WorldWideScience

Sample records for technology macro-scale dm

  1. Nondestructive chemical imaging of wood at the micro-scale: advanced technology to complement macro-scale evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara L. Illman; Julia Sedlmair; Miriam Unger; Carol Hirschmugl

    2013-01-01

    Chemical images help understanding of wood properties, durability, and cell wall deconstruction for conversion of lignocellulose to biofuels, nanocellulose and other value added chemicals in forest biorefineries. We describe here a new method for nondestructive chemical imaging of wood and wood-based materials at the micro-scale to complement macro-scale methods based...

  2. Scaling up: Assessing social impacts at the macro-scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schirmer, Jacki

    2011-01-01

    Social impacts occur at various scales, from the micro-scale of the individual to the macro-scale of the community. Identifying the macro-scale social changes that results from an impacting event is a common goal of social impact assessment (SIA), but is challenging as multiple factors simultaneously influence social trends at any given time, and there are usually only a small number of cases available for examination. While some methods have been proposed for establishing the contribution of an impacting event to macro-scale social change, they remain relatively untested. This paper critically reviews methods recommended to assess macro-scale social impacts, and proposes and demonstrates a new approach. The 'scaling up' method involves developing a chain of logic linking change at the individual/site scale to the community scale. It enables a more problematised assessment of the likely contribution of an impacting event to macro-scale social change than previous approaches. The use of this approach in a recent study of change in dairy farming in south east Australia is described.

  3. Discrete-element method simulations: from micro to macro scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyes, D M; Baxter, J; Tüzün, U; Qin, R S

    2004-09-15

    Many liquid systems encountered in environmental science are often complex mixtures of many components which place severe demands on traditional computational modelling techniques. A meso scale description is required to account adequately for their flow behaviour on the meso and macro scales. Traditional techniques of computational fluid dynamics and molecular simulation are not well suited to tackling these systems, and researchers are increasingly turning to a range of relatively new computational techniques that offer the prospect of addressing the factors relevant to multicomponent multiphase liquids on length- and time-scales between the molecular level and the macro scale. In this category, we discuss the off-lattice techniques of 'smooth particle hydrodynamics' (SPH) and 'dissipative particle dynamics' (DPD), and the grid-based techniques of 'lattice gas' and 'lattice Boltzmann' (LB). We highlight the main conceptual and technical features underpinning these methods, their strengths and weaknesses, and provide a few examples of the applications of these techniques that illustrate their utility.

  4. The prefabricated building risk decision research of DM technology on the basis of Rough Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Z. L.; Zhang, W. B.; Ma, L. H.

    2017-08-01

    With the resources crises and more serious pollution, the green building has been strongly advocated by most countries and become a new building style in the construction field. Compared with traditional building, the prefabricated building has its own irreplaceable advantages but is influenced by many uncertainties. So far, a majority of scholars have been studying based on qualitative researches from all of the word. This paper profoundly expounds its significance about the prefabricated building. On the premise of the existing research methods, combined with rough set theory, this paper redefines the factors which affect the prefabricated building risk. Moreover, it quantifies risk factors and establish an expert knowledge base through assessing. And then reduced risk factors about the redundant attributes and attribute values, finally form the simplest decision rule. This simplest decision rule, which is based on the DM technology of rough set theory, provides prefabricated building with a controllable new decision-making method.

  5. Macro Scale Independently Homogenized Subcells for Modeling Braided Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinzler, Brina J.; Goldberg, Robert K.; Binienda, Wieslaw K.

    2012-01-01

    An analytical method has been developed to analyze the impact response of triaxially braided carbon fiber composites, including the penetration velocity and impact damage patterns. In the analytical model, the triaxial braid architecture is simulated by using four parallel shell elements, each of which is modeled as a laminated composite. Currently, each shell element is considered to be a smeared homogeneous material. The commercial transient dynamic finite element code LS-DYNA is used to conduct the simulations, and a continuum damage mechanics model internal to LS-DYNA is used as the material constitutive model. To determine the stiffness and strength properties required for the constitutive model, a top-down approach for determining the strength properties is merged with a bottom-up approach for determining the stiffness properties. The top-down portion uses global strengths obtained from macro-scale coupon level testing to characterize the material strengths for each subcell. The bottom-up portion uses micro-scale fiber and matrix stiffness properties to characterize the material stiffness for each subcell. Simulations of quasi-static coupon level tests for several representative composites are conducted along with impact simulations.

  6. Investigation of Micro- and Macro-Scale Transport Processes for Improved Fuel Cell Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Wenbin [General Motors LLC, Pontiac, MI (United States)

    2014-08-29

    This report documents the work performed by General Motors (GM) under the Cooperative agreement No. DE-EE0000470, “Investigation of Micro- and Macro-Scale Transport Processes for Improved Fuel Cell Performance,” in collaboration with the Penn State University (PSU), University of Tennessee Knoxville (UTK), Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT), and University of Rochester (UR) via subcontracts. The overall objectives of the project are to investigate and synthesize fundamental understanding of transport phenomena at both the macro- and micro-scales for the development of a down-the-channel model that accounts for all transport domains in a broad operating space. GM as a prime contractor focused on cell level experiments and modeling, and the Universities as subcontractors worked toward fundamental understanding of each component and associated interface.

  7. Dermatomyositis (DM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Dermatomyositis Share | Dermatomyositis (DM) is a rare inflammatory muscle disease that ... drugs, and infectious agents) in genetically predisposed individuals. Dermatomyositis can occur with other connective tissue disorders such ...

  8. Construction of Modular Hydrogel Sheets for Micropatterned Macro-scaled 3D Cellular Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Jaejung; Bae, Chae Yun; Park, Je-Kyun

    2016-01-11

    Hydrogels can be patterned at the micro-scale using microfluidic or micropatterning technologies to provide an in vivo-like three-dimensional (3D) tissue geometry. The resulting 3D hydrogel-based cellular constructs have been introduced as an alternative to animal experiments for advanced biological studies, pharmacological assays and organ transplant applications. Although hydrogel-based particles and fibers can be easily fabricated, it is difficult to manipulate them for tissue reconstruction. In this video, we describe a fabrication method for micropatterned alginate hydrogel sheets, together with their assembly to form a macro-scale 3D cell culture system with a controlled cellular microenvironment. Using a mist form of the calcium gelling agent, thin hydrogel sheets are easily generated with a thickness in the range of 100 - 200 µm, and with precise micropatterns. Cells can then be cultured with the geometric guidance of the hydrogel sheets in freestanding conditions. Furthermore, the hydrogel sheets can be readily manipulated using a micropipette with an end-cut tip, and can be assembled into multi-layered structures by stacking them using a patterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) frame. These modular hydrogel sheets, which can be fabricated using a facile process, have potential applications of in vitro drug assays and biological studies, including functional studies of micro- and macrostructure and tissue reconstruction.

  9. Modise, DM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modise, DM. Vol 7, No 9 (2008) - Articles Potential for domestication and commercialization of Hoodia and Opuntia species in Botswana Abstract PDF · Vol 8, No 10 (2009) - Articles The influence of exogenously applied 2,4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on fruit drop and quality of navel oranges (Citrus sinensis L.)

  10. Macro-scale complexity of nano- to micro-scale architecture of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Macro-scale complexity of nano- to micro-scale architecture of olivine crystals through an iodine vapour transport mechanism. RAYMOND L D WHITBYa,b,∗. , TAKAHIRO FUKUDAb and TORU MAEKAWAb. aNanoscience and Nanotechnology Group, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Brighton, Lewes Road,.

  11. Macro-scale approach for rough frictionless multi-indentation on a viscoelastic half-space

    OpenAIRE

    DUBOIS, Guillaume; CESBRON, Julien; YIN, Hai Ping; ANFOSSO LEDEE, Fabienne

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the numerical study of frictionless viscoelastic tyre/road contact. The present macro-scale approach takes into account both the viscoelastic behaviour of the tyre and the roughness of the road surface by solving the contact problem between a rough multi-indentation surface and a viscoelastic half-space. The method relies on the fact that a viscoelastic solution can be instantaneously reduced to an elastic solution. A simplified description of viscoelastic material behav...

  12. Handbook of damage mechanics nano to macro scale for materials and structures

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This authoritative reference provides comprehensive coverage of the topics of damage and healing mechanics. Computational modeling of constitutive equations is provided as well as solved examples in engineering applications. A wide range of materials that engineers may encounter are covered, including metals, composites, ceramics, polymers, biomaterials, and nanomaterials. The internationally recognized team of contributors employ a consistent and systematic approach, offering readers a user-friendly reference that is ideal for frequent consultation. Handbook of Damage Mechanics: Nano to Macro Scale for Materials and Structures is ideal for graduate students and faculty, researchers, and professionals in the fields of Mechanical Engineering, Civil Engineering, Aerospace Engineering, Materials Science, and Engineering Mechanics.

  13. Digital holographic setups for phase object measurements in micro and macro scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lédl Vít

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of properties of so called phase objects is being solved for more than one Century starting probably with schlieren technique 1. Classical interferometry served as a great measurement tool for several decades and was replaced by holographic interferometry, which disposes with many benefits when compared to classical interferometry. Holographic interferometry undergone an enormous development in last decade when digital holography has been established as a standard technique and most of the drawbacks were solved. The paper deals with scope of the huge applicability of digital holographic interferometry in heat and mass transfer measurement from micro to macro scale and from simple 2D measurement up to complex tomographic techniques. Recently the very complex experimental setups are under development in our labs combining many techniques leading to digital holographic micro tomography methods.

  14. Predator-prey interactions as macro-scale drivers of species diversity in mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandom, Christopher James; Sandel, Brody Steven; Dalby, Lars

    Background/Question/Methods Understanding the importance of predator-prey interactions for species diversity is a central theme in ecology, with fundamental consequences for predicting the responses of ecosystems to land use and climate change. We assessed the relative support for different...... mechanistic drivers of mammal species richness at macro-scales for two trophic levels: predators and prey. To disentangle biotic (i.e. functional predator-prey interactions) from abiotic (i.e. environmental) and bottom-up from top-down determinants we considered three hypotheses: 1) environmental factors...... that determine ecosystem productivity drive prey and predator richness (the productivity hypothesis, abiotic, bottom-up), 2) consumer richness is driven by resource diversity (the resource diversity hypothesis, biotic, bottom-up) and 3) consumers drive richness of their prey (the top-down hypothesis, biotic, top...

  15. Effectiveness of technology-assisted case management in low income adults with type 2 diabetes (TACM-DM: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strom Joni L

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An estimated 1 in 3 American adults will have diabetes by the year 2050. Nationally, South Carolina ranks 10th in cases of diagnosed diabetes compared to other states. In adults, type 2 diabetes (T2DM accounts for approximately 90-95% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes. Clinically, provider and health system factors account for Methods We describe a four-year prospective, randomized clinical trial, which will test the effectiveness of technology-assisted case management in low income rural adults with T2DM. Two-hundred (200 male and female participants, 18 years of age or older and with an HbA1c ≥ 8%, will be randomized into one of two groups: (1 an intervention arm employing the innovative FORA system coupled with nurse case management or (2 a usual care group. Participants will be followed for 6-months to ascertain the effect of the interventions on glycemic control. Our primary hypothesis is that among indigent, rural adult patients with T2DM treated in FQHC's, participants randomized to the technology-assisted case management intervention will have significantly greater reduction in HbA1c at 6 months of follow-up compared to usual care. Discussion Results from this study will provide important insight into the effectiveness of technology-assisted case management intervention (TACM for optimizing diabetes care in indigent, rural adult patients with T2DM treated in FQHC's. Trial Registration National Institutes of Health Clinical Trials Registry (http://ClinicalTrials.gov identifier# NCT01373489

  16. Electrical current at micro-/macro-scale of undoped and nitrogen-doped MWPECVD diamond films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicala, G.; Velardi, L.; Senesi, G. S.; Picca, R. A.; Cioffi, N.

    2017-12-01

    Chemical, structural, morphological and micro-/macro-electrical properties of undoped and nitrogen-(N-)doped diamond films are determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopies, field emission scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) and two points technique for I-V characteristics, respectively. The characterization results are very useful to examine and understand the relationship among these properties. The effect of the nitrogen incorporation in diamond films is investigated through the evolution of the chemical, structural, morphological and topographical features and of the electrical behavior. The distribution of the electrical current is first assessed at millimeter scale on the surface of diamond films and then at micrometer scale on small regions in order to establish the sites where the carriers preferentially move. Specifically, the SCM images indicate a non-uniform distribution of carriers on the morphological structures mainly located along the grain boundaries. A good agreement is found by comparing the electrical currents at the micro- and macro-scale. This work aims to highlight phenomena such as photo- and thermionic emission from N-doped diamond useful for microelectronic engineering.

  17. Micro-macro scale instability in 2D regular granular assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Anil; Poorsolhjouy, Payam

    2015-01-01

    Instability and stress-strain behavior were investigated for 2D regular assemblies of cylindrical particles. Biaxial shear experiments were performed on three sets of assemblies with regular, albeit increasingly defective structures. These experiments revealed unique instability behavior of these assemblies. Continuum models for the assemblies were then constructed using the granular micromechanics approach. In this approach, the constitutive equations governing the behavior of inter-particle contacts are written in local or microscopic level. The behavior of the RVE is then retrieved by using either kinematic constraint or least squares (static constraint) along with the principle of virtual work to equate the work done by microscopic force-displacement conjugates to that of the macroscopic stress and strain tensor conjugates. The ability of the two continuum approaches to describe the measured stress-strain behavior was evaluated. The continuum models and the local constitutive laws were used to perform instability analyses. The onset of instability and orientation of shear band was found to be well predicted by the instability analyses with the continuum models. Further, macro-scale instability was found to correlate with the instability of inter-particle contacts, although with some variations for the two modeling approaches.

  18. Detecting benzoyl peroxide in wheat flour by line-scan macro-scale Raman chemical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jianwei; Kim, Moon S.; Chao, Kuanglin; Gonzalez, Maria; Cho, Byoung-Kwan

    2017-05-01

    Excessive use of benzoyl peroxide (BPO, a bleaching agent) in wheat flour can destroy flour nutrients and cause diseases to consumers. A macro-scale Raman chemical imaging method was developed for direct detection of BPO mixed in the wheat flour. A 785 nm line laser was used in a line-scan Hyperspectral Raman imaging system. Raman images were collected from wheat flour mixed with BPO at eight concentrations (w/w) from 50 to 6,400 ppm. A sample holder (150×100×2 mm3) was used to present a thin layer (2 mm thick) of the powdered sample for image acquisition. A baseline correction method was used to correct the fluctuating fluorescence signals from the wheat flour. To isolate BPO particles from the flour background, a simple thresholding method was applied to the single-band fluorescence-free images at a unique Raman peak wavenumber (i.e., 1001 cm-1) preselected for the BPO detection. Chemical images were created to detect and map the BPO particles. Limit of detection for the BPO was estimated in the order of 50 ppm, which is on the same level with regulatory standards.

  19. Shales and geological waste repositories: from microstructure description to macro-scale properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournassat, C.; Steefel, C. I.; Gaboreau, S.

    2017-12-01

    The mineralogical and chemical properties of clays have been the subject of longstanding study for the long-term disposal of nuclear wastes in geological repositories. The low permeability of clay materials, including shales, provides at least part of the safety functions for radionuclide contaminants confinement. From a geochemical and mineralogical point of view, the high adsorption capacity of clay minerals adds to the effect of low hydraulic conductivities by greatly increasing the retardation of radionuclides and other contaminants, making clays ideal where isolation from the biosphere is desired. While their low permeability and high adsorption capacity are widely acknowledged, it is clear nonetheless that there is a need for an improved understanding of how the chemical and mineralogical properties of shales impact their macroscopic properties. It is at the pore-scale that the chemical properties of clay minerals become important since their electrostatic properties can play a large role. The negative electrostatic potential field at the clay mineral surfaces results in the presence of porosity domains where electroneutrality is not achieved: cations are attracted by the surfaces while anions are repulsed from them, resulting in the presence of a diffuse ion swarm - or diffuse layer. Numerical methods for modeling macroscopic properties of clay media with the consideration of the presence of a diffuse ion swarm have met a growing interest in diverse communities in the past years. In this presentation we will highlight the complex interplays of mineralogical, chemical and microstructural characteristics of clay materials that are ultimately responsible for a remarkable array of macro-scale properties such as specific adsorption, high swelling pressure, semi-permeable membrane properties, and non-Fickian diffusional behavior.

  20. Molecular and macro-scale analysis of enzyme-crosslinked silk hydrogels for rational biomaterial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Meghan; Coburn, Jeannine M; Partlow, Benjamin P; Mu, Xuan; Kaplan, David L

    2017-11-01

    Silk fibroin-based hydrogels have exciting applications in tissue engineering and therapeutic molecule delivery; however, their utility is dependent on their diffusive properties. The present study describes a molecular and macro-scale investigation of enzymatically-crosslinked silk fibroin hydrogels, and demonstrates that these systems have tunable crosslink density and diffusivity. We developed a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS) method to assess the quantity and order of covalent tyrosine crosslinks in the hydrogels. This analysis revealed between 28 and 56% conversion of tyrosine to dityrosine, which was dependent on the silk concentration and reactant concentration. The crosslink density was then correlated with storage modulus, revealing that both crosslinking and protein concentration influenced the mechanical properties of the hydrogels. The diffusive properties of the bulk material were studied by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), which revealed a non-linear relationship between silk concentration and diffusivity. As a result of this work, a model for synthesizing hydrogels with known crosslink densities and diffusive properties has been established, enabling the rational design of silk hydrogels for biomedical applications. Hydrogels from naturally-derived silk polymers offer versitile opportunities in the biomedical field, however, their design has largely been an empirical process. We present a fundamental study of the crosslink density, storage modulus, and diffusion behavior of enzymatically-crosslinked silk hydrogels to better inform scaffold design. These studies revealed unexpected non-linear trends in the crosslink density and diffusivity of silk hydrogels with respect to protein concentration and crosslink reagent concentration. This work demonstrates the tunable diffusivity and crosslinking in silk fibroin hydrogels, and enables the rational design of biomaterials. Further, the characterization methods

  1. Hydrocarbon Migration from the Micro to Macro Scale in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, C.; Marty, E.; Silva, M.; Natter, M.; Shedd, W. W.; Hill, J. C.; Viso, R. F.; Lobodin, V.; Krajewski, L.; Abrams, M.; MacDonald, I. R.

    2016-02-01

    In the Northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM) at GC600, ECOGIG has been investigating the processes involved in hydrocarbon migration from deep reservoirs to sea surface. We studied two individual vents, Birthday Candles (BC) and Mega-Plume (MP), which are separated by 1km on a salt supported ridge trending from NW-SE. Seismic data depicts two faults, also separated by 1km, feeding into the surface gas hydrate region. BC and MP comprise the range between oily, mixed, and gaseous-type vents. In both cases bubbles are observed escaping from gas hydrate out crops at the sea floor and supporting chemosynthetic communities. Fluid flow is indicated by features on the sea floor such as hydrate mounds, authigenic carbonates, brine pools, mud volcanoes, and biology. We propose a model to describe the upward flow of hydrocarbons from three vertical scales, each dominated by different factors: 1) macro (capillary failure in overlying cap rocks causing reservoir leakage), 2) meso (buoyancy driven fault migration), and 3) micro (hydrate formation and chemosynthetic activity). At the macro scale we use high reflectivity in seismic data and sediment pore throat radii to determine the formation of fractures in leaky reservoirs. Once oil and gas leave the reservoir through fractures in the cap rock they migrate in separate phases. At the meso scale we use seismic data to locate faults and salt diapirs that form conduits for buoyant hydrocarbons follow. This connects the path to the micro scale where we used video data to observe bubble release from individual vents for extended periods of time (3h-26d), and developed an image processing program to quantify bubble release rates. At mixed vents gaseous bubbles are observed escaping hydrate outcrops with a coating of oil varying in thickness. Bubble oil and gas ratios are estimated using average bubble size and release rates. The relative vent age can be described by carbonate hard ground cover, biological activity, and hydrate mound formation

  2. Implementation and adaptation of a macro-scale methodology to calculate direct economic losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natho, Stephanie; Thieken, Annegret

    2017-04-01

    forestry sector. Furthermore overheads are proposed to include costs of housing content as well as the overall costs of public infrastructure, one of the most important damage sectors. All constants considering sector specific mean sizes or construction costs were adapted. Loss ratios were adapted for each event. Whereas the original UNISDR method over- und underestimates the losses of the tested events, the adapted method is able to calculate losses in good accordance for river floods, hail storms and storms. For example, for the 2013-flood economic losses of EUR 6.3 billion were calculated (UNISDR EUR 0.85 billion, documentation EUR 11 billion). For the hail storms in 2013 the calculated EUR 3.6 billion overestimate the documented losses of EUR 2.7 billion less than the original UNISDR approach with EUR 5.2 billion. Only for flash floods, where public infrastructure can account for more than 90% of total losses, the method is absolutely not applicable. The adapted methodology serves as a good starting point for macro-scale loss estimations by accounting for the most important damage sectors. By implementing this approach into damage and event documentation and reporting standards, a consistent monitoring according to the SFDRR could be achieved.

  3. Picometer-Resolution MEMS Segmented DM Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology has the potential to create deformable mirrors (DM) with 10^4 actuators that have size, weight, and power...

