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Sample records for technology main injector

  1. FERMILAB: Main Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The Fermilab Main Injector (FMI) project is the centerpiece of the Laboratory's Fermilab III programme for the 1990s. Designed to support a luminosity of at least 5x10 31 cm -2 s -1 in the Tevatron collider, it will also provide new capabilities for rare neutral kaon decay and neutrino oscillation studies. The Fermilab Main Injector 8-150 GeV synchrotron is designed to replace the existing Main Ring which seriously limits beam intensities for the Tevatron and the antiproton production target. The project has passed several significant milestones and is now proceeding rapidly towards construction. The project received a $11.65M appropriation in 1992 and has been given $15M for the current fiscal year. Through the Energy Systems Acquisition Advisory Board (ESAAB) process, the US Department of Energy (DoE) has authorized funds for construction of the underground enclosure and service building where the Main Injector will touch the Tevatron, and to the preparation of bids for remaining project construction

  2. FERMILAB: Main Injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1993-06-15

    The Fermilab Main Injector (FMI) project is the centerpiece of the Laboratory's Fermilab III programme for the 1990s. Designed to support a luminosity of at least 5x10{sup 31} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} in the Tevatron collider, it will also provide new capabilities for rare neutral kaon decay and neutrino oscillation studies. The Fermilab Main Injector 8-150 GeV synchrotron is designed to replace the existing Main Ring which seriously limits beam intensities for the Tevatron and the antiproton production target. The project has passed several significant milestones and is now proceeding rapidly towards construction. The project received a $11.65M appropriation in 1992 and has been given $15M for the current fiscal year. Through the Energy Systems Acquisition Advisory Board (ESAAB) process, the US Department of Energy (DoE) has authorized funds for construction of the underground enclosure and service building where the Main Injector will touch the Tevatron, and to the preparation of bids for remaining project construction.

  3. Fermilab Main Injector plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1990-07-15

    The Fermilab Main Injector is the centrepiece of the 'Fermilab III' scheme to significantly upgrade the Laboratory's existing accelerator complex. The new accelerator is designed to provide increased particle beam levels to boost the collision rate in the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider (luminosity in excess of 5 x 10{sup 31} per sq cm per s) and, if approved, would provide increased flexibility in all areas of high energy physics research.

  4. Fermilab Main Injector plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The Fermilab Main Injector is the centrepiece of the 'Fermilab III' scheme to significantly upgrade the Laboratory's existing accelerator complex. The new accelerator is designed to provide increased particle beam levels to boost the collision rate in the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider (luminosity in excess of 5 x 10 31 per sq cm per s) and, if approved, would provide increased flexibility in all areas of high energy physics research

  5. Main injector synchronous timing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blokland, W.; Steimel, J.

    1998-01-01

    The Synchronous Timing System is designed to provide sub-nanosecond timing to instrumentation during the acceleration of particles in the Main Injector. Increased energy of the beam particles leads to a small but significant increase in speed, reducing the time it takes to complete a full turn of the ring by 61 nanoseconds (or more than 3 rf buckets). In contrast, the reference signal, used to trigger instrumentation and transmitted over a cable, has a constant group delay. This difference leads to a phase slip during the ramp and prevents instrumentation such as dampers from properly operating without additional measures. The Synchronous Timing System corrects for this phase slip as well as signal propagation time changes due to temperature variations. A module at the LLRF system uses a 1.2 Gbit/s G-Link chip to transmit the rf clock and digital data (e.g. the current frequency) over a single mode fiber around the ring. Fiber optic couplers at service buildings split off part of this signal for a local module which reconstructs a synchronous beam reference signal. This paper describes the background, design and expected performance of the Synchronous Timing System. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  6. Main injector synchronous timing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blokland, Willem; Steimel, James

    1998-01-01

    The Synchronous Timing System is designed to provide sub-nanosecond timing to instrumentation during the acceleration of particles in the Main Injector. Increased energy of the beam particles leads to a small but significant increase in speed, reducing the time it takes to complete a full turn of the ring by 61 nanoseconds (or more than 3 rf buckets). In contrast, the reference signal, used to trigger instrumentation and transmitted over a cable, has a constant group delay. This difference leads to a phase slip during the ramp and prevents instrumentation such as dampers from properly operating without additional measures. The Synchronous Timing System corrects for this phase slip as well as signal propagation time changes due to temperature variations. A module at the LLRF system uses a 1.2 Gbit/s G-Link chip to transmit the rf clock and digital data (e.g. the current frequency) over a single mode fiber around the ring. Fiber optic couplers at service buildings split off part of this signal for a local module which reconstructs a synchronous beam reference signal. This paper describes the background, design and expected performance of the Synchronous Timing System

  7. The Fermilab Main Injector Technical Design Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1994-08-01

    This report contains a description of the design, cost estimate, and construction schedule of the Fermilab Main Injector (FMI) Project. The technical, cost, and schedule baselines for the FMI Project have already been established and may be found in the Fermilab Main Injector Title I Design Report, issued in August 1992. This report updates and expands upon the design and schedule for construction of all subsystem components and associated civil construction described in the Title I Design Report. The facilities described have been designed in conformance with DOE 6430.1A, "United States Department of Energy General Design Criteria."

  8. Results on Fermilab main injector dipole measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, B.C.; Baiod, R.; DiMarco, J.; Glass, H.D.; Harding, D.J.; Martin, P.S.; Mishra, S.; Mokhtarani, A.; Orris, D.F.; russell, O.A.; Tompkins, J.C.; Walbridge, D.G.C.

    1995-06-01

    Measurements of the Productions run of Fermilab Main Injector Dipole magnets is underway. Redundant strength measurements provide a set of data which one can fit to mechanical and magnetic properties of the assembly. Plots of the field contribution from the steel supplement the usual plots of transfer function (B/I) vs. I in providing insight into the measured results

  9. Chromaticity compensation scheme for the Main Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogacz, S.A.

    1993-05-01

    The current Main Injector lattice is studied in the context of full chromaticity compensation in the presence of the eddy current, saturation and the end-pack sextupole fields generated by the dipole magnets. Two families of correcting sextupole magnets are placed to compensate these fields and to adjust the chromaticity (in both planes) to some desired value. Variation of the dipole induced sextupole fields with the B-field (changing along a ramp) are modeled according to recent experimental measurements of the Main Injector dipole magnet Analysis of the required sextupole strengths is carried out along two realistic momentum ramps. The results of our calculation give quantitative insight into the requisite performance of the sextupole magnets

  10. Radiation shielding of the main injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, C.M.; Martin, P.S.

    1995-05-01

    The radiation shielding in the Fermilab Main Injector (FMI) complex has been carried out by adopting a number of prescribed stringent guidelines established by a previous safety analysis. Determination of the required amount of radiation shielding at various locations of the FMI has been done using Monte Carlo computations. A three dimensional ray tracing code as well as a code based upon empirical observations have been employed in certain cases

  11. Transition crossing in the main injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, J.

    1990-01-01

    This report summarizes the study of various longitudinal problems pertaining to the transition-energy crossing in the proposed Fermi Lab Main Injector. The theory indicates that the beam loss and bunch-area growth are mainly caused by the chromatic non-linear effect, which is enhanced by the space-charge force near transition. Computer simulation using the program TIBETAN shows that a ''γ T jump'' of about 1.5 unit within 1 ms is adequate to achieve a ''clean'' crossing in the currently proposed h=588 scenario. 19 refs., 4 figs

  12. Proposed Fermilab upgrade main injector project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct and operate a ''Fermilab Main Injector'' (FMI), a 150 GeV proton injector accelerator, at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) in Batavia, Illinois. The purpose and need for this action are given of this Environmental Assessment (EA). A description of the proposed FMI and construction activities are also given. The proposed FMI would be housed in an underground tunnel with a circumference of approximately 2.1 miles (3.4 kilometers), and the construction would affect approximately 135 acres of the 6,800 acre Fermilab site. The purpose of the proposed FMI is to construct and bring into operation a new 150 GeV proton injector accelerator. This addition to Fermilab's Tevatron would enable scientists to penetrate ever more deeply into the subatomic world through the detection of the super massive particles that can be created when a proton and antiproton collide head-on. The conversion of energy into matter in these collisions makes it possible to create particles that existed only an instant after the beginning of time. The proposed FMI would significantly extend the scientific reach of the Tevatron, the world's first superconducting accelerator and highest energy proton-antiproton collider

  13. Siberian snakes for the Fermilab Main Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anferov, V.A.; Baiod, R.; Courant, E.D.

    1993-01-01

    Appropriate Siberian snakes were designed to maintain the proton beam polarization during acceleration in the Fermilab Main Injector from 8 to 150 GeV. Various snake designs were investigated to find one fitting into the 14 m straight section spaces with the required spin rotation axis and the minimum orbit excursion. The authors studied both cold and warm discrete magnet snakes as well as warm snakes with helical magnets. For the warm discrete magnet snake, obtaining small orbit excursions required a nearly longitudinal snake axis, while axes near ±45 degrees are needed when using two snakes in a ring. The authors found acceptable snakes either by using superconducting magnets or by using warm magnets with a helical dipole field

  14. Detailed Measurement of ORSC Main Chamber Injector Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedard, Michael J.

    Improving fidelity in simulation of combustion dynamics in rocket combustors requires an increase in experimental measurement fidelity for validation. In a model rocket combustor, a chemiluminescence based spectroscopy technique was used to capture flame light emissions for direct comparison to a computational simulation of the production of chemiluminescent species. The comparison indicated that high fidelity models of rocket combustors can predict spatio-temporal distribution of chemiluminescent species with trend-wise accuracy. The comparison also indicated the limited ability of OH* and CH* emission to indicate flame heat release. Based on initial spectroscopy experiments, a photomultiplier based chemiluminescence sensor was designed to increase the temporal resolution of flame emission measurements. To apply developed methodologies, an experiment was designed to investigate the flow and combustion dynamics associated with main chamber injector elements typical of the RD-170 rocket engine. A unique feature of the RD-170 injector element is the beveled expansion between the injector recess and combustion chamber. To investigate effects of this geometry, a scaling methodology was applied to increase the physical scale of a single injector element while maintaining traceability to the RD-170 design. Two injector configurations were tested, one including a beveled injector face and the other a flat injector face. This design enabled improved spatial resolution of pressure and light emission measurements densely arranged in the injector recess and near-injector region of the chamber. Experimental boundary conditions were designed to closely replicate boundary conditions in simulations. Experimental results showed that the beveled injector face had a damping effect on pressure fluctuations occurring near the longitudinal resonant acoustic modes of the chamber, implying a mechanism for improved overall combustion stability. Near the injector, the beveled geometry

  15. A kaon physics program at the Fermilab Main Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, Peter

    1997-11-01

    In this paper we describe a triad of kaon experiments which will form the foundation of a kaon physics program at Fermilab in the Main Injector era. These three experiments; KAMI, CKM and CPT, span the range of experiment types discussed above. KAMI will use the existing neutral kaon beam and the KTeV detector as the basis of a search for the Standard Model ultra rare decay K L → π 0 ν anti ν decay mode is by far the theoretically cleanest measurement of the Standard Model parameter responsible for CP violation. CKM will measure the analogous charged kaon decay mode. Together these two experiments will determine the Standard Model contribution to CP violation independent of the B meson sector. The Standard Model parameters controlling CP violation must be observed to be the same in the K and B meson sectors in order to confirm the Standard Model as the sole source of CP violation in nature. CPT is a hybrid beam experiment using a high purity K + beam to produce a pure K 0 beam in order to search for violation of CPT symmetry at a mass scale up to the Planck mass. CPT also will measure new CP violation parameters to test the Standard Model and search for rare K S decays. The Fermilab infrastructure for such a physics program largely already exists. The Main Injector will be an existing accelerator by late 1998 with beam properties comparable to any of the previous ''kaon factory'' proposals. The KTeV detector and neutral kaon beamline are unsurpassed in the world and were originally designed to also operate with the 120 GeV Main Injector beam as KAMI. The Fermilab Meson laboratory was originally designed as an area for fixed target experiments using 200 GeV proton beams. The charged kaon beam experiments will naturally find a home there. Both charged kaon experiments, CKM and CPT, will share a new high purity RF separated charged kaon beam based on superconducting RF technology which will provide the highest intensity and purity charged kaon beam in the world

  16. Switchyard in the Main Injector era conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, C.; Kobilarcik, T.; Lucas, P.; Malensek, A.; Murphy, C.T.; Yang, M.-J.

    1997-08-01

    This report presents elements of a design of the Switchyard and of the present fixed target beamlines in the era of the Main Injector (MI). It presumes that 800 GeV Tevatron beam will be transported to this area in the MI era, and permits it to share cycles with 120 GeV Main Injector beam if this option is desired. Geographically, the region discussed extends from the vicinity of AO to downstream points beyond which beam properties will be determined by the requirements of specific experiments. New neutrino lines not utilizing the present Switchyard (NuMI, BooNE) are not addressed. Similarly Main Injector beams upstream of AO are described fully in MI documentation and are unaffected by what is presented here. The timing both of the preparation of this report and of its recommendations for proceeding with construction relate to a desire to do required work in Transfer Hall and Enclosure B during the Main Injector construction shutdown (September 1997 - September 1998). As these areas are off-limits during any Tevatron operation, it is necessary for the fixed target program that work be completed here during this extended down period. The design presented here enables the operation of all beamlines in the manner specified in the current Laboratory plans for future fixed- target physics

  17. A transitionless lattice for the Fermilab Main Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, K.Y.; Trbojevic, D.; Lee, S.Y.

    1991-05-01

    Medium energy (1 to 30 GeV) accelerators are often confronted with transition crossing during acceleration. A lattice without transition is presented, which is a design for the Fermilab Main Injector. The main properties of this lattice are that the γ t is an imaginary number, the maxima of the dispersion function are small, and two long-straight section with zero dispersion. 7 refs., 5 figs

  18. Tevatron energy and luminosity upgrades beyond the Main Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amidei, D.; Kamon, T.; Lopez, J.; McIntyre, P.; White, J.

    1994-08-01

    The Fermilab Tevatron will be the world's highest energy hadron collider until the LHC is commissioned, it has the world's highest energy fixed target beams, and Fermilab will be the leading high energy physics laboratory in the US for the foreseeable future. Following the demise of the SSC, a number of possible upgrades to the Tevatron complex, beyond construction of the Main Injector, are being discussed. Using existing technology, it appears possible to increase the luminosity of the bar pp Collider to at least 10 33 cm -2 sec -1 (Tevatron-Star) and to increase the beam energy to 2 TeV (DiTevatron). Fixed target beam of energy about 1.5 TeV could also be delivered. Leaving the existing Tevatron in the tunnel and constructing bypasses around the collider halls would allow simultaneous 800 GeV fixed target and √s = 4 TeV collider operation. These upgrades would give Fermilab an exciting physics program which would be complementary to the LHC, and they would lay the groundwork for the construction of a possible post-LHC ultra-high energy hadron collider

  19. Electron Cloud Measurements in Fermilab Main Injector and Recycler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldred, Jeffrey Scott [Indiana U.; Backfish, M. [Fermilab; Tan, C. Y. [Fermilab; Zwaska, R. [Fermilab

    2015-06-01

    This conference paper presents a series of electron cloud measurements in the Fermilab Main Injector and Recycler. A new instability was observed in the Recycler in July 2014 that generates a fast transverse excitation in the first high intensity batch to be injected. Microwave measurements of electron cloud in the Recycler show a corresponding depen- dence on the batch injection pattern. These electron cloud measurements are compared to those made with a retard- ing field analyzer (RFA) installed in a field-free region of the Recycler in November. RFAs are also used in the Main Injector to evaluate the performance of beampipe coatings for the mitigation of electron cloud. Contamination from an unexpected vacuum leak revealed a potential vulnerability in the amorphous carbon beampipe coating. The diamond-like carbon coating, in contrast, reduced the electron cloud signal to 1% of that measured in uncoated stainless steel beampipe.

  20. Technological Challenges for High-Brightness Photo-Injectors

    CERN Multimedia

    Suberlucq, Guy

    2004-01-01

    Many applications, from linear colliders to free-electron lasers, passing through light sources and many other electron sources, require high brightness electron beams, usually produced by photo-injectors. Because certain parameters of these applications differ by several orders of magnitude, various solutions were implemented for the design and construction of the three main parts of the photo-injectors: lasers, photocathodes and guns. This paper summarizes the different requirements, how they lead to technological challenges and how R&D programs try to overcome these challenges. Some examples of state-of-the-art parts are presented.

  1. Impedance and instability threshold estimates in the main injector I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, M.A.; Ng, K.Y.

    1994-03-01

    One of the important considerations in the design of the Main Injector is the beam coupling impedances in the vacuum chamber and the stability of the beam. Along with the higher intensities comes the possibility of instabilities which lead to growth in beam emittances and/or the loss of beam. This paper makes estimations of the various impedances and instability thresholds based on impedance estimations and measurements. Notably missing from this paper is any analysis of transition crossing and its potential limitations on beam intensity and beam emittance. Future work should consider this issue. The body of the work contains detailed analysis of the various impedance estimations and instability threshold calculations. The calculations are based on the Main Injector beam intensity of 6 x 10 10 protons per bunch, 95% normalized transverse emittances of 20π mm-mrad, and 95% normalized longitudinal emittance of 0.1 eV-s at 8.9 GeV injection energy and 0.25 eV-s at 150 GeV flattop energy. The conclusions section summarizes the results in the paper and is meant to be readable by itself without referring to the rest of the paper. Also in the conclusion section are recommendations for future investigations

  2. Environmental assessment -- Proposed neutrino beams at the Main Injector project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to build a beamline on the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) site to accommodate an experimental research program in neutrino physics. The proposed action, called Neutrino Beams at the Main Injector (NuMI), is to design, construct, operate and decommission a facility for producing and studying a high flux beam of neutrinos in the energy range of 1 to 40 GeV (1 GeV is one billion or 10 9 electron volts). The proposed facility would initially be dedicated to two experiments, COSMOS (Cosmologically Significant Mass Oscillations) and MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search). The neutrino beam would pass underground from Fermilab to northern Minnesota. A tunnel would not be built in this intervening region because the neutrinos easily pass through the earth, not interacting, similar to the way that light passes through a pane of glass. The beam is pointed towards the MINOS detector in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota. Thus, the proposed project also includes construction, operation and decommissioning of the facility located in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota that houses this MINOS detector. This environmental assessment (EA) has been prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in accordance with the DOE's National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Implementing Procedures (10 CFR 1021). This EA documents DOE's evaluation of potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed construction and operation of NuMI at Fermilab and its far detector facility located in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota. Any future use of the facilities on the Fermilab site would require the administrative approval of the Director of Fermilab and would undergo a separate NEPA review. Fermilab is a Federal high-energy physics research laboratory in Batavia, Illinois operated on behalf of the DOE by Universities Research Association, Inc

  3. Environmental assessment -- Proposed neutrino beams at the Main Injector project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to build a beamline on the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) site to accommodate an experimental research program in neutrino physics. The proposed action, called Neutrino Beams at the Main Injector (NuMI), is to design, construct, operate and decommission a facility for producing and studying a high flux beam of neutrinos in the energy range of 1 to 40 GeV (1 GeV is one billion or 10{sup 9} electron volts). The proposed facility would initially be dedicated to two experiments, COSMOS (Cosmologically Significant Mass Oscillations) and MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search). The neutrino beam would pass underground from Fermilab to northern Minnesota. A tunnel would not be built in this intervening region because the neutrinos easily pass through the earth, not interacting, similar to the way that light passes through a pane of glass. The beam is pointed towards the MINOS detector in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota. Thus, the proposed project also includes construction, operation and decommissioning of the facility located in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota that houses this MINOS detector. This environmental assessment (EA) has been prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in accordance with the DOE`s National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Implementing Procedures (10 CFR 1021). This EA documents DOE`s evaluation of potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed construction and operation of NuMI at Fermilab and its far detector facility located in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota. Any future use of the facilities on the Fermilab site would require the administrative approval of the Director of Fermilab and would undergo a separate NEPA review. Fermilab is a Federal high-energy physics research laboratory in Batavia, Illinois operated on behalf of the DOE by Universities Research Association, Inc.

  4. Impedance budget and beam stability analysis of the Fermilab Main Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, M.A.; Ng, K.Y.

    1993-05-01

    The impedance budget of the Fermilab Main Injector (MI) is estimated, which includes the contributions from the resistive walls, bellows, rf cavities, steps, Lambertsons, etc. Beam stability during ramping and bunch coalescence is analyzed. The transverse resistive-wall coupled bunch growth is found to be somewhat worse than the situation in the Main Ring (MR)

  5. An improved imaginary transition γt lattice for the Main Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, K.Y.; Trbojevic, D.

    1992-08-01

    An improved imaginary-γ t lattice for the 150 GeV Fermilab Main Injector is presented. It has the properties of small dispersion function, good tunability, small tune dependences on momentum with the presence of chromaticity sextupoles, and a large dynamical aperture. In addition, many of the quadrupoles can be recycled from the present Main Ring

  6. Accurate simulation of the electron cloud in the Fermilab Main Injector with VORPAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebrun, Paul L.G.; Spentzouris, Panagiotis; /Fermilab; Cary, John R.; Stoltz, Peter; Veitzer, Seth A.; /Tech-X, Boulder

    2010-05-01

    Precision simulations of the electron cloud at the Fermilab Main Injector have been studied using the plasma simulation code VORPAL. Fully 3D and self consistent solutions that includes E.M. field maps generated by the cloud and the proton bunches have been obtained, as well detailed distributions of the electron's 6D phase space. We plan to include such maps in the ongoing simulation of the space charge effects in the Main Injector. Simulations of the response of beam position monitors, retarding field analyzers and microwave transmission experiments are ongoing.

  7. Experience with the source evaluation board method of procuring technical components for the Fermilab Main Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, D.J.; Collins, J.P.; Kobliska, G.R.; Chester, N.S.; Pewitt, E.G.; Fowler, W.B.

    1993-01-01

    Fermilab has adopted the Source Evaluation Board (SEB) method for procuring certain major technical components of the Fermilab Main Injector. The SEB procedure is designed to ensure the efficient and effective expenditure of Government funds at the same time that it optimizes the opportunity for attainment of project objectives. A qualitative trade-off is allowed between price and technical factors. The process involves a large amount of work and is only justified for a very limited number of procurements. Fermilab has gained experience with the SEB process in awarding subcontracts for major subassemblies of the Fermilab Main Injector dipoles

  8. The design and manufacture of the Fermilab Main Injector Dipole Magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, B.C.; Chester, N.S.; Harding, D.J.; Martin, P.S.

    1992-03-01

    Fermilab's new Main Injector Ring (MIR) will replace the currently operating Main Ring to provide 150 GeV Proton and Antiproton beams for Tevetron injection, and rapid cycling, high intensity, 120 GeV Proton beams for Antiproton production. To produce and maintain the required high beam quality, high intensity, and high repetition rate, conventional dipole magnets with laminated iron core and water cooled copper conductor were chosen as the bending magnet. A new magnet design having low inductance, large copper cross section, and field uniformity sufficient for high intensity injection and efficient slow resonant extraction, is required to obtain the needed geometric aperture, dynamic aperture, and operational reliability. The current Main Injector Ring lattice design requires the use of 344 of these magnets. 216 of these magnets are to be 6 m long, and 128 are to be 4 m long

  9. The upgraded data acquisition system for beam loss monitoring at the Fermilab Tevatron and Main Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumbaugh, A.; Briegel, C.; Brown, B.C.; Capista, D.; Drennan, C.; Fellenz, B.; Knickerbocker, K.; Lewis, J.D.; Marchionni, A.; Needles, C.; Olson, M.

    2011-01-01

    A VME-based data acquisition system for beam-loss monitors has been developed and is in use in the Tevatron and Main Injector accelerators at the Fermilab complex. The need for enhanced beam-loss protection when the Tevatron is operating in collider-mode was the main driving force for the new design. Prior to the implementation of the present system, the beam-loss monitor system was disabled during collider operation and protection of the Tevatron magnets relied on the quench protection system. The new Beam-Loss Monitor system allows appropriate abort logic and thresholds to be set over the full set of collider operating conditions. The system also records a history of beam-loss data prior to a beam-abort event for post-abort analysis. Installation of the Main Injector system occurred in the fall of 2006 and the Tevatron system in the summer of 2007. Both systems were fully operation by the summer of 2008. In this paper we report on the overall system design, provide a description of its normal operation, and show a number of examples of its use in both the Main Injector and Tevatron.

  10. Spin Tracking of Polarized Protons in the Main Injector at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, M. [Fermilab; Lorenzon, W. [Michigan U.; Aldred, C. [Michigan U.

    2016-07-01

    The Main Injector (MI) at Fermilab currently produces high-intensity beams of protons at energies of 120 GeV for a variety of physics experiments. Acceleration of polarized protons in the MI would provide opportunities for a rich spin physics program at Fermilab. To achieve polarized proton beams in the Fermilab accelerator complex, shown in Fig.1.1, detailed spin tracking simulations with realistic parameters based on the existing facility are required. This report presents studies at the MI using a single 4-twist Si-berian snake to determine the depolarizing spin resonances for the relevant synchrotrons. Results will be presented first for a perfect MI lattice, followed by a lattice that includes the real MI imperfections, such as the measured magnet field errors and quadrupole misalignments. The tolerances of each of these factors in maintaining polariza-tion in the Main Injector will be discussed.

  11. Operational performance of a bunch by bunch digital damper in the Fermilab Main Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamson, P.; Ashmanskas, W.J.; Foster, G.W.; Hansen, S.; Marchionni, A.; Nicklaus, D.; Semenov, A.; Wildman, D.; Kang, H.

    2005-01-01

    We have implemented a transverse and longitudinal bunch by bunch digital damper system in the Fermilab Main Injector, using a single digital board for all 3 coordinates. The system has been commissioned over the last year, and is now operational in all MI cycles, damping beam bunched at both 53MHz and 2.5MHz. We describe the performance of this system both for collider operations and high-intensity running for the NuMI project

  12. 53 MHZ Feedforward beam loading compensation in the Fermilab main injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph E Dey et al.

    2003-01-01

    53 MHz feedforward beam loading compensation is crucial to all operations of the Main Injector. Recently a system using a fundamental frequency down converter mixer, a digital bucket delay module and a fundamental frequency up converter mixer were used to produce a one-turn-delay feedforward signal. This signal was then combined with the low level RF signal to the cavities to cancel the transient beam induced voltage. During operation they have shown consistently over 20 dB reduction in side-band voltage around the fundamental frequency during Proton coalescing and over 14 dB in multi-batch antiproton coalescing

  13. Simulations of Electron Cloud Effects on the Beam Dynamics for the FNAL Main Injector Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnad Kiran G.; Furman, Miguel; Vay, Jean-Luc; Venturini, Marco; Celata, Christine M.; Grote, David

    2006-01-01

    The Fermilab main injector (MI) is being considered for an upgrade as part of the high intensity neutrino source (HINS) effort. This upgrade will involve a significant increasing of the bunch intensity relative to its present value. Such an increase will place the MI in a regime in which electron-cloud effects are expected to become important. We have used the electrostatic particle-in-cell code WARP, recently augmented with new modeling capabilities and simulation techniques, to study the dynamics of beam-electron cloud interaction. This work in progress involves a systematic assessment of beam instabilities due to the presence of electron clouds

  14. The impact of deformation on the final alignment of the Fermilab main injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojcik, G.; Lakanen, St.

    1999-01-01

    The determination of deformation of the reference points is very important for the final alignment process and the future performance of the FMI machine. In case of Main Injector Tunnel practically all points of the network were subject to deformation. The method of minimizing the first norm of the displacement vector of the reference points was chosen as the method to analyze the deformation experienced within the project. Basic principles of deformation determination and analysis evaluations movement of the network relative of the beam position will be exhibited in this poster. (authors)

  15. Progress on electron cloud effects calculations for the FNAL main injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furman, Miguel A; Sonnad, Kiran G.; Furman, Miguel A.; Vay, Jean-Luc

    2008-01-01

    We have studied the response of the beam to an electron cloud for the Fermilab Main Injector using the Quasistatic Model [1] implemented into the particle-in-cell code Warp [2]. Specifically, we have addressed the effects due to varying the beam intensity, electron cloud density and chromaticity. In addition, we have estimated the contribution to emittance evolution due to beam space-charge effects. We have carried out a comparison between how the beam responds at injection energy and at top energy. We also present some results on the validation of the computational model, and report on progress towards improving the computational model

  16. The Fermilab main injector dipole construction techniques and prototype magnet measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleadon, M.; Brown, B.; Chester, N.; Desavouret, E.; Garvey, J.; Glass, H.; Harding, D.; Harfoush, F.; Holmes, S.; Humbert, J.; Kerby, J.; Knauf, A.; Kobliska, G.; Lipski, A.; Martin, P.; Mazur, P.; Orris, D.; Ostiguy, J.; Peggs, S.; Pachnik, J.; Pewitt, E.; Satti, J.; Schmidt, E.; Sim, J.; Snowdon, S.; Walbridge, D.

    1991-09-01

    The Fermilab Main Injector Project will provide 120--150 GeV Proton and Antiproton Beams for Fermilab Fixed Target Physics and Colliding Beams Physics use. A dipole magnet has been designed and prototypes constructed for the principal bending magnets of this new accelerator. The design considerations and fabrication techniques are described. Measurement results on prototypes are reported, emphasizing the field uniformity achieved in both body field and end field at excitation levels from injection at 0.1 T to full field of 1.7 T. 6 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Putting a New Spin on an Existing Machine: Prospects for Polarizing the Fermilab Main Injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidala, Christine

    2012-10-01

    As we continue to explore quantum chromodynamics (QCD) as the theory of the strong force, with gluon interactions in hadrons responsible for more than 98% of the visible mass in the universe, spin remains an important degree of freedom to be able to manipulate in order to advance the field. In particular, spin-momentum correlations in QCD, broadly analogous to quantum electrodynamical spin-orbit couplings in the hydrogen atom, have risen to the forefront of QCD research over the past decade. The current status of a proposal to polarize the proton beam at the Fermilab Main Injector will be presented, and the physics that could be accomplished with a hadronic fixed-target program at such a facility will be discussed.

  18. Commissioning and First Results of the Electron Beam Profiler in the Main Injector at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurman-Keup, R. [Fermilab; Alvarez, M. [Fermilab; Fitzgerald, J. [Fermilab; Lundberg, C. [Fermilab; Prieto, P. [Fermilab; Zagel, J. [Fermilab; Blokland, W. [Oak Ridge

    2017-08-01

    The planned neutrino program at Fermilab requires large proton beam intensities in excess of 2 MW. Measuring the transverse profiles of these high intensity beams is challenging and often depends on non-invasive techniques. One such technique involves measuring the deflection of a probe beam of electrons with a trajectory perpendicular to the proton beam. A device such as this is already in use at the Spallation Neutron Source at ORNL and a similar device has been installed in the Main Injector at Fermilab. Commissioning of the device is in progress with the goal of having it operational by the end of the year. The status of the commissioning and initial results will be presented

  19. Design for Fermilab main injector magnet ramps which account for hysteresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, B.C.; Bhat, C.M.; Harding, D.J.; Martin, P.S.; Wu, G.

    1997-05-01

    Although the dominant fields in accelerator electromagnets are proportional to the excitation current, precise control of accelerator parameters requires a detailed understanding of the fields in Main Injector magnets including contribution from eddy currents, magnet saturation, and hysteresis. Operation for decelerating beam makes such considerations particularly significant. Analysis of magnet measurements and design of control system software is presented. Field saturation and its effects on low field hysteresis are accounted for in specifying the field ramps for dipole, quadrupole and sextupole magnets. Some simplifying assumptions are made which are accepted as limitations on the required ramp sequences. Specifications are provided for relating desired field ramps to required current ramps for the momentum, tune, and chromaticity control

  20. Conceptual design of the DEMO neutral beam injectors: main developments and R&D achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonato, P.; Agostinetti, P.; Bolzonella, T.; Cismondi, F.; Fantz, U.; Fassina, A.; Franke, T.; Furno, I.; Hopf, C.; Jenkins, I.; Sartori, E.; Tran, M. Q.; Varje, J.; Vincenzi, P.; Zanotto, L.

    2017-05-01

    The objectives of the nuclear fusion power plant DEMO, to be built after the ITER experimental reactor, are usually understood to lie somewhere between those of ITER and a ‘first of a kind’ commercial plant. Hence, in DEMO the issues related to efficiency and RAMI (reliability, availability, maintainability and inspectability) are among the most important drivers for the design, as the cost of the electricity produced by this power plant will strongly depend on these aspects. In the framework of the EUROfusion Work Package Heating and Current Drive within the Power Plant Physics and Development activities, a conceptual design of the neutral beam injector (NBI) for the DEMO fusion reactor has been developed by Consorzio RFX in collaboration with other European research institutes. In order to improve efficiency and RAMI aspects, several innovative solutions have been introduced in comparison to the ITER NBI, mainly regarding the beam source, neutralizer and vacuum pumping systems.

  1. Electron-Cloud Build-up in the FNAL Main Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furman, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    We present a summary on ongoing simulation results for the electron-cloud buildup in the context of the proposed FNAL Main Injector (MI) intensity upgrade [1] in a fieldfree region at the location of the RFA electron detector [2]. By combining our simulated results for the electron flux at the vacuum chamber wall with the corresponding measurements obtained with the RFA we infer that the peak secondary electron yield (SEY) (delta) max is ∼> 1.4, and the average electron density is n e ∼> 10 10 m -3 at transition energy for the specific fill pattern and beam intensities defined below. The sensitivity of our results to several variables remains to be explored in order to reach more definitive results. Effects from the electron cloud on the beam are being investigated separately [3

  2. First-principles simulation and comparison with beam tests for transverse instabilities and damper performance in the Fermilab Main Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicklaus, Dennis; Foster, G.William; Kashikhin, Vladimir

    2005-01-01

    An end-to-end performance calculation and comparison with beam tests was performed for the bunch-by-bunch digital transverse damper in the Fermilab Main Injector. Time dependent magnetic wakefields responsible for ''Resistive Wall'' transverse instabilities in the Main Injector were calculated with OPERA-2D using the actual beam pipe and dipole magnet lamination geometry. The leading order dipole component was parameterized and used as input to a bunch-by-bunch simulation which included the filling pattern and injection errors experienced in high-intensity operation of the Main Injector. The instability growth times, and the spreading of the disturbance due to newly misinjected batches was compared between simulations and beam data collected by the damper system. Further simulation models the effects of the damper system on the beam

  3. Influence of injector technology on injection and combustion development - Part 1: Hydraulic characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payri, R.; Salvador, F.J.; Gimeno, J.; Morena, J. de la [CMT-Motores Termicos, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, E-46022 (Spain)

    2011-04-15

    An experimental study of two real multi-hole Diesel injectors is performed under current DI Diesel engine operating conditions. The aim of the investigation is to study the influence of injector technology on the flow at the nozzle exit and to analyse its effect on the spray in evaporative conditions and combustion development. The injectors used are two of the most common technologies used nowadays: solenoid and piezoelectric. The nozzles for both injectors are very similar since the objective of the work is the understanding of the influence of the injector technology on spray characteristics for a given nozzle geometry. In the first part of the study, experimental measurements of hydraulic characterization have been analyzed for both systems. Analysis of spray behaviour in evaporative conditions and combustion development will be carried out in the second part of the work. Important differences between both injectors have been observed, especially in their transient opening and closing of the needle, leading to a more efficient air-fuel mixing and combustion processes for the piezoelectric actuated injector. (author)

  4. The main injector chromaticity correction sextupole magnets: Measurements and operating schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, C.M.; Bogacz, A.; Brown, B.C.; Harding, D.J.; Fang, S.J.; Martin, P.S.; Glass, H.D.; Sim, J.

    1995-05-01

    The Fermilab Main Injector (FMI) is a high intensity proton synchrotron which will be used to accelerate protons and antiprotons from 8.9 GeV/c to 150 GeV/c. The natural chromaticities of the machine for the horizontal and the vertical Planes are -33.6 and -33.9 respectively. The Δp/p of the beam at injection is about 0.002. The chromaticity requirements of the FMI, are primarily decided by the Δp/p = 0.002 of the beam at injection. This limits the final chromaticity of the FMI to be ±5 units. To correct the chromaticity in the FMI two families of sextupole magnets will be installed in the lattice, one for each plane. A sextupole magnet suitable for the FMI needs has been designed and a number of them are being built. New chromaticity compensation schemes have been worked out in the light of recently proposed faster acceleration ramps. On an R/D sextupole magnet the low current measurements have been carried out to determine the electrical properties. Also, using a Morgan coil, measurements have been performed to determine the higher ordered multipole components up to 18-poles. An overview of these result are presented here

  5. An rf separated kaon beam from the Main Injector: Superconducting aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.A. Edwards

    1998-11-01

    ThE report is intended to focus on the superconducting aspects of a potential separated kaon beam facility for the Main Injector, and most of this document reflects that emphasis. However, the RF features cannot be divorced from the overall beam requirements, and so the next section is devoted to the latter subject. The existing optics design that meets the needs of the two proposed experiments is outliied, and its layout at Fermilab is shown. The frequency and deflection gradient choices present implementation dMiculties, and the section closes with some commentary on these issues. Sec. 3 provides an introduction to cavity design considerations, and, in particular carries forward the discussion of resonator shape and frequency selection. The R&D program is the subject of Sec. 4. Provisional parameter choices will be summarized. Initial steps toward cavity fabrication based `on copper models have been taken. The next stages in cavity fabrication will be reviewed in some detail. The infrastructure needs and availability will be discussed. Sec. 5 discusses what maybe characterized as the in~edlents of a point design. At this writing, some aspects are clear and some are not. The basic systems are reasonably clear and are described. The final section presents a cost and schedule estimate for both the Ft&D and production phase. Some supporting material and elaboration is provided in the Appendices.

  6. The Fermilab Main Injector dipole and quadrupole cooling design and bus connections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satti, J.A.

    1995-06-01

    The proposed system for connecting the low conductivity water (LCW) and the electrical power to the magnets is explained. This system requires minimum maintenance. Stainless steel headers supply LCW to local, secondary manifolds which regulate the flow to the dipole and to the copper bus which conduct both power and cooling water to the quadrupole. A combination of ceramic feedthroughs and thermoplastic hoses insulate the piping electrically from the copper bus system. The utilities for the Main Injector are grouped together at the outside wall of the tunnel leaving most of the enclosure space for servicing. Space above the headers is available for future accelerator expansion. The new dipoles have bolted electrical connections with flexible copper jumpers. Separate compression fittings are used for the water connections. Each dipole magnet has two water circuits in parallel designed to minimize thermal stresses and the number of insulators. Two electrical insulators are used in series because this design has been shown to minimize electrolyses problems and copper ion deposits inside the insulators. The design value of the temperature gradient of the LCW is 8 degrees C

  7. Computation of electron cloud diagnostics and mitigation in the main injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veitzer, S A; Cary, J R; Stoltz, P H; LeBrun, P; Spentzouris, P; Amundson, J F

    2009-01-01

    High-performance computations on Blue Gene/P at Argonne's Leadership Computing Facility have been used to determine phase shifts induced in injected RF diagnostics as a function of electron cloud density in the Main Injector. Inversion of the relationship between electron cloud parameters and induced phase shifts allows us to predict electron cloud density and evolution over many bunch periods. Long time-scale simulations using Blue Gene have allowed us to measure cloud evolution patterns under the influence of beam propagation with realistic physical parameterizations, such as elliptical beam pipe geometry, self-consistent electromagnetic fields, space charge, secondary electron emission, and the application of arbitrary external magnetic fields. Simultaneously, we are able to simulate the use of injected microwave diagnostic signals to measure electron cloud density, and the effectiveness of various mitigation techniques such as surface coating and the application of confining magnetic fields. These simulations provide a baseline for both RF electron cloud diagnostic design and accelerator fabrication in order to measure electron clouds and mitigate the adverse effects of such clouds on beam propagation.

  8. Electron Cloud induced instabilities in the Fermilab Main Injector(MI) for the High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnad, Kiran G.; Furman, Miguel A.; Vay, Jean-Luc; Venturini, Marco; Celata, Christine; Grote, David

    2006-01-01

    The electrostatic particle-in-cell codeWARP is currently being expanded in order to study electron cloud effects on the dynamics of the beam in storage rings. Results for the Fermilab main injector (MI) show the existence of a threshold in the electron density beyond which there is rapid emittance growth. The Fermilab MI is being considered for an upgrade as part of the high intensity neutrino source (HINS) effort, which will result in a significant increasing of the bunch intensity relative to its present value, placing it in a regime where electron-cloud effects are expected to become important. Various results from the simulations using WARP are discussed here

  9. Cross Section Measurements In The Main Injector Particle Production (FNAL-E907) Experiment At 58 GEV Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunaydin, Yusuf Oguzhan

    2009-01-01

    Cross-sections are presented for 58 GeV π, K, and p on a wide range of nuclear targets. These cross-sections are essential for determining the neutrino flux in measurements of neutrino cross-sections and oscillations. The E907 Main Injector Particle Production (MIPP) experiment at Fermilab is a fixed target experiment for measuring hadronic particle production using primary 120 GeV/c protons and secondary π, K, and p beams. The particle identification is made by dE/dx in a time projection chamber, and by time-of-flight, differential Cherenkov and ring imaging Cherenkov detectors, which together cover a wide range of momentum from 0.1 GeV/c up to 120 GeV/c. MIPP targets span the periodic table, from hydrogen to uranium, including beryllium and carbon. The MIPP has collected ∼ 0.26 x 10 6 events of 58 GeV/c secondary particles produced by protons from the main injector striking a carbon target.

  10. Studies of E-Cloud Build up for the FNAL Main Injector and for the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furman, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    We present a summary of recent simulation studies of the electron-cloud (EC) build-up for the FNAL MI and for the LHC. In the first case we pay particular attention to the dependence on bunch intensity N b at injection energy assuming the nominal bunch spacing t b = 19 ns, and we focus on the dipole magnets and field-free regions. The saturated value of the average EC density shows a clear threshold in N b beyond which the beam will be approximately neutralized on average. For the case of the LHC we limit our discussion to arc dipoles at collision energy, and bunch spacings t b = 25 ns or t b = 75 ns. The main variables exercised in this study are N b and the peak value of the secondary emission yield (SEY) (delta) max . For t b = 25 ns we conclude that the EC power deposition is comfortably below the available cooling capacity of the cryogenic system if (delta) max is below ∼ 1.2 at nominal N b . For t b = 75 ns, the EC power deposition is insignificant. As a byproduct of this exercise, we reach a detailed understanding of the significant role played by the backscattered secondary electrons. This article summarizes the results, an slightly extends the discussions, presented in Refs. 1 and 2

  11. Electron Cloud in Steel Beam Pipe vs Titanium Nitride Coated and Amorphous Carbon Coated Beam Pipes in Fermilab's Main Injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backfish, Michael

    2013-04-01

    This paper documents the use of four retarding field analyzers (RFAs) to measure electron cloud signals created in Fermilab’s Main Injector during 120 GeV operations. The first data set was taken from September 11, 2009 to July 4, 2010. This data set is used to compare two different types of beam pipe that were installed in the accelerator. Two RFAs were installed in a normal steel beam pipe like the rest of the Main Injector while another two were installed in a one meter section of beam pipe that was coated on the inside with titanium nitride (TiN). A second data run started on August 23, 2010 and ended on January 10, 2011 when Main Injector beam intensities were reduced thus eliminating the electron cloud. This second run uses the same RFA setup but the TiN coated beam pipe was replaced by a one meter section coated with amorphous carbon (aC). This section of beam pipe was provided by CERN in an effort to better understand how an aC coating will perform over time in an accelerator. The research consists of three basic parts: (a) continuously monitoring the conditioning of the three different types of beam pipe over both time and absorbed electrons (b) measurement of the characteristics of the surrounding magnetic fields in the Main Injector in order to better relate actual data observed in the Main Injector with that of simulations (c) measurement of the energy spectrum of the electron cloud signals using retarding field analyzers in all three types of beam pipe.

  12. MECAR (Main Ring Excitation Controller and Regulator): A real time learning regulator for the Fermilab Main Ring or the Main Injector synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flora, R.; Martin, K.; Moibenko, A.; Pfeffer, H.; Wolff, D.; Prieto, P.; Hays, S.

    1995-04-01

    The real time computer for controlling and regulating the FNAL Main Ring power supplies has been upgraded with a new learning control system. The learning time of the system has been reduced by an order of magnitude, mostly through the implementation of a 95 tap FIR filter in the learning algorithm. The magnet system consists of three buses, which must track each other during a ramp from 100 to 1700 amps at a 2.4 second repetition rate. This paper will present the system configuration and the tools used during development and testing

  13. Influence of injector technology on injection and combustion development - Part 2: Combustion analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payri, R.; Salvador, F.J.; Gimeno, J.; Morena, J. de la [CMT-Motores Termicos, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, E-46022 (Spain)

    2011-04-15

    The influence of injection technology on the fuel-air mixing process and the combustion development are analyzed by means of visualization techniques. For this purpose, two injectors (one solenoid and one piezoelectric) are characterized using an optical accessible two stroke engine. Visualization of liquid penetration has allowed the measurement of the stabilized liquid length, which is related with the efficiency of fuel-air mixing process. A theoretical derivation is used in order to relate this liquid length with chamber conditions, as well as to make a temporal analysis of these phenomena. After this, natural flame emission and chemiluminescence techniques are carried out. These results indicate that the piezoelectric system has a more efficient fuel-air mixing and combustion, reducing the characteristic times as well as soot formation. Finally, a correlation for the ignition delay of the two systems is obtained. (author)

  14. Development of Technologies on Innovative-Simplified Nuclear Power Plant Using High-Efficiency Steam Injectors (12) Evaluations of Spatial Distributions of Flow and Heat Transfer in Steam Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yutaka Abe; Yujiro Kawamoto; Chikako Iwaki; Tadashi Narabayashi; Michitsugu Mori; Shuichi Ohmori

    2006-01-01

    Next-generation nuclear reactor systems have been under development aiming at simplified system and improvement of safety and credibility. One of the innovative technologies is the supersonic steam injector, which has been investigated as one of the most important component of the next-generation nuclear reactor. The steam injector has functions of a passive pump without large motor or turbo-machinery and a high efficiency heat exchanger. The performances of the supersonic steam injector as a pump and a heat exchanger are dependent on direct contact condensation phenomena between a supersonic steam and a sub-cooled water jet. In previous studies of the steam injector, there are studies about the operating characteristics of steam injector and about the direct contact condensation between static water pool and steam in atmosphere. However, there is a little study about the turbulent heat transfer and flow behavior under the great shear stress. In order to examine the heat transfer and flow behavior in supersonic steam injector, it is necessary to measure the spatial temperature distribution and velocity in detail. The present study, visible transparent supersonic steam injector is used to obtain the axial pressure distributions in the supersonic steam injector, as well as high speed visual observation of water jet and steam interface. The experiments are conducted with and without non-condensable gas. The experimental results of the interfacial flow behavior between steam and water jet are obtained. It is experimentally clarified that an entrainment exists on the water jet surface. It is also clarified that discharge pressure is depended on the steam supply pressure, the inlet water flow rate, the throat diameter and non-condensable flow rate. Finally a heat flux is estimated about 19 MW/m 2 without non-condensable gas condition in steam. (authors)

  15. Development of Technologies on Innovative-Simplified Nuclear Power Plant Using High-Efficiency Steam Injectors (11) Visualization Study on the Start-Up of the Steam Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koji Okamoto; Tadashi Narabayashi; Chikako Iwaki; Shuichi Ohmori; Michitsugu Mori

    2006-01-01

    The Steam Injector is the superior system to pump the fluid without rotating machine. Because the water column is surrounded by the saturated steam, very high heat transfer is also expected with direct condensation. The inside of the Steam Injector is very complicated. To improve the efficiency of the Steam Injector, the water column behavior inside the Injector is visualized using the Dynamic PIV system. Dynamic PIV system consists of the high-speed camera and lasers. In this study, 384 x 180 pixel resolution with 30,000 fps camera is used to visualize the flow. For the illumination CW green laser with 300 mW is applied. To view inside the Injector, relay lens system is set at the Injector wall. Very high speed water column during the starting up of Steam Injector had been clearly visualized with 30,000 fps. The wave velocity on the water column had been analyzed using PIV technique. The instability of the water column is also detected. (authors)

  16. Development of technologies on innovative-simplified nuclear power plant using high-efficiency steam injectors (5) operating characteristics of center water jet type supersonic steam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Y.; Kawamoto, Y.; Iwaki, C.; Narabayashi, T.; Mori, M.; Ohmori, S.

    2005-01-01

    Next-generation reactor systems have been under development aiming at simplified system and improvement of safety and credibility. A steam injector has a function of a passive pump without large motor or turbo-machinery, and has been investigated as one of the most important component of the next-generation reactor. Its performance as a pump depends on direct contact condensation phenomena between a supersonic steam and a sub-cooled water jet. As previous studies of the steam injector, there are studies about formulation of operating characteristic of steam injector and analysis of jet structure in steam injector by Narabayashi etc. And as previous studies of the direct contact condensation, there is the study about the direct contact condensation in steam atmosphere. However the study about the turbulent heat transfer under the great shear stress is not enough investigated. Therefore it is necessary to examine in detail about the operating characteristic of the steam injector. The present paper reports the observation results of the water jet behavior in the super sonic steam injector by using the video camera and the high-speed video camera. And the measuring results of the temperature and the pressure distribution in the steam injector are reported. From observation results by video camera, it is cleared that the water jet is established at the center of the steam injector right after steam supplied and the operation of the steam injector depends on the throat diameter. And from observation results by high-speed video camera, it is supposed that the columned water jet surface is established in the mixing nozzle and the water jet surface movement exists. And from temperature measuring results, it is supposed that the steam temperature at the mixing nozzle is changed between about 80 degree centigrade and about 60 degree centigrade. Then from the pressure measuring results, it is confirmed that the pressure at the diffuser depends on each the throat diameter and

  17. Redirecting by Injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filman, Robert E.; Lee, Diana D.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We describe the Object Infrastructure Framework, a system that seeks to simplify the creation of distributed applications by injecting behavior on the communication paths between components. We touch on some of the ilities and services that can be achieved with injector technology, and then focus on the uses of redirecting injectors, injectors that take requests directed at a particular server and generate requests directed at others. We close by noting that OIF is an Aspect-Oriented Programming system, and comparing OIF to related work.

  18. Designing high energy accelerators under DOE's ''New Culture'' for environment and safety: An example, the Fermilab 150 GeV Main Injector proton synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, W.B.

    1991-05-01

    Fermilab has initiated a design for a new Main Injector (150 GeV proton synchrotron) to take the place of the current Main Ring accelerator. ''New Culture'' environmental and safety questions are having to be addressed. The paper will detail the necessary steps that have to be taken in order to obtain the permits which control the start of construction. Obviously these depend on site-specific circumstances, however some steps are universally applicable. In the example, floodplains and wetlands are affected and therefore the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) compliance is a significant issue. The important feature is to reduce the relevant regulations to a concise set of easily understandable requirements. The effort required and the associated time line will be presented so that other new accelerator proposals can benefit from the experience gained from this example

  19. Designing high energy accelerators under DOE's 'New Culture' for environment and safety: An example, the Fermilab 150 GeV Main Injector proton synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, W.B.

    1991-01-01

    Fermilab has initiated a design for a new Main Injector (150 GeV proton synchrotron) to take the place of the current Main Ring accelerator. 'New Culture' environmental and safety questions are having to be addressed. The paper details the necessary steps that have to be taken in order to obtain the permits which control the start of construction. Obviously these depend on site-specific circumstances, however some steps are universally applicable. In the example, floodplains and wetlands are affected and therefore the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) compliance is a significant issue. The important feature is to reduce the relevant regulations to a concise set of easily understandable requirements. The effort required and the associated time line are presented so that other new accelerator proposals can benefit from the experience gained from this example

  20. Constructing high energy accelerators under DOE's open-quotes New Cultureclose quotes for environment and safety: An example, the Fermilab 150 GeV Main Injector proton synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, W.

    1993-01-01

    Fermilab has initiated construction of a new Main Injector (150 GeV proton synchrotron) to take the place of the current Main RIng accelerator. open-quotes New Cultureclose quotes environmental and safety questions have been addressed. The paper will detail the necessary steps that were accomplished in order to obtain the permits which controlled the start of construction. Obviously these depend on site-specific circumstances, however, some steps are universally applicable. In the example, floodplains and wetlands were affected and therefore the National Environmental Protection Act (NEPA) compliance was a significant issue. The important feature was to reduce the relevant regulations to a concise set of easily understandable requirements and to perform the work required in order to proceed with the accelerator construction in a timely fashion. The effort required and the associated time line will be presented so that other new accelerator proposals can benefit from the experience gained from this example

  1. Electron linac injector developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    There is a continuing demand for improved injectors for electron linacs. Free-electron laser (FEL) oscillators require pulse trains of high brightness and, in some applications, high average power at the same time. Wakefield-accelerator and laser-acceleration experiments require isolated bunches of high peak brightness. Experiments with alkali-halide photoemissive and thermionic electron sources in rf cavities for injector applications are described. For isolated pulses, metal photocathodes (illuminated by intense laser pulses) are being employed. Reduced emittance growth in high-peak-current electron injectors may be achieved by linearizing the cavity electric field's radial component and by using high field strengths at the expense of lower shunt impedance. Harmonically excited cavities have been proposed for enlarging the phase acceptance of linac cavities and thereby reducing the energy spread produced in the acceleration process. Operation of injector linacs at a subharmonic of the main linac frequency is also proposed for enlarging the phase acceptance

  2. A proposed injector for the LCLS linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeremian, A.D.; Bharadwaj, V.K.; Emma, P.; Miller, R.H.; Palmer, D.T.; Woodley, M.D.

    1996-11-01

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) will use the last portion of the SLAC accelerator as a driver for a short wavelength FEL. The injector must produce 1-nC, 3-ps rms electron bunches at a repetition rate of up to 120 Hz with a normalized rms emittance of about 1 mm-mrad. The injector design takes advantage of the photocathode rf gun technology developed since its conception in the mid 1980's, in particular the S-band rf gun developed by the SLAC/BNL/UCLA collaboration, and emittance compensation techniques developed in the last decade. The injector beamline has been designed using the SUPERFISH, POISSON, PARMELA, and TRANSPORT codes in a consistent way to simulate the beam from the gun up to the entrance of the main accelerator linac where the beam energy is 150 MeV. PARMELA simulations indicate that at 150 MeV, space charge effects are negligible

  3. Development of technologies on innovative-simplified nuclear power plant using high-efficiency steam injectors. (6) Operating characteristics of center water jet type supersonic steam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamoto, Yujiro; Abe, Yutaka; Iwaki, Chikako; Narabayashi, Tadashi; Mori, Michitsugu; Ohmori, Shuichi

    2004-01-01

    One of the most interesting devices for next generation reactor systems aiming at simplified system and improvement of safety and credibility is the steam injector which is a passive pump without large motor or turbo-machinery. One of the applications of the steam injector is the passive water injection system to inject the coolant water into the core. The system can be started up merely by injecting the steam without any outer power supply. Since the steam injector is a simple, compact and passive device for water injection, if the steam injector is applied to the actual reactor, it is expected to make the system simple and to reduce the construction cost. Although non-condensable gases are well known for reducing heat transfer between water and steam, the effect of the non-condensable gas on the condensation of supersonic steam on high-speed water jet has not been cleared. The present paper reports about the experimental apparatus, measurement instrument and experimental results of observing the phenomenon inside the test section supplying water and steam to the test by using both the high-speed camera and the video camera and measuring the temperature and the pressure distribution n the test section. (author)

  4. Effects of pilot injection parameters on low temperature combustion diesel engines equipped with solenoid injectors featuring conventional and rate-shaped main injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D’Ambrosio, S.; Ferrari, A.

    2016-01-01

    injection on engine performance and emissions has also been assessed in the presence of rate-shaped main injections. These main injection profiles have been implemented with solenoid injectors by designing the injection fusion between a pre injection shot, which is added after the pilot injection, and the main injection. This innovative strategy shows benefits, with respect to combustion noise, although it still results in a reduced impact on NO_x emissions. Furthermore, the brake specific fuel consumption and soot levels generally become worse than in the case of the simple pilot–main injection schedules. The injection fusion strategy has a significant impact on the soot versus dwell time dependence, which is influenced by the interference between the main injection and pilot combustion.

