, mechanisms, methods and some applications in food technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Teixeira da Silva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Microencapsulation is a process in which active substances are coated by extremely small capsules. It is a new technology that has been used in the cosmetics industry as well as in the pharmaceutical, agrochemical and food industries, being used in flavors, acids, oils, vitamins, microorganisms, among others. The success of this technology is due to the correct choice of the wall material, the core release form and the encapsulation method. Therefore, in this review, some relevant microencapsulation aspects, such as the capsule, wall material, core release forms, encapsulation methods and their use in food technology will be briefly discussed.

  2. Marine sediment sample pre-processing for macroinvertebrates metabarcoding: mechanical enrichment and homogenization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Aylagas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Metabarcoding is an accurate and cost-effective technique that allows for simultaneous taxonomic identification of multiple environmental samples. Application of this technique to marine benthic macroinvertebrate biodiversity assessment for biomonitoring purposes requires standardization of laboratory and data analysis procedures. In this context, protocols for creation and sequencing of amplicon libraries and their related bioinformatics analysis have been recently published. However, a standardized protocol describing all previous steps (i.e. processing and manipulation of environmental samples for macroinvertebrate community characterization is lacking. Here, we provide detailed procedures for benthic environmental sample collection, processing, enrichment for macroinvertebrates, homogenization, and subsequent DNA extraction for metabarcoding analysis. Since this is the first protocol of this kind, it should be of use to any researcher in this field, having the potential for improvement.

  3. Assessment of Current and Future Air Pollutant Emission Reduction Technologies for Marine Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    sulphur present in fuel: the less sulphur content in the fuel, the less SOx in the exhaust. SOx cause acid rain and SOx oxidation in the atmosphere...gases contain gaseous sulphur species that form sulphuric acid , causing corrosion problems [9]. Presentations to the cruise industry in 2009 by MAN...emerging. Most of the air pollutant emission control technologies focus on reducing concentration of nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulphur oxides (SOx), or

  4. Beneficial biofilms in marine aquaculture? Linking points of biofilm formation mechanisms in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudoalteromonas species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiebke Wesseling

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available For marine aquaculture it is suggested that a specific substrate coated with a beneficial biofilm could prevent fish egg clutches from pathogenic infestations and improve the water quality and health of adult fish while, at the same time, minimising the need for the application of antibiotics. In marine biotopes, the habitat of Pseudoalteromonas species (a strain with suggested beneficial properties, biofilms are mostly discussed in the context of fouling processes. Hence research focuses on unravelling the mechanisms of biofilm formation aiming to prevent formation or to destroy existing biofilms. Initially in this review, particular components of biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a gram-negative model organism that is responsible for nosocomial infections and considered as a food spoiling agent, are described (extracellular appendages, role of matrix components, cell-cell signalling to get an advanced understanding of biofilm formation. The aim of this treatise is to seek linking points for biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa and Pseudoalteromonas sp., respectively. Furthermore, approaches are discussed for how biofilm formation can be realized to improve fish (larvae rearing by species of the genus Pseudoalteromonas.

  5. Assessment of secondary student attitudes and achievement in marine science using ArcViewRTM GIS technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Genevieve F.

    This multi-disciplinary study explored the cognitive and pedagogical implications of integrating ArcViewRTM GIS technology into secondary science classrooms. Two middle and high school earth/environmental science teachers implemented an 8-week marine science unit into their curriculum by following an experimental design that incorporated two different instructional methods. Four hundred seven (407) students were introduced to marine science concepts using ArcViewRTM GIS technology and traditional methods of teaching at different times during implementation and then tested to identify significant effects on students' performance of content skills, cognitive skills, and spatial skills. Data were collected via the administration of pre-, mid-, and post-implementations of a 50-question multiple choice test and a 38-question attitude survey. The results of the repeated measures ANOVA analyses suggested that both teacher and condition showed statistically significant effects on middle school student performance of content, cognition, and spatial skills, but only the effect of teacher showed significance on high school student performance. Although condition showed significance in middle school performance, the similarities between condition patterns for both middle and high school groups suggested there was not enough convincing evidence to prove that either ArcViewRTM GIS or traditional instructional methods had any effect on middle or high school students' content, cognition or spatial skills. Attitude survey data indicated that high school group attitudes may have some relationship to shifts in content scores; again however, there was no convincing evidence that suggested that middle or high school student attitudes improved as a result of ArcViewRTM GIS implementation. Lack of implementation procedures, attrition rate and pre-existing group differences contributed to weaknesses in the validity of the study. The implications of this study include contributions to

  6. A Study on Effects of Mechanical Stress and Cathodic Protection on Marine Coatings on Mild Steel in Artificial Seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong-Qi; Zhang, Qi; Tu, San-Shan; Li, Yi-Min; Wang, You; Huang, Yi

    2016-09-01

    In this work, the separate and combined effects of elastic stress and cathodic protection (CP) potential on barrier properties of two marine coating systems applied on Q235 steel plates in artificial seawater were investigated through measurements of electrochemical impedance spectra. The obtained results indicated that elastic stress could have a significant influence on coating barrier property, and the extent of this influence depends on both the magnitude and direction of elastic stress. Meanwhile, it was shown that the separate application of CP could also promote coating degradation, and for both coating systems, the more negative the applied CP potential, the more quickly and more seriously the coatings deteriorated. Furthermore, compared with the sample with only stress or CP, the results showed that the interaction between mechanical stress and CP could reduce their respective impact on coating barrier property, and the combined effect depends on the predominant factor.

  7. Evolutionary mechanisms shaping the genetic population structure of marine fishes; lessons from the European flounder ( Platichthys flesus L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Hemmer; Eg Nielsen, Einar; Grønkjær, P.

    2007-01-01

    A number of evolutionary mechanisms have been suggested for generating low but significant genetic structuring among marine fish populations. We used nine microsatellite loci and recently developed methods in landscape genetics and coalescence-based estimation of historical gene flow and effective...... population sizes to assess temporal and spatial dynamics of the population structure in European flounder (Platichthys flesus L.). We collected 1062 flounders from 13 localities in the northeast Atlantic and Baltic Seas and found temporally stable and highly significant genetic differentiation among samples...... with the extreme isolation of the island population at the Faroe Islands. A sharp genetic break was associated with a change in life history from pelagic to benthic spawners in the Baltic Sea. Partial Mantel tests showed that geographical distance per se was not related with genetic structuring among Atlantic...

  8. 船用阀门遥控系统的关键技术研究%Research of Key Technologies of Marine Valve Remote Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫少克

    2013-01-01

    With the development of global economy and marine transportation industry,marine valve system has become one of the most important equipments for large-scale,highly automated ships.The Marine valve remote control system is the key component for the marine valves control automation.In the view of the future trends of marine valve remote control system,this paper carries out a systematic study of key technologies for indirect valve position indication,integrated electro-hydraulic valve remote control etc.Moreover,the composition,structure,advantages and applicable occasions are also analyzed.%随着全球经济和海洋运输业的发展,船用阀门系统成为大型化、高度自动化船舶中必须配置的设备之一,而船用阀门遥控系统是实现船用阀门控制自动化的关键部件.针对未来船用阀门遥控系统的发展趋势,对与其相关的间接式阀位指示技术和电液集成式阀门遥控等关键技术进行了系统性的研究,分析了其内容组成、结构形式、用途优点和适用场合.

  9. Zinc and mechanical prowess in the jaws of Nereis, a marine worm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenegger, Helga C; Schöberl, Thomas; Ruokolainen, Janne T; Cross, Julie O; Heald, Steve M; Birkedal, Henrik; Waite, J Herbert; Stucky, Galen D

    2003-08-05

    Higher animals typically rely on calcification to harden certain tissues such as bones and teeth. Some notable exceptions can be found in invertebrates: The fangs, teeth, and mandibles of diverse arthropod species have been reported to contain high levels of zinc. Considerable quantities of zinc also occur in the jaws of the marine polychaete worm Nereis sp. High copper levels in the polychaete worm Glycera dibranchiata recently were attributed to a copper-based biomineral reinforcing the jaws. In the present article, we attempt to unravel the role of zinc in Nereis limbata jaws, using a combination of position-resolved state-of-the-art techniques. It is shown that the local hardness and stiffness of the jaws correlate with the local zinc concentration, pointing toward a structural role for zinc. Zinc always is detected in tight correlation with chlorine, suggesting the presence of a zinc-chlorine compound. No crystalline inorganic phase was found, however, and results from x-ray absorption spectroscopy further exclude the presence of simple inorganic zinc-chlorine compounds in amorphous form. The correlation of local histidine levels in the protein matrix and zinc concentration leads us to hypothesize a direct coordination of zinc and chlorine to the protein. A comparison of the role of the transition metals zinc and copper in the jaws of two polychaete worm species Nereis and Glycera, respectively, is presented.

  10. The Mechanism for Organising and Propelling Educational Technology in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongqian, Liu; Dongyuan, Cheng; Xinli, Liu

    2010-01-01

    Having started early in the 1920s as a spontaneously launched educational activity by civil organisations under the influence of American audio-visual theory and practice, Chinese educational technology was later put under governmental management. This paper is composed of five parts covering mainly the historical development of educational…

  11. Technological cost-reduction pathways for attenuator wave energy converters in the marine hydrokinetic environment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bull, Diana L; Ochs, Margaret Ellen

    2013-09-01

    This report considers and prioritizes the primary potential technical costreduction pathways for offshore wave activated body attenuators designed for ocean resources. This report focuses on technical research and development costreduction pathways related to the device technology rather than environmental monitoring or permitting opportunities. Three sources of information were used to understand current cost drivers and develop a prioritized list of potential costreduction pathways: a literature review of technical work related to attenuators, a reference device compiled from literature sources, and a webinar with each of three industry device developers. Data from these information sources were aggregated and prioritized with respect to the potential impact on the lifetime levelized cost of energy, the potential for progress, the potential for success, and the confidence in success. Results indicate the five most promising costreduction pathways include advanced controls, an optimized structural design, improved power conversion, planned maintenance scheduling, and an optimized device profile.

  12. Randomness in Quantum Mechanics: Philosophy, Physics and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Bera, Manabendra Nath; Kuś, Marek; Mitchell, Morgan; Lewenstein, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    This progress report covers recent developments in the area of quantum randomness, which is an extraordinarily interdisciplinary area that belongs not only to physics, but also to philosophy, mathematics, computer science, and technology. For this reason the article contains three parts that will be essentially devoted to different aspects of quantum randomness, and even directed, although not restricted, to various audiences: a philosophical part, a physical part, and a technological part. For these reasons the article is written on an elementary level, combining very elementary and non-technical descriptions with a concise review of more advanced results. In this way readers of various provenances will be able to gain while reading the article.

  13. Research and Solutions for Issues of Marine Standards Technology Examination%海洋标准技术审查问题研究与对策建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤海荣; 粟义; 叶盛林; 张文娜

    2013-01-01

    Citing the marine environment protection standards, this paper presents the main issues of the marine standards technology examination, analyses the cause, and puts forward the corresponding solutions to search for method to enhance efifciency of standard technology examination.%本文以海洋环境保护标准为例,阐述了海洋标准技术审查工作中存在的主要问题,分析了问题产生的原因,并在此基础上提出了相应的对策建议,以寻求提高标准技术审查工作效率的方法和途径。

  14. Simulation Analysis of Spherical Mechanical Seal Property of Marine Stern Shaft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Xu Hui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The finite element model of spherical mechanical seal wasestablished with ANSYS, and the influence of seawater pressure, shaft speed and other factors on the sealing performance was discussed. The study results show that local contact situation of the spherical mechanical seal is in the outside of the seal rings, and both maximum contact pressure and temperature appearat the same position. As sea water pressure and stern shaft rotary speed are increased, the contact pressure and temperature of the spherical seal surface are raised, and when the contact pressure of seal surface is 0, the spherical seal surface forms two zones including contact one and clearance zone. The former is near the outside of the seal ring, the lateris close to the inside of one. These research results are of important theoretical significance and engineering application value for the development of new kinds of mechanical seals, and improvement of both safety and survivability of underwater vehicles.

  15. Empowering marine science through genomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volckaert, F.A M J; Barbier, M.; Canario, A; Olsen, J.L.; Wesnigk, J; Clark, M; Boyen, C

    Marine scientists in Europe summarize their successes with genome technologies in the marine sciences and make a plea for a concerted international effort to raise greater public education for support. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Empowering marine science through genomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volckaert, F.A M J; Barbier, M.; Canario, A; Olsen, J.L.; Wesnigk, J; Clark, M; Boyen, C

    2008-01-01

    Marine scientists in Europe summarize their successes with genome technologies in the marine sciences and make a plea for a concerted international effort to raise greater public education for support. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF MECHANISM AND TECHNOLOGY OF DIRECTED CRACK BLASTING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永琦; 高全臣; 于慕松; 张奇; 单仁亮; 杨仁树; 贾云峰

    1995-01-01

    The dynamic stress-fields and their distribution characteristics around boreholes in the directed crack blasting were measured with the dynamic photo-elastic laser holography apparatus and the uitradymamic measurement system. The directed crack mechanism and its mechanical model have been analysed and expounded. Through the 43 production experiments using slotted cartridges and the double triangle center cut-holes for directed crack blasting in underground rock drift, the resuits of which the rates of half-hole marks and efficiency of borehole,and the nonsmooth grades of the cut contours are 96%, 98% and 10cm respectively have been achieved.

  18. NhaD type sodium/proton-antiporter of Halomonas elongata: a salt stress response mechanism in marine habitats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Matthias; Brünig, Anika NS; Galinski, Erwin A

    2006-01-01

    Background Sodium/proton-antiporters (Nha) are known to play an important role in pH- and Na+-homeostasis. In microorganisms several types with different capacity, affinity and selectivity for Na+ and Li+ exist. The homeostasis system of E. coli, NhaA and NhaB, is well researched, but the function of other types of Na+/H+-antiporters like NhaD is yet to be fully understood. Since several antiporters play an important role at various points in the physiology of higher organisms, one can speculate that the main functions of some of those procaryotic antiporters differ from pH- and Na+-homeostasis. Results This study investigates the function and regulation of a gene encoding for a NhaD type antiporter which was discovered in the halophilic eubacterium Halomonas elongata. The deduced primary amino acid sequence of the abovementioned gene showed more than 60% identity to known antiporters of the NhaD type from Alkalimonas amylolytica, Shewanella oneidensis and several other marine organisms of the γ-Proteobacteria. Evidence was found for a dual regulation of H. elongata NhaD expression. The gene was cloned and expressed in E. coli. Antiporter deficient NaCl and LiCl sensitive E. coli mutants EP432 and KNabc were partially complemented by a plasmid carrying the H. elongata nhaD gene. Surprisingly the LiCl sensitivity of E. coli strain DH5α having a complete homeostasis system was increased when NhaD was co-expressed. Conclusion Since NhaD is an antiporter known so far only from halophilic or haloalcaliphilic Proteobacteria one can speculate that this type of antiporter provides a special mechanism for adaptation to marine habitats. As was already speculated – though without supporting data – and substantiated in this study this might be active Na+-import for osmoregulatory purposes. PMID:16872527

  19. SR-1447 Fracture Mechanics Characterization of Aluminum Alloys for Marine Structural Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    plus en plus les alliages d’aluminium dans la construction maritime. Dans le cadre du projet SR-1447 du SSC, on a donné un contrat à la société...1447), on a donné un contrat à la société Fracture Technology Associates pour qu’elle caractérise, grâce à des expériences de mécanique de la rupture...alloys (See Annex A). Dirats Laboratories was contracted to provide the following services : 1. 3 chemical analysis (one for each alloy) 2. 18 tensile

  20. Laser Beam Welding of Thick Titanium Sheets in the Field of Marine Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, André; Gumenyuk, Andrey; Lammers, Marco; Malletschek, Andreas; Rethmeier, Michael

    The ever larger requirements of the material selection in the range of maritime industry necessitate the application of high-tech materials. Titanium because of its excellent mechanical properties at low weight is an attractive alternative for the construction of ships. The goal of this investigation was to design a welding method for joining samples of 16 mm thick Ti3Al2.5 V. The welding experiments with a 20 kW Yb-fiber laser source and varying combinations of parameters were intended to qualify the laser beam welding process. The welding results were analyzed by non-destructive and destructive testing. In addition, the welding tests were recorded with two high-speed cameras to observe the weld pool and the vapor plume. The evaluation of the high-speed images in correlation with the results of non-destructive testing shows, that a significant improvement of process stability and weld quality can be achieved by the suppression of the vapor plume.

  1. Mechanically functional amyloid fibrils in the adhesive of a marine invertebrate as revealed by Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S Mostaert, Anika; Crockett, Rowena; Kearn, Graham; Cherny, Izhack; Gazit, Ehud; C Serpell, Louise; P Jarvis, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    Amyloid fibrils are primarily known in a pathogenic context for their association with a wide range of debilitating human diseases. Here we show a marine invertebrate (Entobdella soleae) utilizes functional amyloid fibrils comparable to those of a unicellular prokaryote (Escherichia coli). Thioflavin-T binding and Raman spectroscopy provided evidence for the presence of amyloid in the adhesive of Entobdella soleae. We elucidated that for these two very different organisms, amyloid fibrils provide adhesive and cohesive strength to their natural adhesives. Comparing the nanoscale mechanical responses of these fibrils with those of pathogenic amyloid by atomic force microscopy revealed that the molecular level origin of the cohesive strength was associated with the generic intermolecular β-sheet structure of amyloid fibrils. Functional adhesive residues were found only in the case of the functional amyloid. Atomic force microscopy provided a useful means to characterize the internal structural forces within individual amyloid fibrils and how these relate to the mechanical performance of both functional and pathogenic amyloid. The mechanistic link of amyloid-based cohesive and adhesive strength could be widespread amongst natural adhesives, irrespective of environment, providing a new strategy for biomimicry and a new source of materials for understanding the formation and stability of amyloid fibrils more generally.

  2. Marine omega-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids: From mechanisms to clinical implications in heart failure and arrhythmias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glück, Tobias; Alter, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Therapeutic implications of marine omega-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) in cardiovascular disease are still discussed controversially. Several clinical trials report divergent findings and thus leave ambiguity on the meaning of oral omega-3 therapy. Potential prognostic indications of HUFA treatment have been predominantly studied in coronary artery disease, sudden cardiac death, ventricular arrhythmias, atrial fibrillation and heart failure of various origin. It is suspected that increased ventricular wall stress is crucially involved in the prognosis of heart failure. Increased wall stress and an unfavorable myocardial remodeling is associated with an increased risk of arrhythmias by stretch-activated membrane ion channels. Integration of HUFA into the microenvironment of cardiomyocyte ion channels lead to allosteric changes and increase the electrical stability. Increased ventricular wall stress appears to be involved in the local myocardial as well as in the hepatic fatty acid metabolism, i.e. a cardio-hepatic syndrome. Influences of an altered endogenous HUFA metabolism and an inverse shift of the fatty acid profile was underrated in the past. A better understanding of these interacting endogenous mechanisms appears to be required for interpreting the findings of recent experimental and clinical studies. The present article critically reviews major studies on basic pathophysiological mechanisms and treatment effects in clinical trials.

  3. Evaluation of seawater exposure on mechanical properties and failure behavior of E-Glass/BMI composite for marine use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yian; Wang, Zhiying; Seah, Leong Keey; Chai, Gin Boay

    2015-03-01

    Since composite material is playing an increasingly important role in the marine and offshore drilling industry, it is essential to have a good understanding on degradation of the material in the seawater environment. This study investigates the influence of seawater exposure on the mechanical and failure behavior of E-Glass/BMI composite. The water diffusion behavior in the composite has been studied through immersing the specimens in seawater under different conditions. The diffusion rate accelerates with increase of temperature, and the material shows irreversible damage due to seawater absorption at the temperature of 80°C. It is also found that external stress would significantly increase the water absorption. The water uptake in the specimen at 50°C showed a two stage behavior dominated by Fickian law and polymeric relaxation respectively, and saturation was not achieved in 8 months. After diffusion, the Tg of the material is considerably lowered due to plasticization effect. However the effect was found to be reversible after drying the specimen. Based on the testing results of tensile, flexure and fatigue properties of the composites, it is concluded that seawater exposure especially at elevated temperature leads to significant degradation on mechanical properties of the composite. However, the flexural strength of BMI composite with seawater absorption becomes less susceptible to temperature change. It is also found that the seawater absorption doesn't show significant effect on the stiffness of the material.

  4. Game Mechanics and Bodily Interactions: Designing Interactive Technologies for Sports Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Møller

    Advancements in wearable and ubiquitous computing technologies have radically increased the possibilities for designing full-body human-computer interactions. Among this multitude of new bodily interaction possibilities are sports training technologies and bodily games. In terms of sports training...... activity as a control mechanism or the core game mechanic. While sports training technologies and bodily games build upon similar technologies and emanate from sports, they do not share focus. One focuses on measuring, monitoring and skill acquisition, while the other focuses on motivation, engagement...... and enjoyment. Thus, despite being two coexisting research areas, they do not extend or contribute to one another per se. However, bridging this gap by combining skill acquisition knowledge from sports training technologies with motivational game mechanics from bodily games holds great potential for designing...

  5. Game Mechanics and Bodily Interactions: Designing Interactive Technologies for Sports Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Møller

    2016-01-01

    Advancements in wearable and ubiquitous computing technologies have radically increased the possibilities for designing full-body human-computer interactions. Among this multitude of new bodily interaction possibilities are sports training technologies and bodily games. In terms of sports training...... activity as a control mechanism or the core game mechanic. While sports training technologies and bodily games build upon similar technologies and emanate from sports, they do not share focus. One focuses on measuring, monitoring and skill acquisition, while the other focuses on motivation, engagement...... and enjoyment. Thus, despite being two coexisting research areas, they do not extend or contribute to one another per se. However, bridging this gap by combining skill acquisition knowledge from sports training technologies with motivational game mechanics from bodily games holds great potential for designing...

  6. Exploitation of marine renewable energies as technology option of future; El aprovechamiento de las energias renovables marinas como opcion tecnologica de futuro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez Rivas, L. R.

    2012-07-01

    In this paper is shown one description of the marine renewable energetic resources mean in our days. It begins with the definition of all these energetic resources and also with their analysis, showing their characteristics and the technological capacity that now exist for their exploitation. And in the second part of the article it shows the next evolution of the technology that will be demand for the development of the new generation park that will see the light in a very short future and over structures, ships and ports. At the end, there is one paragraph with the Conclusions that was necessary to do. (Author)

  7. A Novel Parallel Engraving Machine Based on 6-PUS Mechanism and Related Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Ling-fu, Kong; Shi-hui, Zhang

    2005-01-01

    A novel parallel engraving machine is proposed and its some key technologies are studied in this paper. Based on the confirming of mechanism type, a group of mechanisms are obtained by changing the sizes of engraving machine. Performance indices are analyzed by considering both the first and the second order influence coefficient matrix of different sample point in every mechanism's workspace, then mechanism's sizes better for both kinematics and dynamics are achieved, so the theory basis for...

  8. Understanding natural moisturizing mechanisms: implications for moisturizer technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandar, Prem; Nole, Greg; Johnson, Anthony W

    2009-07-01

    Dry skin and moisturization are important topics because they impact the lives of many individuals. For most individuals, dry skin is not a notable concern and can be adequately managed with current moisturizing products. However, dry skin can affect the quality of life of some individuals because of the challenges of either harsh environmental conditions or impaired stratum corneum (SC) dry skin protection processes resulting from various common skin diseases. Dry skin protection processes of the SC, such as the development of natural moisturizing factor (NMF), are complex, carefully balanced, and easily perturbed. We discuss the importance of the filaggrin-NMF system and the composition of NMF in both healthy and dry skin, and also reveal new insights that suggest the properties required for a new generation of moisturizing technologies.

  9. Technology for noninvasive mechanical ventilation: looking into the black box

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Farré

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Current devices for providing noninvasive respiratory support contain sensors and built-in intelligence for automatically modifying ventilation according to the patient's needs. These devices, including automatic continuous positive airway pressure devices and noninvasive ventilators, are technologically complex and offer a considerable number of different modes of ventilation and setting options, the details of which are sometimes difficult to capture by the user. Therefore, better predicting and interpreting the actual performance of these ventilation devices in clinical application requires understanding their functioning principles and assessing their performance under well controlled bench test conditions with simulated patients. This concise review presents an updated perspective of the theoretical basis of intelligent continuous positive airway pressure and noninvasive ventilation devices, and of the tools available for assessing how these devices respond under specific ventilation phenotypes in patients requiring breathing support.

  10. Mechanical technologies for PIGMI. [Pion Generator for Medical Irradiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansborough, L.D.

    1979-01-01

    PIGMI (Pion Generator for Medical Irradiations) is a compact linear proton accelerator designed for a hospital environment. The prototype of the low energy section of PIGMI has been designed and is being fabricated at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. It is an accelerator design which makes use of several advanced or innovative technologies. The PIGMI Prototype consists of a 250 keV injector, a double harmonic buncher, a tape-wound 13 KG solenoid magnet, and four accelerator tanks with a total of 63 drift tubes of which 18 contain strong focusing quadrupoles of permanent magnets. The accelerator tanks are mild steel, copper-plated using a bright acid leveling technique. Drift tubes are stainless steel, fabricated using electron beam welding, shaped in a lathe and then copper plated. Drift tubes loaded with permanent magnets are sealed using laser welding. The samarium cobalt magnets are shaped by cutting and grinding techniques developed at Los Alamos.

  11. Technology of Emergency Management for Marine Oil Spill%海上溢油应急处置技术探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    满春志; 刘欢

    2012-01-01

    The marine oil spilling accident causes not only huge economic loses fro enterprises,but also severe environmental contamination accidents if not properly dealt with.This article discusses the development overview of the emergency dealing technology for marine oil spilling accident domestic and overseas based on the analysis of the treatment method for the Dalian "7.16" and BP "4.20" oil spilling pollution.The key technology for oil spilling emergency at sea of oil industries in China is discussed along with the actual situation of the preparation for the marine oil spilling emergency,which provides reference for the management and technology development of the marine oil spilling emergency for the oil industries in China.%海上溢油事故不仅给企业造成巨大经济损失,如果处置不当还将引发严重的环境污染事故.文章基于对大连“7.16”及BP“4.20”溢油污染事故处理方法分析,探讨了国内外海上溢油应急技术的发展概况,并结合中国石油企业海上溢油应急建设实际情况,探究了中国石油企业海上溢油应急处置的关键技术问题.为中国石油企业海上溢油应急管理建设和应急技术发展提供参考.

  12. Biodegradation Mechanism and Technology of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DIAO Shuo; WANG Hong-qi; ZHENG Yi-nan; HUA Fei

    2016-01-01

    [Abstract]Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are a class of potentially hazardous chemicals of environmental and health concern.PAHs are one of the most prevalent groups of contaminants found in soil.Biodegradation of complex hydrocarbon usually requires the cooperation of more than single specie.This paper reviews the existing screening methods of PAH-degrading bacteria.It studied the mechanism and technical applications of the co-metabolism in PAHs.Author gives the suggestions and prospects in Biodegradable trend of PHAs.

  13. Transcriptome Profiling Reveals the Antitumor Mechanism of Polysaccharide from Marine Algae Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yani Kang

    Full Text Available Seaweed is one of the important biomass producers and possesses active metabolites with potential therapeutic effects against tumors. The red alga Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis (Gp. lemaneiformis possesses antitumor activity, and the polysaccharide of Gp. lemaneiformis (PGL has been demonstrated to be an ingredient with marked anticancer activity. However, the anticancer mechanism of PGL remains to be elucidated. In this study, we analyzed the inhibitory effect of PGL on the cell growth of 3 human cancer cell lines and found that PGL inhibited cell proliferation, reduced cell viability, and altered cell morphology in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Our transcriptome analysis indicates that PGL can regulate the expression of 758 genes, which are involved in apoptosis, the cell cycle, nuclear division, and cell death. Furthermore, we demonstrated that PGL induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest and modulated the expression of related genes in the A549 cell line. Our work provides a framework to understand the effects of PGL on cancer cells, and can serve as a resource for delineating the antitumor mechanisms of Gp. lemaneiformis.

  14. Government/industry response to questionnaire on space mechanisms/tribology technology needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusaro, Robert L.

    1991-01-01

    President Bush has proposed that the U.S. undertake an ambitious mission of manned and robotic exploration of the solar system. This mission will require advanced mechanical moving components, such as bearings, gears, seals, lubricants, etc. There has been concern in the NASA community that the current technology level in these mechanical component/tribology areas may not be adequate to meet the goals of such a mission. To attempt to answer this, NASA-Lewis has sent out a questionnaire to government and industry workers (who have been involved in space mechanism research, design, and implementation) to ask their opinion if the current space mechanisms technology (mechanical components/tribology) is adequate to meet future NASA Missions needs and goals. If they deemed that the technology base inadequate, they were asked to specify the areas of greatest need. The unedited remarks of those who responded to the survey are presented.

  15. Probing the evolutionary history of epigenetic mechanisms: what can we learn from marine diatoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achal Rastogi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent progress made on epigenetic studies revealed the conservation of epigenetic features in deep diverse branching species including Stramenopiles, plants and animals. This suggests their fundamental role in shaping species genomes across different evolutionary time scales. Diatoms are a highly successful and diverse group of phytoplankton with a fossil record of about 190 million years ago. They are distantly related from other super-groups of Eukaryotes and have retained some of the epigenetic features found in mammals and plants suggesting their ancient origin. Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Thalassiosira pseudonana, pennate and centric diatoms, respectively, emerged as model species to address questions on the evolution of epigenetic phenomena such as what has been lost, retained or has evolved in contemporary species. In the present work, we will discuss how the study of non-model or emerging model organisms, such as diatoms, helps understand the evolutionary history of epigenetic mechanisms with a particular focus on DNA methylation and histone modifications.

  16. Oil-suspended particulate matter aggregates: Formation mechanism and fate in the marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Andrew; Shim, Won Joon; Ha, Sung Yong; Yim, Un Hyuk

    2014-12-01

    Oil suspended particulate matter (SPM) aggregates (OSA) are naturally occurring phenomena where oil droplets and particles interact to form aggregates. This aggregation could aid cleanup processes of oil contaminated waters. When OSA is formed, it makes oil less sticky and would facilitate the dispersion of oil into the water column. Increased oil-water surface contact by OSA formation enhances biodegradation of oil. Its applicability as a natural oil clean-up mechanism has been effectively demonstrated over past decades. There are many factors affecting the formation of OSA and its stability in the natural environment that need to be understood. This review provides a current understanding of (1) types of OSA that could be formed in the natural environment; (2) controlling factors and environmental parameters for the formation of OSA; (3) environmental parameters; and (4) fate of OSA and its applicability for oil spill remediation processes.

  17. Polyimide foam-like microstructures: technology and mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrzynska, J. A.; Joris, P.; Jiguet, S.; Renaud, P.; Gijs, M. A. M.

    2011-10-01

    We report a process for the realization of polyimide films with custom-designed microporosity based on the heat-induced depolymerization of polyimide-embedded polypropylene carbonate microstructures. The foam-like microstructures are up to 40 µm thick and incorporate air cavities with a width ranging from 20 to 200 µm, a length up to 5 mm and a height of 20 µm. We model the mechanical stress-strain properties of the microcavities using both analytical and numerical methods. The simulation data are in good agreement with the results of nanoindentation and microcompression experiments, which show the reduction of the effective Young's modulus from 5.77 ± 0.06 GPa for bulk polyimide to 2.51 ± 0.03 GPa for a foam-like layer.

  18. Infrastructure, Technology and Applications of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, J.J.; Jakubczak, J.F.; Krygowski, T.W.; Miller, S.L.; Montague, S.; Rodgers, M.S.; Sniegowski, J.J.

    1999-07-09

    A review is made of the infrastructure, technology and capabilities of Sandia National Laboratories for the development of micromechanical systems. By incorporating advanced fabrication processes, such as chemical mechanical polishing, and several mechanical polysilicon levels, the range of micromechanical systems that can be fabricated in these technologies is virtually limitless. Representative applications include a micro-engine driven mirror, and a micromachined lock. Using a novel integrated MEMS/CMOS technology, a six degree-of-freedom accelerometer/gyroscope system has been designed by researchers at U.C. Berkeley and fabricated on the same silicon chip as the CMOS control circuits to produce an integrated micro-navigational unit.

  19. Development Trend of Marine Communication and Navigation Technology%船舶通信导航技术及发展趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玲; 张彬祥

    2016-01-01

    Marine communication is the communication system based on the platform of ship and the environment of water sailing ,for the purpose of serving the mission of the ship and using a variety of communication means .Marine naviga-tion is the integrated technology of determining the dynamic status ,location of ships and other parameters through dead reck-oning ,radio signals ,inertia solver ,map matching ,satellite positioning and the combination of various ways .In this paper , marine communication and navigation technology are studied and discussed ,meanwhile ,the developing trend is discussed .%船舶通信是指以船舶为承载平台、以水上航行为使用环境、以服务于船舶使命任务的达成为目的、综合采用各种通信手段构建的通信系统的总称。船舶导航是指通过航位推算、无线电信号、惯性解算、地图匹配、卫星定位及多种方式组合运用,确定船舶的动态状态和位置等参数的综合技术。论文对船舶通信导航技术进行了研究,并对其现状及发展趋势进行了探讨。

  20. Finite Element Analysis of Flat Spiral Spring on Mechanical Elastic Energy Storage Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingqiu Tang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Energy storage technology has become an effective way of storing energy and improving power output controllability in modern power grid. The mechanical elastic energy storage technology on flat spiral spring is a new energy storage technology. This study states the mechanical elastic energy storage technology, models the mechanical model. Aimed to three kinds of structure and size of flat spiral spring, the finite element model are modeled, modal analysis is completed and the natural frequencies and the first 10-order vibration modes of the spring are analyzed, the relationship of natural frequency and vibration mode of spiral spring and structure and size is analyzed. The research results can provide the reference for the structure design and dynamics analysis.

  1. SOCIAL MECHANISMS AND TECHNOLOGIES OF MANIPULATIVE MANAGEMENT OF THE PERSON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Osipova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the different points of view on individual and social conditioning of the individual exposure to manipulative influences. The special attention paid to broad social context of modern transformations when the increasing stream of the information and the new forms of its giving which literally has fallen upon the person. In last decades it conducts to the “incoherence” of sensations, when the confidence and the fixed standards were replaced by uncertainty, incite to superficial perception of things, to sensation of the feeling immediacy of life and to negation of historical regularities. Authors assert that in such situation activity of the organizations and the separate persons which purpose is influence rendering on people, submission to their specific private interests is especially stirred up. The main element of the manipulative influence is the ability to impose their own solutions of urgent problems or engage in manipulation of networks of people who are predisposed to it. This article analyzes the concepts that explain susceptibility to manipulative influences of congenital mental qualities of the person; discusses the theory of “patterns”, launched by domestic explorer V.V. Krasikov. Authors allocate concrete socially-psychological mechanisms which allow people to be subjected to manipulative management, as well as the proven fact of socially conditioned cultivation conformal thinking in a certain social, economic and political circumstances. 

  2. Innovative Agro-food Technologies Implementation through Instructional Communication Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianita BLEOJU

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The current research represents the valorization of the dissemination the design framework of an interdisciplinary area of research, validated through SPAS European FP6 project and a national BIOSIG- PN2 and has as objective to channel communication on target market, through personalized solution of instructional communication mechanisms. The main objective of the national research grant being the implementation of innovative biotechnology on agro-food market, in order to improve the fish diet’s benefits, the prospects must be provided with valuable explicit information. This paper is about the commitment to embedding the actual consumer experience from PN2 fish market research and agro-food agents’ capitalization knowledge behavior from SPAS virtual platform, through designing the adequate communication framework, in order to support and accelerate the implementation of the innovation biotechnology, through improving the target market experience. The projected solution is mainly concerning to offer adequate solutions to insure against current consumers fragilities, but we also underline the vulnerabilities of the whole agro food value chain, in terms of communication strategy, which is lacking of adequate common interest coordination. The current research solution is regarding the rising awareness about the translation from consumer preferences to perceived detriment by integrating previous validated solution of agro food market analysis.