  4. Preface Gi4DM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zlatanova, S.; Sithole, G.; Nakagawa, M.; Zhu, Q.

    2015-01-01

    Gi4DM 2015 marks the 10th edition of the Geoinformation for Disaster Management series of conferences. The first conference in 2005 was held in the aftermath of the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami which claimed the lives of over 220000 civilians. While Geoinformatics has a long been used in

  5. Thermo-mechanical efficiency of the bimetallic strip heat engine at the macro-scale and micro-scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnaud, A; Boughaleb, J; Monfray, S; Boeuf, F; Skotnicki, T; Cugat, O

    2015-01-01

    Bimetallic strip heat engines are energy harvesters that exploit the thermo-mechanical properties of bistable bimetallic membranes to convert heat into mechanical energy. They thus represent a solution to transform low-grade heat into electrical energy if the bimetallic membrane is coupled with an electro-mechanical transducer. The simplicity of these devices allows us to consider their miniaturization using MEMS fabrication techniques. In order to design and optimize these devices at the macro-scale and micro-scale, this article proposes an explanation of the origin of the thermal snap-through by giving the expressions of the constitutive equations of composite beams. This allows us to evaluate the capability of bimetallic strips to convert heat into mechanical energy whatever their size is, and to give the theoretical thermo-mechanical efficiencies which can be obtained with these harvesters. (paper)

  6. Ubiquitous CM and DM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Sandra L.

    2000-01-01

    Ubiquitous is a real word. I thank a former Total Quality Coach for my first exposure some years ago to its existence. My version of Webster's dictionary defines ubiquitous as "present, or seeming to be present, everywhere at the same time; omnipresent." While I believe that God is omnipresent, I have come to discover that CM and DM are present everywhere. Oh, yes; I define CM as Configuration Management and DM as either Data or Document Management. Ten years ago, I had my first introduction to the CM world. I had an opportunity to do CM for the Space Station effort at the NASA Lewis Research Center. I learned that CM was a discipline that had four areas of focus: identification, control, status accounting, and verification. I was certified as a CMIl graduate and was indoctrinated about clear, concise, and valid. Off I went into a world of entirely new experiences. I was exposed to change requests and change boards first hand. I also learned about implementation of changes, and then of technical and CM requirements.

  7. Emerging technologies to achieve oral delivery of GLP-1 and GLP-1 analogs for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengwu Ma

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 is a gastrointestinal (GI peptide hormone that stimulates insulin secretion, gene expression and β-cell proliferation, representing a potentially novel and promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of T2DM. DPP-IV-resistant, long-acting GLP-1 analogs have already been approved by FDA as injectable drugs for treating patients with T2DM. Oral delivery of therapeutic peptides and proteins would be preferred owing to advantages of lower cost, ease of administration and greater patient adherence. However, oral delivery of proteins can be affected by rapid enzymatic degradation in the GI tract and poor penetration across the intestinal membrane, which may require amounts that exceed practical consideration. Various production strategies have been explored to overcome challenges associated with the oral delivery of therapeutic peptides and proteins. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of the current state of progress made towards the oral delivery of GLP-1 and its analogs in the treatment of T2DM, with special emphasis on the development of plant and food-grade bacterial delivery systems. Recently, genetically engineered plants and food-grade bacteria have been increasingly explored as novel carrier systems for the oral delivery of peptide and protein drugs. These have a largely unexplored potential to serve both as an expression system and as a delivery vehicle for clinically relevant, cost effective therapeutics. As such, they hold great promise for human biopharmaceuticals and novel therapies against various diseases.

  8. Comparing SMAP to Macro-scale and Hyper-resolution Land Surface Models over Continental U. S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ming; Cai, Xitian; Chaney, Nathaniel; Wood, Eric

    2016-04-01

    SMAP sensors collect moisture information in top soil at the spatial resolution of ~40 km (radiometer) and ~1 to 3 km (radar, before its failure in July 2015). Such information is extremely valuable for understanding various terrestrial hydrologic processes and their implications on human life. At the same time, soil moisture is a joint consequence of numerous physical processes (precipitation, temperature, radiation, topography, crop/vegetation dynamics, soil properties, etc.) that happen at a wide range of scales from tens of kilometers down to tens of meters. Therefore, a full and thorough analysis/exploration of SMAP data products calls for investigations at multiple spatial scales - from regional, to catchment, and to field scales. Here we first compare the SMAP retrievals to the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) macro-scale land surface model simulations over the continental U. S. region at 3 km resolution. The forcing inputs to the model are merged/downscaled from a suite of best available data products including the NLDAS-2 forcing, Stage IV and Stage II precipitation, GOES Surface and Insolation Products, and fine elevation data. The near real time VIC simulation is intended to provide a source of large scale comparisons at the active sensor resolution. Beyond the VIC model scale, we perform comparisons at 30 m resolution against the recently developed HydroBloks hyper-resolution land surface model over several densely gauged USDA experimental watersheds. Comparisons are also made against in-situ point-scale observations from various SMAP Cal/Val and field campaign sites.

  9. The ArDM experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Haranczyk, M; Badertscher, A; Boccone, V; Bourgeois, N; Bueno, A; Carmona-Benitez, M C; Chorowski, M; Creus, W; Curioni, A; Daw, E; Degunda, U; Dell'Antone, A; Droge, M; Epprecht, L; Haller, C; Horikawa, S; Kaufmann, L; Kisiel, J; Knecht, L; Laffranchi, M; Lagoda, J; Lazzaro, C; Lightfoot, P; Lozano, J; Lussi, D; Maire, G; Mania, S; Marchionni, A; Mavrokoridis, K; Melgarejo, A; Mijakowski, P; Natterer, G; Navas-Concha, S; Otiougova, P; Piotrowska, A; Polinski, J; de Prado, M; Przewlocki, P; Ravat, S; Regenfus, C; Resnati, F; Robinson, M; Rochet, J; Romero, L; Rondio, E; Rubbia, A; Scotto-Lavina, L; Spooner, N; Viant, T; Trawinski, A; Ulbricht, J; Zalewska, A

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the ArDM project is the development and operation of a one ton double-phase liquid argon detector for direct Dark Matter searches. The detector measures both the scintillation light and the ionization charge from ionizing radiation using two independent readout systems. This paper briefly describes the detector concept and presents preliminary results from the ArDM R&D program, including a 3 l prototype developed to test the charge readout system.

  10. Picometer-Resolution MEMS Segmented DM, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology has the potential to create deformable mirrors (DM) with 10^4 actuators that have size, weight, and power...

  11. 1015 PTT Segment MEMS DM Development, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology has the potential to create deformable mirrors (DM) with more than 10^4 actuators with size, weight, and power...

  12. Picometer-Resolution MEMS Segmented DM, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology has the potential to create deformable mirrors (DM) with 10^4 actuators that have size, weight, and power...

  13. 12 billion DM for Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    The German atomic industry has achieved the break-through to the world market: Brazil orders eight nuclear electricity generating plants from Siemens-AEG daughter Kraftwerk-Union. US concerns attacked the twelve billion DM deal, the biggest export order in the history of German industry. Without avail - the contract is to be signed in Bonn this week. (orig./LH) [de

  14. MEMS DM development at Iris AO, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmbrecht, Michael A.; He, Min; Kempf, Carl J.; Besse, Marc

    2011-03-01

    Iris AO is actively developing piston-tip-tilt (PTT) segmented MEMS deformable mirrors (DM) and adaptive optics (AO) controllers for these DMs. This paper discusses ongoing research at Iris AO that has advanced the state-of-the-art of these devices and systems over the past year. Improvements made to open-loop operation and mirror fabrication enables mirrors to open-loop flatten to 4 nm rms. Additional testing of an anti snap-in technology was conducted and demonstrates that the technology can withstand 100 million snap-in events without failure. Deformable mirrors with dielectric coatings are shown that are capable of handling 630 W/cm2 of incident laser power. Over a localized region on the segment, the dielectric coatings can withstand 100kW/cm2 incident laser power for 30 minutes. Results from the first-ever batch of PTT489 DMs that were shipped to pilot customers are reported. Optimizations made to the open-loop PTT controller are shown to have latencies of 157.5 μs and synchronous array update rates of nearly 6.5 kHz. Finally, plans for the design and fabrication of the next-generation PTT939 DM are presented.

  15. Monitoring and assessment of soil erosion at micro-scale and macro-scale in forests affected by fire damage in northern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarzadeh, Ali; Ghorbani-Dashtaki, Shoja; Naderi-Khorasgani, Mehdi; Kerry, Ruth; Taghizadeh-Mehrjardi, Ruhollah

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the occurrence of erosion processes at large scales is very difficult without studying them at small scales. In this study, soil erosion parameters were investigated at micro-scale and macro-scale in forests in northern Iran. Surface erosion and some vegetation attributes were measured at the watershed scale in 30 parcels of land which were separated into 15 fire-affected (burned) forests and 15 original (unburned) forests adjacent to the burned sites. The soil erodibility factor and splash erosion were also determined at the micro-plot scale within each burned and unburned site. Furthermore, soil sampling and infiltration studies were carried out at 80 other sites, as well as the 30 burned and unburned sites, (a total of 110 points) to create a map of the soil erodibility factor at the regional scale. Maps of topography, rainfall, and cover-management were also determined for the study area. The maps of erosion risk and erosion risk potential were finally prepared for the study area using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) procedure. Results indicated that destruction of the protective cover of forested areas by fire had significant effects on splash erosion and the soil erodibility factor at the micro-plot scale and also on surface erosion, erosion risk, and erosion risk potential at the watershed scale. Moreover, the results showed that correlation coefficients between different variables at the micro-plot and watershed scales were positive and significant. Finally, assessment and monitoring of the erosion maps at the regional scale showed that the central and western parts of the study area were more susceptible to erosion compared with the western regions due to more intense crop-management, greater soil erodibility, and more rainfall. The relationships between erosion parameters and the most important vegetation attributes were also used to provide models with equations that were specific to the study region. The results of this

  16. Evaluation of Micro- and Macro-Scale Petrophysical Characteristics of Lower Cretaceous Sandstone with Flow Modeling in µ-CT Imaged Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsman, R.; Haruzi, P.; Waldmann, N.; Halisch, M.

    2017-12-01

    In this study petrophysical characteristics of rock samples from 3 successive outcrop layers of Hatira Formation Lower Cretaceous Sandstone in northen Israel were evaluated at micro- and macro-scales. The study was carried out by two complementary methods: using conventional experimental measurements of porosity, pore size distribution and permeability; and using a 3D µCT imaging and modeling of signle-phase flow in the real micro-scale sample geometry. The workfow included µ-CT scanning, image processing, image segmentation, and image analyses of pore network, followed by fluid flow simulations at a pore-scale. Upscaling the results of the micro-scale flow simulations yielded a macroscopic permeabilty tensor. Comparison of the upscaled and the experimentally measured rock properties demonstrated a reasonable agreement. In addition, geometrical (pore size distribution, surface area and tortuosity) and topological (Euler characteristic) characteristics of the grains and of the pore network were evaluated at a micro-scale. Statistical analyses of the samples for estimation of anisotropy and inhomogeneity of the porous media were conducted and the results agree with anisotropy and inhomogeneity of the upscaled permeabilty tensor. Isotropic pore orientation of the primary inter-granular porosity was identified in all three samples, whereas the characteristics of the secondary porosity were affected by precipitated cement and clay matrix within the primary pore network. Results of this study provide micro- and macro-scale characteristics of the Lower Cretaceous sandstone that is used in different places over the world as a reservoir for petroleum production and png;base64,R0lGODlhHAARAHcAMSH+GlNvZnR3YXJlOiBNaWNyb3NvZnQgT2ZmaWNlACH5BAEAAAAALAAABAAYAA0AhAAAAAAAAAAAOgAAZgA6kABmtjoAADoAZjo6kDqQ22YAAGa2/5A6AJA6ZpDb/7ZmALb//9uQOtv///+2Zv/bkP//tv//2wECAwECAwECAwECAwECAwECAwECAwECAwECAwVtICBaTGAWIkCaA5S+QKWgZCJSBgo8hASrjJ4osgDqABOB45dcwpopKIznmwpFkxas9uOmqDBZMawYxxS2iakn

  17. Snow cover setting-up dates in the north of Eurasia: relations and feedback to the macro-scale atmospheric circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Popova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Variations of snow cover onset data in 1950–2008 based on daily snow depth data collected at first-order meteorological stations of the former USSR compiled at the Russia Institute of Hydrometeorological Information are analyzed in order to reveal climatic norms, relations with macro-scale atmospheric circulation and influence of snow cover anomalies on strengthening/weakening of westerly basing on observational data and results of simulation using model Planet Simulator, as well. Patterns of mean snow cover setting-up data and their correlation with temperature of the Northern Hemisphere extra-tropical land presented in Fig. 1 show that the most sensible changes observed in last decade are caused by temperature trend since 1990th. For the most portion of the studied territory variations of snow cover setting-up data may be explained by the circulation indices in the terms of Northern Hemisphere Teleconnection Patterns: Scand, EA–WR, WP and NAO (Fig. 2. Role of the Scand and EA–WR (see Fig. 2, а, в, г is recognized as the most significant.Changes of snow cover extent calculated on the base of snow cover onset data over the Russia territory, and its western and eastern parts as well, for the second decade of October (Fig. 3 demonstrate significant difference in variability between eastern and western regions. Eastern part of territory essentially differs by lower both year-to-year and long-term variations in the contrast to the western part, characterized by high variance including long-term tendencies: increase in 1950–70th and decrease in 1970–80 and during last six years. Nevertheless relations between snow cover anomalies and Arctic Oscillation (AO index appear to be significant exceptionally for the eastern part of the territory. In the same time negative linear correlation revealed between snow extent and AO index changes during 1950–2008 from statistically insignificant values (in 1950–70 and 1996–2008 to coefficient

  18. Specializing CRISP-DM for evidence mining

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Venter, JP

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available or establishing a specialization of CRISP-DM. This paper offers the specialization of CRISP-DM as a way forward in meeting the requirement of a process to support evidence mining. The aim of CRISP-EM is not to provide a new Cyber Forensic process but to support...

  19. Coupled DM Heating in SCDEW Cosmologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Bonometto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Strongly-Coupled Dark Energy plus Warm dark matter (SCDEW cosmologies admit the stationary presence of ∼1% of coupled-DM and DE, since inflationary reheating. Coupled-DM fluctuations therefore grow up to non-linearity even in the early radiative expansion. Such early non-linear stages are modelized here through the evolution of a top-hat density enhancement, reaching an early virial balance when the coupled-DM density contrast is just 25–26, and the DM density enhancement is ∼10 % of the total density. During the time needed to settle in virial equilibrium, the virial balance conditions, however, continue to modify, so that “virialized” lumps undergo a complete evaporation. Here, we outline that DM particles processed by overdensities preserve a fraction of their virial momentum. Although fully non-relativistic, the resulting velocities (moderately affect the fluctuation dynamics over greater scales, entering the horizon later on.

  20. RESPON DAN KOPING PASIEN DM POST AMPUTASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candra Kusuma Negara

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Penyakit DM merupakan masalah kesehatan yang sangat penting karena berkaitan dengan tingginya kejadian komplikasi dan mortalitas yang tinggi. Bagi kebanyakan orang penyakit DM adalah suatu penyakit yang sangat mengkhawatirkan dan masyarakat sadar akan besarnya potensi bahaya yang ditimbulkannya. Bagi individu yang menderita DM dengan pasca amputasi, kehidupan selanjutnya merupakan babak baru yang penuh tantangan dan perubahan serta akan melalui proses koping terhadap proses perubahan tersebut. Secara umum penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengeksplorasi berbagai pengalaman pasien DM pasca amputasi tentang respon dan koping yang dialaminya. Penelitian ini menggunakan studi fenomenologi. Pengambilan data menggunakan indepth interview pada empat orang partisipan yang dirawat jalan di Poli kaki diabetic RSUD Ulin Banjarmasin yang dilengkapi dengan pedoman wawancara dan informed consent. Metode analisis yang terstruktur dari Creswell menjadi 6 langkah. Terdapat 2 Tema yang ditemukan dalam penelitian ini yaitu berbagai respon post amputasi dan Berbagai koping pasien DM post amputasi. Berbagai respon post amputasi terdiri dari tiga Sub-Tema yaitu: (1 Mengalami hambatan fisik, (2 Mengalami perubahan peran, (3 Mengalami proses berduka, dan Terdapat empat Sub-Tema yang menggambarkan berbagai koping pasien DM post amputasi yaitu: (1 Lebih banyak beribadah, (2 Menerima keadaan, (3 Motivasi yang kuat, (4 Mencari dukungan sosial.

  1. Influence of pH and Chloride Concentration on the Corrosion Behavior of Unalloyed Copper in NaCl Solution: A Comparative Study Between the Micro and Macro Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemie Adriaens

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of pH and chloride concentration on the electrochemical corrosion of copper in aqueous sodium chloride (NaCl media were studied at the micro scale using a microcapillary droplet cell and at the macro scale using a conventional large scale cell. Using an experimental design strategy, electrochemical response surface models of copper versus pH and NaCl concentration were constructed with the minimum number of experiments required. Results show that the electrochemical behavior of copper under corrosive media shows significant differences between the micro and macro scale experiments. At the micro scale, the pit initiation of copper occurs at more negative potentials for high NaCl concentrations and alkaline pH values. Also, the micro scale potentiostatic measurements indicate higher stabilised passive currents at high NaCl concentrations and low (acidic pH values. At the macro scale, the pH is shown to have a greater influence on the corrosion potential. The chloride concentration is the most significant factor in the passive current case while at the micro scale the effect of these two factors on the passive current was found to be the same. The surface morphology of the formed patina on the corroded copper in both micro and macro systems reveal a more significant role of the chloride concentration on the structure and the grain size of the patinas. Finally, micro and macro electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of copper at various NaCl concentrations and pH values demonstrates a different behavior of copper after several potentiodynamic polarization cycles.

  2. Consequences of DM/antiDM Oscillations for Asymmetric WIMP Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Cirelli, Marco; Servant, Geraldine; Zaharijas, Gabrijela

    2012-01-01

    Assuming the existence of a primordial asymmetry in the dark sector, a scenario usually dubbed Asymmetric Dark Matter (aDM), we study the effect of oscillations between dark matter and its antiparticle on the re-equilibration of the initial asymmetry before freeze-out, which enable efficient annihilations to recouple. We calculate the evolution of the DM relic abundance and show how oscillations re-open the parameter space of aDM models, in particular in the direction of allowing large (WIMP-scale) DM masses. A typical wimp with a mass at the EW scale (\\sim 100 GeV - 1 TeV) presenting a primordial asymmetry of the same order as the baryon asymmetry naturally gets the correct relic abundance if the DM-number-violating Delta(DM) = 2 mass term is in the \\sim meV range. The re-establishment of annihilations implies that constraints from the accumulation of aDM in astrophysical bodies are evaded. On the other hand, the ordinary bounds from BBN, CMB and indirect detection signals on annihilating DM have to be consi...

  3. From DSM to DM-ID

    OpenAIRE

    Fletcher, R. J.; Barnhill, J.; McCarthy, J.; Strydom, A.

    2016-01-01

    Recognizing the diagnostic challenges that clinicians face when attempting to arrive at an accurate psychiatric diagnosis for individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) co-occurring with mental illness (MI), in 2007 the National Association for the Dually Diagnosed (NADD), in association with the American Psychiatric Association (APA), published Diagnostic Manual—Intellectual Disability (DM-ID): A Textbook of Diagnosis of Mental Disorders in Persons with Intellectual D...

  4. Consequences of DM/antiDM oscillations for asymmetric WIMP darkmatter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirelli, M.; Panci, P.; Servant, G.

    2012-01-01

    Assuming the existence of a primordial asymmetry in the dark sector, a scenario usually dubbed Asymmetric Dark Matter (aDM), we study the effect of oscillations between dark matter and its antiparticle on the re-equilibration of the initial asymmetry before freeze-out, which enable efficient anni...

  5. Cytokines, Type 2 DM and the Metabolic Syndrome | Ogbera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    comparable in the DM subjects with and without the Mets and also comparable in obese DM and non obese DM subjects. Of the Mets defining criteria, waist circumference (WC) and Triglyceride (TG) were found to be significantly associated with only two of the studied cytokines. The correlation coefficient and p values of ...

  6. Regulatory and policy issues for T1DM immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The development of immunotherapies for T1DM has lagged the development T2DM drugs, but with more clarity around regulatory requirements, large pharmaceutical companies have recently entered the field to support late stage programs. This clarity around regulatory expectations has emerged because of the convergence among regulators and clinical experts in how efficacy of these therapies should be assessed. The key agreement is that the primary efficacy endpoint for treatments directed at the underlying autoimmune cause of T1DM should be endogenous insulin secretion as reflected by standardized C-peptide measurements. Important secondary endpoints include glycemic control, total daily insulin dose, and hypoglycemia rates. Most T1DM therapeutic development efforts are directed at new onset disease, which represents a small proportion of the entire T1DM population. A new frontier in T1DM therapeutic development is emerging around combination treatment of established T1DM, a population that far outnumbers those with new onset T1DM. Fully effective therapies of new onset or established T1DM will almost certainly require a combination of two or more therapies. A T1DM prevention vaccine will not be feasible until after extensive experience with the agent as a treatment of new onset and/or established T1DM.