  5. High-brightness electron injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Free-electron laser (FEL) oscillators and synchrotron light sources require pulse trains of high peak brightness and, in some applications, high-average power. Recent developments in the technology of photoemissive and thermionic electron sources in rf cavities for electron-linac injector applications offer promising advances over conventional electron injectors. Reduced emittance growth in high peak-current electron injectors may be achieved by using high field strengths and by linearizing the radial component of the cavity electric field at the expense of lower shunt impedance

  6. Injector MD Days 2017

    CERN Document Server

    Rumolo, G

    2017-01-01

    The Injector Machine Development (MD) days 2017 were held on 23-24 March, 2017, at CERN with thefollowing main goals:Give a chance to the MD users to present their results and show the relevant progress made in 2016 onseveral fronts.Provide the MD users and the Operation (OP) crews with a general overview on the outcome and theimpact of all ongoing MD activities.Identify the open questions and consequently define - with priorities - a list of machine studies in theinjectors for 2017 (covering the operational beams, LHC Injectors Upgrade, High Luminosity LHC,Physics Beyond Colliders, other projects).Create the opportunity to collect and document the highlights of the 2016 MDs and define the perspectivesfor 2017.Discuss how to make best use of the MD time, in particular let the main MD user express their wishesand see whether/how OP teams can contribute to their fulfilment.

  7. NLCTA injector experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeremian, A.D.; Adolphsen, C.; Miller, R.H.; Nantista, C.D.; Wang, J.W.

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of the Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator (NLCTA) at SLAC is to integrate the new technologies of X-band accelerator structures and RF systems for the Next Linear Collider (NLC), demonstrate multibunch beam-loading energy compensation and suppression of high-order deflecting modes, measure the transverse components of the accelerating field, and measure the dark current generated by RF field emission in the accelerator. For beam loading R and D, an average current of about 1 A in a 120 ns long bunch train is required. The initial commissioning of the NLCTA injector, as well as the rest of the accelerator have been progressing very well. The initial beam parameters are very close to the requirement and they expect that injector will meet the specified requirements by the end of this summer

  8. Design status of heavy ion injector program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballard, E.O.; Meyer, E.A.; Rutkowski, H.L.; Shurter, R.P.; Van Haaften, F.W.; Riepe, K.B.

    1985-01-01

    Design and development of a sixteen beam, heavy ion injector is in progress at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to demonstrate the injector technology for the High Temperature Experiment (HTE) proposed by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LBL). The injector design provides for individual ion sources mounted to a support plate defining the sixteen beam array. The beamlets are electrostatically accelerated through a series of electrodes inside an evacuated (10 -7 torr) high voltage (HV) accelerating column

  9. CFD simulation of coaxial injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrum, D. Brian

    1993-01-01

    The development of improved performance models for the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) is an important, ongoing program at NASA MSFC. These models allow prediction of overall system performance, as well as analysis of run-time anomalies which might adversely affect engine performance or safety. Due to the complexity of the flow fields associated with the SSME, NASA has increasingly turned to Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) techniques as modeling tools. An important component of the SSME system is the fuel preburner, which consists of a cylindrical chamber with a plate containing 264 coaxial injector elements at one end. A fuel rich mixture of gaseous hydrogen and liquid oxygen is injected and combusted in the chamber. This process preheats the hydrogen fuel before it enters the main combustion chamber, powers the hydrogen turbo-pump, and provides a heat dump for nozzle cooling. Issues of interest include the temperature and pressure fields at the turbine inlet and the thermal compatibility between the preburner chamber and injector plate. Performance anomalies can occur due to incomplete combustion, blocked injector ports, etc. The performance model should include the capability to simulate the effects of these anomalies. The current approach to the numerical simulation of the SSME fuel preburner flow field is to use a global model based on the MSFC sponsored FNDS code. This code does not have the capabilities of modeling several aspects of the problem such as detailed modeling of the coaxial injectors. Therefore, an effort has been initiated to develop a detailed simulation of the preburner coaxial injectors and provide gas phase boundary conditions just downstream of the injector face as input to the FDNS code. This simulation should include three-dimensional geometric effects such as proximity of injectors to baffles and chamber walls and interaction between injectors. This report describes an investigation into the numerical simulation of GH2/LOX coaxial

  10. Steady state neutral beam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattoo, S.K.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Baruah, U.K.; Bisai, N.; Chakbraborty, A.K.; Chakrapani, Ch.; Jana, M.R.; Bajpai, M.; Jaykumar, P.K.; Patel, D.; Patel, G.; Patel, P.J.; Prahlad, V.; Rao, N.V.M.; Rotti, C.; Singh, N.P.; Sridhar, B.

    2000-01-01

    Learning from operational reliability of neutral beam injectors in particular and various heating schemes including RF in general on TFTR, JET, JT-60, it has become clear that neutral beam injectors may find a greater role assigned to them for maintaining the plasma in steady state devices under construction. Many technological solutions, integrated in the present day generation of injectors have given rise to capability of producing multimegawatt power at many tens of kV. They have already operated for integrated time >10 5 S without deterioration in the performance. However, a new generation of injectors for steady state devices have to address to some basic issues. They stem from material erosion under particle bombardment, heat transfer > 10 MW/m 2 , frequent regeneration of cryopanels, inertial power supplies, data acquisition and control of large volume of data. Some of these engineering issues have been addressed to in the proposed neutral beam injector for SST-1 at our institute; the remaining shall have to wait for the inputs of the database generated from the actual experience with steady state injectors. (author)

  11. The NLC Injector System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bharadwaj, V.; Clendenin, J.E.; Emma, P.; Frisch, J.; Jobe, R.; Kotseroglou, T.; Krejcik, P.; Kulikov, A.V.; Li, Z.; Maruyama, T.; Millage, K.K.; McKee, B.; Mulhollan, G.; Munro, M.H.; Rago, C.E.; Raubenheimer, T.O.; Ross, M.C.; Phinney, N.; Schultz, D.C.; Sheppard, J.C.; Spencer, C.M.; Vlieks, A.E.; Woodley, M D.; Bibber, K. van; Takeda, S.

    1999-01-01

    The Next Linear Collider (NW) Injector System is designed to produce low emittance, 10 GeV electron and positron beams at 120 hertz for injection into the NLC main linacs. Each beam consists of a train of 9.5 bunches spaced by 2.8 ns; each bunch has a population of 1.15 x 10 10 particles. At injection into the main linacs, the horizontal and vertical emittances are specified to be γ var e psilon x = 3 x 10 -6 m-rad and γ var e psilon

  12. Commissioning of the RFQ1 injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbique, G.M.; Sheikh, J.Y.; Taylor, T.; Birney, L.F.; Davidson, A.D.; Wills, J.S.C.

    1987-01-01

    The RFQ1 accelerator is being developed at Chalk River to test the limits of the cw RFQ technology. A 50 kV injector has been built and is now being commissioned as the first phase of the program. This paper describes some of the innovative features of the RFQ1 injector and reports on initial operating experience

  13. MAIN TENDENCIES OF NON-LINEAR TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Nesterov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The first decade of the new century was marked by considerable extension of NLStechnology’s diagnostic features, first of all by means of new technologies introduction and using the ultra-high performance computers. Pragmatic market of 3D-visualizing diagnostic technologies will be formed gradually by means of harmless non-ionizing methods, allowing to fulfill multiple dynamic researches, i.e. NLS-technologies undoubtedly will come to the fore. More and more clinical therapists realize the necessity to master NLS-diagnostic equipment, because the needs for properly educated experts in this field are obvious. However, among traditional medical specialists, there is a tendency to pay more attention to researches with computed X-ray imaging and magnetic resonance imaging. That is why the NLS-technologies, unfortunately, are still hidden among more orthodox methods of diagnostics. Clinicians will be ready (in many aspects are already ready to improve their diagnostic possibilities by using the NLStechnology, often without X-CT, MRI and radionuclide methods. Nevertheless, only in strategic partnership of NLS-diagnostics experts, radiologists and clinicians may be found a key to optimal diagnostic and healing application of this, in all senses, original and efficient medical technology. The article presents the main principles of medical diagnostics using the NLSmethod. It contains generalized evaluation of the NLS-method’s diagnostic possibilities in revealing various organs’ pathologies and gives an analysis of this method development prospects.

  14. Modern wind energy technology for Russian applications. Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauge Madsen, P.; Winther-Jensen, M., Bindner, H.W. [and others

    1999-05-01

    The general objective of the project is to establish a technical foundation for an intensified application of wind energy in Russia with medium to large wind turbines and transfer/adaptation of Danish and European wind turbine technology as a basis for future joint ventures and technology exports. More specifically, the objective is to develop and establish the basic knowledge and design criteria for adaptation and development of Danish wind turbine technology for application under Russian conditions. The research programme is envisaged to be carried out in three phases, the first phase being the project reported herein. The main purpose of phase 1 is to assess the needs for modifications and adaptations of established standard (in casu Danish) wind turbine designs for decentralised energy systems with a limited number of medium sized wind turbines and for grid connected wind turbines in cold climate and in-land sites of Russia. As part of this work it is necessary to clarify the types of operational conditions and requirements that are to be met by wind turbines operating in such conditions, and to outline suitable test procedures and test set-up is for verifications of such adapted and modified wind turbines. The reporting of this project is made in one main report and four topical reports, all of them issued as Risoe reports. This is the Main Report, (Risoe-R-1069), summing up the activities and findings of phase 1 and outlining a strategy for Russian-Danish cooperation in wind energy as agreed upon between the Russian and the Danish parties. (au)

  15. INTOR neutral beam injector concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metzler, D.H.; Stewart, L.D.

    1981-01-01

    The US INTOR phase 1 effort in the plasma heating area is described. Positive ion based sources extrapolated from present day technology are proposed. These sources operate at 175 keV beam energy for 6 s. Five injectors - plus one spare - inject 75 MW. Beam energy, source size, interface, radiation hardening, and many other studies are summarized

  16. Fundamental rocket injector/spray programs at the Phillips Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talley, D. G.

    1993-11-01

    The performance and stability of liquid rocket engines is determined to a large degree by atomization, mixing, and combustion processes. Control over these processes is exerted through the design of the injector. Injectors in liquid rocket engines are called upon to perform many functions. They must first of all mix the propellants to provide suitable performance in the shortest possible length. For main injectors, this is driven by the tradeoff between the combustion chamber performance, stability, efficiency, and its weight and cost. In gas generators and preburners, however, it is also driven by the possibility of damage to downstream components, for example piping and turbine blades. This can occur if unburned fuel and oxidant later react to create hot spots. Weight and cost considerations require that the injector design be simple and lightweight. For reusable engines, the injectors must also be durable and easily maintained. Suitable atomization and mixing must be produced with as small a pressure drop as possible, so that the size and weight of pressure vessels and turbomachinery can be minimized. However, the pressure drop must not be so small as to promote feed system coupled instabilities. Another important function of the injectors is to ensure that the injector face plate and the chamber and nozzle walls are not damaged. Typically this requires reducing the heat transfer to an acceptable level and also keeping unburned oxygen from chemically attacking the walls, particularly in reusable engines. Therefore the mixing distribution is often tailored to be fuel-rich near the walls. Wall heat transfer can become catastrophically damaging in the presence of acoustic instabilities, so the injector must prevent these from occurring at all costs. In addition to acoustic stability (but coupled with it), injectors must also be kinetically stable. That is, the flame itself must maintain ignition in the combustion chamber. This is not typically a problem with main

  17. Regulatory framework in assisted reproductive technologies, relevance and main issues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Merlet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Assisted reproductive technologies (ART have changed life for the past 25 years and many ethical and social issues have emerged following this new method of conception. In order to protect individuals against scientific and ethical abuses without inhibiting scientific progress, a specific legal framework is necessary. The first French law on Bioethics was voted after an extensive debate in 1994 then reviewed in 2004. This review previously scheduled every five years is currently being discussed. Legal provisions applying to ART are part of a large framework including the protection of the patients' rights and biomedical research. The key principles consist of respect for human life and ban on commercial practices of human body parts, eugenic practices and any kind of cloning. These key principles apply to ART. Donation is anonymous and free. Created in 2004, the Agence de la biomĂŠdecine is a government agency and one of the main tools of the French regulations. The missions focus on improving the quality and the safety of the management of ART. Evaluation of activities is available to all from the annual report. The agency represents the French competent authority for medical and scientific aspects of ART. Substantial differences in European legislations exist from the open-up "laissez faire" to the most restrictive one. As a consequence a large reproductive tourism has developed particularly for egg donation or surrogacy. The medical and ethical conditions of management of patients and donors represent the main critical points. In order to avoid ethical abuses, homogenization regarding the key principles is necessary in Europe. It is an opportunity to reassert that human body parts should not be a source of financial gain.

  18. Regulatory framework in assisted reproductive technologies, relevance and main issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlet, Françoise

    2009-01-01

    Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) have changed life for the past 25 years and many ethical and social issues have emerged following this new method of conception. In order to protect individuals against scientific and ethical abuses without inhibiting scientific progress, a specific legal framework is necessary. The first French law on Bioethics was voted after an extensive debate in 1994 then reviewed in 2004. This review previously scheduled every five years is currently being discussed. Legal provisions applying to ART are part of a large framework including the protection of the patients' rights and biomedical research. The key principles consist of respect for human life and ban on commercial practices of human body parts, eugenic practices and any kind of cloning. These key principles apply to ART. Donation is anonymous and free. Created in 2004, the Agence de la biomédecine is a government agency and one of the main tools of the French regulations. The missions focus on improving the quality and the safety of the management of ART. Evaluation of activities is available to all from the annual report. The agency represents the French competent authority for medical and scientific aspects of ART. Substantial differences in European legislations exist from the open-up "laissez faire" to the most restrictive one. As a consequence a large reproductive tourism has developed particularly for egg donation or surrogacy. The medical and ethical conditions of management of patients and donors represent the main critical points. In order to avoid ethical abuses, homogenization regarding the key principles is necessary in Europe. It is an opportunity to reassert that human body parts should not be a source of financial gain.

  19. New developments of HIF injector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Lu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The ultra-high intensity heavy-ion beam is highly pursued for heavy-ion researches and applications. However, it is limited by heavy-ion production of ion source and space-charge-effect in the low energy region. The Heavy-ion Inertial Fusion (HIF facilities were proposed in 1970s. The HIF injectors have large cavity number and long total length, e.g., there are 27 injectors in HIDIF and HIBLIC is 30 km in length, and the corresponding HIF facilities are too large and too expensive to be constructed. Recently, ion acceleration technologies have been developing rapidly, especially in the low energy region, where the acceleration of high intensity heavy-ions is realized. Meanwhile, superconducting (SC acceleration matures and increases the acceleration gradient in medium and high energy regions. The length of HIF injectors can be shortened to a buildable length of 2.5 km. This paper will present a review of a renewed HIF injector, which adopts multi-beam linac-based cavities. Keywords: Heavy-ion inertial fusion (HIF, Radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ, IH cavity, Heavy-ion, Multi-beam accelerator, PACS Codes: 52.58.Hm, 28.52.Av, 29.20.Ej, 29.27.-a, 29.27.Ac, 41.75.Lx

  20. Pellet injector research and development at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combs, S.K.; Barber, G.C.; Baylor, L.R.

    1994-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been developing pellet injectors for plasma fueling experiments on magnetic confinement devices for more than 15 years. Recent major applications of the ORNL development program include (1) a tritium-compatible four-shot pneumatic injector for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor, (2) a centrifuge pellet injector for the Tore Supra tokamak, and most recently (3) a three-barrel repeating pneumatic injector for the DIII-D tokamak. In addition to applications, ORNL is developing advanced technologies, including high-speed pellet injectors, tritium injectors, and long-pulse pellet feed systems. The high-speed research involves a collaboration between ORNL and ENEA-Frascati in the development of a repeating two-stage light gas gun based on an extrusion-type pellet feed system. Construction of a new tritium-compatible, extruder-based repeating pneumatic injector (8-mm-diam) is complete and will replace the pipe gun in the original tritium proof-of-principle experiment. The development of a steady-state feed system in which three standard extruders operate in tandem is under way. These research and development activities are relevant to the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and are briefly described in this paper

  1. Pellet injector development and experiments at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baylor, L.R.; Argo, B.E.; Barber, G.C.; Combs, S.K.; Cole, M.J.; Dyer, G.R.; Fehling, D.T.; Fisher, P.W.; Foster, C.A.; Foust, C.R.; Gouge, M.J.; Jernigan, T.C.; Langley, R.A.; Milora, S.L.; Qualls, A.L.; Schechter, D.E.; Sparks, D.O.; Tsai, C.C.; Wilgen, J.B.; Whealton, J.H.

    1993-01-01

    The development of pellet injectors for plasma fueling of magnetic confinement fusion experiments has been under way at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the past 15 years. Recently, ORNL provided a tritium-compatible four-shot pneumatic injector for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) based on the in situ condensation technique that features three single-stage gas guns and an advanced two-stage light gas gun driver. In another application, ORNL supplied the Tore Supra tokamak with a centrifuge pellet injector in 1989 for pellet fueling experiments that has achieved record numbers of injected pellets into a discharge. Work is progressing on an upgrade to that injector to extend the number of pellets to 400 and improve pellet repeatability. In a new application, the ORNL three barrel repeating pneumatic injector has been returned from JET and is being readied for installation on the DIII-D device for fueling and enhanced plasma performance experiments. In addition to these experimental applications, ORNL is developing advanced injector technologies, including high-velocity pellet injectors, tritium pellet injectors, and long-pulse feed systems. The two-stage light gas gun and electron-beam-driven rocket are the acceleration techniques under investigation for achieving high velocity. A tritium proof-of-principle (TPOP) experiment has demonstrated the feasibility of tritium pellet production and acceleration. A new tritium-compatible, extruder-based, repeating pneumatic injector is being fabricated to replace the pipe gun in the TPOP experiment and will explore issues related to the extrudability of tritium and acceleration of large tritium pellets. The tritium pellet formation experiments and development of long-pulse pellet feed systems are especially relevant to the International Tokamak Engineering Reactor (ITER)

  2. Modern wind energy technology for Russian applications. Main report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter Hauge; Winther-Jensen, Martin; Bindner, Henrik W.

    1999-01-01

    The general objective of the project is to establish a technical foundation for an intensified application of wind energy in Russia with medium to large wind turbines and transfer/adaptation of Danish and European wind turbine technology as a basis forfuture joint ventures and technology exports...... climate and in-land sites of Russia. As part of this work it is necessary to clarify the types of operationalconditions and requirements that are to be met by wind turbines operating in such conditions, and to outline suitable test procedures and test set-up’s for verifications of such adapted...

  3. Main Science and Technology Indicators, Volume 2012, Issue 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2013

    2013-01-01

    This biannual publication provides a set of indicators that reflect the level and structure of the efforts undertaken by OECD member countries and seven non-member economies (Argentina, China, Romania, Russian Federation, Singapore, South Africa, Chinese Taipei) in the field of science and technology. These data include final or provisional…

  4. University of Maine Integrated Forest Product Refinery (IFPR) Technology Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pendse, Hemant P.

    2010-11-23

    This project supported research on science and technology that forms a basis for integrated forest product refinery for co-production of chemicals, fuels and materials using existing forest products industry infrastructure. Clear systems view of an Integrated Forest Product Refinery (IFPR) allowed development of a compelling business case for a small scale technology demonstration in Old Town ME for co-production of biofuels using cellulosic sugars along with pulp for the new owners of the facility resulting in an active project on Integrated Bio-Refinery (IBR) at the Old Town Fuel & Fiber. Work on production of advanced materials from woody biomass has led to active projects in bioplastics and carbon nanofibers. A lease for 40,000 sq. ft. high-bay space has been obtained to establish a Technology Research Center for IFPR technology validation on industrially relevant scale. UMaine forest bioproducts research initiative that began in April 2006 has led to establishment of a formal research institute beginning in March 2010.

  5. Ten Main Technological Breakthroughs of CNPC in 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Breakthrough in systematic technology for exploration of Qikou oil-enriched depression in Bohai Bay Basin Qikou oil-enriched depression is one of the largest depressions of the Tertiary deposit in Bohai Bay Basin.The oil and gas exploration of this area faces a number of bottlenecks,such as a large proportion of negative structures,complicated distribution of sedimentary sand bodies and diversified types of oil and gas reservoirs.

  6. Regulatory framework in assisted reproductive technologies, relevance and main issues.

    OpenAIRE

    Françoise Merlet

    2010-01-01

    Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) have changed life for the past 25 years and many ethical and social issues have emerged following this new method of conception. In order to protect individuals against scientific and ethical abuses without inhibiting scientific progress, a specific legal framework is necessary. The first French law on Bioethics was voted after an extensive debate in 1994 then reviewed in 2004. This review previously scheduled every five years is currently being discus...

  7. Injector of solid indicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernyshev, G.I.; Luk' yanov, E.P.; Pruslin, Y.A.; Zabrodin, P.I.

    1981-04-25

    The injector can be used with remote introduction of indicators into a borehole for study in an oil well of the parameters of movement of fluid currents, control of the state of the equipment, and study of the properties of the rocks. Proposed is a method of increasing the reliability of operation of the injector by stabilizing the rate of its dispersing. Introduced to the injector of a solid indicator are auxiliary brackets and a cathode made from nonmetallic electrical conducting material and reinforced at the end by an elastic bracket. The auxillary cathode is attached to the end surface of the anode and cathode.

  8. Future technology of the spark-ignition engine: spray-guided direct injection with piezo injector; Die Zukunftstechnologie des Ottomotors: Strahlgefuehrte Direkteinspritzung mit Piezo-Injektor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waltner, A.; Lueckert, P.; Schaupp, U.; Rau, E.; Kemmler, R.; Weller, R. [DaimlerChrysler AG, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The completely new-style second-generation direct-injection for spark-ignition engines from Mercedes-Benz offers clear improvements in fuel consumption, power and emission levels. Faced with the necessity of further reducing fuel consumption, primarily in spark-ignition engines, the Mercedes-Benz combustion system represents a significant leap in technology. It was possible to noticeably expand the mapping range in which stratified operation can be used compared with the first generation. This significant improvement in efficiency results in more useable energy and a substantial reduction in consumption in city traffic, and also on cross-country and highway trips at roughly constant speeds. These benefits make themselves felt not only in the test cycle, but also in the real-world consumption achieved by the customer. Development proceeded from the base aspirated engine on the principle of the modular expansion of technology. Since production development of this combustion system was not possible using the hydraulic and ignition components available on the market, a new outward-opening piezo fuel injector had to be developed for production readiness, along with a 200-bar high-pressure fuel system, which is being introduced here for the first time world-wide. The injection spray stability and excellent mixture preparation that it achieves produce an optimally combustible mixture at the spark plug. The potential of multiple injection, along with stability in stratified operation, brings further benefits and possibilities for direct injection in fuel consumption and emissions. (orig.)

  9. Main Injector Particle Production Experiment Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, Andre

    2007-01-01

    MIPP (FNAL-E907) is a large acceptance spectrometer to measure hadronic particle production - TPC and wire chambers to measure track parameters - TPC dE/dx, ToF, differential Cherenkov and ring imaging Cherenkov give π/K/p separation up to 100 GeV/c

  10. LHC Report: imaginative injectors

    CERN Multimedia

    Pierre Freyermuth for the LHC team

    2016-01-01

    A new bunch injection scheme from the PS to the SPS allowed the LHC to achieve a new peak luminosity record.   Figure 1: PSB multi-turn injection principle: to vary the parameters during injection with the aim of putting the newly injected beam in a different region of the transverse phase-space plan. The LHC relies on the injector complex to deliver beam with well-defined bunch populations and the necessary transverse and longitudinal characteristics – all of which fold directly into luminosity performance. There are several processes taking place in the PS Booster (PSB) and the Proton Synchrotron (PS) acting on the beam structure in order to obtain the LHC beam characteristics. Two processes are mainly responsible for the beam brightness: the PSB multi-turn injection and the PS radio-frequency (RF) gymnastics. The total number of protons in a bunch and the transverse emittances are mostly determined by the multi-turn Booster injection, while the number of bunches and their time spacin...

  11. Geometrical characterization and performance optimization of monopropellant thruster injector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.R. Nada

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The function of the injector in a monopropellant thruster is to atomize the liquid hydrazine and to distribute it over the catalyst bed as uniformly as possible. A second objective is to place the maximum amount of catalyst in contact with the propellant in as short time as possible to minimize the starting transient time. Coverage by the spray is controlled mainly by cone angle and diameter of the catalyst bed, while atomization quality is measured by the Sauter Mean Diameter, SMD. These parameters are evaluated using empirical formulae. In this paper, two main types of injectors are investigated; plain orifice and full cone pressure swirl injectors. The performance of these two types is examined for use with blow down monopropellant propulsion system. A comprehensive characterization is given and design charts are introduced to facilitate optimizing the performance of the injector. Full-cone injector is a more suitable choice for monopropellant thruster and it might be available commercially.

  12. Injector tip for an internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyu, Tsu Pin; Ye, Wen

    2003-05-20

    This invention relates to a the tip structure of a fuel injector as used in a internal combustion engine. Internal combustion engines using Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) technology require a tip structure that directs fuel spray in a downward direction. This requirement necessitates a tip design that is capable of withstanding mechanical stresses associated with the design.

  13. LTP fibre injector qualification and status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogenstahl, J; Cunningham, L; Fitzsimons, E D; Hough, J; Killow, C J; Perreur-Lloyd, M; Robertson, D; Rowan, S; Ward, H

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the current state of the LISA Technology Package (LTP) fibre injector qualification project in terms of vibration and shock tests. The fibre injector is a custom built part and therefore must undergo a full space qualification process. The mounting structure and method for sinusoidal vibration and random vibration tests as well as shock tests will be presented. Furthermore a proposal will be presented to use the fibre injector pair qualification model to build an optical prototype bench. The optical prototype bench is a full-scale model of the flight model. It will be used for development and rehearsal of all the assembly stages of the flight model and will provide an on-ground simulator for investigation as an updated engineering model.

  14. The SSRL injector beam position monitoring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavender, W.; Baird, S.; Brennan, S.; Borland, M.; Hettel, R.; Nuhn, H.D.; Ortiz, R.; Safranek, J.; Sebek, J.; Wermelskirchen, C.; Yang, J.

    1991-01-01

    The beam position monitoring system of the SSRL injector forms a vital component of its operation. Several different types of instrumentation are used to measure the position or intensity of the electron beam in the injector. These include current toroids, fluorescent screens, Faraday cups, the 'Q' meter, a synchrotron light monitor, and electron beam position monitors. This paper focuses on the use of the electron beam position monitors to measure electron trajectories in the injector transport lines and the booster ring. The design of the beam position monitors is described in another paper to be presented at this conference. There are three different beam position monitor systems in the injector. One system consists of a set of five BPMs located on the injection transport line from the linac to the booster (known as the LTB line). There is a second system of six BPMs located on the ejection transport line (known as the BTS line). Finally, there is an array of 40 BPMs installed on the main booster ring itself. This article describes the software and processing electronics of the systems used to measure electron beam trajectories for the new SSRL injector for SPEAR

  15. Beam divergence scaling in neutral beam injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, A.J.T.

    1976-01-01

    One of the main considerations in the design of neutral beam injectors is to monimize the divergence of the primary ion beam and hence maximize the beam transport and minimize the input of thermal gas. Experimental measurements of the divergence of a cylindrical ion beam are presented and these measurements are used to analyze the major components of ion beam divergence, namely: space charge expansion, gas-ion scattering, emittance and optical aberrations. The implication of these divergence components in the design of a neutral beam injector system is discussed and a method of maximizing the beam current is described for a given area of source plasma

  16. Injector machine development days 2017

    CERN Document Server

    Bartosik, H

    2017-01-01

    Following the important progress made in 2016 in the Machine Development (MD) activities that took place in all the accelerators of the LHC injector chain, the days 23-24 March, 2017, have been devoted to summarise the main out- come from the MDs and lay out the plans for the next steps. The event was also triggered by the following motivations and goals: Give a chance to the MD users to present their results; Provide a platform in which MD users, MD coordinators and operations crews meet and discuss openly the optimisation of the MD time and procedures, taking into account of the different perspectives; Provide an overview of all the ongoing activities to better frame their impact in the broader picture of the CERN short and long term projects; Identify the open questions, define and prioritise ma- chine studies in the injectors for 2017; Create the opportunity to obtain and document written reports from MD users. Within this contribution, we just summarise the context and the main points discussed at the ev...

  17. Linac pre-injector

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1965-01-01

    New accelerating column of the linac pre-injector, supporting frame and pumping system. This new system uses two mercury diffusion pumps (in the centre) and forms part of the modifications intended to increase the intensity of the linac. View taken during assembly in the workshop.

  18. Pellet injector research at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combs, S.K.; Foster, C.A.; Milora, S.L.

    1988-01-01

    Advanced plasma fueling systems for magnetic confinement devices are under development a the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The general approach is that of producing and accelerating frozen hydrogen isotope pellets at speeds in the range 1-2 km/s and higher. Recently, ORNL provided pneumataic-based pellet fueling systems for two of the world's largest tokamak experiments, the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) and the Joint European Torus (JET). A new versatile centrifuge type injector is being readied at ORNL for use on the Tore Supra tokamak. Also, a new simplified eight-shot injector design has been developed for use on the Princeton Beta Experiment (PBX) and the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF). In addition to these confinement physics related activities, ORNL is pursuing advanced technologies to achieve pellet velocities significantly in excess of 2 km/s and is carrying out a Tritium Proof-of-Principle (TPOP) experiment in which the fabrication and acceleration of tritium pellets have already been demonstrated. This paper describes these ongoing activities. 25 refs., 9 figs

  19. Tritium pellet injector results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, P.W.; Bauer, M.L.; Baylor, L.R.; Deleanu, L.E.; Fehling, D.T.; Milora, S.L.; Whitson, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Injection of solid tritium pellets is considered to be the most promising way of fueling fusion reactors. The Tritium Proof-of- Principle (TPOP) experiment has demonstrated the feasibility of forming and accelerating tritium pellets. This injector is based on the pneumatic pipe-gun concept, in which pellets are formed in situ in the barrel and accelerated with high-pressure gas. This injector is ideal for tritium service because there are no moving parts inside the gun and because no excess tritium is required in the pellet production process. Removal of 3 He from tritium to prevent blocking of the cryopumping action by the noncondensible gas has been demonstrated with a cryogenic separator. Pellet velocities of 1280 m/s have been achieved for 4-mm-diam by 4-mm-long cylindrical tritium pellets with hydrogen propellant at 6.96 MPa (1000 psi). 10 refs., 10 figs

  20. ANL high resolution injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minehara, E.; Kutschera, W.; Hartog, P.D.; Billquist, P.

    1985-01-01

    The ANL (Argonne National Laboratory) high-resolution injector has been installed to obtain higher mass resolution and higher preacceleration, and to utilize effectively the full mass range of ATLAS (Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System). Preliminary results of the first beam test are reported briefly. The design and performance, in particular a high-mass-resolution magnet with aberration compensation, are discussed. 7 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Pellet injectors for JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andelfinger, C.; Buechl, K.; Lang, R.S.; Schilling, H.B.; Ulrich, M.

    1981-09-01

    Pellet injection for the purpose of refuelling and diagnostic of fusion experiments is considered for the parameters of JET. The feasibility of injectors for single pellets and for quasistationary refuelling is discussed. Model calculations on pellet ablation with JET parameters show the required pellet velocity ( 3 ). For single pellet injection a light gas gun, for refuelling a centrifuge accelerator is proposed. For the latter the mechanical stress problems are discussed. Control and data acquisition systems are outlined. (orig.)

  2. Pressure injectors for radiologists: A review and what is new

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indrajit, Inna K; Sivasankar, Rajeev; D’Souza, John; Pant, Rochan; Negi, Raj S; Sahu, Samresh; Hashim, PI

    2015-01-01

    Pressure Injectors are used routinely in diagnostic and interventional radiology. Advances in medical science and technology have made it is imperative for both diagnostic as well as interventional radiologists to have a thorough understanding of the various aspects of pressure injectors. Further, as many radiologists may not be fully conversant with injections into ports, central lines and PICCs, it is important to familiarize oneself with the same. It is also important to follow stringent operating protocols during the use of pressure injectors to prevent complications such as contrast extravastion, sepsis and air embolism. This article aims to update existing knowledge base in this respect

  3. NLC electron injector beam dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeremian, A.D.; Miller, R.H.

    1995-10-01

    The Next Linear Collider (NLC) being designed at SLAC requires a train of 90 electron bunches 1.4 ns apart at 120 Hz. The intensity and emittance required at the interaction point, and the various machine systems between the injector and the IP determine the beam requirements from the injector. The style of injector chosen for the NLC is driven by the fact that the production of polarized electrons at the IP is a must. Based on the successful operation of the SLC polarized electron source a similar type of injector with a DC gun and subharmonic bunching system is chosen for the NLC

  4. Status of the positive-ion injector for ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollinger, L.M.; Pardo, R.C.; Shepard, K.W.

    1986-01-01

    The planned positive-ion injector for ATLAS consists of an ECR ion source on a 350-kV platfrom and a superconducting injector linac of a new kind. The objective is to replace the present tandem injector with a system that can increase beam intensities by two orders of magnitude and extend the mass range up to uranium. In the first, developmental stage of the work, now in progress, the ECR source will be built, the technology of superconducting accelerating structures for low-velocity ions will be developed, and these structures will be used to form a 3-MV prototype injector linac. Even this small system, designed for ions with A < 130, will be superior to the present FN tandem as a heavy-ion injector. In later phases of the work, the injector linac will be enlarged enough to allow ATLAS to effectively accelerate uranium ions. The injector system is expected to provide exceptional beam quality. The status of the work, expected performance of the accelerator system, and the technical issues involved are summarized

  5. LS1 Report: injectors 2.0

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    Launched in 2009, the Accelerator Controls Renovation Project (ACCOR) will come to an end this year. It was brought in to replace the approximately 450 real-time control systems of the LHC injector complex, some of which were based on technology more than 20 years old.   One of the approximately 450 real-time systems that have been modified in the ACCOR project. These systems, which use special software and thousands of electronics boards, control devices that are essential to the proper functioning of the injectors – the radiofrequency system, the instrumentation, the injection kicker system, the magnets, etc. – and some of them were no longer capable of keeping pace with the LHC. As a result, they urgently needed to be upgraded. "In 2009, after assessing the new technology available on the market, we signed contracts with Europe's most cutting-edge electronics manufacturers," explains Marc Vanden Eynden, ACCOR Project Leader. We then quickly m...

  6. CTF3 Drive Beam Injector Optimisation

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2082899; Doebert, S

    2015-01-01

    In the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) the RF power for the acceleration of the Main Beam is extracted from a high-current Drive Beam that runs parallel to the main linac. The main feasibility issues of the two-beam acceleration scheme are being demonstrated at CLIC Test Facility 3 (CTF3). The CTF3 Drive Beam injector consists of a thermionic gun followed by the bunching system and two accelerating structures all embedded in solenoidal magnetic field and a magnetic chicane. Three sub-harmonic bunchers (SHB), a prebuncher and a travelling wave buncher constitute the bunching system. The phase coding process done by the sub-harmonic bunching system produces unwanted satellite bunches between the successive main bunches. The beam dynamics of the CTF3 Drive Beam injector is reoptimised with the goal of improving the injector performance and in particular decreasing the satellite population, the beam loss in the magnetic chicane and the beam emittance in transverse plane compare to the original model based on P. Ur...

  7. Assembly process of the ITER neutral beam injectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graceffa, J., E-mail: joseph.graceffa@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Boilson, D.; Hemsworth, R.; Petrov, V.; Schunke, B.; Urbani, M. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Pilard, V. [Fusion for Energy, C/ Josep Pla, n°2, Torres Diagonal Litoral, Edificio B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-10-15

    The ITER neutral beam (NB) injectors are used for heating and diagnostics operations. There are 4 injectors in total, 3 heating neutral beam injectors (HNBs) and one diagnostic neutral beam injector (DNB). Two HNBs and the DNB will start injection into ITER during the hydrogen/helium phase of ITER operations. A third HNB is considered as an upgrade to the ITER heating systems, and the impact of the later installation and use of that injector have to be taken into account when considering the installation and assembly of the whole NB system. It is assumed that if a third HNB is to be installed, it will be installed before the nuclear phase of the ITER project. The total weight of one injector is around 1200 t and it is composed of 18 main components and 36 sets of shielding plates. The overall dimensions are length 20 m, height 10 m and width 5 m. Assembly of the first two HNBs and the DNB will start before the first plasma is produced in ITER, but as the time required to assemble one injector is estimated at around 1.5 year, the assembly will be divided into 2 steps, one prior to first plasma, and the second during the machine second assembly phase. To comply with this challenging schedule the assembly sequence has been defined to allow assembly of three first injectors in parallel. Due to the similar design between the DNB and HNBs it has been decided to use the same tools, which will be designed to accommodate the differences between the two sets of components. This reduces the global cost of the assembly and the overall assembly time for the injector system. The alignment and positioning of the injectors is a major consideration for the injector assembly as the alignment of the beamline components and the beam source are critical if good injector performance is to be achieved. The theoretical axes of the beams are defined relative to the duct liners which are installed in the NB ports. The concept adopted to achieve the required alignment accuracy is to use the

  8. SLC injector modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanerfeld, H; Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; James, M.B.; Miller, R.H.

    1985-03-01

    The injector for the Stanford Linear Collider is being studied using the fully electromagnetic particle-in-cell program MASK. The program takes account of cylindrically symmetrical rf fields from the external source, as well as fields produced by the beam and dc magnetic fields. It calculates the radial and longitudinal motion of electrons and plots their positions in various planes in phase space. Bunching parameters can be optimized and insights into the bunching process and emittance growth have been gained. The results of the simulations are compared to the experimental results

  9. Design technology development of the main coolant pump for an integral reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J. S.; Lee, J. S.; Kim, M. H.; Kim, D. W.; Kim, J. I.

    2004-01-01

    All of the reactor coolant pump currently used in commercial nuclear power plant were imported from foreign country. Now, the developing program of design technology for the reactor coolant pump will be started in a few future by domestic researchers. At this stage, the design technology of the main coolant pump for an integral reactor is developed based on the regulation of domestic nuclear power plant facilities. The main coolant pump is a canned motor axial pump, which accommodates all constraints required from the integral reactor system. The main coolant pump does not have mechanical seal device because the rotor of motor and the shaft of impeller are the same one. There is no flywheel on the rotating shaft of main coolant pump so that the coastdown duration time is short when the electricity supply is cut off

  10. Deuterium pellet injector gun design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunsford, R.V.; Wysor, R.B.; Bryan, W.E.; Shipley, W.D.; Combs, S.K.; Foust, C.R.; Milora, S.L.; Fisher, P.W.

    1985-01-01

    The Deuterium Pellet Injector (DPI), an eight-pellet pneumatic injector, is being designed and fabricated for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). It will accelerate eight pellets, 4 by 4 mm maximum, to greater than 1500 m/s. It utilizes a unique pellet-forming mechanism, a cooled pellet storage wheel, and improved propellant gas scavenging

  11. Tracing Technological Development Trajectories: A Genetic Knowledge Persistence-Based Main Path Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunseok Park

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to propose a new method to identify main paths in a technological domain using patent citations. Previous approaches for using main path analysis have greatly improved our understanding of actual technological trajectories but nonetheless have some limitations. They have high potential to miss some dominant patents from the identified main paths; nonetheless, the high network complexity of their main paths makes qualitative tracing of trajectories problematic. The proposed method searches backward and forward paths from the high-persistence patents which are identified based on a standard genetic knowledge persistence algorithm. We tested the new method by applying it to the desalination and the solar photovoltaic domains and compared the results to output from the same domains using a prior method. The empirical results show that the proposed method can dramatically reduce network complexity without missing any dominantly important patents. The main paths identified by our approach for two test cases are almost 10x less complex than the main paths identified by the existing approach. The proposed approach identifies all dominantly important patents on the main paths, but the main paths identified by the existing approach miss about 20% of dominantly important patents.

  12. Injector for the University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kehne, D. E-mail: dkehne@gmu.edu; Godlove, T.; Haldemann, P.; Bernal, S.; Guharay, S.; Kishek, R.; Li, Y.; O' Shea, P.; Reiser, M.; Yun, V.; Zou, Y.; Haber, I

    2001-05-21

    The electron beam injector constructed by FM technologies for the University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER) program is described. The program will use an electron beam to model space-charge-dominated ion beams in a recirculating linac for heavy ion inertial fusion, as well as for high-current muon colliders. The injector consists of a 10 keV, 100 mA electron gun with 50-100 nsec pulse width and a repetition rate of 120 Hz. The e-gun system includes a 6-mask, rotatable aperture plate, a Rogowski current monitor, an ion pump, and a gate valve. The injector beamline consists of a solenoid, a five-quadrupole matching section, two diagnostic chambers, and a fast current monitor. An independent diagnostic chamber also built for UMER will be used to measure horizontal and vertical emittance, current, energy, energy spread, and the evolution of the beam envelope and profile along the injector beamline.

  13. Injector for the University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehne, D.; Godlove, T.; Haldemann, P.; Bernal, S.; Guharay, S.; Kishek, R.; Li, Y.; O'Shea, P.; Reiser, M.; Yun, V.; Zou, Y.; Haber, I.

    2001-05-01

    The electron beam injector constructed by FM technologies for the University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER) program is described. The program will use an electron beam to model space-charge-dominated ion beams in a recirculating linac for heavy ion inertial fusion, as well as for high-current muon colliders. The injector consists of a 10 keV, 100 mA electron gun with 50-100 nsec pulse width and a repetition rate of 120 Hz. The e-gun system includes a 6-mask, rotatable aperture plate, a Rogowski current monitor, an ion pump, and a gate valve. The injector beamline consists of a solenoid, a five-quadrupole matching section, two diagnostic chambers, and a fast current monitor. An independent diagnostic chamber also built for UMER will be used to measure horizontal and vertical emittance, current, energy, energy spread, and the evolution of the beam envelope and profile along the injector beamline.

  14. Pellet injectors for the tokamak fusion test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combs, S.K.

    1986-01-01

    The repeating pneumatic injector is a device from the ORNL development program. A new eight-shot deuterium pellet injector has been designed and constructed specifically for the TFTR application and is scheduled to replace the repeating injector this year. The new device combines a cryogenic extruder and a cold wheel rotary mechanism to form and chamber eight pellets in a batch operation; the eight pellets can then be delivered in any time sequence. Another unique feature of the device is the variable pellet size with three pellets each of 3.0 and 3.5 mm diam and two each of 4.0 mm diam. The experience and technology that have been developed on previous injectors at ORNL have been utilized in the design of this latest pellet injection system

  15. Necessary LIU studies in the injectors during 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumolo, G.; Bartosik, H.; Papaphilippou, Y.

    2012-01-01

    A significant fraction of the Machine Development (MD) time in the LHC injectors in 2011 was devoted to the study of the intensity limitations in the injectors (e.g. space charge effects in PS and SPS, electron cloud effects in the PS and SPS, single bunch and multi-bunch instabilities in PS and SPS, emittance preservation across the injector chain, etc.). The main results achieved in 2011 are presented as well as the questions that still remain unresolved and are of relevance for the LHC Injector Upgrade (LIU) project. 2012 MD will also continue exploring the potential of scenarios that might become operational in the future, like the development of a low gamma transition optics in the SPS or alternative production schemes for the LHC beams in the PS. A tentative prioritized list of studies is provided. (authors)

  16. Field Demonstration of Innovative Condition Assessment Technologies for Water Mains: Leak Detection and Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three leak detection/location technologies were demonstrated on a 76-year-old, 2,057-ft-long portion of a cement-lined, 24-in. cast iron water main in Louisville, KY. This activity was part of a series of field demonstrations of innovative leak detection/location and condition a...

  17. Atlas positive-ion injector project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardo, R C; Bollinger, L M; Shepard, K W

    1987-04-01

    The goal of the Argonne Positive Ion Injector project is to replace the ATLAS tandem injector with a facility which will increase the beam currents presently available by a factor of 100 and to make beams of essentially all elements including uranium available at ATLAS. The beam quality expected from the facility will be at least as good as that of the tandem based ATLAS. The project combines two relatively new technologies - the electron cyclotron resonance ion source, which provides ions of high charge states at microampere currents, and rf superconductivity which has been shown to be capable of generating accelerating fields as high as 10 MV/m resulting in an essentially new method of acceleration for low-energy heavy ions.

  18. The Effect of Fuel Injector Nozzle Configuration on JP-8 Sprays at Diesel Engine Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The Effect of Fuel Injector Nozzle Configuration on JP-8 Sprays at Diesel Engine Conditions by Matthew Kurman, Luis Bravo, Chol-Bum Kweon...Fuel Injector Nozzle Configuration on JP-8 Sprays at Diesel Engine Conditions Matthew Kurman, Luis Bravo, and Chol-Bum Kweon Vehicle Technology...March 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Effect of Fuel Injector Nozzle Configuration on JP-8 Sprays at Diesel Engine Conditions 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  19. Injector of the Utrecht EN tandem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, K. van der; Haas, A.P. de; Hoogenboom, A.M.; Strasters, B.A.; Vermeer, A.; Zwol, N.A. van (Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht (Netherlands). Fysisch Lab.)

    1984-02-15

    An injector has been built to obtain improved beam transmission through the EN tandem. The injector has been provided with a 90/sup 0/ analysing magnet, m/..delta..m=300, and 130 kV preacceleration. Beam optics calculations have been made for the injector and tandem. The injector has been equipped with a fiber optics control and data acquisition system.

  20. The injector of the Utrecht EN tandem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, K. van der; Haas, A.P. de; Hoogenboom, A.M.; Strasters, B.A.; Vermeer, A.; Zwol, N.A. van

    1984-01-01

    An injector has been built to obtain improved beam transmission through the EN tandem. The injector has been provided with a 90 0 analysing magnet, m/Δm=300, and 130 kV preacceleration. Beam optics calculations have been made for the injector and tandem. The injector has been equipped with a fiber optics control and data acquisition system. (orig.)

  1. The light-ion injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    In an extensive field mapping program the magnetic fields of the main coils and various pole-gap coils of the light-ion injector (SPC1) were measured. As a further test, the measured field maps were used to calculate the excitation currents through the various coils for a specific field shape. Orbit calculations, based on the electric potential fields measured is the electrolytic tank on the 3:1 scale model of the central region, made it possible to optimise the ion-source position, improve the axial focussing of the beam and specify an approximate position for the second axial. The coils for the first magnetic channel were manufactured and field measurements with the channel in position in the pole-gap have been performed. The radio-frequency system of SPC1 consists of three main sections, namely resonators, power amplifiers and the control systems. The purpose of the rf-system is to provide the accelerating voltages of up to 70 kV peak in the 8,6 to 26 MHz frequency range, which are required to accelerate the particle beams

  2. Study on biodiesel heat transfer through self-temperature limit injector during vehicle cold start

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A type of Self-Temperature Limit-Injector (STL- injector is proposed to reduce the biodiesel consumption and emission in vehicle cold start process. The STL-injector is capable of fast raising fuel temperature, which helps improve the quality of diesel spray and its combustion efficiency. A STL-injector model is established with consideration of electro-mechanic coupling and fluid-structure interaction. A transient simulation is conducted using dynamic grid technology. The results show that STL-injector can effectively raise biodiesel temperature to 350K from 300K in 32 seconds. That is to say, adding STL-injector to existing biodiesel combustion system is an environment-friendly solution due to improving atomization and spray quality quickly.

  3. The JET high frequency pellet injector project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraud, Alain; Dentan, M.; Whitehead, A.; Butcher, P.; Communal, D.; Faisse, F.; Gedney, J.; Gros, G.; Guillaume, D.; Hackett, L.; Hennion, V.; Homfray, D.; Lucock, R.; McKivitt, J.; Sibbald, M.; Portafaix, C.; Perin, J.P.; Reade, M.; Sands, D.; Saille, A.

    2007-01-01

    A new deuterium ice pellet injector is in preparation for JET. It is designed to inject both small pellets (variable volume within 1-2 mm 3 ) at high frequency (up to 60 Hz) for ELM mitigation experiments and large pellets (volume within 35-70 mm 3 ) at moderate frequency (up to 15 Hz) for plasma fuelling. It is based on the screw extruder technology developed by PELIN and pneumatic acceleration. An injection line will connect the injector to the flight tubes already in place to convey the pellets toward the plasma either from the low field side or from the high field side of the torus. This injection line enables: (i) the pumping of the propellant gas, (ii) the provision of the vacuum interface with the torus and (iii) the selection of the flight tube to be used via a fast selector. All the interfaces have been designed and a prototype injector is being built, to demonstrate that the required performance is achievable

  4. Effects of Layering Milling Technology on Distribution of Green Wheat Main Physicochemical Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Shuang-Qi; Li, Yong-Heng; Chen, Zhi-Cheng; Qiao, Yong-Feng

    2017-01-01

    With layered milling flour technology, the efficiency of the nutrient distribution and hardness was demonstrated with the green and normal wheat separation milling. The results showed that the total content of amino acid in green wheat was 8.3%–13.0% higher compared to the common wheat. Comparing the main nutriments Se, Fe, and Ca between green wheat and common wheat, the results showed that different milling treatment methods are capable of separating the different wheat flour from endosperm...

  5. High-brightness injector modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewellen, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    There are many aspects to the successful conception, design, fabrication, and operation of high-brightness electron beam sources. Accurate and efficient modeling of the injector are critical to all phases of the process, from evaluating initial ideas to successful diagnosis of problems during routine operation. The basic modeling tasks will vary from design to design, according to the basic nature of the injector (dc, rf, hybrid, etc.), the type of cathode used (thermionic, photo, field emitter, etc.), and 'macro' factors such as average beam current and duty factor, as well as the usual list of desired beam properties. The injector designer must be at least aware of, if not proficient at addressing, the multitude of issues that arise from these considerations; and, as high-brightness injectors continue to move out of the laboratory, the number of such issues will continue to expand.

  6. : Reiterating the boundary: community discourse in light of proposed technological change on Vinalhaven Island, Maine, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica E. Brophy

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative work is a case study of Vinalhaven, a small Maine island, and its negotiation of the intersection of technology use, space, place, and identity. Using a phenomenologically informed theoretical approach coupled with a version of Foucault’s archaeology of discourse (1972, 1994 as a method of analysis, the role of place and space is explored in the context of a bounded community’s public discussion about whether or not to build a cell phone tower on the island. In opposition to the oft-cited narrative of technology-as-connective-panacea, the discourse of the community surrounding the potential technology serves to complicate the community’s expression of its boundaries. If anything, the potential introduction of a new form of connectivity for the island community prompts a reaffirmation and re-articulation of the community’s boundaries, its sense of self, and its experience of isolation. The case study offers insight into approaches to the introduction of connective technologies and infrastructures in island communities, thus extending both place-based theories of technology and the depth of island studies.

  7. An induction linac injector for scaled experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutkowski, H.L.; Faltens, A.; Pike, C.; Brodzik, D.; Johnson, R.M.; Vanecek, D.; Hewett, D.W.

    1991-04-01

    An injector is being developed at LBL that would serve as the front end of a scaled induction linac accelerator technology experiment for heavy ion fusion. The ion mass being used is in the range 10--18. It is a multi-beam device intended to accelerate up to 2 MeV with 500 mA in each beam. The first half of the accelerating column has been built and experiments with one carbon beam are underway at the 1 MeV level. 5 refs., 1 fig

  8. Radiotracer injector: An Industrial Application (RIIA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noraishah Othman; Mohd Arif Hamzah; Fadil Ismail; Nurliyana Abdullah

    2011-01-01

    The radiotracer injector is meant for transferring liquid radiotracer in the system for industrial radiotracer application with minimal radiation exposure to the operator. The motivation of its invention is coming from the experience of the workers who are very concern about the radiation safety while handling with the radioactive source. The idea ensuring the operation while handling the radioactive source is fast and safe without interrupting the efficiency and efficacy of the process. Thus, semi automated device assisting with pneumatic technology is applied for its invention. (author)

  9. Development of technologies on innovative-simplified nuclear power plant using high-efficiency steam injectors (8) numerical simulation using SOROBAN-grid CIP method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasutaka Sakurai; Takashi Yabe; Tomomasa Ohkubo; Yoichi Ogata; Michitsugu Mori

    2005-01-01

    Generally, there are two coordinate systems in computation of fluid dynamics: curvilinear coordinate or Cartesian coordinate. The former is suitable for describing complex figure, but it cannot get high accuracy. On the other hand, the latter can easily increase the accuracy, but it needs a large number of grids to describe complex figure. In this paper, we propose a new grid generating method, the Soroban grid, which has large capability for treating complex figure and does not lose the accuracy. Coupling this grid generating method and the CIP method, we can get flexibility to describe complex figure without loosing (3rd order) accuracy. Since the Soroban grid is unstructured grid, we can not use the staggered grid and had better use the co-location grid. Although the fluid computation in the co-location grid is usually unstable, we succeeded in calculating the multi-phase flow that has large density difference applying the C-CUP method to this grid system. In this paper, we shall introduce this grid generating method and apply these methods to simulate the steam injector of power plant. (authors)

  10. Development of technologies on innovative-simplified nuclear power plant using high-efficiency steam injectors (2) analysis of heat balance of innovative-simplified nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, S.; Ohmori, S.; Mori, M.

    2005-01-01

    It is possible to establish simplified system with reduced space and total equipment weight using high-efficiency Steam Injector (SI) instead of low-pressure feedwater heaters in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP)(1)-(6). The SI works as a heat exchanger through direct contact between feedwater from the condensers and extracted steam from the turbines. It can get a higher pressure than supplied steam pressure, so it can reduce the feedwater pumps. The maintenance and reliability are still higher because SI has no movable parts. This paper describes the analysis of the heat balance and plant efficiency of this Innovative- Simplified NPP with high-efficiency SI. The plant efficiency is compared with the electric power of 1100MWe-class BWR system and the Innovative- Simplified BWR system with SI. The SI model is adapted into the heat balance simulator with a simplified model. The results show plant efficiencies of the Innovated-Simplified BWR system are almost equal to the original BWR one. The present research is one of the projects that are carried out by Tokyo Electric Power Company, Toshiba Corporation, and six Universities in Japan, funded from the Institute of Applied Energy (IAE) of Japan as the national public research-funded program. (authors)

  11. Development of technologies on innovative-simplified nuclear power plant using high-efficiency steam injectors. (2) Analysis of heat balance of innovative-simplified nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Shoji; Ohmori, Shuichi; Mori, Mitchitsugu

    2004-01-01

    It is possible to established simplified systems and reduced space and equipments using high-efficiency Steam Injector (SI) instead of low-pressure feed water heaters in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). The SI works as a heat exchanger through direct contact between feedwater from condenser and extracted steam from turbine. It can get a higher pressure than supplied steam pressure, so it can reduce the feedwater pumps. The maintenance and reliability are still higher because SI has no movable parts. This paper describes the analysis of the heat balance and plant efficiency of this Innovative-Simplified NPP with high-efficiency SI. The plant efficiency is compared with the electric power of 1100MWe class original BWR system and the Innovative-Simplified BWR system with SI. The SI model is adapted into the heat balance simulator with a simplified model. The results show plant efficiencies of the Innovated-Simplified BWR system are almost equal to the original BWR one. The present research is one of the projects that are carried out by Tokyo Electric Power Company, Toshiba Corporation, and six Universities in Japan, funded from the Institute of Applied Energy (IAE) of Japan as the national public research-funded program. (author)

  12. The implementing geological disposal of radioactive waste technology platform main achievement in 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delay, J.; Garcia, M.; Kowe, R.

    2015-01-01

    After decades of bilateral and multilateral cooperation, several European waste management organizations decided, under the auspices of the European Commission (EC), to join their forces to tackle the remaining research, development and demonstration (RD&D) challenges associated with the implementation of their respective geological disposal programs. The main objectives of the Implementing geological disposal of radioactive waste technology platform (IGD-TP) are to initiate and carry out collaborative actions in Europe to tackle the remaining research, development and demonstration (RD&D) challenges with a view to advancing the implementation of geological disposal programmes for high-level and long-lived waste in Europe. This paper presents the organisation of the work and the main Joint activities and projects to date, initiated by the IGD-TP members and supported for some of them by the European Commission under the FP7 framework programme and in the near future under the Horizon 2020 programme. (authors)

  13. The development of clean coal technology is the main way to control of atmospheric pollution in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Lixin; Xu Hong [Clean Coal Engineering & Research Center of Coal Industry (China)

    1999-11-01

    Atmospheric pollution in China and its causes are analysed. Power stations, industrial boilers and kilns and domestic coal combustion are the main pollution sources. Clean coal technologies are urgently needed. Main clean coal technologies which can improve the present situation of industrial coal combustion are coal cleaning, blending and briquetting; boiler retrofitting; advanced technologies to improve combustion efficiency and reduce pollution - fluidized bed combustion and pulverized coal desulfurization; and advanced desulfurization and dedusting technologies and equipment.