  3. ACOUSTICAL IMAGING AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SOFT ROCK AND MARINE SEDIMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurman E. Scott, Jr.; Younane Abousleiman

    2004-04-01

    The research during this project has concentrated on developing a correlation between rock deformation mechanisms and their acoustic velocity signature. This has included investigating: (1) the acoustic signature of drained and undrained unconsolidated sands, (2) the acoustic emission signature of deforming high porosity rocks (in comparison to their low porosity high strength counterparts), (3) the effects of deformation on anisotropic elastic and poroelastic moduli, and (4) the acoustic tomographic imaging of damage development in rocks. Each of these four areas involve triaxial experimental testing of weak porous rocks or unconsolidated sand and involves measuring acoustic properties. The research is directed at determining the seismic velocity signature of damaged rocks so that 3-D or 4-D seismic imaging can be utilized to image rock damage. These four areas of study are described in the report: (1) Triaxial compression experiments have been conducted on unconsolidated Oil Creek sand at high confining pressures. (2) Initial experiments on measuring the acoustic emission activity from deforming high porosity Danian chalk were accomplished and these indicate that the AE activity was of a very low amplitude. (3) A series of triaxial compression experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of induced stress on the anisotropy developed in dynamic elastic and poroelastic parameters in rocks. (4) Tomographic acoustic imaging was utilized to image the internal damage in a deforming porous limestone sample. Results indicate that the deformation damage in rocks induced during laboratory experimentation can be imaged tomographically in the laboratory. By extension the results also indicate that 4-D seismic imaging of a reservoir may become a powerful tool for imaging reservoir deformation (including imaging compaction and subsidence) and for imaging zones where drilling operation may encounter hazardous shallow water flows.

  4. A simple nutrient-dependence mechanism for predicting the stoichiometry of marine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Eric D; Martiny, Adam C

    2015-07-07

    It is widely recognized that the stoichiometry of nutrient elements in phytoplankton varies within the ocean. However, there are many conflicting mechanistic explanations for this variability, and it is often ignored in global biogeochemical models and carbon cycle simulations. Here we show that globally distributed particulate P:C varies as a linear function of ambient phosphate concentrations, whereas the N:C varies with ambient nitrate concentrations, but only when nitrate is most scarce. This observation is consistent with the adjustment of the phytoplankton community to local nutrient availability, with greater flexibility of phytoplankton P:C because P is a less abundant cellular component than N. This simple relationship is shown to predict the large-scale, long-term average composition of surface particles throughout large parts of the ocean remarkably well. The relationship implies that most of the observed variation in N:P actually arises from a greater plasticity in the cellular P:C content, relative to N:C, such that as overall macronutrient concentrations decrease, N:P rises. Although other mechanisms are certainly also relevant, this simple relationship can be applied as a first-order basis for predicting organic matter stoichiometry in large-scale biogeochemical models, as illustrated using a simple box model. The results show that including variable P:C makes atmospheric CO2 more sensitive to changes in low latitude export and ocean circulation than a fixed-stoichiometry model. In addition, variable P:C weakens the relationship between preformed phosphate and atmospheric CO2 while implying a more important role for the nitrogen cycle.

  5. An application of interactive computer graphics technology to the design of dispersal mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, B. J.; Welch, B. H.

    1977-01-01

    Interactive computer graphics technology is combined with a general purpose mechanisms computer code to study the operational behavior of three guided bomb dispersal mechanism designs. These studies illustrate the use of computer graphics techniques to discover operational anomalies, to assess the effectiveness of design improvements, to reduce the time and cost of the modeling effort, and to provide the mechanism designer with a visual understanding of the physical operation of such systems.

  6. Let's push things forward: disruptive technologies and the mechanics of tissue assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varner, Victor D.; Nelson, Celeste M.

    2013-01-01

    Although many of the molecular mechanisms that regulate tissue assembly in the embryo have been delineated, the physical forces that couple these mechanisms to actual changes in tissue form remain unclear. Qualitative studies suggest that mechanical loads play a regulatory role in development, but clear quantitative evidence has been lacking. This is partly owing to the complex nature of these problems – embryonic tissues typically undergo large deformations and exhibit evolving, highly viscoelastic material properties. Still, despite these challenges, new disruptive technologies are enabling study of the mechanics of tissue assembly in unprecedented detail. Here, we present novel experimental techniques that enable the study of each component of these physical problems: kinematics, forces, and constitutive properties. Specifically, we detail advances in light sheet microscopy, optical coherence tomography, traction force microscopy, fluorescence force spectroscopy, microrheology and micropatterning. Taken together, these technologies are helping elucidate a more quantitative understanding of the mechanics of tissue assembly. PMID:23907401

  7. 海洋油污损害之救济机制的解构与重构%Deconstruction and Reconstruction on Relief Mechanism of Marine Oil Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马得懿

    2014-01-01

    It is well proved that the categorization of marine oil pollution is the foundation and precondition for the establishment of the relief mechanism.The relief system dealing with the marine oil pollution caused by oil exploration is different from that caused by vessel accidents.One of the possible approaches of the integration of those two mechanisms is to interpret drilling platforms as “ships”under maritime law.Base on the explanation of different approaches to cope with marine oil pollution,China must build the relief mechanism of marine oil pollution under state centralism,enhance the root measures and functions of state responsibility,clarify state’s claimant of marine oil pollution,state compensation liability and the multi-level admittance system of mineral resource,making it an important element of relief mechanism of marine oil pollution in its reconstruction.%海洋油污损害的类型化是完善海洋油污损害之救济机制的基础和前提。海上石油勘探平台与船舶溢油所致海洋油污损害是两种不同的救济体系与机制,而将海上钻井平台解释为海商法意义上的“船舶”,是整合两种救济机制的可能性途径。基于海洋油污损害之不同进路救济机制的诠释,应构架“国家责任中心”主义下海洋油污损害之救济机制,提升国家责任的根源性手段和功能,明确海洋油污损害之国家索赔主体资格、国家赔偿责任以及阶梯矿产资源税费的准入制度,使之成为海洋油污损害救济机制重构进程中的重要因子。

  8. A Novel Technology for Synthesizing Pentasil Zeolites Based on Solid-Solid Mass Transformation Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑛; 窦涛; 鲍晓军; 李玉平; 李晓峰

    2003-01-01

    A novel technology of preparing zeoliltes based on solid-solid mass transformation mechanism is developed for the first time. By employing this technology, three different types of highly crystallized pentasil zeolites,ZSM-35 (FER-type), Silicalite-l(MFI-type) and Mordenite(MOR-type), are successfully synthesized in the solid system. In terms of commercial production, the technology'could simplify synthesis procedure and make the continuous production of zeolites possible, so as to improve the productivity. Additionally, it is environmentally friendly because the crystallization occurs in solid phase where there exists no pollution caused by waste liquid. Therefore, this technique provides us with a new indusr, rial process for the clean and continuous production of zeolites.The characteristics in synthesis chemistry and the crystallization mechanism involved in the technology are also discussed.

  9. Mechanically-Deployed Hypersonic Decelerator and Conformal Ablator Technologies for Mars Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Wercinski, Paul F.; Beck, Robin A. S.; Hamm, Kenneth R.; Yount, Bryan C.; Makino, A.; Smith, B.; Gage, P.; Prabhu, D.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of a mechanically deployable hypersonic decelerator, developed initially for high mass (40 MT) human Mars missions, is currently funded by OCT for technology maturation. The ADEPT (Adaptive, Deployable Entry and Placement Technology) project has broad, game-changing applicability to in situ science missions to Venus, Mars, and the Outer Planets. Combined with maturation of conformal ablator technology (another current OCT investment), the two technologies provide unique low mass mission enabling capabilities otherwise not achievable by current rigid aeroshell or by inflatables. If this abstract is accepted, we will present results that illustrate the mission enabling capabilities of the mechanically deployable architecture for: (1) robotic Mars (Discovery or New Frontiers class) in the near term; (2) alternate approaches to landing MSL-class payloads, without the need for supersonic parachute or lifting entry, in the mid-term; and (3) Heavy mass and human missions to Mars in the long term.

  10. Marine Renewable Energy Seascape

    OpenAIRE

    Borthwick, Alistair G. L.

    2015-01-01

    Marine renewable energy has a major part to play in closing the world’s energy gap and lowering carbon emissions. Key global challenges relate to technology, grid infrastructure, cost and investment, environmental impact, and marine governance. Offshore wind turbines typically consist of three blades rotating about a hub. Although offshore wind technology is rapidly being implemented, there remain many fascinating engineering problems to overcome. These include: offshore foundations and float...

  11. Examination of incentive mechanisms for innovative technologies applicable to utility and nonutility power generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDermott, K.A. [Illinois Commerce Commission, Springfield, IL (United States); Bailey, K.A.; South, D.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment and Information Sciences Div.

    1993-08-01

    Innovative technologies, built by either utility or nonutility power generators, have the potential to lower costs with less environmental emissions than conventional technologies. However, the public-good nature of information, along with uncertain costs, performance, and reliability, discourages rapid adoption of these technologies. The effect of regulation of electricity production may also have an adverse impact on motivation to innovate. Slower penetration of cleaner, more efficient technologies could result in greater levels of pollution, higher electricity prices, and a reduction in international competitiveness. Regulatory incentives could encourage adoption and deployment of innovative technologies of all kinds, inducting clean coal technologies. Such incentives must be designed to offset risks inherent in innovative technology and encourage cost-effective behavior. To evaluate innovative and conventional technologies equally, the incremental cost of risk (ICR) of adopting the innovative technology must be determined. Through the ICR, the magnitude of incentive required to make a utility (or nonutility) power generator equally motivated to use either conventional or innovative technologies can be derived. Two technology risks are examined: A construction risk, represented by a 15% cost overrun, and an operating risk, represented by a increased forced outage rate (decreased capacity factor). Different incentive mechanisms and measurement criteria are used to assess the effects of these risks on ratepayers and shareholders. In most cases, a regulatory incentive could offset the perceived risks while encouraging cost-effective behavior by both utility and nonutility power generators. Not only would the required incentive be recouped, but the revenue requirements would be less for the innovative technology; also, less environmental pollution would be generated. In the long term, ratepayers and society would benefit from innovative technologies.

  12. Technological challenges to assess n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids from marine oils for nutritional and pharmacological use

    OpenAIRE

    A. Valenzuela; Nieto, S.; Uauy, R

    1993-01-01

    The benefits ascribed to marine oils rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids has led to efforts to improve the chemical and organoleptic characteristics of these oils and to develop procedures for the obtention of pure or highly concentrated fractions of some n-3 fatty acids. Two n-3 fatty acids are of main interest; the eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5, EPA) and the docosahexaenoic acid (022:6, DHA). The present review is referred to the identification of the main sources of marine n-3 polyunsat...

  13. Impact of new computing systems on computational mechanics and flight-vehicle structures technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, A. K.; Storaasli, O. O.; Fulton, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    Advances in computer technology which may have an impact on computational mechanics and flight vehicle structures technology were reviewed. The characteristics of supersystems, highly parallel systems, and small systems are summarized. The interrelations of numerical algorithms and software with parallel architectures are discussed. A scenario for future hardware/software environment and engineering analysis systems is presented. Research areas with potential for improving the effectiveness of analysis methods in the new environment are identified.

  14. Concentration and retention of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts by marine snails demonstrate a novel mechanism for transmission of terrestrial zoonotic pathogens in coastal ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krusor, Colin; Smith, Woutrina A; Tinker, M Tim; Silver, Mary; Conrad, Patricia A; Shapiro, Karen

    2015-11-01

    The parasite Toxoplasma gondii is an environmentally persistent pathogen that can cause fatal disease in humans, terrestrial warm-blooded animals and aquatic mammals. Although an association between T. gondii exposure and prey specialization on marine snails was identified in threatened California sea otters, the ability of kelp-dwelling snails to transmit terrestrially derived pathogens has not been previously investigated. The objective of this study was to measure concentration and retention of T. gondii by marine snails in laboratory aquaria, and to test for natural T. gondii contamination in field-collected snails. Following exposure to T. gondii-containing seawater, oocysts were detected by microscopy in snail faeces and tissues for 10 and 3 days respectively. Nested polymerase chain reaction was also applied as a method for confirming putative T. gondii oocysts detected in snail faeces and tissues by microscopy. Toxoplasma gondii was not detected in field-collected snails. Results suggest that turban snails are competent transport hosts for T. gondii. By concentrating oocysts in faecal pellets, snails may facilitate entry of T. gondii into the nearshore marine food web. This novel mechanism also represents a general pathway by which marine transmission of terrestrially derived microorganisms can be mediated via pathogen concentration and retention by benthic invertebrates.

  15. Influence of sodium chloride and pH during acidic marination on water retention and mechanical properties of turkey breast meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goli, T; Ricci, J; Bohuon, P; Marchesseau, S; Collignan, A

    2014-03-01

    Turkey breast cubes underwent acidic marination in the presence of salt. The transfer of water, salt and acid was measured, and texture was assessed on the cooked meat. While significant mass gains were observed during marination, from 20 minutes of immersion onwards, only long durations produced an overall matter balance greater than that of non-marinated meat. From the first minutes of immersion, these transfers caused hardening, regardless of the presence of salt in the marinade. For longer durations, only in the absence of salt was significant tenderizing seen in comparison to the non-marinated control. This effect appears to be due on the one hand to passing the isoelectric pH of the meat during acidification, and on the other hand to setting up antagonistic mechanisms breaking down or reinforcing connective tissues by acid and salt respectively. The high degree of tenderization observed in a water-acid solution can be explained partly by dilution of the fiber load per section unit due to protein solubilization.

  16. Concentration and retention of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts by marine snails demonstrate a novel mechanism for transmission of terrestrial zoonotic pathogens in coastal ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krusor, Colin; Smith, Woutrina A.; Tinker, M. Tim; Silver, Mary; Conrad, Patricia A.; Shapiro, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The parasite Toxoplasma gondii is an environmentally persistent pathogen that can cause fatal disease in humans, terrestrial warm-blooded animals and aquatic mammals. Although an association between T. gondii exposure and prey specialization on marine snails was identified in threatened California sea otters, the ability of kelp-dwelling snails to transmit terrestrially derived pathogens has not been previously investigated. The objective of this study was to measure concentration and retention of T. gondii by marine snails in laboratory aquaria, and to test for natural T. gondii contamination in field-collected snails. Following exposure to T. gondii-containing seawater, oocysts were detected by microscopy in snail faeces and tissues for 10 and 3 days respectively. Nested polymerase chain reaction was also applied as a method for confirming putative T. gondii oocysts detected in snail faeces and tissues by microscopy. Toxoplasma gondiiwas not detected in field-collected snails. Results suggest that turban snails are competent transport hosts for T. gondii. By concentrating oocysts in faecal pellets, snails may facilitate entry of T. gondii into the nearshore marine food web. This novel mechanism also represents a general pathway by which marine transmission of terrestrially derived microorganisms can be mediated via pathogen concentration and retention by benthic invertebrates.

  17. Privately managed marine reserves as a mechanism for the conservation of coral reef ecosystems: a case study from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Patrik; Rodwell, Lynda D; Attrill, Martin J

    2009-03-01

    Coral reef ecosystems have been declining at an alarming rate during recent decades, despite increasing numbers of marine protected areas (MPAs) encompassing coral reefs. However, many MPAs have not met reserve objectives, inhibiting effective protection. This study focuses on the potential effectiveness of a Hotel Managed Marine Reserve (HMMR) at enhancing reef fish stocks. Biannual visual fish census surveys were conducted at two marine reserves adjacent to Whale Island Resort, Vietnam, October 2005 to April 2007. The 6-year protected Whale Island Bay Reserve (11 ha) showed significantly higher fish densities, richness, average size, and number of fish >15 cm compared with two unprotected control sites. Fish stocks at a second newer reserve, Whale Island Bay Peninsula (5 ha), quickly increased after protection. This study has demonstrated the effectiveness of HMMRs, suggesting a global network of such privately managed reserves could play a part in the conservation of the world's coastal resources, while alleviating financial pressure on governments.

  18. Research advance in deep processing technologies of marine fish oils%海洋鱼油深加工技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马永钧; 杨博

    2011-01-01

    EPA and DHA from marine fish oils can be much more effectively used through deep processing technologies.Purification of polyunsaturated fatty acids, new products of EPA/DHA and research on their stability were introduced.Deep processing technologies of marine fish oils were reviewed and prospected.Themarine fish oils with high EPA/DHA were still the essential demands of market.%海洋鱼油深加工技术可以更加合理、有效地利用其中的EPA和DHA等多不饱和脂肪酸,提升鱼油的利用价值.介绍了以海洋鱼油为原料的EPA/DHA产品的深加工技术,主要包括鱼油脱腥、多不饱和脂肪酸的富集纯化,新型EPA/DHA产品的开发与应用以及产品稳定性的研究.对海洋鱼油多不饱和脂肪酸深加工技术进行了分析与展望,认为含有高纯度EPA、DHA等多不饱和脂肪酸的鱼油产品仍是市场的主流需要.

  19. TECHNOLOGICAL METHODS FOR LASER HARDENING OF INTERNAL CONTACT SURFACES OF «BELARUS» TRACTOR BRAKE MECHANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Kobjakov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers pertaining to higher wear resistance of «Belarus» tractor brake mechanisms details are considered. Properties of ВЧ-50-cast iron are investigated due to laser hardening while using various technological methods.

  20. Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS: Technology for the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đakov Tatjana A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS are miniturized devices that can sense the environment, process and analyze information, and respond with a variety of mechanical and electrical actuators. MEMS consists of mechanical elements, sensors, actuators, electrical and electronics devices on a common silicon substrate. Micro-electro-mechanical systems are becoming a vital technology for modern society. Some of the advantages of MEMS devices are: very small size, very low power consumption, low cost, easy to integrate into systems or modify, small thermal constant, high resistance to vibration, shock and radiation, batch fabricated in large arrays, improved thermal expansion tolerance. MEMS technology is increasingly penetrating into our lives and improving quality of life, similar to what we experienced in the microelectronics revolution. Commercial opportunities for MEMS are rapidly growing in broad application areas, including biomedical, telecommunication, security, entertainment, aerospace, and more in both the consumer and industrial sectors on a global scale. As a breakthrough technology, MEMS is building synergy between previously unrelated fields such as biology and microelectronics. Many new MEMS and nanotechnology applications will emerge, expanding beyond that which is currently identified or known. MEMS are definitely technology for 21st century.

  1. Fluid mechanics for mechanical engineering. Technology and examples; Stroemungslehre fuer den Maschinenbau. Technik und Beispiele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siekmann, H.E. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Hermann-Foettinger-Institut fuer Stroemungsmechanik

    2001-07-01

    The book complements the established fluid mechanics textbook. It discusses the same subjects but goes into more detail and contains many practical examples. It addresses students of engineering, physics and practically oriented mathematics and can be used for independent studying or for a deeper understanding of subject matter treated in university lectures. [German] Der Band stellt als Ergaenzung zum eingefuehrten Grundlagenbuch Stroemungslehre eine tiefergehende Behandlung des Vorlesungsstoffes dar. Die Einteilung der Kapitel entspricht im wesentlichen der im Band Grundlagen: Hydrostatik, Kinematik, Impulssatz, NAVIER-Stokes-Bewegungsgleichung, Potential-, Wirbel- und Grenzschichtstroemung sowie turbulente Stroemung. Das Buch schliesst mit Darstellungen ueber Rohrstroemungen, Umstroemungen von Koerpern, Aehnlichkeitsgesetzen und numerische Stroemungsberechnung. Es enthaelt zahlreiche Praxisbeispiele. Geeignet fuer Studenten der Ingenieurwissenschaften, Physiker und praxisorientierte Mathematiker zum Selbststudium sowie zur Vorlesungsbegleitung. (orig.)

  2. Project Seacleaner: from cooperation among ISMAR-CNR researchers, high school students and the Ligurian Cluster for Marine Technologies to an application for environmental monitoring and scientific research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlino, Silvia; Marini, Claudio; Tosi, Daniela; Caselli, Lorena; Marini, Davide; Lucchinelli, Paolo; Vatteroni, Davide; Lunardelli, Francesco; Agrusa, Astrid; Lombardi, Davide; Stroobant, Mascha

    2014-05-01

    Recently, the Institute for Marine Science of the Italian Research Council ISMAR-CNR has undertaken a series of actions to incorporate oceanography in education: among these, the project "SeaCleaner" that has been developed together with a local Secondary School (Istituto di Istruzione Superiore Capellini-Sauro) and the Ligurian Cluster for Marine Technologies (DLTM) [1]. Seven students, engaged within the national Programme "work-related learning"[2], have worked side-by-side with ISMAR-CNR researchers, investigating on the problem of debris accumulation on beaches, and understanding the damage that this issue causes to marine environments and ecosystems. This problem has recently become a challenging research subject for an increasing number of oceanographers and, in general, for environmental researchers coming from the Mediterranean areas [3, 4, 5], other European Seas [6] and Oceans [7, 8]. Data collected during repeated surveys (seasonally) in the same beach stretch, over several years, allow calculating debris accumulation rates and flow intensities. Application of current models gives additional information on debris dispersal and origin, but we shouldn't forget that, generally, relevance of acquired data is determined by the accuracy and standardization of the procedure. In this context, students have previously searched for literature sources and summarized the most important issues, among these: few data that are often collected during small ranges of time and usually a low number of available researchers for carrying out such a time-consuming survey in the field. In a initial part of the project, several trial surveys have been performed on different beaches in La Spezia province, in order to understand how to elaborate possible strategies to speed up and standardize the procedure. Developing an application for Android system (downloadable on any compatible mobile device such as smartphones, tablets, etc.) has been considered as a good solution since it

  3. Marine Microbiological Enzymes: Studies with Multiple Strategies and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Marine microorganisms produce a series of promising enzymes that have been widely used or are potentially valuable for our daily life. Both classic and newly developed biochemistry technologies have been broadly used to study marine and terrestrial microbiological enzymes. In this brief review, we provide a research update and prospects regarding regulatory mechanisms and related strategies of acyl-homoserine lactones (AHL lactonase, which is an important but largely unexplored enzyme. We also detail the status and catalytic mechanism of the main types of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes that broadly exist among marine microorganisms but have been poorly explored. In order to facilitate understanding, the regulatory and synthetic biology strategies of terrestrial microorganisms are also mentioned in comparison. We anticipate that this review will provide an outline of multiple strategies for promising marine microbial enzymes and open new avenues for the exploration, engineering and application of various enzymes.

  4. Marine Microbiological Enzymes: Studies with Multiple Strategies and Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Song, Qinghao; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2016-09-22

    Marine microorganisms produce a series of promising enzymes that have been widely used or are potentially valuable for our daily life. Both classic and newly developed biochemistry technologies have been broadly used to study marine and terrestrial microbiological enzymes. In this brief review, we provide a research update and prospects regarding regulatory mechanisms and related strategies of acyl-homoserine lactones (AHL) lactonase, which is an important but largely unexplored enzyme. We also detail the status and catalytic mechanism of the main types of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes that broadly exist among marine microorganisms but have been poorly explored. In order to facilitate understanding, the regulatory and synthetic biology strategies of terrestrial microorganisms are also mentioned in comparison. We anticipate that this review will provide an outline of multiple strategies for promising marine microbial enzymes and open new avenues for the exploration, engineering and application of various enzymes.

  5. Mechanisms of global diversification in the marine species Madeiran Storm-petrel Oceanodroma castro and Monteiro's Storm-petrel O. monteiroi: Insights from a multi-locus approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Mauro F; Smith, Andrea L; Friesen, Vicki L; Bried, Joël; Hasegawa, Osamu; Coelho, M Manuela; Silva, Mónica C

    2016-05-01

    The evolutionary mechanisms underlying the geographic distribution of gene lineages in the marine environment are not as well understood as those affecting terrestrial groups. The continuous nature of the pelagic marine environment may limit opportunities for divergence to occur and lineages to spatially segregate, particularly in highly mobile species. Here, we studied the phylogeography and historical demography of two tropically distributed, pelagic seabirds, the Madeiran Storm-petrel Oceanodroma castro, sampled in the Azores, Madeira, Galapagos and Japan, and its sister species Monteiro's Storm-petrel O. monteiroi (endemic to the Azores), using a multi-locus dataset consisting of 12 anonymous nuclear loci and the mitochondrial locus control region. Both marker types support the existence of four significantly differentiated genetic clusters, including the sampled O. monteiroi population and three populations within O. castro, although only the mitochondrial locus suggests complete lineage sorting. Multi-locus coalescent analyses suggest that most divergence events occurred within the last 200,000years. The proximity in divergence times precluded robust inferences of the species tree, in particular of the evolutionary relationships of the Pacific populations. Despite the great potential for dispersal, divergence among populations apparently proceeded in the absence of gene flow, emphasizing the effect of non-physical barriers, such as those driven by the paleo-oceanographical environments, philopatry and local adaptation, as important mechanisms of population divergence and speciation in highly mobile marine species. In view of the predicted climate change impacts, future changes in the demography and evolutionary dynamics of marine populations might be expected.

  6. Problems and criteria of quality improvement in end face mechanical seal rings through technological methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarelnik, V.; Belous, A.; Antoszewski, B.; Zukov, A.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper are presented the recommendations for material’s selections of the mechanical seals rings and basic productive and operating requirements. The system of a directional selection of technology that ensures the required quality of working surfaces of the mechanical seals rings covers their entire life cycle. The mathematical frictional model is proposed as an instrument for calculating a linear and weighing abrasion of the mechanical seals rings and helps to improve selection’s criteria and the most rational method of strengthening.

  7. Creating science and technology superiority,increasing marine equipment manufacturing capability to build China into world No.1 shipbuilding country

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiangmu

    2004-01-01

    @@ China's shipbuilding industry faces a historic development opportunity right at the beginning of the new century. Attaching great importance to the development of the shipbuilding industry, the Chinese government has given a series of instructions, which set up the grand goal of building China into the world number one shipbuilding country. To achieve this goal, we must solve two key problems, that is, scientific and technical innovation, and marine equipment production.

  8. Comparison and analysis of the main technological factors of influencing mechanical properties of scrimber and PSL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The main mechanical properties of scrimber and Parallel Strand Lumber (PSL) were researched through technological test. Experimental materials of scrimber are small log of Aspen, Dahurian larch and Birch. Experimental materials of PSL come from fishtail veneer strips at plywood plant of Aspen and Birch. In the laboratory conditions low quality small log and wood residues can yield scrimber and PSL with high strength. After the technological conditions of scrimber were compared with that of PSL, the main factors of influencing their properties were separately pointed out and the reasons influencing properties have been analyzed in this paper. The results showed that the hot-pressing pressure is an important technological factor for scrimber. The ratio of veneer-strand length to thickness is a key technological factor for PSL.

  9. Characterization of the mechanisms affecting single-event transients in sub-100 nm technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlbin, Jonathan Ragnar

    This dissertation uses both three-dimensional mixed-mode technology-computer-aided design (TCAD) simulations and experimental analysis at the 65 nm, 90 nm, and 130 nm technology nodes to fully characterize the mechanisms that affect single-event transient (SETs) in sub-100 nm bulk CMOS technologies. Chapter I introduces the motivation for this work. Chapter II presents background on single-event effects. Within the chapter, single-event effects are identified and explained in context to digital circuits. Chapter III then focuses on the specific single-event effect of SETs and the factors that influence them. In the second part of the chapter, the discussion focuses on common methods of experimental SET measurement and the typical target structures used. Chapter IV discusses the relationship between the parasitic bipolar and n-well contacts, and how it affects the pulse width of SETs. Chapter V then introduces the mechanism of pulse quenching by using TCAD simulations, heavy-ion data, and laser data, to identify pulse quenching in multiple technology nodes. Additionally the chapter explains in detail how the layout and circuit design can influence pulse quenching. Finally, Chapter VI presents simulation and experimental heavy-ion results that explain a new SET mechanism called DPSETs. Instead of a single ion strike creating a single pulse SET, a single ion strike can result in a DPSET. The research presented in this dissertation directly impacts the SEE circuit qualification and analysis techniques used in the radiation effects community. Simulations supported by experimental data illustrate how there are new mechanisms in sub-100 nm bulk CMOS that can affect SET pulse widths. These mechanisms can negate traditional RHBD solutions, but also can be used as new RHBD solutions. Designers and researchers can use this work to better analyze SET results, and they can predict how SET pulse width will be affected in future bulk CMOS technologies. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  10. Marine Animal Alert System -- Task 2.1.5.3: Development of Monitoring Technologies -- FY 2011 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Deng, Zhiqun; Myers, Joshua R.; Matzner, Shari; Copping, Andrea E.

    2011-09-30

    The Marine Animal Alert System (MAAS) in development by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is focused on providing elements of compliance monitoring to support deployment of marine hydrokinetic energy devices. An initial focus is prototype tidal turbines to be deployed in Puget Sound in Washington State. The MAAS will help manage the risk of injury or mortality to marine animals from blade strike or contact with tidal turbines. In particular, development has focused on detection, classification, and localization of listed Southern Resident killer whales within 200 m of prototype turbines using both active and passive acoustic approaches. At the close of FY 2011, a passive acoustic system consisting of a pair of four-element star arrays and parallel processing of eight channels of acoustic receptions has been designed and built. Field tests of the prototype system are scheduled for the fourth quarter of calendar year 2011. Field deployment and testing of the passive acoustic prototype is scheduled for the first quarter of FY 2012. The design of an active acoustic system that could be built using commercially available off-the-shelf components from active acoustic system vendors is also in the final stages of design and specification.

  11. Mechanism-Based Modeling of Hydrogen Environment Assisted Cracking (HEAC) in High Strength Alloys for Marine Applications: Prediction of Monel K-500 HEAC for Select Environmental and Mechanical Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    activation energies (-40 kJ/mol). Moreover, possible trapping sites will differ for precipitation hardened fee Ni-based alloys compared to ferrous ...FINAL REPORT Mechanism-Based Modeling of Hydrogen Environment Assisted Cracking (HEAC) in High Strength Alloys for Marine Applications: Prediction...the microscopic scale to enable threshold and crack growth rate predictions in Ni-based alloys which differ substantially from high strength steels

  12. Planning and leading of the technological processes by mechanical working with microsoft project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nae, I.; Grigore, N.

    2016-08-01

    Nowadays, fabrication systems and methods are being modified; new processing technologies come up, flow sheets develop a minimum number of phases, the flexibility of the technologies grows up, new methods and instruments of monitoring and leading the processing operations also come up. The technological course (route, entry, scheme, guiding) referring to the series of the operation, putting and execution phases of a mark in order to obtain the final product from the blank is represented by a sequence of activities realized by a logic manner, on a well determined schedule, with a determined budget and resources. Also, a project can be defined as a series of specific activities, methodical structured which they aim to finish a specific objective, within a fixed schedule and budget. Within the homogeneity between the project and the technological course, this research is presenting the defining of the technological course of mechanical chip removing process using Microsoft Project. Under these circumstances, this research highlights the advantages of this method: the celerity using of other technological alternatives in order to pick the optimal process, the job scheduling being constrained by any kinds, the standardization of some processing technological operations.

  13. Complete genome sequence and transcriptomic analysis of a novel marine strain Bacillus weihaiensis reveals the mechanism of brown algae degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yueming; Chen, Peng; Bao, Yunjuan; Men, Yan; Zeng, Yan; Yang, Jiangang; Sun, Jibin; Sun, Yuanxia

    2016-11-30

    A novel marine strain representing efficient degradation ability toward brown algae was isolated, identified, and assigned to Bacillus weihaiensis Alg07. The alga-associated marine bacteria promote the nutrient cycle and perform important functions in the marine ecosystem. The de novo sequencing of the B. weihaiensis Alg07 genome was carried out. Results of gene annotation and carbohydrate-active enzyme analysis showed that the strain harbored enzymes that can completely degrade alginate and laminarin, which are the specific polysaccharides of brown algae. We also found genes for the utilization of mannitol, the major storage monosaccharide in the cell of brown algae. To understand the process of brown algae decomposition by B. weihaiensis Alg07, RNA-seq transcriptome analysis and qRT-PCR were performed. The genes involved in alginate metabolism were all up-regulated in the initial stage of kelp degradation, suggesting that the strain Alg07 first degrades alginate to destruct the cell wall so that the laminarin and mannitol are released and subsequently decomposed. The key genes involved in alginate and laminarin degradation were expressed in Escherichia coli and characterized. Overall, the model of brown algae degradation by the marine strain Alg07 was established, and novel alginate lyases and laminarinase were discovered.

  14. 海洋生态补偿机制的问题与对策分析%Problems and countermeasures of marine ecological compensation mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾欣

    2012-01-01

    要确保业已建立的海洋生态补偿机制的顺利实施,必须采取相应的对策来解决执行过程中可能出现的各种问题。对我国海洋资源管理实践进行分析,认为存在如下问题:海洋生态资源的产权制度缺失、海洋生态系统服务功能与价值评估技术的应用尚不成熟、以GDP为核心指标的国民经济核算体系未反映生态资源的经济价值、环境统计制度不完善、企业环境会计制度尚未形成、我国公众生态意识淡薄等方面。在此基础上,提出相应的对策为:明晰海洋生态资源的产权界定、建立海洋生态补偿的价值核算指标体系、建立绿色国民经济核算体系、完善我国的环境统计制度、建立绿色环境会计制度、加大生态教育的投入等。%Many problems emerged in the implementation process since the establishment of marine eco- compensation mechanism. Only by taking appropriate measures to solve existing problems can marine ecological compensation work be successfully implemented. On the basis of the analysis of marine resource management practices, the author summed up the problems as follows: the shortage of property rights system of marine ecological resources, immature ecosystems function and value assessment techniques, the national economic accounting system which took GDP as the core indicators, the imperfect environmental statistical system, the shortage of corporate environmental accounting system, the weakness of public ecological awareness. On the basis of the above analysis, the paper presented corresponding countermeasures : to define the property rights of the marine ecological resources, to establish the value accounting indicator system of marine ecological compensation, to establish the green national economic accounting system, to improve the environmental statistical system, to establish the environmental accounting system and to increase the investment in ecological

  15. Role of advanced technology in mechanical engineering. Kikai kogaku ni okeru cho no yakuwari

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koda, T. (Mechanical Engineering Lab., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan))

    1992-10-05

    Since technology prefixed with 'super' is ultra-technology in another word, two kinds of work are introduced, that are on-going in the ultra-technology section in Mechanical Engineering Lab., the Ministry of International Trade and Industry. It is noted therewith that in order to realize 'super', introduction of knowledge of unfamiliar fields to mechanical engineering is one of ways. The first is a research on ion-injection onto solid surfaces by introducing quantum mechanics to mechanical engineering. Possibility of rotating new materials and physical properties is under investigation using MeV ion injection equipment. The second is a research on named 'cozy machine'. This is an example of introduction of physiological knowledge and is based on the concept that an operator can handle his machine pleasantly if it is controlled with his proper biorhythm. The possibility to form 1/f sway related to being cozy is shown using electrocardiographic signals upon which the interval of an R wave showing the largest amplitude is determined. Rotating machines are controlled in proportion to the potential. 13 refs., 3 figs.

  16. High Performance Marine Vessels

    CERN Document Server

    Yun, Liang

    2012-01-01

    High Performance Marine Vessels (HPMVs) range from the Fast Ferries to the latest high speed Navy Craft, including competition power boats and hydroplanes, hydrofoils, hovercraft, catamarans and other multi-hull craft. High Performance Marine Vessels covers the main concepts of HPMVs and discusses historical background, design features, services that have been successful and not so successful, and some sample data of the range of HPMVs to date. Included is a comparison of all HPMVs craft and the differences between them and descriptions of performance (hydrodynamics and aerodynamics). Readers will find a comprehensive overview of the design, development and building of HPMVs. In summary, this book: Focuses on technology at the aero-marine interface Covers the full range of high performance marine vessel concepts Explains the historical development of various HPMVs Discusses ferries, racing and pleasure craft, as well as utility and military missions High Performance Marine Vessels is an ideal book for student...