  7. Zero-knowledge ST-DM watermarking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piva, A.; Cappellini, V.; Corazzi, D.; De Rosa, A.; Orlandi, C.; Barni, M.

    2006-02-01

    Recently the research in the watermarking field has concentrated its attention to the security aspects. In a watermarking application one of the most sensitive steps from the point of view of security, is the watermark extraction process: here, a prover has to prove to a verifier that a given watermark is present into the content. In the design of the system, it has to be considered that the prover is not a trusted party: the prover could try to exploit the knowledge acquired during watermark extraction to remove the embedded code and, consequently, to undermine the security of the watermarking system. To tackle this particular issue, it has been proposed to use some cryptographic techniques, defined zero-knowledge protocols, for building a secure layer on top of the watermarking channel, able to protect the watermarking algorithm against a possible information leakage. Up till now, zero-knowledge protocols have been applied to spread-spectrum based detectable watermarking algorithms. In this paper, a novel zero-knowledge protocol designed for a Spread Transform Dither Modulation (ST-DM) watermarking algorithm, belonging to the class of the informed watermarking systems, is proposed.

  8. Exploring the macro-scale CO2 mitigation potential of photovoltaics and wind energy in Europe's energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usubiaga, Arkaitz; Acosta-Fernández, José; McDowall, Will; Li, Francis G.N.

    2017-01-01

    Replacing traditional technologies by renewables can lead to an increase of emissions during early diffusion stages if the emissions avoided during the use phase are exceeded by those associated with the deployment of new units. Based on historical developments and on counterfactual scenarios in which we assume that selected renewable technologies did not diffuse, we conclude that onshore and offshore wind energy have had a positive contribution to climate change mitigation since the beginning of their diffusion in EU27. In contrast, photovoltaic panels did not pay off from an environmental standpoint until very recently, since the benefits expected at the individual plant level were offset until 2013 by the CO 2 emissions related to the construction and deployment of the next generation of panels. Considering the varied energy mixes and penetration rates of renewable energies in different areas, several countries can experience similar time gaps between the installation of the first renewable power plants and the moment in which the emissions from their infrastructure are offset. The analysis demonstrates that the time-profile of renewable energy emissions can be relevant for target-setting and detailed policy design, particularly when renewable energy strategies are pursued in concert with carbon pricing through cap-and-trade systems. - Highlights: • There is a time gap between the deployment of renewables and net CO2 mitigation. • Offshore wind energy contributes to net emission reductions in the EU27 since 2004. • PV panels contribute to net emission reductions in the EU27 since 2013. • The time-profile of renewable energy emissions is not usually considered in policy-design. • But it is important when renewable energy strategies are combined with carbon pricing.

  9. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Hepatic Tissue of T2DM Rhesus Macaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingfu Du

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a metabolic disorder that severely affects human health, but the pathogenesis of the disease remains unknown. The high-fat/high-sucrose diets combined with streptozotocin- (STZ- induced nonhuman primate animal model of diabetes are a valuable research source of T2DM. Here, we present a study of a STZ rhesus macaque model of T2DM that utilizes quantitative iTRAQ-based proteomic method. We compared the protein profiles in the liver of STZ-treated macaques as well as age-matched healthy controls. We identified 171 proteins differentially expressed in the STZ-treated groups, about 70 of which were documented as diabetes-related gene in previous studies. Pathway analyses indicated that the biological functions of differentially expressed proteins were related to glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, fatty acid metabolism, complements, and coagulation cascades. Expression change in tryptophan metabolism pathway was also found in this study which may be associations with diabetes. This study is the first to explore genome-wide protein expression in hepatic tissue of diabetes macaque model using HPLC-Q-TOF/MS technology. In addition to providing potential T2DM biomarkers, this quantitative proteomic study may also shed insights regarding the molecular pathogenesis of T2DM.

  10. Macro scale models for freight railroad terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-02

    The project has developed a yard capacity model for macro-level analysis. The study considers the detailed sequence and scheduling in classification yards and their impacts on yard capacities simulate typical freight railroad terminals, and statistic...

  11. Macro-scale turbulence modelling for flows in porous media; Modelisation a l'echelle macroscopique d'un ecoulement turbulent au sein d'un milieu poreux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinson, F

    2006-03-15

    - This work deals with the macroscopic modeling of turbulence in porous media. It concerns heat exchangers, nuclear reactors as well as urban flows, etc. The objective of this study is to describe in an homogenized way, by the mean of a spatial average operator, turbulent flows in a solid matrix. In addition to this first operator, the use of a statistical average operator permits to handle the pseudo-aleatory character of turbulence. The successive application of both operators allows us to derive the balance equations of the kind of flows under study. Two major issues are then highlighted, the modeling of dispersion induced by the solid matrix and the turbulence modeling at a macroscopic scale (Reynolds tensor and turbulent dispersion). To this aim, we lean on the local modeling of turbulence and more precisely on the k - {epsilon} RANS models. The methodology of dispersion study, derived thanks to the volume averaging theory, is extended to turbulent flows. Its application includes the simulation, at a microscopic scale, of turbulent flows within a representative elementary volume of the porous media. Applied to channel flows, this analysis shows that even within the turbulent regime, dispersion remains one of the dominating phenomena within the macro-scale modeling framework. A two-scale analysis of the flow allows us to understand the dominating role of the drag force in the kinetic energy transfers between scales. Transfers between the mean part and the turbulent part of the flow are formally derived. This description significantly improves our understanding of the issue of macroscopic modeling of turbulence and leads us to define the sub-filter production and the wake dissipation. A f - <{epsilon}>f - <{epsilon}{sub w}>f model is derived. It is based on three balance equations for the turbulent kinetic energy, the viscous dissipation and the wake dissipation. Furthermore, a dynamical predictor for the friction coefficient is proposed. This model is then

  12. Konfirmasi spesifitas GAD65 terhadap anti-GAD65 pada tikus DM dan pasien DM tipe 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulanni’a Aulanni’a

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65 from bovine brain has been studied to obtain basic knowledge and diagnosis and prediction of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (DM patients. The importance of GAD65 in DM diagnosis based on its patogenesis. One of the autoimmune marker that can be used to detect beta-pancreas destruction in Diabetes Type I is the antibody to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65. Most of the pre-diabetic patients indicate the reactive autoantibody to GAD65. For early detection of anti-GAD65 in the serum of the patient, human recombinat GAD65 has been succeed to be used. However this is not economical, therefore, it is necessary to find the alternative source of cheaper GAD65. The aim of this research is to develop an early detection kit of Type 1 DM based on antibody- GAD65, since the longest patient suffering from DM has higher probability to be complicated, especially for uncured patients. The anti- GAD65 antibodies induced by anti-GAD65 synthetized and labelled by alkaline phosphatase can be used as reagent detection early DM patients. The ten patients of DM as samples (positive of anti-GAD65 and five rats of DM were positive with western blott technique using reagents as result of this research. It can be concluded, GAD65 enzyme isolated from bovine brain induced anti-GAD65 production and have possibilities to be packaged in a diagnostic kit for patient pre DM.

  13. Pulse shape analysis for germanium detectors used in DM searches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagdeev, I.R. (Department of Physics, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)); Drukier, A.K. (Department of Physics, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)); Welsh, D.J. (Department of Physics, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)); Klimenko, A.A. (Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation)); Osetrov, S.B. (Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation)); Smolnikov, A.A. (Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation))

    1994-05-01

    Progress in Ge detector technology has resulted in ultralow backgrounds of less than 0.3 countskeV[sup -1]kg[sup -1]d[sup -1] at energies between 6 and 9keV and from 12 to 20keV. Between 4 and 6keV it is less than 2 countskeV[sup -1]kg[sup -1]d[sup -1]. Coupled with good energy resolution, 0.4keV FWHM at 10keV, this allows searches for DM particles with m[>=]qslant8GeV/c[sup 2].Electromagnetic interference (EMI) and acoustical pick-up are the main sources of background in the best Ge detectors. A PC-based on-line pulse shape analysis system is presented which permits rejection of large fraction of the EMI/acoustical background. The hardware uses a low cost, commercially available digital storage oscilloscope (DSO). The software consists of about 40000 lines of code in Pascal and assembly language. We tested this system using a low radioactive background Ge-system at the Baksan observatory. For low energy events (<100keV) this system permits improvement in the background by about 20-30%. ((orig.))

  14. Temporomandibular dysfunction in adult patients with myotonic dystrophy (DM1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejersjö, C; Kiliaridis, S

    2017-10-01

    Myotonic muscle dystrophy is a systemic disease with early engagement of the facial muscles. Our aim was to study dysfunction of the temporomandibular system in patients with 'classic' dystrophia myotonica (DM1) and compare it with TMD patients and healthy controls. The study included 27 referred patients with DM1, 18 women and nine men, aged 30-62 years, and two matched control groups: patients with temporomandibular disorders symptoms (TMD) and healthy controls, both groups were consecutive patients. The patients answered questions regarding facial pain, jaw function and dysfunction. A clinical examination of the temporomandibular system including the occlusion was performed, and the maximum bite force and finger forces were measured. Among the DM1 patients, 33% reported difficulty biting off, and 22% had difficulty chewing, avoiding foods like meat and raw vegetables, and 37% of the DM1 patients scored their pain and discomfort as moderate to fairly severe. Their main complaints were TMJ clicking and locking, difficulty opening wide and tiredness. They had more clinical signs of dysfunction compared with the controls (P < 0·001), but no statistically significant difference to the TMD patients. The maximum bite force in DM1 patients was impaired compared to both the TMD patients and the controls (P < 0·001). Significantly more occlusal interferences were found in DM1 patients and were associated with chewing difficulties (P < 0·001). In conclusion, patients suffering from DM1 had an increased prevalence of TMD symptoms, reported impaired chewing function and had a decreased maximum bite force. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Senam efektif Menurunkan Kadar Gula Darah Pasien DM Tipe 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jati Ekawati

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes is one of the major threats to human health in the 21st century. Indonesia's own country with diabetes mellitus was ranked the world's fourth largest with 8.6% of the total prevalence of diabetes sufferers after India, China, and the United States. Factors that influence diabetes include; 1 age, 2 Obesity, 3 Family History, and 4 ethnic group. There are four pillars of prevention in Indonesia which is applied to the diabetes to control blood sugar levels, namely: 1 diet, 2 Physical Exercise, 3 medications, and 4 Health Education. Objective: To determine the effect of physical exercises Gymnastic DM administration and Gymnastic Senior to decrease blood sugar levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. Method: This study is a quantitative study with this type of study without a comparison group quasy experiments. The design of the study is a pretest-posttest one group design. Number of samples used were 41 respondents from the participants calisthenics DM in the psychiatric hospital. Prof. dr. Soerojo Magelang. Analysis of the data used is the analysis bivariabel univariabel and analysis using statistical models Paired sample t-tests with significance level α = 0.05. Result: There was a decrease in blood sugar levels after exercise DM for 3 times a week for 2 weeks, an average of 64.780 mg/dl. T count value obtained at 13.624 with a p-value 0.000 <0.05, means that there are significant differences in blood sugar levels before and after doing gymnastic DM and Gymnastic Senior. Conclusion: The provision of physical training exercises conducted by DM DM participants calisthenics in Prof. RSJ. Dr. Soerojo Magelang for 3 times a week for 2 weeks can lower blood sugar levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  16. Design Overview of the DM Radio Pathfinder Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Feaver, Maximiliano; Chaudhuri, Saptarshi; Cho, Hsaio-Mei; Dawson, Carl; Graham, Peter; Irwin, Kent; Kuenstner, Stephen; Li, Dale; Mardon, Jeremy; Moseley, Harvey; hide

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the DM Radio, a dual search for axion and hidden photon dark matter using a tunable superconducting lumped-element resonator. We discuss the prototype DM Radio Pathfinder experiment, which will probe hidden photons in the 500 peV (100 kHz)-50 neV (10 MHz) mass range. We detail the design of the various components: the LC resonant detector, the resonant frequency tuning procedure, the differential SQUID readout circuit, the shielding, and the cryogenic mounting structure. We present the current status of the pathfinder experiment and illustrate it's potential science reach in the context of the larger experimental program.

  17. Molecular mechanisms in DM1 - a focus on foci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pettersson, Olof Joakim; Aagaard, Lars; Jensen, Thomas G.

    2015-01-01

    -expanded RNA remains in the nuclear compartment, while in dividing cells such as fibroblasts a considerable fraction of the mutant RNA reaches the cytoplasm, consistent with findings that both nuclear and cytoplasmic events are mis-regulated in DM1. Recent evidence suggests that the nuclear aggregates......, or ribonuclear foci, are more dynamic than previously anticipated and regulated by several proteins, including RNA helicases. In this review, we focus on the homeostasis of DMPK mRNA foci and discuss how their dynamic regulation may affect disease-causing mechanisms in DM1...

  18. DM2 results on J/PSI decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augustin, J.E.; Calcaterra, S.; Cosme, G.

    1985-04-01

    Results of the DM2 experiment at DECI from 8.6+-1.5 10 6 produced J/PSI's are presented on J/PSI decays into pantip and ΛantiΛ, and radiative decays into the hypothetical xi(2220), theta(1700), iota(1440) particles, and the etasub(C)(2980). 6 refs.

  19. Semiautomatic estimation of breast density with DM-Scan software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Gómez, I; Casals El Busto, M; Antón Guirao, J; Ruiz Perales, F; Llobet Azpitarte, R

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the reproducibility of the calculation of breast density with DM-Scan software, which is based on the semiautomatic segmentation of fibroglandular tissue, and to compare it with the reproducibility of estimation by visual inspection. The study included 655 direct digital mammograms acquired using craniocaudal projections. Three experienced radiologists analyzed the density of the mammograms using DM-Scan, and the inter- and intra-observer agreement between pairs of radiologists for the Boyd and BI-RADS® scales were calculated using the intraclass correlation coefficient. The Kappa index was used to compare the inter- and intra-observer agreements with those obtained previously for visual inspection in the same set of images. For visual inspection, the mean interobserver agreement was 0,876 (95% CI: 0,873-0,879) on the Boyd scale and 0,823 (95% CI: 0,818-0,829) on the BI-RADS® scale. The mean intraobserver agreement was 0,813 (95% CI: 0,796-0,829) on the Boyd scale and 0,770 (95% CI: 0,742-0,797) on the BI-RADS® scale. For DM-Scan, the mean inter- and intra-observer agreement was 0,92, considerably higher than the agreement for visual inspection. The semiautomatic calculation of breast density using DM-Scan software is more reliable and reproducible than visual estimation and reduces the subjectivity and variability in determining breast density. Copyright © 2012 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Knowledge for Democracy Myanmar (K4DM): Operating costs for ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    It will do so at both the organizational and individual levels among civil society, business leaders, and government, including legislators and policymakers. K4DM will work with other ... The present project covers the operational costs of the new initiative, including two full-time staff, travel, and administrative costs. Given the ...

  1. Yoga: Managing overweight in mid-life T2DM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhe, Ashwini Sham; Pailoor, Subramanya; Metri, Kashinath; Ganpat, Tikhe Sham; Ramarao, Nagendra Hongasandra

    2015-01-01

    The dramatic rise in the prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with increased mortality, morbidity as well as public health care expenses worldwide. Previous research suggests that yoga holds promise for obesity and T2DM management. The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of intensive integrated approach of yoga therapy (IAYT) on body fat and body mass index (BMI) and resting metabolism in mid-life overweight patients with T2DM (BMI, Mean ± SD, 27.05 ± 4.51). Twenty-four mid-life patients (6 females) with T2DM (Age, Mean ± SD, 55.38 ± 7.96 years) participated in the study and practiced IAYT for 7 days. The IAYT works at five layers of human existence (physical, vital, mental, intellectual and bliss) to bring positive health. The body fat and BMI and resting metabolism were recorded before and after IAYT using Karada Scan body composition monitor HBF-375 from Omron Healthcare Singapore PTE LTD. SPSS-16 was used to analyze the data. Shapiro-Wilk test showed that the data was not normally distributed. Further, the Wilcoxon signed-ranks test was used to analyze the change in means of pre- and post-measurements. Data analysis showed that there was a significant decrease in body fat and BMI and resting metabolism (in all assessments, P mid-life patients with T2DM. Additional well-designed studies are needed before a strong recommendation can be made.

  2. Hyperuricaemia and the metabolic syndrome in type 2 DM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogbera Anthonia O

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated serum uric acid levels (SUA have been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases and the metabolic syndrome (MetS and are often reported to be higher in females than in males. The aim of this report is to determine the prevalence and clinical correlates of hyperuricaemia and also to evaluate associations with the MetS in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM. Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted in people with type 2 DM in Lagos, Nigeria. Hyperuricaemia was defined by cut-off values of > 7 mg/dl for men and > 6 mg/dl for women. The diagnosis of MetS was made using the new definition by the American Heart Association and other related bodies. Clinical and biochemical parameters were compared between subjects with hyperuricaemia and normouricaemia. Statistical analysis included usage of Student's t test, Pearson correlation coefficients, multivariate regression analysis and chi square. Results 601 patients with type 2 DM aged between 34-91 years were recruited for the study. The prevalence rates of hyperuricaemia and the MetS were 25% and 60% respectively. The frequency of occurrence of hyperuricaemia was comparable in both genders (59% vs 41%, p = 0.3. Although, the prevalence of the MetS in subjects with hyperuricaemia and normouricaemia was comparable (61 vs 56%, p = 0.1, a higher proportion of hyperuricaemic subjects had 3 or more components of the Mets compared with normouricaemic subjects. Possible predictors of hyperuricaemia include central obesity, smoking and elevated serum triglycerides (TG. SUA levels were found to be positively and significantly associated with serum TG (r = 0.2, p = 0.0001 and total cholesterol (r = 13, p = 0.001. Conclusion The prevalence of hyperuricaemia in subjects with type 2 DM is comparable in both genders and possible predictors of hyperuricaemia are potentially modifiable. SUA is positively and significantly associated with serum TG and total

  3. Focal plane based wavefront sensing with random DM probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluzhnik, Eugene; Sirbu, Dan; Belikov, Ruslan; Bendek, Eduardo; Dudinov, Vladimir N.

    2017-09-01

    An internal coronagraph with an adaptive optical system for wavefront control is being considered for direct imaging of exoplanets with upcoming space missions and concepts, including WFIRST, HabEx, LUVOIR, EXCEDE and ACESat. The main technical challenge associated with direct imaging of exoplanets is to control of both diffracted and scattered light from the star so that even a dim planetary companion can be imaged. For a deformable mirror (DM) to create a dark hole with 10-10 contrast in the image plane, wavefront errors must be accurately measured on the science focal plane detector to ensure a common optical path. We present here a method that uses a set of random phase probes applied to the DM to obtain a high accuracy wavefront estimate even for a dynamically changing optical system. The presented numerical simulations and experimental results show low noise sensitivity, high reliability, and robustness of the proposed approach. The method does not use any additional optics or complex calibration procedures and can be used during the calibration stage of any direct imaging mission. It can also be used in any optical experiment that uses a DM as an active optical element in the layout.

  4. Space shuttle development Motor No. 9 (DM-9), volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garecht, Diane M.

    1990-01-01

    The results obtained during the December 23, 1987 static firing of the DM-9 test article are presented. The DM-9 full-scale static test article employed redesigned solid rocket motor (RSRM) field joint capture feature hardware with J-seal insulation configuration, and nozzle-to-case joint radial bolt design with bonded insulation configuration. The nozzle incorporated RSRM components, including a thicker cowl with involuted outer boot ring. The nozzle employed redundant and verifiable seals in all five joints, and room temperature vulcanization backfill in three joints. With very few exceptions, the DM-9 test article was flight configuration. The test was conducted under extreme weather conditions: temperature of 25 F and wind at 15 to 20 mph. Ballistics performance values were within specification requirements. The RSRM field joint (J-seal) insulation configuration functioned as predicted with no indication of hot gases reaching the capture feature O-rings. There was a blowhole in the polysulfide adhesive in the nozzle-to-case joint, but no evidence of hot gases past the wiper O-ring. Nozzle design changes appeared to perform nominally, with the exception of the outer boot ring, which suffered partial structural breakup late in the test. Field joint heaters maintained the controlling resistance temperature device temperature within the specified requirements during heater operation. The thrust vector control system operated properly. The redesigned water deluge system, temperature conditioning equipment, and other test support equipment performed as planned.

  5. SELF MANAGEMENT INTERVENTION INCREASING COMPLIANCE IN PATIENT WITH DM

    OpenAIRE

    Siti Nur Kholifah

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM) was a degenerative disease which often found in the community. Diabetes was caused by unhealthy habits, such as overeating, lack of exercise, and stress. The purpose of this study was to identify selfmanagement as one of the interventions that can improve treatment compliance in patients with diabetes. Method: This study was used quasy experiments non randomized pretest-posttest design. Samples were 20 families who lived with type 2 diabetes patient. Varia...