  14. New features of the MAX IV thermionic pre-injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, J., E-mail: joel.andersson@maxiv.lu.se; Olsson, D., E-mail: david.olsson@maxiv.lu.se; Curbis, F.; Malmgren, L.; Werin, S.

    2017-05-21

    The MAX IV facility in Lund, Sweden consists of two storage rings for production of synchrotron radiation. The smaller 1.5 GeV ring is presently under construction, while the larger 3 GeV ring is being commissioned. Both rings will be operating with top-up injections from a full-energy injector. During injection, the electron beam is first delivered to the main injector from a thermionic pre-injector which consists of a thermionic RF gun, a chopper system, and an energy filter. In order to reduce losses of high-energy electrons along the injector and in the rings, the electron beam provided by the thermionic pre-injector should have the correct time structure and energy distribution. In this paper, the design of the MAX IV thermionic pre-injector with all its sub components is presented. The electron beam delivered by the pre-injector and its dependence on parameters such as optics, cathode temperature, and RF power are studied. Measurements are here compared with simulation results obtained by particle tracking and electromagnetic codes. The chopper system is described in detail, and different driving schemes that optimize the injection efficiency for the two storage rings are investigated. During operation, it was discovered that the structure of the beam delivered by the gun is affected by mode beating between the accelerating and a low-order mode. This mode beating is also studied in detail. Finally, initial measurements of the electron beam delivered to the 3 GeV ring during commissioning are presented.

  15. The main directions of technologic modernization in the field of subsurface resources management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav Petrovich Pakhomov

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the priorities of Russia's transition to post-industrial development is the upgrade of mineral resources sector as a major system-building industry which includes exploration, extraction, refining, transportation and processing of minerals. The main directions of modernization in the subsoil resources management are improvement of methods and technologies under exploration, automation and computerization of work and equipment at the stages of production and transportation of mineral resources, improvement of equipment and technology with the use of nanotechnology in the stages of enrichment and processing of mineral raw materials. Actual direction of modernization in the ore mining industry today is creation and improvement of techniques and technologies to work in the northern climate according to the Program of subsoil resources development of the North and the Arctic shelf. Due to the exhaustion of large raw mineral deposits and geological complexity of the conditions of mining, there is a need for new types of mining and extraction equipment in the industry and development of processes to extract minerals from the non-traditional raw materials.

  16. Summary, Working Group 1: Electron guns and injector designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Zvi, I.; Bazarov, I.V.

    2006-01-01

    We summarize the proceedings of Working Group 1 of the 2005 Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) Workshop. The subject of this working group, the electron gun and injector design, is arguably the most critical part of the ERL as it determines the ultimate performance of this type of accelerators. Working Group 1 dealt with a variety of subjects: The technology of DC, normal-conducting RF and superconducting RF guns; beam dynamics in the gun and injector; the cathode and laser package; modeling and computational issues; magnetized beams and polarization. A short overview of these issues covered in the Working Group is presented in this paper

  17. The main achievements of the Technological Development Department in 1998. Vacuum and Cleanroom Techniques Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batulescu, C.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this research work was the manufacturing of the electron beam diagnosis device prototype used for optimization of both electron gun construction and the main parameters of electron beam welding carried out in a vacuum atmosphere. In order to obtain high quality weldings the precise geometry and the main electrical parameters characterizing the beam must be well known by both the manufacturer and the users of the equipment. Three of the most important parameters of the beam can be experimentally analysed using the diagnosis device: - Output current of the beam (on the metal part); - Minimum diameter of the beam; - Power density on the metal part. The main components of the diagnosis device are: - Faraday Cage; - Cooling Water Feedthrough; - Electrical Feedthrough; - Two-channel Function Generator Module; - Entrance Amplifier; - Deflection Control System; - Two-channel Oscilloscope. The device includes specific components that allows an efficient dissipation of the energy released by the electronic welding gun. Several requirements with high level of difficulty such as equipment operation under high voltage/vacuum conditions, a high level of noise and overfeeding due to parasitic electrical discharges or thyristors, an efficient water cooling for every component, and a satisfactory insulation resistance of the coolant so that the low level input from the Faraday cage to rest unaltered, have been taken into consideration. The beam diagnosis device allows optimization of the main parameters of the electron welding guns such as effective power on the welded parts, beam diameter, current and power density across the stream of particles. The contribution of the beam diagnosis to the improvement of the existing or future welding guns will play an important role in research and for the establishing of the new electron-beam welding technologies demanded by industry. (authors)

  18. DIAGNOSTICS AND REGENERATION OF COMMON RAIL INJECTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz KONIECZNY

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the methodology of Common Rail injector diagnostic, regeneration and regulation with use of professional test stands. The EPS 815 machine can be used to test and repair all BOSCH injectors fully satisfying the producer requirements and standards. The article describes an example injector diagnosis with use of such test stand and additionally presents appropriate injector regeneration and encoding techniques

  19. The main steps on implementation of radiation processing technology - portuguese experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luisa Botelho, M.

    2010-11-01

    The development of applications of ionizing radiation for Industrial purposes in Portugal began near of 1982 with the support of IAEA under the program of Cooperation and Technical Assistance - project POR/8/002. The IAEA program of Cooperation and Technical Assistance permitted that POR/08/002 took place between 1983 up to 1988. The collaboration of the International Experts and the personnel of National Laboratory of Industrial Engineering and Technology, nowadays Nuclear and Technologic Institute (ITN), allowed the construction of a Co-60 irradiation plant, designed by Tecnabexport (Russia). This facility is located in the ITN campus in Sacavem, Portugal. The main parameters studied prior to the implementation (sitting, design, construction, commissioning, operation, maintenance and foreseen decommission) were planned and executed according with the Portuguese legislation which is based on the International rules (IAEA Safety series) and Directive EURATOM 836/80, nowadays EURATOM 1493/93. A study of the geological stability of the site for future placement of the irradiation facility was done preceding the construction. The facility was constructed under Portuguese responsibility but designed and loaded with Co-60 by the Russian business rganization: Technabexport between 1987 and 1988. The whole process was supervised and approved by the ITN's Nuclear Protection and Safety Department. The Cobalt-60 irradiation facility was initially named GammaPi and later on Radiation Technologies Unit (UTR) and its management was under ITN's authority until 2003. Once established a quality system for the gamma facility, the following phase is to develop, validate and control the sterilization/disinfection process. In this step, a multidisciplinary approach and a continuous dialog with product managers and personnel must be taken into consideration in the experimental design for the correct and effective establishment of irradiation process. The knowledge of product's elements

  20. Operation of the repeating pneumatic injector on TFTR and design of an 8-shot deuterium pellet injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combs, S.K.; Milora, S.L.; Foust, C.R.

    1985-01-01

    The repeating pneumatic hydrogen pellet injector, which was developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), has been installed and operated on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). The injector combines high-speed extruder and pneumatic acceleration technologies to propel frozen hydrogen isotope pellets repetitively at high speeds. The pellets are transported to the plasma in an injection line that also serves to minimize the gas loading on the torus; the injection line incorporates a fast shutter valve and two stages of guide tubes with intermediate vacuum pumping stations. A remote, stand-alone control and data acquisition system is used for injector and vacuum system operation. In early pellet fueling experiments on TFTR, the injector has been used to deliver deuterium pellets at speeds ranging from 1.0 to 1.5 km/s into plasma discharges. First, single large (nominal 4-mm-dia) pellets provided high densities in TFTR (1.8 x 10 14 cm -3 on axis); after conversion to smaller (nominal 2.7-mm-dia) pellets, up to five pellets were injected at 0.25-s intervals into a plasma discharge, giving a line-averaged density of 1 x 10 14 cm -3 . Operating characteristics and performance of the injector in initial tests on TFTR are presented

  1. Academic Training: A walk through the LHC injector chain

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2005-01-01

    2004-2005 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 21, 22, 23 March from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 A walk through the LHC injector chain M. BENEDIKT, P. COLLIER, K. SCHINDL /CERN-AB Proton linac, PS Booster, PS, SPS and the two transfer channels from SPS to LHC are used for LHC proton injection. The lectures will review the features of these faithful machines and underline the modifications required for the LHC era. Moreover, an overview of the LHC lead ion injector scheme from the ion source through ion linac, LEIR, PS and SPS right to the LHC entry will be given. The particular behaviour of heavy ions in the LHC will be sketched and the repercussions on the injectors will be discussed. ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 academic.training@cern.ch

  2. Necessary LIU studies in the injectors during 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Rumolo, G; Papaphilippou, Y

    2012-01-01

    A significant fraction of the Machine Development (MD) time in the LHC injectors in 2011 was devoted to the study of the intensity limitations in the injectors (e.g. space charge effects in PS and SPS, electron cloud effects in the PS and SPS, single bunch and multi-bunch instabilities in PS and SPS, emittance preservation across the injector chain, etc.). The main results achieved in 2011 will be presented as well as the questions that still remain unresolved and are of relevance for the LIU project. 2012 MDs will also continue exploring the potential of scenarios that might become operational in the future, like the development of a low gamma transition optics in the SPS or alternative production schemes for the LHC beams in the PS. A tentative prioritized list of studies is provided.

  3. Snow as building material for construction of technological along-the-route roads of main pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merdanov, S. M.; Egorov, A. L.; Kostyrchenko, V. A.; Madyarov, T. M.

    2018-05-01

    The article deals with the process of compacting snow in a closed volume with the use of vacuum processing for the construction of technological along-the-route roads of main pipelines. The relevance of the chosen study is substantiated; methods and designs for snow compaction are considered. The publication activity and defenses of doctoral and candidate dissertations on the research subject are analyzed. Patent analysis of existing methods and equipment for snow compaction with indication of their disadvantages is carried out. A design calculation was carried out using computer programs in which a strength calculation was performed to identify the most stressed places in the construction of a vibrating hydraulic tyre-type roller. A 3D model of the experimental setup was developed.

  4. Development of manufacturing technology and fabrication of prototype for main coolant pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Koon Seok; Han, C.K.; Chei, J.M.; Chung, K.S.; Youn, M.H.; Shin, S.A.; Choi, D.J.; Kim, H.C. [HALLA Industrial Co., Ltd., Pusan (Korea)

    1999-03-01

    This study presents the development of the manufacturing technology for the Main Coolant Pump of the SMART. This report contains the followings; (1) Select axial type pump for the MCP (2) MCP is drived by squirrel-cage induction motor that consisted canned motor type. (3) MCP shaft has three horizontal and one vertical support bearings. (4) Design of several part of the MCP (5) Manufacturing of the performance test motor (6) Design and manufacturing of the speed sensor (7) Procedures for three-axial and five-axial M.C.T., Tig welding and Electron Beam Welding were developed. (8) Conceptional design of the MCP test facility for the performance test under operating conditions. (9) Results of standard weld test specimens according to the ASME section IX. (author). 21 refs., 35 figs., 10 tabs.

  5. Beam instrumentation in the LEP Pre-injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battisti, S.; Bottollier, J.F.; Frammery, B.; Szeless, B.; Van Rooy, M.

    1987-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to review the beam instrumentation of the LEP pre-injector (LPI) including its design philosophy and software. The usefulness of these equipments for the LPI start-up is considered from an operational point of view and encountered problems are mentioned

  6. Additive Manufacturing of Fuel Injectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadek Tadros, Dr. Alber Alphonse [Edison Welding Institute, Inc., Columbus, OH (United States); Ritter, Dr. George W. [Edison Welding Institute, Inc., Columbus, OH (United States); Drews, Charles Donald [Edison Welding Institute, Inc., Columbus, OH (United States); Ryan, Daniel [Solar Turbines Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    2017-10-24

    Additive manufacturing (AM), also known as 3D-printing, has been shifting from a novelty prototyping paradigm to a legitimate manufacturing tool capable of creating components for highly complex engineered products. An emerging AM technology for producing metal parts is the laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) process; however, industry manufacturing specifications and component design practices for L-PBF have not yet been established. Solar Turbines Incorporated (Solar), an industrial gas turbine manufacturer, has been evaluating AM technology for development and production applications with the desire to enable accelerated product development cycle times, overall turbine efficiency improvements, and supply chain flexibility relative to conventional manufacturing processes (casting, brazing, welding). Accordingly, Solar teamed with EWI on a joint two-and-a-half-year project with the goal of developing a production L-PBF AM process capable of consistently producing high-nickel alloy material suitable for high temperature gas turbine engine fuel injector components. The project plan tasks were designed to understand the interaction of the process variables and their combined impact on the resultant AM material quality. The composition of the high-nickel alloy powders selected for this program met the conventional cast Hastelloy X compositional limits and were commercially available in different particle size distributions (PSD) from two suppliers. Solar produced all the test articles and both EWI and Solar shared responsibility for analyzing them. The effects of powder metal input stock, laser parameters, heat treatments, and post-finishing methods were evaluated. This process knowledge was then used to generate tensile, fatigue, and creep material properties data curves suitable for component design activities. The key process controls for ensuring consistent material properties were documented in AM powder and process specifications. The basic components of the project

  7. Influence of Reduced Mass Flow Rate and Chamber Backpressure on Swirl Injector Fluid Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, R Jeremy; Hulka, James R.

    2008-01-01

    Industry interest in variable-thrust liquid rocket engines places a demand on engine injector technology to operate over a wide range of liquid mass flow rates and chamber backpressures. One injection technology of current interest for variable thrust applications is an injector design with swirled fluids. Current swirl injector design methodologies do not take into account how swirl injector design parameters respond to elevated chamber backpressures at less than design mass flow rates. The current work was created to improve state-of-the-art swirl injector design methods in this area. The specific objective was to study the effects of elevated chamber backpressure and off-design mass flow rates on swirl injector fluid mechanics. Using a backpressure chamber with optical access, water was flowed through a swirl injector at various combinations of chamber backpressure and mass flow rates. The film thickness profile down the swirl injector nozzle section was measured through a transparent nozzle section of the injector. High speed video showed measurable increases in the film thickness profile with application of chamber backpressure and mass flow rates less than design. At prescribed combinations of chamber backpressure and injected mass flow rate, a discrete change in the film thickness profile was observed. Measured injector discharge coefficient values showed different trends with increasing chamber backpressure at low mass flow rates as opposed to near-design mass flow rates. Downstream spray angles showed classic changes in morphology as the mass flow rate was decreased below the design value. Increasing chamber backpressure decreased the spray angle at any injection mass flow rate. Experimental measurements and discussion of these results are reported in this paper.

  8. Using CFD as Rocket Injector Design Tool: Recent Progress at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Kevin; West, Jeff; Williams, Robert; Lin, Jeff; Rocker, Marvin; Canabal, Francisco; Robles, Bryan; Garcia, Robert; Chenoweth, James

    2003-01-01

    The choice of tools used for injector design is in a transitional phase between exclusive reliance on the empirically based correlations and extensive use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) Program goals emphasizing lower costs and increased reliability have produced a need to enable CFD as an injector design tool in a shorter time frame. This is the primary objective of the Staged Combustor Injector Technology Task currently under way at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The documentation of this effort begins with a very brief status of current injector design tools. MSFC's vision for use of CFD as a tool for combustion devices design is stated and discussed with emphasis on the injector. The concept of the Simulation Readiness Level (SRL), comprised of solution fidelity, robustness and accuracy, is introduced and discussed. This quantitative measurement is used to establish the gap between the current state of demonstrated capability and that necessary for regular use in the design process. MSFC's view of the validation process is presented and issues associated with obtaining the necessary data are noted and discussed. Three current experimental efforts aimed at generating validation data are presented. The importance of uncertainty analysis to understand the data quality is also demonstrated. First, a brief status of current injector design tools is provided as context for the current effort. Next, the MSFC vision for using CFD as an injector design tool is stated. A generic CFD-based injector design methodology is also outlined and briefly discussed. Three areas where MSFC is using injector CFD analyses for program support will be discussed. These include the Integrated Powerhead Development (IPD) engine which uses hydrogen and oxygen propellants in a full flow staged combustion (FFSC) cycle and the TR-107 and the RS84 engine both of which use RP-1 and oxygen in an ORSC cycle. Finally, an attempt is made to

  9. Tritium pellet injector for TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouge, M.J.; Baylor, L.R.; Cole, M.J.; Combs, S.K.; Dyer, G.R.; Fehling, D.T.; Fisher, P.W.; Foust, C.R.; Langley, R.A.; Milora, S.L.; Qualls, A.L.; Wilgen, J.B.; Schmidt, G.L.; Barnes, G.W.; Persing, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    The tritium pellet injector (TPI) for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) will provide a tritium pellet fueling capability with pellet speeds in the 1- to 3-km/s range for the TFTR deuterium-tritium (D-T) phase. The existing TFTR deuterium pellet injector (DPI) has been modified at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide a four-shot, tritium-compatible, pipe-gun configuration with three upgraded single-stage pneumatic guns and a two-stage light gas gun driver. The TPI was designed to provide pellets ranging from 3.3 to 4.5 mm in diameter in arbitrarily programmable firing sequences at speeds up to approximately 1.5 km/s for the three single-stage drivers and 2.5 to 3 km/s for the two-stage driver. Injector operation is controlled by a programmable logic controller. The new pipe-gun injector assembly was installed in the modified DPI guard vacuum box, and modifications were made to the internals of the DPI vacuum injection line, including a new pellet diagnostics package. Assembly of these modified parts with existing DPI components was then completed, and the TPI was tested at ORNL with deuterium pellet. Results of the limited testing program at ORNL are described. The TPI is being installed on TFTR to support the D-D run period in 1992. In 1993, the tritium pellet injector will be retrofitted with a D-T fuel manifold and secondary tritium containment systems and integrated into TFTR tritium processing systems to provide full tritium pellet capability

  10. The ATLAS positive ion injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepard, K.W.; Bollinger, L.M.; Pardo, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews the design, construction status, and beam tests to date of the positive ion injector (PII) which is replacing the tandem injector for the ATLAS heavy-ion facility. PII consists of an ECR ion source on a 350 KV platform injecting a very low velocity superconducting linac. The linac is composed of an independently-phased array of superconducting four-gap interdigital resonators which accelerate over a velocity range of .006 to .05c. In finished form, PII will be able to inject ions as heavy as uranium into the existing ATLAS linac. Although at the present time little more than 50% of the linac is operational, the indenpently-phased array is sufficiently flexible that ions in the lower half of the periodic table can be accelerated and injected into ATLAS. Results of recent operational experience will be discussed. 5 refs

  11. ATA injector-gun calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, A.C.

    1981-01-01

    ATA is a pulsed, 50 ns 10 KA, 50 MeV linear induction electron accelerator at LLNL. The ETA could be used as an injector for ATA. However the possibility of building a new injector gun for ATA, raised the question as to what changes from the ETA gun in electrode dimensions or potentials, if any, should be considered. In this report the EBQ code results for the four electrode configurations are reviewed and an attempt is made to determine the geometrical scaling laws appropriate to these ETA type gun geometries. Comparison of these scaling laws will be made to ETA operation. The characteristic operating curves for these geometries will also be presented and the effect of washer position determined. It will be shown that emittance growth will impose a limitation on beam current for a given anode potential before the virtual cathode limit is reached

  12. The ATLAS positive ion injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K.W.; Bollinger, L.M.; Pardo, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews the design, construction status, and beam tests to date of the positive ion injector (PII) which is replacing the tandem injector for the ATLAS heavy-ion facility. PII consists of an ECR ion source on a 350 KV platform injecting a very low velocity superconducting linac. The linac is composed of an independently-phased array of superconducting four-gap interdigital resonators which accelerate over a velocity range of .006 to .05c. In finished form, PII will be able to inject ions as heavy as uranium into the existing ATLAS linac. Although at the present time little more than 50% of the linac is operational, the indenpently-phased array is sufficiently flexible that ions in the lower half of the periodic table can be accelerated and injected into ATLAS. Results of recent operational experience will be discussed. 5 refs.

  13. Centrifuge pellet injector for JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andelfinger, C.; Buchelt, E.; Jacobi, D.; Lackner, E.; Schilling, H.B.; Ulrich, M.; Weber, G.

    1983-08-01

    An engineering design of a centrifuge pellet injector for JET is reported as part of the Phase I contract number JE 2/9016. A rather detailed design is presented for the mechanical and electronic features. Stress calculations, dynamic behaviour and life estimates are considered. The interfaces to the JET vacuum system and CODAS are discussed. Proposals for the pellet diagnostics (velocity, mass and shape) are presented. (orig.)

  14. Injector linac of SPring-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, H.; Hori, T.; Suzuki, S.; Yanagida, K.; Itoh, Y.; Mizuno, A.; Taniuchi, T.; Sakaki, H.; Kuba, A.; Fukushima, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Asaka, T.; Yokomizo, H.

    1996-01-01

    The linac that is SPring-8 injector was completed and started operation from August 1. A beam was able to be transported to the final beam dumping at a tail end on August 8. From now on this linac carries out beam adjustment and be scheduled to do a beam injection to a synchrotron in October. The construction and fundamental performance of the linac are described. (author)

  15. Pb injector at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haseroth, H.D.

    1996-01-01

    For the CERN Lead Ion Accelerating Facility (achieved within a collaboration of several outside laboratories and with financial help of some member states) a new dedicated Linac has been built. This Linac has been installed in 1994 and served during two extended physics runs. This paper reviews the main characteristics of this machine and describes the first operational experience. Emphasis is put on new features of this accelerator, its associated equipment and on the peculiarities of heavy ions. (author)

  16. On-line control system for electron injector based on autoemission cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, N.V.; Karpov, A.G.; Ovsyannikov, D.A.; Prudnikov, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    An original on-line system of control of electron injector parameters on the base of an autoemission cathode is described. The system includes hardware (analog-to-digital and graphical displays, a printer, a magnetic disc memory a plotter) and data control and readout equipment. A high-voltage power source of the 'RACE' is controlled by digital measuring devices connected with a computer data via a special matching device. Software includes servicing subroutines for injector controls and those permitting to display, plot and print results. The main operating program functioning in the interactive mode enables to specify the injector operating conditions and check its characteristics

  17. MINU Main Injector Neutrino Upgrade: Conceptual Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogert, Dixon [Fermilab; Alber, Russ [Fermilab

    2007-02-01

    This Conceptual Design Report (CDR) is intended to be a selfconsistent basis for a project baseline cost estimate. It is not a Title 1 report and has not answered every technical design question. The current level of contingency is believed to be consistent with the degree of technical confidence in the design at this stage. It is recognized that some basic construction concerns will be reviewed and optimized during the remaining stages of the project.

  18. The main injector particle production experiment at Fermilab

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We describe the physics capabilities and status of the MIPP experiment which concluded its physics data taking run in March 2006. We show some preliminary results from this run and describe plans to upgrade the spectrometer.

  19. The main injector particle production experiment at Fermilab

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MIPP experiment represents the electronic equivalent of the bubble chamber with ... Another measurement MIPP hopes to make in the upgraded mode is that of pion and proton cross-sections off liquid nitrogen targets for the better prediction.

  20. Fermilab Antiproton source, Recycler ring and Main Injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaitsev, Sergei [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2013-03-22

    The antiproton source for a proton-antiproton collider at Fermilab was proposed in 1976 [1]. The proposal argued that the requisite luminosity (~1029 cm-2sec-1) could be achieved with a facility that would produce and cool approximately 1011 antiprotons per day. Funding for the Tevatron I project (to construct the Antiproton source) was initiated in 1981 and the Tevatron ring itself was completed, as a fixed target accelerator, in the summer of 1983 and the Antiproton Source was completed in 1985. At the end of its operations in 2011, the Fermilab antiproton production complex consisted of a sophisticated target system, three 8-GeV storage rings (namely the Debuncher, Accumulator and Recycler), 25 independent multi-GHz stochastic cooling systems, the world’s only relativistic electron cooling system and a team of technical experts equal to none. Sustained accumulation of antiprotons was possible at the rate of greater than 2.5×1011 per hour. Record-size stacks of antiprotons in excess of 3×1012 were accumulated in the Accumulator ring and 6×1012 in the Recycler. In some special cases, the antiprotons were stored in rings for more than 50 days. Note, that over the years, some 1016 antiprotons were produced and accumulated at Fermilab, which is about 17 nanograms and more than 90% of the world’s total man-made quantity of nuclear antimatter. The accelerator complex at Fermilab supported a broad physics program including the Tevatron Collider Run II [2], neutrino experiments using 8 GeV and 120 GeV proton beams, as well as a test beam facility and other fixed target experiments using 120 GeV primary proton beams. The following sections provide a brief description of Fermilab accelerators as they operated at the end of the Collider Run II (2011).

  1. Pellet injectors for steady state plasma fuelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinyar, I.; Geraud, A.; Yamada, H.; Lukin, A.; Sakamoto, R.; Skoblikov, S.; Umov, A.; Oda, Y.; Gros, G.; Krasilnikov, I.; Reznichenko, P.; Panchenko, V.

    2005-01-01

    Successful steady state operation of a fusion reactor should be supported by repetitive pellet injection of solidified hydrogen isotopes in order to produce high performance plasmas. This paper presents pneumatic pellet injectors and its implementation for long discharge on the LHD and TORE SUPRA, and a new centrifuge pellet injector test results. All injectors are fitted with screw extruders well suited for steady state operation

  2. Pneumatic pellet injectors for TFTR and JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combs, S.K.; Milora, S.L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the development of pneumatic hydrogen pellet injectors for plasma fueling applications on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) and the Joint European Torus (JET). The performance parameters of these injectors represent an extension of previous experience and include pellet sizes in the range 2-6 mm in diameter and speeds approaching 2 km/s. Design features and operating characteristics of these pneumatic injectors are presented

  3. Direct Fuel Injector Power Drive System Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    solenoid coil to create magnetic field in the stator. Then, the stator pulls the pintle to open the injector nozzle . This pintle movement occurs when the...that typically deal with power strategies to the injector solenoid coil. Numerical simulation codes for diesel injection systems were developed by...Laboratory) for providing the JP-8 test fuel. REFERENCES 1. Digesu, P. and Laforgia D., “ Diesel electro- injector : A numerical simulation code”. Journal of

  4. Numerical Simulation of Twin Nozzle Injectors

    OpenAIRE

    Milak, Dino

    2015-01-01

    Fuel injectors for marine applications have traditionally utilized nozzles with symmetric equispaced orifice configuration. But in light of the new marine emission legislations the twin nozzle concept has arisen. The twin nozzle differs from the conventional configuration by utilizing two closely spaced orifices to substitute each orifice in the conventional nozzle. Injector manufacturers regard twin nozzle injectors as a promising approach to facilitate stable spray patterns independent of t...

  5. 3 GeV Injector Design Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedemann, H.; /SLAC, SSRL

    2009-12-16

    This Design Handbook is intended to be the main reference book for the specifications of the 3 GeV SPEAR booster synchrotron project. It is intended to be a consistent description of the project including design criteria, key technical specifications as well as current design approaches. Since a project is not complete till it's complete changes and modifications of early conceptual designs must be expected during the duration of the construction. Therefore, this Design Handbook is issued as a loose leaf binder so that individual sections can be replaced as needed. Each page will be dated to ease identification with respect to latest revisions. At the end of the project this Design Handbook will have become the 'as built' reference book of the injector for operations and maintenance personnel.

  6. Space Shuttle main engine product improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucci, A. D.; Klatt, F. P.

    1985-01-01

    The current design of the Space Shuttle Main Engine has passed 11 certification cycles, amassed approximately a quarter million seconds of engine test time in 1200 tests and successfully launched the Space Shuttle 17 times of 51 engine launches through May 1985. Building on this extensive background, two development programs are underway at Rocketdyne to improve the flow of hot gas through the powerhead and evaluate the changes to increase the performance margins in the engine. These two programs, called Phase II+ and Technology Test Bed Precursor program are described. Phase II+ develops a two-tube hot-gas manifold that improves the component environment. The Precursor program will evaluate a larger throat main combustion chamber, conduct combustion stability testing of a baffleless main injector, fabricate an experimental weld-free heat exchanger tube, fabricate and test a high pressure oxidizer turbopump with an improved inlet, and develop and test methods for reducing temperature transients at start and shutdown.

  7. LHCb: Hardware Data Injector

    CERN Multimedia

    Delord, V; Neufeld, N

    2009-01-01

    The LHCb High Level Trigger and Data Acquisition system selects about 2 kHz of events out of the 1 MHz of events, which have been selected previously by the first-level hardware trigger. The selected events are consolidated into files and then sent to permanent storage for subsequent analysis on the Grid. The goal of the upgrade of the LHCb readout is to lift the limitation to 1 MHz. This means speeding up the DAQ to 40 MHz. Such a DAQ system will certainly employ 10 Gigabit or technologies and might also need new networking protocols: a customized TCP or proprietary solutions. A test module is being presented, which integrates in the existing LHCb infrastructure. It is a 10-Gigabit traffic generator, flexible enough to generate LHCb's raw data packets using dummy data or simulated data. These data are seen as real data coming from sub-detectors by the DAQ. The implementation is based on an FPGA using 10 Gigabit Ethernet interface. This module is integrated in the experiment control system. The architecture, ...

  8. INTEGRATION OF INFORMATIONAL COMPUTER TECHNOLOGIES SMK: AUTOMATION OF THE MAIN FUNCTIONS OF THE TECHNICAL CONTROL DEPARTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Pavlenko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that automation of some functions of control department allows to record defects, reclamations and failures of technology, to make the necessary reporting forms and quality certificates for production.

  9. EVALUATION OF THE CARBON FOOTPRINT OF INNOVATIVE WATER MAIN REHABILITATION TECHNOLOGIES VS. OPEN CUT METHODS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A major benefit of trenchless rehabilitation technologies touted by many practitioners when comparing their products with tradition open cut construction methods is lower carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. In an attempt to verify these claims, multiple tools have been dev...

  10. CFD simulations of the diesel jet primary atomization from a multihole injector

    OpenAIRE

    Chasos, Charalambos

    2017-01-01

    [EN] High pressure multi-hole diesel injectors are currently used in direct-injection common-rail diesel engines for the improvement of fuel injection and air/fuel mixing, and the overall engine performance. The resulting spray injection characteristics are dictated by the injector geometry and the injection conditions, as well as the ambient conditions into which the liquid is injected. The main objective of the present study was to design a high pressure multi-hole diesel inject...

  11. Transient Beam Dynamics in the LBL 2 MV Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henestroza, E; Grote, D

    1999-01-01

    A driver-scale injector for the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator project has been built at LBL. This machine has exceeded the design goals of high voltage (> 2 MV), high current (> 0.8 A of K + ) and low normalized emittance (< 1 π mm-mr). The injector consists of a 750 keV gun pre-injector followed by an electrostatic quadrupole accelerator (ESQ) which provides strong (alternating gradient) focusing for the space-charge dominated beam, and simultaneously accelerates the ions to 2 MeV. A matching section is being built to match the beam to the electrostatic accelerator ELISE. The gun preinjector, designed to hold up to 1 MV with minimal breakdown risks, consists of a hot aluminosilicate source with a large curved emitting surface surrounded by a thick ''extraction electrode''. During beam turn-on the voltage at the source is biased from a negative potential, enough to reverse the electric field on the emitting surface and avoid emission, to a positive potential to start extracting the beam; it stays constant for about 1 (micro)s, and is reversed to turn-off the emission. Since the Marx voltage applied on the accelerating quadrupoles and the main pre-injector gap is a long, constant pulse (several (micro)s), the transient behavior is dominated by the extraction pulser voltage time profile. The transient longitudinal dynamics of the beam in the injector was simulated by running the Particle in Cell codes GYMNOS and WARP3d in a time dependent mode. The generalization and its implementation in WAIW3d of a method proposed by Lampel and Tiefenback to eliminate transient oscillations in a one-dimensional planar diode will be presented

  12. Pellet injector development at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milora, S.L.; Argo, B.E.; Baylor, L.R.; Cole, M.J.; Combs, S.K.; Dyer, G.R.; Fehling, D.T.; Fisher, P.W.; Foster, C.A.; Foust, C.R.; Gouge, M.J.; Jernigan, T.C.; Langley, R.A.; Qualls, A.L.; Schechter, D.E.; Sparks, D.O.; Tsai, C.C.; Whealton, J.H.; Wilgen, J.B.; Schmidt, G.L.

    1992-01-01

    Plasma fueling systems for magnetic confinement experiments are under development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ORNL has recently provided a four-shot tritium pellet injector with up to 4-mm-diam capability for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). This injector, which is based on the in situ condensation technique for pellet formation, features three single-stage gas guns that have been qualified in deuterium at up to 1.7 km/s and a two-stage light gas gun driver that has been operated at 2.8-km/s pellet speeds for deep penetration in the high-temperature TFTR supershot regime. Performance improvements to the centrifugal pellet injector for the Tore Supra tokamak are being made by modifying the storage-type pellet feed system, which has been redesigned to improve the reliability of delivery of pellets and to extend operation to longer pulse durations (up to 400 pellets). Two-stage light gas guns and electron-beam (e-beam) rocket accelerators for speeds in the range from 2 to 10 km/s are also under development. A repeating, two-stage light gas gun that has been developed can accelerate low-density plastic pellets at a 1-Hz repetition rate to speeds of 3 km/s. In a collaboration with ENEA-Frascati, a test facility has been prepared to study repetitive operation of a two-stage gas gun driver equipped with an extrusion-type deuterium pellet source. Extensive testing of the e-beam accelerator has demonstrated a parametric dependence of propellant burn velocity and pellet speed, in accordance with a model derived from the neutral gas shielding theory for pellet ablation in a magnetized plasma

  13. Ion source and injector development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, C.D.

    1976-01-01

    This is a survey of low energy accelerators which inject into proton linacs. Laboratories covered include Argonne, Brookhaven, CERN, Chalk River, Fermi, ITEP, KEK, Rutherford, and Saclay. This paper emphasizes complete injector systems, comparing significant hardware features and beam performance data, including recent additions. There is increased activity now in the acceleration of polarized protons, H + and H - , and of unpolarized H - . New source development and programs for these ion beams is outlined at the end of the report. Heavy-ion sources are not included

  14. Pneumatic pellet injector for JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andelfinger, C.; Buechl, K.; Jacobi, D.; Sandmann, W.; Schiedeck, J.; Schilling, H.B.; Weber, G.

    1983-07-01

    Pellet injection is a useful tool for plasma diagnostics of tokamaks. Pellets can be applied for investigation of particle, energy and impurity transport, fueling efficiency and magnetic surfaces. Design, operation and control of a single shot pneumatic pellet gun is described in detail including all supplies, the vacuum system and the diagnostics of the pellet. The arrangement of this injector in the torus hall and the interfaces to the JET system and CODAS are considered. A guide tube system for pellet injection is discussed but it will not be recommended for JET. (orig.)

  15. Digital Measuring Devices Used for Injector Hydraulic Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Leontiev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To ensure a high specific impulse of the LRE (liquid-propellant engine chamber it is necessary to have optimally organized combustion of the fuel components. This can be ensured by choosing the optimum geometry of gas-dynamic contour of the LRE combustor, as well as by improving the sputtering processes and mixing the fuel components, for example, by selection of the optimum type, characteristics, and location of injectors on the mixing unit of the chamber.These particular reasons arise the interest in the injector characteristics in terms of science, and technological aspects determine the need for control of underlying design parameters in their manufacture.The objective of this work is to give an experimental justification on used digital measurement instrumentation and research the hydraulic characteristics of injectors.To determine injector parameters most widely were used the units with sectional collectors. A technique to control injector parameters using the sectional collectors involves spraying the liquid by injector at a given pressure drop on it for a certain time (the longer, the higher the accuracy and reliability of the results and then determining the amount of liquid in each section to calculate the required parameters of injector.In this work the liquid flow through the injector was determined by high-precision flowmeters FLONET FN2024.1 of electromagnetic type, which have very high metrological characteristics, in particular a flow rate error does not exceed 0.5% in a range of water flow from Qmin= 0.0028 l/s to Qmax Qmax = 0.28 l/s. To determine the coefficient of uneven spray were used differential pressure sensors DMD 331-ASLX of company "DB Sensors RUS", which have an error of 0.075% with a range of differential pressure 0 ... 5 kPa. Measuring complex MIC-200 of company "NPP Measure" and WinPos software for processing array information provided entry, recording, and processing of all the data of the experiment.In this

  16. Main ways and suitable technologies of improving economic benefits for uranium ore heap leaching in China (the end)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Zibin

    2001-01-01

    Combining with practice of China's uranium ore heap leaching, the author proposes main ways and suitable technologies in the fields of emphasizing feasibility research, adopting strengthened technologies, improving equipment level, optimizing control technological factors and developing application range and so on, which include adopting acid-currying and ferric sulphate-trickle leaching process, bacteria heap leaching, countercurrent heap leaching, selecting advanced material of heap bottom, developing large mechanized heap construction equipment and methods, popularizing drip irrigation distributing solution, optimizing heap leaching process parameters, as well as developing recovery equipment suited to heap leaching, etc, in order to increase leaching rate, reduce heap leaching period and achieve more economic benefits

  17. Status and performance of PF injector linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Isamu

    1994-01-01

    PF injector linac has been improved on a buncher section for accelerating of intense electron beam, and reinforced a focusing system of the positron generator linac for the expansion of phase space. In this presentation, I shall report present status and performance of PF injector linac, and discuss its upgrade program for B-factory project. (author)

  18. Engineering problems of future neutral beam injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, J.

    1977-01-01

    Because there is no limit to the energy or power that can be delivered by a neutral-beam injector, its use will be restricted by either its cost, size, or reliability. Studies show that these factors can be improved by the injector design, and several examples, taken from mirror reactor studies, are given

  19. CNG INJECTOR RESEARCH FOR DUAL FUEL ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Majczak

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the tests results of the prototype design of hydraulically assisted injector, that is designed for gas supply into diesel engines. The construction of the injector allows for it positioning in the glow plug socket, so that the gas is injected directly into the combustion chamber. The cycle analysis of the four-cylinder Andoria ADCR engine with a capacity of 2.6 dm3 for different crankshaft rotational speeds allowed to determine the necessary time for fuel injection. Because of that, it was possible to determine the required mass flow rate of the injector, for replacing as much of the original fuel by gaseous fuel. To ensure a high value of flow inside the injector, supply pressure equal to 1 MPa was applied. High gas supply pressure requires high value of valve opening forces. For this purpose a injector with hydraulic control system, using a liquid under pressure for the opening process was designed. On the basis of air pressure measurements in the flow line after the injector, the analysis of opening and closing of the valve was made. Measurements of outflow mass of the injector were also carried out. The results showed that the designed injector meets the requirements necessary to supply ADCR engine by the CNG fuel.

  20. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF INNOVATIVE LEAK DETECTION/LOCATION TECHNOLOGIES COUPLED WITH WALL-THICKNESS SCREENING FOR WATER MAINS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sponsored a large-scale field demonstration of innovative leak detection/location and condition assessment technologies on a 76-year old, 2,500-ft long, cement-lined, 24-in. cast iron water main in Louisville, KY from July through Septembe...

  1. Western oil shale development: a technology assessment. Volume 1. Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-11-01

    The general goal of this study is to present the prospects of shale oil within the context of (1) environmental constraints, (2) available natural and economic resources, and (3) the characteristics of existing and emerging technology. The objectives are: to review shale oil technologies objectively as a means of supplying domestically produced fuels within environmental, social, economic, and legal/institutional constraints; using available data, analyses, and experienced judgment, to examine the major points of uncertainty regarding potential impacts of oil shale development; to resolve issues where data and analyses are compelling or where conclusions can be reached on judgmental grounds; to specify issues which cannot be resolved on the bases of the data, analyses, and experienced judgment currently available; and when appropriate and feasible, to suggest ways for the removal of existing uncertainties that stand in the way of resolving outstanding issues.

  2. Microalgal carbohydrates: an overview of the factors influencing carbohydrates production, and of main bioconversion technologies for production of biofuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markou, Giorgos; Angelidaki, Irini; Georgakakis, Dimitris

    2012-01-01

    in research is the cultivation of microalgae for lipids production to generate biodiesel. However, there are several other biological or thermochemical conversion technologies, in which microalgal biomass could be used as substrate. However, the high protein content or the low carbohydrate content...... of the majority of the microalgal species might be a constraint for their possible use in these technologies. Moreover, in the majority of biomass conversion technologies, carbohydrates are the main substrate for production of biofuels. Nevertheless, microalgae biomass composition could be manipulated by several......Microalgal biomass seems to be a promising feedstock for biofuel generation. Microalgae have relative high photosynthetic efficiencies, high growth rates, and some species can thrive in brackish water or seawater and wastewater from the food- and agro-industrial sector. Today, the main interest...

  3. Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning reference nuclear research and test reactors. Main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konzek, G.J.; Ludwick, J.D.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Smith, R.I.

    1982-03-01

    Safety and Cost Information is developed for the conceptual decommissioning of two representative licensed nuclear research and test reactors. Three decommissioning alternatives are studied to obtain comparisons between costs (in 1981 dollars), occupational radiation doses, potential radiation dose to the public, and other safety impacts. The alternatives considered are: DECON (immediate decontamination), SAFSTOR (safe storage followed by deferred decontamination), and ENTOMB (entombment). The study results are presented in two volumes. Volume 1 (Main Report) contains the results in summary form

  4. Technological Solutions and Main Indices for the Assessment of Newborns’ Nutritive Sucking: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Tamilia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritive Sucking (NS is a highly organized process that is essential for infants’ feeding during the first six months of their life. It requires the complex coordination of sucking, swallowing and breathing. The infant’s inability to perform a safe and successful oral feeding can be an early detector of immaturity of the Central Nervous System (CNS. Even though the importance of early sucking measures has been confirmed over the years, the need for standardized instrumental assessment tools still exists. Clinicians would benefit from specifically designed devices to assess oral feeding ability in their routine clinical monitoring and decision-making process. This work is a review of the main instrumental solutions developed to assess an infant’s NS behavior, with a detailed survey of the main quantities and indices measured and/or estimated to characterize sucking behavior skills and their development. The adopted sensing measuring systems will be described, and their main advantages and weaknesses will be discussed, taking into account their application to clinical practice, or to at-home monitoring as post-discharge assessment tools. Finally, the study will highlight the most suitable sensing solutions and give some prompts for further research.

  5. Status of the ATLAS Positive-Ion Injector Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardo, R.C.; Benaroya, R.; Billquist, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    The goal of the Argonne Positive Ion Injector project is to replace the ATLAS tandem injector with a facility which will increase the beam currents presently available by a factor of 100 and to make available at ATLAS essentially all beams including uranium. The beam quality expected from the facility will be at least as good as that of the tandem based ATLAS. The project combines two relatively new technologies - the electron cyclotron resonance ion source, which provides high charge state ions at microampere currents, and RF superconductivity which has been shown to be capable of generating accelerating fields as high as 10 MV/m, resulting in an essentially new method of acceleration for low-energy heavy ions. 5 refs., 7 figs., 1 tabs

  6. Therminoic gun control system for the CEBAF injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pico, R.; Diamond, B.; Fugitt, J.; Bork, R.

    1989-01-01

    The injector for the CEBAF accelerator must produce a high-quality electron beam to meet the overall accelerator specifications. A Hermosa electron gun with a 2 mm-diameter cathode and a control aperture has been chosen as the electron source. This must be controlled over a wide range of operating conditions to meet the beam specifications and to provide flexibility for accelerator commissioning. The gun is controlled using Computer Automated Measurement and Control (CAMAC IEEE-583) technology. The system employs the CAMAC-based control architecture developed at CEBAF. The control system has been tested, and early operating data on the electron gun and the injector beam transport system has been obtained. This system also allows gun parameters to be stored at the operator location, without paralyzing operation. This paper describes the use of this computer system in the control of the CEBAF electron gun. 2 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  7. Comprehensive evaluation of the main technology for new sewage treatment plants in small towns along the Duliujian river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiming; Zhou, Beihai; Yuan, Rongfang; Bao, Xiangming; Li, Dongwei

    2018-02-01

    In recent years, water contamination problem has been becoming more and more serious due to increasing wastewater discharge. So our country has accelerated the pace of constructing sewage treatment plant in small towns. But in China it has not been issued any corresponding technical specifications about the choice of treatment technology. So the article is based on the basin of Duliujian river, through field research, data collection and analysis of relevant documentations, preliminarily elects seven kinds of technology: Improved A2/O, Integrated oxidation ditch, Orbal oxidation ditch, CASS, A/O+refined diatomite, BIOLAK and UNITANK as alternatives for Tianjin sewage discharge local standard.Then the article use the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to evaluate the seven kinds of alternatives, finally it is concluded that CASS technology is most suitable for the main technology of new sewage treatment plants in small towns along the Duliujian River basin.

  8. The three main monotheistic religions and gm food technology: an overview of perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singer Peter A

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public acceptance of genetically modified crops is partly rooted in religious views. However, the views of different religions and their potential influence on consumers' decisions have not been systematically examined and summarized in a brief overview. We review the positions of the Judaism, Islam and Christianity – the three major monotheistic religions to which more than 55% of humanity adheres to – on the controversies aroused by GM technology. Discussion The article establishes that there is no overarching consensus within the three religions. Overall, however, it appears that mainstream theology in all three religions increasingly tends towards acceptance of GM technology per se, on performing GM research, and on consumption of GM foods. These more liberal approaches, however, are predicated on there being rigorous scientific, ethical and regulatory scrutiny of research and development of such products, and that these products are properly labeled. Summary We conclude that there are several other interests competing with the influence exerted on consumers by religion. These include the media, environmental activists, scientists and the food industry, all of which function as sources of information and shapers of perception for consumers.

  9. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground. Main Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, E. S.; Holter, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Safety and cost information are developed for the conceptual decommissioning of commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are used as reference facilities for the study. The two burial grounds are assumed to have the same site capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology. and hydrology of the two sites are chosen to be typical of real western and eastern sites. Volume 1 (Main Report) contains background information and study results in summary form.

  10. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground. Main Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, E. S.; Holter, G. M.

    1980-06-01

    Safety and cost information are developed for the conceptual decommissioning of commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are used as reference facilities for the study. The two burial grounds are assumed to have the same site capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology. and hydrology of the two sites are chosen to be typical of real western and eastern sites. Volume 1 (Main Report) contains background information and study results in summary form.

  11. A hot-spare injector for the APS linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewellen, J. W.

    1999-01-01

    Last year a second-generation SSRL-type thermionic cathode rf gun was installed in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) linac. This gun (referred to as ''gun2'') has been successfully commissioned and now serves as the main injector for the APS linac, essentially replacing the Koontz-type DC gun. To help ensure injector availability, particularly with the advent of top-up mode operation at the APS, a second thermionic-cathode rf gun will be installed in the APS linac to act as a hot-spare beam source. The hot-spare installation includes several unique design features, including a deep-orbit Panofsky-style alpha magnet. Details of the hot-spare beamline design and projected performance are presented, along with some plans for future performance upgrades

  12. Information Technology as the Main Competence in the Design of the Strategic Planning of Logistics Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Varella

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The creation of logistical support structures aims to help improve the performance of logistics along supply chains, a context where the Logistics Platforms have been gaining increasing prominence. A frequent difficulty in these ventures is to align strategic planning with the flow of cargo and the ability of the adjacent port areas. Aiming to contribute to the understanding of the importance of Information Technology in a Logistics Platform, this article systematize some of the operational core competencies of Logistics Platforms, inter-relating them with the strategic planning of these projects and showing their convergence to a solid information management structure. This study indicates the importance of this essential skill in the operation of a logistics enterprise and the preparation of its strategic plan, shown to be fundamental in the design of its operations, the adequacy of the enterprise to the region and to supply chains integrated into this environment.

  13. The preparation for the year main competition teams in basketball with hearing impairments with innovative technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.N. Sobko

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : develop and prove experimentally comprehensive training program on the Ukrainian national team basketball with hearing impairment in the annual cycle for the major competitions. Material : The study involved 12 basketball hearing impaired 20-25 years old - female players team of Ukraine on basketball. Also analyzed the test results and competitive activity 12 basketball players with hearing impairments - Lithuanian team players. Results : We showed the need for a qualitative change in the training process through the development and application of innovative technologies. This allows a greater level of communication between the coach and athletes to intensify training process. Developed and experimentally substantiated comprehensive training program for the Ukrainian national team. In technical training device used light. This increased mobility, agility, activity and intensity workouts. In tactical training improved situational and planned change tactical drawing game using copyright protection of video tutorials with animated illustrations. Conclusions : A positive impact of the developed system for basketball training result in major competitions.

  14. Summary of Liquid Oxygen/Hydrogen, Direct Metal Laser Sintering Injector Testing and Evaluation Effort at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Gregory; Bullard, David B.

    2015-01-01

    The last several years have witnessed a significant advancement in the area of additive manufacturing technology. One area that has seen substantial expansion in application has been laser sintering (or melting) in a powder bed. This technology is often termed 3D printing or various acronyms that may be industry, process, or company specific. Components manufactured via 3D printing have the potential to significantly reduce development and fabrication time and cost. The usefulness of 3D printed components is influenced by several factors such as material properties and surface roughness. This paper details three injectors that were designed, fabricated, and tested in order to evaluate the utility of 3D printed components for rocket engine applications. The three injectors were tested in a hot-fire environment with chamber pressures of approximately 1400 psia. One injector was a 28 element design printed by Directed Manufacturing. The other two injectors were identical 40 element designs printed by Directed Manufacturing and Solid Concepts. All the injectors were swirl-coaxial designs and were subscale versions of a full-scale injector currently in fabrication. The test and evaluation programs for the 28 element and 40 element injectors provided a substantial amount of data that confirms the feasibility of 3D printed parts for future applications. The operating conditions of previously tested, conventionally manufactured injectors were reproduced in the 28 and 40 element programs in order to contrast the performance of each. Overall, the 3D printed injectors demonstrated comparable performance to the conventionally manufactured units. The design features of the aforementioned injectors can readily be implemented in future applications with a high degree of confidence.

  15. Understanding the spectrum of diesel injector deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quigley, Robert; Barbour, Robert [Lubrizol Limited, Derby (United Kingdom); Arters, David; Bush, Jim [Lubrizol Corporation, Wickliffe, OH (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Understanding the origin of diesel fuel injector deposits used to be relatively simple; for the most part they were caused by the decomposition of fuel during the combustion process, were generally organic in nature and typically only affected the nozzle orifices. However, modem fuel injector designs appear to be both more severe in terms of generating conditions conducive to creating new and different types of deposits and more likely to have their operation affected by those deposits. Changes to fuel composition and type have in some cases increased the potential pool of reactive species or provided new potential deposit precursors. As a result, the universe of diesel injector deposits now range from the traditional organic to partially or fully inorganic in nature and from nozzle coking deposits to deposits which can seize the internal components of the injector; so called internal diesel injector deposits. Frequently, combinations of inorganic and organic deposits are found. While power loss is one well known issue associated with nozzle deposits, other field problems resulting from these new deposits include severe issues with drivability, emissions, fuel consumption and even engine failure. Conventional deposit control additive chemistries were developed to be effective against organic nozzle coking deposits. These conventional additives in many cases may prove ineffective against this wide range of deposit types. This paper discusses the range of deposits that have been found to adversely impact modem diesel fuel injectors and compares the performance of conventional and new, advanced deposit control additives against these various challenges to proper fuel injector functioning. (orig.)

  16. Main-Reflector Manufacturing Technology for the Deep Space Optical Communications Ground Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britcliffe, M. J.; Hoppe, D. J.

    2001-01-01

    The Deep Space Network (DSN) has plans to develop a 10-m-diameter optical communications receiving station. The system uses the direct detection technique, which has much different requirements from a typical astronomical telescope. The receiver must operate in daylight and nighttime conditions. This imposes special requirements on the optical system to reject stray light from the Sun and other sources. One of the biggest challenges is designing a main-reflector surface that meets these requirements and can be produced at a reasonable cost. The requirements for the performance of the reflector are presented. To date, an aspherical primary reflector has been assumed. A reflector with a spherical reflector has a major cost advantage over an aspherical design, with no sacrifice in performance. A survey of current manufacturing techniques for optical mirrors of this type was performed. Techniques including solid glass, lightweight glass, diamond-turned aluminum, and composite mirrors were investigated.

  17. Technologies and R&D for a High Resolution Cavity BPM for the CLIC Main Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Towler, J R; Soby, L; Wendt, M; Boogert, S T; Cullinan, F J; Lyapin, A

    2013-01-01

    The Main Beam (MB) linac of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) requires a beam orbit measurement system with high spatial (50 nm) and high temporal resolution (50 ns) to resolve the beam position within the 156 ns long bunch train, traveling on an energy-chirped, minimum dispersive trajectory. A 15 GHz prototype cavity BPM has been commissioned in the probe beam-line of the CTF3 CLIC Test Facility. We discuss performance and technical details of this prototype installation, including the 15 GHz analogue downconverter, the data acquisition and the control electronics and software. An R&D outlook is given for the next steps, which requires a system of 3 cavity BPMs to investigate the full resolution potential.

  18. 49 CFR 230.57 - Injectors and feedwater pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Injectors and feedwater pumps. 230.57 Section 230... Appurtenances Injectors, Feedwater Pumps, and Flue Plugs § 230.57 Injectors and feedwater pumps. (a) Water.... Injectors and feedwater pumps must be kept in good condition, free from scale, and must be tested at the...

  19. Experimental technologies comparison for strain measurement of a composite main landing gear bay specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viscardi, Massimo; Arena, Maurizio; Ciminello, Monica; Guida, Michele; Meola, Carosena; Cerreta, Pietro

    2018-03-01

    The development of advanced monitoring system for strain measurements on aeronautical components remain an important target both when related to the optimization of the lead-time and cost for part validation, allowing earlier entry into service, and when related to the implementation of advanced health monitoring systems dedicated to the in-service parameters verification and early stage detection of structural problems. The paper deals with the experimental testing of a composite samples set of the main landing gear bay for a CS-25 category aircraft, realized through an innovative design and production process. The test have represented a good opportunity for direct comparison of different strain measurement techniques: Strain Gauges (SG) and Fibers Bragg Grating (FBG) have been used as well as non-contact techniques, specifically the Digital Image Correlation (DIC) and Infrared (IR) thermography applied where possible in order to highlight possible hot-spot during the tests. The crucial points identification on the specimens has been supported by means of advanced finite element simulations, aimed to assessment of the structural strength and deformation as well as to ensure the best performance and the global safety of the whole experimental campaign.

  20. An overview of the main foodstuff sample preparation technologies for tetracycline residue determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Michael; Pellerano, Roberto Gerardo; Pezza, Leonardo; Pezza, Helena Redigolo

    2018-05-15

    Tetracyclines are widely used for both the treatment and prevention of diseases in animals as well as for the promotion of rapid animal growth and weight gain. This practice may result in trace amounts of these drugs in products of animal origin, such as milk and eggs, posing serious risks to human health. The presence of tetracycline residues in foods can lead to the transmission of antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria through the food chain. In order to ensure food safety and avoid exposure to these substances, national and international regulatory agencies have established tolerance levels for authorized veterinary drugs, including tetracycline antimicrobials. In view of that, numerous sensitive and specific methods have been developed for the quantification of these compounds in different food matrices. One will note, however, that the determination of trace residues in foods such as milk and eggs often requires extensive sample extraction and preparation prior to conducting instrumental analysis. Sample pretreatment is usually the most complicated step in the analytical process and covers both cleaning and pre-concentration. Optimal sample preparation can reduce analysis time and sources of error, enhance sensitivity, apart from enabling unequivocal identification, confirmation and quantification of target analytes. The development and implementation of more environmentally friendly analytical procedures, which involve the use of less hazardous solvents and smaller sample sizes compared to traditional methods, is a rapidly increasing trend in analytical chemistry. This review seeks to provide an updated overview of the main trends in sample preparation for the determination of tetracycline residues in foodstuffs. The applicability of several extraction and clean-up techniques employed in the analysis of foodstuffs, especially milk and egg samples, is also thoroughly discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Feasibility Study of Cryogenic Cutting Technology by Using a Computer Simulation and Manufacture of Main Components for Cryogenic Cutting System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Kyun; Lee, Dong Gyu; Lee, Kune Woo; Song, Oh Seop

    2009-01-01

    Cryogenic cutting technology is one of the most suitable technologies for dismantling nuclear facilities due to the fact that a secondary waste is not generated during the cutting process. In this paper, the feasibility of cryogenic cutting technology was investigated by using a computer simulation. In the computer simulation, a hybrid method combined with the SPH (smoothed particle hydrodynamics) method and the FE (finite element) method was used. And also, a penetration depth equation, for the design of the cryogenic cutting system, was used and the design variables and operation conditions to cut a 10 mm thickness for steel were determined. Finally, the main components of the cryogenic cutting system were manufactures on the basis of the obtained design variables and operation conditions.