  17. 水力冲挖技术在海相软土场地中的应用∗%Application Study on the Technology of Hydraulic Dig in Marine Soft Soil Site

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱进军; 邵勇; 马庆华

    2016-01-01

    The marine clay has the characteristics of high compression, high void ratio, low strength and high thixotropic, mechanical excavation often lead to engineering accidents of pile foundation tilting or landslide. To solve these problems, the authors take the hydraulic punch dig technology into the excavation and construction pit. Combined with the specific engineering practice, the process principle of the technology, construction points, security controls were described.%海相软土具有高压缩性、大孔隙比、低强度和高触变性等特点,机械开挖施工极易造成桩基倾斜或边坡滑动等工程事故。针对这些问题,将水力冲挖技术引入基坑开挖施工,结合具体工程实践,介绍该技术的工艺原理、施工要点、安全控制措施。

  18. A Review of the Environmental Impacts for Marine and Hydrokinetic Projects to Inform Regulatory Permitting: Summary Findings from the 2015 Workshop on Marine and Hydrokinetic Technologies, Washington, D.C.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, E. Ian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christol, Corrie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); LiVecchi, Al [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kramer, Sharon [H.T. Harvey and Associates, Los Gatos, CA (United States); West, Anna [Kearns & West, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2016-07-01

    In 2014 and 2015, the U.S. Department of Energy initiated efforts to develop and implement technology- and application-focused marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) workshops to share the global experience and knowledge base on evolving MHK technologies, observed and not-observed impacts, monitoring and measurement methods, and regulatory needs. The resulting MHK Regulator Workshops engaged resource managers and other decision makers at key regulatory organizations, scientists, researchers, facilitators, and technical experts and provided an opportunity to examine the risks of single-device and small-scale deployments, explore what can be learned and observed from single devices and small-scale arrays, and consider requirements for projects at varying scales of deployment. Experts and stakeholders identified key remaining information gaps. Initial discussions focused on differentiating between monitoring required for single or small-scale deployments and MHK impact research that, although important, goes beyond what is feasible or should be needed to meet specific project regulatory requirements but is appropriate for broader research and development. Four areas of identified potential environmental impacts provided the focus for the workshop: acoustic output impacts, electromagnetic field (EMF) emissions, physical interactions, and environmental effects of MHK energy development on the physical environment. Discussions also focused on the regulatory process and experience, adaptive management, industry drivers, and lessons that can be learned from the wind energy industry. The discussion was set in the context of the types of MHK technologies that are currently proposed or planned in the United States. All presentations and the following discussions are summarized in this document.

  19. 导航雷达目标告警技术研究%Research on Target Warning Technology of Marine Navigation Radar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶玲; 王远斌

    2016-01-01

    Marine navigation radar has already been used in ship market. It is a necessary equipment in collision avoidance, ship positioning, and entering or leaving ports pilot. As one of the most important function of the marine navigation radar display and control terminal, target alarm can help to avoid navigation accident. This paper presents the target alarm technology, and discusses the development trend finally.%导航雷达已经应用于整个船舶市场,它是船舶用于航行避让、船舶定位和进出港引航的必要设备,而目标告警又是导航雷达显控终端的一个重要功能,能帮助船舶避免航行事故,文章主要介绍了导航雷达显控终端目标告警的原理及展现形式,最后论述了其发展趋势。

  20. Study on Waste Heat Recovery Technology of Marine Diesel Engine%船舶柴油机余热利用技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴安戾; 周伟中

    2012-01-01

    介绍了国内外船舶柴油机余热利用技术研究现状;设计了柴油机余热利用系统,并对系统的性能和经济性进行了计算和分析。结果表明,该余热利用系统可回收相当于主机功率12.5%的电能,余热利用系统热效率提高6.03%,虽然增加了投资成本,但可在三年内收回。%The status of waste heat recovery technology (WHR) of marine diesel engine both home andabroad is introduced. A WHR system was designed to recover the waste heat from a marine diesel engine, and the performance calculations and economical analysis were carried out. The results show that approx 12.5% engine power can be recovered through using WHR system, and the thermal efficiency of WHR system increases about 6.03%. Though using WHR system may lead to extra investment costs, but it could be paid back within 3 years.

  1. Development of a body motion interactive system with a weight voting mechanism and computer vision technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chern-Sheng; Chen, Chia-Tse; Shei, Hung-Jung; Lay, Yun-Long; Chiu, Chuang-Chien

    2012-09-01

    This study develops a body motion interactive system with computer vision technology. This application combines interactive games, art performing, and exercise training system. Multiple image processing and computer vision technologies are used in this study. The system can calculate the characteristics of an object color, and then perform color segmentation. When there is a wrong action judgment, the system will avoid the error with a weight voting mechanism, which can set the condition score and weight value for the action judgment, and choose the best action judgment from the weight voting mechanism. Finally, this study estimated the reliability of the system in order to make improvements. The results showed that, this method has good effect on accuracy and stability during operations of the human-machine interface of the sports training system.

  2. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF PARTS OF MEDICAL PRODUCTS PRODUCED USING ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Górski

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of tests conducted on the elements of medical devices - slings used with medical lifts - manufactured using additive technologies. Project assumptions were: to produce 100 samples of clips with varying design, material and orientation parameter. Samples were manufactured using FDM and SLA processes and then tested for mechanical strength, load transmission and functionality, using certified equipment. Paper shows full methodology and obtained test results.

  3. Analysis of Noise at Coal Face by Fully-Mechanized Coal Winning Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘照鹏

    2003-01-01

    The noise level of coal face by full-mechanized coal winning technology was measured in a coal mine. And then it was analyzed and evaluated using environment science, ergonomics and fussy mathematics analysis. Basis of the statistics and analysis of the measured noise level some measures, such as applying the new materials and improving the construction of the equipment, were carried out. The resuts show that they can reduce the noise level, improve the working environment and enhance the work efficiency.

  4. Analysis of the Mechanism and the Current Situation of the Plasma Purification Technology for Diesel Exhaust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuli Guo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the mechanism and the current situation of the plasma purification technology for diesel exhaust is introduced. Research indicates that cleaning the diesel exhaust with the plasma produced by corona discharge or dielectric barrier discharge has too high energy consumption to direct use without catalyst. To solve this problem, the study gives some new ways about cleaning diesel exhaust with arc discharge.

  5. 浅议海洋科技专著中地图的规范化%Map Standardization in Marine Technology Monograph

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白燕; 彭珺

    2014-01-01

    The existing problems of maps are discussed and analyzed. It is believed that maps should meet the requirements of self -evident, abstract and simplistic. As for the map name, line graphs, and image maps, the suggestions of map standardization are proposed to improve maps' information transfer functions and visual effects in marine technology monographs.%讨论分析了目前海洋科技专著中地图所存在的问题,提出了地图应符合自明性、抽象性和简明性的要求,并针对图名、线划图和影像图提出地图制作的规范化建议,以便增强地图在海洋科技专著中的信息传递功能和视觉效果。

  6. Development of Technology and Equipment of the Automated Laser Welding for Manufacturing Heat Exchanger Details of Marine Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelyagin, V.D.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on the developed automated laser welding technology for flat tubes of copper-nickel alloys laser welding complex technological equipment, which can be applied on the enterprises of machine building, aerospace, shipbuilding and automobile industries, was designed and created. To control the integrity of welded flat tubes a technique, which consists in testing sample pressure and finding defective sections by laser interferometry in the automated mode, was developed. Specialized welding head was designed and manufactured for the industrial use of the developed laser welding technology.

  7. Technological Development and Fisheries Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eigaard, O.R.; Marchal, P.; Gislason, H.; Rijnsdorp, A.D.

    2014-01-01

    Many marine fish stocks are overexploited and considerable overcapacity exists in fishing fleets worldwide. One of the reasons for the imbalance between resource availability and fishing capacity is technological development, which continuously increases the efficiency of the vessels—a mechanism

  8. Technological Development and Fisheries Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eigaard, O.R.; Marchal, P.; Gislason, H.; Rijnsdorp, A.D.

    2014-01-01

    Many marine fish stocks are overexploited and considerable overcapacity exists in fishing fleets worldwide. One of the reasons for the imbalance between resource availability and fishing capacity is technological development, which continuously increases the efficiency of the vessels—a mechanism ref

  9. Creating science and technology superiority,increasing marine equipment manufacturing capability to build China into world No.1 shipbuilding country

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The creation of science and technol-ogy superiority is the basic driving forceto push forward the development ofChina’s shipbuilding Industry by leaps andbounds,and achieve the goal of buildingChina into the world number one ship-building country. 1.The strength of science and tech-nology is the decisive factor affecting ourcompetitiveness in the world market The shipbuilding industry is a labour-intensive,capital-intensive and technology-intensive industry.However,ever since the90’s of the last century,with the wide ap-plication of new technology and new manu-facturing process,the productivity of shipconstruction has increased significantly,therole of primary production elements suchas low-priced labor has weakened dramati-cally in the market competition.With thecontinuous increase of technology inten-siveness in the shipbuilding industry,thestrength of science and technology is becoming the most important factor of mar-ket competitiveness.In the last ten years,in order to strengthen their technical sup

  10. Technological challenges to assess n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids from marine oils for nutritional and pharmacological use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valenzuela, A.

    1993-02-01

    Full Text Available The benefits ascribed to marine oils rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids has led to efforts to improve the chemical and organoleptic characteristics of these oils and to develop procedures for the obtention of pure or highly concentrated fractions of some n-3 fatty acids. Two n-3 fatty acids are of main interest; the eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5, EPA and the docosahexaenoic acid (022:6, DHA. The present review is referred to the identification of the main sources of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and to the stabilization of these fatty acids against oxidative rancidity. In addition the procedures for the obtention of EPA and DHA concentrates and the utilization of these fatty acids for nutritional or pharmacological purposes are also discussed.

    Los beneficios atribuidos a los aceites marinos ricos en ácidos grasos n-3 poliinsaturados han conducido a un esfuerzo por mejorar las características químicas y organolépticas de estos aceites y al desarrollo de procedimientos para la obtención de fracciones altamente concentradas o puras de ácidos grasos n-3. Dos ácidos grasos n-3 de interés principal son el ácido eicosapentaenoico (C20:5, EPA y el ácido docosahexaenoico (022:6, DHA. La presente revisión está referida a la identificación de las principales fuentes de ácidos grasos n-3 poliinsaturados marinos, y a la estabilización de estos ácidos frente a la rancidez oxidativa. Además de los procedimientos para la obtención de concentrados de EPA y DHA, es también discutida la utilización de estos ácidos grasos para usos nutricionales y farmacológicos.

  11. The inhibition and resistance mechanisms of actinonin, isolated from marine Streptomyces sp. NHF165, against Vibrio anguillarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Yang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio sp. is the most serious pathogen in marine aquaculture, and the development of anti-Vibrio agents is urgently needed. However, it is extreme lack of high-throughput screening (HTS model for searching anti-Vibrio compounds. Here, we established a protein-based HTS screening model to identify agents targeting peptide deformylase (PDF of Vibrio anguillarum. To find potential anti-Vibrio compounds, crude extracts derived from marine actinomycetes were applied for screening with this model. Notably, crude extract of strain Streptomyces sp. NHF165 inhibited dramatically both on V. anguillarum PDF (VaPDF activity and V. anguillarum cell growth. And actinonin was further identified as the functional component. Anti-VaPDF and anti-V. anguillarum activities of actinonin were dose-dependent, and the IC50 values were 6.94 M and 2.85 M, respectively. To understand the resistance of V. anguillarum against actinonin, spontaneous V. anguillarum mutants with resistance against actinonin were isolated. Surprisingly, for the resistant strains, the region between 774 and 852 base pairs was found to be absent in the gene folD which produces 10-formyl-tetrahydrofolate, a donor of N-formyl to Met-tRNAfmet. When compared to the wild type strain, folD mutant showed 8 times of minimum inhibition concentration on actinonin, however, the folD complementary strain could not grow on the medium supplemented with actinonin, which suggested that folD gene mutation was mainly responsible for the actinonin resistance. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that marine derived Streptomyces sp. could produce actinonin with anti-VaPDF activity and the resistance against actinonin by V. anguillarum is mediated by mutation in folD gene.

  12. Effect of WO3 nanoparticle loading on the microstructural, mechanical and corrosion resistance of Zn matrix/TiO2-WO3 nanocomposite coatings for marine application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popoola, A. P. I.; Daniyan, A. A.; Umoru, L. E.; Fayomi, O. S. I.

    2017-03-01

    In this study, for marine application purposes, we evaluated the effect of process parameter and particle loading on the microstructure, mechanical reinforcement and corrosion resistance properties of a Zn-TiO2-WO3 nanocomposite produced via electrodeposition. We characterized the morphological properties of the composite coatings with a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) equipped with an Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS). We carried out mechanical examination using a Dura Scan hardness tester and a CERT UMT-2 multi-functional tribological tester. We evaluated the corrosion properties by linear polarization in 3.5% NaCl. The results show that the coatings exhibited good stability and the quantitative particle loading greatly enhanced the structural and morphological properties, hardness behavior and corrosion resistance of the coatings. We observed the precipitation of this alloy on steel is greatly influenced by the composite characteristics.

  13. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    This is Japan Report with Science and Technology. It contains the issues with different topics on biotecnology , defense industry, nuclear engineering, Marine technology, science and technology policy.

  14. Economic Impact of Large-Scale Deployment of Offshore Marine and Hydrokinetic Technology in Oregon Coastal Counties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, T. [Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), Washington, DC (United States); Tegen, S. [Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), Washington, DC (United States); Beiter, P. [Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-03-01

    To begin understanding the potential economic impacts of large-scale WEC technology, the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) commissioned the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to conduct an economic impact analysis of largescale WEC deployment for Oregon coastal counties. This report follows a previously published report by BOEM and NREL on the jobs and economic impacts of WEC technology for the entire state (Jimenez and Tegen 2015). As in Jimenez and Tegen (2015), this analysis examined two deployment scenarios in the 2026-2045 timeframe: the first scenario assumed 13,000 megawatts (MW) of WEC technology deployed during the analysis period, and the second assumed 18,000 MW of WEC technology deployed by 2045. Both scenarios require major technology and cost improvements in the WEC devices. The study is on very large-scale deployment so readers can examine and discuss the potential of a successful and very large WEC industry. The 13,000-MW is used as the basis for the county analysis as it is the smaller of the two scenarios. Sensitivity studies examined the effects of a robust in-state WEC supply chain. The region of analysis is comprised of the seven coastal counties in Oregon—Clatsop, Coos, Curry, Douglas, Lane, Lincoln, and Tillamook—so estimates of jobs and other economic impacts are specific to this coastal county area.

  15. Selective adsorption of Pb(II) from aqueous solution using porous biosilica extracted from marine diatom biomass: Properties and mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yarong; Wang, Jingfeng; Wang, Xin; Cheng, Jay Jiayang; Wen, Zhiyou

    2017-02-01

    Biosilica with a surface area of 143 m2 g-1 derived from marine diatoms was prepared using an easy two-step method involving washing with dilute acid and baking. The extracted biosilica was used to remove divalent lead ions, i.e., Pb(II), from aqueous solution. The effects on Pb(II) adsorption of initial pH, shaking speed, and adsorbent loading were investigated. The adsorption of Pb(II) in the presence of other ions was also investigated. The biosilica showed a high adsorption capacity with high selectivity for Pb(II). The experimental maximum adsorption capacity was 108.2-120.4 mg g-1 at an adsorbent loading of 1 g L-1. The adsorption process was best described by the Langmuir model. The adsorbent selectively adsorbed Pb(II) from binary ion systems in the presence of Cu(II), Cd(II), Ni(II), and Ag(I). The results of this study show that biosilica extracted from fresh marine diatoms is a more efficient and selective adsorbent for Pb(II) than other inorganic adsorbents.

  16. Mechanisms of Communicating Health Information Through Facebook: Implications for Consumer Health Information Technology Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menefee, Hannah K; Thompson, Morgan J; Guterbock, Thomas M; Williams, Ishan C; Valdez, Rupa S

    2016-08-11

    Consumer health information technology (IT) solutions are designed to support patient health management and have the ability to facilitate patients' health information communication with their social networks. However, there is a need for consumer health IT solutions to align with patients' health management preferences for increased adoption of the technology. It may be possible to gain an understanding of patients' needs for consumer health IT supporting their health information communication with social networks by explicating how they have adopted and adapted social networking sites, such as Facebook, for this purpose. Our aim was to characterize patients' use of all communication mechanisms within Facebook for health information communication to provide insight into how consumer health IT solutions may be better designed to meet patients' communication needs and preferences. This study analyzed data about Facebook communication mechanisms use from a larger, three-phase, sequential, mixed-methods study. We report here on the results of the study's first phase: qualitative interviews (N=25). Participants were over 18, used Facebook, were residents or citizens of the United States, spoke English, and had a diagnosis consistent with type 2 diabetes. Participants were recruited through Facebook groups and pages. Participant interviews were conducted via Skype or telephone between July and September 2014. Data analysis was grounded in qualitative content analysis and the initial coding framework was informed by the findings of a previous study. Participants' rationales for the use or disuse of a particular Facebook mechanism to communicate health information reflected six broad themes: (1) characteristics and circumstances of the person, (2) characteristics and circumstances of the relationship, (3) structure and composition of the social network, (4) content of the information, (5) communication purpose, and (6) attributes of the technology. The results of this

  17. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science ... sustainable coastal development in the region, as well as contributing to the global base of marine science. ..... Gössling S (2003) The political ecology of tourism in Zan-.

  18. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an ... are not limited to: theoretical studies, oceanography, marine biology and ecology, ... consist of special issues on major events or important thematic issues.

  19. Antitumor Peptides from Marine Organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Sun

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The biodiversity of the marine environment and the associated chemical diversity constitute a practically unlimited resource of new antitumor agents in the field of the development of marine bioactive substances. In this review, the progress on studies of antitumor peptides from marine sources is provided. The biological properties and mechanisms of action of different marine peptides are described; information about their molecular diversity is also presented. Novel peptides that induce apoptosis signal pathway, affect the tubulin-microtubule equilibrium and inhibit angiogenesis are presented in association with their pharmacological properties. It is intended to provide useful information for further research in the fields of marine antitumor peptides.

  20. A new high shear degassing technology and mechanism for 7032 alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-bo Zuo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Degassing is very important for aluminum alloys especially for 7xxx series alloys. In the present study, a high shear technology was used to degas 7032 aluminum alloy in order to study its degassing efficiency. The experimental results showed that the high shear technology can significantly degas 7032 aluminum alloy. By applying intensive melt shearing and an Ar injection of 60 seconds, the density index, Di, was reduced from 13.25% to 0.28% and the hydrogen concentration was significantly reduced from 0.31 to 0.10 mL/100g Al. Compared with the conventional rotary degassing, high shear technology showed a much higher degassing efficiency, achieving a lower concentration of hydrogen in a shorter time. The water simulation experiment was used to study the mechanism of the high degassing efficiency. The small bubble size and the uniform distribution of Ar bubbles with the application of high shear technology are believed to be the main cause for the high degassing efficiency.

  1. Using RFID Positioning Technology to Construct an Automatic Rehabilitation Scheduling Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ching-Sheng; Hung, Lun-Ping; Yen, Neil Y

    2016-01-01

    Accurately and efficiently identifying the location of patients during the course of rehabilitation is an important issue. Wireless transmission technology can reach this goal. Tracking technologies such as RFID (Radio frequency identification) can support process improvement and improve efficiencies of rehabilitation. There are few published models or methods to solve the problem of positioning and apply this technology in the rehabilitation center. We propose a mechanism to enhance the accuracy of positioning technology and provide information about turns and obstacles on the path; and user-centered services based on location-aware to enhanced quality care in rehabilitation environment. This paper outlines the requirements and the role of RFID in assisting rehabilitation environment. A prototype RFID hospital support tool is established. It is designed to provide assistance for monitoring rehabilitation patients. It can simultaneously calculate the rehabilitant's location and the duration of treatment, and automatically record the rehabilitation course of the rehabilitant, so as to improve the management efficiency of the rehabilitation program.

  2. Mechanical properties and production quality of hand-layup and vacuum infusion processed hybrid composite materials for GFRP marine structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim Sang-Young; Shim Chun Sik; Sturtevant Caleb; Kim Dave (Dae-Wook); Song Ha Cheol

    2014-01-01

    .... This paper aims to investigate the mechanical properties and failure mechanisms of the hybrid GFRP composites, formed by applying the hand lay-up processed exterior and the vacuum infusion processed...

  3. Latest Development of Marine Braodband Seismic Acquisition Technology%海上宽频地震采集技术新进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余本善; 孙乃达

    2015-01-01

    海上宽频地震采集技术不但能改善盐下、玄武岩下等深层构造成像,还能提高薄层、隐蔽圈闭、特殊岩性体等难识别油区成像品质,因而能有效提高地震资料的解释精度,降低勘探风险。近年来市场的迫切需求极大地推动了海上宽频地震采集技术的快速发展,国外相继出现了倾斜电缆采集、上下双缆采集、双检电缆采集、四分量拖缆采集等多种采集方法,国内在这一研究领域尚处于起步阶段。本文通过介绍上述几种技术的基本原理及效果,以期对国内相关研究起到参考和指导作用。%Marine broadband seismic acquisition technology not only improves the pre-salt and pre-basalt geological imaging precision but also raises the imaging quality of dififcult-to-identify reservoirs, such as thin layers, subtle traps and special lithologic bodies, thus effectively improving interpretation precision of seismic data and lowering the risks for exploration. The strong market demand has stimulated development of marine broadband seismic acquisition technology in recent years. A number of acquisition methods appeared abroad, such as slant streamers, over-under streamers, hydrophone-vertical geophone (dual sensor) streamers and multi-component towed streamers. However, the domestic research is still in its preliminary stage in this area. This paper is focused on the fundamental principles of the above-stated technologies, aiming to offer references for the related study at home.

  4. Joining technologies for the 1990s: Welding, brazing, soldering, mechanical, explosive, solid-state, adhesive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, J.D.; Stein, B.A.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents recent advances in joining technologies for the 1990s-welding, brazing, soldering, mechanical fastening, explosive welding, solid-state bonding, and adhesive bonding. A major consideration in the fabrication of any commercial, military, or space product is attachment systems which are safe and reliable. The subject matter covered includes technology developed in current research programs relevant to welding, bonding, and fastening of structural materials, for fabricating structures and mechanical systems use in the aerospace, automotive, and related industries. Specific topics include equipment, hardware and materials used when welding, brazing, and soldering; mechanical fastening; explosive welding; use of unique selected joining techniques; adhesive bonding; and nondestructive evaluation. ''The Factory of the Future'' is presented, followed by advanced welding techniques, automated equipment for welding, welding in a cryogenic atmosphere, blind fastening, stress corrosion resistant fasteners, fastening equipment, explosive welding of different configurations and materials, solid-state bonding, electron beam welding, new adhesives, effects of cryogenics on adhesives, and new techniques and equipment for adhesive bonding.

  5. Failure mechanism and stability control technology of rock surrounding a roadway in complex stress conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Yang; Bai Jianbiao; Chen Ke; Wang Xiangyu; Xiao Tongqiang; Chen Yong

    2011-01-01

    To solve the problem of supporting three downhill coal structures in the Yongan Coal Mine of Shanxi Jincheng,we studied the regular development of stress and plastic zones and characteristics of deformation of rock surrounding roadway groups after a period of roadway driving,mining one side as well as mining both sides,we used FLAC3D for our numerical and theoretical analyses.Field test were carried out,where we revealed the deformation mechanism of roadways and its coal pillars in complex stress conditions.We proposed a roadway stability control technology using backwall grouting with high-water rapid hardening material and combined support with bolt and cable anchoring after mining both sides.Our field practices showed that deformation of rock surrounding roadways can be controlled with this technology.

  6. UV-based technologies for marine water disinfection and the application to ballast water: Does salinity interfere with disinfection processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Andrés, Javier; Romero-Martínez, Leonardo; Acevedo-Merino, Asunción; Nebot, Enrique

    2017-03-01

    Water contained on ships is employed in the majority of activities on a vessel; therefore, it is necessary to correctly manage through marine water treatments. Among the main water streams generated on vessels, ballast water appears to be an emerging global challenge (especially on cargo ships) due to the transport of invasive species and the significant impact that the ballast water discharge could have on ecosystems and human activities. To avoid this problem, ballast water treatment must be implemented prior to water discharge in accordance with the upcoming Ballast Water Management Convention. Different UV-based treatments (photolytic: UV-C and UV/H2O2, photocatalytic: UV/TiO2), have been compared for seawater disinfection. E. faecalis is proposed as a biodosimeter organism for UV-based treatments and demonstrates good properties for being considered as a Standard Test Organism for seawater. Inactivation rates by means of the UV-based treatments were obtained using a flow-through UV-reactor. Based on the two variables responses that were studied (kinetic rate constant and UV-Dose reductions), both advanced oxidation processes (UV/H2O2 and photocatalysis) were more effective than UV-C treatment. Evaluation of salinity on the processes suggests different responses according to the treatments: major interference on photocatalysis treatment and minimal impact on UV/H2O2.

  7. Mechanical modeling of self-expandable stent fabricated using braiding technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ju Hyun; Kang, Tae Jin; Yu, Woong-Ryeol

    2008-11-14

    The mechanical behavior of a stent is one of the important factors involved in ensuring its opening within arterial conduits. This study aimed to develop a mechanical model for designing self-expandable stents fabricated using braiding technology. For this purpose, a finite element model was constructed by developing a preprocessing program for the three-dimensional geometrical modeling of the braiding structure inside stents, and validated for various stents with different braiding structures. The constituent wires (Nitinol) in the braided stents were assumed to be superelastic material and their mechanical behavior was incorporated into the finite element software through a user material subroutine (VUMAT in ABAQUS) employing a one-dimensional superelastic model. For the verification of the model, several braided stents were manufactured using an automated braiding machine and characterized focusing on their compressive behavior. It was observed that the braided stents showed a hysteresis between their loading and unloading behavior when a compressive load was applied to the braided tube. Through the finite element analysis, it was concluded that the current mechanical model can appropriately predict the mechanical behavior of braided stents including such hysteretic behavior, and that the hysteresis was caused by the slippage between the constituent wires and their superelastic property.

  8. The way to zeros: The future of semiconductor device and chemical mechanical polishing technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Manabu

    2016-06-01

    For the last 60 years, the development of cutting-edge semiconductor devices has strongly emphasized scaling; the effort to scale down current CMOS devices may well achieve the target of 5 nm nodes by 2020. Planarization by chemical mechanical polishing (CMP), is one technology essential for supporting scaling. This paper summarizes the history of CMP transitions in the planarization process as well as the changing degree of planarity required, and, finally, introduces innovative technologies to meet the requirements. The use of CMP was triggered by the replacement of local oxidation of silicon (LOCOS) as the element isolation technology by shallow trench isolation (STI) in the 1980s. Then, CMP’s use expanded to improving embedability of aluminum wiring, tungsten (W) contacts, Cu wiring, and, more recently, to its adoption in high-k metal gate (HKMG) and FinFET (FF) processes. Initially, the required degree of planarity was 50 nm, but now 0 nm is required. Further, zero defects on a post-CMP wafer is now the goal, and it is possible that zero psi CMP loading pressure will be required going forward. Soon, it seems, everything will have to be “zero” and perfect. Although the process is also chemical in nature, the CMP process is actually mechanical with a load added using slurry particles several tens of nm in diameter. Zero load in the loading process, zero nm planarity with no trace of processing, and zero residual foreign material, including the very slurry particles used in the process, are all required. This article will provide an overview of how to achieve these new requirements and what technologies should be employed.

  9. Marine Bacterial Genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machado, Henrique

    microorganisms to be used as cell factories for production. Therefore exploitation of new microbial niches and use of different strategies is an opportunity to boost discoveries. Even though scientists have started to explore several habitats other than the terrestrial ones, the marine environment stands out...... as a hitherto under-explored niche. This thesis work uses high-throughput sequencing technologies on a collection of marine bacteria established during the Galathea 3 expedition, with the purpose of unraveling new biodiversity and new bioactivities. Several tools were used for genomic analysis in order...... to better understand the potential harbored in marine bacteria. The work presented makes use of whole genome sequencing of marine bacteria to prove that the genetic repertoire for secondary metabolite production harbored in these bacteria is far larger than anticipated; to identify and develop a new...

  10. Algal blooms and "Marine snow": Mechanisms that enhance preservation of organic carbon in ancient fine-grained sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macquaker, Joe H.S.; Keller, Margaret A.; Davies, Sarah J.

    2010-01-01

    Combined petrographic and geochemical methods are used to investigate the microfabrics present in thin sections prepared from representative organic carbon-rich mudstones collected from three successions (the Kimmeridge Clay Formation, the Jet Rock Member of the Whitby Mudstone Formation, and the pebble shale and Hue Shale). This study was initiated to determine how organic carbon-rich materials were being delivered to the sediment–water interface, and what happened to them after deposition, prior to deep burial.Analyses of the fabrics present shows that they exhibit many common attributes. In particular they are all: (1) highly heterogeneous on the scale of a thin section, (2) organized into thin beds (pellets. In addition, framboidal pyrite (range of sizes from pelleted laminasets contain small horizontal burrows.The organomineralic aggregates present in these mudstones are interpreted to be ancient examples of marine snow. This marine snow likely formed in the water column, particularly during phytoplankton blooms, and was then transported rapidly to the seafloor. The existence of the thin beds with homogenized tops and an in-situ infauna indicates that between blooms there was sufficient oxygen and time for a mixed layer to develop as a result of sediment colonization by diminutive organisms using either aerobic or dysaerobic metabolic pathways. These textures suggest that the constituents of these mudstones were delivered neither as a continuous rain of sediment nor were the bottom waters persistently anoxic. In addition, the presence of thin lags and sharp-based beds suggests that the seafloor was being episodically reworked during deposition. These fabrics indicate that conditions in the water columns and at the seafloors while these rocks were being deposited were very dynamic, and episodic fluxes of high concentrations of organic carbon to the seafloor, during phytoplankton blooms, likely enhanced preservation of organic carbon.

  11. 5-level polysilicon surface micromachine technology: Application to complex mechanical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, M.S.; Sniegowski, J.J.

    1998-06-01

    The authors recently reported on the development of a 5-level poly-ilicon surface micromachine fabrication process consisting of four levels of mechanical poly plus an electrical interconnect layer. They are now reporting on the first components designed for and fabricated in this process. These are demonstration systems, which definitively show that five levels of polysilicon provide greater performance, reliability, and significantly increased functionality. This new technology makes it possible to realize levels of system complexity that have so far only existed on paper, while simultaneously adding to the robustness of many of the individual subassemblies.

  12. Research on the mechanical behaviour of an airplane component made by selective laser melting technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Păcurar Răzvan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the presented research consists in the redesign of an airplane component to decrease its weight, without affecting the mechanical behaviour of the component, at the end. Femap NX Nastran and ANSYS FEA programs were used for the shape optimization and for the estimation of the mechanical behaviour of a fixing clamp that was used to sustain the hydraulic pipes that are passing through an airplane fuselage, taking into consideration two types of raw materials – Ti6Al4V and AlSi12 powder from which this component could be manufactured by using the selective laser melting (SLM technology. Based on the obtained results, the airplane component was finally manufactured from titanium alloy using the SLM 250 HL equipment that is available at SLM Solutions GmbH company from Luebeck, in Germany.

  13. Incentive Mechanism of Green Supply Chain to Promote Supplier’s Technology R&D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Cao

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on the actual situation that the green market started to develop in China today, how to enhance the activity of supplier’s technology R&D is discussed in the study. According to a two-echelon supply chain system consists of a manufacturer and a supplier, under the asymmetric information of supplier’s R&D efforts level, the incentive mechanism for supplier to improve the green degree of intermediate goods is designed. The proposed incentive mechanism can stimulate the supplier’s R&D effort level at its maximum and achieve the system revenue as much as possible. The conclusion has a good practical guidance to operational decision-making of the members of green supply chain in the early green market.

  14. Processing Technology and Mechanical Properties of Die-Cast Magnesium Alloy AZ91D

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yan'gai(刘艳改); LIU Wenhui(刘文辉); XIONG Shoumei(熊守美); LIU Baicheng(柳百成); Wang Gang (王罡); MATSUMOTO Yoshihide; MURAKAMI Masayuki

    2004-01-01

    The mechanical properties of magnesium die-casting components can be improved with improved die-casting processing technology. An orthogonal experiment with four factors and three levels (Lq, 34) was used to evaluate the effect of various die-casting processing parameters on the quality and mechanical properties of an AZ91D magnesium alloy cylinder head cover component. The results show that the injection speed and casting and die temperatures all influence the component quality, with the influence of the casting pressure being the smallest. The injection speed and casting pressure are the two most important factors influencing the tensile strength. The best die-casting parameters for the magnesium alloy cylinder head cover component were determined to be a casting temperature of 660℃, a die temperature of 200℃, an injection speed of 70 ms(1, and a casting pressure of 65 MPa. The porosity is one of the most important parameters influencing the casting strength.

  15. Emerging biopharmaceuticals from marine actinobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Syed Shams Ul; Anjum, Komal; Abbas, Syed Qamar; Akhter, Najeeb; Shagufta, Bibi Ibtesam; Shah, Sayed Asmat Ali; Tasneem, Umber

    2017-01-01

    Actinobacteria are quotidian microorganisms in the marine world, playing a crucial ecological role in the recycling of refractory biomaterials and producing novel secondary metabolites with pharmaceutical applications. Actinobacteria have been isolated from the huge area of marine organisms including sponges, tunicates, corals, mollusks, crabs, mangroves and seaweeds. Natural products investigation of the marine actinobacteria revealed that they can synthesize numerous natural products including alkaloids, polyketides, peptides, isoprenoids, phenazines, sterols, and others. These natural products have a potential to provide future drugs against crucial diseases like cancer, HIV, microbial and protozoal infections and severe inflammations. Therefore, marine actinobacteria portray as a pivotal resource for marine drugs. It is an upcoming field of research to probe a novel and pharmaceutically important secondary metabolites from marine actinobacteria. In this review, we attempt to summarize the present knowledge on the diversity, chemistry and mechanism of action of marine actinobacteria-derived secondary metabolites from 2007 to 2016. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. FORMATION OF TECHNOPARK OF HIGH TECHNOLOGIES OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING ON THE BASIS OF UMK "PUMORI-SIZ"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Lugovcov

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Necessity of development of innovative forms of the organization of business is proved. The concept of creation of technopark of high technologies of mechanical engineering on the basis of UMK "PUMORI-SIZ" is developed.

  17. Analisis of a marine mechanical vapor compression desalination system%船舶机械蒸汽压缩海水淡化装置性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈金增; 李光华; 李雁飞

    2011-01-01

    In the present work, by analizing the process of marine mechanical vapor desalination, the mathmatic models were gotten. As an example, the fresh water flowrate and work consumption at different evaporate temperature of a type of 5 t/d desalination system were calculation. The conclusion is that with the increasing of evaporate remperature, the flowrate of fresh water and work consumption are increasing accordingly.%在分析机械蒸汽压缩海水淡化装置工作过程基础上,给出了该型装置的数学模型.以产水量5 t/d的装置为例,分析了装置工作性能随蒸发温度的变化规律.结果表明,随着蒸发温度的提高,产水量增大,压缩机耗功相应增大.

  18. Biological, mechanical, and technological considerations affecting the longevity of intracortical electrode recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, James P; Tyler, Dustin J

    2013-01-01

    Intracortical electrodes are important tools, with applications ranging from fundamental laboratory studies to potential solutions to intractable clinical applications. However, the longevity and reliability of the interfaces remain their major limitation to the wider implementation and adoption of this technology, especially in broader translational work. Accordingly, this review summarizes the most significant biological and technical factors influencing the long-term performance of intracortical electrodes. In a laboratory setting, intracortical electrodes have been used to study the normal and abnormal function of the brain. This improved understanding has led to valuable insights regarding many neurological conditions. Likewise, clinical applications of intracortical brain-machine interfaces offer the ability to improve the quality of life of many patients afflicted with high-level paralysis from spinal cord injury, brain stem stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, or other conditions. It is widely hypothesized that the tissue response to the electrodes, including inflammation, limits their longevity. Many studies have examined and modified the tissue response to intracortical electrodes to improve future intracortical electrode technologies. Overall, the relationship between biological, mechanical, and technological considerations are crucial for the fidelity of chronic electrode recordings and represent a presently active area of investigation in the field of neural engineering.

  19. TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGYMECHANISM OF MODERN UNIVERSITY WITH COMMUNITY CONNECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela DIACONU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study presents, starting from the third mission of the university, a modern mechanismtechnology transfer, by which the university can effectively contribute to local and regional socio-economic development and may provide additional sources of income for the research and development work in terms of substantially reducing the financial support by the state. The study emphasizes the role of the office of technology transfer as a means of connection of the university with the business environment able to arrange joint efforts of both sides in economic development. The method used was that of thematic analysis of the content of data published on the websites of the best performing TTO`s on technology transfer and the literature referring to the third mission of the university. The study develops a methodology with the procedural approach and the steps that should followed so that the university could become more competitive with the help of TTO. The conclusion is that, in the current conditions of higher education market, the entrepreneurial spirit of the university valued through TTO brings important benefits to society.

  20. A mechanism for proven technology foresight for emerging fast reactor designs and concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuar, Nuraslinda; Muhamad Pauzi, Anas

    2016-01-01

    The assessment of emerging nuclear fast reactor designs and concepts viability requires a combination of foresight methods. A mechanism that allows for the comparison and quantification of the possibility of being a proven technology in the future, β for the existing fast reactor designs and concepts is proposed as one of the quantitative foresight method. The methodology starts with the identification at the national or regional level, of the factors that would affect β. The factors are then categorized into several groups; economic, social and technology elements. Each of the elements is proposed to be mathematically modelled before all of the elemental models can be combined. Once the overall β model is obtained, the βmin is determined to benchmark the acceptance as a candidate design or concept. The β values for all the available designs and concepts are then determined and compared with the βmin, resulting in a list of candidate designs that possess the β value that is larger than the βmin. The proposed methodology can also be applied to purposes other than technological foresight.