  6. SELF MANAGEMENT INTERVENTION INCREASING COMPLIANCE IN PATIENT WITH DM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nur Kholifah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM was a degenerative disease which often found in the community. Diabetes was caused by unhealthy habits, such as overeating, lack of exercise, and stress. The purpose of this study was to identify selfmanagement as one of the interventions that can improve treatment compliance in patients with diabetes. Method: This study was used quasy experiments non randomized pretest-posttest design. Samples were 20 families who lived with type 2 diabetes patient. Variable independent was self management intervention and variable dependent was patient complience. Data were collected by using interview, food recall, and observation on behavioral change. Data then analyzed by using paired t-test with α≤0.05. Results: The results had showed that before intervention only 3 (15 % respondents who obey diabetes diet, then increase to 19 (95 % respondents after intervention with p value=0.000. Patient’s medication compliance also increased, from 6 (30 % respondents before intervention to 20 (100% respondents after intervention, with p value= 0.000. Patient compliance on exercise also increase from 2 (10% respondents before intervention, become 19 (95% respondents after intervention, with p value=0.000. Discussion: Self management intervention could improve patient’s knowledge, problem-solving skills, and self-effi cacy. Self management should be done after the patient had understand their disease and realized the importance of self-care. Community health nurses were expected to implement self management as one of nursing intervention, so that patient compliance on their treatment can be increased. Key words: Self management intervention, compliance, patient DM type 2

  7. An Integrative Review of Self-Efficacy Measurement Instruments in Youth with Type 1 Diabetes (T1DM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasbach, Lisa; Jenkins, Carolyn; Laffel, Lori

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to assess the extant literature on instruments used to measure self-efficacy in youth with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and their caregivers and to critically evaluate these measurements. Methods An integrative review (2003–2013) was conducted searching PsycINFO, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and U.S. National Library of Medicine PubMed service (PubMed) databases using key words diabetes, type 1 diabetes, and self-efficacy. The authors reviewed the resulting294 references for inclusion criteria of (a) sample of youth with T1DM or sample of caregivers of youth with T1DM, (b) description of the self-efficacy instrument as primary research, and (c) the instrument measured self-efficacy specifically related to diabetes management. Forty-five articles out of the initial 294 met criteria. Results Of the 45 articles, 10 different self-efficacy instruments were identified. The primary theoretical framework used was Bandura’s social cognitive theory and model of self-efficacy. Most participants were white middle class T1DM youth. Evaluations to assess validity often were not reported; however, a majority of studies reported high internal consistency of the instruments. Conclusions Sample homogeneity could limit the applicability of results to certain patient populations. Further psychometric analysis, including validity assessments, should be conducted in more diverse samples. Development of valid and reliable instruments for measuring self-efficacy that are sensitive to change across a wider caregiver base over time is necessary. While this review examined reliable and valid instruments used in research, future opportunities include evaluation of measuring self-efficacy in T1DM youth exposed to recent advances in diabetes management technologies. PMID:25216655

  8. Contrasting weight changes with LY2605541, a novel long-acting insulin, and insulin glargine despite similar improved glycaemic control in T1DM and T2DM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacober, S J; Rosenstock, J; Bergenstal, R M; Prince, M J; Qu, Y; Beals, J M

    2014-04-01

    The basal insulin analogue LY2605541, a PEGylated insulin lispro with prolonged duration of action, was previously shown to be associated with modest weight loss in Phase 2, randomized, open-label trials in type 2 (N=288) and type 1 (N=137) diabetes mellitus (T2DM and T1DM), compared with modest weight gain with insulin glargine. Exploratory analyses were conducted to further characterize these findings. Pearson correlations between change in body weight and other variables were calculated. Continuous variables were analysed using a mixed linear model with repeated measurements. Proportions of subjects with weight loss were analysed using Fisher's exact test for T2DM and Nagelkerke's method for T1DM. Weight loss was more common in LY2605541-treated patients than in patients treated with insulin glargine (T2DM: 56.9 vs. 40.2%, p=0.011; T1DM: 66.1 vs. 40.3%, pT2DM: 4.8 vs. 0%, p=0.033; T1DM: 11.9 vs. 0.8%, pT2DM studies, weight change did not correlate with baseline body mass index (BMI), or change in HDL-cholesterol in either treatment group. No consistent correlations were found across both studies between weight change and any of the variables assessed; however, weight change was significantly correlated with hypoglycaemia rate in glargine-treated T2DM patients. In two Phase 2 trials, improved glycaemic control with long-acting basal insulin analogue LY2605541 is associated with weight loss in previously insulin-treated patients. This weight change is independent of baseline BMI or hypoglycaemia.

  9. DM100 AND DM1200 MELTER TESTING WITH HIGH WASTE LOADING GLASS FORMULATIONS FOR HANFORD HIGH-ALUMINUM HLW STREAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; KOT WK; PEGG IL; JOSEPH I

    2009-12-30

    This Test Plan describes work to support the development and testing of high waste loading glass formulations that achieve high glass melting rates for Hanford high aluminum high level waste (HLW). In particular, the present testing is designed to evaluate the effect of using low activity waste (LAW) waste streams as a source of sodium in place ofchemical additives, sugar or cellulose as a reductant, boehmite as an aluminum source, and further enhancements to waste processing rate while meeting all processing and product quality requirements. The work will include preparation and characterization of crucible melts in support of subsequent DuraMelter 100 (DM 100) tests designed to examine the effects of enhanced glass formulations, glass processing temperature, incorporation of the LAW waste stream as a sodium source, type of organic reductant, and feed solids content on waste processing rate and product quality. Also included is a confirmatory test on the HLW Pilot Melter (DM1200) with a composition selected from those tested on the DM100. This work builds on previous work performed at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) for Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of River Protection (ORP) to increase waste loading and processing rates for high-iron HLW waste streams as well as previous tests conducted for ORP on the same waste composition. This Test Plan is prepared in response to an ORP-supplied statement of work. It is currently estimated that the number of HLW canisters to be produced in the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is about 12,500. This estimate is based upon the inventory ofthe tank wastes, the anticipated performance of the sludge treatment processes, and current understanding of the capability of the borosilicate glass waste form. The WTP HLW melter design, unlike earlier DOE melter designs, incorporates an active glass bubbler system. The bubblers create active glass pool convection and thereby improve heat

  10. Small Molecules that Enhance the Catalytic Efficiency of HLA-DM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, M.; Moradi, B.; Seth, N.; Xing, X.; Cuny, G.; Stein, R.; Wucherpfenning, K.

    2006-01-01

    HLA-DM (DM) plays a critical role in Ag presentation to CD4 T cells by catalyzing the exchange of peptides bound to MHC class II molecules. Large lateral surfaces involved in the DM:HLA-DR (DR) interaction have been defined, but the mechanism of catalysis is not understood. In this study, we describe four small molecules that accelerate DM-catalyzed peptide exchange. Mechanistic studies demonstrate that these small molecules substantially enhance the catalytic efficiency of DM, indicating that they make the transition state of the DM:DR/peptide complex energetically more favorable. These compounds fall into two functional classes: two compounds are active only in the presence of DM, and binding data for one show a direct interaction with DM. The remaining two compounds have partial activity in the absence of DM, suggesting that they may act at the interface between DM and DR/peptide. A hydrophobic ridge in the DMβ1 domain was implicated in the catalysis of peptide exchange because the activity of three of these enhancers was substantially reduced by point mutations in this area

  11. Murværk opmuret med vådmørtler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klavs Feilberg

    dmørtler benyttes i størstedelen af det murede nybyggeri. Egenskaberne af murværk opmuret med vådmørtel er i dag kun mangelfuldt dokumenteret. Denne rapport beskriver en metode til bedre dokumentation af de styrkemæssige egenskaber ved murværk opmuret med vådmørtel. Første del af rapporten genn...

  12. EpCAM aptamer-functionalized polydopamine-coated mesoporous silica nanoparticles loaded with DM1 for targeted therapy in colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Y

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Yang Li,1,* Yanhong Duo,2,3,* Shiyun Bao,1 Lisheng He,4 Kai Ling,5 Jinfeng Luo,4 Yue Zhang,1 Hao Huang,2 Han Zhang,2 Xiaofang Yu1 1Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreas Surgery, Second Clinical Medical College of Jinan University, Shenzhen People’s Hospital, 2Shenzhen Engineering Laboratory of Phosphorene and Optoelectronics, Collaborative Innovation Center for Optoelectronic Science and Technology, Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Devices and Systems of Ministry of Education and Guangdong Province, College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, 3Key Laboratory of Plant Cell Activities and Stress Adaptation, Ministry of Education, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, 4Department of Pathology, 5Institute of Respiratory Diseases, Second Clinical Medical College of Jinan University, Shenzhen People’s Hospital, Shenzhen, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: DM1, a maytansine derivative, is a highly potential cytotoxic agent but with severe side effects; therefore, its application in clinical cancer therapy is limited. Here, in order to mitigate this intrinsic drawback of DM1, we developed mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs loaded with DM1 and surface-decorated with hydrochloride dopamine (PDA, polyethylene glycol (PEG, and epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM aptamer (APt for the targeted treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC. In this system, the PDA coating could be used as pH-sensitive gatekeepers to control the release of DM1 from MSNs in response to the pH stimulus and EpCAM APt-guided active targeting enables the increased delivery of DM1 to CRC as well as a reduction in toxicity and side effects by minimizing the exposure of normal tissues to DM1. Results demonstrated that DM1 inhibited the formation of microtubules and induced apoptosis in tumor cells via caspase signaling. In comparison with the control groups, the MSNs-DM1@PDA-PEG-APt bioconjugates exhibited

  13. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in tuberculosis (TB) patients: clinical and radiologic features in the TB-DM association based on a five-year hospital study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlović, Jovana M; Pavlovic, Aleksandar D; Bulajić, Milica V; Pešut, Dragica P

    2018-03-01

    A previously known association of tuberculosis (TB), now a global emergency, with diabetes mellitus (DM), a chronic disease of increasing prevalence worldwide, has resurfaced. DM is a recognised TB risk factor and M. tuberculosis infection usually disturbs glycoregulation. We aimed to estimate DM prevalence among TB patients and to analyse clinical and radiologic manifestations of TB in this group. The cross-sectional study included 1017 patients discharged with a TB diagnosis from a tertiary level facility in a five-year period. After exclusion of 128 patients with TB sequelae, we selected 889 patients with confirmed active TB, and the final selection led to 88 subjects with both active TB and DM. DM was found in 9.89% of active TB patients. Testing hypotheses for single-sample proportions showed that the prevalence was significantly higher than the prevalence in the general population (pTB in 96.3% of the 88 subjects, and extrapulmonary in 3.4%, the latter more frequently in women (p=0.08). Cavities were more frequently found in tobacco smokers compared to non-smokers (p=0.002) and in patients living in rural settings (p=0.002); haemoptysis was detected more frequently in men compared to women (p=0.044). Half of the patients had no fever at all, and only 14.8% had tachycardia. Auscultatory findings were positive in 57 (64.8%) patients. Radiographic changes were atypical in 17/88 (19.3%) patients and included pulmonary bases in seven patients, upper lobe anterior segment, and disseminated miliary pattern in two patients. DM prevalence is significantly higher among TB patients compared to the general population. The mean age of TB patients with DM is significantly higher than expected in TB patients alone. Knowledge of TB clinical and radiologic variations in this group of patients may reduce the delay in TB diagnosis with its clinical and epidemiologic consequences.

  14. Relevance and clinical significance of serum resistin level in obese T2DM rhesus monkey models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, S-D; He, Z-L; Chen, Y; Ma, J; Yu, W-H; Li, Y-Y; Yang, F-M; Wang, J-B; Chen, L-X; Zhao, Y; Lu, S-Y

    2015-09-01

    Resistin is a type of hormone-like adipocytokines, which is secreted specifically by adipocytes. It may be a key factor in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) from obesity- associated insulin resistance due to results that show that it has a close relationship with insulin resistance in rodents. We utilized the rhesus monkeys as study objects to preliminarily test the association with glucose metabolism and to conduct a correlation analysis for clinical parameters and serum resistin levels in obese rhesus monkey models of T2DM. The results suggested that resistin was significantly increased in T2DM monkeys (P insulin (FPI) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), Insulin resistance index (HOA-IR), but a negative correlation with islet β-cell function (HOMA-β). In the course of glucose metabolism, reverse release change of resistin and insulin in T2DM monkeys occurred, but the phenomenon that was not observed in the control group, these findings indicated that resistin negatively regulated and interfered with carbohydrate metabolism in T2DM monkey models. The character of the releasing change of resistin might be a unique process in T2DM. Therefore, all of the results could provide references for clinical diagnostic criteria for human cases of T2DM, and could have clinical significance for obese T2DM diagnosis and degree of insulin resistance. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Hypertension and related risk factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: During the study it was found out that 61.2%of DM patients had hypertension, 56.4% obesity, 33.5% hypercholesterolemia and 38.9% hypertriglyceredemia. In the study, hypertension was associated with age, sex, type of DM, body mass index (BMI) and hypertriglyceredemia. Conclusion: The study found out that ...

  16. HLA-DM focuses on conformational flexibility around P1 pocket to catalyze peptide exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liusong eYin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Peptides presented by major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII molecules to CD4+ T cells play a central role in the initiation of adaptive immunity. This antigen presentation process is characterized by the proteolytic cleavage of foreign and self proteins, and loading of the resultant peptides onto MHCII molecules. Loading and exchange of antigenic peptides is catalyzed by a non-classical MHCII molecule, HLA-DM. The impact of HLA-DM on epitope selection has been appreciated for a long time. However, the molecular mechanism by which HLA-DM mediates peptide exchange remains elusive. Here, we review recent efforts in elucidating how HLA-DM works, highlighted by two recently solved co-structures of HLA-DM bound to HLA-DO (a natural inhibitor of HLA-DM, or to HLA-DR1 (a common MHCII. In light of these efforts, a model for HLA-DM action in which HLA-DM utilizes conformational flexibility around the P1 pocket of the MHCII-peptide complex to catalyze peptide exchange is proposed.

  17. Comparative experimental and theoretical investigations of the DM neutron moisture probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølgaard, Povl Lebeck; Haahr, Vagner

    1967-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations of the Danish produced DM subsurface moisture probe have been carried out at the Research Establishment Risö, and the results obtained are presented in this paper. The DM probe contains an Am-Be fast neutron source and has a glass scintillator containing...

  18. Nonlinear Phenomena in Complex Systems: From Nano to Macro Scale

    CERN Document Server

    Stanley, H

    2014-01-01

    Topics of complex system physics and their interdisciplinary applications to different problems in seismology, biology, economy, sociology,  energy and nanotechnology are covered in this new work from renowned experts in their fields.  In  particular, contributed papers contain original results on network science, earthquake dynamics, econophysics, sociophysics, nanoscience and biological physics. Most of the papers use interdisciplinary approaches based on statistical physics, quantum physics and other topics of complex system physics.  Papers on econophysics and sociophysics are focussed on societal aspects of physics such as, opinion dynamics, public debates and financial and economic stability. This work will be of interest to statistical physicists, economists, biologists, seismologists and all scientists working in interdisciplinary topics of complexity.

  19. Foundational Forces & Hidden Variables in Technology Commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Brandon

    2011-03-01

    The science of physics seems vastly different from the process of technology commercialization. Physics strives to understand our world through the experimental deduction of immutable laws and dependent variables and the resulting macro-scale phenomenon. In comparison, the~goal of business is to make a profit by addressing the needs, preferences, and whims of individuals in a market. It may seem that this environment is too dynamic to identify all the hidden variables and deduct the foundational forces that impact a business's ability to commercialize innovative technologies. One example of a business ``force'' is found in the semiconductor industry. In 1965, Intel co-founder Gordon Moore predicted that the number of transistors incorporated in a chip will approximately double every 24 months. Known as Moore's Law, this prediction has become the guiding principle for the semiconductor industry for the last 40 years. Of course, Moore's Law is not really a law of nature; rather it is the result of efforts by Intel and the entire semiconductor industry. A closer examination suggests that there are foundational principles of business that underlie the macro-scale phenomenon of Moore's Law. Principles of profitability, incentive, and strategic alignment have resulted in a coordinated influx of resources that has driven technologies to market, increasing the profitability of the semiconductor industry and optimizing the fitness of its participants. New innovations in technology are subject to these same principles. So, in addition to traditional market forces, these often unrecognized forces and variables create challenges for new technology commercialization. In this talk, I will draw from ethnographic research, complex adaptive theory, and industry data to suggest a framework with which to think about new technology commercialization. Intel's bio-silicon initiative provides a case study.

  20. Investigation of the interaction of deltamethrin (DM) with human serum albumin by multi-spectroscopic method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaman; Ma, Liang; Zhang, Yuhao; Jiang, Tao

    2017-02-01

    The interaction of Deltamethrin (DM) with human serum albumin (HSA) under the condition of simulating human blood pH environment (pH = 7.4) was investigated by fluorescence, UV-Vis absorbance and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. It was shown that DM was a static quencher of HSA. The binding constants (Ka) are 3.598 × 104 L mol-1 (25 °C); the thermodynamic parameters (ΔH = -3.269 × 104 kJ mol-1, ΔS = -22.81 kJ mol-1 k-1, ΔG = -25889.8 kJ mol-1) obtained with the thermodynamic equation. The hydrogen bond and Vander Waals were the main driving force. The effect of DM on the conformation of HSA was observed by three-dimensional (3D) fluorescence and circular dichroism spectra, indicating that the interaction between DM and HSA was achieved through the binding of DM with the tryptophan and tyrosine residues of HSA. The study on the interaction of DM and Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) was researched and compared. Difference exists in the interactions of with each of the serum albumins. We will verify and supplement that DM residue in animals and human metabolism, toxicology and other mechanisms are different.

  1. Prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the adult Russian population (NATION study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedov, Ivan; Shestakova, Marina; Benedetti, Massimo Massi; Simon, Dominique; Pakhomov, Iakov; Galstyan, Gagik

    2016-05-01

    To estimate type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) prevalence in Russian adults. NATION is a national, epidemiological, cross-sectional study, conducted in Russia. In adults (aged 20-79 years), recruitment was stratified by age, sex, geographic region and settlement type to obtain a representative sample. Recruitment was in public areas with high numbers of people. T2DM was diagnosed by glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels (diabetes: HbA1c ≥6.5% [≥48mmol/mol]; pre-diabetes: HbA1c ≥5.7 to diabetic. T2DM prevalence increased with age (up to 70 years) and was higher among females than males (6.1% vs. 4.7%, pdiabetes and T2DM tended to increase with increasing body mass index. T2DM prevalence was higher in rural versus urban populations (6.7% vs. 5.0%, pdiabetes, T2DM prevalence was 5.4%, and 54% of subjects with diabetes were previously undiagnosed. These results may help to develop a new T2DM predictive, preventative and management programme in Russia. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Heterologous expression of the antimyotoxic protein DM64 in Pichia pastoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Saulo Martins; da Rocha, Surza Lucia Gonçalves; Neves-Ferreira, Ana Gisele da Costa; Almeida, Rodrigo Volcan; Perales, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    Snakebite envenomation is a neglected condition that constitutes a public health problem in tropical and subtropical countries, including Brazil. Interestingly, some animals are resistant to snake envenomation due to the presence of inhibitory glycoproteins in their serum that target toxic venom components. DM64 is an acidic glycoprotein isolated from Didelphis aurita (opossum) serum that has been characterized as an inhibitor of the myotoxicity induced by bothropic toxins bearing phospholipase A2 (PLA2) structures. This antitoxic protein can serve as an excellent starting template for the design of novel therapeutics against snakebite envenomation, particularly venom-induced local tissue damage. Therefore, the aim of this work was to produce a recombinant DM64 (rDM64) in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris and to compare its biological properties with those of native DM64. Yeast fermentation in the presence of Pefabloc, a serine protease inhibitor, stimulated cell growth (~1.5-fold), increased the rDM64 production yield approximately 10-fold and significantly reduced the susceptibility of rDM64 to proteolytic degradation. P. pastoris fermentation products were identified by mass spectrometry and Western blotting. The heterologous protein was efficiently purified from the culture medium by affinity chromatography (with immobilized PLA2 myotoxin) and/or an ion exchange column. Although both native and recombinant DM64 exhibit different glycosylation patterns, they show very similar electrophoretic mobilities after PNGase F treatment. rDM64 formed a noncovalent complex with myotoxin II (Lys49-PLA2) from Bothrops asper and displayed biological activity that was similar to that of native DM64, inhibiting the cytotoxicity of myotoxin II by 92% at a 1:1 molar ratio. PMID:28759578

  3. Heterologous expression of the antimyotoxic protein DM64 in Pichia pastoris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Martins Vieira

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Snakebite envenomation is a neglected condition that constitutes a public health problem in tropical and subtropical countries, including Brazil. Interestingly, some animals are resistant to snake envenomation due to the presence of inhibitory glycoproteins in their serum that target toxic venom components. DM64 is an acidic glycoprotein isolated from Didelphis aurita (opossum serum that has been characterized as an inhibitor of the myotoxicity induced by bothropic toxins bearing phospholipase A2 (PLA2 structures. This antitoxic protein can serve as an excellent starting template for the design of novel therapeutics against snakebite envenomation, particularly venom-induced local tissue damage. Therefore, the aim of this work was to produce a recombinant DM64 (rDM64 in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris and to compare its biological properties with those of native DM64. Yeast fermentation in the presence of Pefabloc, a serine protease inhibitor, stimulated cell growth (~1.5-fold, increased the rDM64 production yield approximately 10-fold and significantly reduced the susceptibility of rDM64 to proteolytic degradation. P. pastoris fermentation products were identified by mass spectrometry and Western blotting. The heterologous protein was efficiently purified from the culture medium by affinity chromatography (with immobilized PLA2 myotoxin and/or an ion exchange column. Although both native and recombinant DM64 exhibit different glycosylation patterns, they show very similar electrophoretic mobilities after PNGase F treatment. rDM64 formed a noncovalent complex with myotoxin II (Lys49-PLA2 from Bothrops asper and displayed biological activity that was similar to that of native DM64, inhibiting the cytotoxicity of myotoxin II by 92% at a 1:1 molar ratio.