  2. Microalgal carbohydrates. An overview of the factors influencing carbohydrates production, and of main bioconversion technologies for production of biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markou, Giorgos; Georgakakis, Dimitris [Agricultural Univ. of Athens (Greece). Dept. of Natural Resources Management and Agricultural Engineering; Angelidaki, Irini [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Environmental Engineering

    2012-11-15

    Microalgal biomass seems to be a promising feedstock for biofuel generation. Microalgae have relative high photosynthetic efficiencies, high growth rates, and some species can thrive in brackish water or seawater and wastewater from the food- and agro-industrial sector. Today, the main interest in research is the cultivation of microalgae for lipids production to generate biodiesel. However, there are several other biological or thermochemical conversion technologies, in which microalgal biomass could be used as substrate. However, the high protein content or the low carbohydrate content of the majority of the microalgal species might be a constraint for their possible use in these technologies. Moreover, in the majority of biomass conversion technologies, carbohydrates are the main substrate for production of biofuels. Nevertheless, microalgae biomass composition could be manipulated by several cultivation techniques, such as nutrient starvation or other stressed environmental conditions, which cause the microalgae to accumulate carbohydrates. This paper attempts to give a general overview of techniques that can be used for increasing the microalgal biomass carbohydrate content. In addition, biomass conversion technologies, related to the conversion of carbohydrates into biofuels are discussed. (orig.)

  3. Microcomputer control system for the SuperHILAC third injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lancaster, H.D.; Magyary, S.B.; Glatz, J.; Selph, F.B.; Fahmie, M.P.; Ritchie, A.L.; Keith, S.R.; Stover, G.R.; Besse, L.J.

    1979-09-01

    A new control system using the latest technology in microcomputers will be used on the third injector at the SuperHILAC. It incorporates some new and progressive ideas in both hardware and software design. These ideas were inspired by the revolution in microprocessors. The third injector project consists of a high voltage pre-injector, a Wideroe type linear accelerator, and connecting beam lines, requiring control of 80 analog and 300 boolean devices. To solve this problem, emphasizing inexpensive, commercially available hardware, we designed a control system consisting of 20 microcomputer boards with a total of 700 kilobytes of memory. Each computer board using a 16-bit microprocessor has the computing power of a typical minicomputer. With these microcomputers operating in parallel, the programming can be greatly simplified, literally replacing software with hardware. This improves system response speed and cuts costs dramatically. An easy to use interpretive language, similar to BASIC, will allow operations personnel to write special purpose programs in addition to the compiled procedures

  4. Academic Training: A walk through the LHC injector chain

    CERN Document Server

    Françoise Benz

    2005-01-01

    2004-2005 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 14, 15, 16 February from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 A walk through the LHC injector chain M. BENEDIKT, P. COLLIER, K. SCHINDL /CERN-AB Proton linac, PS Booster, PS, SPS and the two transfer channels from SPS to LHC are used for LHC proton injection. The lectures will review the features of these faithful machines and underline the modifications required for the LHC era. Moreover, an overview of the LHC lead ion injector scheme from the ion source through ion linac, LEIR, PS and SPS right to the LHC entry will be given. The particular behaviour of heavy ions in the LHC will be sketched and the repercussions on the injectors will be discussed. ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 academic.training@cern.ch If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on...

  5. Heavy ion fusion 2 MV injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, S.; Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E.

    1995-04-01

    A heavy-ion-fusion driver-scale injector has been constructed and operated at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The injector has produced 2.3 MV and 950 mA of K + , 15% above original design goals in energy and current. Normalized edge emittance of less than 1 π mm-mr was measured over a broad range of parameters. The head-to-tail energy flatness is less than ± 0.2% over the 1 micros pulse

  6. An introduction to photo-injector design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travier, C.

    1993-07-01

    A quick overview is given of the RF gun basic theory for photo-injectors and of the presently achievable technical parameters thus providing some guidelines to help the designer in his choices. Simple scaling laws and formulas for both beam dynamics and technical parameters are proposed and compared to corresponding values for existing photo-injectors. Various sophisticated schemes used to improve the performances beyond those given by a straightforward approach are reviewed. (author) 65 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

  7. A light ion four rod RFQ injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schempp, A.; Ferch, M.; Klein, H.

    1987-01-01

    The four-rod RFQ has been developed in Frankfurt as an alternative solution for ion injectors. A 202 MHz resonator has been built with design parameters taken from the HERA injector (18keV-750keV, 20mA H - ). Properties of this structure are described and applications as light ion accelerator for particles from an EBIS ion source are discussed

  8. Information and Communication Technologies in the Improvement of the Legislative Process: Main Lines for a Legislative Process More Interactive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Victor Rozatti Longhi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs definitely transformed contemporary society. There are many behaviors that have changed under the massive use of such technologies, coming to public and private institutions and the law as a whole. In the formation of political will, in turn, ICTs have played increasingly important role. This work has as main objective to study the possibility of making true the intersection between technology and policy deliberation is a possible reality in Brazil. To do this, first, briefly reviews the study of two of these experiences, enshrined in several studies for its pioneering. The first concerns the Estonian reality of online electronic voting. The second is the Icelandic experience in 2011, known by the high degree of interactivity and colaborativity during the process. Finally, in the second part, we seek through a raid on democracy models see if Brazil is prepared to continue the evolution of its democratic model towards a greater degree of participation. And the main hypothesis is that interactivity can become rule through the legislative process.

  9. The LHC Lead Injector Chain

    CERN Document Server

    Beuret, A; Blas, A; Burkhardt, H; Carli, Christian; Chanel, M; Fowler, A; Gourber-Pace, M; Hancock, S; Hourican, M; Hill, C E; Jowett, John M; Kahle, K; Küchler, D; Lombardi, A M; Mahner, E; Manglunki, Django; Martini, M; Maury, S; Pedersen, F; Raich, U; Rossi, C; Royer, J P; Schindl, Karlheinz; Scrivens, R; Sermeus, L; Shaposhnikova, Elena; Tranquille, G; Vretenar, Maurizio; Zickler, T

    2004-01-01

    A sizeable part of the LHC physics programme foresees lead-lead collisions with a design luminosity of 1027 cm-2 s-1. This will be achieved after an upgrade of the ion injector chain comprising Linac3, LEIR, PS and SPS machines [1,2]. Each LHC ring will be filled in 10 min by almost 600 bunches, each of 7×107 lead ions. Central to the scheme is the Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR) [3,4], which transforms long pulses from Linac3 into high-brilliance bunches by means of multi-turn injection, electron cooling and accumulation. Major limitations along the chain, including space charge, intrabeam scattering, vacuum issues and emittance preservation are highlighted. The conversion from LEAR (Low Energy Antiproton Ring) to LEIR involves new magnets and power converters, high-current electron cooling, broadband RF cavities, and a UHV vacuum system with getter (NEG) coatings to achieve a few 10-12 mbar. Major hardware changes in Linac3 and the PS are also covered. An early ion scheme with fewer bunches (but each at nominal...

  10. Solid deuterium centrifuge pellet injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    Pellet injectors are needed to fuel long pulse tokamak plasmas and other magnetic confinement devices. For this purpose, an apparatus has been developed that forms 1.3-mm-diam pellets of frozen deuterium at a rate of 40 pellets per second and accelerates them to a speed of 1 km/s. Pellets are formed by extruding a billet of solidified deuterium through a 1.3-mm-diam nozzle at a speed of 5 cm/s. The extruding deuterium is chopped with a razor knife, forming 1.3-mm right circular cylinders of solid deuterium. The pellets are accelerated by synchronously injecting them into a high speed rotating arbor containing a guide track, which carries them from a point near the center of rotation to the periphery. The pellets leave the wheel after 150 0 of rotation at double the tip speed. The centrifuge is formed in the shape of a centrifugal catenary and is constructed of high strength KEVLAR/epoxy composite. This arbon has been spin-tested to a tip speed of 1 km/s

  11. Solid deuterium centrifuge pellet injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, C.A.

    1983-01-01

    Pellet injectors are needed to fuel long pulse tokamak plasmas and other magnetic confinement devices. For this purpose, an apparatus has been developed that forms 1.3-mm-diam pellets of frozen deuterium at a rate of 40 pellets per second and accelerates them to a speed of 1 km/s. Pellets are formed by extruding a billet of solidified deuterium through a 1.3-mm-diam nozzle at a speed of 5 cm/s. The extruding deuterium is chopped with a razor knife, forming 1.3-mm right circular cylinders of solid deuterium. The pellets are accelerated by synchronously injecting them into a high speed rotating arbor containing a guide track, which carries them from a point near the center of rotation to the periphery. The pellets leave the wheel after 150 0 of rotation at double the tip speed. The centrifuge is formed in the shape of a centrifugal catenary and is constructed of high strength Kevlar/epoxy composite. This arbor has been spin-tested to a tip speed of 1 km/s

  12. Thermo-mechanical design of the SINGAP accelerator grids for ITER NB Injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agostinetti, P.; Dal Bello, S.; Palma, M.D.; Zaccaria, P.

    2006-01-01

    The SINGle Aperture - SINgle GAP (SINGAP) accelerator for ITER neutral beam injector foresees four grids for the extraction and acceleration of negative ions, instead of the seven grids of the Multi Aperture Multi Grid (MAMuG) reference configuration. Optimized geometry of the SINGAP grids (plasma, extraction, pre-acceleration, and grounded grid) was identified by CEA Association considering specific requirements for ions extraction and beam generation referring to experimental data and code simulations. This paper focuses on the thermo-hydraulic and thermo-mechanical design of the grids carried out by Consorzio RFX for the design of the first ITER NB Injector and the ITER NB Test Facility. The cooling circuit design (position and shape of the channels) and the cooling parameters (water coolant temperatures, pressure and velocity) were optimized with thermo-hydraulic and thermo-mechanical sensitivity analyses in order to satisfy the grid functional requirements (temperatures, in plane and out of plane deformations). A complete and detailed thermo-structural design assessment of the SINGAP grids was accomplished applying the structural design rules for ITER in-vessel components and considering both the reference load conditions and the maximum load provided by the power supplies. The design required a complete modelling of the grids and their support frames by means of 3D FE and CAD models. The grids were finally integrated with the support and cooling systems inside the beam source vessel. The main results of the thermo-hydraulic and thermo-mechanical analyses are presented. The open issues are then reported, mainly regarding the material properties characterization (static and fatigue tests) and the qualification of technologies for OFHC copper electro-deposition, brazing, and welding of heterogeneous materials. (author)

  13. Control System for the NSTX Lithium Pellet Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sichta, P.; Dong, J.; Gernhardt, R.; Gettelfinger, G.; Kugel, H.

    2003-01-01

    The Lithium Pellet Injector (LPI) is being developed for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The LPI will inject ''pellets'' of various composition into the plasma in order to study wall conditioning, edge impurity transport, liquid limiter simulations, and other areas of research. The control system for the NSTX LPI has incorporated widely used advanced technologies, such as LabVIEW and PCI bus I/O boards, to create a low-cost control system which is fully integrated into the NSTX computing environment. This paper will present the hardware and software design of the computer control system for the LPI

  14. Development of compact toroids injector for direct plasma controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azuma, K. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Takasago (Japan); Oda, Y. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Takasago (Japan); Onozuka, M. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Takasago (Japan); Uyama, T. [Himeji Inst. of Tech. (Japan); Nagata, M. [Himeji Inst. of Tech. (Japan); Fukumoto, N. [Himeji Inst. of Tech. (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    The application of the compact toroids injector for direct plasma controls has been investigated. The compact toroids injection can fuel particles directly into the core of the plasma and modify the plasma profiles at the desired locations. The acceleration tests of the compact toroids have been conducted at Himeji Institute of Technology. The tests showed that the hydrogen compact toroid was accelerated up to 80km/s and the plasma density of the compact toroid was compressed to 1.2 x 10{sup 21}m{sup -3}. (orig.).

  15. Development of compact toroids injector for direct plasma controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azuma, K.; Oda, Y.; Onozuka, M.; Uyama, T.; Nagata, M.; Fukumoto, N.

    1995-01-01

    The application of the compact toroids injector for direct plasma controls has been investigated. The compact toroids injection can fuel particles directly into the core of the plasma and modify the plasma profiles at the desired locations. The acceleration tests of the compact toroids have been conducted at Himeji Institute of Technology. The tests showed that the hydrogen compact toroid was accelerated up to 80km/s and the plasma density of the compact toroid was compressed to 1.2 x 10 21 m -3 . (orig.)

  16. From Shuttle Main Engine to the Human Heart: A Presentation to the Federal Lab Consortium for Technology Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Jennifer A.

    2010-01-01

    A NASA engineer received a heart transplant performed by Drs. DeBakey and Noon after suffering a serious heart attack. 6 months later that engineer returned to work at NASA determined to use space technology to help people with heart disease. A relationship between NASA and Drs. DeBakey and Noon was formed and the group worked to develop a low cost, low power implantable ventricular assist device (VAD). NASA patented the method to reduce pumping damage to red blood cells and the design of a continuous flow heart pump (#5,678,306 and #5,947,892). The technology and methodology were licensed exclusively to MicroMed Technology, Inc.. In late 1998 MicroMed received international quality and electronic certifications and began clinical trials in Europe. Ventricular assist devices were developed to bridge the gap between heart failure and transplant. Early devices were cumbersome, damaged red blood cells, and increased the risk of developing dangerous blood clots. Application emerged from NASA turbopump technology and computational fluid dynamics analysis capabilities. To develop the high performance required of the Space Shuttle main engines, NASA pushed the state of the art in the technology of turbopump design. NASA supercomputers and computational fluid dynamics software developed for use in the modeling analysis of fuel and oxidizer flow through rocket engines was used in the miniaturization and optimization of a very small heart pump. Approximately 5 million people worldwide suffer from chronic heart failure at a cost of 40 billion dollars In the US, more than 5000 people are on the transplant list and less than 3000 transplants are performed each year due to the lack of donors. The success of ventricular assist devices has led to an application as a therapeutic destination as well as a bridge to transplant. This success has been attributed to smaller size, improved efficiency, and reduced complications such as the formation of blood clots and infection.

  17. Modeling of classical swirl injector dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismailov, Maksud M.

    The knowledge of the dynamics of a swirl injector is crucial in designing a stable liquid rocket engine. Since the swirl injector is a complex fluid flow device in itself, not much work has been conducted to describe its dynamics either analytically or by using computational fluid dynamics techniques. Even the experimental observation is limited up to date. Thus far, there exists an analytical linear theory by Bazarov [1], which is based on long-wave disturbances traveling on the free surface of the injector core. This theory does not account for variation of the nozzle reflection coefficient as a function of disturbance frequency, and yields a response function which is strongly dependent on the so called artificial viscosity factor. This causes an uncertainty in designing an injector for the given operational combustion instability frequencies in the rocket engine. In this work, the author has studied alternative techniques to describe the swirl injector response, both analytically and computationally. In the analytical part, by using the linear small perturbation analysis, the entire phenomenon of unsteady flow in swirl injectors is dissected into fundamental components, which are the phenomena of disturbance wave refraction and reflection, and vortex chamber resonance. This reveals the nature of flow instability and the driving factors leading to maximum injector response. In the computational part, by employing the nonlinear boundary element method (BEM), the author sets the boundary conditions such that they closely simulate those in the analytical part. The simulation results then show distinct peak responses at frequencies that are coincident with those resonant frequencies predicted in the analytical part. Moreover, a cold flow test of the injector related to this study also shows a clear growth of instability with its maximum amplitude at the first fundamental frequency predicted both by analytical methods and BEM. It shall be noted however that Bazarov

  18. Development and design of railgun system to pellet injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Y.; Onozuka, M.; Tsujjmura, S.; Kuribayashi, S.; Shimizu, K.C.; Tamura, H.; Sawaoka, A.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the railgun systems for the application of pellet injector are investigated and developed in the experimental stage. One of the main features of our railgun systems is to employ a pulse laser beam to induce the initial plasma armature between rails to be accelerated. This unique feature provides the reduction of the supplied voltage to the breakdown between the rails and to reduce the erosion of the rails. This paper presents the current results of a the authors' experimental and theoretical research progress, and introduces the design study for electromagnetic railgun based on our research progress

  19. Status of Resistive Magnets in the LHC Injectors Chain

    CERN Document Server

    Tommasini, D; Thonet, P; Bauche, J; Zickler, T; Newborough, A; Sgobba, S; Lopez, R

    2010-01-01

    About 4650 normal conducting magnets are presently installed in the CERN accelerators complex, more than 3000 of them belonging to the LHC injector chain and 163 installed in the LHC. The oldest magnets have been in operation for 50 years, and some of them are submitted to aggressive conditions, either in terms of radiation, extreme water cooling conditions or temperature. The smallest magnets in the linacs weigh a few kilograms, whilst each of the main magnets of the Proton Synchrotron weighs 33 tons. The paper reviews the status of these magnets and gives some examples of findings and relevant recent actions undertaken to ensure their reliable operation in the coming years.

  20. A study on nozzle flow and spray characteristics of piezo injector for next generation high response injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jin Wook [Korea Institue of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Min, Kyoung Doug [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-06-15

    Most diesel injector, which is currently used in high-pressure common rail fuel injection system of diesel engine, is driven by the solenoid coil energy for its needle movement. The main disadvantage of this solenoid-driven injector is a high power consumption, high power loss through solenoid coil and relatively fixed needle response's problem. In this study, a prototype piezo-driven injector, as a new injector mechanism driven by piezoelectric energy based on the concept of inverse piezo-electric effect, has been designed and fabricated to know the effect of piezo-driven injection processes on the diesel spray structure and internal nozzle flow. Firstly we investigated the spray characteristics in a constant volume chamber pressurized by nitrogen gas using the back diffusion light illumination method for high-speed temporal photography and also analyzed the inside nozzle flow by a fully transient simulation with cavitation model using VOF(Volume Of Fraction) method. The numerical calculation has been performed to simulate the cavitating flow of 3-dimensional real size single hole nozzle along the injection duration. Results were compared between a conventional solenoid-driven injector and piezo-driven injector, both equipped with the same micro-sac multi-hole injection nozzle. The experimental results show that the piezo-driven injector has short injection delay and a faster spray development and produces higher injection velocity than the solenoid-driven injector. And the predicted simulation results with the degree of cavitation's generation inside nozzle for faster needle response in a piezo-driven injector were reflected to spray development in agreement with the experimental spray images.

  1. A study on nozzle flow and spray characteristics of piezo injector for next generation high response injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jin Wook; Min, Kyoung Doug

    2006-01-01

    Most diesel injector, which is currently used in high-pressure common rail fuel injection system of diesel engine, is driven by the solenoid coil energy for its needle movement. The main disadvantage of this solenoid-driven injector is a high power consumption, high power loss through solenoid coil and relatively fixed needle response's problem. In this study, a prototype piezo-driven injector, as a new injector mechanism driven by piezoelectric energy based on the concept of inverse piezo-electric effect, has been designed and fabricated to know the effect of piezo-driven injection processes on the diesel spray structure and internal nozzle flow. Firstly we investigated the spray characteristics in a constant volume chamber pressurized by nitrogen gas using the back diffusion light illumination method for high-speed temporal photography and also analyzed the inside nozzle flow by a fully transient simulation with cavitation model using VOF(Volume Of Fraction) method. The numerical calculation has been performed to simulate the cavitating flow of 3-dimensional real size single hole nozzle along the injection duration. Results were compared between a conventional solenoid-driven injector and piezo-driven injector, both equipped with the same micro-sac multi-hole injection nozzle. The experimental results show that the piezo-driven injector has short injection delay and a faster spray development and produces higher injection velocity than the solenoid-driven injector. And the predicted simulation results with the degree of cavitation's generation inside nozzle for faster needle response in a piezo-driven injector were reflected to spray development in agreement with the experimental spray images

  2. Design and implementation of fast charging circuit for repetitive compact torus injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onchi, T.; McColl, D.; Dreval, M.; Wolfe, S.; Xiao, C.; Hirose, A.

    2014-01-01

    A novel circuit for compact torus (CT) injector operated at high repetition rates has been developed. The core technology adopted in the present work is to charge a large storage capacitor bank and quickly charge the CT capacitor bank through a stack of insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs). A system consisting of IGBTs and slow banks for the repetitive operation has been developed and installed for each discharge circuit of the University of Saskatchewan Compact Torus Injector (USCTI). A repetition rate up to 1.7 Hz and a burst of 8 CTs have been achieved

  3. Status of the SPIRAL2 injector commissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thuillier, T., E-mail: thuillier@lpsc.in2p3.fr; Angot, J.; Jacob, J.; Lamy, T.; Sole, P. [LPSC, Université Grenoble Alpes, CNRS/IN2P3, 53 rue des Martyrs, 38026 Grenoble Cedex (France); Barué, C.; Bertrand, P.; Canet, C.; Ferdinand, R.; Flambard, J.-L.; Jardin, P.; Lemagnen, F.; Maunoury, L.; Osmond, B. [GANIL, CNRS/IN2P3, Bvd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, 14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); Biarrotte, J. L. [IPN Orsay, Université Paris Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, 15 rue Georges Clémenceau, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Denis, J.-F.; Roger, A.; Touzery, R.; Tuske, O.; Uriot, D. [Irfu, CEA Saclay, DSM/Irfu/SACM, 91191 Gif Sur Yvette (France); and others

    2016-02-15

    The SPIRAL2 injector, installed in its tunnel, is currently under commissioning at GANIL, Caen, France. The injector is composed of two low energy beam transport lines: one is dedicated to the light ion beam production, the other to the heavy ions. The first light ion beam, created by a 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source, has been successfully produced in December 2014. The first beam of the PHOENIX V2 18 GHz heavy ion source was analyzed on 10 July 2015. A status of the SPIRAL2 injector commissioning is given. An upgrade of the heavy ion source, named PHOENIX V3 aimed to replace the V2, is presented. The new version features a doubled plasma chamber volume and the high charge state beam intensity is expected to increase by a factor of 1.5 to 2 up to the mass ∼50. A status of its assembly is proposed.

  4. Neutral beam injector performance on the PLT and PDX tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, G.; Ashcroft, D.L.; Eubank, H.P.; Grisham, L.R.; Kozub, T.A.; Kugel, H.W.; Rossmassler, J.; Williams, M.D.

    1981-02-01

    An overall injector system description is presented first, and this will be followed by a detailed discussion of those problems unique to multiple injector operation on the tokamaks, i.e., power transmission, conditioning, reliability, and failures

  5. Spray Modeling for Outwardly-Opening Hollow-Cone Injector

    KAUST Repository

    Sim, Jaeheon; Badra, Jihad; Elwardani, Ahmed Elsaid; Im, Hong G.

    2016-01-01

    linear instability sheet atomization (LISA) model was originally developed for pressure swirl hollow-cone injectors with moderate spray angle and toroidal ligament breakups. Therefore, it is not appropriate for the outwardly-opening injectors having wide

  6. Development of a prototype neutral injector for T.F.R

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnal, J.F.; Druaux, J.; Oberson, R.

    1975-12-01

    This study is directly related to the project of T.F.R., plasma heating by fast neutral injection. The prototype injector is described, emphasis being put on the technological solutions that were retained. Experimental results for predicting the performance of the ten sources on T.F.R. are analyzed [fr

  7. First operational experience with the positive-ion injector of ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollinger, L M; Pardo, R C; Shepard, K W; Billquist, P J; Bogaty, J M; Clifft, B E; Harkewicz, R; Joh, K; Markovich, P K; Munson, F H; Zinkann, G; Nolen, J A [Physics Div., Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1993-03-01

    A Positive-Ion Injector (PII) designed to enable ATLAS to accelerate all stable nuclei has been completed and successfully tested. This new injector system consists of an ECR source on a 350-kV platform coupled to a 12-MV superconducting injector linac formed with four different types of independently-phased 4-gap accelerating structure. The injector linac is configured to be optimum for the acceleration of uranium ions from 0.029 to [approx equal] 1.1 MeV/u. When ions with q/A>0.1 are accelerated by PII and injected into the main ATLAS linac, CW beams with energies over 6 MeV/u can be delivered to the experimental areas. Since its completion in March 1992, PII has been tested by accelerating [sup 30]Si[sup 7+], [sup 40]Ar[sup 11+], [sup 132]Xe[sup 13+], and [sup 208]Pb[sup 24+]. For all of these, transmission through the injector linac was [approx equal] 100% of the pre-bunched beam, which corresponds to [approx equal] 60% of the DC beam from the source. The accelerating fields of the superconducting resonators were somewhat greater than the design goals, and the whole system ran stably for long periods of time. (orig.).

  8. Repeating pneumatic pellet injector in JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Kouichi; Suzuki, Sadaaki; Miura, Yukitoshi; Oda, Yasushi; Onozuka, Masanori; Tsujimura, Seiichi.

    1992-09-01

    A repeating pneumatic pellet injector has been developed and constructed at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. This injector can provide repetitive pellet injection to fuel tokamak plasmas for an extended period of time, aiming at the improvement of plasma performance. The pellets with nearly identical speed and mass can be repeatedly injected with a repetition rate of 2-3.3 Hz and a speed of up to 1.7 km/s by controlling the temperature of the cryogenic system, the piston speed and the pressure of the propellant gas. (author)

  9. Mechanical design for TMX injector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderon, M.O.; Chen, F.F.K.; Denhoy, B.S.

    1977-01-01

    The injector system for the Tandem Mirror Experiment (TMX) contains the components required to create and maintain a high-temperature, high-density plasma. These components include a streaming-plasma gun in each of the plug tanks to form the target-plasma, 24 neutral-beam source modules for injecting neutral deuterium atoms to heat and replace losses from the plasma, and a gas box system that applies a streaming cold gas to the plasma to stabilize it. This paper discusses the mechanical design problems and solutions for this injector system

  10. Repeating pneumatic pellet injector in JAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasai, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Kouichi; Suzuki, Sadaaki; Miura, Yukitoshi (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment); Oda, Yasushi; Onozuka, Masanori; Tsujimura, Seiichi.

    1992-09-01

    A repeating pneumatic pellet injector has been developed and constructed at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. This injector can provide repetitive pellet injection to fuel tokamak plasmas for an extended period of time, aiming at the improvement of plasma performance. The pellets with nearly identical speed and mass can be repeatedly injected with a repetition rate of 2-3.3 Hz and a speed of up to 1.7 km/s by controlling the temperature of the cryogenic system, the piston speed and the pressure of the propellant gas. (author).

  11. Narrow electron injector for ballistic electron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kast, M.; Pacher, C.; Strasser, G.; Gornik, E.

    2001-01-01

    A three-terminal hot electron transistor is used to measure the normal energy distribution of ballistic electrons generated by an electron injector utilizing an improved injector design. A triple barrier resonant tunneling diode with a rectangular transmission function acts as a narrow (1 meV) energy filter. An asymmetric energy distribution with its maximum on the high-energy side with a full width at half maximum of ΔE inj =10 meV is derived. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  12. High voltage power supplies for the neutral beam injectors of the stellarator TJ-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, J.; Liniers, M.; Martinez Laso, L.; Jauregi, E.; Lucia, C.; Valcarcel, F.

    2001-01-01

    Neutral beam injection will be available for the second experimental phase of TJ-II. Two injectors, set in co-counter configuration, will inject into the plasma two 40 keV H 0 beams, each of up to 1 MW. The two high voltage power supplies to feed the acceleration grids of the injectors, described in this paper, are of the transformer-rectifier type, taking their primary energy from a pulsed flywheel generator, and are coupled to the acceleration grids through a switching device. This environment effectively sets the main operation limits and protection requirements of the power supplies

  13. Analysis of Deformations of the Skylight Construction at the Main Hall of the Warsaw University of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odziemczyk, Waldemar

    2015-02-01

    The paper presents technology and results of measurements of the steel construction of the skylight of the Main Hall of the Warsaw University of Technology. The new version of the automated measuring system has been used for measurements. This system is based on Leica TCRP1201+ total station and the TCcalc1200 software application, developed by the author, which operates on a laptop computer connected with the total station by the wire. Two test measurements were performed. Each of them consisted of cyclic measurement using the polar method, from one station; points located on the skylight construction, as well as control points located on concrete, bearing poles, were successively measured. Besides geometrical values (such as Hz, V angles and the slope distance D), the changes of temperature and atmospheric pressure, were also recorded. Processed results of measurements contained information concerning the behaviour of the skylight; asymmetry of horizontal displacements with respect to the X axis have been proved. Changes of parameters of the instrument telescope and changes of the instrument orientation were also stated; they were connected with changes of the temperature. The most important results of works have been presented in the form of diagrams.

  14. Technological evolution of main critical processes used in COMPERJ; Evolucao tecnologica dos principais processos criticos utilizados no COMPERJ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Roberta A. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica; Construtora Norberto Odebrecht, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Seidl, Peter; Guimaraes, Maria Jose O.C. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    Considered key to the country, the Petrochemical Complex in Rio de Janeiro (COMPERJ) will provide significant benefits to the Brazilian industry, such as production, a large-scale petrochemical raw materials, due to bigger and better processing of heavy oil national, especially the field of Marlim. The deployment of this complex aggregate value to the national economy, due to replace the export of heavy oil, lower market value, the export of products of higher added value to be produced in the complex. The integration refining-petrochemistry that occur in COMPERJ facilitate critical processes, such as atmospheric distillation, vacuum distillation, Petrochemical FCC and polymerization processes. This venture will take in the same plant, a Basic Petrochemical Unit (UPB) and a number of Petrochemical Associates units (UPA's), where in the first generation, the UPB will produce ethylene and propylene and in the second generation, the UPA's will convert the basic petrochemical in resins such as polypropylene, polyethylene, styrene, among others. The technology of PETROBRAS in relation to processes cited previously, has made many progress in recent years and the result of this development can be seen by increasing of patent number in the technical area. The analysis of technological evolution of these processes is of extreme importance for the identification of innovation trends of Brazil in relation to other countries to confirm the great potential of the Research Center of PETROBRAS with regard to these processes. Thus, this work aims to make an analysis of the technological developments of the main critical processes that will occur in COMPERJ and their integration refining-petrochemistry, identifying the various innovations regarding these processes. (author)

  15. Space-charge effects on bunching of electrons in the CEBAF injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H.

    1997-01-01

    The main injector for the 4 GeV CEBAF accelerator at Thomas Jefferson national accelerator facility was designed to deliver simultaneously three CW electron beams for nuclear physics research. The maximum design current for a single beam from the injector is 100 μA, or 0.2 pC per microbunch at a repetition rate of 499 MHz. It was found through computer simulation that space charge even at a subpicocoulomb level can spoil the bunching of electrons significantly, and some unexpected phenomena observed experimentally could be explained accordingly. This problem arises because of the low-momentum tilt allowed for bunching to preserve low-momentum spread. In this paper, we analyze in detail the space-charge effects on bunching of electrons with the CEBAF injector as an example. Conditions for effective matching of longitudinal phase space in the presence of space charge are discussed. (orig.)

  16. 21 CFR 870.1670 - Syringe actuator for an injector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Syringe actuator for an injector. 870.1670 Section 870.1670 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... actuator for an injector. (a) Identification. A syringe actuator for an injector is an electrical device...

  17. Using CFD as a Rocket Injector Design Tool: Recent Progress at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Kevin; West, Jeff; Williams, Robert; Lin, Jeff; Canabal, Francisco; Rocker, marvin; Robles, Bryan; Garcia, Robert; Chenoweth, James

    2005-01-01

    New programs are forcing American propulsion system designers into unfamiliar territory. For instance, industry s answer to the cost and reliability goals set out by the Next Generation Launch Technology Program are engine concepts based on the Oxygen- Rich Staged Combustion Cycle. Historical injector design tools are not well suited for this new task. The empirical correlations do not apply directly to the injector concepts associated with the ORSC cycle. These legacy tools focus primarily on performance with environment evaluation a secondary objective. Additionally, the environmental capability of these tools is usually one-dimensional while the actual environments are at least two- and often three-dimensional. CFD has the potential to calculate performance and multi-dimensional environments but its use in the injector design process has been retarded by long solution turnaround times and insufficient demonstrated accuracy. This paper has documented the parallel paths of program support and technology development currently employed at Marshall Space Flight Center in an effort to move CFD to the forefront of injector design. MSFC has established a long-term goal for use of CFD for combustion devices design. The work on injector design is the heart of that vision and the Combustion Devices CFD Simulation Capability Roadmap that focuses the vision. The SRL concept, combining solution fidelity, robustness and accuracy, has been established as a quantitative gauge of current and desired capability. Three examples of current injector analysis for program support have been presented and discussed. These examples are used to establish the current capability at MSFC for these problems. Shortcomings identified from this experience are being used as inputs to the Roadmap process. The SRL evaluation identified lack of demonstrated solution accuracy as a major issue. Accordingly, the MSFC view of code validation and current MSFC-funded validation efforts were discussed in

  18. Diagnostics and camera strobe timers for hydrogen pellet injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, M.L.; Fisher, P.W.; Qualls, A.L.

    1993-01-01

    Hydrogen pellet injectors have been used to fuel fusion experimental devices for the last decade. As part of developments to improve pellet production and velocity, various diagnostic devices were implemented, ranging from witness plates to microwave mass meters to high speed photography. This paper will discuss details of the various implementations of light sources, cameras, synchronizing electronics and other diagnostic systems developed at Oak Ridge for the Tritium Proof-of-Principle (TPOP) experiment at the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Tritium System Test Assembly (TSTA), a system built for the Oak Ridge Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF), and the Tritium Pellet Injector (TPI) built for the Princeton Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). Although a number of diagnostic systems were implemented on each pellet injector, the emphasis here will be on the development of a synchronization system for high-speed photography using pulsed light sources, standard video cameras, and video recorders. This system enabled near real-time visualization of the pellet shape, size and flight trajectory over a wide range of pellet speeds and at one or two positions along the flight path. Additionally, the system provides synchronization pulses to the data system for pseudo points along the flight path, such as the estimated plasma edge. This was accomplished using an electronic system that took the time measured between sets of light gates, and generated proportionally delayed triggers for light source strobes and pseudo points. Systems were built with two camera stations, one located after the end of the barrel, and a second camera located closer to the main reactor vessel wall. Two or three light gates were used to sense pellet velocity and various spacings were implemented on the three experiments. Both analog and digital schemes were examined for implementing the delay system. A digital technique was chosen

  19. Displacement of cryomodule in CADS injector II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Jiandong; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Fengfeng; Wan, Yuqin; Sun, Guozhen; Yao, Junjie; Zhang, Juihui; He, Yuan [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China). Inst. of Modern Physics

    2017-06-15

    As Cryomodule can easily reduce higher power consumption and length of an accelerator and the accelerator can be operated more continuously. The Chinese academy of sciences institute of modern physics is developing an accelerator driven subcritical system (CADS) Injector II. Cryomodules are extremely complex systems, and their design optimization is strongly dependent on the accelerator application for which they are intended.

  20. Properties of high current RFQ injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schempp, A.; Goethe, J.W.

    1996-01-01

    RFQ linacs are efficient, compact low energy ion structures, which have found numerous applications. They use electrical rf focusing and can capture, bunch and transmit high current ion beams. Some recent development and new projects like a heavy ion injectors for a cyclotron, and the status of the work on high current high duty factor RFQs will be discussed. (author)

  1. Pellet injector research and development at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combs, S.K.; Argo, B.E.; Baylor, L.R.; Cole, M.J.; Dyer, G.R.; Fehling, D.T.; Fisher, P.W.; Foster, C.A.; Foust, C.R.; Gouge, M.J.; Jernigan, T.C.; Langley, R.A.; Milora, S.L.; Qualls, A.L.; Schechter, E.; Sparks, D.O.; Tsai, C.C.; Wilgen, J.B.; Whealton, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    A variety of pellet injector designs have been developed at ORNL including single-shot guns that inject one pellet, multiple-shot guns that inject four and eight pellets, machine gun-types (single- and multiple-barrel) that can inject up to >100 pellets, and centrifugal accelerators (mechanical devices that are inherently capable of high repetition rates and long-pulse operation). With these devices, macroscopic pellets (1--6 mm in diameter) composed of hydrogen isotopes are typically accelerated to speeds of ∼1.0 to 2.0 km/s for injection into plasmas of experimental fusion devices. In the past few years, steady progress has been made at ORNL in the development and application of pellet injectors for fueling present-day and future fusion devices. In this paper, we briefly describe some research and development activities at ORNL, including: (1) two recent applications and a new one on large experimental fusion devices, (2) high-velocity pellet injector development, and (3) tritium injector research

  2. Pneumatic pellet injector for JT-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onozuka, Masanori; Hiratsuka, Hajime; Kawasaki, Kouzo.

    1990-01-01

    The pneumatic 4-shot pellet injector has been installed and operated for JT-60 (JAERI Tokamak-60). The performance tests have proven that the device provides high speed pellets as planned. The maximum pellet velocity obtained in the hydrogen pellet tests is greater than 2.3km/s at 100 bar propellant gas. (author)

  3. Pneumatic pellet injector for JT-60

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onozuka, Masanori (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)); Hiratsuka, Hajime; Kawasaki, Kouzo

    1990-11-01

    The pneumatic 4-shot pellet injector has been installed and operated for JT-60 (JAERI Tokamak-60). The performance tests have proven that the device provides high speed pellets as planned. The maximum pellet velocity obtained in the hydrogen pellet tests is greater than 2.3km/s at 100 bar propellant gas. (author).

  4. Development of AMS high resolution injector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Yiwen; Guan Xialing; Hu Yueming

    2008-01-01

    The Beijing HI-13 tandem accelerator AMS high resolution injector system was developed. The high resolution energy achromatic system consists of an electrostatic analyzer and a magnetic analyzer, which mass resolution can reach 600 and transmission is better than 80%. (authors)

  5. Acquisition system of tandem injector parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decourt, M.

    1986-01-01

    The system centralizes all the parameters belonging to the accelerator injector. The acquisition center system reinforces an original device made of cameras and video receivers. Besides giving access to all the parameters of the ion source, the new system allows, in the ''OSCILLO'' mode, to visualize in real time any channel on the oscilloscope [fr

  6. Bevalac injector final stage RF amplifier upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, D.; Calvert, J.; Dwinell, R.; Lax, J.; Lindner, A.; Richter, R.; Ridgeway, W.

    1991-01-01

    With the assistance of the DOE In-house Energy Management Program, the Bevalac injector final stage RF amplifier systems have been successfully upgraded to reduce energy consumption and operating costs. This recently completed project removed the energy-inefficient plate voltage modulator circuits that were used in conjunction with the final stage RF amplifiers. Construction, design, and operating parameters are described in detail

  7. Properties of high current RFQ injectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schempp, A.; Goethe, J.W. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Physik

    1996-12-31

    RFQ linacs are efficient, compact low energy ion structures, which have found numerous applications. They use electrical rf focusing and can capture, bunch and transmit high current ion beams. Some recent development and new projects like a heavy ion injectors for a cyclotron, and the status of the work on high current high duty factor RFQs will be discussed. (author) 2 refs.

  8. Spray analysis of the PFAMEN injector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, J.J.E.; Boot, M.D.; de Goey, L.P.H.; Bosi, M.; Postrioti, L.

    2013-01-01

    In an earlier study, a novel type of diesel fuel injector was proposed. This prototype injects fuel via porous (sintered) micro pores instead of via the conventional 6-8 holes. The micro pores are typically 10-50 micrometer in diameter, versus 120-200 micrometer in the conventional case. The

  9. Triaxial Swirl Injector Element for Liquid-Fueled Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muss, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    A triaxial injector is a single bi-propellant injection element located at the center of the injector body. The injector element consists of three nested, hydraulic swirl injectors. A small portion of the total fuel is injected through the central hydraulic injector, all of the oxidizer is injected through the middle concentric hydraulic swirl injector, and the balance of the fuel is injected through an outer concentric injection system. The configuration has been shown to provide good flame stabilization and the desired fuel-rich wall boundary condition. The injector design is well suited for preburner applications. Preburner injectors operate at extreme oxygen-to-fuel mass ratios, either very rich or very lean. The goal of a preburner is to create a uniform drive gas for the turbomachinery, while carefully controlling the temperature so as not to stress or damage turbine blades. The triaxial injector concept permits the lean propellant to be sandwiched between two layers of the rich propellant, while the hydraulic atomization characteristics of the swirl injectors promote interpropellant mixing and, ultimately, good combustion efficiency. This innovation is suited to a wide range of liquid oxidizer and liquid fuels, including hydrogen, methane, and kerosene. Prototype testing with the triaxial swirl injector demonstrated excellent injector and combustion chamber thermal compatibility and good combustion performance, both at levels far superior to a pintle injector. Initial testing with the prototype injector demonstrated over 96-percent combustion efficiency. The design showed excellent high -frequency combustion stability characteristics with oxygen and kerosene propellants. Unlike the more conventional pintle injector, there is not a large bluff body that must be cooled. The absence of a protruding center body enhances the thermal durability of the triaxial swirl injector. The hydraulic atomization characteristics of the innovation allow the design to be

  10. Status of the C-band RF System for the SPARC-LAB high brightness photo-injector

    CERN Document Server

    Boni, R.; Bellaveglia, M.; Di Pirro, G.; Ferrario, M.; Gallo, A.; Spataro, B.; Mostacci, A.; Palumbo, L.

    2013-01-01

    The high brightness photo-injector in operation at the SPARC-LAB facility of the INFN-LNF, Italy, consists of a 150 MeV S-band electron accelerator aiming to explore the physics of low emittance high peak current electron beams and the related technology. Velocity bunching techniques, SASE and Seeded FEL experiments have been carried out successfully. To increase the beam energy so improving the performances of the experiments, it was decided to replace one S-band travelling wave accelerating cavity, with two C-band cavities that allow to reach higher energy gain per meter. The new C-band system is in advanced development phase and will be in operation early in 2013. The main technical issues of the C-band system and the R&D activities carried out till now are illustrated in detail in this paper.

  11. Transient beam dynamics in the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory 2 MV injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henestroza, E.

    1996-01-01

    A driver-scale injector for the heavy ion fusion accelerator project has been built at LBL. This machine has exceeded the design goals of high voltage (above 2 MV), high current (more than 0.8 A of K + ) and low normalized emittance (less than 1 π mm mrad). The injector consists of a 750 keV gun pre-injector followed by an electrostatic quadrupole accelerator which provides strong (alternating gradient) focusing for the space-charge-dominated beam, and simultaneously accelerates the ions to 2 MeV. A matching section is being built to match the beam to the electrostatic accelerator ELISE. The gun pre-injector, designed to hold up to 1 MV with minimal breakdown risks, consists of a hot alumino-silicate source with a large curved emitting surface surrounded by a thick ''extraction electrode''. During beam turn-on the voltage at the source is biased from a negative potential, enough to reverse the electric field on the emitting surface and to avoid emission, to a positive potential to start extracting the beam; it stays constant for about 1 μs, and is reversed to turn off the emission. Since the Marx voltage applied on the accelerating quadrupoles and the main pre-injector gap is a long, constant pulse (several microseconds), the transient behavior is dominated by the extraction pulser voltage time profile. The transient longitudinal dynamics of the beam in the injector was simulated by running the particle-in-cell codes GYMNOS and WARP3D in a time-dependent mode. The generalization and its implementation is WARP3D of a method proposed by Lampel and Tiefenback to eliminate transient oscillations in a one-dimensional planar diode will be presented. (orig.)

  12. LIPAc personnel protection system for realizing radiation licensing conditions on injector commissioning with deuteron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Hiroki, E-mail: takahashi.hiroki@jaea.go.jp [IFMIF/EVEDA Accelerator Group, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan); Narita, Takahiro; Kasugai, Atsushi [IFMIF/EVEDA Accelerator Group, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan); Kojima, Toshiyuki [Gitec Co. Ltd., Hachinohe, Aomori (Japan); Marqueta, Alvaro; Nishiyama, Koichi [IFMIF/EVEDA Project Team, Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan); Sakaki, Hironao [Quantum Beam Science Center, JAEA, Kizu, Kyoto (Japan); Gobin, Raphael [Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, CEA/Saclay, DSM/IRFU, Gif/Yvette (France)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Personnel Protection System (PPS) is developed to adapt the radiation licensing. • PPS achieves the target performance to secure the personnel safety. • Pulse Duty Management System (PDMS) is developed to manage the beam-operation-time. • Satisfying performance of PDMS is confirmed by injector operation with H+ beam. • By the result of PPS and PDMS tests, the radiation license was successfully obtained. - Abstract: The performance validation of the Linear IFMIF Prototype Accelerator (LIPAc), up to the energy of 9 MeV deuteron beam with 125 mA continuous wave (CW), is planned in Rokkasho, Japan. There are three main phases of LIPAc performance validation: Injector commissioning, RFQ commissioning and LIPAc commissioning. Injector commissioning was started by H{sup +} and D{sup +} beam. To apply the radiation licensing for the Injector commissioning, the entering/leaving to/from accelerator vault should be under control, and access to the accelerator vault has to be prohibited for any person during the beam operation. The Personnel Protection System (PPS) was developed to adapt the radiation licensing conditions. The licensing requests that PPS must manage the accumulated D{sup +} current. So, to manage the overall D{sup +} beam time during injector operation, Pulse Duty Management System (PDMS) was developed as a configurable subsystem as part of the PPS. The PDMS was tested during H{sup +} beam (as simulated D{sup +}) operation, to confirm that it can handle the beam inhibit from Injector before the beam accumulation is above the threshold value specified in the radiation licensing condition. In this paper, the design and configuration of these systems and the result of the tests are presented.

  13. Development of a non-engine fuel injector deposit test for alternative fuels (ENIAK-project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Hajo; Pohland vom Schloss, Heide [OWI - Oel Waerme Institut GmbH, Herzogenrath (Germany)

    2013-06-01

    Deposit formation in and on the injectors of diesel engines may lead to injector malfunction, resulting in a loss in power, rough engine operation and poor emission levels. Poor Biodiesel quality, contamination with copper and zinc as well as undesired reactions between (several) additives and biodiesel components are known causes for nozzle fouling. Therefore, good housekeeping when using biodiesel is required, and all additives have to pass a no-harm test concerning injector fouling. The standard fouling tests are two engine tests: The XUD9-test (CEC F-23-01) and the DW-10-test (CEC DF 98-08). The XUD9 is a cost efficient, fast and proven testing method. It uses, however, an obsolete indirect injection diesel engine and cannot reproduce internal diesel injector deposits (IDID). The newer DW10 test is complex, costly and designed for high stress. This reduces the engine life and leads to a fuel consumption of approximately 1,000 1 per test, both contributing to the high costs of the test. The ENIAK-Project is funded by the FNR (''Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe'', Agency for Renewable Resources) and conducted in cooperation with AGQM, ASG and ERC. Its main goal is the development, assembly, commissioning, and evaluation of a non-engine fuel injector test. It uses a complete common rail system. The injection takes place in a self-designed reactor instead of an engine, and the fuel is not combusted, but re-condensed and pumped in a circle, leading to a low amount of fuel required. If the test method proves to be as reliable as expected, it can be used as an alternative test method for injector fouling with low requirements regarding infrastructure on the testing site and sample volume. (orig.)

  14. Swirl Coaxial Injector Testing with LOX/RP-J

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Sandra Elam; Casiano, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Testing was conducted at NASA fs Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in the fall of 2012 to evaluate the operation and performance of liquid oxygen (LOX) and kerosene (RP ]1) in an existing swirl coaxial injector. While selected Russian engines use variations of swirl coaxial injectors, component level performance data has not been readily available, and all previously documented component testing at MSFC with LOX/RP ]1 had been performed using a variety of impinging injector designs. Impinging injectors have been adequate for specific LOX/RP ]1 engine applications, yet swirl coaxial injectors offer easier fabrication efforts, providing cost and schedule savings for hardware development. Swirl coaxial elements also offer more flexibility for design changes. Furthermore, testing with LOX and liquid methane propellants at MSFC showed that a swirl coaxial injector offered improved performance compared to an impinging injector. So, technical interest was generated to see if similar performance gains could be achieved with LOX/RP ]1 using a swirl coaxial injector. Results would allow such injectors to be considered for future engine concepts that require LOX/RP ]1 propellants. Existing injector and chamber hardware was used in the test assemblies. The injector had been tested in previous programs at MSFC using LOX/methane and LOX/hydrogen propellants. Minor modifications were made to the injector to accommodate the required LOX/RP ]1 flows. Mainstage tests were performed over a range of chamber pressures and mixture ratios. Additional testing included detonated gbombs h for stability data. Test results suggested characteristic velocity, C*, efficiencies for the injector were 95 ]97%. The injector also appeared dynamically stable with quick recovery from the pressure perturbations generated in the bomb tests.

  15. Development of Compact Toroid Injector for C-2 FRCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Tadafumi; Sekiguchi, Junichi; Asai, Tomohiko; Gota, Hiroshi; Garate, Eusebio; Allfrey, Ian; Valentine, Travis; Smith, Brett; Morehouse, Mark; TAE Team

    2014-10-01

    Collaborative research project with Tri Alpha Energy has been started and we have developed a new compact toroid (CT) injector for the C-2 device, mainly for fueling field-reversed configurations (FRCs). The CT is formed by a magnetized coaxial plasma-gun (MCPG), which consists of coaxial cylinder electrodes; a spheromak-like plasma is generated by discharge and pushed out from the gun by Lorentz force. The inner diameter of outer electrode is 83.1 mm and the outer diameter of inner electrode is 54.0 mm. The surface of the inner electrode is coated with tungsten in order to reduce impurities coming out from the electrode. The bias coil is mounted inside of the inner electrode. We have recently conducted test experiments and achieved a supersonic CT translation speed of up to ~100 km/s. Other typical plasma parameters are as follows: electron density ~ 5 × 1021 m-3, electron temperature ~ 40 eV, and the number of particles ~0.5-1.0 × 1019. The CT injector is now planned to be installed on C-2 and the first CT injection experiment will be conducted in the near future. The detailed MCPG design as well as the test experimental results will be presented.

  16. Performance potential of the injectors after LS1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartosik, H.; Carli, C.; Damerau, H.; Garoby, R.; Gilardoni, S.; Goddard, B.; Hancock, S.; Hanke, K.; Lombardi, A.; Mikulec, B.; Raginel, V.; Rumolo, G.; Shaposhnikova, E.; Vretenar, M.

    2012-01-01

    The main upgrades of the injector chain in the framework of the LIU Project will only be implemented in the second long shutdown (LS2), in particular the increase of the PSB-PS transfer energy to 2 GeV or the implementation of cures/solutions against instabilities/e-cloud effects etc. in the SPS. On the other hand, Linac4 will become available by the end of 2014. Until the end of 2015 it may replace Linac2 at short notice, taking 50 MeV protons into the PSB via the existing injection system but with reduced performance. Afterwards, the H - injection equipment will be ready and Linac4 could be connected for 160 MeV H - injection into the PSB during a prolonged winter shutdown before LS2. The anticipated beam performance of the LHC injectors after LS1 in these different cases is presented. Space charge on the PS flat-bottom will remain a limitation because the PSB-PS transfer energy will stay at 1.4 GeV. As a mitigation measure new RF manipulations are presented which can improve brightness for 25 ns bunch spacing, allowing for more than nominal luminosity in the LHC. (authors)

  17. NASA Numerical and Experimental Evaluation of UTRC Low Emissions Injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Yolanda R.; Tedder, Sarah A.; Anderson, Robert C.; Iannetti, Anthony C.; Smith, Lance L.; Dai, Zhongtao

    2014-01-01

    Computational and experimental analyses of a PICS-Pilot-In-Can-Swirler technology injector, developed by United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) are presented. NASA has defined technology targets for near term (called "N+1", circa 2015), midterm ("N+2", circa 2020) and far term ("N+3", circa 2030) that specify realistic emissions and fuel efficiency goals for commercial aircraft. This injector has potential for application in an engine to meet the Pratt & Whitney N+3 supersonic cycle goals, or the subsonic N+2 engine cycle goals. Experimental methods were employed to investigate supersonic cruise points as well as select points of the subsonic cycle engine; cruise, approach, and idle with a slightly elevated inlet pressure. Experiments at NASA employed gas analysis and a suite of laser-based measurement techniques to characterize the combustor flow downstream from the PICS dump plane. Optical diagnostics employed for this work included Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence of fuel for injector spray pattern and Spontaneous Raman Spectroscopy for relative species concentration of fuel and CO2. The work reported here used unheated (liquid) Jet-A fuel for all fuel circuits and cycle conditions. The initial tests performed by UTRC used vaporized Jet-A to simulate the expected supersonic cruise condition, which anticipated using fuel as a heat sink. Using the National Combustion Code a PICS-based combustor was modeled with liquid fuel at the supersonic cruise condition. All CFD models used a cubic non-linear k-epsilon turbulence wall functions model, and a semi-detailed Jet-A kinetic mechanism based on a surrogate fuel mixture. Two initial spray droplet size distribution and spray cone conditions were used: (1) an initial condition (Lefebvre) with an assumed Rosin-Rammler distribution, and 7 degree Solid Spray Cone; and (2) the Boundary Layer Stripping (BLS) primary atomization model giving the spray size distribution and directional properties. Contour and line plots

  18. Predictive Evaluations of Oxygen-Rich Hydrocarbon Combustion Gas-Centered Swirl Coaxial Injectors using a Flamelet-Based 3-D CFD Simulation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Brian R.; Braman, Kalem; West, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has embarked upon a joint project with the Air Force to improve the state-of-the-art of space application combustion device design and operational understanding. One goal of the project is to design, build and hot-fire test a 40,000 pound-thrust Oxygen/Rocket Propellant-2 (RP-2) Oxygen-Rich staged engine at MSFC. The overall project goals afford the opportunity to test multiple different injector designs and experimentally evaluate the any effect on the engine performance and combustion dynamics. To maximize the available test resources and benefits, pre-test, combusting flow, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis was performed on the individual injectors to guide the design. The results of the CFD analysis were used to design the injectors for specific, targeted fluid dynamic features and the analysis results also provided some predictive input for acoustic and thermal analysis of the main Thrust Chamber Assembly (TCA). MSFC has developed and demonstrated the ability to utilize a computationally efficient, flamelet-based combustion model to guide the pre-test design of single-element Gas Centered Swirl Coaxial (GCSC) injectors. Previous, Oxygen/RP-2 simulation models utilizing the Loci-STREAM flow solver, were validated using single injector test data from the EC-1 Air Force test facility. The simulation effort herein is an extension of the validated, CFD driven, single-injector design approach applied to single injectors which will be part of a larger engine array. Time-accurate, Three-Dimensional, CFD simulations were performed for five different classes of injector geometries. Simulations were performed to guide the design of the injector to achieve a variety of intended performance goals. For example, two GCSC injectors were designed to achieve stable hydrodynamic behavior of the propellant circuits while providing the largest thermal margin possible within the design envelope. While another injector was designed

  19. Tritium proof-of-principle injector experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, P.W.; Milora, S.L.; Combs, S.K.; Carlson, R.V.; Coffin, D.O.

    1988-01-01

    The Tritium Proof-of-Principle (TPOP) pellet injector was designed and built by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to evaluate the production and acceleration of tritium pellets for fueling future fision reactors. The injector uses the pipe-gun concept to form pellets directly in a short liquid-helium-cooled section of the barrel. Pellets are accelerated by using high-pressure hydrogen supplied from a fast solenoid valve. A versatile, tritium-compatible gas-handling system provides all of the functions needed to operate the gun, including feed gas pressure control and flow control, plus helium separation and preparation of mixtures. These systems are contained in a glovebox for secondary containment of tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). 18 refs., 3 figs

  20. Integrated design of the SSC linac injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.; Valiecnti, R.; Wood, F.

    1992-01-01

    The Ion Source, Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT), and Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Linac act as a unit (referred to as the Linac Injector), the Ion Source and LEBT being cantilevered off of the RFQ. Immediately adjacent to both ends of the RFQ cavity proper are endwall chambers containing beam instrumentation and independently-operated vacuum isolation valves. The Linac Injector delivers 30 mA of H - beam at 2.5 MeV. This paper describes the design constraints imposed on the endwalls, aspects of the integration of the Ion Source and LEBT including attachment to the RFQ, maintainability and interchangeability of LEBTs, vacuum systems for each component, and the design of necessary support structure. (Author) 2 tab

  1. Progress on Lead Photocathodes for Superconducting Injectors

    CERN Document Server

    Smedley, John; Langner, Jerzy; Lefferts, Richard; Lipski, Andrzej; Rao, Triveni; Sekutowicz, Jacek; Strzyzewski, P

    2005-01-01

    We present the results of our investigation of bulk, electroplated and vacuum deposited lead as suitable photocathode materials for superconducting RF injectors. The quantum efficiency of each sample is presented as a function of the wavelength of the incident light, from 310 nm to 190 nm. Quantum efficiencies of 0.3% have been obtained. Production of a niobium cavity with a lead-plated cathode is underway.