  1. Flippin' Fluid Mechanics - Using Online Technology to Enhance the In-Class Learning Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, D. R.; Majerich, D. M.

    2013-11-01

    This study provides an empirical analysis of using online technologies and team problem solving sessions to shift an undergraduate fluid mechanics course from a traditional lecture format to a collaborative learning environment. Students were from two consecutive semesters of the same course taught by the same professor. One group used online technologies and solved problems in class and the other did not. Out of class, the treatment group watched 72 short (11 minutes, average) video lectures covering course topics and example problems being solved. Three times a week students worked in teams of two to solve problems on desktop whiteboard tablets while the instructor and graduate assistants provided ``just-in-time'' tutoring. The number of team problems assigned during the semester exceeded 100. Weekly online homework was assigned to reinforce topics. The WileyPlus online system generated unique problem parameters for each student. The control group received three-50 minute weekly lectures. Data include three midterms and a final exam. Regression results indicate that controlling for all of the entered variables, for every one more problem solving session the student attended, the final grade was raised by 0.327 points. Thus, if a student participated in all 25 of the team problem solving sessions, the final grade would have been 8.2 points higher, a difference of nearly a grade. Using online technologies and teamwork appeared to result in improved achievement, but more research is needed to support these findings.

  2. A mechanism for proven technology foresight for emerging fast reactor designs and concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anuar, Nuraslinda, E-mail: nuraslinda@uniten.edu.my; Muhamad Pauzi, Anas, E-mail: anas@uniten.edu.my [College of Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Jalan IKRAM-UNITEN, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    The assessment of emerging nuclear fast reactor designs and concepts viability requires a combination of foresight methods. A mechanism that allows for the comparison and quantification of the possibility of being a proven technology in the future, β for the existing fast reactor designs and concepts is proposed as one of the quantitative foresight method. The methodology starts with the identification at the national or regional level, of the factors that would affect β. The factors are then categorized into several groups; economic, social and technology elements. Each of the elements is proposed to be mathematically modelled before all of the elemental models can be combined. Once the overall β model is obtained, the β{sub min} is determined to benchmark the acceptance as a candidate design or concept. The β values for all the available designs and concepts are then determined and compared with the β{sub min}, resulting in a list of candidate designs that possess the β value that is larger than the β{sub min}. The proposed methodology can also be applied to purposes other than technological foresight.

  3. The Hawai'i Undersea Research Laboratory: Applying Innovative Deep-sea Technologies Toward Research, Service, and Stewardship in Marine Protected Areas of the Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    The Hawai'i Undersea Research Laboratory (HURL) is the only U.S. deep submergence facility in the Pacific Rim tasked with supporting undersea research necessary to fulfill the mission, goals, and objectives of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), along with other national interests of importance. Over 30 years of submersible operations have resulted in nearly 1900 dives representing 9300 hours underwater, and a benthic ecology database derived from in-house video record logging of over 125,000 entries based on 1100 unique deep-sea animal identifications in the Hawaiian Archipelago. As a Regional Center within the Office of Ocean Exploration and Research (OER), HURL conducts undersea research in offshore and nearshore waters of the main and Northwestern Hawaiian Islands and waters of the central, southern, and western Pacific. HURL facilities primarily support marine research projects that require data acquisition at depths greater than wet diving methods. These consist of the research vessel Ka'imikai-o-Kanaloa (KOK), human occupied submersibles Pisces IV and Pisces V (2000 m), a new remotely operated vehicle (6000 m), and a multibeam bathymetric sonar system (11,000 m). In addition, HURL has also supported AAUS compliant wet diving since 2003, including technical mixed gas/rebreather work. While ecosystem studies of island, atoll, and seamount flanks are the largest component of the HURL science program, many other thematic research areas have been targeted including extreme and unique environments, new resources from the sea, episodic events to long term changes, and the development of innovative technologies. Several examples of HURL's contributions to marine protected areas (MPAs) include: (a) A long term presence in the pristine ecosystems of the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Researchers from National Marine Fisheries have used HURL assets to study endangered Hawaiian Monk Seal habitat

  4. OCEANOGRAPHY &MARINE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    20160004 Chen Liangjin(Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology,Ministry of Education,College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering,Ocean University of China,Qingdao 266100,China);Zhu Maoxu Speciation of Organic Sulfur in Inner

  5. Backfilling technology and strata behaviors in fully mechanized coal mining working face

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Qiang; Zhang Jixiong; Huang Yanli; Ju Feng

    2012-01-01

    Based on the principle of fully mechanized backfilling and coal mining technology and combined with theXingtai Coal Mine conditions,we mainly optimized the coal mining equipment and adjusted the coal mining method in the Xingtai Coal Mine 7606 working face for implementation this technology,Firstly,we define the practical backfilling process as the "(from backfilling scraper conveyor's) head to tail backfilling,step by step swinging up of the tamping arm.gradual compacting,moving formed backfilling scraper conveyor when the second tamping arm cannot pass and connecting the immediate roof by back material push front material movement".Meanwhile,the stress changes of backfill body in coal mined out area was monitored by stress sensors,and the roof caving law was analyzed by monitoring the dynamic subsidence of -210 west roadway of this face.The site tests results show that using this new backfilling and coal mining integrated technology,the production capacity in the 7606 working face can reach to 283,000 ton a year,and 282,000 ton of solid materials (waste and fly ash) is backfilled,which meets the needs of high production and efficiency.The goaf was compactly backfilled with solid material and the strata behavior was quite desirable,with an actual maximum vertical stress of the backfill body of 5.5 MPa.Backfill body control the movement of overburden within a certain range,and there is no collapses of major areas in the overlying strata upon backfilled gob.The maximum subsidence and speed were 231 mm and 15.75 mm/d respectively,which proved the practical significance of this integrated technology.

  6. The role of multixenobiotic transporters in predatory marine molluscs as counter-defense mechanisms against dietary allelochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Kristen E; Sotka, Erik E; Goldstone, Jared V; Hahn, Mark E

    2010-09-01

    Multixenobiotic transporters have been extensively studied for their ability to modulate the disposition and toxicity of pharmacological agents, yet their influence in regulating the levels of dietary toxins within marine consumers has only recently been explored. This study presents functional and molecular evidence for multixenobiotic transporter-mediated efflux activity and expression in the generalist gastropod Cyphoma gibbosum, and the specialist nudibranch Tritonia hamnerorum, obligate predators of chemically defended gorgonian corals. Immunochemical analysis revealed that proteins with homology to permeability glycoprotein (P-gp) were highly expressed in T. hamnerorum whole animal homogenates and localized to the apical tips of the gut epithelium, a location consistent with a role in protection against ingested prey toxins. In vivo dye assays with specific inhibitors of efflux transporters demonstrated the activity of P-gp and multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) families of ABC transporters in T. hamnerorum. In addition, we identified eight partial cDNA sequences encoding two ABCB and two ABCC proteins from each molluscan species. Digestive gland transcripts of C. gibbosum MRP-1, which have homology to vertebrate glutathione-conjugate transporters, were constitutively expressed regardless of gorgonian diet. This constitutive expression may reflect the ubiquitous presence of high affinity substrates for C. gibbosum glutathione transferases in gorgonian tissues likely necessitating export by MRPs. Our results suggest that differences in multixenobiotic transporter expression patterns and activity in molluscan predators may stem from the divergent foraging strategies of each consumer.

  7. Marine medicinal glycomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomin, Vitor H.

    2014-01-01

    Glycomics is an international initiative aimed to understand the structure and function of the glycans from a given type of cell, tissue, organism, kingdom or even environment, as found under certain conditions. Glycomics is one of the latest areas of intense biological research. Glycans of marine sources are unique in terms of structure and function. They differ considerably from those of terrestrial origin. This review discusses the most known marine glycans of potential therapeutic properties. They are chitin, chitosan, and sulfated polysaccharides named glycosaminoglycans, sulfated fucans, and sulfated galactans. Their medical actions are very broad. When certain structural requirements are found, these glycans can exhibit beneficial effects in inflammation, coagulation, thrombosis, cancer growth/metastasis, and vascular biology. Both structure and therapeutic mechanisms of action of these marine glycans are discussed here in straight context with the current glycomic age through a project suggestively named marine medicinal glycomics. PMID:24524028

  8. Marine genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira Ribeiro, Ângela Maria; Foote, Andrew D.; Kupczok, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Marine ecosystems occupy 71% of the surface of our planet, yet we know little about their diversity. Although the inventory of species is continually increasing, as registered by the Census of Marine Life program, only about 10% of the estimated two million marine species are known. This lag......-throughput sequencing approaches have been helping to improve our knowledge of marine biodiversity, from the rich microbial biota that forms the base of the tree of life to a wealth of plant and animal species. In this review, we present an overview of the applications of genomics to the study of marine life, from...... evolutionary biology of non-model organisms to species of commercial relevance for fishing, aquaculture and biomedicine. Instead of providing an exhaustive list of available genomic data, we rather set to present contextualized examples that best represent the current status of the field of marine genomics....

  9. Creation, Visualization and 3D Printing of Online Collections of Three Timensional Educative Models with Low-Cost Technologies. Practical Case of Canarian Marine Fossil Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis SAORIN PÉREZ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In many educational settings, the use of tangible objects is used to enhance learning (models, replicas of art works, fossils.... When knowledge is disseminated through virtual environments, sometimes, the value of these tangible objects is lost. The new low-cost technologies allow solving this problem, enabling teachers to include in their virtual classroom the access and manipulation of threedimensional objects. This article describes the process of creation and dissemination of a three-dimensional, interactive educational content for learning in a virtual environment. As a practical study, we have worked on the Canary marine fossil heritage. The fossils are used as tangible material in paleontology teaching, however they are not available for work outside the classroom. For this work, it has been digitized in 3D a selection of 18 fossils. 3D files obtained are available to students in an online environment, allowing download, multi-touch display and interaction on mobile devices. In addition, if the student prefers, they can print them using a 3D printer. Finally, there has been an experience with 70 university students who, after accessing to the online files, responded to a questionnaire to assess the made materials.

  10. An overview on integrated data system for archiving and sharing marine geology and geophysical data in Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology (KIOST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sang-Hwa; Kim, Sung Dae; Park, Hyuk Min; Lee, SeungHa

    2016-04-01

    We established and have operated an integrated data system for managing, archiving and sharing marine geology and geophysical data around Korea produced from various research projects and programs in Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology (KIOST). First of all, to keep the consistency of data system with continuous data updates, we set up standard operating procedures (SOPs) for data archiving, data processing and converting, data quality controls, and data uploading, DB maintenance, etc. Database of this system comprises two databases, ARCHIVE DB and GIS DB for the purpose of this data system. ARCHIVE DB stores archived data as an original forms and formats from data providers for data archive and GIS DB manages all other compilation, processed and reproduction data and information for data services and GIS application services. Relational data management system, Oracle 11g, adopted for DBMS and open source GIS techniques applied for GIS services such as OpenLayers for user interface, GeoServer for application server, PostGIS and PostgreSQL for GIS database. For the sake of convenient use of geophysical data in a SEG Y format, a viewer program was developed and embedded in this system. Users can search data through GIS user interface and save the results as a report.

  11. 海水工业化循环水养殖技术研究进展%Research Progress on Marine Industrial Recirculating Aquaculture Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鹰

    2011-01-01

    Aquaculture has become one of the strategic and emerging industries for increasing fishermen's income and improving people's diet structure, which has played an important role in maintaining protein supply, stabilizing aquatic product market and stimulating trade development. This paper introduces the latest progress and development characteristics in marine industrial reeirculating aquaculture technology abroad, summarizes the current status and major problems existing in our country, provides development countermeasures and suggestions, and points out development thoughts, directions and key tasks for the future.%水产养殖已成为增加渔民收入、改善人民膳食结构的战略性新兴产业之一,在保障蛋白供给、稳定水产品市场、促进贸易发展等方面都发挥了重大作用.介绍了国外海水工业化循环水养殖技术的最新进展和发展特点,总结了我国发展现状与存在的主要问题,提出了发展对策和建议,指出了下一步发展思路、方向和重点任务.

  12. "Conserving Marine Biodiversity in the Global Marine Commons: Co-evolution and Interaction with the Law of the Sea"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Margaret Warner

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available As global shipping intensifies and technological advances provide more opportunities to access the resources of the high seas and the deep seabed beyond national jurisdiction (ABNJ, the catalogue of threats to the marine environment and its biodiversity increase commensurately. Beyond these threats, new and emerging uses of ABNJ including more intrusive marine scientific research, bio-prospecting, deep seabed mining and environmental modification activities to mitigate the effects of climate change have the potential to harm the highly interconnected and sensitive ecosystems of the open ocean and the deep seabed if not sustainably managed now and into the future. Modern conservation norms such as environmental impact assessment, marine protected areas, marine spatial planning and development mechanisms such as technology transfer and capacity building are under developed in the legal and institutional framework for ABNJ. This article examines key normative features of the legal and institutional framework for ABNJ and their applicability to conservation of marine biodiversity, gaps and disconnects in that framework and ongoing global initiatives to develop more effective governance structures. It discusses some of the options being considered in the UN Ad Hoc Informal Open-ended Working Group to study issues related to the conservation and sustainable use of marine biodiversity in areas beyond national jurisdiction (BBNJ Working Group to evolve the legal and institutional framework for conservation and sustainable use of marine biodiversity in ABNJ and their current and future relevance for the law of the sea. It concludes that the discussions in the BBNJ Working Group and related initiatives in the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD and at regional level have demonstrated that a more integrated legal and institutional structure is needed to address growing threats to marine biodiversity in ABNJ.

  13. Nanoscale Mechanics of Graphene and Graphene Oxide in Composites: A Scientific and Technological Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Vincenzo; Kinloch, Ian A; Ligi, Simone; Pugno, Nicola M

    2016-08-01

    Graphene shows considerable promise in structural composite applications thanks to its unique combination of high tensile strength, Young's modulus and structural flexibility which arise due to its maximal chemical bond strength and minimal atomic thickness. However, the ultimate performance of graphene composites will depend, in addition to the properties of the matrix and interface, on the morphology of the graphene used, including the size and shape of the sheets and the number of chemical defects present. For example, whilst oxidized sp(3) carbon atoms and vacancies in a graphene sheet can degrade its mechanical strength, they can also increase its interaction with other materials such as the polymer matrix of a composite, thus maximizing stress transfer and leading to more efficient mechanical reinforcement. Herein, we present an overview of some recently published work on graphene mechanical properties and discuss a list of challenges that need to be overcome (notwithstanding the strong hype existing on this material) for the development of graphene-based materials into a successful technology.

  14. Mechanical Coupling Error Suppression Technology for an Improved Decoupled Dual-Mass Micro-Gyroscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Yang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents technology for the suppression of the mechanical coupling errors for an improved decoupled dual-mass micro-gyroscope (DDMG. The improved micro-gyroscope structure decreases the moment arm of the drive decoupled torque, which benefits the suppression of the non-ideal decoupled error. Quadrature correction electrodes are added to eliminate the residual quadrature error. The structure principle and the quadrature error suppression means of the DDMG are described in detail. ANSYS software is used to simulate the micro-gyroscope structure to verify the mechanical coupling error suppression effect. Compared with the former structure, simulation results demonstrate that the rotational displacements of the sense frame in the improved structure are substantially suppressed in the drive mode. The improved DDMG structure chip is fabricated by the deep dry silicon on glass (DDSOG process. The feedback control circuits with quadrature control loops are designed to suppress the residual mechanical coupling error. Finally, the system performance of the DDMG prototype is tested. Compared with the former DDMG, the quadrature error in the improved dual-mass micro-gyroscope is decreased 9.66-fold, and the offset error is decreased 6.36-fold. Compared with the open loop sense, the feedback control circuits with quadrature control loop decrease the bias drift by 20.59-fold and the scale factor non-linearity by 2.81-fold in the ±400°/s range.

  15. Mechanical Coupling Error Suppression Technology for an Improved Decoupled Dual-Mass Micro-Gyroscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Wang, Xingjun; Deng, Yunpeng; Hu, Di

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents technology for the suppression of the mechanical coupling errors for an improved decoupled dual-mass micro-gyroscope (DDMG). The improved micro-gyroscope structure decreases the moment arm of the drive decoupled torque, which benefits the suppression of the non-ideal decoupled error. Quadrature correction electrodes are added to eliminate the residual quadrature error. The structure principle and the quadrature error suppression means of the DDMG are described in detail. ANSYS software is used to simulate the micro-gyroscope structure to verify the mechanical coupling error suppression effect. Compared with the former structure, simulation results demonstrate that the rotational displacements of the sense frame in the improved structure are substantially suppressed in the drive mode. The improved DDMG structure chip is fabricated by the deep dry silicon on glass (DDSOG) process. The feedback control circuits with quadrature control loops are designed to suppress the residual mechanical coupling error. Finally, the system performance of the DDMG prototype is tested. Compared with the former DDMG, the quadrature error in the improved dual-mass micro-gyroscope is decreased 9.66-fold, and the offset error is decreased 6.36-fold. Compared with the open loop sense, the feedback control circuits with quadrature control loop decrease the bias drift by 20.59-fold and the scale factor non-linearity by 2.81-fold in the ±400°/s range.

  16. Biomedical Applications of Enzymes From Marine Actinobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamala, K; Sivaperumal, P

    Marine microbial enzyme technologies have progressed significantly in the last few decades for different applications. Among the various microorganisms, marine actinobacterial enzymes have significant active properties, which could allow them to be biocatalysts with tremendous bioactive metabolites. Moreover, marine actinobacteria have been considered as biofactories, since their enzymes fulfill biomedical and industrial needs. In this chapter, the marine actinobacteria and their enzymes' uses in biological activities and biomedical applications are described. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Les Biotechnologies Marines dans le Grand Ouest

    OpenAIRE

    Boyen, Catherine; Jaouen, Pascal; Blanchard, Gilbert; Compere, Chantal; Dufour, Alain; Durand, Patrick; Guerard, Fabienne; Hallouin, Florence; Jebbar, Mohamed; Le Blay, Gwenaelle; Le Deit, Hervé; Le Seyec, Jocelyne; Monks, Brian; Portal-sellin, Rachel; Probert, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Marine (= blue) biotechnology, i.e. the utilization of marine bio-resources as a target or source of biotechnological applications, is a field with massive potential for innovation and economic growth. In a context of rapid climate change and increasing pressure on natural resources, renewed interest in marine biotechnology has been promoted by application of recent methodological and technological advances, notably in bioprocessing and in the various –omics domains, to the study of marine bi...

  18. Marine biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index.

  19. Marine cosmeceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Kwon

    2014-03-01

    Recently, a great deal of interest has been expressed in the cosmetic industry regarding marine-derived cosmetic active ingredients due to their numerous beneficial effects on human skin health. Bioactive substances derived from marine resources have diverse functional roles as natural skin care agents, and these properties can be applied to the development of novel cosmetics as well as nutricosmetics (from edible seaweeds and edible marine animals). This contribution focuses on marine-derived cosmeceutical active ingredients and presents an overview of their health beneficial effects on human skin.

  20. Infusion of Emerging Technologies and New Teaching Methods into the Mechanical Engineering Curriculum at the City College of New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delale, Feridun; Liaw, Benjamin M.; Jiji, Latif M.; Voiculescu, Ioana; Yu, Honghui

    2011-01-01

    From October 2003 to April 2008 a systemic reform of the Mechanical Engineering program at The City College of New York was undertaken with the goal of incorporating emerging technologies (such as nanotechnology, biotechnology, Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS), intelligent systems) and new teaching methodologies (such as project based…

  1. Parametric and mechanical characterization of linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) using rotational moulding technology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P L Ramkumar; D M Kulkarni; V V Chaudhari

    2014-06-01

    In this research work, extensive literature review of the rotational moulding process using linear low density polythene (LLDPE) has been carried out to summarize the present status of the characterization in order to maintain quality and reliability of the products.The present characterization of rotomoulded products using LLDPE is based on the mechanical properties which are being altered by changing process parameters. However, it is observed that in the majority of applications of the products made of LLDPE using rotational moulding technology are prone to cracking failure due to manufacturing defects at room temperature. Therefore, study of fracture characterization of the material is equally important in relation to quality and reliability. In this article, the present characterization of the rotational moulded products using different polymers is summarized in the form of review and the importance of evaluation of the fracture behaviour of rotomoulded products is emphasized.

  2. Cleaning mechanism of particle contaminants on large aperture optical components by using air knife sweeping technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Longfei; Liu, Hao; Miao, Xinxiang; Lv, Haibing; Yuan, Xiaodong; Zhou, Hai; Yao, Caizhen; Zhou, Guorui; Li, Qin

    2017-05-01

    The cleaning mechanism of optical surface particle contaminants in the light pneumatic tube was simulated based on the static equations and JKR model. Cleaning verification experiment based on air knife sweeping system and on-line monitoring system in high power laser facility was set up in order to verify the simulated results. Results showed that the removal ratio is significantly influenced by sweeping velocity and angle. The removal ratio can reach to 94.3% by using higher input pressure of the air knife, demonstrating that the air knife sweeping technology is useful for maintaining the surface cleanliness of optical elements, and thus guaranteeing the long-term stable running of the high power laser facility.

  3. Hybrid Cleaning Technology for Enhanced Post-Cu/Low-Dielectric Constant Chemical Mechanical Planarization Cleaning Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Manivannan; Cho, Byoung-Jun; Kwon, Tae-Young; Park, Jin-Goo

    2013-05-01

    During chemical mechanical planarization (CMP), a copper/low-k surface is often contaminated by abrasive particles, organic materials and other additives. These contaminants need to be removed in the subsequent cleaning process with minimum material loss. In this study, a dilute amine-based alkaline cleaning solution is used along with physical force in the form of megasonic energy to remove particles and organic contaminants. Tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) and monoethanolamine (MEA) are used as an organic base and complexing agent, respectively, in the proposed solution. Ethanolamine acts as a corrosion inhibitor in the solution. Organic residue removal was confirmed through contact angle measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. Electrochemical studies showed that the proposed solution increases protection against corrosion, and that the hybrid cleaning technology resulted in higher particle removal efficiency from both the copper and low-k surfaces.

  4. Report to the United States Congress clean coal technology export markets and financing mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    This report responds to a Congressional Conference Report that requests that $625,000 in funding provided will be used by the Department to identify potential markets for clean coal technologies in developing countries and countries with economies in transition from nonmarket economies and to identify existing, or new, financial mechanisms or financial support to be provided by the Federal government that will enhance the ability of US industry to participate in these markets. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) expects world coal consumption to increase by 30 percent between 1990 and 2010, from 5.1 to 6.5 billion short tons. Five regions stand out as major foreign markets for the export of US clean coal technologies: China; The Pacific Rim (other than China); South Asia (primarily India); Transitional Economies (Central Europe and the Newly Independent States); and Other Markets (the Americas and Southern Africa). Nearly two-thirds of the expected worldwide growth in coal utilization will occur in China, one quarter in the United States. EIA forecasts nearly a billion tons per year of additional coal consumption in China between 1990 and 2010, a virtual doubling of that country`s coal consumption. A 30-percent increase in coal consumption is projected in other developing countries over that same period. This increase in coal consumption will be accompanied by an increase in demand for technologies for burning coal cost-effectively, efficiently and cleanly. In the Pacific Rim and South Asia, rapid economic growth coupled with substantial indigenous coal supplies combine to create a large potential market for CCTS. In Central Europe and the Newly Independent States, the challenge will be to correct the damage of decades of environmental neglect without adding to already-considerable economic disruption. Though the situation varies, all these countries share the basic need to use indigenous low-quality coal cleanly and efficiently.

  5. Instability mechanism and control technology of soft rock roadway affected by mining and high confined water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Guichen; Jiang Zuohan; Lv Chuangxin; Huang Chao; Chen Gui; Li Mingyuan

    2015-01-01

    Based on deformation and failure characteristics of the second belt conveyor roadway at level II of Zhuxianzhuang coal mine, laboratory experiments, numerical calculation and field test were adopted to analyze the composition and microstructure of mudstone, the law of mudstone hydration and its strength weakening induced by water, the characteristics of surrounding rock deformation and failure under the action of confined water. Results showed that montmorillonite clay minerals accounted for as much as 76% of mudstone, with a large number of pores existing in the microstructure. Besides, as the molecular structure of montmorillonite changed, mudstone microstructure damage occurred with the macroscopic manifestation of its rheological instability. Weakening degree of confined water on residual strength of mudstone was almost 50%. The instability mechanism of soft rock roadway caused by high confined water is that surrounding rock circulates the process of ‘fracture-seepage-mud ding-closed’ twice, which weakens its strength and leads to roadway instability. A combined support technology, namely the, ‘high-toughness sealing layer+hollow grouting cables+full-length anchoring bolts with deep borehole’ was proposed. Based on field observation, the soft rock roadway was controlled effectively, which also verified the effectiveness of new control technology for surrounding rock.

  6. Fostering a Renewable Energy Technology Industry: An InternationalComparison of Wind Industry Policy Support Mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Joanna; Wiser, Ryan

    2005-11-15

    This article examines the importance of national and sub-national policies in supporting the development of successful global wind turbine manufacturing companies. We explore the motivations behind establishing a local wind power industry, and the paths that different countries have taken to develop indigenous large wind turbine manufacturing industries within their borders. This is done through a cross-country comparison of the policy support mechanisms that have been employed to directly and indirectly promote wind technology manufacturing in twelve countries. We find that in many instances there is a clear relationship between a manufacturer's success in its home country market and its eventual success in the global wind power market. Whether new wind turbine manufacturing entrants are able to succeed will likely depend in part on the utilization of their turbines in their own domestic market, which in turn will be influenced by the annual size and stability of that market. Consequently, policies that support a sizable, stable market for wind power, in conjunction with policies that specifically provide incentives for wind power technology to be manufactured locally, are most likely to result in the establishment of an internationally competitive wind industry.

  7. Hemocompatibility of Axial Versus Centrifugal Pump Technology in Mechanical Circulatory Support Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schibilsky, David; Lenglinger, Matthias; Avci-Adali, Meltem; Haller, Christoph; Walker, Tobias; Wendel, Hans Peter; Schlensak, Christian

    2015-08-01

    The hemocompatible properties of rotary blood pumps commonly used in mechanical circulatory support (MCS) are widely unknown regarding specific biocompatibility profiles of different pump technologies. Therefore, we analyzed the hemocompatibility indicating markers of an axial flow and a magnetically levitated centrifugal device within an in vitro mock loop. The HeartMate II (HM II; n = 3) device and a CentriMag (CM; n = 3) adult pump were investigated in a human whole blood mock loop for 360 min using the MCS devices as a driving component. Blood samples were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for markers of coagulation, complement system, and inflammatory response. There was a time-dependent activation of the coagulation (thrombin-antithrombin complexes [TAT]), complement (SC5b-9), and inflammation system (polymorphonuclear [PMN] elastase) in both groups. The mean value of TAT (CM: 4.0 μg/L vs. 29.4 μg/L, P centrifugal CM device showed significantly lower activation of coagulation and inflammation than that of the HM II axial flow pump. Both HM II and CM have demonstrated an acceptable hemocompatibility profile in patients. However, there is a great opportunity to gain a clinical benefit by developing techniques to lower the blood surface interaction within both pump technologies and a magnetically levitated centrifugal pump design might be superior.

  8. Fostering a Renewable Energy Technology Industry: An InternationalComparison of Wind Industry Policy Support Mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Joanna; Wiser, Ryan

    2005-11-15

    This article examines the importance of national and sub-national policies in supporting the development of successful global wind turbine manufacturing companies. We explore the motivations behind establishing a local wind power industry, and the paths that different countries have taken to develop indigenous large wind turbine manufacturing industries within their borders. This is done through a cross-country comparison of the policy support mechanisms that have been employed to directly and indirectly promote wind technology manufacturing in twelve countries. We find that in many instances there is a clear relationship between a manufacturer's success in its home country market and its eventual success in the global wind power market. Whether new wind turbine manufacturing entrants are able to succeed will likely depend in part on the utilization of their turbines in their own domestic market, which in turn will be influenced by the annual size and stability of that market. Consequently, policies that support a sizable, stable market for wind power, in conjunction with policies that specifically provide incentives for wind power technology to be manufactured locally, are most likely to result in the establishment of an internationally competitive wind industry.

  9. Can interactive educational technologies support the link between ultrasound theory and practice via feedback mechanisms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Diane

    2015-05-01

    Linking theory to practice is an area of concern for ultrasound students, clinical mentors and academic staff. The link between theory and practice requires a robust clinical mentorship scheme in addition to careful curricula design considerations to improve student outcomes. The introduction of interactive technology in education provides ripe opportunity to improve feedback to students to support the link between theory and practice. A series of three interactive learning and teaching activities were designed and delivered to a PostGraduate Ultrasound cohort, after which, evaluation was performed to answer the research question: Which interactive technologies support the link between theory and practice through improved feedback mechanisms? An action research methodology was adopted involving an enquiry based literature review, planning, design and action process. Data were collected following action of three interactive teaching and learning sessions within the Medical Ultrasound cohort of 2013/2014 at Glasgow Caledonian University via a paper based questionnaire. A 100% response rate was achieved (n = 14). All three interactive learning and teaching sessions were considered with 100% highest point agreement to support the link between ultrasound theory and practice via feedback. Students found all three designed and facilitated sessions valuable and relevant to their learning, which in turn provided positive experiences which were perceived to support the link between theory and practice through feedback. These activities can be considered valuable in Postgraduate Ultrasound education.

  10. Mechanical Thrombectomy in Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Health Technology Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background In Ontario, current treatment for eligible patients who have an acute ischemic stroke is intravenous thrombolysis (IVT). However, there are some limitations and contraindications to IVT, and outcomes may not be favourable for patients with stroke caused by a proximal intracranial occlusion. An alternative is mechanical thrombectomy with newer devices, and a number of recent studies have suggested that this treatment is more effective for improving functional independence and clinical outcomes. The objective of this health technology assessment was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of new-generation mechanical thrombectomy devices (with or without IVT) compared to IVT alone (if eligible) in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Methods We conducted a systematic review of the literature, limited to randomized controlled trials that examined the effectiveness of mechanical thrombectomy using stent retrievers and thromboaspiration devices for patients with acute ischemic stroke. We assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. We developed a Markov decision-analytic model to assess the cost-effectiveness of mechanical thrombectomy (with or without IVT) versus IVT alone (if eligible), calculated incremental cost-effectiveness ratios using a 5-year time horizon, and conducted sensitivity analyses to examine the robustness of the estimates. Results There was a substantial, statistically significant difference in rate of functional independence (GRADE: high quality) between those who received mechanical thrombectomy (with or without IVT) and IVT alone (odds ratio [OR] 2.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.88–3.04). We did not observe a difference in mortality (GRADE: moderate quality) (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.60–1.07) or symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (GRADE: moderate quality) (OR 1.11, 95% CI 0.66–1.87). In the base-case cost-utility analysis, which had a 5 year time horizon, the costs and effectiveness for

  11. Marine Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

  12. Creating new products in mechanical engineering. Evaluation of the Masina Technology Programme; Uusia tuotteita koneenrakennusalalle. Masina-teknologiaohjelman loppuarviointi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syrjaenen, M.; Nikula, J.; Hiltunen, J.; Raivio, T.

    2008-07-01

    The Masina Technology Programme (2001- 2007) focused on developing Finnish mechanical engineering business and research through stimulating mechanical engineering expertise and research, increasing cooperation between enterprises and researchers as well as supporting product development and widening the business focus to service products. The programme aimed also at supporting applied research and broadening the technology platform towards ICT and material technology and service oriented technologies. The background motivation of the programme was to facilitate a transformation process from the traditional mechanical engineering industry to a modern business and research cluster. The programme included 89 corporate R and D projects and 26 public research project. The total volume of the programme was 114 million euro. In total, Tekes allocated 40.5 million to corporate projects and 11.2 million to research projects. It can be concluded that Masina Technology Programme was a successful but traditional programme. New product development was clearly emphasised as the concrete means for the renewal of the industry, and the programme succeeded in strengthening the competitive edge of Finnish mechanical engineering. The results related to new service business were moderate. The future role of technology programmes in the industry links to the new instrument called Strategic Centres for Science, Technology and Innovation. Majority of the Tekes programme funding is planned to be channeled through these centres in the future. The centres aim at promoting longer term strategic research activities in selected clusters and this would mean shifting the focus of programmes towards public research activities. At the same time the evaluation results underline the challenges in providing programme services for such a technology-wise fragmented and large audience as mechanical engineering industry

  13. 中小企业技术创新机制的力学模型研究%The Research on Mechanical Model of SMEs' Technology Innovation Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡瑞林; 孙洁

    2012-01-01

    中小企业的技术创新面对复杂的支持和约束系统.本文设计了中小企业技术创机制的力学模型,解释了模型维度以及竞争压力、成长动力、推动力、拉力、障碍力这五种变量,分析了技术创新机制的主客体系统及其协调机制.此外,还利用模型就中小企业的技术创新提出了三点对策建议.%Because SMEs have to face complex supported and restrained systems in technology innovation, the article de-signed " mechanical model " of technology innovation of SMEs, analyzed five kinds of forces, including competitive pres-sure , enterprise growth force, driving force, pull force and obstacle force in the process of technological innovation, and constructed a mechanical model of SMEs' technology innovation mechanism. In addition, based on the model, the article put forward three countermeasures for the technological innovation of SEMs.

  14. First-order Description of the Mechanical Fracture Behavior of Fine-Grained Surficial Marine Sediments During Gas Bubble Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    10 F04O29 BARRY ET AL.: BUBBLE GROWTH BY FRACTURE P04029 Figure 3. Map of field site. Canard, Nova Scotia, Canada. appears to approximate the...Bottinger. and T. Dahm (2005), Buoyancy-driven fracture ascent: Experiments in layered gelatine. J. Volcano!. Geotherm . Res., 144. 273-285. doi...Journal Article 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE First-order description of the mechanical fracture behavior of fine-grained

  15. Joining technologies for the 1990s: welding, brazing, soldering, mechanical, explosive, solid-state, adhesive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, J.D.; Stein, B.A.

    1986-01-01

    A compilation of papers presented in a joint NASA, American Society for Metals, The George Washington University, American Welding Society, and Society of Manufacturing Engineers Conference on Welding, Bonding, and Fastening at Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, on October 23 to 25, 1984 is given. Papers were presented on technology developed in current research programs relevant to welding, bonding, and fastening of structural materials required in fabricating structures and mechanical systems used in the aerospace, hydrospace, and automotive industries. Topics covered in the conference included equipment, hardware and materials used when welding, brazing, and soldering, mechanical fastening, explosive welding, use of unique selected joining techniques, adhesives bonding, and nondestructive evaluation. A concept of the factory of the future was presented, followed by advanced welding techniques, automated equipment for welding, welding in a cryogenic atmosphere, blind fastening, stress corrosion resistant fasteners, fastening equipment, explosive welding of different configurations and materials, solid-state bonding, electron beam welding, new adhesives, effects of cryogenics on adhesives, and new techniques and equipment for adhesive bonding. For individual titles see N86-11228 through N86-11255.

  16. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) for wound healing: technology, mechanisms, and clinical efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittermayr, Rainer; Antonic, Vlado; Hartinger, Joachim; Kaufmann, Hanna; Redl, Heinz; Téot, Luc; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Schaden, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    For almost 30 years, extracorporeal shock wave therapy has been clinically implemented as an effective treatment to disintegrate urinary stones. This technology has also emerged as an effective noninvasive treatment modality for several orthopedic and traumatic indications including problematic soft tissue wounds. Delayed/nonhealing or chronic wounds constitute a burden for each patient affected, significantly impairing quality of life. Intensive wound care is required, and this places an enormous burden on society in terms of lost productivity and healthcare costs. Therefore, cost-effective, noninvasive, and efficacious treatments are imperative to achieve both (accelerated and complete) healing of problematic wounds and reduce treatment-related costs. Several experimental and clinical studies show efficacy for extracorporeal shock wave therapy as means to accelerate tissue repair and regeneration in various wounds. However, the biomolecular mechanism by which this treatment modality exerts its therapeutic effects remains unclear. Potential mechanisms, which are discussed herein, include initial neovascularization with ensuing durable and functional angiogenesis. Furthermore, recruitment of mesenchymal stem cells, stimulated cell proliferation and differentiation, and anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects as well as suppression of nociception are considered important facets of the biological responses to therapeutic shock waves. This review aims to provide an overview of shock wave therapy, its history and development as well as its current place in clinical practice. Recent research advances are discussed emphasizing the role of extracorporeal shock wave therapy in soft tissue wound healing.