  4. Heart failure program proves that DM works--even under fee-for-service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-08-01

    DM has a place in fee-for-service medicine. With ever-increasing pressures on the bottom line, a growing number of health care organizations are considering what DM can do to help them better meet their budgets as well as patient needs. In fact, even fee-for-service settings are experimenting with DM programs--in some cases, with solid success. See how a large integrated system in Minnesota was able to boost care of heart failure patients while turning a money-losing diagnosis into a profitable one.

  5. Free Triiodothyronine and Cholesterol Levels in Euthyroid Elderly T2DM Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Strollo, F.; Carucci, I.; Morè, M.; Marico, G.; Strollo, G.; Masini, M. A.; Gentile, S.

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid function regulates lipid metabolism. Despite the fact that T2DM is more prevalent in the elderly, often associates with thyroid dysfunction and increases cardiovascular risk both per se and via high TC and LDL-C levels, the association of the latter with FT3 and FT4 levels has not yet been fully investigated in T2DM. While trying to fill this gap in 296 elderly outpatients with T2DM, we found that TC and LDL-C correlated negatively with FT4 and positively with FT3. When divided accor...

  6. IceCube events from heavy DM decays through the right-handed neutrino portal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The recently observed IceCube PeV events could be due to heavy dark matter (DM decay. In this paper, we propose a simple DM model with extra U(1X gauge symmetry and bridge it with standard model particles through heavy right-handed neutrino. The Dirac fermion DM χ with mass ∼5 PeV can dominantly decay into a dark Higgs (ϕ, the SM Higgs (h and a neutrino (ν. If the lifetime of χ is ∼O(1028 s, the resulting neutrino flux can fit data consistently. The neutrino flux from χ→ϕhν in our model is softer than the one predicted from χ→νh, for example. We also discuss a possible mechanism to produce DM with the right relic abundance.

  7. Hubungan Lama Menderita DM dengan Perilaku Perawatan Kaki secara Mandiri untuk Mencegah Ulkus Diabetikum

    OpenAIRE

    Apriliyasari, Renny Wulan

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus (DM) atau yang biasa disebut kencing manis merupakan suatu kelompok penyakit metabolik dengan karakteristik gula darah melebihi nilai normal. Data dari Dinas Kesehatan Kabupaten Pati jumlah penderita DM meningkat, dengan rata-rata pada 2 tahun 2008-2009 sebanyak 1950 orang. Hasil survey di RSUD RAA Soewondo Pati, penyakit diabetes mellitus menempati peringkat pertama penyakit rawat jalan 2013 dengan 3893 total kunjungan atau sebesar 4,83%. Salah satu hal penting pada pasien ...

  8. Comparative evaluation of average glandular dose and breast cancer detection between single-view digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) plus single-view digital mammography (DM) and two-view DM: correlation with breast thickness and density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Sung Ui; Chang, Jung Min; Bae, Min Sun; Lee, Su Hyun; Cho, Nariya; Seo, Mirinae; Kim, Won Hwa; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2015-01-01

    To compare the average glandular dose (AGD) and diagnostic performance of mediolateral oblique (MLO) digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) plus cranio-caudal (CC) digital mammography (DM) with two-view DM, and to evaluate the correlation of AGD with breast thickness and density. MLO and CC DM and DBT images of both breasts were obtained in 149 subjects. AGDs of DBT and DM per exposure were recorded, and their correlation with breast thickness and density were evaluated. Paired data of MLO DBT plus CC DM and two-view DM were reviewed for presence of malignancy in a jack-knife alternative free-response ROC (JAFROC) method. The AGDs of both DBT and DM, and differences in AGD between DBT and DM (ΔAGD), were correlated with breast thickness and density. The average JAFROC figure of merit (FOM) was significantly higher on the combined technique than two-view DM (P = 0.005). In dense breasts, the FOM and sensitivity of the combined technique was higher than that of two-view DM (P = 0.003) with small ΔAGD. MLO DBT plus CC DM provided higher diagnostic performance than two-view DM in dense breasts with a small increase in AGD. (orig.)

  9. Educational Interactive eBook for Newly Diagnosed Children with T1DM: Children’s Role in Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damyanka Tsvyatkova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Some of the central concerns in technology development for healthcare interventions in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM are how to involve young patients and their families in the design process and what methods, including artbased activities, would best facilitate a child expressing their innermost feelings when applying child-centered and participatory approaches. This paper describes a variety of artbased tools and methods (e.g. Cooperative Inquiry (CI and Informant Design (ID used in the creative design processes for defining features and eliciting the content of the stories, plots, roles, characters, images, animations, languages, etc., that will inform the design of an educational interactive eBook for newly diagnosed children (aged 8-12 years with T1DM. The articulation of design ideas through modeling plasticine figures, drawing and thinking aloud were generated and collected in three workshop sessions organized for diabetic and healthy children who had different roles in and contributions to the design process. Successfully collected data will be used to build a series of low fidelity paper based eBook prototypes.

  10. Induction of dexamethasone (DM) of histidine decarboxylase (HDC) in mast cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichikawa, A.; Imanishi, N.; Nakayama, T.; Asano, M.; Tomita, K.

    1986-05-01

    Effects of glucocorticoids on HDC in cultured mouse mastocytoma P-815 cells and rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMC) were investigated to explore the role of steroids in inflammatory tissues. DM (1 nM to 10 ..mu..M) significantly elevated the histamine content and HDC activity of P-815 cells (37/sup 0/C, 24 hrs), accompanying with a growth retardation of the cells by about 40%. In contrast to histamine, serotonin levels of P-815 cells were decreased by treatment with DM. However, DM had no significant effects on the activities of various enzymes other than HDC present in granules or membrane of P-815 cells. DM-induced increases of histamine and HDC activity were completely suppressed by the addition of cycloheximide and actinomycin D. P-815 cells were found to have the binding sites for /sup 3/H-DM in the cytosol (Kd=2.2 nM, 450 sites/cell) and in the nuclei (Kd=0.1 nM, 39 sites/nucleus). Purified HDC from P-815 cells was identified to be an isozyme of mast cell type enzyme (MW=110K, pI=5.4). In contrast, the basal histamine level of cultured RPMC was not affected by treatment of DM, which suppressed histamine release activity induced by DNP-ascaris antiserum by 40%-50%. Histamine-depleted RPMC after degranulation partially recovered histamine level by 50%-60% in the presence of DM. These results showed that glucocorticoids specifically stimulated histamine formation with the increased de novo synthesis of HDC in mast cells.

  11. Complementarity of DM searches in a consistent simplified model: the case of Z{sup ′}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques, Thomas [SISSA and INFN,via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy); Katz, Andrey [Theory Division, CERN,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Département de Physique Théorique and Center for Astroparticle Physics (CAP),Université de Genève, 24 quai Ansermet, CH-1211 Genève 4 (Switzerland); Morgante, Enrico; Racco, Davide [Département de Physique Théorique and Center for Astroparticle Physics (CAP),Université de Genève, 24 quai Ansermet, CH-1211 Genève 4 (Switzerland); Rameez, Mohamed [Département de Physique Nucléaire et Corpusculaire,Université de Genève, 24 quai Ansermet, CH-1211 Genève 4 (Switzerland); Riotto, Antonio [Département de Physique Théorique and Center for Astroparticle Physics (CAP),Université de Genève, 24 quai Ansermet, CH-1211 Genève 4 (Switzerland)

    2016-10-14

    We analyze the constraints from direct and indirect detection on fermionic Majorana Dark Matter (DM). Because the interaction with the Standard Model (SM) particles is spin-dependent, a priori the constraints that one gets from neutrino telescopes, the LHC, direct and indirect detection experiments are comparable. We study the complementarity of these searches in a particular example, in which a heavy Z{sup ′} mediates the interactions between the SM and the DM. We find that for heavy dark matter indirect detection provides the strongest bounds on this scenario, while IceCube bounds are typically stronger than those from direct detection. The LHC constraints are dominant for smaller dark matter masses. These light masses are less motivated by thermal relic abundance considerations. We show that the dominant annihilation channels of the light DM in the Sun and the Galactic Center are either bb̄ or tt̄, while the heavy DM annihilation is completely dominated by Zh channel. The latter produces a hard neutrino spectrum which has not been previously analyzed. We study the neutrino spectrum yielded by DM and recast IceCube constraints to allow proper comparison with constraints from direct and indirect detection experiments and LHC exclusions.

  12. Complementarity of DM Searches in a Consistent Simplified Model: the Case of Z'

    CERN Document Server

    Jacques, Thomas; Morgante, Enrico; Racco, Davide; Rameez, Mohamed; Riotto, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the constraints from direct and indirect detection on fermionic Majorana Dark Matter (DM). Because the interaction with the Standard Model (SM) particles is spin-dependent, a priori the constraints that one gets from neutrino telescopes, the LHC and direct detection experiments are comparable. We study the complementarity of these searches in a particular example, in which a heavy $Z'$ mediates the interactions between the SM and the DM. We find that in most cases IceCube provides the strongest bounds on this scenario, while the LHC constraints are only meaningful for smaller dark matter masses. These light masses are less motivated by thermal relic abundance considerations. We show that the dominant annihilation channels of the light DM in the Sun are either $b \\bar b$ or $t \\bar t$, while the heavy DM annihilation is completely dominated by $Zh$ channel. The latter produces a hard neutrino spectrum which has not been previously analyzed. We study the neutrino spectrum yielded by DM and recast Ice...

  13. Complementarity of DM searches in a consistent simplified model: the case of Z′

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacques, Thomas; Katz, Andrey; Morgante, Enrico; Racco, Davide; Rameez, Mohamed; Riotto, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the constraints from direct and indirect detection on fermionic Majorana Dark Matter (DM). Because the interaction with the Standard Model (SM) particles is spin-dependent, a priori the constraints that one gets from neutrino telescopes, the LHC, direct and indirect detection experiments are comparable. We study the complementarity of these searches in a particular example, in which a heavy Z ′ mediates the interactions between the SM and the DM. We find that for heavy dark matter indirect detection provides the strongest bounds on this scenario, while IceCube bounds are typically stronger than those from direct detection. The LHC constraints are dominant for smaller dark matter masses. These light masses are less motivated by thermal relic abundance considerations. We show that the dominant annihilation channels of the light DM in the Sun and the Galactic Center are either bb̄ or tt̄, while the heavy DM annihilation is completely dominated by Zh channel. The latter produces a hard neutrino spectrum which has not been previously analyzed. We study the neutrino spectrum yielded by DM and recast IceCube constraints to allow proper comparison with constraints from direct and indirect detection experiments and LHC exclusions.

  14. Replacing single-view mediolateral oblique (MLO) digital mammography (DM) with synthesized mammography (SM) with digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) images: Comparison of the diagnostic performance and radiation dose with two-view DM with or without MLO-DBT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hyo-Jin [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, 03080 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Jung Min, E-mail: imchangjm@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, 03080 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 03080 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joongyub [Medical Research Collaborating Center, Biomedical Research Institution, Seoul National University Hospital, 03080 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Sung Eun; Shin, Sung Ui [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, 03080 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Won Hwa [Department of Radiology, Kyungpook National University Hospital, 41944 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Min Sun [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, 03080 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Woo Kyung [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, 03080 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 03080 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University College Medical Research Center, 03080 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    Objectives: To evaluate the diagnostic performance and radiation dose of single view cranio-caudal (CC) digital mammography (DM) plus mediolateral oblique (MLO) digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) combined with synthesized mammography (SM) in comparison with two-view DM with or without DBT. Material and methods: This study was approved by our institutional review board, and informed consent was obtained from 130 women. Paired two-view DM and single MLO-DBT with SM images were acquired, and four independent retrospective reading sessions of different combinations of DM, SM and DBT were performed for the presence of malignant tumors using jackknife alternative free-response receiver operator curve (JAFROC) methods. The diagnostic performances and average glandular dose (AGD) were compared between different combinations of DM, SM and DBT. Results: Of 159 lesions in 130 patients, 27 were malignant. When using MLO-DBT with SM instead of MLO-DM, a significantly higher sensitivity (P = 0.016) and specificity (P = 0.012) were noted than with two-view DM, and comparable figure of merit (FOM), sensitivity, and specificity to two-view DM with DBT were noted. The mean AGD of CC-DM plus MLO-DBT with SM was 5.78mGy ± 1.06 per patient, which was significantly lower than that with two-view DM with MLO-DBT (8.45mGy ± 1.32; P <0.001) and slightly higher than that with two-view DM (5.30mGy ± 0.63). Conclusions: The combined use of CC-DM plus MLO-DBT with SM showed higher sensitivity and specificity to two-view DM with a smaller AGD increment and comparable diagnostic performance to that of two-view DM with MLO-DBT with a significantly lower mean AGD.

  15. DmAMP1, an antifungal plant defensin from dahlia (Dahlia merckii), interacts with sphingolipids from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevissen, Karin; François, Isabelle E J A; Takemoto, Jon Y; Ferket, Kathelijne K A; Meert, Els M K; Cammue, Bruno P A

    2003-09-12

    DmAMP1, an antifungal plant defensin from Dahlia merckii, was shown previously to require the presence of sphingolipids for fungicidal action against Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Sphingolipids may stabilize glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins, which interact with DmAMP1, or they may directly serve as DmAMP1 binding sites. In the present study, we demonstrate that S. cerevisiae disruptants in GPI-anchored proteins showed small or no increased resistance towards DmAMP1 indicating no involvement of these proteins in DmAMP1 action. Further, studies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based binding assay revealed that DmAMP1 interacts directly with sphingolipids isolated from S. cerevisiae and that this interaction is enhanced in the presence of equimolar concentrations of ergosterol. Therefore, DmAMP1 antifungal action involving membrane interaction with sphingolipids and ergosterol is proposed.

  16. General Hypochondriasis in Diabetes Mellitus Type-II (DM-II: Implications for Clinicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Fazil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Relatively little is known about the epidemiology of hypochondriasis, especially in Diabetes Mellitus Type-II (DM-II patients, though hypochondriasis is considered to be of high relevance in the healthcare sector, especially in chronic diseases. The aims of this study were to study the prevalence of general hypochondriasis in DM-II patients and to explore some of the possible aggravating factors. Methods Thedatawascollectedbyinterviewandobservationmethodwith Illness Behaviour Questionnaire and Temperament Assessment Format. Results Hypochondriasiswasfoundtobemostprevalentinsubjectshaving Saudavi temperament (75.55% followed by those having Balghami temperament (56.81%. The patients having elevated blood sugar and those on injectable hypoglycemics also demonstrated a higher prevalence of hypochondriasis. Conclusion The results indicate that hypochondriasis is quite prevalent in DM-II patients; and, in addition to the severity of disease, it may also be influenced by the medication and patient’s temperament.

  17. FlexDM: Simple, parallel and fault-tolerant data mining using WEKA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Madison; Budden, David M; Mendes, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    With the continued exponential growth in data volume, large-scale data mining and machine learning experiments have become a necessity for many researchers without programming or statistics backgrounds. WEKA (Waikato Environment for Knowledge Analysis) is a gold standard framework that facilitates and simplifies this task by allowing specification of algorithms, hyper-parameters and test strategies from a streamlined Experimenter GUI. Despite its popularity, the WEKA Experimenter exhibits several limitations that we address in our new FlexDM software. FlexDM addresses four fundamental limitations with the WEKA Experimenter: reliance on a verbose and difficult-to-modify XML schema; inability to meta-optimise experiments over a large number of algorithm hyper-parameters; inability to recover from software or hardware failure during a large experiment; and failing to leverage modern multicore processor architectures. Direct comparisons between the FlexDM and default WEKA XML schemas demonstrate a 10-fold improvement in brevity for a specification that allows finer control of experimental procedures. The stability of FlexDM has been tested on a large biological dataset (approximately 450 k attributes by 150 samples), and automatic parallelisation of tasks yields a quasi-linear reduction in execution time when distributed across multiple processor cores. FlexDM is a powerful and easy-to-use extension to the WEKA package, which better handles the increased volume and complexity of data that has emerged during the 20 years since WEKA's original development. FlexDM has been tested on Windows, OSX and Linux operating systems and is provided as a pre-configured virtual reference environment for trivial usage and extensibility. This software can substantially improve the productivity of any research group conducting large-scale data mining or machine learning tasks, in addition to providing non-programmers with improved control over specific aspects of their data analysis

  18. (CCUGn RNA toxicity in a Drosophila model of myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2 activates apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vildan Betul Yenigun

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The myotonic dystrophies are prototypic toxic RNA gain-of-function diseases. Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1 and type 2 (DM2 are caused by different unstable, noncoding microsatellite repeat expansions – (CTGDM1 in DMPK and (CCTGDM2 in CNBP. Although transcription of mutant repeats into (CUGDM1 or (CCUGDM2 appears to be necessary and sufficient to cause disease, their pathomechanisms remain incompletely understood. To study the mechanisms of (CCUGDM2 toxicity and develop a convenient model for drug screening, we generated a transgenic DM2 model in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster with (CCUGn repeats of variable length (n=16 and 106. Expression of noncoding (CCUG106, but not (CCUG16, in muscle and retinal cells led to the formation of ribonuclear foci and mis-splicing of genes implicated in DM pathology. Mis-splicing could be rescued by co-expression of human MBNL1, but not by CUGBP1 (CELF1 complementation. Flies with (CCUG106 displayed strong disruption of external eye morphology and of the underlying retina. Furthermore, expression of (CCUG106 in developing retinae caused a strong apoptotic response. Inhibition of apoptosis rescued the retinal disruption in (CCUG106 flies. Finally, we tested two chemical compounds that have shown therapeutic potential in DM1 models. Whereas treatment of (CCUG106 flies with pentamidine had no effect, treatment with a PKR inhibitor blocked both the formation of RNA foci and apoptosis in retinae of (CCUG106 flies. Our data indicate that expression of expanded (CCUGDM2 repeats is toxic, causing inappropriate cell death in affected fly eyes. Our Drosophila DM2 model might provide a convenient tool for in vivo drug screening.

  19. Plant insecticide L-canavanine repels Drosophila via the insect orphan GPCR DmX.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Mitri

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available For all animals, the taste sense is crucial to detect and avoid ingesting toxic molecules. Many toxins are synthesized by plants as a defense mechanism against insect predation. One example of such a natural toxic molecule is L-canavanine, a nonprotein amino acid found in the seeds of many legumes. Whether and how insects are informed that some plants contain L-canavanine remains to be elucidated. In insects, the taste sense relies on gustatory receptors forming the gustatory receptor (Gr family. Gr proteins display highly divergent sequences, suggesting that they could cover the entire range of tastants. However, one cannot exclude the possibility of evolutionarily independent taste receptors. Here, we show that L-canavanine is not only toxic, but is also a repellent for Drosophila. Using a pharmacogenetic approach, we find that flies sense food containing this poison by the DmX receptor. DmXR is an insect orphan G-protein-coupled receptor that has partially diverged in its ligand binding pocket from the metabotropic glutamate receptor family. Blockade of DmXR function with an antagonist lowers the repulsive effect of L-canavanine. In addition, disruption of the DmXR encoding gene, called mangetout (mtt, suppresses the L-canavanine repellent effect. To avoid the ingestion of L-canavanine, DmXR expression is required in bitter-sensitive gustatory receptor neurons, where it triggers the premature retraction of the proboscis, thus leading to the end of food searching. These findings show that the DmX receptor, which does not belong to the Gr family, fulfills a gustatory function necessary to avoid eating a natural toxin.

  20. GLP-1 based therapeutics: simultaneously combating T2DM and obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Heppner, Kristy M.; Perez-Tilve, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) enhances meal-related insulin secretion, which lowers blood glucose excursions. In addition to its incretin action, GLP-1 acts on the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) in the brain to suppress feeding. These combined actions of GLP-1R signaling cause improvements in glycemic control as well as weight loss in type II diabetes (T2DM) patients treated with GLP-1R agonists. This is a superior advantage of GLP-1R pharmaceuticals as many other drugs used to treat T2DM are we...

  1. A Solution to the Coincidence Puzzle of $\\Omega_{B}$ and $\\Omega_{DM}$

    CERN Document Server

    Fujii, M; Fujii, Masaaki

    2002-01-01

    We show that a class of Affleck--Dine baryogenesis directly relates the observed mass density of baryons, \\Omega_{B}, to that of dark matter, \\Omega_{DM}. In this scenario, the ratio of baryon to dark matter mass density is solely determined by the low energy parameters, except for an O(0.1) effective CP-violating phase. We find that \\Omega_{B}/\\Omega_{DM}=O(0.1) with reasonable parameters, which lies surprisingly just in the range of observation. This scenario is totally free from the cosmological gravitino problem, and independent of the detailed history of the Universe as long as it satisfies quite weak constraints.

  2. Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,…

  3. Effect of N, P and FYM rates on DM accumulation and uptake of K ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation was conducted during 2005, 2006 and 2007 wet seasons at the experimental farm of the institute of Agricultural Research, Samaru (11o 11ŒN, 07o 38ŒE, 686m above sea level) to study the effect of N, P and farmyard manure (FYM) rates on dry matter (DM) accumulation and uptake of cations by Roselle ...