  2. Visualisation of diesel injector with neutron imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, E.; Grünzweig, C.; Jollet, S.; Kaiser, M.; Hansen, H.; Dinkelacker, F.

    2015-12-01

    The injection process of diesel engines influences the pollutant emissions. The spray formation is significantly influenced by the internal flow of the injector. One of the key parameters here is the generation of cavitation caused by the geometry and the needle lift. In modern diesel engines the injection pressure is established up to 3000 bar. The details of the flow and phase change processes inside the injector are of increasing importance for such injectors. With these experimental measurements the validation of multiphase and cavitation models is possible for the high pressure range. Here, for instance, cavitation effects can occur. Cavitation effects in the injection port area destabilize the emergent fuel jet and improve the jet break-up. The design of the injection system in direct-injection diesel engines is an important challenge, as the jet breakup, the atomization and the mixture formation in the combustion chamber are closely linked. These factors have a direct impact on emissions, fuel consumption and performance of an engine. The shape of the spray at the outlet is determined by the internal flow of the nozzle. Here, geometrical parameters, the injection pressure, the injection duration and the cavitation phenomena play a major role. In this work, the flow dependency in the nozzles are analysed with the Neutron-Imaging. The great advantage of this method is the penetrability of the steel structure while a high contrast to the fuel is given due to the interaction of the neutrons with the hydrogen amount. Compared to other methods (optical with glass structures) we can apply real components under highest pressure conditions. During the steady state phase of the injection various cavitation phenomena are visible in the injector, being influenced by the nozzle geometry and the fuel pressure. Different characteristics of cavitation in the sac and spray hole can be detected, and the spray formation in the primary breakup zone is influenced.

  3. Lithium Pellet Injector Development for NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gettelfinger, G.; Dong, J.; Gernhardt, R.; Kugel, H.; Sichta, P.; Timberlake, J.

    2003-01-01

    A pellet injector suitable for the injection of lithium and other low-Z pellets of varying mass into plasmas at precise velocities from 5 to 500 m/s is being developed for use on NSTX (National Spherical Torus Experiment). The ability to inject low-Z impurities will significantly expand NSTX experimental capability for a broad range of diagnostic and operational applications. The architecture employs a pellet-carrying cartridge propelled through a guide tube by deuterium gas. Abrupt deceleration of the cartridge at the end of the guide tube results in the pellet continuing along its intended path, thereby giving controlled reproducible velocities for a variety of pellets materials and a reduced gas load to the torus. The planned injector assembly has four hundred guide tubes contained in a rotating magazine with eight tubes provided for injection into plasmas. A PC-based control system is being developed as well and will be described elsewhere in these Proceedings. The development path and mechanical performance of the injector will be described

  4. Ramp injector scale effects on supersonic combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebs, Adam

    The combustion field downstream of a 10 degree compression ramp injector has been studied experimentally using wall static pressure measurement, OH-PLIF, and 2 kHz intensified video filtered for OH emission at 320 nm. Nominal test section entrance conditions were Mach 2, 131 kPa static pressure, and 756K stagnation temperature. The experiment was equipped with a variable length inlet duct that facilitated varying the boundary layer development length while the injector shock structure in relation to the combustor geometry remained nearly fixed. As the boundary within an engine varies with flight condition and does not scale linearly with the physical scale of the engine, the boundary layer scale relative to mixing structures of the engine becomes relevant to the problem of engine scaling and general engine performance. By varying the boundary layer thickness from 40% of the ramp height to 150% of the ramp height, changes in the combustion flowfield downstream of the injector could be diagnosed. It was found that flame shape changed, the persistence of the vortex cores was reduced, and combustion efficiency rose as the incident boundary layer grew.

  5. Design of the ITER Neutral Beam injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemsworth, R.S.; Feist, J.; Hanada, M.; Heinemann, B.; Inoue, T.; Kuessel, E.; Kulygin, V.; Krylov, A.; Lotte, P.; Miyamoto, K.; Miyamoto, N.; Murdoch, D.; Nagase, A.; Ohara, Y.; Okumura, Y.; Pamela, J.; Panasenkov, A.; Shibata, K.; Tanii, M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the Neutral Beam Injection system which is presently being designed in Europe, Japan and Russia, with co-ordination by the Joint Central Team of ITER at Naka, Japan. The proposed system consists of three negative ion based neutral injectors, delivering a total of 50 MW of 1 MeV D 0 to the ITER plasma for pulse length of ≥1000 s. The injectors each use a single caesiated volume arc discharge negative ion source, and a multi-grid, multi-aperture accelerator, to produce about 40 A of 1 MeV D - . This will be neutralized in a sub-divided gas neutralizer, which has a conversion efficiency of about 60%. The charged fraction of the beam emerging from the neutralizer is dumped in an electrostatic residual ion dump. A water cooled calorimeter can be moved into the beam path to intercept the neutral beam, allowing commissioning of the injector independent of ITER. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  6. Development of Technologies on Innovative-Simplified Nuclear Power Plant Using High-Efficiency Steam Injectors (13) Study on Heat Transfer of Direct Condensation of Steam on Subcooled Water Jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuhki Takahashi; Yasuo Koizumi; Hiroyasu Ohtake; Tohru Miyashita; Michitsugu Mori

    2006-01-01

    Characteristics of thermal-hydraulic phenomena in the steam injector were examined. In experiments, a water jet from a nozzle of 5 mm diameter flowed into the condensing test section pipe concentrically. The inner diameter of the condensing section was 7, 10, or 20 mm and the length was 105 mm. Steam flowed into the peripheral space between the water jet and the inner wall of the test section and condensed on the ware jet surface. The radial and the axial distributions of velocity and temperature of the water jet were measured. Analyses by using the STAR-CD code were also performed. The temperature measured in the central portion of the water jet was higher than the predicted assuming the ordinary turbulent flow in a pipe. The temperature measured in the peripheral region was lower than the predicted. The radial temperature distribution measured was flatter than the predicted. When the steam condensation rate was large, the measured radial velocity distribution in the water jet was flatter than the predicted. In the case that the steam velocity was quite high, the velocity measured in the peripheral region was higher than that in the center portion. These results implied that the steam condensing on the water jet brought momentum in the water jet to result in more effective radial transport of heat and momentum. The STAR-CD code analyses to allow the interface between the wall that simulated the steam flow part and the water flow that stood for the water jet to move, i.e. creating momentum in-flux at the water jet interface, provided better results to support the experimental results. To increase the interfacial friction had a minor effect on the radial velocity distribution in the tested range. (authors)

  7. Ion Sources and Injectors for HIF Induction Linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwan, J.W.; Ahle, L.; Beck, D.N.; Bieniosek, F. M.; Faltens, A.; Grote, D.P.; Halaxa, E.; Henestroza, E.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Karpenko, V.; Sangster, T.C.

    2000-01-01

    Ion source and injector development is one of the major parts of the HIF program in the USA. Our challenge is to design a cost effective driver-scale injector and to build a multiple beam module within the next couple of years. In this paper, several current-voltage scaling laws are summarized for guiding the injector design. Following the traditional way of building injectors for HIF induction linac, we have produced a preliminary design for a multiple beam driver-scale injector. We also developed an alternate option for a high current density injector that is much smaller in size. One of the changes following this new option is the possibility of using other kinds of ion sources than the surface ionization sources. So far, we are still looking for an ideal ion source candidate that can readily meet all the essential requirements

  8. First operational experience with the positive-ion injector of ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollinger, L.M.; Pardo, R.C.; Shepard, K.W.; Billquist, P.J.; Bogaty, J.M.; Clifft, B.E.; Harkewicz, R.; Joh, K.; Markovich, P.K.; Munson, F.H.; Zinkann, G.; Nolen, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    A Positive-Ion Injector (PH) designed to enable ATLAS to accelerate all stable nuclei has been completed and successfully tested. This new injector system consists of an ECR source on a 350-kV platform coupled to a 12-MV superconducting injector linac formed with four different types of independently-phased 4-gap accelerating structures. The injector linac is configured to be optimum for the acceleration of uranium ions from 0.029 to ∼ 1.1 MeV/u. When ions with q/A > 0. 1 are accelerated by PII and injected into the main ATLAS linac, CW beams with energies over 6 MeV/u can be delivered to the experimental areas. Since its completion in March 1992, PII has been tested by accelerating 3O Si 7+ , 40 Ar ll+ , 132 Xe 13+ , and 208 Pb 24+ . For all of these, transmission through the injecter linac was ∼ 100% of the pre-bunched beam, which corresponds to ∼ 60% of the DC beam from the source. The accelerating fields of the superconducting resonators were somewhat greater than the design goals, and the whole system ran stably for long periods of time

  9. Initial use of the positive-ion injector of ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollinger, L.M.; Billquist, P.J.; Bogaty, J.M.; Clifft, B.E.; Den Hartog, P.K.; Munson, F.H. Jr.; Pardo, R.C.; Shepard, K.W.; Zinkann, G.P.

    1989-01-01

    The positive-ion injector of ATLAS consists of an ECR heavy-ion source coupled to a 12-MV superconducting injector linac. The ECR source and a 3-MV version of the partially completed linac have been used to accelerate successfully several species of heavy ions. The operating experience is summarized, with emphasis on the excellent beam quality of beams from the new injector. Two new fast-timing detectors are described. 9 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  10. Development of 4-shot pellet injector for JET-2M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noda, O.; Kuribayashi, S.; Uchikawa, T.; Onozuka, M.; Kasaki, S.; Hasegawa, K.

    1987-01-01

    A pneumatic 4 pellet injector has been constructed for JFT-2M. The performance tests have proved high performance and reliability of the injector. The maximum pellet velocity obtained in hydrogen pellet tests is 1.4km sec. The device is now in use for JFT-2M in a place of a previous single pellet injector, contributing to plasma studies. In this paper the outline of features and performance of the device is presented

  11. Argonne tandem as injector to a superconducting linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yntema, J.L.; Den Hartog, P.K.; Henning, W.; Kutschera, W.

    1980-01-01

    The Argonne Tandem uses Pelletron chains, NEC accelerator tubes, and a dual closed-corona system. Its main function is to be an injector for a superconducting linear accelerator. As long as the transverse and longitudinal emittances are within the acceptance of the linac, the output beam quality of the tandem-linac system is essentially determined by the tandem. The sensitivity of the linac to the longitudinal emittance ΔEΔt of the incident beam makes the output beam quality dependent on the negative-ion velocity distribution in the source, transit-time effects in the tandem, molecular-beam dissociation, and stripper-foil uniformity. This paper discusses these beam-degrading effects

  12. Numerical analysis of injector flow and spray characteristics from diesel injectors using fossil and biodiesel fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battistoni, Michele; Grimaldi, Carlo Nazareno

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Fluid-dynamic simulation of injection process with biodiesel and diesel fuel. ► Coupling of Eulerian and Lagrangian spray CFD simulations. ► Effects of hole shaping: conical versus cylindrical and edge rounding effects. ► Prediction of spray characteristics improved using inner nozzle flow data. ► Explanation of mass flow differences depending on hole shape and fuel type. -- Abstract: The aim of the paper is the comparison of the injection process with two fuels, a standard diesel fuel and a pure biodiesel, methyl ester of soybean oil. Multiphase cavitating flows inside injector nozzles are calculated by means of unsteady CFD simulations on moving grids from needle opening to closure, using an Eulerian–Eulerian two-fluid approach which takes into account bubble dynamics. Afterward, spray evolutions are also evaluated in a Lagrangian framework using results of the first computing step, mapped onto the hole exit area, for the initialization of the primary breakup model. Two nozzles with cylindrical and conical holes are studied and their behaviors are discussed in relation to fuel properties. Nozzle flow simulations highlighted that the extent of cavitation regions is not much affected by the fuel type, whereas it is strongly dependent on the nozzle shape. Biodiesel provides a slightly higher mass flow in highly cavitating nozzles. On the contrary using hole shaped nozzles (to reduce cavitation) diesel provides similar or slightly higher mass flow. Comparing the two fuels, the effects of different viscosities and densities play main role which explains these behaviors. Simulations of the spray evolution are also discussed highlighting the differences between the use of fossil and biodiesel fuels in terms of spray penetration, atomization and cone-angle. Usage of diesel fuel in the conical convergent nozzle gives higher liquid penetration.

  13. Modelling the High-speed Injector for Diesel ICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buryuk, V. V.; Kayukov, S. S.; Gorshkalev, A. A.; Belousov, A. V.; Gallyamov, R. E.; Zvyagintsev, V. A.

    2018-01-01

    The article describes the results of research on the option of improving the operation speed of the electro-hydraulically driven injectors (Common Rail) for diesel ICE. The injector investigated in this article is a modified serial injector Common Rail-type with solenoid. The model and the injector parameters are represented in the package LMS Imagine. Lab AMESim with the detailed description of the substantiation and background for the research. Following the research results, the advantages of the proposed approach to analysing the operation speed were detected with outlining the direction of future studies.

  14. Application of advanced diagnostics to airblast injector flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcvey, John B.; Kennedy, Jan B.; Russell, Sid

    1987-01-01

    This effort is concerned with the application of both conventional laser velocimetry and phase Doppler anemometry to the flow produced by an airblast nozzle. The emphasis is placed on the acquisition of data using actual engine injector/swirler components at (noncombusting) conditions simulating those encountered in the engine. The objective of the effort was to test the applicability of the instrumentation to real injector flows, to develop information on the behavior of injectors at high flow, and to provide data useful in the development of physical models of injector flows.

  15. Compact 250-kV injector system for PIGMI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamm, R.W.; Stevens, R.R. Jr.; Mueller, D.W.; Lederer, H.M.

    1978-01-01

    A 250-kV proton injector to be used in the development of a linac suitable for medical applications has been constructed. This injector utilizes a spherical Pierce geometry to produce a converging beam. A gas insulated accelerating column is cantilevered on a grounded vacuum system, with a separate high voltage equipment dome connected to a 300-kV Cockcroft-Walton power supply. The injector can be operated locally or remotely, with the remote control accomplished by a microprocessor system linked to a central control minicomputer. This injector has been designed as a low-cost compact system. The design details and the data obtained during initial operation are presented

  16. The features of the use of GIS technologies for monitoring of the situation of main water lines in Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Gojamanov

    2014-11-01

    a comprehensive attract the materials of the aerospace sensing and GIS technologies. In this paper describe the work experience and are the results of monitoring of pipelines of water supply in Azerbaijan.

  17. The mechanical design and fabrication of 162.5 MHz buncher for China accelerator driven sub-critical system injector II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Hai Hua; Li, Youtang [Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou (China); He, Yuan; Zhang, Bin; Huang, Shichun; Yuan, Chenzhang; Jia, Huan; Zhang, Shenghu [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China)

    2017-08-15

    A buncher is one of the main pieces of equipment in the medium energy beam transport line (MEBT) for China accelerator driven sub-critical system (C-ADS) Injector II. To focus the beam longitudinally and match the beam for the acceptance of the superconducting linac section, two room temperature quarter wave resonator (QWR) bunchers with frequency of 162.5 MHz have been designed as parts of the MEBT. According to the beam transmission matching of the MEBT and the geometric parameters requirements of bunchers, the unique mechanical structure and the main processing technology of buncher cavities and their couplers and tuners are described in this paper. The fabrication of bunchers and their parts have been completed and tested at high power, the test results agree well with the design requirements. These bunchers work well for about two years in Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  18. The mechanical design and fabrication of 162.5 MHz buncher for China accelerator driven sub-critical system injector II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haihua Niu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A buncher is one of the main pieces of equipment in the medium energy beam transport line (MEBT for China accelerator driven sub-critical system (C-ADS Injector II. To focus the beam longitudinally and match the beam for the acceptance of the superconducting linac section, two room temperature quarter wave resonator (QWR bunchers with frequency of 162.5 MHz have been designed as parts of the MEBT. According to the beam transmission matching of the MEBT and the geometric parameters requirements of bunchers, the unique mechanical structure and the main processing technology of buncher cavities and their couplers and tuners are described in this paper. The fabrication of bunchers and their parts have been completed and tested at high power, the test results agree well with the design requirements. These bunchers work well for about two years in Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  19. SwissFEL injector conceptual design report. Accelerator test facility for SwissFEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrozzi, M.

    2010-07-01

    This comprehensive report issued by the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland takes a look at the design concepts behind the institute's SwissFEL X-ray Laser facility - in particular concerning the conceptual design of the injector system. The SwissFEL X-ray FEL project at PSI, involves the development of an injector complex that enables operation of a FEL system operating at 0.1 - 7 nm with permanent-magnet undulator technology and minimum beam energy. The injector pre-project was motivated by the challenging electron beam requirements necessary to drive the SwissFEL accelerator facility. The report takes a look at the mission of the test facility and its performance goals. The accelerator layout and the electron source are described, as are the low-level radio-frequency power systems and the synchronisation concept. The general strategy for beam diagnostics is introduced. Low energy electron beam diagnostics, the linear accelerator (Linac) and bunch compressor diagnostics are discussed, as are high-energy electron beam diagnostics. Wavelength selection for the laser system and UV pulse shaping are discussed. The laser room for the SwissFEL Injector and constructional concepts such as the girder system and alignment concepts involved are looked at. A further chapter deals with beam dynamics, simulated performance and injector optimisation. The facility's commissioning and operation program is examined, as are operating regimes, software applications and data storage. The control system structure and architecture is discussed and special subsystems are described. Radiation safety, protection systems and shielding calculations are presented and the lateral shielding of the silo roof examined

  20. Nuclear cooperation targets global challenges. States back main pillars of the IAEA's work to strengthen nuclear safety, verification and technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    States meeting at the 44th IAEA General Conference in Vienna have set a challenging agenda for international nuclear cooperation into the 21st century that targets issues of global safety, security, and sustainable development. They adopted resolutions endorsing the Agency's programmes for strengthening activities under its three main pillars of work - nuclear verification, safety, and technology - that are closely linked to major challenges before the world. The document presents the main actions taken during the conference

  1. Performance of the Charge Injectors of the ALICE Silicon Drift Detectors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kushpil, Svetlana

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 37 (2012), s. 970-975 ISSN 1875-3892. [TIPP 2011 - Technology and Instrumentation in Particle Physics 2011. Chicago, 09.06.2011-14.06.2011] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA08015 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : semiconductor detector * silicon drift detector * MOS charge injector Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1875389212017920

  2. Economic evaluation of epinephrine auto-injectors for peanut allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, Marcus; Bean, Katherine; Verdi, Marylee

    2017-08-01

    Three commercial epinephrine auto-injectors were available in the United States in the summer of 2016: EpiPen, Adrenaclick, and epinephrine injection, USP auto-injector. To describe the variation in pharmacy costs among epinephrine auto-injector devices in New England and evaluate the additional expense associated with incremental auto-injector costs. Decision analysis software was used to evaluate costs of the most and least expensive epinephrine auto-injector devices for children with peanut allergy. To evaluate regional variation in epinephrine auto-injector costs, a random sample of New England national and corporate pharmacies was compared with a convenience sample of pharmacies from 10 Canadian provinces. Assuming prescriptions written for 2 double epinephrine packs each year (home and school), the mean costs of food allergy over the 20-year model horizon totaled $58,667 (95% confidence interval [CI] $57,745-$59,588) when EpiPen was prescribed and $45,588 (95% CI $44,873-$46,304) when epinephrine injection, USP auto-injector was prescribed. No effectiveness differences were evident between groups, with 17.19 (95% CI 17.11-17.27) quality-adjusted life years accruing for each subject. The incremental cost per episode of anaphylaxis treated with epinephrine over the model horizon was $12,576 for EpiPen vs epinephrine injection, USP auto-injector. EpiPen costs were lowest at Canadian pharmacies ($96, 95% CI $85-$107). There was price consistency between corporate and independent pharmacies throughout New England by device brand, with the epinephrine injection, USP auto-injector being the most affordable device. Cost differences among epinephrine auto-injectors were significant. More expensive auto-injector brands did not appear to provide incremental benefit. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cybele: a large size ion source of module construction for Tore-Supra injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonin, A.; Garibaldi, P.

    2005-01-01

    A 70 keV 40 A hydrogen beam injector has been developed at Cadarache for plasma diagnostic purpose (MSE diagnostic and Charge exchange) on the Tore-Supra Tokamak. This injector daily operates with a large size ions source (called Pagoda) which does not completely fulfill all the requirements necessary for the present experiment. As a consequence, the development of a new ion source (called Cybele) has been underway whose objective is to meet high proton rate (>80%), current density of 160 mA/cm 2 within 5% of uniformity on the whole extraction surface for long shot operation (from 1 to 100 s). Moreover, the main particularity of Cybele is the module construction concept: it is composed of five source modules vertically juxtaposed, with a special orientation which fits the curved extraction surface of the injector; this curvature ensures a geometrical focalization of the neutral beam 7 m downstream in the Tore-Supra chamber. Cybele will be tested first in positive ion production for the Tore-Supra injector, and afterward in negative ion production mode; its modular concept could be advantageous to ensure plasma uniformity on the large extraction surface (about 1 m 2 ) of the ITER neutral beam injector. A module prototype (called the Drift Source) has already been developed in the past and optimized in the laboratory both for positive and negative ion production, where it has met the ITER ion source requirements in terms of D-current density (200 A/m 2 ), source pressure (0.3 Pa), uniformity and arc efficiency (0.015 A D-/kW). (authors)

  4. Epinephrine Auto-Injector Versus Drawn Up Epinephrine for Anaphylaxis Management: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chime, Nnenna O; Riese, Victoria G; Scherzer, Daniel J; Perretta, Julianne S; McNamara, LeAnn; Rosen, Michael A; Hunt, Elizabeth A

    2017-08-01

    Anaphylaxis is a life-threatening event. Most clinical symptoms of anaphylaxis can be reversed by prompt intramuscular administration of epinephrine using an auto-injector or epinephrine drawn up in a syringe and delays and errors may be fatal. The aim of this scoping review is to identify and compare errors associated with use of epinephrine drawn up in a syringe versus epinephrine auto-injectors in order to assist hospitals as they choose which approach minimizes risk of adverse events for their patients. PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library were searched using terms agreed to a priori. We reviewed human and simulation studies reporting errors associated with the use of epinephrine in anaphylaxis. There were multiple screening stages with evolving feedback. Each study was independently assessed by two reviewers for eligibility. Data were extracted using an instrument modeled from the Zaza et al instrument and grouped into themes. Three main themes were noted: 1) ergonomics, 2) dosing errors, and 3) errors due to route of administration. Significant knowledge gaps in the operation of epinephrine auto-injectors among healthcare providers, patients, and caregivers were identified. For epinephrine in a syringe, there were more frequent reports of incorrect dosing and erroneous IV administration with associated adverse cardiac events. For the epinephrine auto-injector, unintentional administration to the digit was an error reported on multiple occasions. This scoping review highlights knowledge gaps and a diverse set of errors regardless of the approach to epinephrine preparation during management of anaphylaxis. There are more potentially life-threatening errors reported for epinephrine drawn up in a syringe than with the auto-injectors. The impact of these knowledge gaps and potentially fatal errors on patient outcomes, cost, and quality of care is worthy of further investigation.

  5. RF Design of the TW Buncher for the CLIC Drive Beam Injector (2nd report)

    CERN Document Server

    Shaker, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    CLIC is based on the two beams concept that one beam (drive beam) produces the required RF power to accelerate another beam (main beam). The drive beam is produced and accelerated up to 50MeV inside the CLIC drive beam injector. The drive beam injector main components are a thermionic electron gun, three sub-harmonic bunchers, a pre-buncher, a TW buncher, 13 accelerating structures and one magnetic chicane. This document is the second report of the RF structure design of the TW buncher. This design is based on the beam dynamic design done by Shahin Sanaye Hajari due to requirements mentioned in CLIC CDR. A disk-loaded tapered structure is chosen for the TW buncher. The axial electric field increases strongly based on the beam dynamic requirements. This second report includes the study of HOM effects, retuning the cells, study of dimensional tolerances and the heat dissipation on the surface.

  6. ILSE-ESQ injector scaled experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henestroza, E.; Eylon, S.; Yu, S.; Grote, D.

    1993-01-01

    A 2 MeV, 800 mA, K + injector for the Heavy Ion Fusion Induction Linac Systems Experiments (ISLE) is under development at LBL. It consists of a 500keV-1MeV diode pre-injector followed by an electrostatic quadrupole accelerator (ESQ). One of the key issues for the ESQ centers around the control of beam aberrations due to the open-quotes energy effectclose quotes: in a strong electrostatic quadrupole field, ions at beam edge will have energies very different from those on the axis. The resulting kinematic distortions lead to S-shaped phase spaces, which, if uncorrected, will lead eventually to emittance growth. These beam aberrations can be minimized by increasing the injection energy and/or strengthening the beam focusing. It may also be possible to compensate for the open-quotes energy effectclose quotes by proper shaping of the quadrupoles electrodes. In order to check the physics of the open-quotes energy effectclose quotes of the ESQ design a scaled experiment has been designed that will accommodate the parameters of the source, as well as the voltage limitations, of the Single Beam Transport Experiment (SBTE). Since the 500 KeV pre-injector delivers a 4 cm converging beam, a quarter-scale experiment will fit the 1 cm converging beam of the SBTE source. Also, a 10 mA beam in SBTE, and the requirement of equal perveance in both systems, forces all the voltages to scale down by a factor 0.054. Results from this experiment and corresponding 3D PIC simulations will be presented

  7. RIIM two-pulse injector experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazarakis, M.G.; Smith, D.L.; Jones, E.E.; Hasti, D.E.; Jojola, J.M.; Lehmann, M.

    1987-01-01

    The RADLAC-II foilless diode injector was operated under double pulse conditions utilizing the RIIM accelerator as the test bed. The original RIIM accelerator pulse-power network was modified to provide for the generation, transmission, and delivery to the foilless diode of two distinct voltage pulses with variable interpulse separation from 0 to 2 ms. Two pulse-power assemblies were investigated and will be presented in connection with the diode performance. In both cases, the generated plasma and an excessive neutral gas release, following the first pulse, prevented the diode from producing a second beam pulse for interpulse separations larger than ∼1 μs. 4 refs

  8. The positive ion injector for ALPI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisoffi, G.

    1996-01-01

    In the framework of the ALPI upgrading, a new positive ion injector is foreseen in order to be able to accelerate ions with masses of the order of 200 and with high charge states from the velocity of β=0.009 up to β=0.055. The structures chosen for that velocity range are superconducting radio frequency quadrupoles operating at a frequency of 80 MHz, which is the operating frequency of the ALPI low β cavities. The paper describes the current status of the project including beam dynamics, cavity design, beam transfer lines and vacuum, control and cryogenic systems. (orig.)

  9. Development of repeating pneumatic pellet injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, Y.; Onozuka, M.; Shimomura, T. (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Kobe (Japan)) (and others)

    1990-01-01

    A repeating pneumatic pellet injector has been constructed to experiment with the technique of continuous injection for fueling fusion reactors. This device is composed of a cryogenic extruder and a gun assembly in (among others) a high-vacuum vessel, diagnostic vessels, LHe, fuel-gas and propellant-gas supply systems, control and data acquisition systems, etc. The performance tests, using hydrogen, have proved that the device provides the function of extruding frozen hydrogen ribbons at the speed of 6 mm s{sup -1}, chambering pellet at the rate of 5 Hz, and injecting pellet at the speed of 900 m s{sup -1}, as planned. (author).

  10. Development of repeating pneumatic pellet injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Y.; Onozuka, M.; Shimomura, T.

    1990-01-01

    A repeating pneumatic pellet injector has been constructed to experiment with the technique of continuous injection for fueling fusion reactors. This device is composed of a cryogenic extruder and a gun assembly in (among others) a high-vacuum vessel, diagnostic vessels, LHe, fuel-gas and propellant-gas supply systems, control and data acquisition systems, etc. The performance tests, using hydrogen, have proved that the device provides the function of extruding frozen hydrogen ribbons at the speed of 6 mm s -1 , chambering pellet at the rate of 5 Hz, and injecting pellet at the speed of 900 m s -1 , as planned. (author)

  11. Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a reference small mixed oxide fuel fabrication plant. Volume 1. Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, C. E.; Murphy, E. S.; Schneider, K J

    1979-01-01

    Detailed technology, safety and cost information are presented for the conceptual decommissioning of a reference small mixed oxide fuel fabrication plant. Alternate methods of decommissioning are described including immediate dismantlement, safe storage for a period of time followed by dismantlement and entombment. Safety analyses, both occupational and public, and cost evaluations were conducted for each mode.

  12. The Supervisory Control System for the HL-2A Neutral Beam Injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Li, Li; Feng, Kun; Wang, Xueyun; Yang, Jiaxing; Huang, Zhihui; Kang, Zihua; Wang, Mingwei; Zhang, Guoqing; Lei, Guangjiu; Rao, Jun

    2009-06-01

    Supervisory control and protection system of the neutral beam injector (NBI) in the HL-2A tokamak is presented. The system is used for a safe coordination of all the main NBI subsystems. Because the system is based on computer networks with its transmission medium of optical fiber, its advantages in high operational stability, reliability, security and flexible functional expandability are clearly shown during the NBI commissioning and heating experiment in HL-2A.

  13. Soil erosion risk assessment along the main oil pipeline route using high resolution satellite imagery and geoinformation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djamalov, A.T.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the prediction possibilities of soil erosion processes along the main oil pipeline route were investigated that allows warning possible emergency consequences of these processes. Results of this research are the USLE model raster map for the test area and the table of estimation of soil loss intensity on the experimental area

  14. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF INNOVATIVE CONDITION ASSESSMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR WATER MAINS: ACOUSTIC PIPE WALL ASSESSMENT, INTERNAL INSPECTION, AND EXTERNAL INSPECTIONVOLUME 1: TECHNICAL REPORT AND VOLUME 2: APPENDICES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nine pipe wall integrity assessment technologies were demonstrated on a 76-year-old, 2,057-ft-long portion of a cement-lined, 24-in. cast iron water main in Louisville, KY. This activity was part of a series of field demonstrations of innovative leak detection/location and condi...

  15. Designing Liquid Rocket Engine Injectors for Performance, Stability, and Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westra, Douglas G.; West, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is developing the Space Launch System (SLS) for crewed exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is designing rocket engines for the SLS Advanced Booster (AB) concepts being developed to replace the Shuttle-derived solid rocket boosters. One AB concept uses large, Rocket-Propellant (RP)-fueled engines that pose significant design challenges. The injectors for these engines require high performance and stable operation while still meeting aggressive cost reduction goals for access to space. Historically, combustion stability problems have been a critical issue for such injector designs. Traditional, empirical injector design tools and methodologies, however, lack the ability to reliably predict complex injector dynamics that often lead to combustion stability. Reliance on these tools alone would likely result in an unaffordable test-fail-fix cycle for injector development. Recently at MSFC, a massively parallel computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program was successfully applied in the SLS AB injector design process. High-fidelity reacting flow simulations were conducted for both single-element and seven-element representations of the full-scale injector. Data from the CFD simulations was then used to significantly augment and improve the empirical design tools, resulting in a high-performance, stable injector design.

  16. Combustion behaviors of GO2/GH2 swirl-coaxial injector using non-intrusive optical diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    GuoBiao, Cai; Jian, Dai; Yang, Zhang; NanJia, Yu

    2016-06-01

    This research evaluates the combustion behaviors of a single-element, swirl-coaxial injector in an atmospheric combustion chamber with gaseous oxygen and gaseous hydrogen (GO2/GH2) as the propellants. A brief simulated flow field schematic comparison between a shear-coaxial injector and the swirl-coaxial injector reveals the distribution characteristics of the temperature field and streamline patterns. Advanced optical diagnostics, i.e., OH planar laser-induced fluorescence and high-speed imaging, are simultaneously employed to determine the OH radical spatial distribution and flame fluctuations, respectively. The present study focuses on the flame structures under varying O/F mixing ratios and center oxygen swirl intensities. The combined use of several image-processing methods aimed at OH instantaneous images, including time-averaged, root-mean-square, and gradient transformation, provides detailed information regarding the distribution of the flow field. The results indicate that the shear layers anchored on the oxygen injector lip are the main zones of chemical heat release and that the O/F mixing ratio significantly affects the flame shape. Furthermore, with high-speed imaging, an intuitionistic ignition process and several consecutive steady-state images reveal that lean conditions make it easy to drive the combustion instabilities and that the center swirl intensity has a moderate influence on the flame oscillation strength. The results of this study provide a visualized analysis for future optimal swirl-coaxial injector designs.

  17. Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a Reference Boiling Water Reactor Power Station. Main report. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oak, H.D.; Holter, G.M.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Konzek, G.J.

    1980-06-01

    Technology, safety and cost information is given for the conceptual decommissioning of a large (1100MWe) boiling water reactor (BWR) power station. Three approaches to decommissioning, immediate dismantlement, safe storage with deferred dismantlement and entombment, were studied to obtain comparisons between costs, occupational radiation doses, potential dose to the public and other safety impacts. It also shows the sensitivity of decommissioning safety and costs to the power rating of a BWR in the range of 200 to 1100 MWe.

  18. Review on pressure swirl injector in liquid rocket engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Zhongtao; Wang, Zhen-guo; Li, Qinglian; Cheng, Peng

    2018-04-01

    The pressure swirl injector with tangential inlet ports is widely used in liquid rocket engine. Commonly, this type of pressure swirl injector consists of tangential inlet ports, a swirl chamber, a converging spin chamber, and a discharge orifice. The atomization of the liquid propellants includes the formation of liquid film, primary breakup and secondary atomization. And the back pressure and temperature in the combustion chamber could have great influence on the atomization of the injector. What's more, when the combustion instability occurs, the pressure oscillation could further affects the atomization process. This paper reviewed the primary atomization and the performance of the pressure swirl injector, which include the formation of the conical liquid film, the breakup and atomization characteristics of the conical liquid film, the effects of the rocket engine environment, and the response of the injector and atomization on the pressure oscillation.

  19. SLC injector simulation and tuning for high charge transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeremian, A.D.; Miller, R.H.; Clendenin, J.E.; Early, R.A.; Ross, M.C.; Turner, J.L.; Wang, J.W.

    1992-08-01

    We have simulated the SLC injector from the thermionic gun through the first accelerating section and used the resulting parameters to tune the injector for optimum performance and high charge transport. Simulations are conducted using PARMELA, a three-dimensional ray-trace code with a two-dimensional space-charge model. The magnetic field profile due to the existing magnetic optics is calculated using POISSON, while SUPERFISH is used to calculate the space harmonics of the various bunchers and the accelerator cavities. The initial beam conditions in the PARMELA code are derived from the EGUN model of the gun. The resulting injector parameters from the PARMELA simulation are used to prescribe experimental settings of the injector components. The experimental results are in agreement with the results of the integrated injector model

  20. SLC injector simulation and tuning for high charge transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeremian, A.D.; Miller, R.H.; Clendenin, J.E.; Early, R.A.; Ross, M.C.; Turner, J.L.; Wang, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    We have simulated the SLC injector from the thermionic gun through the first accelerating section and used the resulting parameters to tune the injector for optimum performance and high charge transport. Simulations are conducted using PARMELA, a three-dimensional space-charge model. The magnetic field profile due to the existing magnetic optics is calculated using POISSON, while SUPERFISH is used to calculate the space harmonics of the various bunchers and the accelerator cavities. The initial beam conditions in the PARMELA code are derived from the EGUN model of the gun. The resulting injector parameters from the PARMELA simulation are used to prescribe experimental settings of the injector components. The experimental results are in agreement with the results of the integrated injector model. (Author) 5 figs., 7 refs

  1. Improved Bevatron local injector ion source performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stover, G.; Zajec, E.

    1985-05-01

    Performance tests of the improved Bevatron Local Injector PIG Ion Source using particles of Si 4 + , Ne 3 + , and He 2 + are described. Initial measurements of the 8.4 keV/nucleon Si 4 + beam show an intensity of 100 particle microamperes with a normalized emittance of .06 π cm-mrad. A low energy beam transport line provides mass analysis, diagnostics, and matching into a 200 MHz RFQ linac. The RFQ accelerates the beam from 8.4 to 200 keV/nucleon. The injector is unusual in the sense that all ion source power supplies, the ac distribution network, vacuum control equipment, and computer control system are contained in a four bay rack mounted on insulators which is located on a floor immediately above the ion source. The rack, transmission line, and the ion source housing are raised by a dc power supply to 80 kilovolts above earth ground. All power supplies, which are referenced to rack ground, are modular in construction and easily removable for maintenance. AC power is delivered to the rack via a 21 kVA, 3-phase transformer. 2 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  2. Multi-beam injector development at LBL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutkowski, H.L.; Faltens, A.; Brodzik, D.A.; Johnson, R.M.; Pike, C.D.; Vanecek, D.L.; Humphries, S. Jr.; Meyer, E.A.; Hewett, D.W.

    1990-06-01

    LBL is developing a multi-beam injector that will be used for scaled accelerator experiments related to Heavy Ion Fusion. The device will produce sixteen 0.5 Amp beams of C+ at 2 MeV energy. The carbon arc source has been developed to the point where the emittance is within a factor of four of the design target. Modelling of the source behavior to find ways to reduce the emittance is discussed. Source lifetime and reliability is also of paramount importance to us and data regarding the lifetime and failure modes of different source configurations is discussed. One half of the accelerating column has been constructed and tested at high voltage. One beam experiments in this half column are underway. The second half of the column is being built and the transition 2 MV experiments should begin soon. In addition to beam and source performance we also discuss the controls for the injector and the electronics associated with the source and current injection. 3 refs., 2 figs

  3. Thermionic gun control system for the CEBAF [Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility] injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pico, R.; Diamond, B.; Fugitt, J.; Bork, R.

    1989-01-01

    The injector for the CEBAF accelerator must produce a high-quality electron beam to meet the overall accelerator specifications. A Hermosa electron gun with a 2 mm-diameter cathode and a control aperture has been chosen as the electron source. This must be controlled over a wide range of operating conditions to meet the beam specifications and to provide flexibility for accelerator commissioning. The gun is controlled using Computer Automated Measurement and Control (CAMAC IEEE-583) technology. The system employs the CAMAC-based control architecture developed at CEBAF. The control system has been tested, and early operating data on the electron gun and the injector beam transport system has been obtained. This system also allows gun parameters to be stored at the operator location, without paralyzing operation. This paper describes the use of this computer system in the control of the CEBAF electron gun. 2 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  4. Design and Fabrication of Oxygen/RP-2 Multi-Element Oxidizer-Rich Staged Combustion Thrust Chamber Injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, C. P.; Medina, C. R.; Protz, C. S.; Kenny, R. J.; Kelly, G. W.; Casiano, M. J.; Hulka, J. R.; Richardson, B. R.

    2016-01-01

    As part of the Combustion Stability Tool Development project funded by the Air Force Space and Missile Systems Center, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center was contracted to assemble and hot-fire test a multi-element integrated test article demonstrating combustion characteristics of an oxygen/hydrocarbon propellant oxidizer-rich staged-combustion engine thrust chamber. Such a test article simulates flow through the main injectors of oxygen/kerosene oxidizer-rich staged combustion engines such as the Russian RD-180 or NK-33 engines, or future U.S.-built engine systems such as the Aerojet-Rocketdyne AR-1 engine or the Hydrocarbon Boost program demonstration engine. On the current project, several configurations of new main injectors were considered for the thrust chamber assembly of the integrated test article. All the injector elements were of the gas-centered swirl coaxial type, similar to those used on the Russian oxidizer-rich staged-combustion rocket engines. In such elements, oxidizer-rich combustion products from the preburner/turbine exhaust flow through a straight tube, and fuel exiting from the combustion chamber and nozzle regenerative cooling circuits is injected near the exit of the oxidizer tube through tangentially oriented orifices that impart a swirl motion such that the fuel flows along the wall of the oxidizer tube in a thin film. In some elements there is an orifice at the inlet to the oxidizer tube, and in some elements there is a sleeve or "shield" inside the oxidizer tube where the fuel enters. In the current project, several variations of element geometries were created, including element size (i.e., number of elements or pattern density), the distance from the exit of the sleeve to the injector face, the width of the gap between the oxidizer tube inner wall and the outer wall of the sleeve, and excluding the sleeve entirely. This paper discusses the design rationale for each of these element variations, including hydraulic, structural

  5. Understanding the removal mechanisms of PPCPs and the influence of main technological parameters in anaerobic UASB and aerobic CAS reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarino, T; Suarez, S; Lema, J M; Omil, F

    2014-08-15

    The removal of 16 Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) were studied in a conventional activated sludge (CAS) unit and an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. Special attention was paid to each biomass conformation and activity as well as to operational conditions. Biodegradation was the main PPCP removal mechanism, being higher removals achieved under aerobic conditions, except in the case of sulfamethoxazole and trimetrophim. Under anaerobic conditions, PPCP biodegradation was correlated with the methanogenic rate, while in the aerobic reactor a relationship with nitrification was found. Sorption onto sludge was influenced by biomass conformation, being only significant for musk fragrances in the UASB reactor, in which an increase of the upward velocity and hydraulic retention time improved this removal. Additionally, PPCP sorption increased with time in the UASB reactor, due to the granular biomass structure which suggests the existence of intra-molecular diffusion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Transient states analysis of CI engine injectors with the use of optical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowron, M.; Pielecha, I.; Wisłocki, K.

    2016-09-01

    The main aim of research was to define real injection time delay against the time of electrical control signal for piezoelectric and electromagnetic diesel fuel injectors. The second objective of this work was the evaluation of influence of typical injection parameters on this delay. The analysis was focused on the occurrence of appropriate control signals recorded with the use of fast-varying data acquisition system and compared with the data recorded by high speed camera. The tests were conducted in constant volume chamber for different injector types used in combustion engines with direct injection of diesel fuel. The tests were performed under variable conditions: different fuel pressure, air back-pressure and injection duration time.

  7. Design of cryo-vacuum system for MW neutral beam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Chundong; Xie Yuanlai

    2010-01-01

    Neutral beam injector is an equipment that is used to produce and then to neutralize high energetic particle beam. A neutral beam injector (EAST-NBI) with MW magnitude neutral beam power is considered to be developed to support the EAST physical research. The requirements for vacuum system were analyzed after introducing the principle of EAST-NBI. A differential vacuum system structure was chosen after analyzing the performance of different vacuum pumping system structure. The gas sources and their characteristics were analyzed, and two inserted type cryocondensation pumps were chosen as main vacuum pump. The schematic structure of the two cryocondensation pump with pumping area 8 m 2 and 6 m 2 were given and their cooling method and temperature control mode were determined. (authors)

  8. Can the proton injectors meet the HL-LHC requirements after LS2?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goddard, B.; Bartosik, H.; Bracco, C.; Bruening, O.; Carli, C.; Cornelis, K.; Damerau, H.; Garoby, R.; Gilardoni, S.; Hancock, S.; Hanke, K.; Kain, V.; Meddahi, M.; Mikulec, B.; Papaphilippou, Y.; Rumolo, G.; Shaposhnikova, E.; Steerenberg, R.; Vretenar, M.

    2012-01-01

    The LIU project has as mandate the upgrade of the LHC injector chain to match the requirements of HL-LHC. The present planning assumes that the upgrade work will be completed in LS2, for commissioning in the following operational year. The known limitations in the different injectors are described, together with the various upgrades planned to improve the performance. The expected performance reach after the upgrade with 25 and 50 ns beams is examined. The project planning is discussed in view of the present LS1 and LS2 planning. The main unresolved questions and associated decision points are presented, and the key issues to be addressed by the end of 2012 are detailed in the context of the machine development programs and hardware construction activities. (authors)

  9. The injector linac for the Mainz microtron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Euteneuer, H.; Braun, H.; Herminghaus, H.; Scholer, H.; Weis, T.

    1988-01-01

    The design and setup of a 3.5 MeV, 100μA injector for a cascade of race track microtrons is presented. It replaces a 2.1 MeV Van De Graaff for getting higher reliability, improved beam dynamics in the first RTM by increased and more stable input energy, as well as an easier access and a better vacuum to launch a beam of polarized electrons. In this paper, the considerations which led under given boundary conditions to the final design concept are discussed and its realization with PARMELA is described. Details of the linac setup are given. First operation showed a good longitudinal performance (energy stability ≤ ±2 star 10 -4 , spectrum ≤ 1 star 10 -3 FWHM, bunch length ≤ ± 1.5 degrees) and an excellent reproducibility of machine operation

  10. NBS-LANL RTM injector installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, M.A.; Ayres, R.L.; Cutler, R.I.; Lindstrom, E.R.; Martin, E.R.; Mohr, D.L.; Penner, S.; Yoder, N.R.; Young, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    The injector for the NBS-LANL CW racetrack microtron consists of a 100 KeV electron gun and beam transport line followed by a 5 MeV linac. The function of the gun and transport line, which have been installed at NBS, is to provide a chopped and bunched 100 KeV and up to 0.67 mA dc or pulsed beam of very low transverse emittance for matched insertion into the linac. In this paper the authors present both the design and construction details of the 100 KeV system and the results of preliminary beam tests. The tests conducted thus far show the gun and transport system to be performing well within design specifications

  11. Commissioning the Linac Coherent Light Source injector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Akre

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The Linac Coherent Light Source is a SASE x-ray free-electron laser (FEL project presently under construction at SLAC [J. Arthur et al., SLAC-R-593, 2002.]. The injector section, from drive laser and rf photocathode gun through first bunch compressor chicane, was installed in the fall of 2006. The initial system commissioning with an electron beam was completed in August of 2007, with the goal of a 1.2-micron emittance in a 1-nC bunch demonstrated. The second phase of commissioning, including second bunch compressor and full linac, is planned for 2008, with FEL commissioning in 2009. We report experimental results and experience gained in the first phase of commissioning, including the photocathode drive laser, rf gun, photocathode, S-band and X-band rf systems, first bunch compressor, and the various beam diagnostics.

  12. String cavitation formation inside fuel injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, B. A.; Gavaises, M.; Mitroglou, N.; Hargrave, G. K.; Garner, C. P.; McDavid, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    The formation of vortex or ‘string’ cavitation has been visualised at pressures up to 2000 bar in an automotive-sized optical diesel fuel injector nozzle. The multi-hole nozzle geometry studied allowed observation of the hole-to-hole vortex interaction and, in particular, that of a bridging vortex in the sac region between the holes. Above a threshold Reynolds number, their formation and appearance during a 2 ms injection event was repeatable and independent of upstream pressure and cavitation number. In addition, two different hole layouts and threedimensional flow simulations have been employed to describe how, the relative positions of adjacent holes influenced the formation and hole-to-hole interaction of the observed string cavitation vortices, with good agreement between the experimental and simulation results being achieved.

  13. The JET multi-pellet injector launcher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupschus, P.; Bailey, W.; Gadeberg, M.; Hedley, L.; Twyman, P.; Szabo, T.; Evans, D.

    1987-01-01

    Under a collaborative agreement between the Joint European Torus JET and the United States Department of Energy US DOE, JET and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) jointly built a multi-pellet injector for fuelling and re-fuelling of the JET plasma. A three-barrel repetitive pneumatic pellet Launcher - built by ORNL - is attached to a JET pellet launcher-machine interface (in short: Pellet Interface) which is the subject of this paper. The present Launcher-Interface combination provides deuterium or hydrogen injection at moderate pellet speeds for the next two operational periods on JET. The Pellet Interface, however, takes into account the future requirements of JET. It was designed to allow the attachment of the high speed pellet launchers now under development at JET and complies with the requirements of remote handling and tritium operation. In addition, the use of tritium pellets is being considered

  14. Injector upgrade for the S-DALINAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuerzeder, Thorsten; Brunken, Marco; Conrad, Jens; Eichhorn, Ralf; Graef, Hans-Dieter; Richter, Achim; Sievers, Sven [Institut fuer Kernphysik, TU Darmstadt (Germany); Ackermann, Wolfgang; Mueller, Wolfgang F.O.; Steiner, Bastian; Weiland, Thomas [Institut fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder, TU Darmstadt (Germany); Fuerst, Joel [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne (United States)

    2009-07-01

    The injector section of the S-DALINAC currently delivers beams of up to 10 MeV w ith a current of up to 60{mu}A. The upgrade aims to increase both parameters to 14 MeV and 150{mu}A in order to allow more demanding experiments. Therefor e, a modified cryostat module equipped with two new cavities is required. Due to an increase in rf power to 2 kW the old coaxial rf input couplers, being design ed for a maximum power of 500 W, have to be replaced by new waveguide couplers. We review the design principles and report on the fabrication of the cavities an d the whole module.

  15. Understanding the removal mechanisms of PPCPs and the influence of main technological parameters in anaerobic UASB and aerobic CAS reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarino, T.; Suarez, S.; Lema, J.M.; Omil, F.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Removals of 16 PPCPs under aerobic and anaerobic conditions were quantified. • Operation conditions (HRT, v up , biomass activity and conformation) influenced removal. • Highest removals associated to aerobic biodegradation. • Sorption was only relevant for lipophilic compounds in the UASB reactor. - Abstract: The removal of 16 Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) were studied in a conventional activated sludge (CAS) unit and an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. Special attention was paid to each biomass conformation and activity as well as to operational conditions. Biodegradation was the main PPCP removal mechanism, being higher removals achieved under aerobic conditions, except in the case of sulfamethoxazole and trimetrophim. Under anaerobic conditions, PPCP biodegradation was correlated with the methanogenic rate, while in the aerobic reactor a relationship with nitrification was found. Sorption onto sludge was influenced by biomass conformation, being only significant for musk fragrances in the UASB reactor, in which an increase of the upward velocity and hydraulic retention time improved this removal. Additionally, PPCP sorption increased with time in the UASB reactor, due to the granular biomass structure which suggests the existence of intra-molecular diffusion

  16. Understanding the removal mechanisms of PPCPs and the influence of main technological parameters in anaerobic UASB and aerobic CAS reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarino, T., E-mail: teresa.alvarino@usc.es; Suarez, S., E-mail: Sonia.suarez@usc.es; Lema, J.M., E-mail: juan.lema@usc.es; Omil, F., E-mail: francisco.omil@usc.es

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Removals of 16 PPCPs under aerobic and anaerobic conditions were quantified. • Operation conditions (HRT, v{sub up}, biomass activity and conformation) influenced removal. • Highest removals associated to aerobic biodegradation. • Sorption was only relevant for lipophilic compounds in the UASB reactor. - Abstract: The removal of 16 Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) were studied in a conventional activated sludge (CAS) unit and an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. Special attention was paid to each biomass conformation and activity as well as to operational conditions. Biodegradation was the main PPCP removal mechanism, being higher removals achieved under aerobic conditions, except in the case of sulfamethoxazole and trimetrophim. Under anaerobic conditions, PPCP biodegradation was correlated with the methanogenic rate, while in the aerobic reactor a relationship with nitrification was found. Sorption onto sludge was influenced by biomass conformation, being only significant for musk fragrances in the UASB reactor, in which an increase of the upward velocity and hydraulic retention time improved this removal. Additionally, PPCP sorption increased with time in the UASB reactor, due to the granular biomass structure which suggests the existence of intra-molecular diffusion.

  17. Spray Modeling for Outwardly-Opening Hollow-Cone Injector

    KAUST Repository

    Sim, Jaeheon

    2016-04-05

    The outwardly-opening piezoelectric injector is gaining popularity as a high efficient spray injector due to its precise control of the spray. However, few modeling studies have been reported on these promising injectors. Furthermore, traditional linear instability sheet atomization (LISA) model was originally developed for pressure swirl hollow-cone injectors with moderate spray angle and toroidal ligament breakups. Therefore, it is not appropriate for the outwardly-opening injectors having wide spray angles and string-like film structures. In this study, a new spray injection modeling was proposed for outwardly-opening hollow-cone injector. The injection velocities are computed from the given mass flow rate and injection pressure instead of ambiguous annular nozzle geometry. The modified Kelvin-Helmholtz and Rayleigh-Taylor (KH-RT) breakup model is used with adjusted initial Sauter mean diameter (SMD) for modeling breakup of string-like structure. Spray injection was modeled using a Lagrangian discrete parcel method within the framework of commercial CFD software CONVERGE, and the new model was implemented through the user-defined functions. A Siemens outwardly-opening hollow-cone spray injector was characterized and validated with existing experimental data at the injection pressure of 100 bar. It was found that the collision modeling becomes important in the current injector because of dense spray near nozzle. The injection distribution model showed insignificant effects on spray due to small initial droplets. It was demonstrated that the new model can predict the liquid penetration length and local SMD with improved accuracy for the injector under study.

  18. A Neutral Beam Injector Upgrade for NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, T.; McCormack, B.; Loesser, G.D.; Kalish, M.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Grisham, L.; Edwards, J.; Cropper, M.; Rossi, G.; Halle, A. von; Williams, M.

    2002-01-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) capability with a Neutral Beam Injector (NBI) capable of 80 kiloelectronvolt (keV), 5 Megawatt (MW), 5 second operation. This 5.95 million dollar upgrade reused a previous generation injector and equipment for technical, cost, and schedule reasons to obtain these specifications while retaining a legacy capability of 120 keV neutral particle beam delivery for shorter pulse lengths for possible future NSTX experiments. Concerns with NBI injection included power deposition in the plasma, aiming angles from the fixed NBI fan array, density profiles and beam shine through, orbit losses of beam particles, and protection of the vacuum vessel wall against beam impingement. The upgrade made use of the beamline and cryo panels from the Neutral Beam Test Stand facility, existing power supplies and controls, beamline components and equipment not contaminated by tritium during DT [deuterium-tritium] experiments, and a liquid Helium refrigerator plant to power and cryogenically pump a beamline and three ion sources. All of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) ion sources had been contaminated with tritium, so a refurbishment effort was undertaken on selected TFTR sources to rid the three sources destined for the NSTX NBI of as much tritium as possible. An interconnecting duct was fabricated using some spare and some new components to attach the beamline to the NSTX vacuum vessel. Internal vacuum vessel armor using carbon tiles was added to protect the stainless steel vacuum vessel from beam impingement in the absence of plasma and interlock failure. To date, the NBI has operated to 80 keV and 5 MW and has injected requested power levels into NSTX plasmas with good initial results, including high beta and strong heating characteristics at full rated plasma current

  19. ILSE-ESQ injector scaled experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henestroza, E.; Eylon, S.; Yu, S.; Grote, D.

    1993-05-01

    A 2 MeV, 800 mA, K + injector for the Heavy Ion Fusion Induction Linac Systems Experiments (ISLE) is under development at LBL. It consists of a 500 keV-1MeV diode preinjector followed by an electrostatic quadrupole accelerator (ESQ). One of the key issues for the ESQ centers around the control of beam aberrations due to the ''energy effect'': in a strong electrostatic quadrupole field, ions at beam edge will have energies very different from those on the axis. The resulting kinematic distortions lead to S-shaped phase spaces, which, if uncorrected, will lead eventually to emittance growth. These beam aberrations can be minimized by increasing the injection energy and/or strengthening the beam focusing. It may also be possible to compensate for the ''energy effect'' by proper shaping of the quadrupoles electrodes. In order to check the physics of the ''energy effect'' of the ESQ design a scaled experiment has been designed that will accommodate the parameters of the source, as well as the voltage limitations, of the Single Beam Transport Experiment (SBTE). Since the 500 keV pre-injector delivers a 4 cm converging beam, a quarter-scale experiment will fit the 1 cm converging beam of the SBTE source. Also, a 10 mA beam in SBTE, and the requirement of equal perveance in both systems, forces all the voltages to scale down by a factor 0.054. Results from this experiment and corresponding 3D PIC simulations will be presented

  20. Simulation of transient effects in the heavy ion fusion injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.J.; Hewett, D.

    1993-01-01

    The authors have used the 2-D PIC code, GYMNOS, to study the transient behaviors in the Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) injectors. GYMNOS simulations accurately provide the steady state Child-Langmuir current and the beam transient behavior within a planar diode. The simulations of the LBL HIF ESAC injector experiments agree well with the experimental data and EGUN steady state results. Simulations of the nominal HIF injectors have revealed the need to design the accelerating electrodes carefully to control the ion beam current, particularly the ion loss at the end of the bunch as the extraction voltage is reduced

  1. Simulation of transient effects in the heavy ion fusion injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Hewett, D. W.

    1993-05-01

    We have used the 2-D PIC code, GYMNOS, to study the transient behaviors in the Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) injectors. GYMNOS simulations accurately provide the steady state Child-Langmuir current and the beam transient behavior within a planar diode. The simulations of the LBL HIF ESAC injector experiments agree well with the experimental data and EGUN steady state results. Simulations of the nominal HIF injectors have revealed the need to design the accelerating electrodes carefully to control the ion beam current, particularly the ion loss at the end of the bunch as the extraction voltage is reduced.