  17. Using technology to explore social networks and mechanisms underlying peer effects in classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guryan, Jonathan; Jacob, Brian; Klopfer, Eric; Groff, Jennifer

    2008-03-01

    Peer interactions among children have long interested social scientists. Identifying causal peer effects is difficult, and a number of studies have used random assignment to produce evidence that peers affect each other's outcomes. This focus by sociologists and economists on whether peers affect each other has not been matched by direct evidence on how these effects operate. The authors argue that one reason for the small number of studies in sociology and economics on the mechanisms underlying peer effects is the difficulty of collecting data on microinteractions. They argue technology reduces data collection costs relative to direct observation and allows for realistic school activities with randomly assigned peers. The authors describe a novel strategy for collecting data on peer interactions and discuss how this approach might shed light on mechanisms underlying peer influence. The centerpiece of this strategy is the use of handheld computers by middle and high school students as part of interactive math and science lessons called the Discussion Game. The handhelds collect data on interactions between students and track how students' answers evolve as they interact with different peers.

  18. Joining technologies for the 1990s: Welding, brazing, soldering, mechanical, explosive, solid-state, adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, John D. (Editor); Stein, Bland A. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    A compilation of papers presented in a joint NASA, American Society for Metals, The George Washington University, American Welding Society, and Society of Manufacturing Engineers Conference on Welding, Bonding, and Fastening at Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, on October 23 to 25, 1984 is given. Papers were presented on technology developed in current research programs relevant to welding, bonding, and fastening of structural materials required in fabricating structures and mechanical systems used in the aerospace, hydrospace, and automotive industries. Topics covered in the conference included equipment, hardware and materials used when welding, brazing, and soldering, mechanical fastening, explosive welding, use of unique selected joining techniques, adhesives bonding, and nondestructive evaluation. A concept of the factory of the future was presented, followed by advanced welding techniques, automated equipment for welding, welding in a cryogenic atmosphere, blind fastening, stress corrosion resistant fasteners, fastening equipment, explosive welding of different configurations and materials, solid-state bonding, electron beam welding, new adhesives, effects of cryogenics on adhesives, and new techniques and equipment for adhesive bonding.

  19. Improved Marine Waters Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazov, Atanas; Yakushev, Evgeniy; Milkova, Tanya; Slabakova, Violeta; Hristova, Ognyana

    2017-04-01

    IMAMO - Improved Marine Waters Monitoring is a project under the Programme BG02: Improved monitoring of marine waters, managed by Bulgarian Ministry of environment and waters and co-financed by the Financial Mechanism of the European Economic Area (EEA FM) 2009 - 2014. Project Beneficiary is the Institute of oceanology - Bulgarian Academy of Sciences with two partners: Norwegian Institute for Water Research and Bulgarian Black Sea Basin Directorate. The Project aims to improve the monitoring capacity and expertise of the organizations responsible for marine waters monitoring in Bulgaria to meet the requirements of EU and national legislation. The main outcomes are to fill the gaps in information from the Initial assessment of the marine environment and to collect data to assess the current ecological status of marine waters including information as a base for revision of ecological targets established by the monitoring programme prepared in 2014 under Art. 11 of MSFD. Project activities are targeted to ensure data for Descriptors 5, 8 and 9. IMAMO aims to increase the institutional capacity of the Bulgarian partners related to the monitoring and assessment of the Black Sea environment. The main outputs are: establishment of real time monitoring and set up of accredited laboratory facilities for marine waters and sediments chemical analysis to ensure the ability of Bulgarian partners to monitor progress of subsequent measures undertaken.

  20. Theory and Practice of Marine Regional Management in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shangjie; JI; Qunzhen; QU

    2014-01-01

    With the development of marine economy in coastal provinces and cities,there comes a series of environmental problems. Marine regional management,as a completely new marine management mode,transforms traditional management mode and can protect marine ecosystem. Thus,the marine regional management is feasible and applicable in China. This paper firstly discussed connotation and development of the marine regional management in China and pointed that the marine regional management is integrated management of a certain marine region. Next,it summarized characteristics of the marine regional management at current stage,for example,land-based pollution of trans-geographic system and marine management under regional government cooperative mechanism. Finally,it came up with recommendations including combining theory and practice of the marine regional management,and establishing marine regional management system as soon as possible,to realize benign interaction and sustainable development of marine economy and ecological environment.

  1. Structures and Mechanisms Design Concepts for Adaptive Deployable Entry Placement Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yount, Bryan C.; Arnold, James O.; Gage, Peter J.; Mockelman, Jeffrey; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    2012-01-01

    System studies have shown that large deployable aerodynamic decelerators such as the Adaptive Deployable Entry and Placement Technology (ADEPT) concept can revolutionize future robotic and human exploration missions involving atmospheric entry, descent and landing by significantly reducing the maximum heating rate, total heat load, and deceleration loads experienced by the spacecraft during entry [1-3]. ADEPT and the Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) [4] share the approach of stowing the entry system in the shroud of the launch vehicle and deploying it to a much larger diameter prior to entry. The ADEPT concept provides a low ballistic coefficient for planetary entry by employing an umbrella-like deployable structure consisting of ribs, struts and a fabric cover that form an aerodynamic decelerator capable of undergoing hypersonic flight. The ADEPT "skin" is a 3-D woven carbon cloth that serves as a thermal protection system (TPS) and as a structural surface that transfers aerodynamic forces to the underlying ribs [5]. This paper focuses on design activities associated with integrating ADEPT components (cloth, ribs, struts and mechanisms) into a system that can function across all configurations and environments of a typical mission concept: stowed during launch, in-space deployment, entry, descent, parachute deployment and separation from the landing payload. The baseline structures and mechanisms were selected via trade studies conducted during the summer and fall of 2012. They are now being incorporated into the design of a ground test article (GTA) that will be fabricated in 2013. It will be used to evaluate retention of the stowed configuration in a launch environment, mechanism operation for release, deployment and locking, and static strength of the deployed decelerator. Of particular interest are the carbon cloth interfaces, underlying hot structure, (Advanced Carbon- Carbon ribs) and other structural components (nose cap, struts, and

  2. Marine-Design Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul; Birmingham, R.; Sortland, B.

    2006-01-01

    ) and reveals innovative educational concepts and initiatives, such as the EiT (Experts in a Team) concept (par. 3), the SFS (Student Friendly Software) initiative (par. 5), Education Driven Research (EDR, par. 6) and Research Based Education (RBE, par. 6). Nevertheless, the paper stresses the need......This report addresses Marine-Design Education in view of present and forecasted demands of the maritime industry, determined by a drastically transforming economic and technological maritime environment. In this framework, this report discusses in depth IT-based Marine Design education (par. 4...... for continuity between traditional and modern ways of teaching (par. 4) and points out that Marine Design education is not only about Design, but should also address project/business administration and decision making issues (par. 7)....

  3. Marine-Design Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul; Birmingham, R.; Sortland, B.

    2006-01-01

    This report addresses Marine-Design Education in view of present and forecasted demands of the maritime industry, determined by a drastically transforming economic and technological maritime environment. In this framework, this report discusses in depth IT-based Marine Design education (par. 4......) and reveals innovative educational concepts and initiatives, such as the EiT (Experts in a Team) concept (par. 3), the SFS (Student Friendly Software) initiative (par. 5), Education Driven Research (EDR, par. 6) and Research Based Education (RBE, par. 6). Nevertheless, the paper stresses the need...... for continuity between traditional and modern ways of teaching (par. 4) and points out that Marine Design education is not only about Design, but should also address project/business administration and decision making issues (par. 7)....

  4. Goal Orientation and Model Selection of the Jointed Innovation in Marine Science and Technology of Zhejiang%浙江海洋科技创新协同的目标定位与模式选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏登武

    2016-01-01

    The core competitiveness to develop marine economy lies in the innovation of the regional marine science and technology. Based on the main factors influencing the innovation of marine science and technology, the article gives a detailed treatment of the innovation orientation from the aspects of organization innovation, knowledge collaboration, the integration and sharing of information resources. The article also constructs four collaborative models, i.e., the external organizational collaboration linked by market transaction, the internal organizational collaboration formed by property rights, the project collaboration aimed to make breakthroughs on major science and technology and the ally collaboration targeted at the congregation of marine science technology and industry. With the construction of the four models, it is hoped to promote the coordinated development of science, technology and industry in the era of marine science.%区域内海洋科技创新能力是发展海洋经济的核心竞争力,以影响区域内海洋科技创新能力的主要因素为参照体系,从组织创新、知识协同、信息资源整合与共享等层面分析了浙江海洋科技创新协同的目标定位;并基于浙江海洋科技创新协同的目标基点,根据浙江省海洋发展规划对科技发展的需要与海洋创新主体特质建构了4种协同模式:以“市场交易”为纽带的组织外部协同,以“产权”为核心的组织内部协同,以“重大海洋科技攻关”为目标的项目协同,以“海洋科技与产业集聚”为中心的联盟协同等,促进海洋大科学时代浙江海洋科技与产业协调发展。

  5. Analysis of green waterway transportation technology to control marine engine emissions%控制船机废气排放的绿色水运技术分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高炳; 赵自奇

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the atmospheric pollution from the exhaust emission of marine diesel engine in waterway transportation, and introduces the control requirements of the marine engine emissions of the relevant conventions of International Maritime Organization. It discusses the critical industrial issues about the control technology of marine engine emission and green house gas emission, as well as domestic and international regulations and incentives. It also proposes further ideas and measures to improve the control of marine engine emission, which can promote the key technology of energy-saving and emission-reduction in waterway transportation, research and promotion of the advanced and applicable technologies and products, as well as the sustainable development of the green waterway transportation.%文章分析了水路运输船舶柴油机废气排放对大气的污染,介绍了国际海事组织相关公约对船机排放的控制要求,讨论了业界重点关注的船机废气排放控制技术、温室气体排放等热点问题、以及国内外法规与鼓励措施等。文中还提出进一步完善控制船机废气排放的措施和思路,以期推进水路运输节能减排重大关键技术、先进适用技术与产品的研发与推广,促进绿色水运可持续发展。

  6. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, USSR: Materials Science, Mechanics and Technology of Metal and Metal Ceramic Composite Material Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-27

    produced, their phase composition and bending strength, as well as investigation of the promise of adding niobium carbide NbC to these materials. The...time increases, NbC does not inhibit shrink- niobium carbide was the same — 3 %. This content of age, which is a technological advantage. NbC is

  7. Efficacy and mechanisms of murine norovirus inhibition by pulsed-light technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimont, Allison; Fliss, Ismaïl; Jean, Julie

    2015-04-01

    Pulsed light is a nonthermal processing technology recognized by the FDA for killing microorganisms on food surfaces, with cumulative fluences up to 12 J cm(-2). In this study, we investigated its efficacy for inactivating murine norovirus 1 (MNV-1) as a human norovirus surrogate in phosphate-buffered saline, hard water, mineral water, turbid water, and sewage treatment effluent and on food contact surfaces, including high-density polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, and stainless steel, free or in an alginate matrix. The pulsed-light device emitted a broadband spectrum (200 to 1,000 nm) at a fluence of 0.67 J cm(-2) per pulse, with 2% UV at 8 cm beneath the lamp. Reductions in viral infectivity exceeded 3 log10 in less than 3 s (5 pulses; 3.45 J cm(-2)) in clear suspensions and on clean surfaces, even in the presence of alginate, and in 6 s (11 pulses; 7.60 J cm(-2)) on fouled surfaces except for stainless steel (2.6 log10). The presence of protein or bentonite interfered with viral inactivation. Analysis of the morphology, the viral proteins, and the RNA integrity of treated MNV-1 allowed us to elucidate the mechanisms involved in the antiviral activity of pulsed light. Pulsed light appeared to disrupt MNV-1 structure and degrade viral protein and RNA. The results suggest that pulsed-light technology could provide an effective alternative means of inactivating noroviruses in wastewaters, in clear beverages, in drinking water, or on food-handling surfaces in the presence or absence of biofilms. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. The Adhesion Mechanism of Marine Mussel Foot Protein: Adsorption of L-Dopa on α- and β-Cristobalite Silica Using Density Functional Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabeer Ahmad Mian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine mussels strongly adhere to various surfaces and endure their attachment under a variety of conditions. In order to understand the basic mechanism involved, we study the adsorption of L-dopa molecule on hydrophilic geminal and terminal isolated silanols of silica (001 surface. High content of modified amino acid L-dopa is found in the glue-like material secreted by the mussels through which it sticks to various surfaces under water. To understand the adsorption behavior, we have made use of periodic Density Functional Theory (DFT study. The L-dopa molecule adheres to silica surfaces terminated with geminal and terminal silanols via its catechol part. In both cases, the adhesion is achieved through the formation of 4 H-bonds. A binding energy of 29.48 and 31.67 kcal/mol has been estimated, after the inclusion of dispersion energy, for geminal and terminal silanols of silica, respectively. These results suggest a relatively stronger adhesion of dopa molecule for surface with terminal isolated silanols.

  9. University of Washington/ Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center Tidal Current Technology Test Protocol, Instrumentation, Design Code, and Oceanographic Modeling Collaboration: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-11-452

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driscoll, Frederick R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The University of Washington (UW) - Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center (UW-NNMREC) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) will collaborate to advance research and development (R&D) of Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) renewable energy technology, specifically renewable energy captured from ocean tidal currents. UW-NNMREC is endeavoring to establish infrastructure, capabilities and tools to support in-water testing of marine energy technology. NREL is leveraging its experience and capabilities in field testing of wind systems to develop protocols and instrumentation to advance field testing of MHK systems. Under this work, UW-NNMREC and NREL will work together to develop a common instrumentation system and testing methodologies, standards and protocols. UW-NNMREC is also establishing simulation capabilities for MHK turbine and turbine arrays. NREL has extensive experience in wind turbine array modeling and is developing several computer based numerical simulation capabilities for MHK systems. Under this CRADA, UW-NNMREC and NREL will work together to augment single device and array modeling codes. As part of this effort UW NNMREC will also work with NREL to run simulations on NREL's high performance computer system.

  10. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Science features state-of-the-art review articles and short communications. ... The last couple of years have been a time of change for the Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine ...... planning under future sea level predictions, coastal sci-.

  11. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the wide dissem- ination of high .... great barracuda (Sphyraena barracuda), and the giant ...... Smale MJ, Watson G, Hecht T (1995) Otolith atlas of.

  12. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to optimize nucleic acid extraction protocols from marine gastropods, present an original .... to altering the balance between the coral host and its ... ber of agents, namely, bacteria, viruses, protozoa or .... Normally, WP starts at the base of the.

  13. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sustainable coastal development in the region, as well as contributing to the global base of marine science. The journal .... 48% maize flour, 3% cassava flour, 3% vitamins (Premix for broilers) ..... resulting in inappropriate dietary energy utiliza-.

  14. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    between humans and the coastal and marine environment. ... dissemination of knowledge generated through research activities at the ... Science (WIOJMS), as a special issue entitled “Coral reefs of Mauritius in a .... tion and damage.

  15. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    between humans and the coastal and marine environment. In addition ... impact on recreational activities, natural resources ..... area affects dispersion of nutrients in the waters off .... Bell P (1992) Eutrophication and coral reefs: some exam-.

  16. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sustainable coastal development in the region, as well as contributing to the global .... scientific understanding for sustainable use and management of marine resources in a globally chang- .... (2005) Effects of geography, taxa, water flow, and.

  17. Marine geology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.; Shankar, R.

    Significant scientific contributions in Marine Geology in India during the Nineties have been highlighted in this paper. Sediment trap data collected in the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal have provided much understanding about annual sediment fluxes...

  18. Fabrication of fiber-optic broadband ultrasound emitters by micro-opto-mechanical technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsito, L.; Vannacci, E.; Mancarella, F.; Ferri, M.; Veronese, G. P.; Biagi, E.; Roncaglia, A.

    2014-08-01

    A micro-opto-mechanical system (MOMS) technology for the fabrication of fiber-optic optoacoustic emitters is presented. The described devices are based on the thermoelastic generation of ultrasonic waves from patterned carbon films obtained by the controlled pyrolysis of photoresist layers and fabricated on miniaturized single-crystal silicon frames used to mount the emitters on the tip of an optical fiber. Thanks to the micromachining process adopted, high miniaturization levels are reached in the fabrication of the emitters, and self-standing devices on optical fiber with diameter around 350 µm are demonstrated, potentially suited to minimally invasive medical applications. The functional testing of fiber-optic emitter prototypes in water performed by using a 1064 nm Q-switched Nd-YAG excitation laser source is also presented, yielding broadband emission spectra extended from low frequencies up to more than 40 MHz, and focused emission fields with a maximum peak-to-peak pressure level of about 1.2 MPa at a distance of 1 mm from the devices.

  19. Application of Omics Technologies for evaluation of antibacterial mechanisms of action of plant-derived products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Souza dos Santos

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the face of increasing bacterial resistance to antibiotics currently in use, the search for new antimicrobial agents has received a boost in recent years, with natural products playing an important role in this field. In fact, several methods have been proposed to investigate the antibacterial activities of natural products. However, given that the ultimate aim is future therapeutic use as novel drugs, it is extremely necessary to elucidate their modes of action, stating the molecular effects in detail and identifying their targets in the bacterial cell. This review analyzes the application of omics technologies to understand the antibacterial mechanisms of bioactive natural products, to stimulate research interest in this area and promote scientific collaborations. Some studies have been specifically highlighted herein by examining their procedures and results (targeted proteins and metabolic pathways. These approaches have the potential to provide new insights into our comprehension of antimicrobial resistance/susceptibility, creating new perspectives for the struggle against bacteria, and leading to the development of novel products in the future.

  20. A study on using image serving technology for high precision mechanical positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chuen-Horng; Hsiao, Muh-Don; Lai, Kuo-Jung

    2016-12-01

    This paper focused on using image server technology for high precision mechanical positioning. Rapid and precise positioning systems depend on the correct positions of CCD (Charge Coupled Device) video cameras, as well as on pattern matching modes. This study deals with four different positions captured by an automatic detection system employing a CCD video camera. According to a variety of hybrid image registration systems, this study proposes an entire set of methods for achieving optimal hybrid pattern matching. First, the four different position detections captured by the CCD video camera in low-resolution were examined. Next, the original position detection was carried out in high-resolution, in order to derive a precise set of CCD video camera positions. The fiducial mark (FM) was then divided into two types in the optimal option for pattern matching: the "fiducial mark" and "non-fiducial mark", which were then used for sampling. The automatic detection method is able to achieve the first pattern matching detection for recognized images. Unrecognized images or images that cannot have an FM were subjected to fine pattern matching detection. When it is not possible to find more than one FM after the proposed detection method, this suggests that the position of the CCD video camera should be reset. In this paper, the results of the experiment regarding the CCD camera precision location and the segmentation of fiducial patterns or insignificant fiducial patterns can detect and segment more unique areas and areas with unique features.

  1. [Screening of anti-aging active ingredients and mechanism analysis based on molecular docking technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ran-Feng; Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Ye, Xiao-Tong; Yu, Wen-Kang; Wang, Yun

    2016-07-01

    Dampness evil is the source of all diseases, which is easy to cause disease and promote aging, while aging could also promote the occurence and development of diseases. In this paper, the relationship between the dampness evil and aging would be discussed, to find the anti-aging active ingredients in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and analyze the anti-aging mechanism of dampness eliminating drug. Molecular docking technology was used, with aging-related mammalian target of rapamycin as the docking receptors, and chemical components of Fuling, Sangzhi, Mugua, Yiyiren and Houpo as the docking molecules, to preliminarily screen the anti-aging active ingredients in dampness eliminating drug. Through the comparison with active drugs already on the market (temsirolimus and everolimus), 12 kinds of potential anti-aging active ingredients were found, but their drug gability still needs further study. The docking results showed that various components in the dampness eliminating drug can play anti-aging activities by acting on mammalian target of rapamycin. This result provides a new thought and direction for the method of delaying aging by eliminating dampness. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  2. Study on mechanisms of different sulfuric acid leaching technologies of chromite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Pei-yang; Liu, Cheng-jun; Zhao, Qing; Shi, Hao-nan

    2017-09-01

    The extraction of chromate from chromite via the sulfuric acid leaching process has strong potential for practical use because it is a simple and environmentally friendly process. This paper aims to study the sulfuric acid leaching process using chromite as a raw material via either microwave irradiation or in the presence of an oxidizing agent. The results show that the main phases in Pakistan chromite are ferrichromspinel, chrompicotite, hortonolite, and silicate embedded around the spinel phases. Compared with the process with an oxidizing agent, the process involving microwaves has a higher leaching efficiency. When the mass fraction of sulfuric acid was 80% and the leaching time was 20 min, the efficiency could exceed 85%. In addition, the mechanisms of these two technologies fundamentally differ. When the leaching was processed in the presence of an oxidizing agent, the silicate was leached first and then expanded. By contrast, in the case of leaching under microwave irradiation, the chromite was dissolved layer by layer and numerous cracks appeared at the particle surface because of thermal shock. In addition, the silicate phase shrunk instead of expanding.

  3. Research on the denitration mechanism of fly ash catalysts modified by low-temperature plasma technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-jie Nie

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available There are three different fly ashes mixed with bentonite respectively as raw material to preparation of denitration catalyst. Then the catalyst combined with the low temperature plasma for denitration. The different mixing ratio, drying temperature and drying time of catalyst preparation were studied. The denitration mechanism of fly ash catalyst modified with different gases (O2, N2, Ar, and hydrocarbon gas by low-temperature plasma technology was studied. The compositions of fly ash were detected by element analysis, ICP analysis, Boehm analysis, and Infrared spectral analysis which affected the denitration performance of fly ash catalyst. And we discussed the effect of denitration performance with different types of fly ash and plasma power. The results shown that: fly ash mixed with bentonite for 2:1, drying temperature is 100°C and drying time is 30 min are the optimal preparation conditions; The denitration performance is best of the catalyst which produced by circulating fluidized bed when the plasma power is 30 W. And Oxygen can be used as the modification gas for preparing the fly-ash catalyst. There are more basic functional groups on the surface of fly ash catalyst modified with oxygen atmosphere and the N=O plays a main role.

  4. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Mechanical Performance of Dies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Allen Miller, Principal Investigator; Kabiri-Bamoradian, Contributors: Khalil; Delgado-Garza, Abelardo; Murugesan, Karthik; Ragab, Adham

    2011-09-13

    As a net shape process, die casting is intrinsically efficient and improvements in energy efficiency are strongly dependent on design and process improvements that reduce scrap rates so that more of the total consumed energy goes into acceptable, usable castings. A casting that is distorted and fails to meet specified dimensional requirements is typically remelted but this still results in a decrease in process yield, lost productivity, and increased energy consumption. This work focuses on developing, and expanding the use of, computer modeling methods that can be used to improve the dimensional accuracy of die castings and produce die designs and machine/die setups that reduce rejection rates due to dimensional issues. A major factor contributing to the dimensional inaccuracy of the casting is the elastic deformations of the die cavity caused by the thermo mechanical loads the dies are subjected to during normal operation. Although thermal and die cavity filling simulation are widely used in the industry, structural modeling of the die, particularly for managing part distortion, is not yet widely practiced. This may be due in part to the need to have a thorough understanding of the physical phenomenon involved in die distortion and the mathematical theory employed in the numerical models to efficiently model the die distortion phenomenon. Therefore, two of the goals of this work are to assist in efforts to expand the use of structural modeling and related technologies in the die casting industry by 1) providing a detailed modeling guideline and tutorial for those interested in developing the necessary skills and capability and 2) by developing simple meta-models that capture the results and experience gained from several years of die distortion research and can be used to predict key distortion phenomena of relevance to a die caster with a minimum of background and without the need for simulations. These objectives were met. A detailed modeling tutorial was

  5. Local and Global Mechanical Behavior and Microstructure of Ti6Al4V Parts Built Using Electron Beam Melting Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladani, Leila

    2015-09-01

    Laser and electron beam melting are prime technologies in metallic powder bed additive manufacturing in which parts are built layer by layer using high energy source. The technology is at a level where each layer can be as thin as 50 µm. Melting and solidification of each powder layer is typically accompanied by some subsurface melting to assure adherence and fusion of layers. In addition to anisotropic mechanical behavior of material caused by layering phenomenon, it is expected that the local mechanical behavior and microstructure vary throughout each build. In this manuscript, local and global mechanical behavior of Ti6Al4V parts produced using electron beam melting technology is investigated using bulk scale mechanical testing and nanoindentation. Parts fabricated in different build orientation were tested at different strain rates at a large scale. The experiment showed that strength is minimal perpendicular to the build plate. Additionally, material exhibited different local mechanical properties relative to distance from base plate. Investigation of the microstructure indicated very distinguished variations in the grain size and alpha and beta phase formation of material in different locations of part relative to build plate. Strength reduction in perpendicular direction is examined and explained through understanding of the microstructure and plastic deformation mechanism in α phase and prior β grains.

  6. 物联网技术在海上监控系统中的应用%Research on marine video surveillance system based of internet of things technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖志良

    2015-01-01

    In the modern ocean shipping business, the marine video surveillance system is very important for ship 's safe sail. The system can not only monitor the ships by the center platform, but also realize the cooperation between various vessels sail. The technology of internet of things is used for data acquisition and communication between objects, is fit for marine video surveillance system. This paper analyzes the video signal transmission technology and intelligent technology of marinevideo surveillance system,last proposed a new marine video surveillance system based on internet of things technology.%在现代海洋航运业务中,利用统一的视频监控系统对各类船舶运行情况进行监控已经成为海上安全领域的重要组成部分。其不仅可以有统一的中心平台对海上运输船舶进行监控,同时能够实现各船舶之间的协作运行。现有的物联网技术能够很好解决物与物之间的数据采集及通信问题,对海上监控系统的设计具有很好的适应性。本文对海上监控系统中的视频信号传输技术及编码技术进行研究,在此基础上,提出一种基于物联网架构的海上监控系统。

  7. Marine biosurfaces research program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Office of Naval Research (ONR) of the U.S. Navy is starting a basic research program to address the initial events that control colonization of surfaces by organisms in marine environments. The program “arises from the Navy's need to understand and ultimately control biofouling and biocorrosion in marine environments,” according to a Navy announcement.The program, “Biological Processes Controlling Surface Modification in the Marine Environment,” will emphasize the application of in situ techniques and modern molecular biological, biochemical, and biophysical approaches; it will also encourage the development of interdisciplinary projects. Specific areas of interest include sensing and response to environmental surface (physiology/physical chemistry), factors controlling movement to and retention at surfaces (behavior/hydrodynamics), genetic regulation of attachment (molecular genetics), and mechanisms of attachment (biochemistry/surface chemistry).

  8. The Development of Productivity Practical Management Model at Automotive Mechanical Technology Skill Program in Semarang Vocational Schools, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadromi; Rachman, Maman; Soesanto; Kartana, Tri Jaka

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop automotive Mechanical Technology Skill Program (TMO) in Vocational School. The Research and Development (R&D) object was done in SMK 1, 4 and 7 Semarang, Indonesia. The result was achieved productivity Practical Management Final Model at TMO skill Program in Vocational school named momanticproter.…

  9. Deformation mechanism of surrounding rocks and key control technology for a roadway driven along goaf in fully mechanized top-coal caving face

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李学华

    2003-01-01

    The variation of the stress in the bolted surrounding rocks structure of the roadway driven along goaf in a fully mechanized top-coal caving face with moderate stable conditions are studied by using numerical calculation. The essential deformation characteristics of the surrounding rocks in this kind of roadway are obtained and the key technology of bolting support used under these conditions is put forward.

  10. Deformation mechanism of surrounding rocks and key control technology for a roadway driven along goaf in fully mechanized top-coal caving face

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, X. [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China). School of Energy Science and Engineering

    2003-06-01

    The variation of the stress in the bolted surrounding rocks structure of the roadway driven along the goaf in a fully mechanized top-coal caving face with moderate stable conditions are studied by using numerical calculation. The essential deformation characteristics of the surrounding rocks in this kind of roadway are obtained and the key technology of bolting support used under these conditions is put forward. 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Adverse effects of microplastics and oxidative stress-induced MAPK/Nrf2 pathway-mediated defense mechanisms in the marine copepod Paracyclopina nana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Chang-Bum; Kang, Hye-Min; Lee, Min-Chul; Kim, Duck-Hyun; Han, Jeonghoon; Hwang, Dae-Sik; Souissi, Sami; Lee, Su-Jae; Shin, Kyung-Hoon; Park, Heum Gi; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2017-01-01

    Microplastic pollution causes a major concern in the marine environment due to their worldwide distribution, persistence, and adverse effects of these pollutants in the marine ecosystem. Despite its global presence, there is still a lack of information on the effect of microplastics on marine organisms at the molecular level. Herein we demonstrated ingestion and egestion of nano- (0.05 μm) and micro-sized (0.5 and 6 μm) polystyrene microbeads in the marine copepod Paracyclopina nana, and examined molecular responses to exposure to microbeads with in vivo endpoints such as growth rate and fecundity. Also, we proposed an adverse outcome pathway for microplastic exposure that covers molecular and individual levels. This study provides the first insight into the mode of action in terms of microplastic-induced oxidative stress and related signaling pathways in P. nana.

  12. Adverse effects of microplastics and oxidative stress-induced MAPK/Nrf2 pathway-mediated defense mechanisms in the marine copepod Paracyclopina nana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Chang-Bum; Kang, Hye-Min; Lee, Min-Chul; Kim, Duck-Hyun; Han, Jeonghoon; Hwang, Dae-Sik; Souissi, Sami; Lee, Su-Jae; Shin, Kyung-Hoon; Park, Heum Gi; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2017-01-24

    Microplastic pollution causes a major concern in the marine environment due to their worldwide distribution, persistence, and adverse effects of these pollutants in the marine ecosystem. Despite its global presence, there is still a lack of information on the effect of microplastics on marine organisms at the molecular level. Herein we demonstrated ingestion and egestion of nano- (0.05 μm) and micro-sized (0.5 and 6 μm) polystyrene microbeads in the marine copepod Paracyclopina nana, and examined molecular responses to exposure to microbeads with in vivo endpoints such as growth rate and fecundity. Also, we proposed an adverse outcome pathway for microplastic exposure that covers molecular and individual levels. This study provides the first insight into the mode of action in terms of microplastic-induced oxidative stress and related signaling pathways in P. nana.

  13. Steel fiber reinforced concrete pipes: part 1: technological analysis of the mechanical behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. de Figueiredo

    Full Text Available This paper is the first part of an extensive work focusing the technological development of steel fiber reinforced concrete pipes (FRCP. Here is presented and discussed the experimental campaign focusing the test procedure and the mechanical behavior obtained for each of the dosages of fiber used. In the second part ("Steel fiber reinforced concrete pipes. Part 2: Numerical model to simulate the crushing test", the aspects of FRCP numerical modeling are presented and analyzed using the same experimental results in order to be validated. This study was carried out trying to reduce some uncertainties related to FRCP performance and provide a better condition to the use of these components. In this respect, an experimental study was carried out using sewage concrete pipes in full scale as specimens. The diameter of the specimens was 600 mm, and they had a length of 2500 mm. The pipes were reinforced with traditional bars and different contents of steel fibers in order to compare their performance through the crushing test. Two test procedures were used in that sense. In the 1st Series, the diameter displacement was monitored by the use of two LVDTs positioned at both extremities of the pipes. In the 2nd Series, just one LVDT is positioned at the spigot. The results shown a more rigidity response of the pipe during tests when the displacements were measured at the enlarged section of the socket. The fiber reinforcement was very effective, especially when low level of displacement was imposed to the FRCP. At this condition, the steel fibers showed an equivalent performance to superior class pipes made with traditional reinforced. The fiber content of 40 kg/m3 provided a hardening behavior for the FRCP, and could be considered as equivalent to the critical volume in this condition.

  14. Product Development Partnerships: Case studies of a new mechanism for health technology innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Richard T

    2011-08-26

    There is a continuing need for new health technologies to address the disease burdens of developing countries. In the last decade Product Development Partnerships (PDP) have emerged that are making important contributions to the development of these technologies. PDPs are a form of public private partnerships that focus on health technology development. PDPs reflect the current phase in the history of health technology development: the Era of Partnerships, in which the public and private sectors have found productive ways to collaborate. Successful innovation depends on addressing six determinants of innovation. We examine four case studies of PDPs and show how they have addressed the six determinants to achieve success.

  15. Variable lifetimes and loss mechanisms for NO3 and N2O5 during the DOMINO campaign: contrasts between marine, urban and continental air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Williams

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Nighttime mixing ratios of boundary layer N2O5 were determined using cavity-ring-down spectroscopy during the DOMINO campaign in Southern Spain (Diel Oxidant Mechanisms In relation to Nitrogen Oxides, 21 November 2008–8 December 2008. N2O5 mixing ratios ranged from below the detection limit (~5 ppt to ~500 ppt. A steady-state analysis constrained by measured mixing ratios of N2O5, NO2 and O3 was used to derive NO3 lifetimes and compare them to calculated rates of loss via gas-phase and heterogeneous reactions of both NO3 and N2O5. Three distinct types of air masses were encountered, which were largely marine (Atlantic, continental or urban-industrial in origin. NO3 lifetimes were longest in the Atlantic sector (up to ~30 min but were very short (a few seconds in polluted, air masses from the local city and petroleum-related industrial complex of Huelva. Air from the continental sector was an intermediate case. The high reactivity to NO3 of the urban air mass was not accounted for by gas-phase and heterogeneous reactions, rates of which were constrained by measurements of NO, volatile organic species and aerosol surface area. In general, high NO2 mixing ratios were associated with low NO3 lifetimes, though heterogeneous processes (e.g. reaction of N2O5 on aerosol were generally less important than direct gas-phase losses of NO3. The presence of SO2 at levels above ~2 ppb in the urban air sector was always associated with very low N2O5 mixing ratios indicating either very short NO3 lifetimes in the presence of combustion-related emissions or an important role for reduced sulphur species in urban, nighttime chemistry. High production rates coupled with low lifetimes of NO3 imply an important contribution of nighttime chemistry to removal of both NOx and VOC.

  16. Technological development in fisheries management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eigaard, Ole Ritzau; Marchal, Paul; Gislason, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    increases by 3.2% per year due to technological developments, an increase often ignored in fisheries management. The documentation and quantification of technological creep improves the basis for successfully integrating the effects of technological development (and catchability changes) in fisheries...... management regulations and policies. Ways of counteracting the undesired effects of technological creep are discussed as are the potential management benefits from improved fishing technology. Specific suggestions are given on the selection, application, and tuning of fisheries management tools that can......Many marine fish stocks are overexploited and considerable overcapacity exists in fishing fleets worldwide. One of the reasons for the imbalance between resource availability and fishing capacity is technological development, which continuously increases the efficiency of the vessels—a mechanism...

  17. Otters, Marine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, James A.; Bodkin, James L.; Ben-David, M.; Perrin, William F.; Würsing, Bernd; Thewissen, J.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    The otters (Mustelidae; Lutrinae) provide an exceptional perspective into the evolution of marine living by mammals. Most extant marine mammals (e.g. the cetaceans, pinnipeds, and sirenians) have been so highly modified by long periods of selection for life in the sea that they bear little resemblance to their terrestrial ancestors. Marine otters, in contrast, are more recent expatriates from freshwater habitats and some species still live in both environments. Contrasts among species within the otters, and among the otters, terrestrial mammals, and the more highly adapted pinnipeds and cetaceans provide powerful insights into mammalian adaptations to life in the sea (Estes, 1989). Among the marine mammals, sea otters (Enhydra lutris, Fig. 1) provide the clearest understanding of consumer-induced effects on ecosystem function. This is due in part to opportunities provided by history and in part to the relative ease with which shallow coastal systems where sea otters live can be observed and studied. Although more difficult to study than sea otters, other otter species reveal the connectivity among the marine, freshwater, and terrestrial systems. These three qualities of the otters – their comparative biology, their role as predators, and their role as agents of ecosystem connectivity – are what make them interesting to marine mammalogy.The following account provides a broad overview of the comparative biology and ecology of the otters, with particular emphasis on those species or populations that live in the sea. Sea otters are features prominently, in part because they live exclusively in the sea whereas other otters have obligate associations with freshwater and terrestrial environments (Kenyon, 1969; Riedman and Estes, 1990).