  4. Improved insulin secretion following intrapancreatic UCB transplantation in patients with T2DM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Qiang; Duan, Lian; Xu, Zihui; Wang, Hui; Wang, Xiaocui; Li, Zhongjun; Zhang, Weizhen; Zheng, Hongting

    2013-09-01

    Transplantation with stem cells has been reported as a potential treatment for diabetes. However, there are few reports examining transplantation with umbilical cord blood (UCB) in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of intrapancreatic UCB transplantation in patients with T2DM. Three patients were enrolled in the study, which was performed in a hospital setting from 2010 to 2012, and the duration of follow-up was approximately 6 months. UCB cells were infused by microcatheter into the dorsal pancreatic artery in 3 T2DM patients with different diabetic histories. Blood glucose (including 72-h continuous blood glucose), C-peptide, hemoglobin A1c, the requirement for insulin, and transplant complications were monitored before and after transplantation. After the transplantation, C-peptide levels had increased in all of the patients. In addition, the 72-hour continuous blood glucose monitoring results obtained after transplantation revealed that levels were more stable than before transplantation for all of the patients (P insulin were reduced in all patients after transplantation. UCB transplantation may be an approach that could somewhat improve C-peptide levels in patients with T2DM.

  5. MIMO-OFDM WDM PON with DM-VCSEL for femtocells application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binti Othman, Maisara; Deng, Lei; Pang, Xiaodan

    2011-01-01

    We report on experimental demonstration of 2x2 MIMO-OFDM 5.6-GHz radio over fiber signaling over 20 km WDM-PON with directly modulated (DM) VCSELs for femtocells application. MIMO-OFDM algorithms effectively compensate for impairments in the wireless link. Error-free signal demodulation of 64...

  6. AMS02 positron excess from decaying fermion DM with local dark gauge symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ko

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Positron excess observed by PAMELA, Fermi and AMS02 may be due to dark matter (DM pair annihilation or decay dominantly into muons. In this paper, we consider a scenario with thermal fermionic DM (χ with mass ∼O(1–2 TeV decaying into a dark Higgs (ϕ and an active neutrino (νa instead of the SM Higgs boson and νa. We first present a renormalizable model for this scenario with local dark U(1X gauge symmetry, in which the DM χ can be thermalized by Higgs portal and the gauge kinetic mixing. Assuming the dark Higgs (ϕ mass is in the range 2mμDM can be enhanced to some extent, and three puzzles in the CDM paradigm can be somewhat relaxed.

  7. SRB development motor (DM) 9 nozzle at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Solid rocket booster (SRB) development motor (DM) 9 nozzle documentation shows the area where sections of the outer boot ring are missing. During a motor firing, the nozzle is subjected to temperatures reaching 5800 degrees fahrenheit (F). View provided by Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  8. The alpha/beta-Hydrolase Fold 3DM Database (ABHDB) as a Tool for Protein Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kourist, R.; Jochens, H.; Bartsch, S.; Kuipers, R.K.P.; Padhi, S.K.; Gall, M.; Bottcher, D.; Joosten, H.J.; Bornscheuer, U.T.

    2010-01-01

    Aligning the haystack to expose the needle: The 3DM method was used to generate a comprehensive database of the a/ß-hydrolase fold enzyme superfamily. This database facilitates the analysis of structure–function relationships and enables novel insights into this superfamily to be made. In addition

  9. Studies on the s_dm.t=f verb form in Classical Egyptian

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zonhoven, Ludovicus Martinus Johannes

    1997-01-01

    This study is devoted to some synchronic aspects of the sDm.t=f verb form, primarily its meaning and uses in Classical Egyptian. In the introduction some attention is paid to the history of the studies of the form and its origin, an aspect which will receive no further consideration. In accordance

  10. Management of newly diagnosed type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Kenneth C; Silverstein, Janet; Moore, Kelly R; Prazar, Greg E; Raymer, Terry; Shiffman, Richard N; Springer, Shelley C; Thaker, Vidhu V; Anderson, Meaghan; Spann, Stephen J; Flinn, Susan K

    2013-02-01

    Over the past 3 decades, the prevalence of childhood obesity has increased dramatically in North America, ushering in a variety of health problems, including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), which previously was not typically seen until much later in life. The rapid emergence of childhood T2DM poses challenges to many physicians who find themselves generally ill-equipped to treat adult diseases encountered in children. This clinical practice guideline was developed to provide evidence-based recommendations on managing 10- to 18-year-old patients in whom T2DM has been diagnosed. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) convened a Subcommittee on Management of T2DM in Children and Adolescents with the support of the American Diabetes Association, the Pediatric Endocrine Society, the American Academy of Family Physicians, and the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (formerly the American Dietetic Association). These groups collaborated to develop an evidence report that served as a major source of information for these practice guideline recommendations. The guideline emphasizes the use of management modalities that have been shown to affect clinical outcomes in this pediatric population. Recommendations are made for situations in which either insulin or metformin is the preferred first-line treatment of children and adolescents with T2DM. The recommendations suggest integrating lifestyle modifications (ie, diet and exercise) in concert with medication rather than as an isolated initial treatment approach. Guidelines for frequency of monitoring hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and finger-stick blood glucose (BG) concentrations are presented. Decisions were made on the basis of a systematic grading of the quality of evidence and strength of recommendation. The clinical practice guideline underwent peer review before it was approved by the AAP. This clinical practice guideline is not intended to replace clinical judgment or establish a protocol for the care of all children with T2

  11. Routine daily physical activity and glucose variations are strongly coupled in adults with T1DM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farabi, Sarah S; Carley, David W; Cinar, Ali; Quinn, Lauretta

    2015-12-01

    Type 1 Diabetes (T1DM) is characterized by altered glucose homeostasis resulting in wide glucose variations throughout a 24-h period. The relationship between routine daily physical activity and glucose variations has not been systematically investigated in adults with T1DM. The objectives of this study were to characterize and quantify the relationship between routine daily activity and glucose variations in a small group of adults with T1DM. Adults with T1DM treated with an insulin pump were recruited for the study. Over a 3-day period, glucose variations were monitored with a continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) and routine daily physical activity was assessed using an accelerometer-based physical activity-monitoring band. Simultaneous glucose and physical activity data for one 24-h period were used for analysis. Cross-correlation function and wavelet coherence analyses were employed to quantify the coupling between physical activity and glucose. Twelve subjects were included in the analysis. Cross-correlation function analysis revealed strong coupling between activity and glucose. Wavelet Coherence demonstrated that slower oscillations (120-340 min) of glucose and physical activity exhibited significantly greater coherence (F = 12.6, P < 0.0001) than faster oscillations (10 and 120 min). Physical activity and glucose demonstrate strong time and frequency-dependent coupling throughout a 24-h time period in adults with T1DM. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  12. Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional answer card reading method using OMR (Optical Mark Reader, most commonly, OMR special card special use, less versatile, high cost, aiming at the existing problems proposed a method based on pattern recognition of the answer card identification method. Using the method based on Line Segment Detector to detect the tilt of the image, the existence of tilt image rotation correction, and eventually achieve positioning and detection of answers to the answer sheet .Pattern recognition technology for automatic reading, high accuracy, detect faster

  13. Adiponectin gene SNP 276G ? T, nutrient intakes, and cardiovascular disease risk in Korean type 2 DM patients

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, So Young; Ryu, Han Kyoung; Park, Hee Jung; Choi, Young Ju; Huh, Kap Bum; Kim, Wha Young

    2007-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in adiponectin gene has been associated with insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study was performed to investigate the association of SNP 276G?T at adiponectin gene with CVD risk factors in Korean type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. The subjects were 351 type 2 DM patients visited a DM clinic in Seoul, and the patients with known CVD were excluded. The adiponectin SNP 276G?T was analyzed and dietary intakes were assess...

  14. German Federal Ministry for Research and Technology: 1990 expenditures on energy research and national research centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    The draft departmental budget No. 30 covering the portfolio of the Federal Minister for Research and Technology (BMFT) within the 1990 federal budget features total expenditures of DM 7855.2 million (as against 7645.4 million in the previous year). DM 112 (119) million has been earmarked for the funding of reactor development. In addition DM 105 (104) million has been planned for reactor safety and general technical safety, DM 2.5 (2.5) million for funding nuclear fuel supply (including uranium enrichment). The sums earmarked for nuclear spent fuel and waste management R and D are DM 43 (55.9) million; for investments, DM 26 (38.1) million, and risk sharing in the nuclear field by the Federal Government, DM 20 (20) million. This adds up to DM 308.5 million, which is 14.2% less than the 1989 target figure of DM 359.5 million. (orig.) [de

  15. Overlapping RdDM and non-RdDM mechanisms work together to maintain somatic repression of a paramutagenic epiallele of maize pericarp color1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Hao Wang

    Full Text Available Allelic variation at the Zea mays (maize pericarp color1 (p1 gene has been attributed to epigenetic gene regulation. A p1 distal enhancer, 5.2 kb upstream of the transcriptional start site, has demonstrated variation in DNA methylation in different p1 alleles/epialleles. In addition, DNA methylation of sequences within the 3' end of intron 2 also plays a role in tissue-specific expression of p1 alleles. We show here a direct evidence for small RNAs' involvement in regulating p1 that has not been demonstrated previously. The role of mediator of paramutation1 (mop1 was tested in the maintenance of somatic silencing at distinct p1 alleles: the non-paramutagenic P1-wr allele and paramutagenic P1-rr' epiallele. The mop1-1 mutation gradually relieves the silenced phenotype after multiple generations of exposure; P1-wr;mop1-1 plants display a loss of 24-nt small RNAs and DNA methylation in the 3' end of the intron 2, a region close to a Stowaway transposon. In addition, a MULE sequence within the proximal promoter of P1-wr shows depletion of 24nt siRNAs in mop1-1 plants. Release of silencing was not correlated with small RNAs at the distal enhancer region of the P1-wr allele. We found that the somatic silencing of the paramutagenic P1-rr' is correlated with significantly reduced H3K9me2 in the distal enhancer of P1-rr'; mop1-1 plants, while symmetric DNA methylation is not significantly different. This study highlights that the epigenetic regulation of p1 alleles is controlled both via RdDM as well as non-RdDM mechanisms.

  16. Resistance to Downy Mildew in Lettuce 'La Brillante' is Conferred by Dm50 Gene and Multiple QTL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simko, Ivan; Ochoa, Oswaldo E; Pel, Mathieu A; Tsuchida, Cayla; Font I Forcada, Carolina; Hayes, Ryan J; Truco, Maria-Jose; Antonise, Rudie; Galeano, Carlos H; Michelmore, Richard W

    2015-09-01

    Many cultivars of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) are susceptible to downy mildew, a nearly globally ubiquitous disease caused by Bremia lactucae. We previously determined that Batavia type cultivar 'La Brillante' has a high level of field resistance to the disease in California. Testing of a mapping population developed from a cross between 'Salinas 88' and La Brillante in multiple field and laboratory experiments revealed that at least five loci conferred resistance in La Brillante. The presence of a new dominant resistance gene (designated Dm50) that confers complete resistance to specific isolates was detected in laboratory tests of seedlings inoculated with multiple diverse isolates. Dm50 is located in the major resistance cluster on linkage group 2 that contains at least eight major, dominant Dm genes conferring resistance to downy mildew. However, this Dm gene is ineffective against the isolates of B. lactucae prevalent in the field in California and the Netherlands. A quantitative trait locus (QTL) located at the Dm50 chromosomal region (qDM2.2) was detected, though, when the amount of disease was evaluated a month before plants reached harvest maturity. Four additional QTL for resistance to B. lactucae were identified on linkage groups 4 (qDM4.1 and qDM4.2), 7 (qDM7.1), and 9 (qDM9.2). The largest effect was associated with qDM7.1 (up to 32.9% of the total phenotypic variance) that determined resistance in multiple field experiments. Markers identified in the present study will facilitate introduction of these resistance loci into commercial cultivars of lettuce.

  17. PPPC 4 DM ID: A Poor Particle Physicist Cookbook for Dark Matter Indirect Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Cirelli, Marco; Hektor, Andi; Hutsi, Gert; Kadastik, Mario; Panci, Paolo; Raidal, Martti; Sala, Filippo; Strumia, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    We provide ingredients and recipes for computing signals of TeV-scale Dark Matter annihilations and decays in the Galaxy and beyond. For each DM channel, we present the energy spectra of electrons and positrons, antiprotons, antideuterons, gamma rays, neutrinos and antineutrinos e, mu, tau at production, computed by high-statistics simulations. We estimate the Monte Carlo uncertainty by comparing the results yielded by the Pythia and Herwig event generators. We then provide the propagation functions for charged particles in the Galaxy, for several DM distribution profiles and sets of propagation parameters. Propagation of electrons and positrons is performed with an improved semi-analytic method that takes into account position-dependent energy losses in the Milky Way. Using such propagation functions, we compute the energy spectra of electrons and positrons, antiprotons and antideuterons at the location of the Earth. We then present the gamma ray fluxes, both from prompt emission and from Inverse Compton sca...

  18. Beryllium(II) hydrolysis in 3.0 mol dm-3 perchlorate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, Jordi

    1987-01-01

    The complex-formation equilibria in the system Be 11 -H 2 O have been studied at 25 0 C by means of e.m.f. methods, using a coulometric titration technique, in 3.0 mol dm -3 (Na)ClO 4 solutions. The ranges of total beryllium(II) concentration and acidity were 80 > = B >= 1 mmol dm -3 and 2 21 0 = -3.47 +- 0.05, log β 33 0 = -8.86 +- 0.05, log β 56 0 = -19.5 +- 0.1, and log β 68 0 = -26.3 +- 0.1. Tentative structures for the polynuclear hydroxo complexes are proposed and discussed. The solubility product of α- Be(OH) 2 (s) has been re-evaluated by using literature data and the hydrolysis constants of this study, at l = 0, log Ksub(so) = -6.87 +- 0.05. (author)

  19. Role of miRNAs in Epicardial Adipose Tissue in CAD Patients with T2DM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Fu, Wenbo; Lu, Mu; Huai, Shitao; Song, Yaqin; Wei, Yutao

    2016-01-01

    Background. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is identified as an atypical fat depot surrounding the heart with a putative role in the involvement of metabolic disorders, including obesity, type-2 diabetes mellitus, and atherosclerosis. We profiled miRNAs in EAT of metabolic patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) versus metabolically healthy patients by microarray. Compared to metabolically healthy patients, we identified forty-two miRNAs that are differentially expressed in patients with CAD and T2DM from Xinjiang, China. Eleven miRNAs were selected as potential novel miRNAs according to P value and fold change. Then the potential novel miRNAs targeted genes were predicted via TargetScan, PicTar, and miRTarbase, and the function of the target genes was predicted via Gene Ontology (GO) analysis while the enriched KEGG pathway analyses of the miRNAs targeted genes were performed by bioinformatics software DAVID. Then protein-protein interaction networks of the targeted gene were conducted by online software STRING. Finally, using microarray, bioinformatics approaches revealed the possible molecular mechanisms pathogenesis of CAD and T2DM. A total of 11 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified and among them, hsa-miR-4687-3p drew specific attention. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that insulin signaling pathway is the central way involved in the progression of metabolic disorders. Conclusions. The current findings support the fact that miRNAs are involved in the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders in EAT of CAD patients with T2DM, and validation of the results of these miRNAs by independent and prospective study is certainly warranted.

  20. Role of miRNAs in Epicardial Adipose Tissue in CAD Patients with T2DM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT is identified as an atypical fat depot surrounding the heart with a putative role in the involvement of metabolic disorders, including obesity, type-2 diabetes mellitus, and atherosclerosis. We profiled miRNAs in EAT of metabolic patients with coronary artery disease (CAD and type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM versus metabolically healthy patients by microarray. Compared to metabolically healthy patients, we identified forty-two miRNAs that are differentially expressed in patients with CAD and T2DM from Xinjiang, China. Eleven miRNAs were selected as potential novel miRNAs according to P value and fold change. Then the potential novel miRNAs targeted genes were predicted via TargetScan, PicTar, and miRTarbase, and the function of the target genes was predicted via Gene Ontology (GO analysis while the enriched KEGG pathway analyses of the miRNAs targeted genes were performed by bioinformatics software DAVID. Then protein-protein interaction networks of the targeted gene were conducted by online software STRING. Finally, using microarray, bioinformatics approaches revealed the possible molecular mechanisms pathogenesis of CAD and T2DM. A total of 11 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified and among them, hsa-miR-4687-3p drew specific attention. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that insulin signaling pathway is the central way involved in the progression of metabolic disorders. Conclusions. The current findings support the fact that miRNAs are involved in the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders in EAT of CAD patients with T2DM, and validation of the results of these miRNAs by independent and prospective study is certainly warranted.

  1. Ekologický marketing ve společnosti DM drogeriemarkt

    OpenAIRE

    Bakalářová, Jana

    2014-01-01

    The Bachelor's thesis entitled Green Marketing in DM drogeriemarkt company deals with the analysis of a new marketing approach/attitude also known as an environmental or green marketing, which has become very popular. The two preliminary chapters of my bachelor thesis are devoted to theoretical explanations, terms and definitions on the basis we can more develop it to a deeper description of marketing terms. The following part introduces a green marketing itself from it's definition through h...

  2. Small-unit Training for Adaptability and Resilience in Decision Making (STAR-DM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-23

    leadership and DM capabilities by exercising critical thinking, supporting cognitive development and challenging a leader’s ability to solve problems...model) of a given stressor. A third model of stress called the transactional model takes a different look at stress. Instead of viewing stress as a... questionnaire was also administered to capture trainee reactions to the stressfulness of the training they received. Multiple physiological measures were

  3. PROFIL URINALISIS PENGGUNAAN IMUNAX PADA PASIEN DIABETES MELITUS (DM RAWAT JALAN DI RSU PKU MUHAMMADIYAH BANTUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a metabolic disease characterized by the onset of hyperglycemia due to secretion disorders, as well as resistance of insulin. Chronic hyperglycemic and other DM metabolic disorders will cause tissue and organ damage, such as the eyes, kidneys and vascular system. Some studies show that immunax (MBJH: minyak biji jinten hitam has antidibetic benefits. This study aims to determine the description of urinalysis and proteinuria in DM patients who get immunax. The study design was randomized controlled trial. MBJH is given in 2 dosage levels, 2x1 soft capsule and 2x2 soft capsul given for 20 days on the subject. Urine data taken before and after administration of immunax preparations. The results showed that based on sex, age, education, occupation, marital status and the type of therapy used there was no significant difference in the characteristics and types of therapy used by the study subjects (patients at risk of metabolic syndrome between the treatment groups and the placebo group. The result of urinalysis test showed that there was no difference of urinalysis image in the three groups. The conclusion of this study was that there was no significant effect (p value> 0,05 on immunax (MBJH on the urinalysis profile in patients with metabolic syndrome risk, both dose 2x1, 2x2, and control group

  4. Empagliflozin Treatment is Associated with Improved Beta Cell Function in T2DM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Jobori, Hussein; Daniele, Giuseppe; Adams, John; Cersosimo, Eugenio; Solis-Herrera, Carolina; Triplitt, Curtis; DeFronzo, Ralph A; Abdul-Ghani, Muhammad

    2018-01-12

    To examine whether lowering the plasma glucose concentration with empagliflozin (SGLT2 inhibitor) improves beta cell function in T2DM. 15 T2DM patients received empagliflozin (25 mg/day) for 2 weeks, and beta cell function was measured with 9-step hyperglycemic clamp (each step = +40 mg/dl) before and 48 hours and 14 days after empagliflozin. Empagliflozin caused 101±10 and 117±11 grams glucosuria on days 1 and 14 and produced 25±6 and 38±8 mg/dl reduction (pEmpagliflozin increased the incremental area under the plasma C-peptide concentration curve by 48±12% and 61±10% during the stepped hyperglycemic clamp performed 48 hours and 14 days, respectively (both p empagliflozin. Empagliflozin also caused an increase in the glucose infusion rate during the hyperglycemic clamp performed on days 3 and 14 compared to baseline by 15% and 16% (both pempagliflozin. Empagliflozin also enhanced beta cell glucose sensitivity during the hyperglycemic clamp by 42% and 54% after 48 hours and 14 days, respectively (both pempagliflozin in T2DM patients: (1) augments beta cell glucose sensitivity and (2) improves beta cell function (IS/IR index). Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society

  5. Physico-Mechanical Properties of Coprocessed Excipient MicroceLac® 100 by DM(3) Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haware, Rahul V; Kancharla, Joseph P; Udupa, Aishwarya K; Staton, Scott; Gupta, Mali R; Al-Achi, Antoine; Stagner, William C

    2015-11-01

    To determine the effect of relative humidity (RH) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) on the physico-mechanical properties of coprocessed MacroceLac(®) 100 using 'DM(3)' approach. Effects of RH and 5% w/w HPMC on MacroceLac(®) 100 Compressibility Index (CI) and tablet mechanical strength (TMS) were evaluated by 'DM(3)'. The 'DM(3)' approach evaluates material properties by combining 'design of experiments', material's 'macroscopic' properties, 'molecular' properties, and 'multivariate analysis' tools. A 4X4 full-factorial experimental design was used to study the relationship of MacroceLac(®) 100 molecular properties (moisture content, dehydration, crystallization, fusion enthalpy, and moisture uptake) and macroscopic particle size and shape on CI and TMS. A physical binary mixture (PBM) of similar composition to MacroceLac(®) 100 was also evaluated. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), principle component analysis, and partial least squares (PLS) were used to analyze the data. MANOVA CI ranking was: PBM-HPMC > PBM > MicroceLac(®)100 > MicroceLac(®)100-HPMC (p TMS values were lower than MicroceLac(®)100 and MicroceLac(®)100-HPMC (p TMS. Significant MicroceLac(®)100 changes occurred with % RH exposure affecting performance attributes. HPMC physical addition did not prevent molecular or macroscopic matrix changes.