  2. Power supplies for the injector synchrotron quadrupoles and sextupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathizadeh, M.

    1995-01-01

    This light source note will describe the power supplies for the injector synchrotron quadrupole and sextupole magnets. The injector synchrotron has two families of quadrupole magnets. Each family consists of 40 quadrupole magnets connected in series. These magnets are energized by two phase-controlled, 12-pulse power supplies. Therefore, each power supply will be rated to deliver the necessary power to only 40 quadrupole magnets. The two families of sextupole magnets in the injector synchrotron each consists of 32 sextupole magnets connected in series, powered by a phase-controlled power supply. Thus, each power supply shall be capable of delivering power to only 32 sextupole magnets

  3. High-Average, High-Peak Current Injector Design

    CERN Document Server

    Biedron, S G; Virgo, M

    2005-01-01

    There is increasing interest in high-average-power (>100 kW), um-range FELs. These machines require high peak current (~1 kA), modest transverse emittance, and beam energies of ~100 MeV. High average currents (~1 A) place additional constraints on the design of the injector. We present a design for an injector intended to produce the required peak currents at the injector, eliminating the need for magnetic compression within the linac. This reduces the potential for beam quality degradation due to CSR and space charge effects within magnetic chicanes.

  4. Radon-safe new buildings, documentation and technology development. Main report; Radonsikring i nybyggeri, dokumentation og teknologiudvikling. Hovedrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breddam Overgaard, L.; Bruun Petersen, J.; Neerup Jeppesen, M.

    2011-07-01

    penetrations with silicone sealant is also the most effective method. In the study it is furthermore concluded that there is no immediate difference in the two radon cavity barrier solutions (above and below the slab). Subproject 3 (radon potential in soil). At an introductory level it has been attempted to survey the radon potential (the amount of radon released from the soil) at the location of the construction of the subproject 1 residential development. The main part of the study consisted of developing and testing a method of ''passive sampling'' by immersion of measuring equipment in 1 m deep drillings. In the study significant radon levels were demonstrated in soil containing tertiary clay (black, micaceous). In comparing the aforementioned passive approach with previous ''active measurements'', it is estimated that passive measurements obtain an approximate expression (average) of the radon level of the entire borehole profile, while soil gas extraction sampling merely expresses a concentration at a level specific point (x m below the surface). The evaluation of the study concluded that satisfactory results had been achieved. It would however be relevant to improve the setup for future follow-up studies (as with subproject 2), and conduct repeated measurements prior to final conclusions. (LN)

  5. Ignition Delay Properties of Alternative Fuels with Navy-Relevant Diesel Injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    nozzle tip. 8 Figure 3 EMD injector cross-sectional view, after [15]. c. Sturman Injector A Sturman research diesel injector was used to validate...PROPERTIES OF ALTERNATIVE FUELS WITH NAVY-RELEVANT DIESEL INJECTORS by Andrew J. Rydalch June 2014 Thesis Advisor: Christopher M. Brophy...Navy’s Green Fleet Initiative, this thesis researched the ignition characteristics for diesel replacement fuels used with Navy-relevant fuel injectors

  6. Diesel ignition delay and lift-off length through different methodologies using a multi-hole injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payri, Raúl; Salvador, F.J.; Manin, Julien; Viera, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Lift-off length and ignition delay are measured through different methodologies. • Oxygen concentration, temperature and injection pressure sweeps are performed. • A multi hole injector is compared with an equivalent single hole injector. • Multi hole injector has shorter ignition delay and lift-off length than single hole. • Empirical correlations were calculated for an analytical description of the results. - Abstract: In this paper, lift-off length has been measured via both broadband luminosity and OH chemiluminescence. In addition, ignition delay has also been measured via broadband chemiluminescence and Schlieren imaging. A 3 orifice injector from the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) set, referred to as Spray B, and a single component fuel (n-dodecane) was used. Experiments were carried out in a constant flow and pressure facility, that allowed to reproduce engine-like thermodynamic conditions, and enabled the study to be performed over a wide range of test conditions with a very high repetition rate. Data obtained was also compared with results from a single orifice injector also from the Engine Combustion Network, with analog orifice characteristics (90 μm outlet diameter and convergent shape) and technology as the injector used. Results showed that there is good correlation between the ignition delay measured through both methodologies, that oxygen concentration and injection pressure plays a minor role in the ignition delay, being ambient temperature and density the parameters with the highest influence. Lift-off length measurements showed significant differences between methodologies. Minor deviation was observed between injectors with different nozzle geometry (seat inclination angle), due to temperature variations along the chamber, highlighting the importance of temperature distribution along combustion vessels. Empirical correlations for lift-off and ignition delay were calculated, underlining the effect of the conditions on

  7. Progress in the study and construction of the TESLA test facility injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chehab, R.; Bernard, M.; Bourdon, J.C.; Garvey, T. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Lab. de l`Accelerateur Lineaire; Aune, B.; Desmons, M.; Fusellier, J.; Gougnaud, F. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. d`Astrophysique, de la Physique des Particules, de la Physique Nucleaire et de l`Instrumentation Associee; Buhler, S.; Junquera, T. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire] [and others

    1995-12-31

    A 500 MeV, 1.3 GHz superconducting linear accelerator is being studied and built to serve as a test facility for the TESLA linear collider project. The phase 1 injector consists of a 250 keV electron gun, buncher and a superconducting capture cavity at the main linac frequency. The main characteristics (intensity, position, emittance, bunch length, energy spread) are to be measured using different techniques. A particular effort will be made on the use of optical transition radiation (OTR) for the determination of the transverse beam emittance as well as the bunch length. (K.A.). 7 refs.

  8. Progress in the study and construction of the TESLA test facility injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chehab, R.; Bernard, M.; Bourdon, J.C.; Garvey, T.; Aune, B.; Desmons, M.; Fusellier, J.; Gougnaud, F.; Buhler, S.; Junquera, T.

    1995-01-01

    A 500 MeV, 1.3 GHz superconducting linear accelerator is being studied and built to serve as a test facility for the TESLA linear collider project. The phase 1 injector consists of a 250 keV electron gun, buncher and a superconducting capture cavity at the main linac frequency. The main characteristics (intensity, position, emittance, bunch length, energy spread) are to be measured using different techniques. A particular effort will be made on the use of optical transition radiation (OTR) for the determination of the transverse beam emittance as well as the bunch length. (K.A.)

  9. Participation of the national industry within a nuclear power plant program by technology transfer from the point of view of the main contractor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopp, H.

    1986-04-01

    The broad scope of components needed in a nuclear power plant with various technical requirements offer a big opportunity for the participation of local industries in the construction of such plants. Depending on the existing capability of the industrial enterprises, the scope of national participation can be increased by technology transfer on all technical areas to be applied for the construction of NPPs. Such technology requires as basis a nuclear program of the country determined and supported by the government and the utilities. This program has to be defined as realistic as even possible adjoined to the future energy demand of the country. Furthermore the available capability, existing qualifications and equipment of the national industry have to be considered. On the basis of these fundamental requirements a tailormade technology transfer program has to be elaborated in close cooperation with an experienced main contractor of the plant and his partners for such technology transfer and should be established afterwards. This program has to consider not only the goal to achieve finally the independent production of components and equipment for NPPs or the construction of complete power plant units itself, but also the economic benefit of such a program for the country. The costs of technology transfer and the necessary investment of the national industry required for the manufacture of nuclear components have to be thoroughly investigated, based on the expected scope of products to be manufactured for the nuclear power plants according to the nuclear program. Furthermore the application of the technology transferred for other components e.g. for conventional power stations, mineral-oil or chemical industrial plants has to be considered. By a tailormade nuclear technology transfer program, executed by qualified and experienced partners not only the quality of the products of the national industry for NPPs will be improved, but also the general standard regarding

  10. Numerical and experimental study of the beam dynamics of CANDELA photo-injector and associated instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devanz, Guillaume

    1999-01-01

    Laser triggered radiofrequency guns are the most luminous electron sources allowing to reach the performances requested by highly demanding applications like the e + /e - linear colliders and the short wave free electron lasers. CANDELA is a band S photo-injector triggered by a sub-picosecond laser. It allows reaching peak currents of hundred of amperes at average energies higher than 2 MeV. The original concept of two accelerating cavities aims at minimizing the transverse and longitudinal emittances following the Gao's principles. From practical reasons the operating parameters, particularly the laser pulse duration, do not correspond to those considered in the design. Hence, numerical simulations were performed to evaluate the gun's performances in experimental environment. The study of a stabile injector operation resulted in evolutions with consequences in the phase control systems implying the laser and the HF (Hyper Frequency) source. The beam transverse and longitudinal characteristics have been measured as a function of the main parameters i.e., the beam charge and the phase shift between the laser and the HF wave. Measurements of the transverse emittance energy dispersion and wave packed duration are presented for several injector configurations. The systems of existing beam measurements have been studied to determine the resolution and the experimental conditions to fulfill, in order to suggest improvements for the CANDELA beam. The experiments with the beam have been compared with numerical simulations. Agreement was obtained within wide ranges of parameters for most of the characteristic beam quantities

  11. Integrated numerical modeling of a laser gun injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H.; Benson, S.; Bisognano, J.; Liger, P.; Neil, G.; Neuffer, D.; Sinclair, C.; Yunn, B.

    1993-06-01

    CEBAF is planning to incorporate a laser gun injector into the linac front end as a high-charge cw source for a high-power free electron laser and nuclear physics. This injector consists of a DC laser gun, a buncher, a cryounit and a chicane. The performance of the injector is predicted based on integrated numerical modeling using POISSON, SUPERFISH and PARMELA. The point-by-point method incorporated into PARMELA by McDonald is chosen for space charge treatment. The concept of ''conditioning for final bunching'' is employed to vary several crucial parameters of the system for achieving highest peak current while maintaining low emittance and low energy spread. Extensive parameter variation studies show that the design will perform beyond the specifications for FEL operations aimed at industrial applications and fundamental scientific research. The calculation also shows that the injector will perform as an extremely bright cw electron source

  12. Design of injector section for SPring-8 linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Naoki; Mizuno, Akihiko; Suzuki, Shinsuke; Hori, Toshihiko; Yanagida, Kenichi; Mashiko, Katsuo; Yokomizo, Hideaki

    1993-07-01

    In the SPring-8, we are planning to use positrons in order to increase the beam life time in the storage-ring. For the injector linac, though high current beam production to yield positrons is alternative with accurate low current beam production for commissioning, we designed the injector section to achieve both of the high current mode and the low current mode. In this paper, overview of some simulation codes for the design of electron accelerators are described and the calculation results by TRACE for the injector section of the linac are shown. That is useful not only for the design of machines but for the selection of sensitive parameters to establish the good beam quality. Now the injector section, which is settled at Tokai Establishment, is arranged for the case of the performance check of the electron gun. And we present that the layout of this section is needed to be rearranged for the high current mode operation. (author)

  13. Beam dynamics studies of the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henestroza, E.; Yu, S.S.; Eylon, S.

    1995-04-01

    A driver-scale injector for the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator project has been built at LBL. This machine has exceeded the design goals of high voltage (> 2 MV), high current (> 0.8 A of K + ) and low normalized emittance (< 1 π mm-mr). The injector consists of a 750 keV diode pre-injector followed by an electrostatic quadrupole accelerator (ESQ) which provides strong (alternating gradient) focusing for the space-charge dominated beam and simultaneously accelerates the ions to 2 MeV. The fully 3-D PIC code WARP together with EGUN and POISSON were used to design the machine and analyze measurements of voltage, current and phase space distributions. A comparison between beam dynamics characteristics as measured for the injector and corresponding computer calculations will be presented

  14. High Brightness Injectors Based On Photocathode DC Gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B. Yunn

    2001-01-01

    Sample results of new injector design method based on a photocathode dc gun are presented, based on other work analytically proving the validity of the emittance compensation scheme for the case even when beam bunching is involved. We have designed several new injectors appropriate for different bunch charge ranges accordingly. Excellent beam quality produced by these injectors clearly shows that a photocathode dc gun can compete with a rf gun on an equal footing as the source of an electron beam for the bunch charge ranging up to 2 nano Coulomb (nC). This work therefore elevates a dc gun based injector to the preferred choice for many ongoing high brightness accelerator projects considering the proven operational stability and high average power capability of the dc gun

  15. Numerical determination of injector design for high beam quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    The performance of a free electron laser strongly depends on the electron beam quality or brightness. The electron beam is transported into the free electron laser after it has been accelerated to the desired energy. Typically the maximum beam brightness produced by an accelerator is constrained by the beam brightness deliverd by the accelerator injector. Thus it is important to design the accelerator injector to yield the required electron beam brightness. The DPC (Darwin Particle Code) computer code has been written to numerically model accelerator injectors. DPC solves for the transport of a beam from emission through acceleration up to the full energy of the injector. The relativistic force equation is solved to determine particle orbits. Field equations are solved for self consistent electric and magnetic fields in the Darwin approximation. DPC has been used to investigate the beam quality consequences of A-K gap, accelerating stress, electrode configuration and axial magnetic field profile

  16. A suite of diagnostics to validate and optimize the prototype ITER neutral beam injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualotto, R.; Agostini, M.; Barbisan, M.; Brombin, M.; Cavazzana, R.; Croci, G.; Dalla Palma, M.; Delogu, R. S.; De Muri, M.; Muraro, A.; Peruzzo, S.; Pimazzoni, A.; Pomaro, N.; Rebai, M.; Rizzolo, A.; Sartori, E.; Serianni, G.; Spagnolo, S.; Spolaore, M.; Tardocchi, M.; Zaniol, B.; Zaupa, M.

    2017-10-01

    The ITER project requires additional heating provided by two neutral beam injectors using 40 A negative deuterium ions accelerated at 1 MV. As the beam requirements have never been experimentally met, a test facility is under construction at Consorzio RFX, which hosts two experiments: SPIDER, full-size 100 kV ion source prototype, and MITICA, 1 MeV full-size ITER injector prototype. Since diagnostics in ITER injectors will be mainly limited to thermocouples, due to neutron and gamma radiation and to limited access, it is crucial to thoroughly investigate and characterize in more accessible experiments the key parameters of source plasma and beam, using several complementary diagnostics assisted by modelling. In SPIDER and MITICA the ion source parameters will be measured by optical emission spectroscopy, electrostatic probes, cavity ring down spectroscopy for H^- density and laser absorption spectroscopy for cesium density. Measurements over multiple lines-of-sight will provide the spatial distribution of the parameters over the source extension. The beam profile uniformity and its divergence are studied with beam emission spectroscopy, complemented by visible tomography and neutron imaging, which are novel techniques, while an instrumented calorimeter based on custom unidirectional carbon fiber composite tiles observed by infrared cameras will measure the beam footprint on short pulses with the highest spatial resolution. All heated components will be monitored with thermocouples: as these will likely be the only measurements available in ITER injectors, their capabilities will be investigated by comparison with other techniques. SPIDER and MITICA diagnostics are described in the present paper with a focus on their rationale, key solutions and most original and effective implementations.

  17. Design of an electron injector for multi-stages laser wakefield acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audet, T.

    2016-01-01

    Laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) is a particle acceleration process relying on the interaction between high intensity laser pulses, of the order of 10 18 W/cm 2 and a plasma. The plasma wave generated in the laser wake sustain high amplitude electric fields (1- 100 GV/m). Those electric fields are 3 orders of magnitude higher than maximum electric fields in radio frequency cavities and represent the main benefit of LWFA, allowing more compact acceleration. However improvements of the LWFA-produced electron bunches properties, stability and repetition rate are mandatory for LWFA to be usable for applications. A scheme to improve electron bunches properties and to potentially increase the repetition rate is multi-stage LWFA. The laser plasma electron source, called the injector, has to produce relatively low energy (50 - 100 MeV), but high charge, small size and low divergence electron bunches. Produced electron bunches then have to be transported and injected into a second stage to increase electron kinetic energy. The subject of this thesis is to study and design a laser wakefield electron injector for multistage LWFA. In the frame of CILEX and the two-stages LWFA program, a prototype of the injector was built : ELISA consisting in a variable length gas cell. The plasma electronic density, which is a critical parameter for the control of the electron bunches properties, was characterized both experimentally and numerically. ELISA was used at 2 different laser facilities and physical mechanisms linked to electron bunches properties were studied in function of experimental parameters. A range of experimental parameters suitable for a laser wakefield injector was determined. A magnetic transport and diagnostic line was also built, implemented and tested at the UHI100 laser facility of the CEA Saclay. It allowed a more precise characterization of electron bunches generated with ELISA as well as an estimation of the quality of transported electron bunches for their

  18. Calculation of the beam injector steering system using Helmholtz coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passaro, A.; Sircilli Neto, F.; Migliano, A.C.C.

    1991-03-01

    In this work, a preliminary evaluation of the beam injector steering system of the IEAv electron linac is presented. From the existing injector configuration and with the assumptions of monoenergetic beam (100 keV) and uniform magnetic field, two pairs of Helmholtz coils were calculated for the steering system. Excitations of 105 A.turn and 37 A.turn were determined for the first and second coils, respectively. (author)

  19. Hydraulic Characterization of Diesel Engine Single-Hole Injectors

    OpenAIRE

    Arco Sola, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Due to world trend on the emission regulations and greater demand of fuel economy,the research on advanced diesel injector designs is a key factor for the next generation diesel engines. For that reason, it is well established that understanding the effects of the nozzle geometry on the spray development, fuel-air mixing, combustion and pollutants formation is of crucial importance to achieve these goals.In the present research, the influence of the injector nozzle geometry on the internalflo...

  20. Development of railgun pellet injector for nuclear fusion fueling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azuma, Kingo; Oda, Yasushi; Onozuka, Masanori.

    1996-01-01

    Recent fusion plasmas have become larger as fusion research progresses. This requires high-velocity solid-hydrogen pellet injection that is the most efficient fueling method. The application of the electro-magnetic railgun system for pellet injection is one of the most feasible technologies for accelerating a pellet to a high speed. The system consists of a pneumatic pre-accelerator for the first acceleration stage and a railgun for the second stage. The railgun is operated by a low voltage discharged from a pulse-forming-network power supply to accelerate a plasma armature between the rail electrodes. The plasma is induced by high-power laser beam irradiation. The highest velocity of a solid-hydrogen pellet obtained using the railgun was 2.6 km/s. This velocity is higher than the maximum pellet velocity of 2.3 km/s achieved by MHI's pneumatic pellet injector. It was also found that the pellet velocity could be controlled easily using railgun pellet injection. (author)

  1. Development of railgun pellet injector for nuclear fusion fueling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azuma, Kingo [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Takasago, Hyogo Takasago Research and Development Center (Japan); Oda, Yasushi; Onozuka, Masanori

    1996-03-01

    Recent fusion plasmas have become larger as fusion research progresses. This requires high-velocity solid-hydrogen pellet injection that is the most efficient fueling method. The application of the electro-magnetic railgun system for pellet injection is one of the most feasible technologies for accelerating a pellet to a high speed. The system consists of a pneumatic pre-accelerator for the first acceleration stage and a railgun for the second stage. The railgun is operated by a low voltage discharged from a pulse-forming-network power supply to accelerate a plasma armature between the rail electrodes. The plasma is induced by high-power laser beam irradiation. The highest velocity of a solid-hydrogen pellet obtained using the railgun was 2.6 km/s. This velocity is higher than the maximum pellet velocity of 2.3 km/s achieved by MHI`s pneumatic pellet injector. It was also found that the pellet velocity could be controlled easily using railgun pellet injection. (author).

  2. Real Time Flame Monitoring of Gasifier and Injectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelepouga, Serguei; Saveliev, Alexei

    2011-12-31

    This project is a multistage effort with the final goal to develop a practical and reliable nonintrusive gasifier injector monitor to assess burner wear and need for replacement. The project team included the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Gas Technology Institute (GTI), North Carolina State University, and ConocoPhillips. This report presents the results of the sensor development and testing initially at GTI combustion laboratory with natural gas flames, then at the Canada Energy Technology Center (CANMET), Canada in the atmospheric coal combustor as well as in the pilot scale pressurized entrained flow gasifier, and finally the sensor capabilities were demonstrated at the Pratt and Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) Gasifier and the Wabash River Repowering plant located in West Terre Haute, IN. The initial tests demonstrated that GTI gasifier sensor technology was capable of detecting shape and rich/lean properties of natural gas air/oxygen enriched air flames. The following testing at the Vertical Combustor Research Facility (VCRF) was a logical transition step from the atmospheric natural gas flames to pressurized coal gasification environment. The results of testing with atmospheric coal flames showed that light emitted by excited OH* and CH* radicals in coal/air flames can be detected and quantified. The maximum emission intensities of OH*, CH*, and black body (char combustion) occur at different axial positions along the flame length. Therefore, the excitation rates of CH* and OH* are distinct at different stages of coal combustion and can be utilized to identify and characterize processes which occur during coal combustion such as devolatilization, char heating and burning. To accomplish the goals set for Tasks 4 and 5, GTI utilized the CANMET Pressurized Entrained Flow Gasifier (PEFG). The testing parameters of the PEFG were selected to simulate optimum gasifier operation as well as gasifier conditions normally resulting from improper operation or

  3. SYSTEM AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY OF INSTALLATION THE MAIN DOMINANTS IN THE STUDENTS MOTIVATION FOR A CLOSED TASK OF DECISION-MAKING REGARDING ABSENTEEISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr V. Kamyshyn

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Developed the system and information technology of the construction the evaluation of the utility functions of absenteeism, which is the main dominant, namely the tendency, not being indifferent to risk. Of utility functions built 45th student air traffic controllers for the six academic subjects revealed ratio of students with different attitudes to risk. Risk appetite – the desire of the student play virtual lottery to minimize absenteeism. Students are indifferent to risk, that is, with «linear» attitude to attendance, are only 18,52 %, indicating a need to develop special educational measures for the individualization of learning.

  4. RF Photoelectric injectors using needle cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewellen, J.W.; Brau, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    Photocathode RF guns, in various configurations, are the injectors of choice for both current and future applications requiring high-brightness electron beams. Many of these applications, such as single-pass free-electron lasers, require beams with high brilliance but not necessarily high charge per bunch. Field-enhanced photoelectric emission has demonstrated electron-beam current density as high as 10 10 A/m 2 , with a quantum efficiency in the UV that approaches 10% at fields on the order of 10 10 V/m. Thus, the use of even a blunt needle holds promise for increasing cathode quantum efficiency without sacrificing robustness. We present an initial study on the use of needle cathodes in photoinjectors to enhance beam brightness while reducing beam charge. Benefits include lower drive-laser power requirements, easier multibunch operation, lower emittance, and lower beam degradation due to charge-dependent effects in the postinjector accelerator. These benefits result from a combination of a smaller cathode emission area, greatly enhanced RF field strength at the cathode, and the charge scaling of detrimental postinjector linac effects, e.g., transverse wakefields and CSR

  5. RF Photoelectric injectors using needle cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewellen, J. W.; Brau, C. A.

    2003-07-01

    Photocathode RF guns, in various configurations, are the injectors of choice for both current and future applications requiring high-brightness electron beams. Many of these applications, such as single-pass free-electron lasers, require beams with high brilliance but not necessarily high charge per bunch. Field-enhanced photoelectric emission has demonstrated electron-beam current density as high as 10 10 A/m 2, with a quantum efficiency in the UV that approaches 10% at fields on the order of 10 10 V/m. Thus, the use of even a blunt needle holds promise for increasing cathode quantum efficiency without sacrificing robustness. We present an initial study on the use of needle cathodes in photoinjectors to enhance beam brightness while reducing beam charge. Benefits include lower drive-laser power requirements, easier multibunch operation, lower emittance, and lower beam degradation due to charge-dependent effects in the postinjector accelerator. These benefits result from a combination of a smaller cathode emission area, greatly enhanced RF field strength at the cathode, and the charge scaling of detrimental postinjector linac effects, e.g., transverse wakefields and CSR.

  6. Electrothermal plasma gun as a pellet injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kincaid, R.W.; Bourham, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    The NCSU electrothermal plasma gun SIRENS has been used to accelerate plastic (Lexan polycarbonate) pellets, to determine the feasibility of the use of electrothermal guns as pellet injectors. The use of an electrothermal gun to inject frozen hydrogenic pellets requires a mechanism to provide protective shells (sabots) for shielding the pellet from ablation during acceleration into and through the barrel of the gun. The gun has been modified to accommodate acceleration of the plastic pellets using special acceleration barrels equipped with diagnostics for velocity and position of the pellet, and targets to absorb the pellet's energy on impact. The length of the acceleration path could be varied between 15 and 45 cm. The discharge energy of the electrothermal gun ranged from 2 to 6 kJ. The pellet velocities have been measured via a set of break wires. Pellet masses were varied between 0.5 and 1.0 grams. Preliminary results on 0.5 and 1.0 g pellets show that the exit velocity reaches 0.9 km/s at 6 kJ input energy to the source. Higher velocities of 1.5 and 2.7 km/s have been achieved using 0.5 and 1.0 gm pellets in 30 cm long barrel, without cleaning the barrel between the shots

  7. Performance of the LHC Pre-Injectors

    CERN Document Server

    Benedikt, Michael; Chanel, M; Garoby, R; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Hancock, S; Martini, M; Métral, Elias; Métral, G; Schindl, Karlheinz; Vallet, J L

    2001-01-01

    The LHC pre-injector complex, comprising Linac 2, the PS Booster (PSB) and the PS, has undergone a major upgrade in order to meet the very stringent requirements of the LHC. Whereas bunches with the nominal spacing and transverse beam brightness were already available from the PS in 1999 [1], their length proved to be outside tolerance due to a debunching procedure plagued by microwave instabilities. An alternative scenario was then proposed, based on a series of bunch-splitting steps in the PS. The entire process has recently been implemented successfully, and beams whose longitudinal characteristics are safely inside LHC specifications are now routinely available. Variants of the method also enable bunch trains with gaps of different lengths to be generated. These are of interest for the study and possible cure of electron cloud effects in both the SPS and LHC. The paper summarizes the beam dynamics issues that had to be addressed to produce beams with all the requisite qualities for the LHC.

  8. Ion source operating at the Unilac injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, M.; Jacoby, W.

    1977-01-01

    The Unilac injection velocity (v = 0.005 X c) and the maximum potential difference between ion source and ground (320 kV) limit positive ion acceleration to a specific charge of not less than 0.0336 (corresponding to 238 U 8+ ). Ion sources qualified for the Unilac must be able to produce a charge spectrum with high intensities in the required charge states (1 - 10 particle μA). This requirement is satisfied for all elements by the Dubna type heated cathode penning ion source. Obviously, for isotopes of low natural abundance high beam currents can only be produced by employing enriched isotopes as feeding materials. Presently the injector is equipped with one penning ion source and one duoplasmatron ion source. 90% of the noble gas ions are provided by the duoplasmatron ion source, whereas ion beams of solids are exclusively furnished by the penning source. In particular, this latter source is well suited and highly developped for producing ion beams from solids by means of the sputtering process. In the future, however, we intend to produce metal ions up to a mass of 100 by a sputter version of the duoplasmatron. (orig.) [de

  9. Recent progress in photo-injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Zvi, I.

    1996-10-01

    In photoinjector electron guns, electrons are emitted from a photocathode by a short laser pulse and then accelerated by intense RF fields in a resonant cavity. Photoinjectors are very versatile tools. Normally we think of them in terms of the production of high electron density in 6-D phase space, for reasons such as injection to laser accelerators, generation of x-rays by Compton scattering and short wavelength FELs. Another example for the use of photo-injectors is the production of a high charge in a short time, for wake- field acceleration, two-beam accelerators and high-power, long-wavelength FELs. There are other potential uses, such as the generation of polarized electrons, compact accelerators for industrial applications and more. Photoinjectors are in operation in many electron accelerator facilities and a large number of new guns are under construction. The purpose of this work is to present some trend setting recent results that have been obtained in some of these laboratories. In particular the subjects of high density in 6-D phase space, new diagnostic tools, photocathode advances and high-charge production will be discussed

  10. Streamlined Darwin methods for particle beam injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, J.K.

    1987-01-01

    Physics issues that involve inductive effects, such as beam fluctuations, electromagnetic (EM) instability, or interactions with a cavity require a time-dependent simulation. The most elaborate time-dependent codes self-consistently solve Maxwell's equations and the force equation for a large number of macroparticles. Although these full EM particle-in-cell (PIC) codes have been used to study a broad range of phenomena, including beam injectors, they have several drawbacks. In an explicit solution of Maxwell's equations, the time step is restricted by a Courant condition. A second disadvantage is the production of anomalously large numerical fluctuations, caused by representing many real particles by a single computational macroparticle. Last, approximate models of internal boundaries can create nonphysical radiation in a full EM simulation. In this work, many of the problems of a fully electromagnetic simulation are avoided by using the Darwin field model. The Darwin field model is the magnetoinductive limit of Maxwell's equations, and it retains the first-order relativistic correction to the particle Lagrangian. It includes the part of the displacement current necessary to satisfy the charge-continuity equation. This feature is important for simulation of nonneutral beams. Because the Darwin model does not include the solenoidal vector component of the displacement current, it cannot be used to study high-frequency phenomena or effects caused by rapid current changes. However, because wave motion is not followed, the Courant condition of a fully electromagnetic code can be exceeded. In addition, inductive effects are modeled without creating nonphysical radiation

  11. LHC Injectors Upgrade (LIU) Project at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Shaposhnikova, Elena; Damerau, Heiko; Funken, Anne; Gilardoni, Simone; Goddard, Brennan; Hanke, Klaus; Kobzeva, Lelyzaveta; Lombardi, Alessandra; Manglunki, Django; Mataguez, Simon; Meddahi, Malika; Mikulec, Bettina; Rumolo, Giovanni; Scrivens, Richard; Vretenar, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    A massive improvement program of the LHC injector chain is presently being conducted under the LIU project. For the proton chain, this includes the replacement of Linac2 with Linac4 as well as all necessary upgrades to the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB), the Proton Synchrotron (PS) and Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS), aimed at producing beams with the challenging High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) parameters. Regarding the heavy ions, plans to improve the performance of Linac3 and the Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR) are also pursued under the general LIU program. The full LHC injection chain returned to operation after Long Shutdown 1, with extended beam studies taking place in Run 2. A general project Cost and Schedule Review also took place in March 2015, and several dedicated LIU project reviews were held to address issues awaiting pending decisions. In view of these developments, 2014 and 2015 have been key years to define a number of important aspects of the final LIU path. This paper will describe the reviewed LI...

  12. Micro-injector for capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáiz, Jorge; Koenka, Israel Joel; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Müller, Beat; Chwalek, Thomas; Hauser, Peter C

    2015-08-01

    A novel micro-injector for capillary electrophoresis for the handling of samples with volumes down to as little as 300 nL was designed and built in our laboratory for analyses in which the available volume is a limitation. The sample is placed into a small cavity located directly in front of the separation capillary, and the injection is then carried out automatically by controlled pressurization of the chamber with compressed air. The system also allows automated flushing of the injection chamber as well as of the capillary. In a trial with a capillary electrophoresis system with contactless conductivity detector, employing a capillary of 25 μm diameter, the results showed good stability of migration times and peak areas. To illustrate the technique, the fast separation of five inorganic cations (Na(+) , K(+) , NH4 (+) , Ca(2+) , and Mg(2+) ) was set up. This could be achieved in less than 3 min, with good limits of detection (10 μM) and linear ranges (between about 10 and 1000 μM). The system was demonstrated for the determination of the inorganic cations in porewater samples of a lake sediment core. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Tritium proof-of-principle pellet injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, P.W.

    1991-07-01

    The tritium proof-of-principle (TPOP) experiment was designed and built by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to demonstrate the formation and acceleration of the world's first tritium pellets for fueling of future fusion reactors. The experiment was first used to produce hydrogen and deuterium pellets at ORNL. It was then moved to the Tritium Systems Test Assembly at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the production of tritium pellets. The injector used in situ condensation to produce cylindrical pellets in a 1-m-long, 4-mm-ID barrel. A cryogenic 3 He separator, which was an integral part of the gun assembly, was capable of lowering 3 He levels in the feed gas to <0.005%. The experiment was housed to a glovebox for tritium containment. Nearly 1500 pellets were produced during the course of the experiment, and about a third of these were pure tritium or mixtures of deuterium and tritium. Over 100 kCi of tritium was processed through the experiment without incident. Tritium pellet velocities of 1400 m/s were achieved with high-pressure hydrogen propellant. The design, operation, and results of this experiment are summarized. 34 refs., 44 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Accelerator technology working group summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameson, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    A summary is presented of workshop deliberations on basic scaling, the economic viability of laser drive power for HEP accelerators, the availability of electron beam injectors for near-term experiments, and a few very general remarks on technology issues

  15. Main Memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Boncz (Peter); L. Liu (Lei); M. Tamer Özsu

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractPrimary storage, presently known as main memory, is the largest memory directly accessible to the CPU in the prevalent Von Neumann model and stores both data and instructions (program code). The CPU continuously reads instructions stored there and executes them. It is also called Random

  16. Impact of palm biodiesel blend on injector deposit formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liaquat, A.M.; Masjuki, H.H.; Kalam, M.A.; Fazal, M.A.; Khan, Abdul Faheem; Fayaz, H.; Varman, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • 250 h Endurance test on 2 fuel samples; diesel fuel and PB20. • Visual inspection of injectors running on DF and PB20 showed deposit accumulation. • SEM and EDS analysis showed less injector deposits for DF compared to PB20 blend. • Engine oil analysis showed higher value of wear particles for PB20 compared to DF. - Abstract: During short term engine operation, renewable fuels derived from vegetable oils, are capable of providing good engine performance. In more extended operations, some of the same fuels can cause degradation of engine performance, excessive carbon and lacquer deposits and actual damage to the engine. Moreover, temperatures in the area of the injector tip due to advanced diesel injection systems may lead to particularly stubborn deposits at and around the injector tip. In this research, an endurance test was carried out for 250 h on 2 fuel samples; DF (diesel fuel) as baseline and PB20 (20% palm biodiesel and 80% DF) in a single cylinder CI engine. The effects of DF and PB20 on injector nozzle deposits, engine lubricating oil, and fuel economy and exhaust emissions were investigated. According to the results of the investigation, visual inspection showed some deposit accumulation on injectors during running on both fuels. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis showed greater carbon deposits on and around the injector tip for PB20 compared to the engine running with DF. Similarly, lubricating oil analysis presented excessive wear metal concentrations, decreased viscosity and increased density values when the engine was fuelled with PB20. Finally, fuel economy and emission results during the endurance test showed higher brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) and NO x emissions, and lower HC and CO emissions, for the PB20 blend compared to DF

  17. Main Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Boncz, Peter; Liu, Lei; Özsu, M.

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractPrimary storage, presently known as main memory, is the largest memory directly accessible to the CPU in the prevalent Von Neumann model and stores both data and instructions (program code). The CPU continuously reads instructions stored there and executes them. It is also called Random Access Memory (RAM), to indicate that load/store instructions can access data at any location at the same cost, is usually implemented using DRAM chips, which are connected to the CPU and other per...

  18. Time-resolved fuel injector flow characterisation based on 3D laser Doppler vibrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crua, Cyril; Heikal, Morgan R.

    2014-12-01

    Hydrodynamic turbulence and cavitation are known to play a significant role in high-pressure atomizers, but the small geometries and extreme operating conditions hinder the understanding of the flow’s characteristics. Diesel internal flow experiments are generally conducted using x-ray techniques or on transparent, and often enlarged, nozzles with different orifice geometries and surface roughness to those found in production injectors. In order to enable investigations of the fuel flow inside unmodified injectors, we have developed a new experimental approach to measure time-resolved vibration spectra of diesel nozzles using a 3D laser vibrometer. The technique we propose is based on the triangulation of the vibrometer and fuel pressure transducer signals, and enables the quantitative characterisation of quasi-cyclic internal flows without requiring modifications to the injector, the working fluid, or limiting the fuel injection pressure. The vibrometer, which uses the Doppler effect to measure the velocity of a vibrating object, was used to scan injector nozzle tips during the injection event. The data were processed using a discrete Fourier transform to provide time-resolved spectra for valve-closed-orifice, minisac and microsac nozzle geometries, and injection pressures ranging from 60 to 160 MPa, hence offering unprecedented insight into cyclic cavitation and internal mechanical dynamic processes. A peak was consistently found in the spectrograms between 6 and 7.5 kHz for all nozzles and injection pressures. Further evidence of a similar spectral peak was obtained from the fuel pressure transducer and a needle lift sensor mounted into the injector body. Evidence of propagation of the nozzle oscillations to the liquid sprays was obtained by recording high-speed videos of the near-nozzle diesel jet, and computing the fast Fourier transform for a number of pixel locations at the interface of the jets. This 6-7.5 kHz frequency peak is proposed to be the

  19. Time-resolved fuel injector flow characterisation based on 3D laser Doppler vibrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crua, Cyril; Heikal, Morgan R

    2014-01-01

    Hydrodynamic turbulence and cavitation are known to play a significant role in high-pressure atomizers, but the small geometries and extreme operating conditions hinder the understanding of the flow’s characteristics. Diesel internal flow experiments are generally conducted using x-ray techniques or on transparent, and often enlarged, nozzles with different orifice geometries and surface roughness to those found in production injectors. In order to enable investigations of the fuel flow inside unmodified injectors, we have developed a new experimental approach to measure time-resolved vibration spectra of diesel nozzles using a 3D laser vibrometer. The technique we propose is based on the triangulation of the vibrometer and fuel pressure transducer signals, and enables the quantitative characterisation of quasi-cyclic internal flows without requiring modifications to the injector, the working fluid, or limiting the fuel injection pressure. The vibrometer, which uses the Doppler effect to measure the velocity of a vibrating object, was used to scan injector nozzle tips during the injection event. The data were processed using a discrete Fourier transform to provide time-resolved spectra for valve-closed-orifice, minisac and microsac nozzle geometries, and injection pressures ranging from 60 to 160 MPa, hence offering unprecedented insight into cyclic cavitation and internal mechanical dynamic processes. A peak was consistently found in the spectrograms between 6 and 7.5 kHz for all nozzles and injection pressures. Further evidence of a similar spectral peak was obtained from the fuel pressure transducer and a needle lift sensor mounted into the injector body. Evidence of propagation of the nozzle oscillations to the liquid sprays was obtained by recording high-speed videos of the near-nozzle diesel jet, and computing the fast Fourier transform for a number of pixel locations at the interface of the jets. This 6–7.5 kHz frequency peak is proposed to be the

  20. Achromatic beam transport of High Current Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Sarvesh; Mandal, A.

    2016-01-01

    The high current injector (HCI) provides intense ion beams of high charge state using a high temperature superconducting ECR ion source. The ion beam is accelerated upto a final energy of 1.8 MeV/u due to an electrostatic potential, a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) and a drift tube linac (DTL). The ion beam has to be transported to superconducting LINAC which is around 50 m away from DTL. This section is termed as high energy beam transport section (HEBT) and is used to match the beam both in transverse and longitudinal phase space to the entrance of LINAC. The HEBT section is made up of four 90 deg. achromatic bends and interconnecting magnetic quadrupole triplets. Two RF bunchers have been used for longitudinal phase matching to the LINAC. The ion optical design of HEBT section has been simulated using different beam dynamics codes like TRACEWIN, GICOSY and TRACE 3D. The field computation code OPERA 3D has been utilized for hardware design of all the magnets. All the dipole and quadrupole magnets have been field mapped and their test results such as edge angles measurements, homogeneity and harmonic analysis etc. are reported. The whole design of HEBT section has been performed such that the most of the beam optical components share same hardware design and there is ample space for beam diagnostics as per geometry of the building. Many combination of achromatic bends have been simulated to transport the beam in HEBT section but finally the four 90 deg. achromatic bend configuration is found to be the best satisfying all the geometrical constraints with simplified beam tuning process in real time

  1. Upgrade of the GSI-Unilac as a FAIR high current injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haehnel, Hendrik [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Goethe Universitaet Frankfurt (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The existing UNIversal Linear Accelerator (UNILAC) at GSI will serve as ion and dedicated uranium ion injector for the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR). For nominal FAIR operation, 15 emA of Uranium 28+ at low emittances have to be injected by multiturn-injection into FAIR. To meet these requirements and to ensure reliable operation, the UNILAC will undergo a significant upgrade process. Upgrade measures concerning key accelerator components are described and a main focus is put on a replacement of the 54m Alvarez-section by a compact IH-DTL. This will open new options for future injection schemes into SIS100.

  2. Space Charge Effects for the ERL Prototype Injector Line at Daresbury Laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Muratori, Bruno; Owen, Hywel; de Loos, Marieke; van der Geer, Bas

    2005-01-01

    Daresbury Laboratory is currently building an Energy Recovery Linac Prototype (ERLP) that will operate at a beam energy of 35 MeV. In this paper we examine the space charge effects on the beam dynamics in the ERLP injector line. A Gaussian particle distribution is tracked with GPT (General Particle Tracer) through the injection line to the main linac to calculate the effect of 3Dspace charge in the dipoles. The nominal beam energy in the injection line is 8.3 MeV and the bunch charge 80 pC. The effects of space charge on the transverse and longitudinal emittance are studied for various electron beam parameter settings.

  3. Using one-dimensional modeling to analyze the influence of the use of biodiesels on the dynamic behavior of solenoid-operated injectors in common rail systems: Results of the simulations and discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvador, F.J.; Gimeno, J.; De la Morena, J.; Carreres, M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Effect of using diesel or biodiesel on injector hydraulic behavior has been analyzed. ► Single and main + post injections have been studied for different injection pressures. ► Higher viscosity affects needle dynamics, especially for low injection pressure. ► The post injection masses are lower for biodiesel fuel despite its higher density. ► Modified injector has been proposed to compensate the differences between the fuels. - Abstract: The influence of using biodiesel fuels on the hydraulic behavior of a solenoid operated common rail injection system has been explored by means of a one-dimensional model. This model has been previously obtained, including a complete characterization of the different components of the injector (mainly the nozzle, the injector holder and the electrovalve), and extensively validated by means of mass flow rate results under different conditions. After that, both single and multiple injection strategies have been analyzed, using a standard diesel fuel and rapeseed methyl ester (RME) as working fluids. Single long injections allowed the characterization of the hydraulic delay of the injector, the needle dynamics and the discharge capability of the couple injector-nozzle for the two fuels considered. Meanwhile, the effect of biodiesel on main plus post injection strategies has been evaluated in several aspects, such as the separation of the two injections or the effect of the main injection on the post injection fueling. Finally, a modification in the injector hardware has been proposed in order to have similar performances using biodiesel as the original injector configuration using standard diesel fuel.

  4. Diesel Engine Convert to Port Injection CNG Engine Using Gaseous Injector Nozzle Multi Holes Geometries Improvement: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Semin; Abdul R. Ismail; Rosli A. Bakar

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to review the previous research in the development of gaseous fuel injector for port injection CNG engine converted from diesel engine. Problem statement: The regular development of internal combustion engines change direction to answer the two most important problems determining the development trends of engines technology and in particular, their combustion systems. They were environmental protection against emission and noise, shortage of hydrocarbon fuels, ...

  5. Laser ignition of a multi-injector LOX/methane combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börner, Michael; Manfletti, Chiara; Hardi, Justin; Suslov, Dmitry; Kroupa, Gerhard; Oschwald, Michael

    2018-06-01

    This paper reports the results of a test campaign of a laser-ignited combustion chamber with 15 shear coaxial injectors for the propellant combination LOX/methane. 259 ignition tests were performed for sea-level conditions. The igniter based on a monolithic ceramic laser system was directly attached to the combustion chamber and delivered 20 pulses with individual pulse energies of {33.2 ± 0.8 mJ } at 1064 nm wavelength and 2.3 ns FWHM pulse length. The applicability, reliability, and reusability of this ignition technology are demonstrated and the associated challenges during the start-up process induced by the oxygen two-phase flow are formulated. The ignition quality and pressure dynamics are evaluated using 14 dynamic pressure sensors distributed both azimuthally and axially along the combustion chamber wall. The influence of test sequencing on the ignition process is briefly discussed and the relevance of the injection timing of the propellants for the ignition process is described. The flame anchoring and stabilization process, as monitored using an optical probe system close to the injector faceplate connected to photomultiplier elements, is presented. For some of the ignition tests, non-uniform anchoring was detected with no influence onto the anchoring at steady-state conditions. The non-uniform anchoring can be explained by the inhomogeneous, transient injection of the two-phase flow of oxygen across the faceplate. This characteristic is verified by liquid nitrogen cold flow tests that were recorded by high-speed imaging. We conclude that by adapting the ignition sequence, laser ignition by optical breakdown of the propellants within the shear layer of a coaxial shear injector is a reliable ignition technology for LOX/methane combustors without significant over-pressure levels.

  6. Laser ignition of a multi-injector LOX/methane combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börner, Michael; Manfletti, Chiara; Hardi, Justin; Suslov, Dmitry; Kroupa, Gerhard; Oschwald, Michael

    2018-02-01

    This paper reports the results of a test campaign of a laser-ignited combustion chamber with 15 shear coaxial injectors for the propellant combination LOX/methane. 259 ignition tests were performed for sea-level conditions. The igniter based on a monolithic ceramic laser system was directly attached to the combustion chamber and delivered 20 pulses with individual pulse energies of {33.2 ± 0.8 mJ } at 1064 nm wavelength and 2.3 ns FWHM pulse length. The applicability, reliability, and reusability of this ignition technology are demonstrated and the associated challenges during the start-up process induced by the oxygen two-phase flow are formulated. The ignition quality and pressure dynamics are evaluated using 14 dynamic pressure sensors distributed both azimuthally and axially along the combustion chamber wall. The influence of test sequencing on the ignition process is briefly discussed and the relevance of the injection timing of the propellants for the ignition process is described. The flame anchoring and stabilization process, as monitored using an optical probe system close to the injector faceplate connected to photomultiplier elements, is presented. For some of the ignition tests, non-uniform anchoring was detected with no influence onto the anchoring at steady-state conditions. The non-uniform anchoring can be explained by the inhomogeneous, transient injection of the two-phase flow of oxygen across the faceplate. This characteristic is verified by liquid nitrogen cold flow tests that were recorded by high-speed imaging. We conclude that by adapting the ignition sequence, laser ignition by optical breakdown of the propellants within the shear layer of a coaxial shear injector is a reliable ignition technology for LOX/methane combustors without significant over-pressure levels.

  7. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging contrast media injectors: technical feature review – what is really needed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friebe M

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Michael Friebe Institute of Medical Engineering, Otto-von-Guericke-University, Magdeburg, Germany Abstract: There has been little technical innovation over the last few years for contrast media (CM injectors that are used for diagnostic imaging (computed tomography [CT], magnetic resonance imaging [MRI], and hybrid imaging systems, such as positron emission tomography–CT or magnetic resonance–positron emission tomography examinations. The medical need of CM for the enhancement of diagnostic images has been around for a long time, but the application of the CM into the blood stream comes with potential medical complications for the patient and requires a lot of operator experience and training. Most power injector systems that are currently used can do significantly more than what is typically required; this complexity however, adds error potential and cost. This paper focuses on the main features that CM injector systems should have and highlights the technical developments that are useful to have but which add complexity and cost, increase setup time, and require intensive training for safe use. CM injection protocols are very different between CT and MRI, with CT requiring many more variances, has a need for multiphase protocols, and requires a higher timing accuracy. A CM injector used in the MRI suite, on the other-hand, could only need a relatively time insensitive injection with a standard injection flow rate and a volume that is dependent on the patients’ weight. This would make easy and lightweight systems possible, which are able to safely and accurately perform the injection task, while allowing full MRI compatibility with relatively low cost investment and consumable costs. Keywords: power injector, contrast media injection, injection protocols, MRI compatibility

  8. How far from correct is the use of adrenaline auto-injectors? A survey in Italian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridolo, Erminia; Montagni, Marcello; Bonzano, Laura; Savi, Eleonora; Peveri, Silvia; Costantino, Maria Teresa; Crivellaro, Mariangiola; Manzotti, Giuseppina; Lombardi, Carlo; Caminati, Marco; Incorvaia, Cristoforo; Senna, Gianenrico

    2015-12-01

    Self-administered adrenaline through an auto-injector is the main out-of-hospital treatment for anaphylaxis, and patients should be trained to promptly and correctly use the device. The aim of the study was to verify the proper use of the device and the correct drug administration, and to identify possible misuse by patients. In seven Italian Allergy clinics, patients who were previously provided with self-injectable adrenaline were recruited at the follow-up visit required for the renewal of their prescription. All patients completed a questionnaire covering details of their allergic reactions, and knowledge of the device. The correct use was verified by the physician using a trainer with a four-step examination. 242 patients were included; 46 patients (18 %) did not always carry the auto-injector, and 35 patients (14 %) reported situations in which they were doubtful about whether to use adrenaline. Only 39 % of patients properly managed the device, while some patients (6 %) failed in all four steps. The majority of patients considered it appropriate to use adrenaline at the onset of respiratory symptoms (56 %). The factor most closely related to proper use of the device was the education of the patient (p = 0.03), while age and the time from first prescription did not affect the ability to properly use the auto-injector. Even though accurate training is conducted, many patients are still unable to properly use the adrenaline auto-injector in case of anaphylaxis. Allergists should review the instructions provided to the patients every time a renewal of the auto-injector is prescribed.

  9. First operation of the ATLAS positive-ion injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardo, R.C.; Bollinger, L.M.; Shephard, K.W.; Billquist, P.J.; Bogaty, J.M.; Clifft, B.E.; Harkewicz, R.; Munson, F.H.; Nolen, J.A.; Zinkann, G.P.

    1992-01-01

    The construction of the ATLAS Positive-Ion Injector (PII) is complete and beam acceleration tests are underway. The PII consists of an ECR ion source, on a high-voltage platform, providing beam to a low-velocity-acceptance, independently-phased, superconducting linac. This injector enables the ATLAS facility to accelerate any heavy ion, including uranium, to energies in excess of the Coulomb barrier. The design accelerating field performance has been exceeded, with an average accelerating field of approximately 3.2 MV/m achieved in early tests. Initial beam tests of the entire injector indicate that all important performance goals have been met. This paper describes the results of these early tests and discusses our initial operating experience with the whole ATLAS system. (Author) 5 refs., tab., fig

  10. Extraction septum magnet for the SSRL SPEAR injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerino, J.; Baltay, M.; Boyce, R.; Harris, S.; Hettel, R.; Horton, M.; Zuo, K.

    1991-01-01

    The Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) successfully commissioned a 3-3.5 GeV electron injector for the SPEAR Storage Ring during 1990. The Injector operates at a 10 Hz repetition rate and accelerates ∼ 10 10 electrons per second for extraction and transport to SPEAR. The extraction septum magnet is a pulsed Lambertson type which, for reasons of economy, was constructed from the same laminations which form 1/2 of an Injector booster synchrotron dipole magnet core block. The excitation coil also utilizes a design in common with the pulse chokes of the booster magnet circuit. The septum magnet is pulsed by an SCR controlled resonant LC circuit with a resonant frequency of 30 Hz

  11. Hollow-Wall Heat Shield for Fuel Injector Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Russell B. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    A fuel injector component includes a body, an elongate void and a plurality of bores. The body has a first surface and a second surface. The elongate void is enclosed by the body and is integrally formed between portions of the body defining the first surface and the second surface. The plurality of bores extends into the second surface to intersect the elongate void. A process for making a fuel injector component includes building an injector component body having a void and a plurality of ports connected to the void using an additive manufacturing process that utilizes a powdered building material, and removing residual powdered building material from void through the plurality of ports.

  12. Tritium pellet injector design for tokamak fusion test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, P.W.; Baylor, L.R.; Bryan, W.E.

    1985-01-01

    A tritium pellet injector (TPI) system has been designed for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) Q approx. 1 phase of operation. The injector gun utilizes a radial design with eight independent barrels and a common extruder to minimize tritium inventory. The injection line contains guide tubes with intermediate vacuum pumping stations and fast valves to minimize propellant leakage to the torus. The vacuum system is designed for tritium compatibility. The entire injector system is contained in a glove box for secondary containment protection against tritium release. Failure modes and effects have been analyzed, and structural analysis has been performed for most intense predicted earthquake conditions. Details of the design and operation of this system are presented in this paper

  13. Heavy-Ion Injector for the High Current Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieniosek, F. M.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan, J. W.; Prost, L.; Seidl, P.

    2001-10-01

    We report on progress in development of the Heavy-Ion Injector at LBNL, which is being prepared for use as an injector for the High Current Experiment (HCX). It is composed of a 10-cm-diameter surface ionization source, an extraction diode, and an electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) accelerator, with a typical operating current of 0.6 A of potassium ions at 1.8 MeV, and a beam pulse length of 4.5 microsecs. We have improved the Injector equipment and diagnostics, and have characterized the source emission and radial beam profiles at the diode and ESQ regions. We find improved agreement with EGUN predictions, and improved compatibility with the downstream matching section. Plans are to attach the matching section and the initial ESQ transport section of HCX. Results will be presented and compared with EGUN and WARP simulations.

  14. First operation of the ATLAS Positive-Ion Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardo, R.C.; Bollinger, L.M.; Shepard, K.W.; Billquist, P.J.; Bogaty, J.M.; Clifft, B.E.; Harkewicz, R.; Munson, F.H.; Nolen, J.A.; Zinkann, G.P.

    1992-01-01

    The construction of the ATLAS Positive-Ion Injector (PII) is complete and beam acceleration tests are underway. The PII consists of an ECR ion source, on a high-voltage platform, providing beam to a low-velocity-acceptance, independently-phased, superconducting linac. This injector enables the ATLAS facility to accelerate any heavy ion, including uranium, to energies in excess of the Coulomb barrier. The design accelerating field performance has been exceeded, with an average accelerating field of approximately 3.2 MV/m achieved in early tests. Initial beam tests of the entire injector indicate tat all important performance goals have been met. This paper describes the results of these early tests and discusses our initial operating experience with the whole ATLAS system

  15. Platelet injectors for Space Shuttle orbit maneuvering engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, R. C.; Labotz, R. J.; Bassham, L. B.

    1974-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbit Maneuvering Subsystem Rocket Engine employs a platelet element injector concept. This injector has demonstrated 316-sec vacuum specific impulse performance under simulated altitude conditions when tested with a milled slot/electroformed nickel close-out regenerative chamber and a full 71 area ratio nozzle. To date, over 300 altitude engine tests and 300 stability bomb tests have demonstrated stable, erosion free operation with this concept to test durations of 150 seconds. The injector and chamber also meet the reusable requirements of the shuttle with a cycle life capability in excess of 1000 cycles. An extensive altitude restart program has also demonstrated OMS-engine operation over large variations in the burn and coast times with helium saturated propellants.

  16. Shielding calculations for the TFTR neutral beam injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoro, R.T.; Lillie, R.A.; Alsmiller, R.G. Jr.; Barnes, J.M.

    1979-07-01

    Two-dimensional discrete ordinates calculations have been performed to determine the location and thickness of concrete shielding around the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) neutral beam injectors. Two sets of calculations were performed: one to determine the dose equivalent rate on the roof and walls of the test cell building when no injectors are present, and one to determine the contribution to the dose equivalent rate at these locations from radiation streaming through the injection duct. Shielding the side and rear of the neutral beam injector with 0.305 and 0.61 m of concrete, respectively, and lining the inside of the test cell wall with an additional layer of concrete having a thickness of 0.305 m and a height above the axis of deuteron injection of 3.10 m are sufficient to maintain the biological dose equivalent rate outside the test cell to approx. 1 mrem/DT pulse

  17. Pneumatic injector of deuterium macroparticles for TORE-SUPRA tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinyar, I.V.; Umov, A.P.; Lukin, A.Ya.; Skoblikov, S.V.; Reznichenko, P.V.; Krasil'nikov, I.A.

    2006-01-01

    The pneumatic injector for periodic injection of fuel-solid-deuterium pellets into the plasma of the TORE-SUPRA tokamak in a steady-state mode is described. The deuterium pellet injection with an unlimited duration is ensured by a screw extruder in which gaseous deuterium is frozen and squeezed outwards in the form of a rod with a rectangular cross section. A cutter installed on the injector's barrel cuts a cylinder with a diameter of 2 mm and a length of 1.0-3.5 mm out from this rod. The movement of the cutter is controlled by a pulsed electromagnetic drive at a pulse repetition rate of 10 Hz. In the injector's barrel, a compressed gas accelerates a deuterium pellet to a velocity of 100-650 m/s [ru

  18. ELECTRON BEAM ION SOURCE PRE-INJECTOR DIGNOSTICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WILINSKI, M.; ALESSI, J.; BEEBE, E.; BELLAVIA, S.; PIKIN, A.