  18. Lung Mechanics in Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    Mammal Science, 2007. 23: p. 888-925. 3. Falke, K.J., et al., Seal lung collapse during free diving: evidence from arterial nitrogen tensions . Science...compression and gas exchange. We will run the model with dive data and arterial and venous PO2 for California sea lions provided by Drs. Gitte McDonald and...used to re-parameterize a gas exchange model [13]. Dive data and measured venous and arterial PO2 data from California sea lions have been obtained from

  19. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Mechanical Performance of Dies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Allen Miller, Principal Investigator; Kabiri-Bamoradian, Contributors: Khalil; Delgado-Garza, Abelardo; Murugesan, Karthik; Ragab, Adham

    2011-09-13

    As a net shape process, die casting is intrinsically efficient and improvements in energy efficiency are strongly dependent on design and process improvements that reduce scrap rates so that more of the total consumed energy goes into acceptable, usable castings. A casting that is distorted and fails to meet specified dimensional requirements is typically remelted but this still results in a decrease in process yield, lost productivity, and increased energy consumption. This work focuses on developing, and expanding the use of, computer modeling methods that can be used to improve the dimensional accuracy of die castings and produce die designs and machine/die setups that reduce rejection rates due to dimensional issues. A major factor contributing to the dimensional inaccuracy of the casting is the elastic deformations of the die cavity caused by the thermo mechanical loads the dies are subjected to during normal operation. Although thermal and die cavity filling simulation are widely used in the industry, structural modeling of the die, particularly for managing part distortion, is not yet widely practiced. This may be due in part to the need to have a thorough understanding of the physical phenomenon involved in die distortion and the mathematical theory employed in the numerical models to efficiently model the die distortion phenomenon. Therefore, two of the goals of this work are to assist in efforts to expand the use of structural modeling and related technologies in the die casting industry by 1) providing a detailed modeling guideline and tutorial for those interested in developing the necessary skills and capability and 2) by developing simple meta-models that capture the results and experience gained from several years of die distortion research and can be used to predict key distortion phenomena of relevance to a die caster with a minimum of background and without the need for simulations. These objectives were met. A detailed modeling tutorial was

  20. Microbial ecology of marinated meat products

    OpenAIRE

    Björkroth, Johanna

    2004-01-01

    www.elsevier.com/locate/meatsci Marinated meat products are consumed increasingly because they are convenient in meal preparing. In addition to sensory effects, marinating has been considered to increase product safety and shelf life quality. There are variations in meat marinating technologies around the world. In Finland, marinades are complex sauces which have a great effect on product appearance and taste. They are water-oil emulsions typically containing salt, sugar and acids (acetic,...

  1. Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,…

  2. Analyzing Neutrophil Morphology, Mechanics, and Motility in Sepsis : Options and Challenges for Novel Bedside Technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zonneveld, Rens; Molema, Grietje; Plötz, Frans B

    Objective: Alterations in neutrophil morphology (size, shape, and composition), mechanics (deformability), and motility (chemotaxis and migration) have been observed during sepsis. We combine summarizing features of neutrophil morphology, mechanics, and motility that change during sepsis with an

  3. Fluid mechanics for mechanical engineering. Technology and examples. 2. ed.; Stroemungslehre fuer den Maschinenbau. Technik und Beispiele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siekmann, Helmut E.; Thamsen, Paul Uwe [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Fluidsystemtechnik - Stroemungstechnik in Maschinen und Anlagen

    2009-07-01

    Detailed information on turbomachinery; Practical examples as learning aids; Compact presentation with good text and picture quality; Ideal for self-studies and for university teaching. This practically oriented information on the fundamentals of fluid mechanics addresses engineers and students of the engineering sciences, physics, and application-oriented mathematics. The many practical examples are useful for producers and users of the fluid mechanics industry. The text is structured in the same manner as in the 'Grundlagen' volume: Hydrostatics, kinematics, momentum law, Navier-Stokes equation of motion, potential flow, eddy flow, boundary layer flow, turbulent flow. The book closes with information on tube flow, flow around bodies, similarity laws, and numeric flow calculation. This the second, revised and edited edition. (orig.) [German] - Fuer gruendliche Kenntnisse von Stroemungsmaschinen - Praxisbeispiele als Lernhilfen - Kompakte Darstellung in hoher Text- und Bildqualitaet - Ideal zum Selbststudium und fuer die Vorlesung Diese anwendungsbezogene Vertiefung der Themen aus den Grundlagen der Stroemunglehre wendet sich an Ingenieure und Studenten der Ingenieurwissenschaften, Physik und anwendungsorientierten Mathematik. Die zahlreichen Praxisbeispiele sind hilfreich fuer Hersteller und Anwender aus vorwiegend stroemungstechnischer Industrie. Die Einteilung der Kapitel entspricht im Wesentlichen der im Band Grundlagen: Hydrostatik, Kinematik, Impulssatz, NAVIER-STOKES-Bewegungsgleichung, Potential-, Wirbel- und Grenzschichtstroemung sowie turbulente Stroemung. Das Buch schliesst mit Darstellungen ueber Rohrstroemungen, Umstroemung von Koerpern, Aehnlichkeitsgesetzen und numerische Stroemungsberechnung. Die 2. Auflage wurde aktualisiert und korrigiert. (orig.)

  4. Theories and technologies of electronic-electrical-mechanical integrated(EEMI)transmission system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ EEMI is one of the hot spots in cross-disciplinary research. The research in this topic was to discard the traditional mechanical gear reducer, integrate electrical motor with mechanical load, control the electrical motor by electrical power generated by microelectronics and electrical electronics; namely, form a EEMI transmission system in the mechanical equipments with low rotation rate and large rotation torque.

  5. The technology and mechanism of removal of plastic mulch and land preparation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Huiyou; HOU Shulin; NA Mingjun; YANG Xiaoli; BAI Shengnan

    2007-01-01

    In this article ,the characteristic of the field plastic mulch, the craft for mechanization removal and land preparation of plastic mulch and the mechanism frequently used in the removal and land preparation of plastic mulch were introduced, which offered references for the design of removal mechanism and land preparation of plastic mulch and structural optimization combination of working components.

  6. Benefits of Precision Farming Technologies for Mechanical Weed Control in Soybean and Sugar Beet—Comparison of Precision Hoeing with Conventional Mechanical Weed Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Kunz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Weed infestations and associated yield losses require effective weed control measures in soybean and sugar beet. Besides chemical weed control, mechanical weeding plays an important role in integrated weed management systems. Field experiments were conducted at three locations for soybean in 2013 and 2014 and at four locations for sugar beet in 2014 to investigate if automatic steering technologies for inter-row weed hoeing using a camera or RTK-GNSS increase weed control efficacy, efficiency and crop yield. Treatments using precision farming technologies were compared with conventional weed control strategies. Weed densities in the experiments ranged from 15 to 154 plants m−2 with Chenopodium album, Polygonum convolvulus, Polygonum aviculare, Matricaria chamomilla and Lamium purpureum being the most abundant species. Weed hoeing using automatic steering technologies reduced weed densities in soybean by 89% and in sugar beet by 87% compared to 85% weed control efficacy in soybean and sugar beet with conventional weeding systems. Speed of weed hoeing could be increased from 4 km h−1 with conventional hoes to 7 and 10 km·h−1, when automatic steering systems were used. Precision hoeing technologies increased soybean yield by 23% and sugar beet yield by 37%. After conventional hoeing and harrowing, soybean yields were increased by 28% and sugar beet yield by 26%.

  7. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    between humans and the coastal and marine environment. .... Overall, the forest was composed of small trees (mean height 2.6 m; mean DBH 7.45 cm); height and DBH varied sig- nificantly when ... nerable to degradation, because the population density is high .... areas in the estuary included Xefina Grande and Xefina.

  8. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the wide dissem- ination of high .... tions at global (e.g. sea temperature, hurricanes) and ..... Jameson SC (1976) Early life history of the giant clams.

  9. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sweden. Cover image: Relief model of the WIO surface that integrates land topography and ocean bathymetry. Amante and ... WIO Journal of Marine Science 14 (1 & 2) 2015 1-9 | L. J. Chauka et al. ... bar, from September 2008 to August 2010.

  10. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    between humans and the coastal and marine environment. ... dissemination of knowledge generated through research activities at the ... Science (WIOJMS), as a special issue entitled “Coral reefs of Mauritius in a changing global climate”. .... C – growth anomaly; D – brown band; E - skeletal eroding band affecting A.

  11. Marine envenomations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balhara, Kamna S; Stolbach, Andrew

    2014-02-01

    This article describes the epidemiology and presentation of human envenomation from marine organisms. Venom pathophysiology, envenomation presentation, and treatment options are discussed for sea snake, stingray, spiny fish, jellyfish, octopus, cone snail, sea urchin, and sponge envenomation. The authors describe the management of common exposures that cause morbidity as well as the keys to recognition and treatment of life-threatening exposures.

  12. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chief Editor José Paula | Faculty of Sciences of University of Lisbon, ... Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the wide dissem- .... in the region are some of the poorest in the world,.

  13. Mechanisms of Low-Temperature Nitridation Technology on a TaN Thin Film Resistor for Temperature Sensor Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huey-Ru; Chen, Ying-Chung; Chang, Ting-Chang; Chang, Kuan-Chang; Tsai, Tsung-Ming; Chu, Tian-Jian; Shih, Chih-Cheng; Chuang, Nai-Chuan; Wang, Kao-Yuan

    2016-12-01

    In this letter, we propose a novel low-temperature nitridation technology on a tantalum nitride (TaN) thin film resistor (TFR) through supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) treatment for temperature sensor applications. We also found that the sensitivity of temperature of the TaN TFR was improved about 10.2 %, which can be demonstrated from measurement of temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR). In order to understand the mechanism of SCCO2 nitridation on the TaN TFR, the carrier conduction mechanism of the device was analyzed through current fitting. The current conduction mechanism of the TaN TFR changes from hopping to a Schottky emission after the low-temperature SCCO2 nitridation treatment. A model of vacancy passivation in TaN grains with nitrogen and by SCCO2 nitridation treatment is eventually proposed to increase the isolation ability in TaN TFR, which causes the transfer of current conduction mechanisms.

  14. Comprehensive understanding of dark count mechanisms of single-photon avalanche diodes fabricated in deep sub-micron CMOS technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yux; Xiang, Ping; Xie, Xiaopeng

    2017-03-01

    The dark count noise mechanisms of single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) fabricated in deep sub-micron (DSM) CMOS technologies are investigated in depth. An electric field dependence of tunneling model combined with carrier thermal generation is established for dark count rate (DCR) prediction. Applying the crucial parameters provided by Geiger mode TCAD simulation such as avalanche triggering probability and electric field distribution in the SPAD avalanche region, the individual contribution of each noise source to DCR is calculated for several SPADs in DSM CMOS technologies. The model calculation results reveal that the trap-assisted tunneling is the main DCR generation source for these DSM CMOS SPADs. With the increase of doping levels in the device avalanche region, the band-to-band tunneling will be the dominant factor that could lead to the higher DCR in scaled DSM CMOS technologies.

  15. A brief overview of recent progress in screening for antifouling marine natural products and studying of their molecular mechanisms%抗污损海洋天然产物的开发及其作用机理研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱培元

    2012-01-01

    首先对近年发表在学术期刊Biofouling上的一篇关于抗污损化合物的综述做一简短总结;其次,突出介绍了对无脊椎污损生物附着和变态分子水平的调控机制的研究近来的进展.旨在给那些从事生物污损和抗污损技术研究的科研人员提供一定的帮助.%The short review firstly provide a brief summary on antifouling compounds from marine sources which was detailed in our recent review article in Biofouling (Qian et al 2010). Then, the recent progress in studying molecular mechanisms of larval attachment and metamorphosis of marine fouling invertebrates are mentioned. The information provided here shall be useful for those who are interested in antifouling technology development and biofouling research.

  16. Rice transplanting technology of the mechanization%水稻机械化育插秧技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹鲭

    2013-01-01

    The mechanization of rice transplanting technology use the floppy disk cover membrane (non-woven). The semiarid or paddy seedlings and mechanical transplanting rice can improve production efficiency and reduce the labor cost and increase the yield per unit area.%  水稻生产机械化育插秧技术,采用软盘盖膜(无纺布)。半旱式或水田育秧,机械栽插,能提高水稻生产效率,降低劳动成本,提高单产。

  17. Developing a United States Marine Corps Organizational and Intermediate Level Maintenance Performance Cost Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Marine Corps Integrated Maintenance Management System MIPR Military Interdepartmental Purchase Request MLG Marine Corps Logistics Unit MOSIS ...D. (1997). An examination of the Marine Operating and Support Information System ( MOSIS ) as a mechanism for linking resources to readiness for

  18. Research status and prospects of marine SOx emission control technologies%船舶硫氧化物排放控制技术研究现状及展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨少龙; 韩志涛; 潘新祥; 严志军

    2015-01-01

    Marine SOx emissions had caused serious air pollutions. This paper introduced regulations of sulphur contents of marine fuel oil from International Maritime Organization,the Ministry of Environmental Protection from America and Europe. This paper also reviewed the research progress of marine SOx emission control technologies in recent years. Product features of desulfurization equipment from major manufacturers were discussed. Wet desulphurization would be the most promising method. Different types of wet desulphurization technologies were introduced. Advantages and disadvantages of this technology were analyzed in this paper. In addition,this paper pointed out that the development of an efficient,cost-effective,and multi-pollutant treatment system would become an important direction for the technology development. And wet desulphurization in cooperation with other after-treatment technologies could have a great potential in the field of comprehensive treatment of ship exhaust gas.%船舶废气中含有的大量硫氧化物对大气环境造成了严重的污染,已成为国际社会广泛关注的焦点。本文首先介绍了国际海事组织和欧美发达国家有关船舶燃油硫含量的相关规定,然后综述了近年来船舶硫氧化物排放控制技术的研究进展,对比研究了国际主流船舶废气脱硫设备厂商的产品特点。分析结果表明,湿法脱硫是目前最具应用前景的排放控制技术,并着重介绍了该技术的分类、原理及优缺点。最后指出,随着针对船舶废气中其它有害污染物的减排规定的陆续出台,以及船舶朝向绿色环保发展的总体趋势,研发经济、高效的船舶废气多污染物综合处理系统将成为未来技术发展的重要方向,其中湿法脱硫与其他技术的协同运用在实现船舶废气综合处理方面具有很大的应用潜力。

  19. Marine pollution: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentukevičienė, Marina; Brannvall, Evelina

    2008-01-01

    This overview of marine pollution follows the methodology as proposed below. Firstly, well-known databases (Science Direct, GeoRef, SpringerLINK, etc.) on technological research were studied. All collected references were divided into 27 sections following the key words associated with marine pollution, oil spills, alien species migration, etc. The most commercially promising research and development (R & D) activities seem to be market-oriented sections: detection of oil spills at sea, containment and recovery of floating oil at sea, detection of oil spills on land, disposal of oil and debris on land, alien species migration prevention from ballast water and underwater hull cleaning in water, NOx and SOx emissions, pollutions from ship-building and repair, and biogeochemical modelling. Great market demands for commercially patented innovations are very attractive for initiating new R & D projects.

  20. Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional answer card reading method using OMR (Optical Mark Reader, most commonly, OMR special card special use, less versatile, high cost, aiming at the existing problems proposed a method based on pattern recognition of the answer card identification method. Using the method based on Line Segment Detector to detect the tilt of the image, the existence of tilt image rotation correction, and eventually achieve positioning and detection of answers to the answer sheet .Pattern recognition technology for automatic reading, high accuracy, detect faster

  1. Patient Outcomes as Transformative Mechanisms to Bring Health Information Technology Industry and Research Informatics Closer Together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krive, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Despite the fast pace of recent innovation within the health information technology and research informatics domains, there remains a large gap between research and academia, while interest in translating research innovations into implementations in the patient care settings is lacking. This is due to absence of common outcomes and performance measurement targets, with health information technology industry employing financial and operational measures and academia focusing on patient outcome concerns. The paper introduces methodology for and roadmap to introduction of common objectives as a way to encourage better collaboration between industry and academia using patient outcomes as a composite measure of demonstrated success from health information systems investments. Along the way, the concept of economics of health informatics, or "infonomics," is introduced to define a new way of mapping future technology investments in accordance with projected clinical impact.

  2. Comprehensive evaluation technology for shale gas sweet spots in the complex marine mountains, South China: A case study from Zhaotong national shale gas demonstration zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Liang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The exploration and development of marine shale gas reservoirs in South China is challenged by complex geological and geographical conditions, such as strong transformation, post maturity, complex mountains and humanity. In this paper, the evaluations on shale gas sweet spots conducted in Zhaotong demonstration zone in the past six years and the construction of 500 million m3 shale gas productivity in Huangjinba region were discussed, and the results of shale gas reservoir evaluations in China and abroad were investigated. Accordingly, it is proposed that another two key indicators be taken into consideration in the evaluation on shale gas sweet spots in marine mountains in South China, i.e. shale gas preservation conditions and pore pressure, and the research on ground stress and natural microfracture systems should be strengthened. Then, systematic analysis was conducted by integrating shale gas multidisciplinary data and geological and engineering integration study was carried out. Finally, a 3D model, which was composed of “geophysics, reservoir geology, fracture system and rock geomechanics”, was established for shale gas reservoirs. Application practice shows that the geological engineering integration and the 3D reservoir modeling are effective methods for evaluating the shale gas sweet spots in complex marine mountains in South China. Besides, based on shale gas sweet spot evaluation, 3D spatial congruency and superposition effects of multiple attributes and multiple evaluation parameters are presented. Moreover, the short-plate principle is the factor controlling the distribution patterns and evaluation results of shale gas sweet spots. It is concluded that this comprehensive evaluation method is innovative and effective in avoiding complex geological and engineering risks, so it is of guiding significance in exploration and development of marine shale gas in South China.

  3. Teaching Reform of Course Group Regarding Theory and Design of Mechanisms Based on MATLAB Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yi; Yuan, Mingxin; Wang, Mingqiang

    2013-01-01

    Considering that the course group regarding theory and design of mechanisms is characterized by strong engineering application background and the students generally feel very boring and tedious during the learning process, some teaching reforms for the theory and design of mechanisms are carried out to improve the teaching effectiveness in this…

  4. Bringing (Century-Old) Technology into the Classroom. Part I: Teaching Mechanics and Thermodynamics with Antiques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewett, John W., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    The notion of bringing technology into the classroom has been the subject of many recent presentations at conferences and papers in physics teaching journals. The use of devices such as laptops, smartphones, tablets, and clickers is rising in today's classrooms and laboratories. PhET simulations have been available online for over a decade. A…

  5. Developing Conceptual Understanding of Mechanical Advantage through the Use of Lego Robotic Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Joan M.; Carbonaro, Mike; Murray, Hana

    2008-01-01

    Science educators advocate hands on experiences and the use of manipulatives as important for children's conceptual development. Consequently, the utilisation of "Lego" robotic technologies in teaching and learning has become more prevalent in school science classrooms. It is important to investigate their value as educational tools, particularly…

  6. Chemical Genomics and Emerging DNA Technologies in the Identification of Drug Mechanisms and Drug Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Louise Cathrine Braun; Færgeman, Nils J.

    2012-01-01

    critical roles in the genomic age of biological research and drug discovery. In the present review we discuss how simple biological model organisms can be used as screening platforms in combination with emerging genomic technologies to advance the identification of potential drugs and their molecular...

  7. The Effect of Technological Parameters on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of AlSi17Cu4 Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslaw PIĄTKOWSKI

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties (HB, HV, R0.2, Rm and plastic properties (A5, Z of AlSi17Cu4 alloy when exposed to chosen technological processes, such as modification, overheating and rapid cooling, are presented in this paper. The best combination of properties was noticed in alloy overheated for 40 minutes at 920 oC and casted into a metallic mould submerged in liquid nitrogen. Moreover, the technological stability and homogeneity of alloys were evaluated based on spread of results, expressed by standard deviation. It was proven, based on microstructure analysis, that the best effect of refinement was achieved by intensive cooling of alloy preceded by its overheating. The XRD analysis indicated that the intermetallic phases, mainly θ(Al2Cu and γ1(Al4Cu9 caused hardening of the solution, improvement in mechanical properties and technological stability.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.3.8490

  8. Development of Mechanical Sealing and Laser Welding Technology to Instrument Thermocouple for Nuclear Fuel Test Rod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joung, Chang-Young; Ahn, Sung-Ho; Hong, Jin-Tae; Kim, Ka-Hye; Huh, Sung-Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Zircaloy-4 of the nuclear fuel test rod, AISI 316L of the mechanical sealing parts, and the MI (mineral insulated) cable at a thermocouple instrumentation are hetero-metals, and are difficult to weld to dissimilar materials. Therefore, a mechanical sealing method to instrument the thermocouple should be conducted using two kinds of sealing process as follows: One is a mechanical sealing process using Swagelok, which is composed of sealing components that consists of an end-cap, a seal tube, a compression ring and a Swagelok nut. The other is a laser welding process used to join a seal tube, and an MI cable, which are made of the same material. The mechanical sealing process should be sealed up with the mechanical contact compressed by the strength forced between a seal tube and an end-cap, and the laser welding process should be conducted to have no defects on the sealing area between a seal tube and an MI cable. Therefore, the mechanical sealing and laser welding techniques need to be developed to accurately measure the centerline temperature of the nuclear fuel test rod in an experimental reactor. The mechanical sealing and laser welding tests were conducted to develop the thermocouple instrumentation techniques for the nuclear fuel test rod. The optimum torque value of a Swagelok nut to seal the mechanical sealing part between the end-cap and seal tube was established through various torque tests using a torque wrench. The optimum laser welding conditions to seal the welding part between a seal tube and an MI cable were obtained through various welding tests using a laser welding system.

  9. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF MARINE ECONOMY IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yao-guang; DONG Li-jing; YANG Jun; WANG Sheng-yun; SONG Xin-ru

    2004-01-01

    China is a large marine country. Developing marine economy is an effective way to solve a series of problems with which man is faced, such as the want of natural resources, space limitation, the environmental deterioration, etc. This article analyzes the rich resources of marine biology, harbor, offshore oil and natural gas and coastal tourism resources in China and describes the developing features and regional differences of marine economy. To realize the sustainable development of marine economy in China, what we need to do are as follows: 1) to list exploiting ocean into national development strategy; 2) to realize integrated economy of sea and land; 3) to develop ocean by science and technology; 4) to perfect legal institution of marine environment; 5) to establish new idea of sea defending.

  10. Motivation Mechanism Prevents Adverse Selection in Industrial Technology Innovation Strategic Alliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxia Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Choosing proper partners is the key to the success of the alliance. Based on the analysis of the characters of the Industrial Technology Innovation Strategic Alliance, a new kind of cooperative organization occurred in China in recent years. The problem of “adverse selection” at the stage of the its establishment is discussed in this paper. The game model is built based on motivation theory and the principle-agent theory and then proved by examples. The conclusions can be got from the model. By setting the ranges of funds, preferential policy, and sharable profits and designing membership rules, the organizer of the Industrial Technology Innovation Strategic Alliance can motivate the risk neutral applicant to reveal his real capacity and the one with higher capacity to participate intothe alliance more actively and even can set capacity threshold for applicants implicitly.

  11. Bringing (Century-Old) Technology into the Classroom, Part I: Teaching Mechanics and Thermodynamics with Antiques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewett, John W.

    2015-10-01

    The notion of bringing technology into the classroom has been the subject of many recent presentations at conferences and papers in physics teaching journals. The use of devices such as laptops, smartphones, tablets, and clickers is rising in today's classrooms and laboratories. PhET simulations have been available online for over a decade. A column in The Physics Teacher, called "iPhysicsLabs," was begun in February of 2012 and describes experiments to be carried out with smartphones and tablets. Students have become familiar with the operation and application of such technology. But are they aware of the underlying physics necessary to make the devices and the online simulations work? Much of the physics is hidden at the microscopic level in tiny circuit chips or in the workings of a distant server.

  12. Efficacy and Mechanisms of Murine Norovirus Inhibition by Pulsed-Light Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Vimont, Allison; Fliss, Ismaïl; Jean, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Pulsed light is a nonthermal processing technology recognized by the FDA for killing microorganisms on food surfaces, with cumulative fluences up to 12 J cm−2. In this study, we investigated its efficacy for inactivating murine norovirus 1 (MNV-1) as a human norovirus surrogate in phosphate-buffered saline, hard water, mineral water, turbid water, and sewage treatment effluent and on food contact surfaces, including high-density polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, and stainless steel, free or i...

  13. Physical Mechanism and Fundamental Performance Limits on Graphene Non-Volatile Memory Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Emil Beom

    2012-01-01

    Non–volatile memory (NVM) constitutes a vital portion in electronics to retain information for both archiving and data processing. Limitations encountered in flash technology upon increasing density and reducing cost by scaling necessitates alternative memory structures beyond complementary–metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS). The single atomic two–dimensional profile and the superior physical properties of graphene allow advancements in a variety of memory metrics ...

  14. Adaptive Opportunistic Cooperative Control Mechanism Based on Combination Forecasting and Multilevel Sensing Technology of Sensors for Mobile Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Jin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In mobile Internet of Things, there are many challenges, including sensing technology of sensors, how and when to join cooperative transmission, and how to select the cooperative sensors. To address these problems, we studied the combination forecasting based on the multilevel sensing technology of sensors, building upon which we proposed the adaptive opportunistic cooperative control mechanism based on the threshold values such as activity probability, distance, transmitting power, and number of relay sensors, in consideration of signal to noise ratio and outage probability. More importantly, the relay sensors would do self-test real time in order to judge whether to join the cooperative transmission, for maintaining the optimal cooperative transmission state with high performance. The mathematical analyses results show that the proposed adaptive opportunistic cooperative control approach could perform better in terms of throughput ratio, packet error rate and delay, and energy efficiency, compared with the direct transmission and opportunistic cooperative approaches.

  15. Trophic calculations reveal the mechanism of population-level variation in mercury concentrations between marine ecosystems: case studies of two polar seabirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasso, Rebecka L; Polito, Michael J

    2013-10-15

    The incorporation of quantitative trophic level analysis in ecotoxicological studies provides explanatory power to identify the factors, trophic or environmental, driving population-level variation in mercury exposure at large geographic scales. In the Antarctic marine ecosystem, mercury concentrations and stable isotope values in Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) were compared between the Antarctic Peninsula and the Ross Sea. Correcting tissue δ(15)N values for baseline δ(15)N values revealed population-level differences in trophic position which contributes to differences in mercury. Data from Thick-billed murres (Uria lomvia) were synthesized from published values from Baffin Bay and Svalbard to demonstrate the utility of baseline δ(15)N values in identifying differences in environmental mercury exposure independent of diet. Here, we demonstrate the importance of calculating population-specific trophic level data to uncover the source of variation in mercury concentrations between geographically distinct populations of marine predators. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 海洋生态环境监测艇技术研究%Research on Marine Environment Ecological Monitoring Boat Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵娜; 刘乃友; 葛颂

    2015-01-01

    The miniature marine environment ecological monitoring boat,which has advantages of integration,automation, systematization and intelligence,can satisfy the rapid and real -time requirements for marine environment monitoring.Compared with other methods such as buoys monitoring and station monitoring,monitoring boats can measure the parameters of water quality,sediment and pollution for any points within the crusing range.Monitoring boats can not only achieve periodic crusing monitoring,but also can make rapid response to emergency events.Meanwhile,it can also monitor the Land -based sewage outfall,marine source and the project on shore,and take account of both of the entire and important area.In this paper,the critical techniques of marine environment monitoring boats are reviewed,and the advantages and industrial prospect are given.%小型海洋生态环境监测艇具有集成化、自动化、系统化和智能化等优点,能够满足海洋环境监测快速、实时的要求,与浮标监测、岸站监测等监测方法相比,可以在巡航范围内的任意地点进行水质、底质和污染等环境参数的测量,不留死角。既可以在海上进行周期性巡航监测,又可以响应突发事件,快速应急,还能对陆源排污口、海上流动源及海岸工程等进行监测和污染源追踪,兼顾整体与重点区域。文中对小型海洋环境监测艇各关键技术进行总结,并展望了监测艇的优势和产业前景。

  17. Development and Prospect of Installation Technology of Electrical and Mechanical Equipment in Hydropower Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Yuanchu

    2005-01-01

    The hydropower installed capacity in China exceeded 100 GW by the end of 2004. With the develop-ment of hydropower construction cause, the contingents of electrical and mechanical installation also grew steadily.The installation and debugging techniques made great strides in aspects of different conventional hydrogeneratorsets, reversible pumped-storage units and their rotor spiders, runners, bearings, penstocks as well as controlequipment, such as computerized governors, intelligent monitoring devices. Major technical innovations werebrought about in the electrical and mechanical installation. For an arduous task to construct hydropower projectsof over 50 GW confronts hydropower installation enterprises at the beginning of 21 st century, the installationtechnologies will certainly develop around the projects.

  18. Marine Cloud Brightening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latham, John; Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Coe, H.; Connolly, P.; Cooper, Gary; Craft, Tim; Foster, Jack; Gadian, Alan; Galbraith, Lee; Iacovides, Hector; Johnston, David; Launder, Brian; Leslie, Brian; Meyer, John; Neukermans, Armand; Ormond, Bob; Parkes, Ben; Rasch, Philip J.; Rush, John; Salter, Stephen; Stevenson, Tom; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Qin; Wood, Robert

    2012-09-07

    The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could - subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identified herein - have the capacity to balance global warming up to the carbon dioxide-doubling point. We describe herein an account of our recent research on a number of critical issues associated with MCB. This involves (i) GCM studies, which are our primary tools for evaluating globally the effectiveness of MCB, and assessing its climate impacts on rainfall amounts and distribution, and also polar sea-ice cover and thickness; (ii) high-resolution modelling of the effects of seeding on marine stratocumulus, which are required to understand the complex array of interacting processes involved in cloud brightening; (iii) microphysical modelling sensitivity studies, examining the influence of seeding amount, seedparticle salt-mass, air-mass characteristics, updraught speed and other parameters on cloud-albedo change; (iv) sea water spray-production techniques; (v) computational fluid dynamics studies of possible large-scale periodicities in Flettner rotors; and (vi) the planning of a three-stage limited-area field research experiment, with the primary objectives of technology testing and determining to what extent, if any, cloud albedo might be enhanced by seeding marine stratocumulus clouds on a spatial scale of around 100 km. We stress that there would be no justification for deployment of MCB unless it was clearly established that no significant adverse consequences would result. There would also need to be an international agreement firmly in favour of such action.

  19. Marine cloud brightening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, John; Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Coe, Hugh; Connolly, Paul; Cooper, Gary; Craft, Tim; Foster, Jack; Gadian, Alan; Galbraith, Lee; Iacovides, Hector; Johnston, David; Launder, Brian; Leslie, Brian; Meyer, John; Neukermans, Armand; Ormond, Bob; Parkes, Ben; Rasch, Phillip; Rush, John; Salter, Stephen; Stevenson, Tom; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Qin; Wood, Rob

    2012-09-13

    The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could-subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identified herein-have the capacity to balance global warming up to the carbon dioxide-doubling point. We describe herein an account of our recent research on a number of critical issues associated with MCB. This involves (i) GCM studies, which are our primary tools for evaluating globally the effectiveness of MCB, and assessing its climate impacts on rainfall amounts and distribution, and also polar sea-ice cover and thickness; (ii) high-resolution modelling of the effects of seeding on marine stratocumulus, which are required to understand the complex array of interacting processes involved in cloud brightening; (iii) microphysical modelling sensitivity studies, examining the influence of seeding amount, seed-particle salt-mass, air-mass characteristics, updraught speed and other parameters on cloud-albedo change; (iv) sea water spray-production techniques; (v) computational fluid dynamics studies of possible large-scale periodicities in Flettner rotors; and (vi) the planning of a three-stage limited-area field research experiment, with the primary objectives of technology testing and determining to what extent, if any, cloud albedo might be enhanced by seeding marine stratocumulus clouds on a spatial scale of around 100×100 km. We stress that there would be no justification for deployment of MCB unless it was clearly established that no significant adverse consequences would result. There would also need to be an international agreement firmly in favour of such action.

  20. Marine cloud brightening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, John; Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Coe, Hugh; Connolly, Paul; Cooper, Gary; Craft, Tim; Foster, Jack; Gadian, Alan; Galbraith, Lee; Iacovides, Hector; Johnston, David; Launder, Brian; Leslie, Brian; Meyer, John; Neukermans, Armand; Ormond, Bob; Parkes, Ben; Rasch, Phillip; Rush, John; Salter, Stephen; Stevenson, Tom; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Qin; Wood, Rob

    2012-01-01

    The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could—subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identified herein—have the capacity to balance global warming up to the carbon dioxide-doubling point. We describe herein an account of our recent research on a number of critical issues associated with MCB. This involves (i) GCM studies, which are our primary tools for evaluating globally the effectiveness of MCB, and assessing its climate impacts on rainfall amounts and distribution, and also polar sea-ice cover and thickness; (ii) high-resolution modelling of the effects of seeding on marine stratocumulus, which are required to understand the complex array of interacting processes involved in cloud brightening; (iii) microphysical modelling sensitivity studies, examining the influence of seeding amount, seed-particle salt-mass, air-mass characteristics, updraught speed and other parameters on cloud–albedo change; (iv) sea water spray-production techniques; (v) computational fluid dynamics studies of possible large-scale periodicities in Flettner rotors; and (vi) the planning of a three-stage limited-area field research experiment, with the primary objectives of technology testing and determining to what extent, if any, cloud albedo might be enhanced by seeding marine stratocumulus clouds on a spatial scale of around 100×100 km. We stress that there would be no justification for deployment of MCB unless it was clearly established that no significant adverse consequences would result. There would also need to be an international agreement firmly in favour of such action

  1. High-precision dating and correlation of ice, marine and terrestrial sequences spanning Heinrich Event 3: Testing mechanisms of interhemispheric change using New Zealand ancient kauri (Agathis australis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Chris S. M.; Palmer, Jonathan; Bronk Ramsey, Christopher; Adolphi, Florian; Muscheler, Raimund; Hughen, Konrad A.; Staff, Richard A.; Jones, Richard T.; Thomas, Zoë A.; Fogwill, Christopher J.; Hogg, Alan

    2016-04-01

    Robustly testing hypotheses of geographic synchroneity of abrupt and extreme change during the late Pleistocene (60,000 to 11,650 years ago) requires a level of chronological precision often lacking in ice, marine and terrestrial sequences. Here we report a bidecadally-resolved New Zealand kauri (Agathis australis) tree-ring sequence spanning two millennia that preserves a record of atmospheric radiocarbon (14C) during ice-rafted debris event Heinrich Event 3 (HE3) in the North Atlantic and Antarctic Isotope Maximum 4 (AIM4) in the Southern Hemisphere. Using 14C in the marine Cariaco Basin and 10Be preserved in Greenland ice, the kauri 14C sequence allows us to precisely align sequences across this period. We observe no significant difference between atmospheric and marine 14C records during HE3, suggesting no stratification of surface waters and collapse in Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). Instead our results support recent evidence for a weakened AMOC across at least two millennia of the glacial period. Our work adds to a growing body of literature confirming that Heinrich events are not the cause of stadial cooling and suggests changes in the AMOC were not the primary driver of antiphase temperature trends between the hemispheres. Decadally-resolved 14C in ancient kauri offers a powerful new (and complementary) approach to polar ice core CH4 alignment for testing hypotheses of abrupt and extreme climate change.

  2. Marine Biology

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    A retired soldier and his timid girlfriend. Two teenagers who are underemployed and overaged. A man who knows what he wants but not how to get it and his ex who knows how to get what she wants but not exactly what that is.What do all of these people have in common? They live in Westfield, New York, a town with just as many traffic lights as panoramic views of nearby Lake Erie and with about as many bartenders as schoolteachers. Everyone wants to leave, but nobody knows where to go.Marine Biol...

  3. Nuclear Technology. Course 30: Mechanical Inspection. Module 30-4, Piping Inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinne, Bruce

    This fourth in a series of eight modules for a course titled Mechanical Inspection describes the classifications of pipe and fittings, the types of connections used in the installation of piping systems, the typical marking schemes, the preinstallation and installation verifications, and the tests of the completed installation. The module follows…

  4. Mechanism and Preventive Technology of the Thaumasite Form of Sulfate Attack on Cement Mortars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The deterioration mechanism of thaumasite towards cement or concrete structure and the deterioration pattern of in-situ construction caused by the formation of thaumasite were studied in this paper. To improve the TSA (the thaumasite form of sulfate attack) resistance, the cement type, water to cement ratios, the mineral admixture and the circumstance factors should be taken into consideration.