  6. Insulin initiation and intensification in patients with T2DM for the primary care physician

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unger J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Jeff UngerCatalina Research Institute, Chino, CA, USAAbstract: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is characterized by both insulin resistance and inadequate insulin secretion. All patients with the disease require treatment to achieve and maintain the target glycosylated hemoglobin (A1C level of 6.5%–7%. Pharmacological management of T2DM typically begins with the introduction of oral medications, and the majority of patients require exogenous insulin therapy at some point in time. Primary care physicians play an essential role in the management of T2DM since they often initiate insulin therapy and intensify regimens over time as needed. Although insulin therapy is prescribed on an individualized basis, treatment usually begins with basal insulin added to a background therapy of oral agents. Prandial insulin injections may be added if glycemic targets are not achieved. Treatments may be intensified over time using patient-friendly titration algorithms. The goal of insulin intensification within the primary care setting is to minimize patients' exposure to chronic hyperglycemia and weight gain, and reduce patients' risk of hypoglycemia, while achieving individualized fasting, postprandial, and A1C targets. Simplified treatment protocols and insulin delivery devices allow physicians to become efficient prescribers of insulin intensification within the primary care arena.Keywords: diabetes, basal, bolus, regimens, insulin analogs, structured glucose testing

  7. Polyuria with the Concurrent manifestation of Central Diabetes Insipidus (CDI) & Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyun-Jong; Kim, Jae-Ha; Yi, Joo-Hark; Han, Sang-Woong; Kim, Ho-Jung

    2012-12-01

    We report a rare case of the concurrent manifestation of central diabetes insipidus (CDI) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). A 56 year-old man was diagnosed as a type 2 DM on the basis of hyperglycemia with polyuria and polydipsia at a local clinic two months ago and started an oral hypoglycemic medication, but resulted in no symptomatic improvement at all. Upon admission to the university hospital, the patient's initial fasting blood sugar level was 140 mg/dL, and he showed polydipsic and polyuric conditions more than 8 L urine/day. Despite the hyperglycemia controlled with metformin and diet, his symptoms persisted. Further investigations including water deprivation test confirmed the coexisting CDI of unknown origin, and the patient's symptoms including an intense thirst were markedly improved by desmopressin nasal spray (10 µg/day). The possibility of a common origin of CDI and type 2 DM is raised in a review of the few relevant adult cases in the literature.

  8. Micromegas for dark matter searches: CAST/IAXO & TREX-DM experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, J. G.; Aune, S.; Aznar, F.; Castel, J. F.; Cebrián, S.; Dafni, T.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Galán, J.; García, J. A.; Giomataris, I.; Iguaz, F. J.; Irastorza, I. G.; Luzón, G.; Mirallas, H.; Papaevangelou, T.; Peiró, A.; Tomás, A.; Vafeiadis, T.

    2018-02-01

    The most compelling candidates for Dark Matter to day are WIMPs and axions. The applicability of gasesous Time Projection Chambers (TPCs) with Micromesh Gas Structures (Micromegas) to the search of these particles is explored within this work. Both particles would produce an extremely low rate at very low energies in particle detectors. Micromegas detectors can provide both low background rates and low energy threshold, due to the high granularity, radiopurity and uniformity of the readout. Small (few cm wide) Micromegas detectors are used to image the axion-induced x-ray signal expected in the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) experiment. We show the background levels obtained in CAST and the prospects to further reduce them to the values required by the Internation Axion Observatory (IAXO). We also present TREX-DM, a scaled-up version of the Micromegas used in axion research, but this time dedicated to the low-mass WIMP detection. TREX-DM is a high-pressure Micromegas-based TPC designed to host a few hundreds of grams of light nuclei (argon or neon) with energy thresholds potentially at the level of 100 eV. The detector is described in detail, as well as the results of the commissioning and characterization phase on surface. Besides, the background model of TREX-DM is presented, along with the anticipated sensitivity of this search, which could go beyond current experimental limits.

  9. Curcumin analog DM-1 in monotherapy or combinatory treatment with dacarbazine as a strategy to inhibit in vivo melanoma progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faião-Flores, Fernanda; Quincoces Suarez, José Agustín; Fruet, Andréa Costa; Maria-Engler, Silvya Stuchi; Pardi, Paulo Celso; Maria, Durvanei Augusto

    2015-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is a highly aggressive form of skin cancer with a high mortality rate if not discovered in early stages. Although a limited number of treatment options for melanoma currently exist, patients with a more aggressive form of this cancer frequently decline treatment. DM-1 is a sodium phenolate and curcumin analog with proven anticancer, anti-proliferative and anti-metastatic properties. In this paper, the DM-1 compound showed in vivo antitumor activity alone or in combination with chemotherapeutic DTIC in B16F10 melanoma-bearing mice. Beneficial effects such as melanoma tumor burden reduction with pyknotic nuclei, decreased nuclei/cytoplasmic ratio and nuclear degradation occurred after DM-1 treatment. No toxicological changes were observed in the liver, kidneys, spleen and lungs after DM-1 monotherapy or DTIC combined therapy. DTIC+DM-1 treatment induced the recovery of anemia arising from melanoma and immunomodulation. Both DM-1 treatment alone and in combination with DTIC induced apoptosis with the cleavage of caspase-3, -8 and -9. Furthermore, melanoma tumors treated with DM-1 showed a preferential apoptotic intrinsic pathway by decreasing Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Considering the chemoresistance exhibited by melanoma towards conventional chemotherapy drugs, DM-1 compound in monotherapy or in combination therapy provides a promising improvement in melanoma treatment with a reduction of side effects.

  10. Identification and Characterization of DM1 Patients by a New Diagnostic Certified Assay: Neuromuscular and Cardiac Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Valeria; Lombardi, Fortunata; Verdelli, Chiara; Colombo, Alessio; Brigonzi, Elisa; Costa, Elena; Meola, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    The expansion of the specific trinucleotide sequence, [CTG], is the molecular pathological mechanism responsible for the clinical manifestations of DM1. Many studies have described different molecular genetic techniques to detect DM1, but as yet there is no data on the analytical performances of techniques used so far in this disease. We therefore developed and validated a molecular method, “Myotonic Dystrophy SB kit,” to better characterize our DM1 population. 113 patients were examined: 20 DM1-positive, 11 DM1/DM2-negative, and13 DM1-negative/DM2-positive, who had a previous molecular diagnosis, while 69 were new cases. This assay correctly identified 113/113 patients, and all were confirmed by different homemade assays. Comparative analysis revealed that the sensitivity and the specificity of the new kit were very high (>99%). Same results were obtained using several extraction procedures and different concentrations of DNA. The distribution of pathologic alleles showed a prevalence of the “classical” form, while of the 96 nonexpanded alleles 19 different allelic types were observed. Cardiac and neuromuscular parameters were used to clinically characterize our patients and support the new genetic analysis. Our findings suggest that this assay appears to be a very robust and reliable molecular test, showing high reproducibility and giving an unambiguous interpretation of results. PMID:23762868

  11. In vivo and in vitro modulation of HLA-DM and HLA-DO is induced by B lymphocyte activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roucard, C.; Thomas, C.; Pasquier, M. A.; Trowsdale, J.; Sotto, J. J.; Neefjes, J.; van Ham, M.

    2001-01-01

    Ag presentation via HLA class II molecules in B lymphocytes depends on the coordinated action of HLA-DM, the catalyst of class II-peptide loading, and HLA-DO, a pH-dependent modulator of DM, the expression of which is almost completely restricted to B lymphocytes. The relative expression levels of

  12. Human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DM edits peptides presented by HLA-DR according to their ligand binding motifs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ham, S. M.; Grüneberg, U.; Malcherek, G.; Bröker, I.; Melms, A.; Trowsdale, J.

    1996-01-01

    Human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DM is a facilitator of antigen presentation via major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules. In the absence of HLA-DM, MHC class II molecules do not present natural peptides, but tend to remain associated with class II-associated

  13. Interaction between HLA-DM and HLA-DR involves regions that undergo conformational changes at lysosomal pH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ullrich, H. J.; Döring, K.; Grüneberg, U.; Jähnig, F.; Trowsdale, J.; van Ham, S. M.

    1997-01-01

    Antigenic peptide loading of major histocompatibility complex class II molecules is enhanced by lysosomal pH and catalyzed by the HLA-DM molecule. The physical mechanism behind the catalytic activity of DM was investigated by using time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy (TRFA) and fluorescence

  14. A tale of two pectins: Diverse fine structures can result from identical processive PME treatments on similar high DM substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, J L; Kent, L M; Ralet, M-C; Cameron, R G; Williams, M A K

    2017-07-15

    The effects of a processive pectin-methylesterase (PME) treatment on two different pectins, both possessing a high degree of methylesterification (DM), were investigated. While the starting samples were purportedly very similar in fine structure, the intermolecular DM distributions arising from their PME treatments were strikingly different. Herein, a simulation that illuminates the origin of this phenomenon is described. It is concluded that: (1) very different low-DM samples (with the same average DM) can be generated using the same processive PME, simply by a judicious choice of the high DM starting material; (2) observing the intermolecular DM distribution of the products of processive-PME-processing is an extremely sensitive discriminator of the fine structure of high DM starting materials; and (3) for PMEs with unknown action patterns the processive nature of the enzyme is most simply revealed by studying the changes it induces in the intermolecular DM distribution of very-highly-methylesterified homogalacturonans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Cytoplasmic CUG RNA foci are insufficient to elicit key DM1 features.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warunee Dansithong

    Full Text Available The genetic basis of myotonic dystrophy type I (DM1 is the expansion of a CTG tract located in the 3' untranslated region of DMPK. Expression of mutant RNAs encoding expanded CUG repeats plays a central role in the development of cardiac disease in DM1. Expanded CUG tracts form both nuclear and cytoplasmic aggregates, yet the relative significance of such aggregates in eliciting DM1 pathology is unclear. To test the pathophysiology of CUG repeat encoding RNAs, we developed and analyzed mice with cardiac-specific expression of a beta-galactosidase cassette in which a (CTG(400 repeat tract was positioned 3' of the termination codon and 5' of the bovine growth hormone polyadenylation signal. In these animals CUG aggregates form exclusively in the cytoplasm of cardiac cells. A key pathological consequence of expanded CUG repeat RNA expression in DM1 is aberrant RNA splicing. Abnormal splicing results from the functional inactivation of MBNL1, which is hypothesized to occur due to MBNL1 sequestration in CUG foci or from elevated levels of CUG-BP1. We therefore tested the ability of cytoplasmic CUG foci to elicit these changes. Aggregation of CUG RNAs within the cytoplasm results both in Mbnl1 sequestration and in approximately a two fold increase in both nuclear and cytoplasmic Cug-bp1 levels. Significantly, despite these changes RNA splice defects were not observed and functional analysis revealed only subtle cardiac dysfunction, characterized by conduction defects that primarily manifest under anesthesia. Using a human myoblast culture system we show that this transgene, when expressed at similar levels to a second transgene, which encodes expanded CTG tracts and facilitates both nuclear focus formation and aberrant splicing, does not elicit aberrant splicing. Thus the lack of toxicity of cytoplasmic CUG foci does not appear to be a consequence of low expression levels. Our results therefore demonstrate that the cellular location of CUG RNA

  16. DM100 AND DM1200 MELTER TESTING WITH HIGH WASTE LOADING FORMULATIONS FOR HANFORD HIGH-ALUMINUM HLW STREAMS, TEST PLAN 09T1690-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, A.A.; Matlack, K.S.; Kot, W.K.; Pegg, I.L.; Joseph, I.

    2009-01-01

    This Test Plan describes work to support the development and testing of high waste loading glass formulations that achieve high glass melting rates for Hanford high aluminum high level waste (HLW). In particular, the present testing is designed to evaluate the effect of using low activity waste (LAW) waste streams as a source of sodium in place ofchemical additives, sugar or cellulose as a reductant, boehmite as an aluminum source, and further enhancements to waste processing rate while meeting all processing and product quality requirements. The work will include preparation and characterization of crucible melts in support of subsequent DuraMelter 100 (DM 100) tests designed to examine the effects of enhanced glass formulations, glass processing temperature, incorporation of the LAW waste stream as a sodium source, type of organic reductant, and feed solids content on waste processing rate and product quality. Also included is a confirmatory test on the HLW Pilot Melter (DM1200) with a composition selected from those tested on the DM100. This work builds on previous work performed at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) for Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of River Protection (ORP) to increase waste loading and processing rates for high-iron HLW waste streams as well as previous tests conducted for ORP on the same waste composition. This Test Plan is prepared in response to an ORP-supplied statement of work. It is currently estimated that the number of HLW canisters to be produced in the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is about 12,500. This estimate is based upon the inventory ofthe tank wastes, the anticipated performance of the sludge treatment processes, and current understanding of the capability of the borosilicate glass waste form. The WTP HLW melter design, unlike earlier DOE melter designs, incorporates an active glass bubbler system. The bubblers create active glass pool convection and thereby improve heat transfer and

  17. Imaging HER2 in response to T-DM1 therapy in breast cancer xenografts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massicano, Adriana Vidal; Aweda, Tolulope; Marqueznostra, Bernadette; El Sayed, Reeta; Beacham, Rebecca; Lapi, Suzanne [University Of Alabama, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Full text: Introduction: Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have become broadly used for the treatment of cancer because they can be engineered to bind specifically to the target and therefore typically have less toxicity compared to broad spectrum chemotherapies (Jauw YWS, Menke-van der Houven van Oordt CW, Hoekstra OS, et al. Front Pharmacol 2016, 7:1-15). Ado-trastuzumab emtansine (TDM1) is a newly approved HER2 targeted therapy which consists of a cytotoxic agent (DM1) linked to trastuzumab and has shown promising results in patients with HER2 positive metastatic breast cancer (Barok MT, Köninki M, Isola K et al. Breast Cancer Res 2011, 13:1465-5411). Although {sup 18}F-FDG is considered the gold standard in the diagnosis and staging of various types of cancer, it is a relatively non-specific marker (Janjigian YY, Viola-Villegas N, Holland JP, Divilov V, Carlin SD et al. J Nucl Med 2013;54:936-43). Alternatively, {sup 89}Zr-Pertuzumab which binds to a different epitope than trastuzumab on the HER2 receptor has shown high selectively in imaging variations in HER2 expression in breast cancer xenograft models (Marquez BV, Ikotun OF, Zheleznyak A, Wright B et al. Mol Pharm 2014;11:3988-95). Therefore, in this work, we investigated the specificity of {sup 89}Zr-Pertuzumab compared to {sup 18}F-FDG to identify early response to ado-trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) in a breast cancer xenograft model. Methods: Pertuzumab was conjugated top-NCS-Bz-DFO at varying molar ratios and labeled with {sup 89}Zr in different conditions. The optimal conditions were used in further in vitro and in vivo studies. In vivo PET imaging was conducted in nude female mice implanted with 17β-estradiol pellets and inoculated with 1 x 107 BT-474 HER2 positive breast cancer cells. In order to acquire baseline images, mice were injected via tail-vein with 200 μCi of 18F-FDG and imaged after 1 hour. The following day, they were injected with 100 μCi of {sup 89}Zr-Pertuzumab (20 μCi/μg) imaged 5

  18. Hopanoid-free Methylobacterium extorquens DM4 overproduces carotenoids and has widespread growth impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander S Bradley

    Full Text Available Hopanoids are sterol-like membrane lipids widely used as geochemical proxies for bacteria. Currently, the physiological role of hopanoids is not well understood, and this represents one of the major limitations in interpreting the significance of their presence in ancient or contemporary sediments. Previous analyses of mutants lacking hopanoids in a range of bacteria have revealed a range of phenotypes under normal growth conditions, but with most having at least an increased sensitivity to toxins and osmotic stress. We employed hopanoid-free strains of Methylobacterium extorquens DM4, uncovering severe growth defects relative to the wild-type under many tested conditions, including normal growth conditions without additional stressors. Mutants overproduce carotenoids-the other major isoprenoid product of this strain-and show an altered fatty acid profile, pronounced flocculation in liquid media, and lower growth yields than for the wild-type strain. The flocculation phenotype can be mitigated by addition of cellulase to the medium, suggesting a link between the function of hopanoids and the secretion of cellulose in M. extorquens DM4. On solid media, colonies of the hopanoid-free mutant strain were smaller than wild-type, and were more sensitive to osmotic or pH stress, as well as to a variety of toxins. The results for M. extorquens DM4 are consistent with the hypothesis that hopanoids are important for membrane fluidity and lipid packing, but also indicate that the specific physiological processes that require hopanoids vary across bacterial lineages. Our work provides further support to emerging observations that the role of hopanoids in membrane robustness and barrier function may be important across lineages, possibly mediated through an interaction with lipid A in the outer membrane.

  19. SERUM GAMMA-GLUTAMYL TRANSFERASE AS A BIOMARKER OF TYPE-2 DM AMONG CIGARETTE SMOKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Suganthy

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Smoking is one of the most common addictions of modern times and needs to be studied in a community as a public health issue. Also, smoking is a modifiable risk factor for type-2 DM. The smoking-related diseases share common pathophysiologies of imbalance of systemic oxidants and antioxidant status, increased inflammatory reactions, insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia. Biochemical assay of serum Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase (GGT activity is a low cost and highly sensitive laboratory test. Studies have indicated GGT is moderately elevated before the onset of other traditional risk factors for type-2 DM. So, among hepatic markers, the baseline GGT analysis can be an early risk marker of type 2 diabetes in cigarette smokers has to be studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a case-control study on male cigarette smokers. 57 smokers were studied clinically and biochemically for plasma insulin, glucose and liver enzymes including GGT using standard biochemical methods and compared with 42 age and sex matched non-smokers as controls. RESULTS The mean serum GGT in smokers (25.45 ± 10.8 was increased compared to non-smokers (18.8 ± 5.8. Smokers GGT (r=0.396 and HOMA-IR (r=0.352 showed significant positive association with duration of smoking (p24 IU/L. Regression analysis showed none of the diabetic risk factors were observed to be dependent on GGT including other liver enzymes. Regression analysis showed GGT is not an independent risk factor for DM. Although, the mean fasting blood glucose (91.4 ± 21.3, BMI (26.1 ± 9.3 and HOMA-IR (7.3 ± 2.3 was increased among cigarette smokers with GGT >24 IU/L. CONCLUSION The baseline GGT assay in cigarette smokers might be associated with the proinflammatory status or be a marker of oxidative stress of smoke toxins. Smokers with baseline GGT >24 IU/L develop insulin resistance should be investigated in future longitudinal studies for prediabetes to consider cigarette smoking as an important modifiable

  20. Prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus complications among palestinians with T2DM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abu Al-Halaweh, Ahmad; Davidovitch, Nadav; Almdal, Thomas Peter

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: To assess the prevalence of microvascular and macrovascular complications of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) among Palestinians. METHODS: 1308 diagnosed T2DM attending four main Primary Health Care Clinics on the Southern West Bank of Palestine examined by a Mobile Diabetes Clinic team. All diabetes...... patients visiting the clinics during a one-month period for each clinic were included. Interviews, anthropometric measurements, physical examination, and laboratory tests: HbA1c, lipid profile, and kidney function tests analyzed in a central laboratory were obtained RESULTS: 1308 diabetes patients......, including 839 females (64%), with a mean age of 57 years (SD=8.7), and mean diabetes duration 7.1 years(SD=6.25), participated. 95.3% presented as overweight (BMI >25kg/m2) or obese (BMI>30kg/m2) with mean BMI of 33.46 (SD=5.95). The mean HbA1c (tested in 1221 patients) was 9.21(SD=2). Only 16.1% had HbA1c...

  1. Physiological and molecular responses to bariatric surgery: markers or mechanisms underlying T2DM resolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutch, Chelsea R; Sandoval, Darleen A

    2017-03-01

    Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective treatment for obesity and associated comorbidities, including rapid resolution of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Although the weight loss itself has substantial impact, bariatric surgery also has weight loss-independent effects on T2DM. Several variations of bariatric surgery exist, including the widely studied Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and vertical sleeve gastrectomy. The success of both of these bariatric surgeries was originally attributed to restrictive and malabsorptive modes of action; however, mounting evidence from both human and animal studies implicates mechanisms beyond surgery-induced mechanical changes to the gastrointestinal (GI) system. In fact, with bariatric surgery comes a spectrum of physiological responses, including postprandial enhancement of gut peptide and bile acids levels, restructuring of microbial composition, and changes in GI function and morphology. Although many of these processes are also essential for glucoregulation, the independent role of each in the success of surgery is still an open question. In this review, we explore whether these changes are necessary for the improvements in body mass and glucose homeostasis or whether they are simply markers of the physiological effect of surgery. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  2. Sensitivity of WFIRST coronagraph broadband contrast performance to DM actuator errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidick, Erkin; Seo, Byoung-Joon; Kern, Brian; Poberezhskiy, Ilya; Nemati, Bijan; Trauger, John T.