    2006-01-01

    A new ion pre-injector line is currently under design at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL,). Collectively, this new line is referred to as the EBIS project. This pre-injector is based on an Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), a Radio Frequency Quadrupole (R-FQ) accelerator, and a linear accelerator. The new EBIS will be able to produce a wide range of heavy ion species as well as rapidly switching between species. To aid in operation of the pre-injector line, a suite of diagnostics is currently proposed which includes faraday cups, current transformers, profile monitors, and a pepperpot emittance measurement device

  19. Final design of the beam source for the MITICA injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcuzzi, D., E-mail: diego.marcuzzi@igi.cnr.it; Agostinetti, P.; Dalla Palma, M.; De Muri, M.; Chitarin, G.; Gambetta, G.; Marconato, N.; Pasqualotto, R.; Pavei, M.; Pilan, N.; Rizzolo, A.; Serianni, G.; Toigo, V.; Trevisan, L.; Visentin, M.; Zaccaria, P.; Zaupa, M. [Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti, 4, I-35127 Padova (Italy); Boilson, D.; Graceffa, J.; Hemsworth, R. S. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance (France); and others

    2016-02-15

    The megavolt ITER injector and concept advancement experiment is the prototype and the test bed of the ITER heating and current drive neutral beam injectors, currently in the final design phase, in view of the installation in Padova Research on Injector Megavolt Accelerated facility in Padova, Italy. The beam source is the key component of the system, as its goal is the generation of the 1 MeV accelerated beam of deuterium or hydrogen negative ions. This paper presents the highlights of the latest developments for the finalization of the MITICA beam source design, together with a description of the most recent analyses and R&D activities carried out in support of the design.

  20. Experimental and numerical investigation of a porous fuel injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reijnders, J.

    2009-03-15

    Diesel engines are the most fuel efficient engines for transportation. However the details of the mixing and combustion process in the cylinders result in relatively high emissions of soot. In his graduation work the author developed a new type of fuel injection system for Diesel engines. The injection from the developed porous injector nozzle can be regarded as the limiting case of injection from very many, very small holes. Furthermore it is expected that the improved combustion characteristics yielded much less soot emissions. After the computational determination of an optimal geometry for the porous nozzle, experiments have been performed. The results of the prototypes showed a rather homogeneous hemispherical spray shape. The author conducted tests that showed that the mass flow, at constant pressure, of the porous injector is higher than the conventional one. This means that the pressure can be set lower or injection time can be shortened. A patent is applied and obtained for this innovative injector.

  1. ANALYSIS AND PARAMETRIC OPTIMIZATION OF ENERGY-AND-TECHNOLOGY UNITS ON THE BASIS OF THE POWER EQUIPMENT OF COMPRESSOR PLANTS OF MAIN GAS PIPELINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Sednin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the gas compressor units of compressor plants of a main gas pipeline mathematical models of the macro-level were generated for analysis and parametric optimization of combined energy-and-technology units. In continuation of the study these models was applied to obtain the regression dependencies. For this purpose, a numerical experiment was used which had been designed with the use of regression analysis mathematical tool, which assumes that the test results should represent independent, normally distributed, random variables with approximately equal variance. Herewith we study the dependence of the optimization criterion on the value of control parameters (factors. Planning, conducting and processing of results of the experiment was conducted in the following sequence: choice of the optimization criteria, selection of control parameters (factors, encoding factors, the matrix of experiment compiling, assessing significance of regression coefficients, testing the adequacy of the model and reproducibility of the experiments. As the optimization criteria the electricity capacity and efficiency of combined energy-technology units were adopted. As control parameters for the installation with a gas-expansion-and-generator machine the temperature of the fuel gas before the expander, the pressure of the fuel gas after the expander and the temperature of the air supplied to the compressor of the engine were adopted, while for the steam turbine the adopted optimization criteria were compression in the compressor of the engine, the steam consumption for the technology and the temperature of the air supplied to the compressor of the engine. The application of the outlined methodological approach makes it possible to obtain a simple polynomial dependence, which significantly simplify the procedures of analysis, parametric optimization and evaluation of efficiency in the feasibility studies of the options of construction of the energy

  2. DARHT-II Injector Transients and the Ferrite Damper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldron, Will; Reginato, Lou; Chow, Ken; Houck, Tim; Henestroza, Enrique; Yu, Simon; Kang, Michael; Briggs, Richard

    2006-08-04

    This report summarizes the transient response of the DARHT-II Injector and the design of the ferrite damper. Initial commissioning of the injector revealed a rise time excited 7.8 MHz oscillation on the diode voltage and stalk current leading to a 7.8 MHz modulation of the beam current, position, and energy. Commissioning also revealed that the use of the crowbar to decrease the voltage fall time excited a spectrum of radio frequency modes which caused concern that there might be significant transient RF electric field stresses imposed on the high voltage column insulators. Based on the experience of damping the induction cell RF modes with ferrite, the concept of a ferrite damper was developed to address the crowbar-excited oscillations as well as the rise-time-excited 7.8 MHz oscillations. After the Project decided to discontinue the use of the crowbar, further development of the concept focused exclusively on damping the oscillations excited by the rise time. The design was completed and the ferrite damper was installed in the DARHT-II Injector in February 2006. The organization of this report is as follows. The suite of injector diagnostics are described in Section 2. The data and modeling of the injector transients excited on the rise-time and also by the crowbar are discussed in Section 3; the objective is a concise summary of the present state of understanding. The design of the ferrite damper, and the small scale circuit simulations used to evaluate the ferrite material options and select the key design parameters like the cross sectional area and the optimum gap width, are presented in Section 4. The details of the mechanical design and the installation of the ferrite damper are covered in Section 5. A brief summary of the performance of the ferrite damper following its installation in the injector is presented in Section 6.

  3. Manufacturing of the full size prototype of the ion source for the ITER neutral beam injector – The SPIDER beam source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavei, Mauro, E-mail: mauro.pavei@igi.cnr.it [Consorzio RFX, C.so Stati Uniti 4, I-35127, Padova (Italy); Boilson, Deirdre [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Bonicelli, Tullio [Fusion for Energy, C/Joseph Pla 2, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Boury, Jacques [Thales Electron Devices, Velizy Villacoublay (France); Bush, Michael [Galvano-T GmbH, T, Raiffeisenstraße 8, 51570 Windeck (Germany); Ceracchi, Andrea; Faso, Diego [CECOM S.r.l., Via Tiburtina – Guidonia Montecelio, Roma (Italy); Graceffa, Joseph [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Heinemann, Bernd [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-85740 Garching (Germany); Hemsworth, Ronald [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Lievin, Christophe [Thales Electron Devices, Velizy Villacoublay (France); Marcuzzi, Diego [Consorzio RFX, C.so Stati Uniti 4, I-35127, Padova (Italy); Masiello, Antonio [Fusion for Energy, C/Joseph Pla 2, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Sczepaniak, Bernd [Galvano-T GmbH, T, Raiffeisenstraße 8, 51570 Windeck (Germany); Singh, Mahendrajit [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Toigo, Vanni; Zaccaria, Pierluigi [Consorzio RFX, C.so Stati Uniti 4, I-35127, Padova (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Negative ion sources are key components of neutral beam injectors for nuclear fusion. • The SPIDER experiment aims to optimize the negative ion source of MITICA and HNB. • The SPIDER Beam Source manufacturing is currently on-going. • Manufacturing and assembling technological issues encountered are presented. - Abstract: In ITER, each heating neutral beam injector (HNB) will deliver about 16.5 MW heating power by accelerating a 40 A deuterium negative ion beam up to the energy of 1 MeV. The ions are generated inside a caesiated negative ion source, where the injected H{sub 2}/D{sub 2} is ionized by a radio frequency electromagnetic field. The SPIDER test bed, currently being manufactured, is going to be the ion source test facility for the full size ion source of the HNBs and of the diagnostic neutral beam injector of ITER. The SPIDER beam source comprises an ion source with 8 radio-frequency drivers and a three-grid system, providing an overall acceleration up to energies of about 100 keV [1]. SPIDER represents a substantial step forward between the half ITER size ion source, which is currently being tested at the ELISE test bed in IPP-Garching, and the negative ion sources to be used on ITER, in terms of layout, dimensions and operating parameters. The SPIDER beam source will be housed inside a vacuum vessel which will be equipped with a beam dump and a graphite diagnostic calorimeter. The manufacturing design of the main parts of the SPIDER beam source has been completed and many of the tests on the prototypes have been successfully passed. The most complex parts, from the manufacturing point of view, of the ion source and the accelerator, developed by galvanic deposition of copper are being manufactured. The manufacturing phase will be completed within 2015, when the assembly of the device will start at the PRIMA site, in Padova (I). The paper describes the status of the procurement, the adaptations operated on the design of the beam

  4. Status of the positive ion injector for ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Hartog, P K; Benaroya, R; Bogaty, J M; Bollinger, L M; Clifft, B E; Craig, S L; Henderson, D; Markovich, P; Munson, F; Nixon, J M; Pardo, R C; Phillips, D; Shepard, K W; Tilbrook, I; Zinkann, G [Argonne National Lab., IL (USA). Physics Div.

    1989-04-01

    The positive ion injector project will replace a High Voltage Engineering Corp. model FN 9 MV tandem electrostatic accelerator as the injector into the ATLAS superconducting heavy ion linear accelerator. It consists of an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source on a 350-kV platform injecting into a linac of individually phased superconducting resonators which have been optimized for ions with velocities as low as {beta} = 0.009. The resulting combination will extend the useful mass range of ATLAS to projectiles as heavy as uranium, while increasing the beam currents available by a factor of 100. (orig.).

  5. Commissioning and operation of the nuclear physics injector at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koontz, R.F.; Iverson, R.; Leyer, G.K.; Miller, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The new Nuclear Physics Injector (NPI) approved for construction in October of 1983 was completed by September of 1984, and delivered short pulse beams for SPEAR ring checkout in mid-October. Long pulse beams of up to 1.6 microsecond length were also demonstrated. The paper describes the startup operation, reviews the performance characteristics, and discusses the beam transport optics used to deliver 1 to 4 GeV beams to nuclear physics experiments in End Station A. The SLAC Nuclear Physics Injector is in full operationexclamation

  6. Commissioning and operation of the nuclear physics injector at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koontz, R.F.; Miller, R.H.; Leger, G.K.; Iverson, R.

    1985-01-01

    The new Nuclear Physics Injector (NPI) approved for construction in October of 1983 was completed by September of 1984, and delivered short pulse beams for SPEAR ring checkout in mid-October. Long pulse beams of up to 1.6 microsecond length were also demonstrated. The paper describes the start-up operation, reviews the performance characteristics, and discusses the beam transport optics used to deliver 1 to 4 GeV beams to nuclear physics experiments in End Station A. The SLAC Nuclear Physics Injector is in full operation!

  7. A Compact Multi-Beamlets High Current Injector for HIFDrivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwan, J.W.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Grote, D.P.; Westenskow, G.A.

    2005-09-06

    Using curved electrodes in the injector, an array of converging beamlets can produce a beam with the envelope radius, convergence, and ellipticity matched to an electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) channel. Experimental results were in good quantitative agreement with simulation and have demonstrated the feasibility of this concept. The size of a driver-scale injector system using this approach will be several times smaller than the one designed using traditional single large-aperture beams, so the success of this experiment has significant economical and technical impacts on the architecture of heavy ion fusion (HIF) drivers.

  8. Injector modeling and achievement/maintenance of high brightness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, J.K.

    1985-10-01

    Viewgraphs for the workshop presentation are given. The presentation has three fundamental parts. In part one the need for numerical calculations is justified and the available computer codes are enumerated. The capabilities and features of the DPC computer code are the focal point in this section. In part two the injector design issues are discussed. These issues include such things as the beam optics and magnetic field profile. In part three the experimental results of two injector designs are compared with DPC predictions. 8 figs

  9. Development of the 2-MV Injector for HIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieniosek, F.M. E-mail: fmbieniosek@lbl.gov; Kwan, J.W.; Henestroza, E.; Kim, C

    2001-05-21

    The 2-MV Injector consists of a 17-cm-diameter surface ionization source, an extraction diode, and an electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) accelerator, with maximum current of 0.8 A of potassium beam at 2 MeV. Previous performance of the Injector produced a beam with adequate current and emittance but with a hollow profile at the end of the ESQ section. We have examined the profile of the beam as it leaves the diode. The measured nonuniform beam density distribution qualitatively agrees with EGUN simulation. Implications for emittance growth in the post acceleration and transport phase will be investigated.

  10. Development of the 2-MV Injector for HIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieniosek, F. M.; Kwan, J. W.; Henestroza, E.; Kim, C.

    2001-05-01

    The 2-MV Injector consists of a 17-cm-diameter surface ionization source, an extraction diode, and an electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) accelerator, with maximum current of 0.8 A of potassium beam at 2 MeV. Previous performance of the Injector produced a beam with adequate current and emittance but with a hollow profile at the end of the ESQ section. We have examined the profile of the beam as it leaves the diode. The measured nonuniform beam density distribution qualitatively agrees with EGUN simulation. Implications for emittance growth in the post acceleration and transport phase will be investigated.

  11. Development of the 2-MV Injector for HIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieniosek, F.M.; Kwan, J.W.; Henestroza, E.; Kim, C.

    2001-01-01

    The 2-MV Injector consists of a 17-cm-diameter surface ionization source, an extraction diode, and an electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) accelerator, with maximum current of 0.8 A of potassium beam at 2 MeV. Previous performance of the Injector produced a beam with adequate current and emittance but with a hollow profile at the end of the ESQ section. We have examined the profile of the beam as it leaves the diode. The measured nonuniform beam density distribution qualitatively agrees with EGUN simulation. Implications for emittance growth in the post acceleration and transport phase will be investigated

  12. Development of the 2-MV injector for HIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieniosek, F.M.; Kwan, J.W.; Henestroza, E.; Kim, C.

    2000-01-01

    The 2-MV Injector consists of a 17-cm-diameter surface ionization source, an extraction diode, and an electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) accelerator, with maximum current of 0.8 A of potassium beam at 2 MeV. Previous performance of the Injector produced a beam with adequate current and emittance but with a hollow profile at the end of the ESQ section. We have examined the profile of the beam as it leaves the diode. The measured nonuniform beam density distribution qualitatively agrees with EGUN simulation. Implications for emittance growth in the post acceleration and transport phase will be investigated

  13. Status of the positive ion injector for ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Den Hartog, P.K.; Benaroya, R.; Bogaty, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The positive ion injector project will replace a High Voltage Engineering Corp. model FN 9 MV tandem electrostatic accelerator as the injector into the ATLAS superconducting heavy ion linear accelerator. It consists of an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source on a 350-kV platform injecting into a linac of individually phased superconducting resonators which have been optimized for ions with velocities as low as β = 0.009. The resulting combination will extend the useful mass range of ATLAS to projectiles as heavy as uranium, while increasing the beam currents available by a factor of 100. (2 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.)

  14. Development of a low swirl injector concept for gas turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, R.K.; Fable, S.A.; Schmidt, D; Arellano, L.; Smith, K.O.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a demonstration of a novel lean premixed low-swirl injector (LSI) concept for ultra-low NOx gas turbines. Low-swirl flame stabilization method is a recent discovery that is being applied to atmospheric heating equipment. Low-swirl burners are simple and support ultra-lean premixed flames that are less susceptible to combustion instabilities than conventional high-swirl designs. As a first step towards transferring this method to turbines, an injector modeled after the design of atmospheric low-swirl burner has been tested up to T=646 F and 10 atm and shows good promise for future development

  15. Injector spray characterization of methanol in reciprocating engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, L.; Naegeli, D.

    1994-06-01

    This report covers a study that addressed cold-starting problems in alcohol-fueled, spark-ignition engines by using fine-spray port-fuel injectors to inject fuel directly into the cylinder. This task included development and characterization of some very fine-spray, port-fuel injectors for a methanol-fueled spark-ignition engine. After determining the spray characteristics, a computational study was performed to estimate the evaporation rate of the methanol fuel spray under cold-starting and steady-state conditions.

  16. Plans for the upgrade of the LHC injectors

    CERN Document Server

    Garoby, R; Goddard, B; Hanke, K; Meddahi, M; Vretenar, M

    2011-01-01

    The LHC injectors upgrade (LIU) project has been launched at the end of 2010 to prepare the CERN accelerator complex for reliably providing beam with the challenging characteristics required by the high luminosity LHC until at least 2030. Based on the work already started on Linac4, PS Booster, PS and SPS, the LIU project coordinates studies and implementation, and interfaces with the high luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project which looks after the upgrade of the LHC itself, expected by the end of the present decade. The anticipated beam characteristics are described, as well as the status of the studies and the solutions envisaged for improving the injector performances.

  17. Development of a superconducting radio frequency photoelectron injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, A.; Buettig, H.; Janssen, D.; Kamps, T.; Klemz, G.; Lehmann, W.D.; Lehnert, U.; Lipka, D.; Marhauser, F.; Michel, P.; Moeller, K.; Murcek, P.; Schneider, Ch.; Schurig, R.; Staufenbiel, F.; Stephan, J.; Teichert, J.; Volkov, V.; Will, I.; Xiang, R.

    2007-01-01

    A superconducting radio frequency (RF) photoelectron injector (SRF gun) is under development at the Research Center Dresden-Rossendorf. This project aims mainly at replacing the present thermionic gun of the superconducting electron linac ELBE. Thereby the beam quality is greatly improved. Especially, the normalized transverse emittance can be reduced by up to one order of magnitude depending on the operating conditions. The length of the electron bunches will be shortened by about two orders of magnitude making the present bunchers in the injection beam line dispensable. The maximum obtainable bunch charge of the present thermionic gun amounts to 80pC. The SRF gun is designed to deliver also higher bunch charge values up to 2.5nC. Therefore, this gun can be used also for advanced facilities such as energy recovery linacs (ERLs) and soft X-ray FELs. The SRF gun is designed as a 312 cell cavity structure with three cells basically TESLA cells supplemented by a newly developed gun cell and a choke filter. The exit energy is projected to be 9.5MeV. In this paper, we present a description of the design of the SRF gun with special emphasis on the physical and technical problems arising from the necessity of integrating a photocathode into the superconducting cavity structure. Preparation, transfer, cooling and alignment of the photocathode are discussed. In designing the SRF gun cryostat for most components wherever possible the technical solutions were adapted from the ELBE cryostat in some cases with major modifications. As concerns the status of the project the design is finished, most parts are manufactured and the gun is being assembled. Some of the key components are tested in special test arrangements such as cavity warm tuning, cathode cooling, the mechanical behavior of the tuners and the effectiveness of the magnetic screening of the cavity

  18. Heavy-ion injector based on an electron cyclotron ion source for the superconducting linear accelerator of the Rare Isotope Science Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, In-Seok; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Choi, Bong-Hyuk; Choi, Suk-Jin; Park, Bum-Sik; Jin, Hyun-Chang; Kim, Hye-Jin; Heo, Jeong-Il; Kim, Deok-Min; Jang, Ji-Ho

    2016-02-01

    The injector for the main driver linear accelerator of the Rare Isotope Science Project in Korea, has been developed to allow heavy ions up to uranium to be delivered to the inflight fragmentation system. The critical components of the injector are the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources, the radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ), and matching systems for low and medium energy beams. We have built superconducting magnets for the ECR ion source, and a prototype with one segment of the RFQ structure, with the aim of developing a design that can satisfy our specifications, demonstrate stable operation, and prove results to compare the design simulation.

  19. Main findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Licensing regimes vary from country to country. When the license regime involves several regulators and several licenses, this may lead to complex situations. Identifying a leading organisation in charge of overall coordination including preparation of the licensing decision is a useful practice. Also, if a stepwise licensing process is implemented, it is important to fix in legislation decisions and/or time points and to identify the relevant actors. There is considerable experience in civil and mining engineering that can be applied when constructing a deep geological disposal facility. Specific challenges are, however, the minimization of disturbances to the host rock and the understanding of its long-term behavior. Construction activities may affect the geo-hydraulic and geochemical properties of the various system components which are important safety features of the repository system. Clearly defined technical specifications and an effective quality management plan are important in ensuring successful repository implementation which is consistent with safety requirements. Monitoring plan should also be defined in advance. The regulatory organization should prepare itself to the licensing review before construction by allocating sufficient resources. It should increase its competence, e.g., by interacting early with the implementer and through its own R and D. This will allow the regulator to define appropriate technical conditions associated to the construction license and to elaborate a relevant inspection plan of the construction work. After construction, obtaining the operational license is the most important and crucial step. Main challenges include (a) establishing sufficient confidence so that the methods for closing the individual disposal units comply with the safety objectives and (b) addressing the issue of ageing of materials during a 50-100 years operational period. This latter challenge is amplified when reversibility/retrievability is required

  20. Solution of some pumping problems in the injector vacuum system of the T-20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ershov, B.D.; Karasev, B.G.; Malyshev, I.F.; Saksaganskii, G.L.; Serbrennikov, D.V.; Sorokin, A.G.; Soikin, V.F.; Pustovoit, Yu.M.

    1978-09-01

    The fast neutral deuterium atom injection system in the T-20 includes 8 injectors. In the present paper an analysis is made of the vacuum system of the injectors with 160 keV rated fast atom energy, these being subjected to the largest gas loading. The pumping system for the 80 keV injectors is designed along similar lines. (UK)

  1. Influence of geometric and hydro-dynamic parameters of injector on calculation of spray characteristics of diesel engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The main role in air/fuel mixture formation at the IC diesel engines has the energy introduced by fuel into the IC engine that is the characteristics of spraying fuel into the combustion chamber. The characteristic can be defined by the spray length, the spray cone angle, the physical and the chemical structure of fuel spray by different sections. Having in mind very complex experimental setups for researching in this field, the mentioned characteristics are mostly analyzed by calculations. There are two methods in the literature, the first based on use of the semi-empirical expressions (correlations and the second, the calculations of spray characteristics by use of very complex mathematical methods. The second method is dominant in the modern literature. The main disadvantage of the calculation methods is a correct definition of real state at the end of the nozzle orifice (real boundary conditions. The majority of the researchers in this field use most frequently the coefficient of total losses inside the injector. This coefficient depends on injector design, as well as depends on the level of fuel energy and fuel energy transformation along the injector. Having in mind the importance of the real boundary conditions, the complex methods for calculation of the fuel spray characteristics should have the calculation of fuel flows inside the injector and the calculation of spray characteristics together. This approach is a very complex numerical problem and there are no existing computer programs with satisfactory calculation results. Analysis of spray characteristics by use of the semi-empirical expressions (correlations is presented in this paper. The special attention is dedicated to the analysis of the constant in the semi-empirical expressions and influence parameters on this constant. Also, the method for definition of realistic boundary condition at the end of the nozzle orifice is presented in the paper. By use of this method completely

  2. Investigation of the cavitation fluctuation characteristics in a Venturi injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yuncheng; Chen, Yan; Wang, Zijun; Zhou, Lingjiu; Yan, Haijun

    2015-01-01

    The suction flow rate in a Venturi injector increases to a maximum and appears to be unstable when critical cavitation occurs. This study analyzes changes in the cavitation length in high-speed videos of a Venturi injector with critical cavitation to find periodic fluctuations in the cavitation cloud. Pressure fluctuation measurements show a dominant low frequency fluctuation that is almost as large as the oscillation frequency seen visually for the same conditions. The variation of the cavitation numbers and the measured transient outlet pressure show that critical cavitation occurs in the Venturi injector when the peak-to-peak pressure difference is greater than a critical value. Moreover, when the cavitation numbers become very small in the cavitation areas, the peak-to-peak pressures begin to decrease. The relationship between the suction performance and the outlet pressure fluctuations has a significant inflection point which can be used to determine proper working conditions. These experimental statistics provide a pressure range based on the inlet and outlet pressures for which the improvement of suction performance will not substantially change the outlet pressure fluctuations. Both the high-speed photography and the pressure measurement show the periodic oscillations of the cavitation cloud in a Venturi injector and can be used to detect the occurrence of critical cavitation. (paper)

  3. Initial operation of the new bevatron local injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staples, J.; Dwinell, R.; Gough, R.

    1985-01-01

    Initial operational characteristics of a new Bevatron injector system are described. It is capable of providing an independent source of ions to the Bevatron through mass 40. The new injector consists of a sputter ion PIG source, operating on a 60 kV DC platform, an RFQ linac, and two Alvarez linacs, all operating at 199 MHz. Beams with q/A greater than or equal to 0.14 are accelerated to 200 keV/n in the RFQ and to 800 keV/n in the first Alvarez tank. Each Alvarez operates in the 2βlambda mode, and each is followed by a foil stripper. Beams with a q/A greater than or equal to 0.32 are accelerated through the second Alvarez to 5 MeV/n, fully stripped, and injected into the Bevatron. Because the Bevatron can be efficiently switched between this injector and the Super HILAC injector, a more efficient operations schedule is made possible to meet the increasingly diverse needs of the Biomedical and Nuclear Science research programs

  4. Study on thermal-hydraulic behavior in supersonic steam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Yutaka; Fukuichi, Akira; Kawamoto, Yujiro; Iwaki, Chikako; Narabayashi, Tadashi; Mori, Michitsugu; Ohmori, Shuichi

    2007-01-01

    Supersonic steam injector is the one of the most possible devices aiming at simplifying system and improving the safety and the credibility for next-generation nuclear reactor systems. The supersonic steam injector has dual functions of a passive jet pump without rotating machine and a compact and high efficiency heat exchanger, because it is operated by the direct contact condensation between supersonic steam and subcooled water jet. It is necessary to clarify the flow behavior in the supersonic steam injector which is governed by the complicated turbulent flow with a great shear stress of supersonic steam. However, in previous study, there is little study about the turbulent heat transfer and flow behavior under such a great shear stress at the gas-liquid interface. In the present study, turbulent flow behavior including the effect of the interface between water jet and supersonic steam is developed based on the eddy viscosity model. Radial velocity distributions and the turbulent heat transfer are calculated with the model. The calculation results are compared with the experimental results done with the transparent steam injector. (author)

  5. Initial operation of the new Bevatron local injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staples, J.; Dwinell, R.; Gough, R.

    1985-05-01

    Initial operational characteristics of a new Bevatron injector system are described. It is capable of providing an independent source of ions to the Bevatron through mass 40. The new injector consists of a sputter ion PIG source, operating on a 60 kV dc platform, an RFQ linac, and two Alvarez linacs, all operating at 199 MHz. Beams with q/A greater than or equal to 0.14 are accelerated to 200 keV/n in the RFQ and to 800 keV/n in the first Alvarez tank. Each Alvarez operates in the 2βlambda mode, and each is followed by a foil stripper. Beams with a q/A greater than or equal to 0.32 are accelerated through the second Alvarez to 5 MeV/n, fully stripped, and injected into the Bevatron. Because the Bevatron can be efficiently switched between this injector and the SuperHILAC injector, a more efficient operations schedule is made possible to meet the increasingly diverse needs of the Biomedical and Nuclear Science research programs. 5 refs

  6. An Injector for the CLIC Test Facility (CTF3)

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, H; Rinolfi, Louis; Zhou, F; Mouton, B; Miller, R; Yeremian, A D

    2000-01-01

    The CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) is an intermediate step to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the key concepts of the new RF power source for CLIC. CTF3 will use electron beams with an energy range adjustable from 170 MeV (3.5 A) to 380 MeV (with low current). The injector is based on a thermionic gun followed by a classical bunching system embedded in a long solenoidal field. As an alternative, an RF photo-injector is also being studied. The beam dynamics studies on how to reach the stringent beam parameters at the exit of the injector are presented. Simulations performed with the EGUN code showed that a current of 7 A can be obtained with an emittance less than 10 mm.mrad at the gun exit. PARMELA results are presented and compared to the requested beam performance at the injector exit. Sub-Harmonic Bunchers (SHB) are foreseen, to switch the phase of the bunch trains by 180 degrees from even to odd RF buckets. Specific issues of the thermionic gun and of the SHB with fast phase switch are discussed.

  7. An Injector for the CLIC Test Facility (CTF3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Roger H.

    2001-01-01

    The CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) is an intermediate step to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the key concepts of the new RF power source for CLIC. CTF3 will use electron beams with an energy range adjustable from 170 MeV (3.5 A) to 380 MeV (with low current). The injector is based on a thermionic gun followed by a classical bunching system embedded in a long solenoidal field. As an alternative, an RF photo-injector is also being studied. The beam dynamics studies on how to reach the stringent beam parameters at the exit of the injector are presented. Simulations performed with the EGUN code showed that a current of 7 A can be obtained with an emittance less than 10 mm.mrad at the gun exit. PARMELA results are presented and compared to the requested beam performance at the injector exit. Sub-Harmonic Bunchers (SHB) are foreseen, to switch the phase of the bunch trains by 180 degrees from even to odd RF buckets. Specific issues of the thermionic gun and of the SHB with fast phase switch are discussed

  8. An injector for the CLIC test Facility (CTF3)

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, Hans-Heinrich; Rinolfi, L.; Zhou, F.; Mouton, B.; Miller, R.; Yeremian, D.

    2008-01-01

    The CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) is an intermediate step to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the key concepts of the new RF power source for CLIC. CTF3 will use electron beams with an energy range adjustable from 170 MeV (3.5 A) to 380 MeV (with low current). The injector is based on a thermionic gun followed by a classical bunching system embedded in a long solenoidal field. As an alternative, an RF photo-injector is also being studied. The beam dynamics studies on how to reach the stringent beam parameters at the exit of the injector are presented. Simulations performed with the EGUN code showed that a current of 7 A can be obtained with an emittance less than 10 mm.mrad at the gun exit. PARMELA results are presented and compared to the requested beam performance at the injector exit. Sub-Harmonic Bunchers (SHB) are foreseen, to switch the phase of the bunch trains by 180 degrees from even to odd RF buckets. Specific issues of the thermionic gun and of the SHB with fast phase switch are discussed.

  9. Design of a tritium pellet injector for TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milora, S.L.; Gouge, M.J.; Fisher, P.W.; Combs, S.K.; Cole, M.J.; Wysor, R.B.; Fehling, D.T.; Foust, C.R.; Baylor, L.R.; Schmidt, G.L.; Barnes, G.W.; Persing, R.G.

    1991-01-01

    The TFTR tritium pellet injector (TPI) is designed to provide a tritium pellet fueling capability with pellet speeds in the 1- to 3 km/s-range for the TFTR D-T phase. The existing TFTR deuterium pellet injector is being modified at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to provide a fourshot, tritium-compatible, pipe-gun configuration with three upgraded single-stage pneumatic guns a two -stage light gas gun driver. The pipe gun concept has been qualified for tritium operation by the tritium proof-of-principle injector experiments conducted on the Tritium Systems Test Assembly at Los Alamos National Laboratory. In these experiments, tritium and D-T pellets were accelerated to speeds near 1.5 km/s. The TPI is being designed for pellet sizes in the range from 3.43 to 4.0 mm in diameter in arbitrarily programmable firing sequences at speeds up to approximately 1.5 km/s for the three single-stage drivers and 2.5 to 3 km/s for the two-stage driver. Injector operation will be controlled by a programmable logic controller. 7 refs., 4 figs

  10. Buried injector logic, a vertical IIL using deep ion implantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouthaan, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    A vertically integrated alternative for integrated injection logic has been realized, named buried injector logic (BIL). 1 MeV ion implantations are used to create buried layers. The vertical pnp and npn transistors have thin base regions and exhibit a limited charge accumulation if a gate is

  11. Characteristics of modified CT injector for JFT-2M

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumoto, N. [Himeji Institute of Technology, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2201 (Japan)]. E-mail: fukumoto@elct.eng.himeji-tech.ac.jp; Ogawa, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), 2-4 Shirakatashirane, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Nagata, M. [Himeji Institute of Technology, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2201 (Japan); Uyama, T. [Himeji Institute of Technology, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2201 (Japan); Shibata, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), 2-4 Shirakatashirane, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Kashiwa, Y. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), 2-4 Shirakatashirane, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Kusama, Y. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), 2-4 Shirakatashirane, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan)

    2004-10-01

    The HIT-CTI mark II compact toroid (CT) injector employed for the JFT-2M tokamak facility at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been upgraded to improve injection performance. The nozzle of the mark III injector now has a linear tube in place of the original focus cone to avoid rapid focus and deceleration, and the tapered outer electrode has been replaced with more gentle taper in the compression section in order to facilitate gradual compression. The dependence of CT velocity and electron density on poloidal bias flux and trigger time of CT acceleration have been investigated in the operable range of 70-230 km/s average CT velocity and electron density of 0.1-1.0 x 10{sup 22} m{sup -3} at an accelerator bank voltage of 25 kV. The operation window is broader than that of the mark II injector. Emission of a CT plasmoid from the injector, and transport to the flux conserver as a high-density spheromak magnetic structure have also been confirmed.

  12. Study on the characteristics of the supersonic steam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Yutaka; Shibayama, Shunsuke

    2014-01-01

    Steam injector is a passive jet pump which operates without power source or rotating machinery and it has high heat transfer performance due to the direct-contact condensation of supersonic steam flow onto subcooled water jet. It has been considered to be applied to the passive safety system for the next-generation nuclear power plants. The objective of the present study is to clarify operating mechanisms of the steam injector and to determine the operating ranges. In this study, temperature and velocity distribution in the mixing nozzle as well as flow directional pressure distribution were measured. In addition, flow structure in whole of the injector was observed with high-speed video camera. It was confirmed that there were unsteady interfacial behavior in mixing nozzle which enhanced heat transfer between steam flow and water jet with calculation of heat transfer coefficient. Discharge pressure at diffuser was also estimated with a one-dimensional model proposed previously. Furthermore, it was clarified that steam flow did not condense completely in mixing nozzle and it was two-phase flow in throat and diffuser, which seemed to induce shock wave. From those results, several discussions and suggestions to develop a physical model which predicts the steam injectors operating characteristics are described in this paper

  13. Deflecting cavity for beam diagnostics at Cornell ERL injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belomestnykh, Sergey; Bazarov, Ivan; Shemelin, Valery; Sikora, John; Smolenski, Karl; Veshcherevich, Vadim

    2010-01-01

    A single-cell, 1300-MHz, TM110-like mode vertically deflecting cavity is designed and built for beam slice emittance measurements, and to study the temporal response of negative electron affinity photocathodes in the ERL injector at Cornell University. We describe the cavity shape optimization procedure, RF and mechanical design, its performance with beam.

  14. Development of H2 pellet injectors for industrial marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visler, T.

    1988-09-01

    1. Discussion of the construction of injector installation at ETA-BETA II. 2. Production and experience with two different ''pipe-guns''. One for large pellets, diameter/length = 4.5-5 mm/8-20 mm and one for small pellets, diameter/length = 2 mm/3-4 mm. (author) 27 ills., 39 refs

  15. Status of the new high intensity H- injector at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, R.R. Jr.; York, R.L.; McConnell, J.R.; Kandarian, R.

    1984-04-01

    The requirement for higher intensity H - ion beams for the proton storage ring now being constructed at LAMPF necessitated the development of a new H - ion source and the rebuilding of the original H - injector and its associated beam transport lines. The goal of the ion source development program was to produce an H - beam with a peak intensity of 20 mA at 10% duty factor and with a beam emittance of less than 0.08 cm-mrad normalized at 95% beam fraction. The ion source concept which was best suited to our requirements was the multicusp, surface-production source developed for neutral beam injectors at Berkeley by Ehlers and Leung. An accelerator version of this source has been subsequently developed at Los Alamos to meet these storage ring requirements. The use of these higher intensity H - beams, together with the more stringent chopping and bunching requirements entailed in the operation of the storage ring, now requires rebuilding the entire H - injector at LAMPF. This construction is in progress. It is anticipated that the new injector will be fully operational by the end of 1984 and that the required H - beams will be available for the operation of the storage ring in early 1985

  16. Investigation of the cavitation fluctuation characteristics in a Venturi injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yuncheng; Chen, Yan; Wang, Zijun; Zhou, Lingjiu; Yan, Haijun, E-mail: yanhj@cau.edu.cn [College of Water Resources and Civil Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2015-04-15

    The suction flow rate in a Venturi injector increases to a maximum and appears to be unstable when critical cavitation occurs. This study analyzes changes in the cavitation length in high-speed videos of a Venturi injector with critical cavitation to find periodic fluctuations in the cavitation cloud. Pressure fluctuation measurements show a dominant low frequency fluctuation that is almost as large as the oscillation frequency seen visually for the same conditions. The variation of the cavitation numbers and the measured transient outlet pressure show that critical cavitation occurs in the Venturi injector when the peak-to-peak pressure difference is greater than a critical value. Moreover, when the cavitation numbers become very small in the cavitation areas, the peak-to-peak pressures begin to decrease. The relationship between the suction performance and the outlet pressure fluctuations has a significant inflection point which can be used to determine proper working conditions. These experimental statistics provide a pressure range based on the inlet and outlet pressures for which the improvement of suction performance will not substantially change the outlet pressure fluctuations. Both the high-speed photography and the pressure measurement show the periodic oscillations of the cavitation cloud in a Venturi injector and can be used to detect the occurrence of critical cavitation. (paper)

  17. Flash radiographic technique applied to fuel injector sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vantine, H.C.

    1977-01-01

    A flash radiographic technique, using 50 ns exposure times, was used to study the pattern and density distribution of a fuel injector spray. The experimental apparatus and method are described. An 85 kVp flash x-ray generator, designed and fabricated at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, is utilized. Radiographic images, recorded on standard x-ray films, are digitized and computer processed

  18. Investigation of direct-injection via micro-porous injector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, J.J.E.; Boot, M.D.; Luijten, C.C.M.; Goey, de L.P.H.

    2009-01-01

    The possibility to reduce soot emissions by means of injecting diesel fuel through a porous injector is investigated. From literature it is known that better oxygen entrainment into the fuel spray leads to lower soot emissions. By selection of porous material properties and geometry, the spray is

  19. Beam dynamics simulation of the S-DALINAC injector section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franke, Sylvain; Ackermann, Wolfgang; Weiland, Thomas [Institut fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    In order to extend the experimental possibilities at the superconducting electron linear accelerator S-DALINAC a new polarized gun has recently been installed in addition to the well-established thermionic electron source. Beside the two electron sources the injector section consists of several short quadrupole triplets, an alpha magnet, a Wien filter and a chopper/prebuncher system. The setup of these components differs depending on whether bunched polarized electrons with kinetic energy in the 100 keV range are supplied by the polarized source or whether a continuous unpolarized 250 keV electron beam is extracted from the thermionic gun. The electrons pass through the injector at a relatively low energy and therefore are very sensitive to the beam forming elements in this section. Thus, a proper knowledge of the particle distribution at the exit of the injector section is essential for the quality of any simulation of the subsequent accelerator parts. In this contribution first numerical beam dynamics simulation results of the S-DALINAC injector setup are discussed.

  20. The positive-ion injector of ATLAS: design and operating experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollinger, L M [Physics Div., Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Pardo, R C [Physics Div., Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Shepard, K W [Physics Div., Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Billquist, P J [Physics Div., Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Bogaty, J M [Physics Div., Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Clifft, B E [Physics Div., Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Harkewicz, R [Physics Div., Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Munson, F H [Physics Div., Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Nolen, J A [Physics Div., Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Zinkann, G P [Physics Div., Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1993-06-01

    The recently completed positive-ion injector for the heavy-ion accelerator ATLAS is a replacement for the tandem injector of the present tandem-linac system. Unlike the tandem, the new injector provides ions from the full range of the periodic table. The concept for the new injector, which consists of an ECR ion source on a voltage platform coupled to a very-low-velocity superconducting linac, introduces technical problems and uncertainties that are well beyond those encountered previously for superconducting linacs. The solution to these problems and their relationship to performance are outlined, and experience in the operation of ATLAS with its new injector is discussed. (orig.)

  1. The positive-ion injector of ATLAS: Design and operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollinger, L.M.; Pardo, R.C.; Shepard, K.W.; Billquist, P.J.; Bogaty, J.M.; Clifft, B.E.; Harkewicz, R.; Munson, F.H.; Nolen, J.A.; Zinkann, G.P.

    1992-01-01

    The recently completed Positive-Ion Injector for the heavy-ion accelerator ATLAS is a replacement for the tandem injector of the present tandem-linac system. Unlike the tandem, the new injector provides ions from the full range of the periodic table. The concept for the new injector, which consists of an ECR ion source on a voltage platform coupled to a very-low-velocity superconducting linac, introduces technical problems and uncertainties that are well beyond those encountered previously for superconducting linacs. The solution to these problems and their relationship to performance are outlined, and experience in the operation of ATLAS with its new injector is discussed

  2. Design considerations for single-stage and two-stage pneumatic pellet injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouge, M.J.; Combs, S.K.; Fisher, P.W.; Milora, S.L.

    1988-09-01

    Performance of single-stage pneumatic pellet injectors is compared with several models for one-dimensional, compressible fluid flow. Agreement is quite good for models that reflect actual breech chamber geometry and incorporate nonideal effects such as gas friction. Several methods of improving the performance of single-stage pneumatic pellet injectors in the near term are outlined. The design and performance of two-stage pneumatic pellet injectors are discussed, and initial data from the two-stage pneumatic pellet injector test facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory are presented. Finally, a concept for a repeating two-stage pneumatic pellet injector is described. 27 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  3. Developing the Model of Fuel Injection Process Efficiency Analysis for Injector for Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimov, M. Yu; Kayukov, S. S.; Gorshkalev, A. A.; Belousov, A. V.; Gallyamov, R. E.; Lysenko, Yu D.

    2018-01-01

    The article proposes an assessment option for analysing the quality of fuel injection by the injector constituting the development of calculation blocks in a common injector model within LMS Imagine.Lab AMESim. The parameters of the injector model in the article correspond to the serial injector Common Rail-type with solenoid. The possibilities of this approach are demonstrated with providing the results using the example of modelling the modified injector. Following the research results, the advantages of the proposed approach to analysing assessing the fuel injection quality were detected.

  4. Commissioning of the 123 MeV injector for 12 GeV CEBAF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yan; Hofler, Alicia S.; Kazimi, Reza

    2015-09-01

    The upgrade of CEBAF to 12GeV included modifications to the injector portion of the accelerator. These changes included the doubling of the injection energy and relocation of the final transport elements to accommodate changes in the CEBAF recirculation arcs. This paper will describe the design changes and the modelling of the new 12GeV CEBAF injector. Stray magnetic fields have been a known issue for the 6 GeV CEBAF injector, the results of modelling the new 12GeV injector and the resulting changes implemented to mitigate this issue are described in this paper. The results of beam commissioning of the injector are also presented.

  5. Tritium pellet injector for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouge, M.J.; Baylor, L.R.; Combs, S.K.; Fisher, P.W.; Foust, C.R.; Milora, S.L.

    1992-01-01

    The tritium pellet injector (TPI) for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) will provide a tritium pellet fueling capability with pellet speeds in the 1- to 3-km/s range for the TFTR deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasma phase. An existing deuterium pellet injector (DPI) was modified at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide a four-shot, tritium-compatible, pipe-gun configuration with three upgraded single-stage pneumatic guns and a two-stage light gas gun driver. The TPI was designed for frozen pellets ranging in size from 3 to 4 mm in diameter in arbitrarily programmable firing sequences at tritium pellet speeds up to approximately 1.5 km/s for the three single-stage drivers and 2.5 to 3 km/s for the two-stage driver. Injector operation is controlled by a programmable logic controller (PLC). The new pipe-gun injector assembly was installed in the modified DPI guard vacuum box, and modifications were also made to the internals of the DPI vacuum injection line, including a new pellet diagnostics package. Assembly of these modified parts with existing DPI components was then completed and the TPI was tested at ORNL with deuterium pellets. Results of the testing program at ORNL are described. The TPI has been installed and operated on TFTR in support of the CY-92 deuterium plasma run period. In 1993, the tritium pellet injector will be retrofitted with a D-T fuel manifold and tritium gloveboxes and integrated into TFTR tritium processing systems to provide full tritium pellet capability

  6. Table-top pellet injector (TATOP) for impurity pellet injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szepesi, Tamás, E-mail: szepesi.tamas@wigner.mta.hu [Wigner RCP, RMI, Konkoly Thege 29-33, H-1121 Budapest (Hungary); Herrmann, Albrecht [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Kocsis, Gábor; Kovács, Ádám; Németh, József [Wigner RCP, RMI, Konkoly Thege 29-33, H-1121 Budapest (Hungary); Ploeckl, Bernhard [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A portable pellet injector for solid state pellets was designed. • Aims to study ELM triggering potential of impurity pellets. • Aims for multi-machine comparison of pellet–plasma interaction. • Max. pellet speed: 450 m/s, max. rate: 25 Hz. • Pellet size: 0.5–1.5 mm (diameter). - Abstract: A table-top pellet injector (TATOP) has been designed to fulfill the following scientific aims: to study the ELM triggering potential of impurity pellets, and to make pellet injection experiments comparable over several fusion machines. The TATOP is based on a centrifugal accelerator therefore the complete system is run in vacuum, ensuring the compatibility with fusion devices. The injector is able to launch any solid material (stable at room temperature) in form of balls with a diameter in the 0.5–1.5 mm range. The device hosts three individual pellet tanks that can contain e.g. pellets of different materials, and the user can select from those without opening the vacuum chamber. A key element of the accelerator is a two-stage stop cylinder that reduces the spatial scatter of pellets exiting the acceleration arm below 6°, enabling the efficient collection of all fired pellets. The injector has a maximum launch speed of 450 m/s. The launching of pellets can be done individually by providing TTL triggers for the injector, giving a high level of freedom for the experimenter when designing pellet trains. However, the (temporary) firing rate cannot be larger than 25 Hz. TATOP characterization was done in a test bed; however, the project is still in progress and before application at a fusion oriented experiment.

  7. Impact of biodiesel blend on injector deposit formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liaquat, A.M.; Masjuki, H.H.; Kalam, M.A.; Rizwanul Fattah, I.M.

    2014-01-01

    Continued legislative pressure to reduce exhaust emissions from CI (compression ignition) has resulted in the development of advanced fuel injection equipment. This advanced injection system produces higher temperatures and pressures at the injector tip, where deposit formation is initiated. In this research, an endurance test was carried out for 250 h on 2 fuel samples; DF (diesel fuel) as baseline fuel and JB20 (20% jatropha biodiesel and 80% DF) in a single-cylinder CI engine. The effects of JB20 on injector nozzle deposits, engine lubricating oil, and fuel economy and exhaust emissions were investigated during the endurance test. According to the results of the investigation, visual inspection showed some deposit accumulation on injectors for both fuel samples. SEM (scanning electron microscopy) and EDX (energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy) analysis showed greater carbon deposits on and around the injector tip for JB20 compared to the engine running with DF. Similarly, lubricating oil analysis presented excessive wear metal concentrations and decreased viscosity values when the engine was fueled with JB20. Finally, fuel economy and emission results during the endurance test showed higher BSFC (brake specific fuel consumption) and NO x emissions, and lower HC (hydrocarbons) and CO (carbon monoxide) emissions, for the JB20 blend compared to DF. - Highlights: • Endurance test for 250 h on 2 fuel samples; diesel fuel and JB20. • Investigation on effects of JB20 on the injector deposits and exhaust emissions. • Lubricating oil analysis during endurance test. • SEM (scanning electron microscopy) analysis. • EDX (energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy) analysis

  8. Study liquid length penetration results obtained with a direct acting piezo electric injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payri, Raul; Gimeno, Jaime; Bardi, Michele; Plazas, Alejandro H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A direct acting injector capable of controlling needle lift has been used to determine liquid phase penetration. ► The influence of injection pressure, chamber density and chamber temperature have been measured. ► When needle lift is reduced the stabilized liquid length is shortened. ► The relationship between needle lift and liquid length makes needle lift as a new way to control the injection event. - Abstract: A state of the art prototype common rail injector featuring direct control of the needle by means of a piezo stack (direct acting) has been tested. Liquid phase penetration of the sprays in diesel engine-like conditions has been studied via imaging technique in a novel continuous flow test chamber that allows an accurate control on a wide range of thermodynamic conditions (up to 1000 K and 15 MPa). This state of the art injector fitted with a 7-hole nozzle, allows a fully flexible control on the nozzle needle movement, enabling various fuel injection rate typologies. The temporal evolution of the seven sprays has been studied recording movies of the injection event in evaporative conditions via Mie scattering imaging technique and using a high speed camera. The results showed a strong influence of needle position on the stabilized liquid length while the effect of the injection pressure is negligible: the decrease of the needle lift causes a pressure drop in the needle seat and thus a reduction in the effective pressure upstream of the orifices (in the nozzle sac). According to known literature the stabilized liquid-length depends mainly on effective diameter, spray cone-angle and fuel/air properties and does not depend on fuel velocity at the orifice outlet. Therefore, due to small change in the spray cone-angle, higher injection pressures give slightly lower liquid length. However, partial needle lifts has an opposite effect: when needle is partially lifted a dramatic increase of the spray cone-angle and a consequent reduction of

  9. First operational tests of the positive-ion injector for ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollinger, L.M.; Den Hartog, P.K.; Pardo, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper summarizes the status and first operational experience with the positive-ion injector for ATLAS. The new injector consists of an ECR ion source on a 350-kV platform, followed by a superconducting injector linac of a new kind. In Phase I of this project, the ECR source, voltage platform, bunching system, beam-transport system, and a 3-MV injector linac were completed and tested in early 1989 by a successful acceleration of an 40 Ar 12+ beam. Most of the new system operated as planned, and the longitudinal emittance of the 36-MeV beam out of the injector was measured to be only 5 π keV-ns, much smaller than the emittance for the present tandem injector. When completed in 1990, the final injector linac will be enlarged to 12 MV, enough to allow the original ATLAS linac to accelerate uranium ions up to 8 MeV/u. 8 refs., 2 figs

  10. Effect of injector geometry on the performance of an internally mixed liquid atomizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushari, A.

    2010-11-15

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study of the effect of injector's geometry on the performance of an internally mixed, air-assisted, liquid injector. In this type of injector a small amount of air is injected into a liquid stream within the injector. The interaction of the liquid with the atomizing air inside the injector induces atomization. The results presented in this paper show that the size of the droplets produced by the investigated injector decreases with a decrease in the air injection area. This is due to the increase in atomizing air injection velocity that accompanies the decrease in the air injection area, which improves atomization. This study also shows that the droplet sizes decrease with an increase in the injector's length, which is attributed to the increase in total interactive force. (author)

  11. Present status of the negative ion sources and injectors at JAERI tandem accelerator facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minehara, E.; Yoshida, T.; Abe, S.

    1988-01-01

    The JAERI tandem accelerator began regular operation with the 350 kV negative ion jnjector and 3 kinds of nagative ion sources (Direct Extraction Duoplasmatron Ion Source, Heinickie Penning Ion Source, Negative Ion Sputter Source (Refocus-UNIS)) since 1982. An extension with the injector was constructed in 1984, (1) to increase reliability of all devices in the injector, (2) to exclude completely any unsafe operation in the injector, and (3) to tune several ion sources simultaneously, while a certain ion source is in operation. After the extended injector became available, we have been able to run the whole injector system very safely, steadily and effectively, and have had few troubles. Currently, the second injector has been constructed in order to obtain a full strength of resistance against any sudden troubles in the injector. Several other operational and developmental items will be discussed in the text briefly. (author)

  12. State-of-the-Art Electron Guns and Injector Designs for Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL)

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, Alan; Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Benson, Stephen V; Blüm, Hans; Burrill, Andrew; Calaga, Rama; Cameron, Peter; Campisi, Isidoro E; Chang, Xiangyun; Christina, Vincent; Cole, Michael; Colestock, Patrick L; Daly, Edward; Douglas, David; Dylla, Fred H; Falletta, Michael; Hahn, Harald; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Hogan, John; Holmes, Douglas; Janssen, Dietmar; Kayran, Dmitry; Kelley, John P; Kewisch, Jorg; Kneisel, Peter; Kurennoy, Sergey; Lewellen, John W; Litvinenko, Vladimir N; Mammosser, John; McIntyre, Gary; Neil, George R; Nguyen, Dinh C; Nicoletti, Tony; Peterson, Ed; Phillips, Larry; Preble, Joseph P; Rank, Jim; Rao, Triveni; Rathke, John; Reass, William; Rees, Daniel; Rimmer, Robert; Rode, Claus; Russell, Steven; Scaduto, Joseph; Schrage, Dale L; Schultheiss, Tom; Sekutowicz, Jacek; Siggins, Tim; Warren Funk, L; Whitlach, Timothy; Wiseman, Mark; Wong, Robert; Wood, Richard L; Wu, Kuo-Chen; Young, Lloyd M; Zaltsman, Alex; Zhao, Yongxiang

    2005-01-01

    A key technology issue of ERL devices for high-power free-electron laser (FEL) and 4th generation light sources is the demonstration of reliable, high-brightness, high-power injector operation. Ongoing programs that target up to 1 Ampere injector performance at emittance values consistent with the requirements of these applications are described. We consider that there are three possible approaches that could deliver the required performance. The first is a DC photocathode gun and superconducting RF (SRF) booster cryomodule. Such a 750 MHz device is being integrated and will be tested up to 100 mA at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility beginning in 2007. The second approach is a high-current normal-conducting RF photoinjector. A 700 MHz gun will undergo thermal test in 2006 at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, which, if successful, when equipped with a suitable cathode, would be capable of 1 Ampere operation. The last option is an SRF gun. A half-cell 703 MHz SRF gun capable of delivering 1.0...

  13. OPTIMIZED FUEL INJECTOR DESIGN FOR MAXIMUM IN-FURNACE NOx REDUCTION AND MINIMUM UNBURNED CARBON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SAROFIM, A F; LISAUSKAS, R; RILEY, D; EDDINGS, E G; BROUWER, J; KLEWICKI, J P; DAVIS, K A; BOCKELIE, M J; HEAP, M P; PERSHING, D

    1998-01-01

    Reaction Engineering International (REI) has established a project team of experts to develop a technology for combustion systems which will minimize NO x emissions and minimize carbon in the fly ash. This much need technology will allow users to meet environmental compliance and produce a saleable by-product. This study is concerned with the NO x control technology of choice for pulverized coal fired boilers,"in-furnace NOx control," which includes: staged low-NOx burners, reburning, selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) and hybrid approaches (e.g., reburning with SNCR). The program has two primary objectives: 1) To improve the performance of "in-furnace" NOx control, processes. 2) To devise new, or improve existing, approaches for maximum "in-furnace" NOx control and minimum unburned carbon. The program involves: 1) fundamental studies at laboratory- and bench-scale to define NO reduction mechanisms in flames and reburning jets; 2) laboratory experiments and computer modeling to improve our two-phase mixing predictive capability; 3) evaluation of commercial low-NOx burner fuel injectors to develop improved designs, and 4) demonstration of coal injectors for reburning and low-NOx burners at commercial scale. The specific objectives of the two-phase program are to: 1 Conduct research to better understand the interaction of heterogeneous chemistry and two phase mixing on NO reduction processes in pulverized coal combustion. 2 Improve our ability to predict combusting coal jets by verifying two phase mixing models under conditions that simulate the near field of low-NOx burners. 3 Determine the limits on NO control by in-furnace NOx control technologies as a function of furnace design and coal type. 5 Develop and demonstrate improved coal injector designs for commercial low-NOx burners and coal reburning systems. 6 Modify the char burnout model in REI's coal

  14. LS1 “First Long Shutdown of LHC and its Injector Chains”

    CERN Multimedia

    Foraz, K; Barberan, M; Bernardini, M; Coupard, J; Gilbert, N; Hay, D; Mataguez, S; McFarlane, D

    2014-01-01

    The LHC and its Injectors were stopped in February 2013, in order to maintain, consolidate and upgrade the different equipment of the accelerator chain, with the goal of achieving LHC operation at the design energy of 14 TeV in the centre-of-mass. Prior to the start of this First Long Shutdown (LS1), a major effort of preparation was performed in order to optimize the schedule and the use of resources across the different machines, with the aim of resuming LHC physics in early 2015. The rest of the CERN complex will restart beam operation in the second half of 2014. This paper presents the schedule of the LS1, describes the organizational set-up for the coordination of the works, the main activities, the different main milestones, which have been achieved so far, and the decisions taken in order to mitigate the issues encountered.

  15. Protections Against Grid Breakdowns in the ITER Neutral Beam Injector Power Supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigi, M.; Toigo, V.; Zanotto, L.