  5. Nuclear Technology. Course 30: Mechanical Inspection. Module 30-7, Pressure Vessel Inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupiec, Chet; Espy, John

    This seventh in a series of eight modules for a course titled Mechanical Inspection is devoted to the design and fabrication of the reactor pressure vessel. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1) introduction, (2) module prerequisites, (3) objectives, (4) notes to instructor/student, (5) subject matter, (6)…

  6. Nuclear Technology. Course 30: Mechanical Inspection. Module 30-3, Valve Inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasil, Ed; Espy, John

    This third in a series of eight modules for a course titled Mechanical Inspection describes all the major types of valves utilized in a nuclear power plant and the purposes of the preinstallation and installation inspections; also describes the valve testing required for particular valves. The module follows a typical format that includes the…

  7. Nuclear Technology. Course 30: Mechanical Inspection. Module 30-5, Surface Cleaning Inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasel, Ed; Espy, John

    This fifth in a series of eight modules for a course titled Mechanical Inspection describes cleaning activities which typically apply to construction, maintenance, and modification activities at the nuclear power plant site. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1) introduction, (2) module prerequisites, (3)…

  8. Nuclear Technology. Course 30: Mechanical Inspection. Module 30-2, Pump Functional Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasel, Ed; Espy, John

    This second in a series of eight modules for a course titled Mechanical Inspection describes typical pump functional tests which are performed after pump installation and prior to release of the plant for unrestricted power operation. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1) introduction, (2) module…

  9. Nuclear Technology. Course 27: Metrology. Module 27-3, Gage Blocks, Mechanical Comparators and Electronic Comparators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selleck, Ben; Espy, John

    This third in a series of eight modules for a course titled Metrology describes gage blocks and mechanical and electronic comparators. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1) introduction, (2) module prerequisites, (3) objectives, (4) notes to instructor/student, (5) subject matter, (6) materials needed, (7)…

  10. The mechanics of bacterial cluster formation on plant leaf surfaces as revealed by bioreporter technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecon, Robin; Leveau, Johan H J

    2012-05-01

    Bacteria that colonize the leaves of terrestrial plants often occur in clusters whose size varies from a few to thousands of cells. For the formation of such bacterial clusters, two non-mutually exclusive but very different mechanisms may be proposed: aggregation of multiple cells or clonal reproduction of a single cell. Here we assessed the contribution of both mechanisms on the leaves of bean plants that were colonized by the bacterium Pantoea agglomerans. In one approach, we used a mixture of green and red fluorescent P. agglomerans cells to populate bean leaves. We observed that this resulted in clusters made up of only one colour as well as two-colour clusters, thus providing evidence for both mechanisms. Another P. agglomerans bioreporter, designed to quantify the reproductive success of bacterial colonizers by proxy to the rate at which green fluorescent protein is diluted from dividing cells, revealed that during the first hours on the leaf surface, many bacteria were dividing, but not staying together and forming clusters, which is suggestive of bacterial relocation. Together, these findings support a dynamic model of leaf surface colonization, where both aggregative and reproductive mechanisms take place. The bioreporter-based approach we employed here should be broadly applicable towards a more quantitative and mechanistic understanding of bacterial colonization of surfaces in general. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. The mechanics of bacterial cluster formation on plant leaf surfaces as revealed by bioreporter technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tecon, R.; Leveau, J.H.J.

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria that colonize the leaves of terrestrial plants often occur in clusters whose size varies from a few to thousands of cells. For the formation of such bacterial clusters, two non-mutually exclusive but very different mechanisms may be proposed: aggregation of multiple cells or clonal

  12. Neural Network Identification Model for Technology Selection of Fully-Mechanized Top-Coal Caving Mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟宪锐; 徐永勇; 汪进

    2001-01-01

    This paper mainly discusses the selection of the technical parameters of fully-mechanized top-coal caving mining using the neural network technique. The comparison between computing results and experiment data shows that the set-up neural network model has high accuracy and decision-making benefit.

  13. Effects of Technological Parameters on the Mechanical Performances of SAC-cementitious Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A new type of SAC-cementitious material was manufactured by taking sulphoaluminate cement(SAC) as the basic material, polyvinyl alcohol(PVA) as the organic polymer and adding coupling agent(KH). Its flexural strength can reach 165 MPa, the compressive strength can be larger than 267 MPa.A set of fitable technological parameters of the material were gained through experiments. In addition, the flexural strength and toughness can be improved greatly by adding KH, whose values can be increased by 49.76% and 14.55%, respectively.

  14. Marine fungi: A critique

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, S.; Raghukumar, C.

    Obligate marine fungi, those which grow and sporulate exclusively under marine conditions, have received all the attention from marine mycologists. Fungi originating from freshwater, or terrestrial environment and capable of growth and sporulation...

  15. Active Marine Station Metadata

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Active Marine Station Metadata is a daily metadata report for active marine bouy and C-MAN (Coastal Marine Automated Network) platforms from the National Data...

  16. Marine molecular biology: an emerging field of biological sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Narsinh L; Jain, Roopesh; Natalio, Filipe; Hamer, Bojan; Thakur, Archana N; Müller, Werner E G

    2008-01-01

    An appreciation of the potential applications of molecular biology is of growing importance in many areas of life sciences, including marine biology. During the past two decades, the development of sophisticated molecular technologies and instruments for biomedical research has resulted in significant advances in the biological sciences. However, the value of molecular techniques for addressing problems in marine biology has only recently begun to be cherished. It has been proven that the exploitation of molecular biological techniques will allow difficult research questions about marine organisms and ocean processes to be addressed. Marine molecular biology is a discipline, which strives to define and solve the problems regarding the sustainable exploration of marine life for human health and welfare, through the cooperation between scientists working in marine biology, molecular biology, microbiology and chemistry disciplines. Several success stories of the applications of molecular techniques in the field of marine biology are guiding further research in this area. In this review different molecular techniques are discussed, which have application in marine microbiology, marine invertebrate biology, marine ecology, marine natural products, material sciences, fisheries, conservation and bio-invasion etc. In summary, if marine biologists and molecular biologists continue to work towards strong partnership during the next decade and recognize intellectual and technological advantages and benefits of such partnership, an exciting new frontier of marine molecular biology will emerge in the future.

  17. Planning of designing and installation of mechanical elements at the gear speed reducer on the basis of the parameter technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Letić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The development and implementation of the computer methods at project managing in the part of the planning of designing and installation of mechanical elements with the fit (assembly block of the gear speed reducer is significant and at present irreplaceable engineering task if it has been realized by the modern parameter technology. There are multifunction uses of this organized group of activities, beginning from the quick changeability of elements still in the phase of designing and constructing, thanks to the characteristics of their associativity, still to the wide basis of standard elements that are incorporated in the very program package. Meanwhile, these activities are not simple, so their realization has to be planned from the stand - point of time, resource and cost of realization. For the very designing and constructing was used AutoCAD Mechanical, and for the design managing Microsoft Project.

  18. The influence of lubricant carrier and lubrication conditions on mechanical-technological properties of high carbon steel wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Suliga

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the effect of the type of soap powder and lubricant carriers on lubrication conditions in multipass drawing process of high carbon steel wires has been determined. The wire drawing process was conducted in industrial conditions by means of a modern multi-die Koch drawing machine. For wires drawn on borax and phosphate lubricant carriers the mechanical-technological properties have been carried out, in which yield stress, tensile strength, uniform elongation, number of twists and number of bends were assessed. It has been proved that the application of phosphate lubricant carrier and also the rotary die in the first draft in an essential way improve the lubrication condition in high speed multipass drawing process and makes it possible to refine the mechanical properties of wires.

  19. Borehole camera technology for measuring the relaxation zone of surrounding rock: mechanism and application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing Hong-wen; Li Yuan-hai; Liang Jun-qi; Yu De-cheng [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China). State Key Laboratory for Geomechanics & Deep Underground Engineering

    2009-05-15

    A panoramic borehole camera technology (BCT) and digital image processing method was developed by constructing a system composed of hardware and software. The technology was used for measuring the relaxation zone of surrounding rock with the borehole camera. The hardware consists of a mini CCD camera and a high-pressure sealed magnetic compass that is used for camera positioning. The software includes real-time image monitoring and a processing program that includes the procedure for analysis of the relaxation zone. The roundness of cracks in the boreholes is taken as the index for identifying the relaxation zone. The system was used to measure the relaxation zone of a deep roadway in the Qiwu coal mine of Shandong province. The distribution of the relaxation zone around the roadway was obtained. The results show that the thickness of the broken rock zone varies with the measuring position within a cross section of the roadway. The reliability of the measuring method was tested and verified by comparing the data from BCT with those measured by an ultrasonic method; the difference is less than 3.5%. The system provides a new method for the measurement of the relaxation zone when engineering deep underground. 6 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Marine Lubricants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, B. H.; Green, D.

    Marine diesel engines are classified by speed, either large (medium speed) or very large (slow speed) with high efficiencies and burning low-quality fuel. Slow-speed engines, up to 200 rpm, are two-stroke with separate combustion chamber and sump connected by a crosshead, with trunk and system oil lubricants for each. Medium-speed diesels, 300-1500 rpm, are of conventional automotive design with one lubricant. Slow-speed engines use heavy fuel oil of much lower quality than conventional diesel with problems of deposit cleanliness, acidity production and oxidation. Lubricants are mainly SAE 30/40/50 monogrades using paraffinic basestocks. The main types of additives are detergents/dispersants, antioxidants, corrosion inhibitors, anti-wear/load-carrying/ep, pour-point depressants and anti-foam compounds. There are no simple systems for classifying marine lubricants, as for automotive, because of the wide range of engine design, ratings and service applications they serve. There are no standard tests; lubricant suppliers use their own tests or the Bolnes 3DNL, with final proof from field tests. Frequent lubricant analyses safeguard engines and require standard sampling procedures before determination of density, viscosity, flash point, insolubles, base number, water and wear metal content.

  1. Mechanical and thermal property characterization of poly-L-lactide (PLLA) scaffold developed using pressure-controllable green foaming technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, Shen-Jun [Center of Analysis and Testing, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Hu, Xiao [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rowan University, Glassboro, NJ 08028 (United States); Department of Biomedical and Translational Sciences, Rowan University, Glassboro, NJ 08028 (United States); Wang, Fang, E-mail: wangfang@njnu.edu.cn [Center of Analysis and Testing, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rowan University, Glassboro, NJ 08028 (United States); Ma, Qing-Yu [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronics of Jiangsu Province, School of Physics and Technology, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Gu, Min-Fen [Center of Analysis and Testing, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2015-04-01

    Poly-L-lactide (PLLA) is one of the most promising biological materials used for tissue engineering scaffolds (TES) because of their excellent biodegradability and tenability. Here, microcellular PLLA foams were fabricated by pressure-controllable green foaming technology. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), wide angle X-ray diffraction measurement (WAXRD), thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, reflection-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis, enzymatic degradation study and MTT assay were used to analyze the scaffolds' morphologies, structures and crystallinities, mechanical and biodegradation properties, as well as their cytotoxicity. The results showed that PLLA foams with pore sizes from 8 to 103 μm diameters were produced when the saturation pressure decreased from 7.0 to 4.0 MPa. Through a combination of StepScan DSC (SSDSC) and WAXRD approaches, it was observed in PLLA foams that the crystallinity, highly-oriented metastable state and rigid amorphous phase increased with the increasing foaming pressure. It was also found that both the glass transition temperature and apparent enthalpy of PLLA significantly increased after the foaming process, which suggested that the changes of microcellular structure could provide PLLA scaffolds better thermal stability and elasticity. Moreover, MTT assessments suggested that the smaller pore size should benefit cell attachment and growth in the scaffold. The results of current work will give us better understanding of the mechanisms involved in structure and property changes of PLLA at the molecular level, which enables more possibilities for the design of PLLA scaffold to satisfy various requirements in biomedical and green chemical applications. - Highlights: • Pressure-controllable green foaming technology is used. • The crystallinity and rigid amorphous fraction is calculated by using DSC and XRD. • We examine the changes of

  2. Development of the RIOT Web Service and Information Technologies to Enable Mechanism Reduction for HCCI Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuchardt, K; Oluwole, O; Pitz, W J; Rahn, L; Green, W H; Leahy, D; Pancerella, C; Sj?berg, M; Dec, J

    2005-06-13

    New approaches are being explored to facilitate multidisciplinary collaborative research of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion processes. In this paper, collaborative sharing of the Range Identification and Optimization Toolkit (RIOT) and related data and models is discussed. RIOT is a developmental approach to reduce the computational of detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms, enabling their use in modeling kinetically controlled combustion applications such as HCCI. These approaches are being developed and piloted as a part of the Collaboratory for Multiscale Chemical Sciences (CMCS) project. The capabilities of the RIOT code are shared through a portlet in the CMCS portal that allows easy specification and processing of RIOT inputs, remote execution of RIOT, tracking of data pedigree, and translation of RIOT outputs to a table view and to a commonly-used mechanism format.

  3. Technology and mechanism of a new protein-based core sand for aluminum casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石晶玉; 黄天佑; 石红玉; 何镇明

    2001-01-01

    The protein-based binding material is from natural products, which is nontoxic and recyclable. This kind of green binder is earnestly needed by aluminum casting products. The new protein-based core possesses higher strength and easier shakeout. Its tensile strength is close to that of common resin sands. The micro-mechanism of protein binder was investigated by using infrared spectrum, chemical element analysis, SEM and thermal lost-mass analysis.

  4. Student collaboration, investigation problems, and technology use in an innovative university mechanics class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuech, Robert K.

    This study investigated the learning of a selected group of students within a calculus based, university physics course organized to incorporate strategies of effective learning and instruction including: collaborative grouping, authentic investigations, and easy access to technology tools. More than half the students' class time was spent engaged in the investigations with less than one-quarter of the time in lecture. A complementary study has shown that students had high conceptual gains during the course and this study reports similar gains for students in the selected group. This research examined student interactions during group investigations and the roles that may have been played by the problem types, the computer tools, and the behaviors of other students and instructors on conceptual learning. Data were collected from video tapes throughout all sessions of the class while the students worked together on the investigations. Field notes, pre and post-test data, and investigation reports provided contextual and assessment information. A detailed descriptive study was conducted and grounded theory guided the research methodology throughout the study. The research analyses focused especially on student-student student instructor; student-technology and student-problem interactions. Within these interactions the students in the group were observed to engage in important cognitive processes including: recall of previous knowledge that promoted familiarity, reflection on data and hypotheses that promoted intersubjectivity, and elaboration that promoted questioning. These processes appeared to be linked to modifications in the students' conceptual understanding. The instructors generally intended to act as facilitators and helped to guide the students through the investigations. Technology may have provided a means for the students to critically reflect on data collected or test and retest hypotheses, either by ``real time'' plotting of data or the rapid

  5. Nondestructive Methods to Characterize Rock Mechanical Properties at Low-Temperature: Applications for Asteroid Capture Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Kara A.

    Recent government initiatives and commercial activities have targeted asteroids for in situ material characterization, manipulation, and possible resource extraction. Most of these activities and missions have proposed significant robotic components, given the risks and costs associated with manned missions. To successfully execute these robotic activities, detailed mechanical characteristics of the target space bodies must be known prior to contact, in order to appropriately plan and direct the autonomous robotic protocols. Unfortunately, current estimates of asteroid mechanical properties are based on limited direct information, and significant uncertainty remains specifically concerning internal structures, strengths, and elastic properties of asteroids. One proposed method to elucidate this information is through in situ, nondestructive testing of asteroid material immediately after contact, but prior to any manipulation or resource extraction activities. While numerous nondestructive rock characterization techniques have been widely deployed for terrestrial applications, these methods must be adapted to account for unique properties of asteroid material and environmental conditions of space. For example, asteroid surface temperatures may range from -100°C to 30°C due to diurnal cycling, and these low temperatures are especially noteworthy due to their deleterious influence on non-destructive testing. As a result, this thesis investigates the effect of low temperature on the mechanical characteristics and nondestructive technique responses of rock material. Initially, a novel method to produce low temperature rock samples was developed. Dry ice and methanol cooling baths of specific formulations were used to decrease rock to temperatures ranging from -60°C to 0°C. At these temperatures, shale, chalk, and limestone rock samples were exposed to several nondestructive and conventional mechanical tests, including Schmidt hammer, ultrasonic pulse velocity, point

  6. Modeling of temporomandibular joint function using MRI and jaw-tracking technologies--mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Luigi M

    2005-01-01

    The study of mechanics of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is important because its dysfunction and breakdown could be, at least partially, of mechanical origin. The incongruity of the articular surfaces of the TMJ is compensated by a fibrocartilaginous articular disc. Its dislocation and failure seem to be closely related to the development of osteoarthritis of the TMJ. The analysis of mandibular kinematics permits the detection and assessment of irregularities of TMJ function due to internal obstacles such as a displaced articular disc. Furthermore, the measurement of the dynamic relationship between the articular surfaces of the TMJ is useful to determine the strains undergone by the disc that if too high might compromise its integrity. The development of our research in TMJ mechanics has evolved from the acquisition of the traces of single mandibular points to an accurate and compact description of mandibular motion, in which the mechanical advantage of jaw muscles, and forces and torques acting on the jaw are considered as well. The combination of three-dimensional software models of TMJ anatomies obtained from MRI and jaw tracking with six degrees of freedom permits a subject-specific dynamic analysis of the intra-articular space, providing insight into individual disc deformation during function and TMJ loading. Studies performed with this system indicate that both TMJs are loaded during chewing, the balancing more so than the working joint. In fact, during chewing, the intra-articular distance is smaller for hard than for soft food, on closing than on opening, on the balancing than on the working side. This last finding is confirmed by static biting experiments, in which the condyle-fossa distance decreases more on the side contralateral to the bite force, depending on its magnitude. Also studies on the dynamics of compression areas indicate that plowing can occur through the disc during function, especially mediolaterally, due to stress field translation

  7. 海洋战略性新兴产业集群形成机理的初步探索%Framework Research on the Formation Mechanism of Marine Strategic Emerging Industrial Cluster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓璇; 刘大海; 李晨; 邢文秀

    2016-01-01

    In recent years,the cluster development of marine strategic emerging industry has be-come an important way to promote industrial competitiveness,drive marine economic restructu-ring and realize regional or national leap-forward development,which has gradually drawn great attention in academic circles.On the basis of concept definition of industrial cluster,marine strate-gic emerging industry and marine strategic emerging industrial cluster,the paper systemically studied the formation mechanism framework of marine strategic emerging industrial cluster from the aspects of influential factors,motivating effect and patterns of special organization.Besides, the paper focused on the motivating effect,pointed out there are direct and indirect effects,and an-alyzed the principle of motivating effect.The direct effect includes scale effect,radiation effect and synergy effect.The indirect effect includes self-reinforcing effect,accumulation effect and adapta-ble expectation effect,etc..%近年来,海洋战略性新兴产业的集群式发展已经成为国家或地区提升产业竞争力、拉动海洋经济转型、实现跨越式发展的重要方式,逐渐引起学术界的高度重视。文章在对产业集群、海洋战略性新兴产业、海洋战略性新兴产业集群等概念进行界定的基础上,从影响因素、促进效应、空间组织模式等3个方面初步探索海洋战略性新兴产业集群的形成机理,并对海洋战略性新兴产业集群形成的促进效应进行重点分析,认为存在规模效应、辐射效应和协同效应等直接效应以及自我强化效应、累积效应和适应性预期效应等间接效应,对这些效应的原理进行深入探讨和案例分析。

  8. Densification mechanism of chemical vapor infiltration technology for carbon/carbon composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jian-xun; XIONG Xiang; HUANG Qi-zhong; YI Mao-zhong; HUANG Bai-yun

    2007-01-01

    Carbon/carbon composites were fabricated using pressure-gradient chemical vapor infiltration(CVI) technology with propane (C3H6) as the carbon precursor gas and nitrogen (N2) as the carrier gas. The chemical process of deposition of pyrolytic carbon was deduced by analyzing the component of molecules in gas phase and observing the microstructure of deposition carbon. The results show that the process of deposition starts from the breakdown of C-C single bond of propene (C3H6), and forms two kinds of active groups in the heterogeneous gas phase reaction. Afterwards, these active groups form many stable bigger molecules and deposit on carbon fiber surface. At the same time, hydrogen atoms of the bigger molecules absorbed on carbon fiber surface are eliminated and the solid pyrolytic carbon matrix is formed in the heterogeneous reaction process.

  9. 第三代测序基本原理%The Mechanisms of the Third Generation Sequencing Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明爽; 赵敏

    2012-01-01

    In this review, I describe the mechanisms and features of the third generation sequencing technology which is a new generation of single molecule sequencing technology, introduce the True Single Molecule Sequencing (tSMS? of Helicos, the Single Molecule Real Time (SMRT? DNA Sequencing of the Pacific Bioseience, and the single-molecule nanopore DNA sequencing of the Oxford Nanopore Technologies. The advantages compared with the second generation sequencing, the problems and its future perspectives will be discussed here.%文章阐述了以单分子实时测序和纳米孔技术为标志第三代测序的基本原理,介绍了Helicos的Heliscope单分子测序仪、Pacific Bioscience的SMRT技术和Oxford Nanopore Technologies公司正在研究的纳米孔单分子测序技术.与其他测序技术进行了简单的对比以并提出一些单分子测序仍需面对的问题以及对未来单分子测序的展望.

  10. 世界首座海洋观测网体系——加拿大“海王星”海底观测技术%The First Marine Observation Network System: Neptune Canada Submarine Observation Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姬再良; 董树文

    2012-01-01

    加拿大“海王星”是世界首座海洋观测网体系,它将覆盖整个东北太平洋区的胡安·德富卡板块,揭开了地球科学研究的新篇章.它通过主干动脉光电缆连接位于5个汇结端上的仪器设备,对海底进行长期实时观测,并通过强大的数据管理和存档系统,实时传输观测数据,供科学家和科学爱好者们免费使用.加拿大“海王星”海底观测技术主要应用于观测海底火山的活动状态;实时监测本区地震和海啸活动;探索矿物、金属和碳氢化合物资源;深究海洋与大气间的相互作用、气候变化;海洋温室气体的循环过程;海洋生态体系的奥密;海洋的周期变动,能源和资源的滋生再生过程;海洋哺乳动物群落;海洋渔业储备;污染和毒性绽放等方面.%Neptune Canada is the first marine observation network system. It is to cover the Juan de Faca Plate of the whole northeast Pacific Ocean region and thus will turn over a new page in the earth science research. Through the main arterial photo-electric cable, it connects instruments and equipment at five nodes and makes long-term real-time observation at sea bottom. With a strong data management and filing system, it transmits observation data in a real-time way for scientists and science enthusiasts to use free of charge. Canadian submarine observation technology is mainly applied in such aspects as detecting submarine volcanic activities, monitoring seismic and tsunami activities of this region constantly, probing into minerals, metals and hydrocarbon resources, deeply studying interaction between ocean and atmosphere, understanding the cyclic process of marine hothouse gas, exploring the secrets of marine ecological system and investigating problems like the marine periodic changes, the creation and regeneration of energy resources, the marine mammal community, the storage of marine fishery, and the pollution and toxic spread.

  11. 机械设备技改方法及分析%Technological transformation and analysis of mechanical equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈奇峰

    2015-01-01

    Along with the continuous development of China's economy, the continuous improvement of the level of science and technology,various enterprises under the impact of the new situation,facing both great opportunities are also faced with severe challenges.Under the condition of market economy,the competition between enterprises increasingly deepened,facing the diversified demands of the market and high-end manufacturing technology, the enterprise for the number of mechanical equipment and technical renovation of equipment is an important task.An important aspect of improving the enterprise competitiveness is to improve the technological transformation of the equipment and increase the technical content of the equipment.This paper mainly expounds the contents of technological transformation of the mechanical equipment in China, and the evaluation and analysis of the technical innovation method, which is of great significance for improving the technological transformation of machinery and equipment.%随着我国经济的不断发展,科学技术水平的不断提高,各个企业在这种新形势的冲击下,既面临着重大的机遇同时也面临着严峻的挑战.市场经济条件下,企业之间的竞争日益加深,面对多样化的市场需求和高端的制造技术,企业对于机械设备数量和设备技改是一项重要的任务.提高企业竞争力的一个重要方面就是提高设备的技术改造,增加设备的技术含量.本文主要阐述了目前我国机械设备的技术改造的内容,并对设备技改方法进行了评价和分析,对提高机械设备技改有着重要的参考意义.

  12. European Marine Infrastructures: perspectives for Marine and Earth Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favali, P.; Beranzoli, L.; Egerton, P.; Le Traon, P. Y.; Los, W.

    2009-04-01

    The European Commission (EC) is supporting a variety of Research Infrastructures in many different scientific fields: Social Sciences and Humanities, Environmental Sciences, Energy, Biological and Medical Sciences, Physical Sciences and Engineering and e-Infrastructures. All these infrastructures are included in the new report of the "European Roadmap for Research Infrastructures" published in late 2008 by ESFRI (European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures, http://cordis.europa.eu/esfri/). In particular, some research infrastructures for the Environmental Sciences specifically addressed to the marine environment are presented: • EMSO (European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observatory). The development of this underwater network is being supported by several other EC initiatives, ESONET-NoE (European Seas Network), coordinated by IFREMER (http://www.esonet-emso.org/esonet-noe/). • ERICON AURORA BOREALIS (European Research Icebreaker Consortium, http://www.eri-aurora-borealis.eu/). • EURO-ARGO (Global Ocean Observing Infrastructure, http://www.euro-argo.eu/). • LIFEWATCH (E-science and technology infrastructure for biodiversity data and observatories, http://www.lifewatch.eu/). In particular through its scientific marine networks: EUR-OCEANS (European Network of Excellence for Ocean Ecosystems Analysis, http://www.eur-oceans.eu/); MARBEF-NoE (MARine Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning, http://www.marbef.org/ and Marine Genomics (http://www.marine-genomics-europe.org/). Possible profitable links with new research infrastructures recently included in the roadmap, such as EPOS (European Plate Observing System) and SIAEOS (Svalbard Integrated Arctic Earth Observing System) are also pointed out. The marine EC infrastructures presented constitute the fundamental tools to support the Earth Sciences, both terrestrial and marine.

  13. Marine renewable energies: status and development perspectives; Energies marines renouvelables: etat des lieux et perspectives de developpement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This document proposes an overview of the marine renewable energy (MRE) market, of the development perspectives, of the industrial, academic and institutional actors, of current technologies and technologies under development, and of French and European research and development programs. These energies comprise: tidal energy, the exploitation of sea temperature differences with respect with depth, wave energy, marine current power energy, osmotic and marine biomass energy

  14. Technology Development of Automated Rendezvous and Docking/Capture Sensors and Docking Mechanism for the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkel, Heather; Strube, Matthew; Zipay, John J.; Cryan, Scott

    2016-01-01

    This paper will describe the technology development efforts NASA has underway for Automated Rendezvous and Docking/Capture (AR&D/C) sensors and a docking mechanism and the challenges involved. The paper will additionally address how these technologies will be extended to other missions requiring AR&D/C whether robotic or manned. NASA needs AR&D/C sensors for both the robotic and crewed segments of the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM). NASA recently conducted a commonality assessment of the concept of operations for the robotic Asteroid Redirect Vehicle (ARV) and the crewed mission segment using the Orion spacecraft. The commonality assessment also considered several future exploration and science missions requiring an AR&D/C capability. Missions considered were asteroid sample return, satellite servicing, and planetary entry, descent, and landing. This assessment determined that a common sensor suite consisting of one or more visible wavelength cameras, a three-dimensional LIDAR along with long-wavelength infrared cameras for robustness and situational awareness could be used on each mission to eliminate the cost of multiple sensor developments and qualifications. By choosing sensor parameters at build-time instead of at design-time and, without having to requalify flight hardware, a specific mission can design overlapping bearing, range, relative attitude, and position measurement availability to suit their mission requirements with minimal non-recurring engineering costs. The resulting common sensor specification provides the union of all performance requirements for each mission and represents an improvement over the current systems used for AR&D/C today. These sensor specifications are tightly coupled to the docking system capabilities and requirements for final docking conditions. The paper will describe NASA's efforts to develop a standard docking system for use across NASA human spaceflight missions to multiple destinations. It will describe the current

  15. Research Advance in Tissue Culture Technology of Marine Macroalgae%海洋植物组织培养技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘杰; 韩晓弟; 汤银川; 罗春桂; 尙昆; 韩萌; 吴玉剑

    2009-01-01

    介绍国内外大型海藻组织培养的研究历史、概况、培养技术、相关研究及其应用前景,并阐述海藻取材、外植体无菌处理、培养基配制、培养条件、激素添加及藻体再生研究等问题.%[Objective]The research history, general situation, culture techniques,related research and application foregrounds of marine macroalgae tissue culture at home and abroad were introduced.Such problems as the material selection, aseptic processing of explants, media preparation, culture conditions, hormone supplement and regeneration research were expounded.

  16. Plakilactones G and H from a marine sponge. Stereochemical determination of highly flexible systems by quantitative NMR-derived interproton distances combined with quantum mechanical calculations of 13C chemical shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Di Micco

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the stereostructural investigation of two new oxygenated polyketides, plakilactones G and H, isolated from the marine sponge Plakinastrella mamillaris collected at Fiji Islands, is reported. The stereostructural studies began on plakilactone H by applying an integrated approach of the NOE-based protocol and quantum mechanical calculations of 13C chemical shifts. In particular, plakilactone H was used as a template to extend the application of NMR-derived interproton distances to a highly flexible molecular system with simultaneous assignment of four non-contiguous stereocenters. Chemical derivatization and quantum mechanical calculations of 13C on plakilactone G along with a plausible biogenetic interconversion between plakilactone G and plakilactone H allowed us to determine the absolute configuration in this two new oxygenated polyketides.

  17. Fracture mechanics analysis on Smart-Cut technology. Part 2: Effect of bonding flaws

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Gu; Hongyuan Liu; Yiu-Wing Mai; Xi Qiao Feng; Shou Wen Yu

    2009-01-01

    In Part 2 of the paper on the Smart-Cut process,the effects of bonding flaws characterized by the size and internal pressure before and after splitting are studied by using fracture mechanics models. It is found that the bonding flaws with large size are prone to cause severe deviation of defect growth, leading to a non-transferred area of thin layer when splitting. In a practical Smart-Cut process where the internal pressure of bonding flaws is very small,large interfacial defects always promote defect growth in the splitting process. Meanwhile, increasing the internal pressure of the bonding flaws decreases the defect growth and its deviation before splitting. The mechanism of relaxation of stiffener constraint is proposed to clarify the effect of bonding flaws. Moreover, the progress of the splitting process is analyzed when bonding flaws are present. After splitting,those bonding flaws with large size and high internal pressure are vulnerable for the blistering of the thin film during high-temperature annealing.

  18. The adjusting mining technology of combining fully mechanized with individual prop, rotating, hilt, irregular form, and double unit face on thin coal seam of Tianchen Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Hua-ling; WEN Guo-feng; LI Jin-ke

    2008-01-01

    Analyzed the situations and characteristics of thin coal seam mining and its mining technologies, and introduced the mining innovation technology used by Tianchen Coal Mine of Zhaozhuang Coal Company of China. This innovation technology combined the fully mechanized mining with individual props, and the working face of mining is over length, irregular form and double units. The rotational adjusting mining technology on thin coal seam is also practiced in this new mining technology. The detail technologies, such as outlays of working face and ways, mining methods, equipments of cutting, transporting and sporting, have been introduced. So that, using the synthetic and creative mining tech-nologies, Tianchen Coal Mine solves the mining problems of thin coal seam successfully.

  19. Sunnyvale Marine Climate Deep Retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, A. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Siddiqui, A. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Dakin, B. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) and Allen Gilliland of One Sky Homes collaborated on a marine climate retrofit project designed to meet both Passive House (PH) and Building America program standards. The scope included sealing, installing wall, roof and floor insulation (previously lacking), replacing windows, upgrading the heating and cooling system, and installing mechanical ventilation.

  20. Current developments in marine microbiology: high-pressure biotechnology and the genetic engineering of piezophiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Li, Xuegong; Bartlett, Douglas H; Xiao, Xiang

    2015-06-01

    A key aspect of marine environments is elevated pressure; for example, ∼70% of the ocean is at a pressure of at least 38MPa. Many types of Bacteria and Archaea reside under these high pressures, which drive oceanic biogeochemical cycles and catalyze reactions among rocks, sediments and fluids. Most marine prokaryotes are classified as piezotolerant or as (obligate)-piezophiles with few cultivated relatives. The biochemistry and physiology of these organisms are largely unknown. Recently, high-pressure cultivation technology has been combined with omics and DNA recombination methodologies to examine the physiology of piezophilic marine microorganisms. We are now beginning to understand the adaptive mechanisms of these organisms, along with their ecological functions and evolutionary processes. This knowledge is leading to the further development of high-pressure-based biotechnology.

  1. Development of the RIOT web service and information technologies to enable mechanism reduction for HCCI simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchardt, Karen; Oluwole, Oluwayemisi; Pitz, William; Rahn, Larry A.; Green, William H., Jr.; Leahy, David; Pancerella, Carmen; Sjöberg, Magnus; Dec, John

    2005-01-01

    New approaches are being explored to facilitate multidisciplinary collaborative research of Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion processes. In this paper, collaborative sharing of the Range Identification and Optimization Toolkit (RIOT) and related data and models is discussed. RIOT is a developmental approach to reduce the computational complexity of detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms, enabling their use in modeling kinetically controlled combustion applications such as HCCI. These approaches are being developed and piloted as a part of the Collaboratory for Multiscale Chemical Sciences (CMCS) project. The capabilities of the RIOT code are shared through a portlet in the CMCS portal that allows easy specification and processing of RIOT inputs, remote execution of RIOT, tracking of data pedigree, and translation of RIOT outputs to a table view and to a commonly-used chemical model format.

  2. Development and Testing of Mechanism Technology for Space Exploration in Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Tony R.; Levanas, Greg; Mojarradi, Mohammad M.; Abel, Phillip B.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL), Glenn Research Center (GRC), Langley Research Center (LaRC), and Aeroflex, Inc. have partnered to develop and test actuator hardware that will survive the stringent environment of the moon, and which can also be leveraged for other challenging space exploration missions. Prototype actuators have been built and tested in a unique low temperature test bed with motor interface temperatures as low as 14 degrees Kelvin. Several years of work have resulted in specialized electro-mechanical hardware to survive extreme space exploration environments, a test program that verifies and finds limitations of the designs at extreme temperatures, and a growing knowledge base that can be leveraged by future space exploration missions.

  3. [Intermediate experiment and mechanism analysis of flue gas desulfurization technology by circulating fluidized bed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xudong; Wu, Shaohua; Ma, Chunyuan; Qin, Yukun

    2002-03-01

    A new Circulating Fluidized Bed was designed for intermediate experiment of flue gas desulphurization, in which the flue gas flow rate was 3500 m3/h. By using it, the basic experiments were carried out to study the influence of Ca/S and supersaturated temperature on desulphurization efficiency and the effect of the recycling solid particle in the sulfur removal column on desulphurization performance. The results showed when Ca/S = 1.2, the desulphurization efficiency was increased by 15% through the recycle of solid particle; the gas velocity inside the bed could be designed higher. The mechanism analysis were also studied and the method to increase effective resident time was introduced.

  4. Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Hartog, J P Den

    1961-01-01

    First published over 40 years ago, this work has achieved the status of a classic among introductory texts on mechanics. Den Hartog is known for his lively, discursive and often witty presentations of all the fundamental material of both statics and dynamics (and considerable more advanced material) in new, original ways that provide students with insights into mechanical relationships that other books do not always succeed in conveying. On the other hand, the work is so replete with engineering applications and actual design problems that it is as valuable as a reference to the practicing e

  5. Chaos control of the micro-electro-mechanical resonator by using adaptive dynamic surface technology with extended state observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohua Luo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses chaos control of the micro-electro- mechanical resonator by using adaptive dynamic surface technology with extended state observer. To reveal the mechanism of the micro- electro-mechanical resonator, the phase diagrams and corresponding time histories are given to research the nonlinear dynamics and chaotic behavior, and Homoclinic and heteroclinic chaos which relate closely with the appearance of chaos are presented based on the potential function. To eliminate the effect of chaos, an adaptive dynamic surface control scheme with extended state observer is designed to convert random motion into regular motion without precise system model parameters and measured variables. Putting tracking differentiator into chaos controller solves the ‘explosion of complexity’ of backstepping and poor precision of the first-order filters. Meanwhile, to obtain high performance, a neural network with adaptive law is employed to approximate unknown nonlinear function in the process of controller design. The boundedness of all the signals of the closed-loop system is proved in theoretical analysis. Finally, numerical simulations are executed and extensive results illustrate effectiveness and robustness of the proposed scheme.

  6. Chaos control of the micro-electro-mechanical resonator by using adaptive dynamic surface technology with extended state observer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shaohua; Sun, Quanping; Cheng, Wei

    2016-04-01

    This paper addresses chaos control of the micro-electro- mechanical resonator by using adaptive dynamic surface technology with extended state observer. To reveal the mechanism of the micro- electro-mechanical resonator, the phase diagrams and corresponding time histories are given to research the nonlinear dynamics and chaotic behavior, and Homoclinic and heteroclinic chaos which relate closely with the appearance of chaos are presented based on the potential function. To eliminate the effect of chaos, an adaptive dynamic surface control scheme with extended state observer is designed to convert random motion into regular motion without precise system model parameters and measured variables. Putting tracking differentiator into chaos controller solves the `explosion of complexity' of backstepping and poor precision of the first-order filters. Meanwhile, to obtain high performance, a neural network with adaptive law is employed to approximate unknown nonlinear function in the process of controller design. The boundedness of all the signals of the closed-loop system is proved in theoretical analysis. Finally, numerical simulations are executed and extensive results illustrate effectiveness and robustness of the proposed scheme.

  7. OCEANOGRAPHY & MARINE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20152177 Chen Hongjun(Key Laboratory of Marine Mineral Resources,Guangzhou Marine Geological Survey,Ministry of Land and Resources,Guangzhou 510075,China);Pen Xuechao A Brief Review of 1∶1 000 000 Marine Geological Survey and Mapping Results of the Hainan Sheet in the South China Sea(Marine Geology&Quaternary Geology,

  8. Marine lakes of Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becking, Leontine Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to obtain insight into the processes that play a role in biodiversity patterns of tropical marine species by using marine lakes as a model. Marine lakes are landlocked water bodies that maintain a marine character through narrow submarine connections to the sea. Two

  9. Marine lakes of Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becking, Leontine Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to obtain insight into the processes that play a role in biodiversity patterns of tropical marine species by using marine lakes as a model. Marine lakes are landlocked water bodies that maintain a marine character through narrow submarine connections to the sea. Two

  10. 偏高岭土对水泥改性海相软土力学性能的影响%Influence of metakaolin on mechanical properties of cement-modified marine soft soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    储诚富; 李小春; 邓永锋; 唐俊玮

    2013-01-01

    针对水泥土搅拌法处理连云港海相软土出现可溶盐对水泥土腐蚀而产生强度劣化问题,研究了掺入偏高岭土的水泥土抗腐蚀性能.试验结果表明:偏高岭土能促进水泥土的水化反应和火山灰反应,显著提高水泥土强度,并得到了水泥土的偏高岭土最佳掺入比.研究成果为水泥海相土力学性能改良理论及海相软土水泥土搅拌法加固设计提供依据.%According to the strength degradation problems caused by corrosion of cement-soil by soluble salts when the marine soft soil in Lianyungang area is improved by means of the cement-soil mixing method,the effect ofmetakaolin on the corrosion resistance of soil-cement is investigated.The results indicate that the metakaolin can increase hydration reaction and pozzolanic reaction of cement-soil to obviously improve is strength,and the best mixing ratio ofmetakaolin of cement-soil is obtained.The results provide a basis for the improvement of theory of mechanical properties of cement marine soil and the reinforcement design of marine soft soil by use of the cement-soil mixing method.

  11. Production of Enzymes from Marine Actinobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X Q; Xu, X N; Chen, L Y

    Marine actinobacteria are well recognized for their capabilities to produce valuable natural products, which have great potential for applications in medical, agricultural, and fine chemical industries. In addition to producing unique enzymes responsible for biosynthesis of natural products, many marine actinobacteria also produce hydrolytic enzymes which are able to degrade various biopolymers, such as cellulose, xylan, and chitin. These enzymes are important to produce biofuels and biochemicals of interest from renewable biomass. In this chapter, the recent reports of novel enzymes produced by marine actinobacteria are reviewed, and advanced technologies that can be applied to search for novel marine enzymes as well as for improved enzyme production by marine actinobacteria are summarized, which include ribosome engineering, genome mining, as well as synthetic biology studies. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. 基于天线电阻的海洋溢油检测技术%Marine Oil Spill Detection Technology Based on Antenna Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李杏华; 西萌; 赵禹

    2016-01-01

    随着世界各国石油运输、海上油气开采活动的日益频繁,海洋石油污染事件不断发生,严重威胁海洋环境的可持续发展.提出一种基于天线电阻变化的海洋溢油检测技术.采用复镜像法分析了海面附近溢油及无油时天线的电阻变化,得到天线电阻与油膜厚度的对应关系.设计了溢油检测系统并搭建了实验平台,对1~16 mm厚的油膜进行检测,初步实验证明该检测方法可以检测到最薄1 mm的油膜,分辨力可达0.25 mm,且该方法具有较好的稳定性和实时性,重复性误差小于0.75 mm.%As the world oil transportation , offshore oil and gas exploration is increasingly frequent , ma-rine oil pollution incidents occur constantly , which seriously threatens the sustainable development of ma-rine environment .This paper proposes a new method of detecting oil spill on seawater based on antenna resistance change .Complex image method is used to analyze the change of antenna resistance near the seawater surface with and without oil and obtain the relationship between antenna resistance and oil film thickness .Oil spill detection system and experiment platform was built to test oil film of 1—16 mm thick-ness.Preliminary experiment result shows that this method can detect oil film as thin as 1 mm and the resolution reaches 0.25 mm.The method has good stability and real-time performance with repeatability error of less than 0.75 mm.

  13. Deformation and Failure Mechanism of Roadway Sensitive to Stress Disturbance and Its Zonal Support Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiangling Yao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The 6163 haulage roadway in the Qidong coal mine passes through a fault zone, which causes severe deformation in the surrounding rock, requiring repeated roadway repairs. Based on geological features in the fault area, we analyze the factors affecting roadway deformation and failure and propose the concept of roadway sensitive to stress disturbance (RSSD. We investigate the deformation and failure mechanism of the surrounding rocks of RSSD using field monitoring, theoretical analysis, and numerical simulation. The deformation of the surrounding rocks involves dilatation of shallow rocks and separation of deep rocks. Horizontal and longitudinal fissures evolve to bed separation and fracture zones; alternatively, fissures can evolve into fracture zones with new fissures extending to deeper rock. The fault affects the stress field of the surrounding rock to ~27 m radius. Its maximum impact is on the vertical stress of the rib rock mass and its minimum impact is on the vertical stress of the floor rock mass. Based on our results, we propose a zonal support system for a roadway passing through a fault. Engineering practice shows that the deformation of the surrounding rocks of the roadway can be effectively controlled to ensure normal and safe production in the mine.

  14. Application of Omics Technologies for Evaluation of Antibacterial Mechanisms of Action of Plant-Derived Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Bruno S.; da Silva, Luís C. N.; da Silva, Túlio D.; Rodrigues, João F. S.; Grisotto, Marcos A. G.; Correia, Maria T. dos Santos; Napoleão, Thiago H.; da Silva, Márcia V.; Paiva, Patrícia M. G.

    2016-01-01

    In the face of increasing bacterial resistance to antibiotics currently in use, the search for new antimicrobial agents has received a boost in recent years, with natural products playing an important role in this field. In fact, several methods have been proposed to investigate the antibacterial activities of natural products. However, given that the ultimate aim is future therapeutic use as novel drugs, it is extremely necessary to elucidate their modes of action, stating the molecular effects in detail, and identifying their targets in the bacterial cell. This review analyzes the application of “omics technologies” to understand the antibacterial mechanisms of bioactive natural products, to stimulate research interest in this area and promote scientific collaborations. Some studies have been specifically highlighted herein by examining their procedures and results (targeted proteins and metabolic pathways). These approaches have the potential to provide new insights into our comprehension of antimicrobial resistance/susceptibility, creating new perspectives for the struggle against bacteria, and leading to the development of novel products in the future. PMID:27729901

  15. Conservation physiology of marine fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian; Peck, Myron A.; Antognarelli, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    At the end of May, 17 scientists involved in an EU COST Action on Conservation Physiology of Marine Fishes met in Oristano, Sardinia, to discuss how physiology can be better used in modelling tools to aid in management of marine ecosystems. Current modelling approaches incorporate physiology...... to different extents, ranging from no explicit consideration to detailed physiological mechanisms, and across scales from a single fish to global fishery resources. Biologists from different sub-disciplines are collaborating to rise to the challenge of projecting future changes in distribution and productivity...

  16. 水上溢油应急装备跟踪定位浮标关键技术研究%Research on the key technology of tracking location buoy of the marine oil spill emergency equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨瑞; 顾群; 王玉林; 夏启兵

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the oil spill damage and current situation of emergency response technology home and abroad, provides solutions on oil spill tracking location buoy technology aiming at solve the difficulty of marine oil spill tracking and locating. This paper suggests utilizing the platform of“Beidou”satellite to fulfill the all time tracking and monitoring function on oil spill. It is tested by sea trial that oil spill tracking and locating buoy is an effective tool for oil spill emergency response.%文中介绍了近年来国内外溢油事故危害及应急技术现状,针对当前海上溢油难以跟踪定位的难题,提出了溢油跟踪定位浮标技术解决方案,采用北斗卫星定位通信为平台,实现海上溢油的全过程、全天候的实时跟踪、监测功能,通过海上试验验证,溢油跟踪定位浮标为海上溢油事故应急快速反应提供了一种有力工具。

  17. [Mechanism and kinetics of phenol degradation by TiO2 photocatalytic combined technologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Huang, Ruo-Nan; Wang, Xiao-Min; Wang, Qi; Cong, Yan-Qing

    2013-02-01

    The combination H2O2, or electrical catalytic (EC) system with TiO2 photbcatalytic system for phenol degradation was investigated. The catalytic systems of TiO2/UV, H2O2/UV, TiO2/UV/H2O2 and TiO2/UV/EC were compared to investigate the phenol degradation mechanism and kinetic model. The degradation of phenol in TiO2/UV/H2O2 and TiO2/UV/EC system is more effective than that in TiO2/UV system. With the solution pH of 6, TiO, concentration of 0.2 g.L-1, UV illumination of 2 h, the photocatalysis removal efficiency of phenol reaches to 86%, if the current density of 12 mA.cm-2 is added, the removal efficiency of phenol could reach to 100%. The energy utilization in different catalytic systems was also compared. When phenol is degraded in 15 min, in TiO2/UV/EC system the energy utilization is the highest of 0.0306 g.(kW. h)-1 with the energy consumption of 0.0640 kW.h-1. It indicates that much more energy is used in TiO2/UV/EC system for phenol degradation. During the analysis of intermediate products in different catalysis systems, the first-order kinetic model of phenol degradation and intermediate products such as hydroquinone, catechol and benzoquinone formation were established. The kinetic model is validated the phenol degradation pathway in different catalysis systems, and also indicates the TiO2/UV/EC system could enhance phenol and intermediate products degradation.

  18. An Optical Fiber Viscometer Based on Long-Period Fiber Grating Technology and Capillary Tube Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Neng Wang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This work addresses the development and assessment of a fiber optical viscometer using a simple and low-cost long-period fiber grating (LPFG level sensor and a capillary tube mechanism. Previous studies of optical viscosity sensors were conducted by using different optical sensing methods. The proposed optical viscometer consists of an LPFG sensor, a temperature-controlled chamber, and a cone-shaped reservoir where gravitational force could cause fluid to flow through the capillary tube. We focused on the use of LPFGs as level sensors and the wavelength shifts were not used to quantify the viscosity values of asphalt binders. When the LPFG sensor was immersed in the constant volume (100 mL AC-20 asphalt binder, a wavelength shift was observed and acquired using LabVIEW software and GPIB controller. The time spent between empty and 100 mL was calculated to determine the discharge time. We simultaneously measured the LPFG-induced discharge time and the transmission spectra both in hot air and AC-20 asphalt binder at five different temperatures, 60, 80, 100, 135, and 170 Celsius. An electromechanical rotational viscometer was also used to measure the viscosities, 0.15–213.80 Pa·s, of the same asphalt binder at the above five temperatures. A non-linear regression analysis was performed to convert LPFG-induced discharge time into viscosities. Comparative analysis shows that the LPFG-induced discharge time agreed well with the viscosities obtained from the rotational viscometer.

  19. Discussion on Technology of Latitude Measurement by Marine Gravity Meter%海洋重力仪直接测量纬度技术探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易启林; 孙毅; 边少锋; 徐洪章

    2012-01-01

    Marine gravity measurement data contains the centrifugal force on the ground produced by the motion of surveying vessels, and the earth centrifugal force is related to the latitude. According to the principle, this paper gives the method for measuring the centrifugal force to calculate the latitude directly, and gives the best method after analysing the measurement accuracy. In the calculation examples, the method is effective for measuring the latitude of survey points.%海洋重力测量数据中包含测量载体运动产生的对地离心力大小,而该离心力大小与纬度有关,利用此原理,设计了一种测量方法,可以测量出该离心力的大小,进而计算出所处纬度值;通过对测量方法的精度分析,提出了最佳测量方案.从计算实例来看,运用该方法可以有效地测量出测量点的纬度.

  20. Suitable retention and recovery technology of floor coal at ends of fully mechanized face with great mining heights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Nenghu; WU Qi; Yuan Yong; Bai Qingsheng

    2011-01-01

    Gateways at faces of great mining heights are mostly driven along the roof of coal seams. For gateway height restrictions, a 1-3 m floor coal is retained, leaving a triangular floor coal at the face ends, causing a loss of coal. In order to improve coal recovery rates and to ensure efficiency of equipment at coal mining faces, we investigated suitable retention methods and recovery technology of floor coal at face ends. The upper floor coal can directly be recovered by a shearer with floor dinting. The lower floor coal is recovered by shearer with floor dinting after advanced floor dinting and retaining a step for protecting coal sides in a haulage gateway. Field practice shows that this method can improve the coal recovery rates at fully mechanized working faces with great mining heights.

  1. Advances in genetic engineering of marine algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Song; Lin, Hanzhi; Jiang, Peng

    2012-01-01

    Algae are a component of bait sources for animal aquaculture, and they produce abundant valuable compounds for the chemical industry and human health. With today's fast growing demand for algae biofuels and the profitable market for cosmetics and pharmaceuticals made from algal natural products, the genetic engineering of marine algae has been attracting increasing attention as a crucial systemic technology to address the challenge of the biomass feedstock supply for sustainable industrial applications and to modify the metabolic pathway for the more efficient production of high-value products. Nevertheless, to date, only a few marine algae species can be genetically manipulated. In this article, an updated account of the research progress in marine algal genomics is presented along with methods for transformation. In addition, vector construction and gene selection strategies are reviewed. Meanwhile, a review on the progress of bioreactor technologies for marine algae culture is also revisited. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Mechanism of Early Stage Corrosion for Boric-sulfuric Acid Anodized 2A97 Al-Cu-Li Alloy Under Tropical Marine Atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUO Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Optical microscopy(OM, scanning electron microscopy(SEM, EDX and EIS combined with ultramicrotomy were employed to investigate the micro morphology, chemical composition and electrochemical properties of anodized 2A97 Al-Cu-Li alloy before and after atmospheric corrosion. The results show that when electrolytes containing combinations of tartaric-sulfuric or boric-sulfuric acid are used to grow the films at different temperatures, boric acid addition and higher temperature allow for higher current density that speeds up the film growth. The pore geometry and structure is similar for different electrolytes. Dispersive dark rusty spots composed of O, Al, Cl, Cu are present on the boric-sulfuric acid anodized specimen after exposure in tropical marine atmosphere for 1 month. Deposition of white corrosion product is found on the specimen surface as well. Severe pitting occurs and develops deeply into the alloy substrate after elongated outdoor exposure. Corrosion propagation is associated with θ-phase particles.

  3. Stereochemistry of Complex Marine Natural Products by Quantum Mechanical Calculations of NMR Chemical Shifts: Solvent and Conformational Effects on Okadaic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto J. Domínguez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine organisms are an increasingly important source of novel metabolites, some of which have already inspired or become new drugs. In addition, many of these molecules show a high degree of novelty from a structural and/or pharmacological point of view. Structure determination is generally achieved by the use of a variety of spectroscopic methods, among which NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance plays a major role and determination of the stereochemical relationships within every new molecule is generally the most challenging part in structural determination. In this communication, we have chosen okadaic acid as a model compound to perform a computational chemistry study to predict 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts. The effect of two different solvents and conformation on the ability of DFT (density functional theory calculations to predict the correct stereoisomer has been studied.

  4. Mechanisms for improving mass transfer in food with ultrasound technology: Describing the phenomena in two model cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miano, Alberto Claudio; Ibarz, Albert; Augusto, Pedro Esteves Duarte

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this work was to demonstrate how ultrasound mechanisms (direct and indirect effects) improve the mass transfer phenomena in food processing, and which part of the process they are more effective in. Two model cases were evaluated: the hydration of sorghum grain (with two water activities) and the influx of a pigment into melon cylinders. Different treatments enabled us to evaluate and discriminate both direct (inertial flow and "sponge effect") and indirect effects (micro channel formation), alternating pre-treatments and treatments using an ultrasonic bath (20 kHz of frequency and 28 W/L of volumetric power) and a traditional water-bath. It was demonstrated that both the effects of ultrasound technology are more effective in food with higher water activity, the micro channels only forming in moist food. Moreover, micro channel formation could also be observed using agar gel cylinders, verifying the random formation of these due to cavitation. The direct effects were shown to be important in mass transfer enhancement not only in moist food, but also in dry food, this being improved by the micro channels formed and the porosity of the food. In conclusion, the improvement in mass transfer due to direct and indirect effects was firstly discriminated and described. It was proven that both phenomena are important for mass transfer in moist foods, while only the direct effects are important for dry foods. Based on these results, better processing using ultrasound technology can be obtained.

  5. Partitionable-space enhanced coagulation (PEC) reactor and its working mechanism: a new prospective chemical technology for phosphorus pollution control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Zheng, Ping; Abbas, Ghulam; Chen, Xiaoguang

    2014-02-01

    Phosphorus pollution control and phosphorus recycling, simultaneously, are focus of attention in the wastewater treatment. In this work, a novel reactor named partitionable-space enhanced coagulation (PEC) was invented for phosphorus control. The working performance and process mechanism of PEC reactor were investigated. The results showed that the PEC technology was highly efficient and cost-effective. The volumetric removal rate (VRR) reached up to 2.86 ± 0.04 kg P/(m(3) d) with a phosphorus removal rate of over 97%. The precipitant consumption was reduced to 2.60-2.76 kg Fe(II)/kg P with low operational cost of $ 0.632-0.673/kg P. The peak phosphorus content in precipitate was up to 30.44% by P2O5, which reveal the benefit of the recycling phosphorus resource. The excellent performance of PEC technology was mainly attributed to the partitionable-space and 'flocculation filter'. The partition limited the trans-regional back-mixing of reagents along the reactor, which promoted the precipitation reaction. The 'flocculation filter' retained the microflocs, enhancing the flocculation process.

  6. Marine antivenoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Bart J

    2003-01-01

    There is an enormous diversity and complexity of venoms and poisons in marine animals. Fatalities have occurred from envenoming by sea snakes, jellyfish, venomous fish such as stonefish, cone snails, and blue-ringed octopus. Deaths have also followed ingestion of toxins in shellfish, puffer fish (Fugu), and ciguatoxin-containing fish. However antivenoms are generally only available for envenoming by certain sea snakes, the major Australian box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri) and stonefish. There have been difficulties in characterizing the toxins of C. fleckeri venom, and there are conflicting animals studies on the efficacy of C. fleckeri antivenom. The vast majority of C. fleckeri stings are not life-threatening, with painful skin welts the major finding. However fatalities that do occur usually do so within 5 to 20 minutes of the sting. This unprecedented rapid onset of cardiotoxicity in clinical envenoming suggests that antivenom may need to be given very early (within minutes) and possibly in large doses if a life is to be saved. Forty years of anecdotal experience supports the beneficial effect of stonefish antivenom in relieving the excruciating pain after stonefish spine penetration. It remains uncertain whether stonefish antivenom is efficacious in stings from spines of other venomous fish, and the recommendation of giving the antivenom intramuscularly needs reassessment.

  7. Triboelectric nanogenerators as new energy technology for self-powered systems and as active mechanical and chemical sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong Lin

    2013-11-26

    Triboelectrification is an effect that is known to each and every one probably since ancient Greek time, but it is usually taken as a negative effect and is avoided in many technologies. We have recently invented a triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) that is used to convert mechanical energy into electricity by a conjunction of triboelectrification and electrostatic induction. As for this power generation unit, in the inner circuit, a potential is created by the triboelectric effect due to the charge transfer between two thin organic/inorganic films that exhibit opposite tribo-polarity; in the outer circuit, electrons are driven to flow between two electrodes attached on the back sides of the films in order to balance the potential. Since the most useful materials for TENG are organic, it is also named organic nanogenerator, which is the first using organic materials for harvesting mechanical energy. In this paper, we review the fundamentals of the TENG in the three basic operation modes: vertical contact-separation mode, in-plane sliding mode, and single-electrode mode. Ever since the first report of the TENG in January 2012, the output power density of TENG has been improved 5 orders of magnitude within 12 months. The area power density reaches 313 W/m(2), volume density reaches 490 kW/m(3), and a conversion efficiency of ∼60% has been demonstrated. The TENG can be applied to harvest all kinds of mechanical energy that is available but wasted in our daily life, such as human motion, walking, vibration, mechanical triggering, rotating tire, wind, flowing water, and more. Alternatively, TENG can also be used as a self-powered sensor for actively detecting the static and dynamic processes arising from mechanical agitation using the voltage and current output signals of the TENG, respectively, with potential applications for touch pad and smart skin technologies. To enhance the performance of the TENG, besides the vast choices of materials in the triboelectric

  8. 舰船氧、氮气体分离技术现状与展望%Marine Oxygen Nitrogen Separation Technologies:Application and Future Prospect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘维国; 赵远征; 刘辉

    2012-01-01

    In order to understand the applicability of gas separation equipment installed in naval ship, the characteristics of oxygen nitrogen separation process developed for gas separation were compared and analyzed, including Cryogenic, Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA), Membrane Separation, Ionic Transport Membrane (ITM), Oxygen Transport Membrane (OTM), Ceramic Autothermal Recovery (CAR), Fluidization Temperature Swing Adsorption Process (FTSA), etc. Due to the specific requirements of environment in naval ship, technique of PSA and Membrane Separation are more feasible for marine application, and that satisfy the supply need for dosage and quality of oxygen and nitrogen in naval ship. The analysis also shows that the combined process of PSA and Membrane Separation is a more efficient process, and is a new direction of technical developments to supply oxygen and nitrogen in naval ship.%针对气体分离设备装备舰船的适用性问题,通过分析深度冷冻法、变压吸附法、膜分离法及ITM、OTM、CAR、FTSA等气体分离工艺的特点,结合舰船的特殊环境要求,说明舰用制氧、制氮工艺采用变压吸附和膜分离技术最具可行性,可以满足舰船对氧、氮气体用量需求及品质要求.耦合变压吸附、膜分离的氧氮一体化联合分离技术可以更为合理地利用船用资源,是今后舰船氧、氮保障相关技术发展的新方向.

  9. Mechanical construction technology of ready-mixed mortar%预拌砂浆机械化施工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵欣

    2012-01-01

    Based on the policies of "prohibiting the mixing of mortar at construction sites" and promoting the use of ready-mixed mortar, the ma- jor obstacles of the promotion of ready-mixed mortar were analyzed and the mechanical construction technology of ready-mixed mortar was intro- duced. It was showed that mechanical construction could effectively reduce the comprehensive cost of the construction project, solve the bottle- neck problem of the promotion of ready-mixed mortar.%在国家“禁现”、推广使用预拌砂浆的政策下,分析了预拌砂浆推广过程中的主要障碍,介绍了预拌砂浆机械化施工技术,结果表明,机械化施工的运用可有效降低建设工程综合成本,解决推广预拌砂浆的瓶颈问题。

  10. Education for hydraulics and pneumatics in Nippon Institute of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering; Nippon Kogyo Daigaku ni okeru yukuatsukyoiku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terashima, Y. [Nippon Institute of Technology, Saitama (Japan)

    2000-03-15

    Described herein is education of hydraulics and pneumatics in Nippon Institute of Technology. Department of Mechanical Engineering has fluid dynamics, mechatronics II, air conditioning, heat transfer engineering, and facility and equipment engineering as the themes related to hydraulics and pneumatics. The control engineering courses have the pneumatics-related themes of supply of pneumatic pressure for a short time and methods for cutting off pneumatic pressure when the piston reaches the dead center, as the energy-saving type driving methods for pneumatic cylinders; measurement of frictional force by the experiments on low-friction cylinders; and researches on improvement of stiffness of pneumatic cylinder type actuators for control valves, among others. Students are directly involved in equipment designs, fabrication and experiments. Many machines and facilities are now easily handled, and operated according to manuals. To prepare graduation theses only by the aid of personal computers is not adequate for education of students in this age, when they have less chances for education through experiences in affluent environments. The mechanical engineering students are given chances for practical education through experiments and graduation thesis preparation. However, it is necessary for general engineering students to be more exposed to technical practices. (NEDO)

  11. Fracture mechanics analysis on Smart-Cut(R) technology. Part 1: Effects of stiffening wafer and defect interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Gu; Hongyuan Liu; YiuWing Mai; Xi Qiao Feng; Shou Wen Yu

    2009-01-01

    In the present paper, continuum fracture mecha-nics is used to analyze the Smart-Cut process, a recently established ion cut technology which enables highly efficient fabrication of various silicon-on-insulator (SO1) wafers of high uniformity in thickness. Using integral transform and Cauchy singular integral equation methods, the mode-Ⅰ and mode-II stress intensity factors, energy release rate, and crack opening displacements are derived in order to examine seve-ral important fracture mechanisms involved in the Smart-Cut process. The effects of defect interaction and stiffening wafer on defect growth are investigated. The numerical results indi-cate that a stiffener/handle wafer can effectively prevent the donor wafer from blistering and exfoliation, but it slows down the defect growth by decreasing the magnitudes of SIF's. Defect interaction also plays an important role in the splitting process of SOI wafers, but its contribution depends strongly on the size, interval and internal pressure of defects. Finally, an analytical formula is derived to estimate the implantation dose required for splitting a SOI wafer.

  12. Marine Renewable Energy Seascape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair G.L. Borthwick

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy production based on fossil fuel reserves is largely responsible for carbon emissions, and hence global warming. The planet needs concerted action to reduce fossil fuel usage and to implement carbon mitigation measures. Ocean energy has huge potential, but there are major interdisciplinary problems to be overcome regarding technology, cost reduction, investment, environmental impact, governance, and so forth. This article briefly reviews ocean energy production from offshore wind, tidal stream, ocean current, tidal range, wave, thermal, salinity gradients, and biomass sources. Future areas of research and development are outlined that could make exploitation of the marine renewable energy (MRE seascape a viable proposition; these areas include energy storage, advanced materials, robotics, and informatics. The article concludes with a sustainability perspective on the MRE seascape encompassing ethics, legislation, the regulatory environment, governance and consenting, economic, social, and environmental constraints. A new generation of engineers is needed with the ingenuity and spirit of adventure to meet the global challenge posed by MRE.

  13. Mechanical and thermal property characterization of poly-l-lactide (PLLA) scaffold developed using pressure-controllable green foaming technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Shen-Jun; Hu, Xiao; Wang, Fang; Ma, Qing-Yu; Gu, Min-Fen

    2015-04-01

    Poly-l-lactide (PLLA) is one of the most promising biological materials used for tissue engineering scaffolds (TES) because of their excellent biodegradability and tenability. Here, microcellular PLLA foams were fabricated by pressure-controllable green foaming technology. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), wide angle X-ray diffraction measurement (WAXRD), thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, reflection-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis, enzymatic degradation study and MTT assay were used to analyze the scaffolds' morphologies, structures and crystallinities, mechanical and biodegradation properties, as well as their cytotoxicity. The results showed that PLLA foams with pore sizes from 8 to 103μm diameters were produced when the saturation pressure decreased from 7.0 to 4.0MPa. Through a combination of StepScan DSC (SSDSC) and WAXRD approaches, it was observed in PLLA foams that the crystallinity, highly-oriented metastable state and rigid amorphous phase increased with the increasing foaming pressure. It was also found that both the glass transition temperature and apparent enthalpy of PLLA significantly increased after the foaming process, which suggested that the changes of microcellular structure could provide PLLA scaffolds better thermal stability and elasticity. Moreover, MTT assessments suggested that the smaller pore size should benefit cell attachment and growth in the scaffold. The results of current work will give us better understanding of the mechanisms involved in structure and property changes of PLLA at the molecular level, which enables more possibilities for the design of PLLA scaffold to satisfy various requirements in biomedical and green chemical applications.

  14. Antitumor Effects and Related Mechanisms of Penicitrinine A, a Novel Alkaloid with a Unique Spiro Skeleton from the Marine Fungus Penicillium citrinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin-Ying Liu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Penicitrinine A, a novel alkaloid with a unique spiro skeleton, was isolated from a marine-derived fungus Penicillium citrinum. In this study, the isolation, structure and biosynthetic pathway elucidation of the new compound were described. This new compound showed anti-proliferative activity on multiple tumor types. Among them, the human malignant melanoma cell A-375 was confirmed to be the most sensitive. Morphologic evaluation, apoptosis rate analysis, Western blot and real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR results showed penicitrinine A could significantly induce A-375 cell apoptosis by decreasing the expression of Bcl-2 and increasing the expression of Bax. Moreover, we investigated the anti-metastatic effects of penicitrinine A in A-375 cells by wound healing assay, trans-well assay, Western blot and RT-qPCR. The results showed penicitrinine A significantly suppressed metastatic activity of A-375 cells by regulating the expression of MMP-9 and its specific inhibitor TIMP-1. These findings suggested that penicitrinine A might serve as a potential antitumor agent, which could inhibit the proliferation and metastasis of tumor cells.

  15. Mechanisms of browning development in aggregates of marine organic matter formed under anoxic conditions: A study by mid-infrared and near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecozzi, Mauro; Acquistucci, Rita; Nisini, Laura; Conti, Marcelo Enrique

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we analyze some chemical aspects concerning the browning development associated to the aggregation of marine organic matter (MOM) occurring in anoxic conditions. Organic matter samples obtained by the degradation of different algal samples were daily taken to follow the evolution of the aggregation process and the associated browning process. These samples were examined by Fourier transform mid infrared (FTIR) and Fourier transform near infrared (FTNIR) spectroscopy and the colour changes occurring during the above mentioned aggregation process were measured by means of Colour Indices (CIs). Spectral Cross Correlation Analysis (SCCA) was applied to correlate changes in CI values to the structural changes of MOM observed by FTIR and FTNIR spectra which were also submitted to Two-Dimensional Hetero Correlation Analysis (2HDCORR). SCCA results showed that all biomolecules present in MOM aggregates such as carbohydrates, proteins and lipids are involved in the browning development. In particular, SCCA results of algal mixtures suggest that the observed yellow-brown colour can be linked to the development of non enzymatic (i.e. Maillard) browning reactions. SCCA results for MOM furthermore suggest that aggregates coming from brown algae also showed evidence of browning related to enzymatic reactions. In the end 2HDCORR results indicate that hydrogen bond interactions among different molecules of MOM can play a significant role in the browning development.

  16. Comparative genomics of marine cyanomyoviruses reveals the widespread occurrence of Synechococcus host genes localized to a hyperplastic region: implications for mechanisms of cyanophage evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, Andrew D; Zwirglmaier, Katrin; Downey, Mike J; Mann, Nicholas H; Scanlan, Dave J

    2009-09-01

    The vast majority of cyanophages isolated to date are cyanomyoviruses, a group related to bacteriophage T4. Comparative genome analysis of five cyanomyoviruses, including a newly sequenced cyanophage S-RSM4, revealed a 'core genome' of 64 genes, the majority of which are also found in other T4-like phages. Subsequent comparative genomic hybridization analysis using a pilot microarray showed that a number of 'host' genes are widespread in cyanomyovirus isolates. Furthermore, a hyperplastic region was identified between genes g15-g18, within a highly conserved structural gene module, which contained a variable number of inserted genes that lacked conservation in gene order. Several of these inserted genes were host-like and included ptoX, gnd, zwf and petE encoding plastoquinol terminal oxidase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and plastocyanin respectively. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that these genes were acquired independently of each other, even though they have become localized within the same genomic region. This hyperplastic region contains no detectable sequence features that might be mechanistically involved with the acquisition of host-like genes, but does appear to be a site specifically associated with the acquisition process and may represent a novel facet of the evolution of marine cyanomyoviruses.

  17. Profiling of Polar Lipids in Marine Oleaginous Diatom Fistulifera solaris JPCC DA0580: Prediction of the Potential Mechanism for Eicosapentaenoic Acid-Incorporation into Triacylglycerol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Liang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The marine oleaginous diatom Fistulifera solaris JPCC DA0580 is a candidate for biodiesel production because of its high lipid productivity. However, the substantial eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA content in this strain would affect the biodiesel quality. On the other hand, EPA is also known as the essential health supplement for humans. EPAs are mainly incorporated into glycerolipids in the microalgal cell instead of the presence as free fatty acids. Therefore, the understanding of the EPA biosynthesis including the incorporation of the EPA into glycerolipids especially triacylglycerol (TAG is fundamental for regulating EPA content for different purposes. In this study, in order to identify the biosynthesis pathway for the EPA-containing TAG species, a lipidomic characterization of the EPA-enriched polar lipids was performed by using direct infusion electrospray ionization (ESI-Q-TRAP-MS and MS/MS analyses. The determination of the fatty acid positional distribution showed that the sn-2 position of all the chloroplast lipids and part of phosphatidylcholine (PC species was occupied by C16 fatty acids. This result suggested the critical role of the chloroplast on the lipid synthesis in F. solaris. Furthermore, the exclusive presence of C18 fatty acids in PC highly indicated the biosynthesis of EPA on PC. Finally, the PC-based acyl-editing and head group exchange processes were proposed to be essential for the incorporation of EPA into TAG and chloroplast lipids.

  18. Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Chester, W

    1979-01-01

    When I began to write this book, I originally had in mind the needs of university students in their first year. May aim was to keep the mathematics simple. No advanced techniques are used and there are no complicated applications. The emphasis is on an understanding of the basic ideas and problems which require expertise but do not contribute to this understanding are not discussed. How­ ever, the presentation is more sophisticated than might be considered appropri­ ate for someone with no previous knowledge of the subject so that, although it is developed from the beginning, some previous acquaintance with the elements of the subject would be an advantage. In addition, some familiarity with element­ ary calculus is assumed but not with the elementary theory of differential equations, although knowledge of the latter would again be an advantage. It is my opinion that mechanics is best introduced through the motion of a particle, with rigid body problems left until the subject is more fully developed. Howev...

  19. The effect of time gaining on chemical composition and technological characteristics of mechanically separated turkey meat (MSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Cegiełka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mechanically separated meat (MSM of poultry is a raw material widely used in the meat industry in Poland and most European Union countries. The manner and conditions for the production of this raw material cause, however, that it has limited technological usefulness. In this study the effect of time of obtaining turkey MSM produced by pressure separation on selected quality characteristics of this raw material: basic chemical composition, pH, thermal loss, water binding capacity and colour was determined. The experimental material consisted of MSM, which was collected directly from the machine after 1, 2 and 3 h of operation. The content of water, protein and fat in MSM was determined using a near infrared spectrometer. The instrumental measurement of colour parameters was performed in the CIE L*a*b* (1976 system. Determination of ash content in MSM and pH measurement were performed according to the requirements of Polish standards, and to determine other technological quality characteristics the methods described in the literature were used. It was found that the extension of working time of the pressure separator from 1 to 3 h resulted in a significant increase in the water content in turkey MSM. Furthermore, the MSM sample obtained after 3 h of operation of the device was characterized by a significantly lower thermal loss and higher water binding capacity than a similar material, but obtained after 1 and 2 h of operation of the device. Time of obtaining of turkey MOM had no significant effect on the content of protein, fat and ash, pH value and colour parameters (L*, a*, b* of the raw material.

  20. Research and Promotion of New Technology of Corn Mechanized Production%玉米全程机械化生产新技术研究与推广

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    勾峰; 赵振芳; 王晓峰

    2014-01-01

    文章通过对吉林省玉米全程机械化生产过程中科技推广效益的分析,进一步明确了玉米全程机械化生产新技术研究与推广的重要意义,具有广阔的推广前景。%This paper further defines the significance of research and promotion of new technology of corn mechanized production by analyzing the effectiveness of science and technology promotion in the process of corn mechanized production in Jilin province, which is of broad promotion prospect.