    2006-01-01

    The ITER Neutral Beam Injector (NBI) is designed to deliver 16.5 MW of additional heating power to the plasma, accelerating negative ions up to -1 MV with a current up to 40 A. Two main power supplies are foreseen to feed the system: the Acceleration Grid Power Supply (AGPS), which provides power to the acceleration grids, and the Ion Source Power Supply (ISPS), devoted to supplying the ion source components. For the accelerator, two different concepts are under investigation: the MAMuG (Multiple Aperture, Multiple Gap) and the SINGAP (SINgle Aperture). During operation of the NBI, the breakdown of the acceleration grids will occur regularly; as a consequence the AGPS is expected to experience frequent load short-circuits during a pulse. For each grid breakdown, energy and current peaks are delivered from the power supply systems that could damage the grids, if not limited. In previous NBI, rated for a lower accelerating voltage, the protection system in case of grid breakdowns was based on dc circuit breakers able to quickly disconnect the power supply from the grids. In the ITER case, a similar solution is not feasible, as the voltage level is too high for present dc breaker technology. Therefore, the protection strategy has to rely on fast switch-off of the power supplies, on the optimisation of the filter elements and core snubbers placed downstream the AGPS and on the introduction of additional passive elements. However, achieving a satisfactory protection against grid breakdowns is a challenging task, as the optimisation of each single provision can result in drawbacks for other aspects of the design; for instance, the optimisation of the filter elements, obtained by reducing the filter capacitance, produces an increase of the output voltage ripple. Therefore, the design of the protections must be carried out considering all the relevant aspects of the specifications, also those that are not strictly related to the limitations of the current peaks and energy

  16. Upgrading the JET pellet injector with a two-stage light gas gun prototype and future planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupschus, P.; Sonnenberg, K.; Bailey, W.; Gadeberg, M.; Hardaker, J.; Hedley, L.; Helm, J.; Flory, D.; McCarthy, P.; Nowak, A.; Twynam, P.; Szabo, T.; Watson, M.

    1989-01-01

    For about two years the Joint European TORUS (JET) has been using a multi-pellet injector jointly built by JET and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This was and is jointly operated by a JET - US Pellet Team within the Pellet Agreement between JET and the US Department of Energy (US DOE) under the wider umbrella of the EURATOM - US DOE Agreement on collaborative Fusion Research. This injector is composed of the ORNL Launcher, employing three independently firing repetitive (up to 5 s -1 ) pneumatic guns for pellet speeds of up to 1.5 kms -1 , and a JET launcher-torus interface (Pellet Interface) which provides all required services to the launcher and its immediate control system. In particular, it provides the differential pumping to match the high pressures of the gun system to the vacuum pressure and flow requirements of the plasma boundary. The Pellet Interface, in its design from its conception about four years ago, was intended to be equipped with a JET built pellet launcher system employing also high-speed guns at a later date once the ORNL Launcher will have been removed as it is not compatible with the JET requirements for the Active Phase (tritium and remote handling compatibility). As a first step - to learn about the possible plasma physics benefits as well as to gain technical experience concerning the application of advanced gun technology, a JET two-stage light gas gun prototype has been developed and is now being installed in parallel with the ORNL Launcher. This paper reports on the JET pellet injector development program, its motivation and its results to date. It describes briefly the presently operated pellet injector, continues to outline the design of the prototype in more detail and finally sketches the plans for the near future. 8 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  17. Numerical Simulation of the Effect of 3D Needle Movement on Cavitation and Spray Formation in a Diesel Injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandumpala Devassy, B.; Edelbauer, W.; Greif, D.

    2015-12-01

    Cavitation and its effect on spray formation and its dispersion play a crucial role in proper engine combustion and controlled emission. This study focuses on these effects in a typical common rail 6-hole diesel injector accounting for 3D needle movement and flow compressibility effects. Coupled numerical simulations using 1D and 3D CFD codes are used for this investigation. Previous studies in this direction have already presented a detailed structure of the adopted methodology. Compared to the previous analysis, the present study investigates the effect of 3D needle movement and cavitation on the spray formation for pilot and main injection events for a typical diesel engine operating point. The present setup performs a 3D compressible multiphase simulation coupled with a standalone 1D high pressure flow simulation. The simulation proceeds by the mutual communication between 1D and 3D solvers. In this work a typical common rail injector with a mini-sac nozzle is studied. The lateral and radial movement of the needle and its effect on the cavitation generation and the subsequent spray penetration are analyzed. The result indicates the effect of compressibility of the liquid on damping the needle forces, and also the difference in the spray penetration levels due to the asymmetrical flow field. Therefore, this work intends to provide an efficient and user-friendly engineering tool for simulating a complete fuel injector including spray propagation.

  18. Numerical Simulation of the Effect of 3D Needle Movement on Cavitation and Spray Formation in a Diesel Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devassy, B Mandumpala; Edelbauer, W; Greif, D

    2015-01-01

    Cavitation and its effect on spray formation and its dispersion play a crucial role in proper engine combustion and controlled emission. This study focuses on these effects in a typical common rail 6-hole diesel injector accounting for 3D needle movement and flow compressibility effects. Coupled numerical simulations using 1D and 3D CFD codes are used for this investigation. Previous studies in this direction have already presented a detailed structure of the adopted methodology. Compared to the previous analysis, the present study investigates the effect of 3D needle movement and cavitation on the spray formation for pilot and main injection events for a typical diesel engine operating point. The present setup performs a 3D compressible multiphase simulation coupled with a standalone 1D high pressure flow simulation. The simulation proceeds by the mutual communication between 1D and 3D solvers. In this work a typical common rail injector with a mini-sac nozzle is studied. The lateral and radial movement of the needle and its effect on the cavitation generation and the subsequent spray penetration are analyzed. The result indicates the effect of compressibility of the liquid on damping the needle forces, and also the difference in the spray penetration levels due to the asymmetrical flow field. Therefore, this work intends to provide an efficient and user-friendly engineering tool for simulating a complete fuel injector including spray propagation. (paper)

  19. Power supply system for KSTAR neutral beam injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, W., E-mail: franciscocho@nfri.re.kr; Bae, Y.S.; Han, W.S.; Jeong, J.H.; Kim, J.S.; Park, H.T.; Yang, H.L.; Oh, Y.K.; Kwak, J.G.

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The power supply system in KSTAR NBI consists of DC power supplies for ion source. • For operation NBI, DC High Voltage based on the low voltage transformer with chopper. • The surge absorber near the ion source limit the energy deposited to accelerator grid. - Abstract: The power supply system in KSTAR neutral beam injector consists of low voltage and high current DC power supplies for plasma generator of ion source and high voltage and high current DC power supply for accelerator grid system. The arc discharge is initiated by an arc power supply supplying the arc voltage between the chamber wall and 12 filaments which are heated by individual filament power supply. The negative output of arc power supply is common to each positive output of 12 filament power supplies. To interrupt the arc discharging for the fault condition of the arc current unbalance, DCCT current monitor is placed at the positive output cable of the filament power supply. The plasma grid (G1) power supply has the maximum capability of 120 kV/70 A which consists of low voltage regulator with IGBT-switched chopper array system for the voltage control in unit of 600 V and the high voltage rectified transformers to supply DC voltage of 20 kV, 30 kV, and 50 kV. The output voltage of the G1 power supply is also connected to the input of the voltage divider system which supplies the gradient voltage to the gradient grid (G2) in the range of 80–90% of G1 voltage by changing tap of winding resistors in unit of 1%. The charged G1 voltage is turned on and off by the high voltage switch (HVS) system consisting of MOSFET fast semiconductor switches which can immediately be opened less than 1 μs when the ion source grid breakdown occurs. The decelerating grid (G3) power supply is inverter system using capacitor-charge power supply to supply maximum −5 kV/5 A. The important component in power supply system is the surge absorber near the ion source to limit the arc energy deposited to

  20. Power supply system for KSTAR neutral beam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, W.; Bae, Y.S.; Han, W.S.; Jeong, J.H.; Kim, J.S.; Park, H.T.; Yang, H.L.; Oh, Y.K.; Kwak, J.G.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The power supply system in KSTAR NBI consists of DC power supplies for ion source. • For operation NBI, DC High Voltage based on the low voltage transformer with chopper. • The surge absorber near the ion source limit the energy deposited to accelerator grid. - Abstract: The power supply system in KSTAR neutral beam injector consists of low voltage and high current DC power supplies for plasma generator of ion source and high voltage and high current DC power supply for accelerator grid system. The arc discharge is initiated by an arc power supply supplying the arc voltage between the chamber wall and 12 filaments which are heated by individual filament power supply. The negative output of arc power supply is common to each positive output of 12 filament power supplies. To interrupt the arc discharging for the fault condition of the arc current unbalance, DCCT current monitor is placed at the positive output cable of the filament power supply. The plasma grid (G1) power supply has the maximum capability of 120 kV/70 A which consists of low voltage regulator with IGBT-switched chopper array system for the voltage control in unit of 600 V and the high voltage rectified transformers to supply DC voltage of 20 kV, 30 kV, and 50 kV. The output voltage of the G1 power supply is also connected to the input of the voltage divider system which supplies the gradient voltage to the gradient grid (G2) in the range of 80–90% of G1 voltage by changing tap of winding resistors in unit of 1%. The charged G1 voltage is turned on and off by the high voltage switch (HVS) system consisting of MOSFET fast semiconductor switches which can immediately be opened less than 1 μs when the ion source grid breakdown occurs. The decelerating grid (G3) power supply is inverter system using capacitor-charge power supply to supply maximum −5 kV/5 A. The important component in power supply system is the surge absorber near the ion source to limit the arc energy deposited to

  1. Knowledge and Technology Transfer (KTT) Activities Between Universities and Firms in Switzerland: The Main Facts: an empirical analysis based on firm-level data

    OpenAIRE

    Arvanitis, Spyridon; Kubli, Ursina; Sydow, Nora; Wörter, Martin

    2005-01-01

    This study is part of a large project aiming at the investigation of a) extent and b) economic relevance of knowledge and technology transfer (KTT) between science institutions (universities, universities of a pplied science and other public re search institutions) and private corporations. Under knowledge and technology transfer we understand very broadly any activities targeted at transferring knowledge an d technology that may help a company or a research institution – depending on the dir...

  2. Magnetized Target Fusion Propulsion: Plasma Injectors for MTF Guns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Steven T.

    2003-01-01

    To achieve increased payload size and decreased trip time for interplanetary travel, a low mass, high specific impulse, high thrust propulsion system is required. This suggests the need for research into fusion as a source of power and high temperature plasma. The plasma would be deflected by magnetic fields to provide thrust. Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) research consists of several related investigations into these topics. These include the orientation and timing of the plasma guns and the convergence and interface development of the "pusher" plasma. Computer simulations of the gun as it relates to plasma initiation and repeatability are under investigation. One of the items under development is the plasma injector. This is a surface breakdown driven plasma generator designed to function at very low pressures. The performance, operating conditions and limitations of these injectors need to be determined.

  3. Beam dynamics and optics studies for the LHC injectors upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Bartosik, Hannes; Benedikt, Michael

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) upgrade, which aims at reaching significantly higher luminosities at the experiment sites, requires the existing injector chain to provide proton beams with unprecedented beam intensity and brightness. The required beam parameters are out of reach for the CERN accelerator complex in its present state. Therefore, upgrade possibilities of the existing injectors for mitigating their performance limitations or their partial replacement by new machines have been studied. The transition energy plays a central role for the performance of synchrotrons. Designing a lattice with negative momentum compaction (NMC), i.e. imaginary transition energy, allows avoiding transition crossing and thus the associated performance limitations. In the first part of this thesis, the properties of an NMC cell are studied. The limits of betatron stability are evaluated by a combination of analytical and numerical calculations. The NMC cell is then used for the design study of a new synchrotron called P...

  4. Laser-driven injector of electrons for IOTA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanov, Aleksandr

    2017-03-01

    Fermilab is developing the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) ring for experiments on nonlinear integrable optics. The machine will operate with either electron beams of 150 MeV or proton beams of 2.5 MeV energies, respectively. The stability of integrable optics depends critically on the precision of the magnetic lattice, which demands the use of beam-based lattice measurements for optics correction. In the proton mode, the low-energy proton beam does not represent a good probe for this application; hence we consider the use of a low-intensity reverse-injected electron beam of matched momentum (70 MeV). Such an injector could be implemented with the use of laser-driven acceleration techniques. This report presents the consideration for a laser-plasma injector for IOTA and discusses the requirements determined by the ring design.

  5. Evaluation of pesticide adsorption in gas chromatographic injector and column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gevany Paulino de Pinho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Components in complex matrices can cause variations in chromatographic response during analysis of pesticides by gas chromatography. These variations are related to the competition between analytes and matrix components for adsorption sites in the chromatographic system. The capacity of the pesticides chlorpyrifos and deltamethrin to be adsorbed in the injector and chromatographic column was evaluated by constructing three isotherms and changing the column heating rate to 10 and 30 ºC min-1. By using ANCOVA to compare the slope of calibration graphs, results showed that the higher the injector temperature (310 ºC the lower the pesticide adsorption. Also, deltamethrin influenced the adsorption of chlorpyrifos on the column chromatographic.

  6. The latest development of EAST neutral beam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Chundong; Xu Yongjian

    2014-01-01

    As the first full superconducting non-circular cross section Tokomak in the world, EAST is used to explore the forefront physics and engineering issues on the construction of Tokomak fusion reactor. Neutral beam injection has been recognized as one of the most effective means for plasma heating. According to the research plan of the EAST physics experiment, a set of neutral beam injector (4∼8 MW, 10∼100 s)will be built and operational in 2014. The paper presents the latest development of EAST neutral beam injector and the latest experiment results of long pulse beam extraction and high power beam extraction are reported, those results show that all targets reach or almost reach the design targets. All these will lay a solid foundation for the achievement of plasma heating and current drive for EAST in 2014. (authors)

  7. Space shuttle orbital maneuvering engine platelet injector program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    A platelet-face injector for the fully reusable orbit maneuvering system OMS on the space shuttle was evaluated as a means of obtaining additional design margin and low cost. Performance, heat transfer, and combustion stability were evaluated over the anticipated range of OMS operating conditions. The effects of acoustic cavity configuration on combustion stability, including cavity depth, open area, inlet contour, and other parameters, were investigated using sea level bomb tests. Prototype injector and chamber behavior was evaluated for a variety of conditions; these tests examined the effects of film cooling, helium saturated propellants, chamber length, inlet conditions, and operating point, on performance, heat transfer and engine transient behavior. Helium bubble ingestion into both propellant circuits was investigated, as was chugging at low pressure operation, and hot and cold engine restart with and without a purge.

  8. Optimization of RF Compressor in the SPARX Injector

    CERN Document Server

    Ronsivalle, Concetta; Ferrario, Massimo; Serafini, Luca; Spataro, Bruno

    2005-01-01

    The SPARX photoinjector consists in a rf gun injecting into three SLAC accelerating sections, the first one operating in the RF compressor configuration in order to achieve higher peak current. A systematic study based on PARMELA simulations has been done in order to optimize the parameters that influence the compression also in view of the application of this system as injector of the so called SPARXINO 3-5 nm FEL test facility. The results of computations show that peak currents at the injector exit up to kA level are achievable with a good control of the transverse and longitudinal emittance by means of a short SW section operating at 11424 MHz placed before the first accelerating section. Some working points in different compression regimes suitable for FEL experiments have been selected. The stability of these points and the sensitivity to various types of random errors are discussed.

  9. The CLIC Positron Capture and Acceleration in the Injector Linac.

    CERN Document Server

    Vivoli, Alessandro; Chehab, Robert; Dadoun, Olivier; Lepercq, Pierre; Poirier, Freddy; Rinolfi, Louis; Strakhovenko, Vladimir; Variola, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    The baseline of the CLIC study considers non-polarized e+ for the 3 TeV centre of mass energy. The e+ source is based on the hybrid targets scheme, where a crystal-radiator target is followed by an amorphous-converter target. Simulations have been performed from the exit of the amorphous target up to the entrance of the Pre-Damping Ring. Downstream the amorphous target, there is an Adiabatic Matching Device (AMD) followed by a Pre-Injector Linac accelerating the e+ beam up to around 200 MeV. Then a common Injector Linac (for both e+ and e-) accelerates the beams up to 2.86 GeV before being injected into the Pre-Damping Ring. In this note, the characteristics of the AMD and the other sections are described and the beam parameters at the entrance of the Pre-Damping Ring are given.

  10. Diagnostics Neutral Beam Injector at the TCV Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mlynar, J.; Shukaev, A.N.; Bosshard, P.; Duval, B.P.; Ivanov, A.A.; Kollegov, M.; Kolmogorov, V.V.; Llobet, X.; Pitts, R.A.; Weisen, H.

    2001-10-01

    Within this report we summarize the technical and experimental effort made on diagnostics neutral beam injector (DNBI) which was installed at tokamak TCV last year. Basic components of DNBI are reviewed, its remote control is presented in more detail. Profile and attenuation studies are referred to. First experimental results obtained with DNBI, which led to a decision to upgrade the machine, are discussed in the last section. (author)

  11. Intensity limits of the PSI Injector II cyclotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolano, A.; Adelmann, A.; Barlow, R.; Baumgarten, C.

    2018-03-01

    We investigate limits on the current of the PSI Injector II high intensity separate-sector isochronous cyclotron, in its present configuration and after a proposed upgrade. Accelerator Driven Subcritical Reactors, neutron and neutrino experiments, and medical isotope production all benefit from increases in current, even at the ∼ 10% level: the PSI cyclotrons provide relevant experience. As space charge dominates at low beam energy, the injector is critical. Understanding space charge effects and halo formation through detailed numerical modelling gives clues on how to maximise the extracted current. Simulation of a space-charge dominated low energy high intensity (9.5 mA DC) machine, with a complex collimator set up in the central region shaping the bunch, is not trivial. We use the OPAL code, a tool for charged-particle optics calculations in large accelerator structures and beam lines, including 3D space charge. We have a precise model of the present (production) Injector II, operating at 2.2 mA current. A simple model of the proposed future (upgraded) configuration of the cyclotron is also investigated. We estimate intensity limits based on the developed models, supported by fitted scaling laws and measurements. We have been able to perform more detailed analysis of the bunch parameters and halo development than any previous study. Optimisation techniques enable better matching of the simulation set-up with Injector II parameters and measurements. We show that in the production configuration the beam current scales to the power of three with the beam size. However, at higher intensities, 4th power scaling is a better fit, setting the limit of approximately 3 mA. Currents of over 5 mA, higher than have been achieved to date, can be produced if the collimation scheme is adjusted.

  12. Prototype ion source for JT-60 neutral beam injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiba, M.

    1981-01-01

    A prototype ion source for JT-60 neutral beam injectors has been fabricated and tested. Here, we review the construction of the prototype ion source and report the experimental results about the source characteristics that has been obtained at this time. The prototype ion source is now installed at the prototype unit of JT-60 neutral beam injection units and the demonstration of the performances of the ion source and the prototype unit has just started

  13. Fabrication of small-orifice fuel injectors for diesel engines.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodford, J. B.; Fenske, G. R.

    2005-04-08

    Diesel fuel injector nozzles with spray hole diameters of 50-75 {micro}m have been fabricated via electroless nickel plating of conventionally made nozzles. Thick layers of nickel are deposited onto the orifice interior surfaces, reducing the diameter from {approx}200 {micro}m to the target diameter. The nickel plate is hard, smooth, and adherent, and covers the orifice interior surfaces uniformly.

  14. DESY III, the new proton injector for HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemmie, G.; Maidment, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    The design of a 7.5 GeV/c proton synchrotron, DESY III, which will form part of the injector chain for HERA /1/ is described. Features of the latice and brief details of sub-systems are presented. A selection of parameters and expected time schedule for the accelerator which is at present under construction at the DESY laboratory, Hamburg, are given

  15. 70 MeV injector auto tuning system handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.E.; Munn, R.W.; Sandels, E.G.

    1976-06-01

    The handbook is in three sections: (1) description and location; (2) operating instructions; and (3) design notes on the tank and debuncher auto tuning systems for the 70 MeV injector. The purpose of the auto tuning system is to maintain the 'tune' of the four tanks and debuncher to within a few Hz, stabilizing against changes of temperature and other physical factors affecting the resonant frequency of the tanks. (U.K.)

  16. Cylinder-Pressure Based Injector Calibration for Diesel Engines

    OpenAIRE

    König, Johan

    2008-01-01

    One way of complying with future emission restrictions for diesel engines is to use pressure sensors for improved combustion control. Implementation of pressure sensors into production engines would lead to new possibilities for fuel injection monitoring where one potential use is injector calibration. The scope of this thesis is to investigate the possibility of using pressure sensors for finding the minimal energizing time necessary for fuel injection. This minimal energizing time varies ov...

  17. Effect of Injector Nozzle Holes on Diesel Engine Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Semin,; Yusof, Mohd Yuzri Mohd; Arof, Aminuddin Md; Shaharudin, Daneil Tomo; Ismail, Abdul Rahim

    2010-01-01

    All of the injector nozzle holes have examined and the results are shown that the seven holes nozzle have provided the best burning result for the fuel in-cylinder burned in any different engine speeds and the best burning is in low speed engine. In engine performance effect, all of the nozzles have examined and the five holes nozzle provided the best result in indicted power, indicated torque and ISFC in any different engine speeds.

  18. Inspection of diesel engine injectors by several electromagnetic nondestructive methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vértesy, G.; Balassa, P.; Gasparics, A.; Tomáš, Ivan; Mészáros, I.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 3 (2017), s. 449-459 ISSN 1383-5416 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36566G Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : electromagnetic nondestructive testing * diesel engine injector * eddy current testing * magnetic hysteresis measurements * magnetic adaptive testing Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 0.769, year: 2016

  19. Preliminary experiments on energy recovery on a neutral beam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fumelli, M.

    1977-06-01

    Energy recovery tests performed on an injector of energetic neutral atoms in which the ion source is operated at the ground potential and the neutralizer is biased at the high energy potential corresponding to the desired neutral beam energy, are presented. The operation of the suppressor grid is studied in two different experiments. These tests underline the problems to be solved for an efficient recovery of the energy of the unneutralized beam fraction

  20. Ineffective healthcare technology management in Benin’s public health sector: the perceptions of key actors and their ability to address the main problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houngbo, P.T.; de Cock Buning, J.T.; Bunders- Aelen, J.G.F.; Medenou, D.; Dakpanon, L.Y.; Zweekhorst, M.B.M.; Coleman, H.L.S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Low-income countries face many contextual challenges to manage healthcare technologies effectively, as the majority are imported and resources are constrained to a greater extent. Previous healthcare technology management (HTM) policies in Benin have failed to produce better quality of

  1. Hollow-Cone Spray Modeling for Outwardly Opening Piezoelectric Injector

    KAUST Repository

    Sim, Jaeheon

    2016-01-04

    Linear instability sheet atomization (LISA) breakup model has been widely used for modeling hollow-cone spray. However, the model was originally developed for inwardlyopening pressure-swirl injectors by assuming toroidal ligament breakups. Therefore, LISA model is not suitable for simulating outwardly opening injectors having string-like structures at wide spray angles. Furthermore, the varying area and shape of the annular nozzle exit makes the modeling difficult. In this study, a new spray modeling was proposed for outwardly opening hollow-cone injector. The injection velocities are computed from the given mas flow rate and injection pressure regardless of ambiguous nozzle exit geometries. The modified Kelvin-Helmholtz and Rayleigh-Taylor (KH-RT) breakup model is used with adjusted initial Sauter mean diameter (SMD) for modeling breakup of string-like liquid film spray. Liquid spray injection was modeled using Lagrangian discrete parcel method within the framework of commercial CFD software CONVERGE, and the detailed model was implemented by user defined functions. It was found that the new model predicted the liquid penetration length and local SMD accurately for various fuels and chamber conditions.

  2. Development of the centrifugal pellet injector for JT-60U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kizu, Kaname; Hiratsuka, Hajime; Ichige, Hisashi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment] [and others

    2001-03-01

    For core fueling of JT-60U plasmas, a repetitive pellet injector which centrifugally accelerates D{sub 2} cubic pellets using a straight rod has been developed. This centrifugal pellet injector can eject trains of up to 40 cubic pellets at frequencies of 1-10 Hz and velocities of 0.3-1.0 km/s. The average pellet mass is 3.6x10{sup 20} atoms/pellet below 0.7 m/s. Key techniques for the development were a mesh structured acceleration component for removing gas sublimated from the pellet and a funnel with an appropriate angle connected just behind the acceleration chamber for introducing the pellet to plasma without destruction. Using the mesh structured components, the horizontal angular distribution of pellets ejected became narrow, because irregular pellet motion caused by sublimated gas was reduced. To investigate the performance of the injector, pellet injection experiments from the low magnetic field side (LFS) were conducted using ohmic heating plasmas. Central fueling and enhanced fueling rate have been observed. D{alpha} intensity around the divertor region was reduced in a pellet injection plasma compared to gas puffing, indicating low recycling rate was maintained with the pellet injection. (author)

  3. Development of the centrifugal pellet injector for JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kizu, Kaname; Hiratsuka, Hajime; Ichige, Hisashi

    2001-03-01

    For core fueling of JT-60U plasmas, a repetitive pellet injector which centrifugally accelerates D 2 cubic pellets using a straight rod has been developed. This centrifugal pellet injector can eject trains of up to 40 cubic pellets at frequencies of 1-10 Hz and velocities of 0.3-1.0 km/s. The average pellet mass is 3.6x10 20 atoms/pellet below 0.7 m/s. Key techniques for the development were a mesh structured acceleration component for removing gas sublimated from the pellet and a funnel with an appropriate angle connected just behind the acceleration chamber for introducing the pellet to plasma without destruction. Using the mesh structured components, the horizontal angular distribution of pellets ejected became narrow, because irregular pellet motion caused by sublimated gas was reduced. To investigate the performance of the injector, pellet injection experiments from the low magnetic field side (LFS) were conducted using ohmic heating plasmas. Central fueling and enhanced fueling rate have been observed. Dα intensity around the divertor region was reduced in a pellet injection plasma compared to gas puffing, indicating low recycling rate was maintained with the pellet injection. (author)

  4. Initial development of a blurry injector for biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Claudia Goncalves de; Costa, Fernando de Souza [National Institute for Space Research (INPE) Cachoeira Paulista, SP (Brazil). Associated Lab. of Combustion and Propulsion], Emails: claudia@lcp.inpe.br, fernando@lcp.inpe.br; Couto, Heraldo da Silva [Vale Energy Solution, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: heraldo.couto@vsesa.com.br

    2010-07-01

    The increasing costs of fossil fuels, environmental concerns and stringent regulations on fuel emissions have caused a significant interest on biofuels, especially ethanol and biodiesel. The combustion of liquid fuels in diesel engines, turbines, rocket engines and industrial furnaces depends on the effective atomization to increase the surface area of the fuel and thus to achieve high rates of mixing and evaporation. In order to promote combustion with maximum efficiency and minimum emissions, an injector must create a fuel spray that evaporates and disperses quickly to produce a homogeneous mixture of vaporized fuel and air. Blurry injectors can produce a spray of small droplets of similar sizes, provide excellent vaporization and mixing of fuel with air, low emissions of NO{sub x} and CO, and high efficiency. This work describes the initial development of a blurry injector for biofuels. Theoretical droplet sizes are calculated in terms of feed pressures and mass flow rates of fuel and air. Droplet size distribution and average diameters are measured by a laser system using a diffraction technique. (author)

  5. Sources of Emittance in RF Photocathode Injectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowell, David [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2016-12-11

    Advances in electron beam technology have been central to creating the current generation of x-ray free electron lasers and ultra-fast electron microscopes. These once exotic devices have become essential tools for basic research and applied science. One important beam technology for both is the electron source which, for many of these instruments, is the photocathode RF gun. The invention of the photocathode gun and the concepts of emittance compensation and beam matching in the presence of space charge and RF forces have made these high-quality beams possible. Achieving even brighter beams requires a taking a finer resolution view of the electron dynamics near the cathode during photoemission and the initial acceleration of the beam. In addition, the high brightness beam is more sensitive to degradation by the optical aberrations of the gun’s RF and magnetic lenses. This paper discusses these topics including the beam properties due to fundamental photoemission physics, space charge effects close to the cathode, and optical distortions introduced by the RF and solenoid fields. Analytic relations for these phenomena are derived and compared with numerical simulations.

  6. Injector system design of the 8 GeV synchrotron radiation facility (SPring-8)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harami, T.; Yokomizo, H.; Ohtsuka, H.

    1990-01-01

    The 8 GeV synchrotron radiation facility, named SPring-8, which will be constructed at Nishi-harima in Hyogo-ken, is designed jointly by JAERI (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and RIKEN (Institute of Physical and Chemical Research) under the supervision of Science and Technology Agency (STA) of the Japanese government. The facility provides photon in the X-ray and hard X-ray domains with high flux and high brilliance. The major characteristics of the storage ring are the low emittance and the large number of straight sections. Combining the low emittance beam with long insertion devices, several orders of magnitude improvement in intensity and brightness are expected. The injector system of SPring-8 is composed of a linac and a synchrotron. Not only electrons but positrons can be accelerated by the linac. These particles are injected into the synchrotron and further accelerated to 8 GeV. (N.K.)

  7. Deterioration of the fuel injection parameters as a result of Common Rail injectors deposit formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stępień Zbigniew

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes external and internal Common Rail injectors deposits formed in dynamometer engine simulation tests. It discussed not only the key reasons and factors influencing injector deposit formation but also the resulting way of fuel preparation and engine test approaches. The effects of external coking deposit as well as internal deposits two most common form types that is carboxylic soaps and organic amides on deterioration of the fuel injection parameters were assessed. The assessments covered both deposits impacts on quantitative and qualitative changes of the injectors diagnostic parameters and as a result on deterioration of the injector performance. Finally the comparisons between characteristic of dosage of one fuel injector before test and characteristics few injectors after engine tests of simulated deposit formation were made.

  8. On the prediction of spray angle of liquid-liquid pintle injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Peng; Li, Qinglian; Xu, Shun; Kang, Zhongtao

    2017-09-01

    The pintle injector is famous for its capability of deep throttling and low cost. However, the pintle injector has been seldom investigated. To get a good prediction of the spray angle of liquid-liquid pintle injectors, theoretical analysis, numerical simulations and experiments were conducted. Under the hypothesis of incompressible and inviscid flow, a spray angle formula was deduced from the continuity and momentum equations based on a control volume analysis. The formula was then validated by numerical and experimental data. The results indicates that both geometric and injection parameters affect the total momentum ratio (TMR) and then influence the spray angle formed by liquid-liquid pintle injectors. TMR is the pivotal non-dimensional number that dominates the spray angle. Compared with gas-gas pintle injectors, spray angle formed by liquid-liquid injectors is larger, which benefits from the local high pressure zone near the pintle wall caused by the impingement of radial and axial sheets.

  9. Comparison of JP-8 Sprays from a Hydraulically Actuated Electronically Controlled Unit Injector and a Common Rail Injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    the oil from the engine to pressurize the fuel for injection. The engine oil passes to an intensifier piston and plunger inside the injector which...pressure. Fuel is supplied to a high pressure pump where the fuel is compressed to increase the pressure. The high pressure fuel is then directed to a...pressurization systems were used during the experiments for this study. The common rail fuel injection system consists of an air driven pump capable of

  10. In the coking section of the Scientific Council of the Main Committee for Science and Technology 'New processes in ferrous metallurgy'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bukvareva, O.F.

    1989-12-01

    Reports on a meeting held in June 1990 in Khar'kov on new technologies of black coal coking and methods for coal gas purification used in the USSR and other countries. The following problems associated with economic analysis of new coking technologies were analyzed: types of coal used in mixtures for coking, mixtures for coking, coal mixture preheating, partial briquetting. The following problems associated with coal gas purification were discussed: primary cooling systems, methods for ammonia separation from coal gas, coal gas desulfurization, separation of hydrogen cyanide, amine methods for desulfurization. Recommendations for research programs on new coking technologies and on coal gas purification are discussed.

  11. Operation of the lithium pellet injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khlopenkov, K.V.; Sudo, S.; Sergeev, V.Yu.

    1996-05-01

    A lithium pellet injection requires an accurate handling with lithium and special technique of loading the pellets. Thus, the technology for this has been developed based on the following conditions: 1) Because of chemical activity of lithium it is necessary to operate in a glove-box with the noble gas atmosphere (He, Ar, etc.). 2) A special procedure of replacing the glove-box atmosphere allows to achieve high purity of the noble gas. 3) When making the pellets it is better to keep the clean lithium in the liquid hexane so as to maintain lithium purity. 4) The pressure of the accelerating gas for Li pellets should be not less than 30 atm. (author)

  12. Feasibility Study on a Neutral Beam Diagnostic Injector for TJ-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, K. J.; Balbin, R.; Lopez-Fraguas, A.

    2003-01-01

    A diagnostic neutral beam system is proposed for the TJ-II stellarator. The main goal of installing such a system in TJ-II is to increase the signal to noise ratio and provide spatial resolution in diagnostic systems based on Charge Exchange Recombination Spectroscopy and Neutral Particle Analysis, while also opening up new opportunities for physics studies in this magnetically confined plasma device. After outlining the unique characteristics of the TJ-II and reviewing available diagnostic injector systems, the compact system selected for TJ-II is presented together with estimates of the resulting increased signal levels Finally other important aspects are discussed, in particular its location and orientation, as well as possible solutions to avoid perturbing the TJ-II magnetic configurations in the heliac device. (Author) 31 refs

  13. Feasibility Study on a Neutral Beam Diagnostic Injector for TJ-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, K. J.; Balbin, R.; Lopez-Fraguas, A.

    2003-07-01

    A diagnostic neutral beam system is proposed for the TJ-II stellarator. The main goal of installing such a system in TJ-II is to increase the signal to noise ratio and provide spatial resolution in diagnostic systems based on Charge Exchange Recombination Spectroscopy and Neutral Particle Analysis, while also opening up new opportunities for physics studies in this magnetically confined plasma device. After outlining the unique characteristics of the TJ-II and reviewing available diagnostic injector systems, the compact system selected for TJ-II is presented together with estimates of the resulting increased signal levels Finally other important aspects are discussed, in particular its location and orientation, as well as possible solutions to avoid perturbing the TJ-II magnetic configurations in the heliac device. (Author) 31 refs.

  14. Structural analysis of the Passive Magnetic Shield for the ITER Heating Neutral Beam Injector system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrera, Santiago, E-mail: santiago.cabrera@ciemat.es [CIEMAT Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión, Avda. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Rincón, Esther; Ahedo, Begoña; Alonso, Javier; Barrera, Germán; Ramos, Francisco; Ríos, Luis [CIEMAT Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión, Avda. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); El-Ouazzani, Anass; García, Pablo [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon – CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Agarici, Gilbert [Fusion for Energy, Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3 – 07/08, 08019 Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-10-15

    The ITER Passive Magnetic Shield (PMS) main function is to protect the Neutral Beam Injector (NBI) from the external magnetic field coming from the tokamak, and to shield the NB cell from the radiation coming from all activated components. The shielding from the external magnetic field is performed in association with the Active Compensation Cooled Correction Coils (ACCC). The Bushing and Transmission Line (TL) PMS also provides structural support for HV bushing, allowing its maintenance and providing air sealing function between NBI cell and High Voltage deck room. The paper summarizes the structural analyses performed in order to evaluate the mechanical behaviour of the HNB PMS under operation combined with seismic event. The RCC-MR Code is used to validate the design, assuming creep is negligible, since the structure is expected to be at room temperature. P-type damage is assessed.

  15. Linking instantaneous rate of injection to X-ray needle lift measurements for a direct-acting piezoelectric injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viera, Juan P.; Payri, Raul; Swantek, Andrew B.; Duke, Daniel J.; Sovis, Nicolas; Kastengren, Alan L.; Powell, Christopher F.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A direct-acting prototype diesel injector is utilized to control needle lift. • The effects of partial needle lift on rate of injection are analyzed. • Time-resolved needle lift is measured from fast phase-contrast X-ray images. • The link between instantaneous needle lift and rate of injection is analyzed. - Abstract: Internal combustion engines have been and still are key players in today’s world. Ever increasing fuel consumption standards and the ongoing concerns about exhaust emissions have pushed the industry to research new concepts and develop new technologies that address these challenges. To this end, the diesel direct injection system has recently seen the introduction of direct-acting piezoelectric injectors, which provide engineers with direct control over the needle lift, and thus instantaneous rate of injection (ROI). Even though this type of injector has been studied previously, no direct link between the instantaneous needle lift and the resulting rate of injection has been quantified. This study presents an experimental analysis of the relationship between instantaneous partial needle lifts and the corresponding ROI. A prototype direct-acting injector was utilized to produce steady injections of different magnitude by partially lifting the needle. The ROI measurements were carried out at CMT-Motores Térmicos utilizing a standard injection rate discharge curve indicator based on the Bosch method (anechoic tube). The needle lift measurements were performed at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. The analysis seeks both to contribute to the current understanding of the influence that partial needle lifts have over the instantaneous ROI and to provide experimental data with parametric variations useful for numerical model validations. Results show a strong relationship between the steady partial needle lift and the ROI. The effect is non-linear, and also strongly dependent on the injection pressure. The

  16. Design of deuterium and tritium pellet injector systems for Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wysor, R.B.; Baylor, L.R.; Bryan, W.E.

    1985-01-01

    Three pellet injector designs developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are planned for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) to reach the goal of a tritium pellet injector by 1988. These are the Repeating Pneumatic Injector (RPI), the Deuterium Pellet Injector (DPI) and the Tritium Pellet Injector (TPI). Each of the pellet injector designs have similar performance characteristics in that they deliver up to 4-mm-dia pellets at velocities up to 1500 m/s with a dsign goal to 2000 m/s. Similar techniques are utilized to freeze and extrude the pellet material. The injector systems incorporate three gun concepts which differ in the number of gun barrels and the method of forming and chambering the pellets. The RPI, a single barrel repeating design, has been operational on TFTR since April 1985. Fabrication and assembly are essentially complete for DPI, and TPI is presently on hold after completing about 80% of the design. The TFTR pellet injector program is described, and each of the injector systems is described briefly. Design details are discussed in other papers at this symposium

  17. PC-based control of a high-voltage injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantin, F.

    1998-01-01

    The stability of high voltage injectors is one of the major problems in any accelerator system. Most of the troubles encountered in the normal operation of an accelerator are connected with the ion source and associated high voltage platforms, regardless of the source or high voltage generator type. The quality of the ion beam injected in the accelerator strongly depends on the power supplies used in the injector and on the ability to control the non-electrical parameters (gas-flow, temperature, etc.). A wide used method in controlling is based on optical links between high-voltage platform and computer, the adjustments being more or less automated. Although the method mentioned above can be still useful in injector control, a different approach is presented in this work, i.e., the computer itself is placed inside the high-voltage terminal. Only one optical link is still necessary to connect this computer with an user-friendly host at ground potential. Requirements: - varying and monitoring the filament current; - gas flow control in the ion source; - reading the vacuum values; - current and voltage control for the anodic, magnet, extraction, suppression and lens' sources. Even in the high voltage terminal there are compartments with different voltages regardless the floating ground. In our injector the extraction voltage is applied on the top of the ion source including the filament and the anodic voltage. The extraction voltage is of maximum 30 kV. In this situation a second optical link is required to transfer the control for the anodic and magnet source power supply assuming the dedicated computer on the floating ground. One PC is placed inside the high voltage terminal and one PC outside the injector. The optical link (more precisely two optical wires) connects the serial ports. The inside computer is equipped with two multipurpose ADC/DAC and digital I/O card. They permit to read or output DC levels ranging between 0 to 10 volts or TTL signals. The filament

  18. Novel design for transparent high-pressure fuel injector nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falgout, Z.; Linne, M.

    2016-08-01

    The efficiency and emissions of internal combustion (IC) engines are closely tied to the formation of the combustible air-fuel mixture. Direct-injection engines have become more common due to their increased practical flexibility and efficiency, and sprays dominate mixture formation in these engines. Spray formation, or rather the transition from a cylindrical liquid jet to a field of isolated droplets, is not completely understood. However, it is known that nozzle orifice flow and cavitation have an important effect on the formation of fuel injector sprays, even if the exact details of this effect remain unknown. A number of studies in recent years have used injectors with optically transparent nozzles (OTN) to allow observation of the nozzle orifice flow. Our goal in this work is to design various OTN concepts that mimic the flow inside commercial injector nozzles, at realistic fuel pressures, and yet still allow access to the very near nozzle region of the spray so that interior flow structure can be correlated with primary breakup dynamics. This goal has not been achieved until now because interior structures can be very complex, and the most appropriate optical materials are brittle and easily fractured by realistic fuel pressures. An OTN design that achieves realistic injection pressures and grants visual access to the interior flow and spray formation will be explained in detail. The design uses an acrylic nozzle, which is ideal for imaging the interior flow. This nozzle is supported from the outside with sapphire clamps, which reduces tensile stresses in the nozzle and increases the nozzle's injection pressure capacity. An ensemble of nozzles were mechanically tested to prove this design concept.

  19. PICs in the injector complex - what are we talking about?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanke, K

    2014-01-01

    This presentation will identify PIC activities for the LHC injector chain, and point out borderline cases to pure consolidation and upgrade. The most important PIC items will be listed for each LIU project (PSB, PS, SPS) and categorized by a) the risk if not performed and b) the implications of doing them. This will in particular address the consequences on performance, schedule, reliability, commissioning time, operational complexity etc. The additional cost of PICs with regard to pure consolidation will be estimated and possible time lines for the implementation of the PICs will be discussed. In this context, it will be evaluated if the PICs can be implemented over several machine stops

  20. Two-pulse acceleration for BEPCII injector linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei Shilun; Wang Shuhong; Lu Weibin

    2007-01-01

    In order to double the injection rate of positron beam from the linac to the storage ring of BEPC II, a two-pulse generation and acceleration scheme has been proposed. The two-pulse simulation by programs including LIAR, PARMELA, EGUN and TRANSPORT is described first and the method is applied in the beam dynamics studies of BEPC II linac. The experiment of two-pulse acceleration was performed in BEPC II linac and some preliminary results are obtained, which provides a good reference for further upgrading of BEPC II injector linac. (authors)

  1. IONS FOR LHC STATUS OF THE INJECTOR CHAIN

    CERN Document Server

    Manglunki, Django; Borburgh, J; Carli, C; Chanel, M; Dumas, L; Fowler, T; Gourber-Pace, M; Hancock, S; Hourican, M; Jowett, John M; Küchler, D; Mahner, E; Martini, M; Maury, S; Pasinelli, S; Raich, U; Rey, A; Royer, J-P; Scrivens, R; Sermeus, L; Tranquille, G; Vallet, J L; Vandorpe, B

    2007-01-01

    The LHC will, in addition to proton runs, be operated with Pb ions and provide collisions at energies of 5.5 TeV per nucleon pair, i.e. more than 1.1 PeV per event, to experiments. The transformation of CERN's ion injector complex (Linac3-LEIR-PS-SPS) to allow collision of ions in LHC in 2008 is well under way. The status of these modifications and the latest results of commissioning will be presented. The remaining challenges are reviewed.

  2. Development of the pellet injector for JT-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawasaki, Kouzo; Hiratsuka, Hajimo; Takatsu, Hideyuki; Shimizu, Masatsugu; Onozuka, Masanori; Uchikawa, Takashi; Iwamoto, Syuichi; Hashiri, Nobuo

    1989-01-01

    The pneumatic 4-shot pellet injector has been installed and operated for JT-60 (JAERI Tokamak-60). The performance tests have proved that the device provides high speed hydrogen pellets just as planned. The maximum pellet velocity obtained in the hydrogen pellet tests is greater than 1.6 km/sec at 50 bar propellant gas. The device is now in use for JT-60 contributing to plasma study. In this paper the outline of features and performance of the device is presented. (author). 4 refs.; 8 figs

  3. Passive heat removal system with injector-condenser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soplenkov, K I [All-Russian Inst. of Nuclear Power Plant Operation, Electrogorsk Research and Engineering Centre of Nuclear Power Safety (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-01

    The system described in this paper is a passive system for decay heat removal from WWERs. It operates off the secondary side of the steam generators (SG). Steam is taken from the SG to operate a passive injector pump which causes secondary fluid to be pumped through a heat exchanger. Variants pass either water or steam from the SG through the heat exchanger. There is a passive initiation scheme. The programme for experimental and theoretical validation of the system is described. (author). 8 figs.

  4. Fuel injector nozzle for an internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Mark S.; Urven, Jr., Roger L.; Lawrence, Keith E.

    2008-11-04

    A direct injection fuel injector includes a nozzle tip having a plurality of passages allowing fluid communication between an inner nozzle tip surface portion and an outer nozzle tip surface portion and directly into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. A first group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in a first common plane. A second group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in at least a second common plane substantially parallel to the first common plane. The second group has more passages than the first group.

  5. Hyperion II: a heavy ion pre-injector for Saturne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivier, M.; Auclair, J.P.; Courtois, A.

    1983-01-01

    Since 1978, the 3GeV synchrotron Saturne is routinely operated with proton, deuteron, helium beams and, since 1981 with polarized protons and deuterons. Heavy ions are expected in 1983 by using a new pre-injector presently under construction. The marriage of an EBIS and an RFQ can be looked upon generally as a very good means of production of heavy ion beams at low energy. In the first paragraph, the cryogenic version of EBIS, called CRYEBIS, is described, while the RFQ design is studied in detail in paragraph two. The construction status is given in a third paragraph

  6. ALS annual report 2005 - Main issue 5: 5. IVD colloquium on wood burning - systems management for the future. Fine dust reduction, condensing boiler technology, storage heaters. Contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This proceedings volume contains the papers presented at the 18th colloquium of the Stuttgart University WG on air pollution abatement, which was held jointly with the 5th Stuttgart wood furnaces colloquium this year. This was a good combination as wood has high relevance for air pollution abatement: On the one hand, wood as a fuel will reduce CO2 emissions, improve air quality and save resources. On the other hand, wood combustion may cause fine dust emissions, unpleasant smells and other side effects of incomplete combustion, especially in small furnaces. Fine dust emissions were characterized and future requirements on biomass combustion defined. After this, strategies for optimum design and construction, modern off-gas treatment technologies, high-efficiency combustion technologies, flameless combustion, and efficient combinations of wood furnaces and heat stores were gone into. The utilisation of pellets from cereals and straw was mentioned as well. (orig.)

  7. Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a reference boiling water reactor power station. Volume 1. Main report. Technical report, September 1977-October 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oak, H.D.; Holter, G.M.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Konzek, G.J.

    1980-06-01

    Technology, safety and cost information is given for the conceptual decommissioning of a large (1100MWe) boiling water reactor (BWR) power station. Three approaches to decommissioning, immediate dismantlement, safe storage with deferred dismantlement and entombment, were studied to obtain comparisons between costs, occupational radiation doses, potential dose to the public and other safety impacts. It also shows the sensitivity of decommissioning safety and costs to the power rating of a BWR in the range of 200 to 1100 MWE

  8. Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a reference boiling water reactor power station. Volume 1. Main report. Technical report, September 1977-October 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oak, H.D.; Holter, G.M.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Konzek, G.J.

    1980-06-01

    Technology, safety and cost information is given for the conceptual decommissioning of a large (1100MWe) boiling water reactor (BWR) power station. Three approaches to decommissioning, immediate dismantlement, safe storage with deferred dismantlement and entombment, were studied to obtain comparisons between costs, occupational radiation doses, potential dose to the public and other safety impacts. It also shows the sensitivity of decommissioning safety and costs to the power rating of a BWR in the range of 200 to 1100 MWE.

  9. Control and diagnostics of technical state of main electro technical and thermal equipment of NPP, TPS and HPS on the basis of thermovision technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banduryan, B.B.; Fedorenko, G.M.; Ostapchuk, L.B.; Saratov, V.O.

    2006-01-01

    The opportunity of using of thermovision technologies for detection of defects NPP, TPS and HPS electro technical and power equipment is shown. The results of thermovision monitoring of a turbine generator stator technical state are represented. The method for thermovision control of a technical state of a electrical machines and apparatus construction elements, for which the patent of Ukraine have been obtained, is described. he verification of the offered expedient thermovision control and diagnostics at 'Elektrovazhmash' factory was carried out

  10. Experimental study of acoustic damping induced by gas-liquid scheme injectors in a combustion chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hak Soon; Sohn, Chae Hoon

    2007-01-01

    In a liquid rocket engine, acoustic damping induced by gas-liquid scheme injectors is studied experimentally for combustion stability by adopting linear acoustic test. In the previous work, it has been found that gas-liquid scheme injector can play a significant role in acoustic damping or absorption when it is tuned finely. Based on this finding, acoustic-damping characteristics of multi-injectors are intensively investigated. From the experimental data, it is found that acoustic oscillations are almost damped out by multi-injectors when they have the tuning length proposed in the previous study. The length corresponds to a half wavelength of the first longitudinal overtone mode traveling inside the injector with the acoustic frequency intended for damping in the chamber. But, new injector-coupled acoustic modes show up in the chamber with the injectors of the tuning length although the target mode is nearly damped out. And, appreciable frequency shift is always observed except for the case of the worst tuned injector. Accordingly, it is proposed that the tuning length is adjusted to have the shorter length than a half wavelength when these phenomena are considered

  11. 2 MV injector as the Elise front-end and as an experimental facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, S.S.; Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E.; Peters, C.; Reginato, L.; Tauschwitz, A.; Grote, D.; Deadrick, F.

    1996-01-01

    We report on progress in the preparation of the 2 MV injector at LBNL as the front end of Elise and as a multipurpose experimental facility for heavy ion fusion beam dynamics studies. Recent advances in the performance and understanding of the injector are described, and some of the ongoing experimental activities are summarized. (orig.)

  12. The high current test facility injector operation to 40 mA dc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ungrin, J.; Ormrod, J.H.; Michel, W.L.

    1976-01-01

    The high current test facility injector is a 750 keV proton accelerator designed to investigate the problems involved in the acceleration of intense dc proton beams. The performance of the injector and the experience gained in operation with dc beams up to 40 mA are described. (author)

  13. First operational experience with the positive-ion injector of ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollinger, L M; Pardo, R C; Shepard, K W; Bogaty, J M; Clifft, B E; Munson, F H; Zinkann, G [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1993-04-15

    The recently completed positive-ion injector for the heavy-ion accelerator ATLAS was designed as a replacement for the tandem injector of the present tandem-linac system and, unlike the tandem, the positive-ion injector is required to provide ions from the full range of the periodic table. The concept for the new injector, which consists of an ECR ion source on a voltage platform coupled to a very-low-velocity superconducting linac, introduces technical problems and uncertainties that are well beyond those encountered previously for superconducting linacs. The solution to these problems and their relationship to performance are outlined, and initial experience in the acceleration of heavy-ion beams through the entire ATLAS system is discussed. The unusually good longitudinal beam quality of ATLAS with its new injector is emphasized. (orig.).

  14. First operational experience with the positive-ion injector of ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollinger, L.M.; Pardo, R.C.; Shepard, K.W.; Bogaty, J.M.; Clifft, B.E.; Munson, F.H.; Zinkann, G.

    1992-01-01

    The recently completed positive-ion injector for the heavy-ion accelerator ATLAS was designed as a replacement for the tandem injector of the present tandem-linac system and, unlike the tandem, the positive-ion injector is required to provide ions from the full range of the periodic table. The concept for the new injector, which consists of an ECR ion source on a voltage platform coupled to a very-low-velocity superconducting linac, introduces technical problems and uncertainties that are well beyond those encountered previously for superconducting linacs. The solution to these problems and their relationship to performance are outlined, and initial experience in the acceleration of heavy-ion beams through the entire ATLAS system is discussed. The unusually good longitudinal beam quality of ATLAS with its new injector is emphasized

  15. Transient Tolerant Automated Control System for the LEDA 75kV Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuot, M.E.; Dalesio, L.R.; Harrington, M.; Hodgkins, D.; Kerstiens, D.M.; Stettler, M.W.; Warren, D.S.; Zaugg, T.; Arvin, A.; Bolt, S.; Richards, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Low-Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) injector is designed to inject 75-keV, 110-mA, proton beams into the LEDA RFQ. The injector operation has been automated to provide long term, high availability operation using the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). Automated recovery from spark-downs demands reliable spark detection and sequence execution by the injector controller. Reliable computer control in the high-energy transient environment required transient suppression and isolation of hundreds of analog and binary data lines connecting the EPICS computer controller to the injector and it's power supplies and diagnostics. A transient suppression design based on measured and modeled spark transient parameters provides robust injector operation. This paper describes the control system hardware and software design, implementation and operational performance

  16. A numerical study of candidate transverse fuel injector configurations in the Langley scramjet engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, J. P.

    1980-01-01

    A computer program has been developed that numerically solves the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes and species equations near one or more transverse hydrogen fuel injectors in a scramjet engine. The program currently computes the turbulent mixing and reaction of hydrogen fuel and air, and allows the study of separated regions of the flow immediately preceding and following the injectors. The complex shock-expansion structure produced by the injectors in this region of the engine can also be represented. Results are presented that describe the flow field near two opposing transverse fuel injectors and two opposing staged (multiple) injectors, and comparisons between the two configurations are made to assess their mixing and flameholding qualities.

  17. The control system for the multiple-pellet injector on the Joint European Torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baylor, L.R.; Jernigan, T.C.; Stewart, K.A.

    1989-01-01

    A stand-alone control and data acquisition system for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) multiple-pellet injector installed on the Joint European Torus (JET) has been designed and installed with the injector. This system, which is based on a MicroVAX II computer and a programmable logic controller (PLC), is an upgrade of previous systems designed for ORNL pellet injectors installed on other fusion experiments. The primary control system upgrades are in the user interface, in the automation of sequential injector operation, and in the analysis of the transient data acquired for each pellet fired. The system is integrated into the JET CODAS environment through CAMAC communications modules with customized communications software. Routine operation of the injector is automated and requires no operator intervention. Details of the hardware and software design and the operation of the system are presented in this paper. 4 refs., 3 figs

  18. First operational experience with the positive-ion injector of ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollinger, L.M.; Pardo, R.C.; Shepard, K.W.; Bogaty, J.M.; Clifft, B.E.; Munson, F.H.; Zinkann, G.

    1992-08-01

    The recently completed positive-ion injector for the heavy-ion accelerator ATLAS was designed as a replacement for the tandem injector of the present tandem-linac system and, unlike the tandem, the positive-ion injector is required to provide ions from the full range of the periodic table. The concept for the new injector, which consists of an ECR ion source on a voltage platform coupled to a very-low-velocity superconducting linac, introduces technical problems and uncertainties that are well beyond those encountered previously for superconducting linacs. The solution to these problems and their relationship to performance are outlined, and initial experience in the acceleration of heavy-ion beams through the entire ATLAS system is discussed. The unusually good longitudinal beam quality of ATLAS with its new injector is emphasized.

  19. First operational experience with the positive-ion injector of ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollinger, L.M.; Pardo, R.C.; Shepard, K.W.; Bogaty, J.M.; Clifft, B.E.; Munson, F.H.; Zinkann, G.

    1992-01-01

    The recently completed positive-ion injector for the heavy-ion accelerator ATLAS was designed as a replacement for the tandem injector of the present tandem-linac system and, unlike the tandem, the positive-ion injector is required to provide ions from the full range of the periodic table. The concept for the new injector, which consists of an ECR ion source on a voltage platform coupled to a very-low-velocity superconducting linac, introduces technical problems and uncertainties that are well beyond those encountered previously for superconducting linacs. The solution to these problems and their relationship to performance are outlined, and initial experience in the acceleration of heavy-ion beams through the entire ATLAS system is discussed. The unusually good longitudinal beam quality of ATLAS with its new injector is emphasized.

  20. Accuracy of MRI-compatible contrast media injectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saake, M; Wuest, W; Becker, S; Uder, M; Janka, R

    2014-03-01

    To analyze the exactness of MRI-compatible contrast media (CM) injectors in an experimental setup and clinical use. Ejected fluid volumes and amounts of CM were quantified for single and double piston injections. The focus was on small volumes, as used in pediatric examination and test-bolus measurements. Samples were collected before and after clinical MRI scans and amounts of CM were measured. For single piston injections the volume differences were minimal (mean difference 0.01  ml). For double piston injections the volume of the first injection was decreased (mean 20.74  ml, target 21.00  ml, p pistons of modern CM injectors work exactly. However, for small CM volumes the injected amount of CM can differ significantly from the target value in both directions. Influence factors are an incomplete elimination of air and exchange processes between the CM and saline chaser in the injection system. • In MRI examinations of children and test-bolus measurements, small amounts of CM are used. • The accuracy of single piston injections is high. • In double piston injections the injected amount of CM can differ significantly from the target value. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.