    2017-09-01

    The WFIRST/AFTA 2.4 m space telescope currently under study includes a stellar coronagraph for the imaging and the spectral characterization of extrasolar planets. The coronagraph employs sequential deformable mirrors to compensate for phase and amplitude errors. Using the optical model of an Occulting Mask Coronagraph (OMC) testbed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), we have investigated the sensitivity of a Hybrid Lyot Coronagraph (HLC) broadband contrast performance to DM actuator errors and actuator limits. Considered case include drifts in actuator gains or actuator response curves, paired actuators, as well as the limits imposed by a neighboring-actuator rule. Actual data about the actuator drifts and the knowledge about the paired-actuators obtained in several DM characterization experiments conducted at JPL, as well as the neighboring-actuator rule implemented on the OMC testbed were used in simulations. We obtained good agreement between the model prediction and the testbed measurement in terms of static HLC contrast floor and contrast chromaticity.

  3. Data Clustering Menggunakan Metodologi CRISP-DM Untuk Pengenalan Pola Proporsi Pelaksanaan Tridharma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwan Budiman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality of human resources faculty can be reflected from the implementation of productivity and quality Tridharma (education, research, community service  and  supporting  field  activities.  Lecturer  Workload  and Evaluation of  Higher Education  Tridharma  (BKD  and theEPT-PT  aims  to  ensure  the  implementation  of  the  faculty  task  runs  according  to  the  criteria  set  out  in  legislation.  Data  clusteringTridharma  implementation is needed to  get  some  knowledge  of the  pattern of Tridharma  implementation  at  college.  Clustering  as a  data mining  technique  should be  scalable, reliable  and  meet  an  agreed  standard.  CRISP-DM is the standardization of  data mining  is  used  in this study. The results of data clustering found the pattern of proportion of Tridharma  into 3 clusters representing patterns: professionals, managers and teachers.Keywords : Clustering, CRISP-DM, K-Means, Tridharma

  4. DM ORI: A YOUNG STAR OCCULTED BY A DISTURBANCE IN ITS PROTOPLANETARY DISK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Lund, Michael B.; Weintraub, David A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, 6301 Stevenson Center, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Cargile, Phillip [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Shappee, Benjamin J. [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Siverd, Robert J. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Santa Barbara, CA 93117 (United States); Pepper, Joshua [Department of Physics, Lehigh University, 16 Memorial Drive East, Bethlehem, PA 18015 (United States); Kochanek, Christopher S.; Gaudi, B. Scott; Stanek, Krzysztof Z.; Holoien, Thomas W.-S. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); James, David [Cerro Tololo InterAmerican Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Kuhn, Rudolf B. [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9, Observatory 7935 (South Africa); Beatty, Thomas G. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Prieto, Jose L. [Nucleo de Astronoma de la Facultad de Ingeniera, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejercito 441, Santiago (Chile); Feldman, Daniel M.; Espaillat, Catherine C. [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2016-11-01

    In some planet formation theories, protoplanets grow gravitationally within a young star’s protoplanetary disk, a signature of which may be a localized disturbance in the disk’s radial and/or vertical structure. Using time-series photometric observations by the Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope South project and the All-Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae, combined with archival observations, we present the discovery of two extended dimming events of the young star, DM Ori. This young system faded by ∼1.5 mag from 2000 March to 2002 August and then again in 2013 January until 2014 September (depth ∼1.7 mag). We constrain the duration of the 2000–2002 dimming to be < 860 days, and the event in 2013–2014 to be < 585 days, separated by ∼12.5 years. A model of the spectral energy distribution indicates a large infrared excess consistent with an extensive circumstellar disk. Using basic kinematic arguments, we propose that DM Ori is likely being periodically occulted by a feature (possibly a warp or perturbation) in its circumstellar disk. In this scenario, the occulting feature is located >6 au from the host star, moving at ∼14.6 km s{sup −1} and is ∼4.9 au in width. This localized structure may indicate a disturbance such as that which may be caused by a protoplanet early in its formation.

  5. [Functional activity of the modA, gene in Methylobacterium dichloromethanicum DM4].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firsova, Y E; Trotsenko, Y A

    2014-01-01

    The putative METDI2644 (modA2) gene of Methylobacterium dichloromethanicum DM4, present in the 126-kbp chromosomal fragment associated with dichloromethane (DCM) degradation was investigated. While this gene is presumed to encode the periplasmic substrate-binding subunit of the molybdate ABC transporter, its conceptual translation also exhibits similarity to the proteins containing the ostA conservative domain and responsible for resistance of gram-negative bacteria to organic solvents. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed the RNA transcripts of this gene in the cells grown on either DCM or methanol. The mobilizable suicide vector pK18mob was used to obtain a knockout mutant with the METDI2644 gene inactivated by insertion of the gentamycin cassette. The mutant pregrown on methanol exhibited lower growth rate on DCM than the wild-type strain DM4. The difference was not alleviated by addition of sodium molybdate. Our results suggest that the METDI2644 gene product plays a role in cell adaptation to DCM degradation.

  6. The interaction of the antitoxin DM43 with a snake venom metalloproteinase analyzed by mass spectrometry and surface plasmon resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brand, Guilherme D; Salbo, Rune; Jørgensen, Thomas J D

    2012-01-01

    DM43 is a circulating dimeric antitoxin isolated from Didelphis aurita, a South American marsupial naturally immune to snake envenomation. This endogenous inhibitor binds non-covalently to jararhagin, the main hemorrhagic metalloproteinase from Bothrops jararaca snake venom, and efficiently...

  7. Single Crystal Piezoelectric Stack Actuator DM with Integrated Low-Power HVA-Based Driver ASIC, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I project aims to develop an innovative batch fabrication technique to create single crystal PMN-PT stack actuator deformable mirrors (DM) at low...

  8. Do Adolescents with T1DM Differ from Their Peers in Health, Eating Habits and Social Support?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husárová, Daniela; Kostičová, Michaela; Kočišová, Denisa; Schusterová, Ingrid; Gecková, Andrea Madarasová

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse differences in health, eating habits and social support in adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in comparison to peers with another long-term illness or without any medical condition. We used self-reported data from the cross-sectional Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study collected in 2014 among Slovak adolescents as well as data from adolescents with T1DM collected in outpatient settings (11 to 15 years old, N=8,910, 50.3% of boys). Logistic regression models and general linear models were used to analyse differences between adolescents with T1DM and their peers with and without long-term illness in self-rated health, life satisfaction, health complaints, regular breakfast, sweets and soft drink consumption, and perceived support from family, teachers and classmates. Adolescents with T1DM reported worse self-rated health and suffer from more health complaints, but they have lower chance of having breakfast irregularly in comparison to their peers with another long-term illness or without any medical condition. Moreover, compared with their peers, adolescents with T1DM perceived stronger support from teachers and classmates, but weaker support from their family. We did not confirm any differences in life satisfaction, sweets and soft drink consumption between adolescents with T1DM and their peers. Adolescents with T1DM reported more regular eating habits, no difference in life satisfaction and more social support outside the family in comparison to their peers. However, their worse self-rated health, more health complaints and weaker support from family should be considered in interventions targeting psychosocial adjustment of adolescents with T1DM. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2017

  9. History of Cesarean Section Associated with Childhood Onset of T1DM in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Phillips

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Newfoundland and Labrador (NL has one of the highest incidences of Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM worldwide. Rates of T1DM are increasing and the search for environmental factors that may be contributing to this increase is continuing. Methods. This was a population-based case control design involving the linkage of data from a diabetes database with live birth registration data. 266 children aged 0–15 years with T1DM were compared to age- and gender-matched controls. Chi-square analysis and multivariate conditional logistic regression were carried out to assess maternal and infant factors (including maternal age, marital status, education, T1DM, hypertension, birth order, delivery method, gestational age, size-for-gestational-age, and birth weight. Results. Cases of T1DM were more likely to be large-for-gestational-age (P=0.024 and delivered by C-section (P=0.009 as compared to controls. C-section delivery was associated with increased risk of T1DM (HR 1.41, P=0.015 when birth weight and gestational age were included in the model, but not when size-for-gestational-age was included (HR 1.3, P=0.076. Conclusions. Birth by C-section was found to be a risk factor for the development of T1DM in a region with high rates of T1DM and birth by C-section. These findings may have an impact on health practice, health care planning, and future research.

  10. Downregulation of DmMANF in Glial Cells Results in Neurodegeneration and Affects Sleep and Lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyna Walkowicz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In Drosophila melanogaster, mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (DmMANF is an evolutionarily conserved ortholog of mammalian MANF and cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF, which have been shown to promote the survival of dopaminergic neurons in the brain. We observed especially high levels of DmMANF in the visual system of Drosophila, particularly in the first optic neuropil (lamina. In the lamina, DmMANF was found in glial cells (surface and epithelial glia, photoreceptors and interneurons. Interestingly, silencing of DmMANF in all neurons or specifically in photoreceptors or L2 interneurons had no impact on the structure of the visual system. However, downregulation of DmMANF in glial cells induced degeneration of the lamina. Remarkably, this degeneration in the form of holes and/or tightly packed membranes was observed only in the lamina epithelial glial cells. Those membranes seem to originate from the endoplasmic reticulum, which forms autophagosome membranes. Moreover, capitate projections, the epithelial glia invaginations into photoreceptor terminals that are involved in recycling of the photoreceptor neurotransmitter histamine, were less numerous after DmMANF silencing either in neurons or glial cells. The distribution of the alpha subunit of Na+/K+-ATPase protein in the lamina cell membranes was also changed. At the behavioral level, silencing of DmMANF either in neurons or glial cells affected the daily activity/sleep pattern, and flies showed less activity during the day but higher activity during the night than did controls. In the case of silencing in glia, the lifespan of flies was also shortened. The obtained results showed that DmMANF regulates many functions in the brain, particularly those dependent on glial cells.

  11. "I Know that You Know that I Know": Neural Substrates Associated with Social Cognition Deficits in DM1 Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Serra

    Full Text Available Myotonic dystrophy type-1 (DM1 is a genetic multi-systemic disorder involving several organs including the brain. Despite the heterogeneity of this condition, some patients with non-congenital DM1 can present with minimal cognitive impairment on formal testing but with severe difficulties in daily-living activities including social interactions. One explanation for this paradoxical mismatch can be found in patients' dysfunctional social cognition, which can be assessed in the framework of the Theory of Mind (ToM. We hypothesize here that specific disease driven abnormalities in DM1 brains may result in ToM impairments. We recruited 20 DM1 patients who underwent the "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" and the ToM-story tests. These patients, together with 18 healthy controls, also underwent resting-state functional MRI. A composite Theory of Mind score was computed for all recruited patients and correlated with their brain functional connectivity. This analysis provided the patients' "Theory of Mind-network", which was compared, for its topological properties, with that of healthy controls. We found that DM1 patients showed deficits in both tests assessing ToM. These deficits were associated with specific patterns of abnormal connectivity between the left inferior temporal and fronto-cerebellar nodes in DM1 brains. The results confirm the previous suggestions of ToM dysfunctions in patients with DM1 and support the hypothesis that difficulties in social interactions and personal relationships are a direct consequence of brain abnormalities, and not a reaction symptom. This is relevant not only for a better pathophysiological comprehension of DM1, but also for non-pharmacological interventions to improve clinical aspects and impact on patients' success in life.

  12. The incidence of herpes zoster in cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE), dermatomyositis (DM), pemphigus vulgaris (PV), and bullous pemphigoid (BP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Elizabeth S; Payne, Aimee S; Pappas-Taffer, Lisa; Feng, Rui; Werth, Victoria P

    2016-07-01

    Herpes zoster is a common condition that causes significant morbidity. This study determined the incidence of zoster in patients with cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE), dermatomyositis (DM), pemphigus vulgaris (PV), and bullous pemphigoid (BP). In this retrospective cohort study the electronic medical records of 186 patients with CLE, 103 with DM, 83 with PV, 44 with BP, and 152 healthy control patients were reviewed to confirm positive diagnoses of zoster. The incidence of zoster per 1000 person-years was 29.4 in CLE, 55.4 in DM, 18.6 in PV, 10.2 in BP, and 3.9 in healthy control subjects. The mean age (SD) in years was 46.1 (14.9) for CLE, 52.2 (14.5) for DM, 51.8 (13.5) for PV, 71.44 (11.8) for BP, and 48.2 (18.2) for healthy control subjects. The incidence of zoster was significantly higher in the CLE (P = .0177) and DM (P = .0070) groups than the healthy control subjects, all of whom were of a similar mean age. The limitations of this study are the sample size, referral bias, and retrospective nature. The incidence of zoster in patients with CLE and, particularly, DM was significantly higher than that of the healthy control subjects. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Insulin Resistance-Associated Interhemispheric Functional Connectivity Alterations in T2DM: A Resting-State fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqing Xia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We aim to investigate whether decreased interhemispheric functional connectivity exists in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM by using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI. In addition, we sought to determine whether interhemispheric functional connectivity deficits associated with cognition and insulin resistance (IR among T2DM patients. We compared the interhemispheric resting state functional connectivity of 32 T2DM patients and 30 healthy controls using rs-fMRI. Partial correlation coefficients were used to detect the relationship between rs-fMRI information and cognitive or clinical data. Compared with healthy controls, T2DM patients showed bidirectional alteration of functional connectivity in several brain regions. Functional connectivity values in the middle temporal gyrus (MTG and in the superior frontal gyrus were inversely correlated with Trail Making Test-B score of patients. Notably, insulin resistance (log homeostasis model assessment-IR negatively correlated with functional connectivity in the MTG of patients. In conclusion, T2DM patients exhibit abnormal interhemispheric functional connectivity in several default mode network regions, particularly in the MTG, and such alteration is associated with IR. Alterations in interhemispheric functional connectivity might contribute to cognitive dysfunction in T2DM patients.

  14. Development of a genomic DNA reference material panel for myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) genetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalman, Lisa; Tarleton, Jack; Hitch, Monica; Hegde, Madhuri; Hjelm, Nick; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Zhou, Lili; Hilbert, James E; Luebbe, Elizabeth A; Moxley, Richard T; Toji, Lorraine

    2013-07-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is caused by expansion of a CTG triplet repeat in the 3' untranslated region of the DMPK gene that encodes a serine-threonine kinase. Patients with larger repeats tend to have a more severe phenotype. Clinical laboratories require reference and quality control materials for DM1 diagnostic and carrier genetic testing. Well-characterized reference materials are not available. To address this need, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-based Genetic Testing Reference Material Coordination Program, in collaboration with members of the genetic testing community, the National Registry of Myotonic Dystrophy and Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy Patients and Family Members, and the Coriell Cell Repositories, has established and characterized cell lines from patients with DM1 to create a reference material panel. The CTG repeats in genomic DNA samples from 10 DM1 cell lines were characterized in three clinical genetic testing laboratories using PCR and Southern blot analysis. DMPK alleles in the samples cover four of five DM1 clinical categories: normal (5 to 34 repeats), mild (50 to 100 repeats), classical (101 to 1000 repeats), and congenital (>1000 repeats). We did not identify or establish Coriell cell lines in the premutation range (35 to 49 repeats). These samples are publicly available for quality control, proficiency testing, test development, and research and should help improve the accuracy of DM1 testing. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Inhibition of HLA-DM mediated MHC class II peptide loading by HLA-DO promotes self tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa K. Denzin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Major histocompatibility class II (MHCII molecules are loaded with peptides derived from foreign and self-proteins within the endosomes and lysosomes of antigen presenting cells (APCs. This process is mediated by interaction of MHCII with the conserved, nonpolymorphic MHCII-like molecule HLA-DM (DM. DM activity is directly opposed by HLA-DO (DO, another conserved, non-polymorphic MHCII like molecule. DO is an MHCII substrate mimic. Binding of DO to DM prevents MHCII from binding to DM, thereby inhibiting peptide loading. Inhibition of DM function enables low stability MHC complexes to survive and populate the surface of APCS. As a consequence, DO promotes the display of a broader pool of low abundance self-peptides. Broadening the peptide repertoire theoretically reduces the likelihood of inadvertently acquiring a density of self-ligands that is sufficient to activate self-reactive T cells. One function of DO, therefore, is to promote T cell tolerance by shaping the visible image of self. Recent data also shows that DO influences the adaptive immune response by controlling B cell entry into the germinal center reaction. This review explores the data supporting these concepts.

  16. Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy and its relationship with glomerular filtration rate and other risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Spain. DM2 HOPE study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel López

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: Around one in seven patients with T2DM has DR after nine years since diagnosis. Time since diagnosis, insulin therapy, cardiovascular profile, and renal dysfunction are associated with DR in patients with T2DM in Spain.

  17. Pseudoscalar states in J/Ψ→γVV decays. Results from DM2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanco, L.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Dekmouche, A.; Falvard, A.

    1987-08-01

    We present new results from the DM2 experiment on the η c -state and the pseudoscalar production seen at the threshold of the vector-vector radiative decays at J/Ψ. The η c shows a vector-vector dominance in its decays and has a decay pattern which follows the SU(3)F symmetry prediction, this being in contradiction with previous measurements. New pseudoscalar states are clearly present in the invariant mass spectrum of ρ 0 ρ 0 . There are at least three different resonances, here named L 1 , L 2 , L 3 to underline a supposed common origin. These states have no direct interpretation in the usual qantiq model and they are believed to have an isoscalar nature. An interesting new upper limit on the gT's(2000(division)2500 MeV/c 2 ) production at J/Ψ is given as a by-product of the ρ 0 ρ 0 analysis

  18. Changes in endotoxin levels in T2DM subjects on anti-diabetic therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Sudhesh

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Chronic low-grade inflammation is a significant factor in the development of obesity associated diabetes. This is supported by recent studies suggesting endotoxin, derived from gut flora, may be key to the development of inflammation by stimulating the secretion of an adverse cytokine profile from adipose tissue. Aims The study investigated the relationship between endotoxin and various metabolic parameters of diabetic patients to determine if anti-diabetic therapies exerted a significant effect on endotoxin levels and adipocytokine profiles. Methods Fasting blood samples were collected from consenting Saudi Arabian patients (BMI: 30.2 ± (SD5.6 kg/m2, n = 413, consisting of non-diabetics (ND: n = 67 and T2DM subjects (n = 346. The diabetics were divided into 5 subgroups based on their 1 year treatment regimes: diet-controlled (n = 36, metformin (n = 141, rosiglitazone (RSG: n = 22, a combined fixed dose of metformin/rosiglitazone (met/RSG n = 100 and insulin (n = 47. Lipid profiles, fasting plasma glucose, insulin, adiponectin, resistin, TNF-α, leptin, C-reactive protein (CRP and endotoxin concentrations were determined. Results Regression analyses revealed significant correlations between endotoxin levels and triglycerides (R2 = 0.42; p 2 = 0.10; p 2 = 0.076; p 2 = 0.032; p 2 = 0.055; p Conclusion We conclude that sub-clinical inflammation in T2DM may, in part, be mediated by circulating endotoxin. Furthermore, that whilst the endotoxin and adipocytokine profiles of diabetic patients treated with different therapies were comparable, the RSG group demonstrated significant differences in both adiponectin and endotoxin levels. We confirm an association between endotoxin and serum insulin and triglycerides and an inverse relationship with HDL. Lower endotoxin and higher adiponectin in the groups treated with RSG may be related and indicate another mechanism for the effect of RSG on insulin sensitivity.

  19. T-1020 NaI crystal test for DM-Ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Reina; Heeger, Karsten; Pierpoint, Zachary; Pettus, Walter; Broerman, Benjamin; Hilgenberg, Chris; Webber, David

    2011-01-01

    This is a memorandum of understanding between the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) and the experiments of the NaI Crystal Test for DM-Ice from the University of Wisconsin who have committed to participate in detector tests to be carried out during the 2011-2012 Fermilab Neutrino program. The memorandum is intended primarily for the purpose of recording expectations for budget estimates and work allocations for Fermilab, the funding agencies and the participating institutions. It reflects an arrangement that currently is satisfactory to the parties; however, it is recognized and anticipated that changing circumstances of the evolving research program will necessitate revisions. The parties agree to modify this memorandum to reflect such required adjustments. Actual contractual obligations will be set forth in separate documents. The DM-Ice collaboration is designing a sodium-iodide (NaI) based detector for a direct dark matter search. The detectors should have low readout noise and background levels to carry out a sensitive search. A 17-kg version of the experiment is running at the South Pole, 2500 m deep in the Antarctic ice, and a large scale experiment is currently being designed. One of the keys to the success of the experiment is to have a good understanding of the background levels intrinsic in the NaI detectors. To measure the background level, the detectors have to be shielded against cosmic rays. The lead shielding used for DAMIC in the Minos Underground Areas is a well-suited location for this test since it offers enough overburden to shield against cosmic rays, lead shielding, and experimental infrastructure. The goal of the test is to assess the background levels in the detector and to assess the characteristics of phosphorescence induced by muons and 100 keV-3 MeV gamma rays.

  20. Dynamics of energy technologies and global change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruebler, A.; Nakicenovic, N.; Victor, D.G. [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg (Austria). Environmentally Compatible Energy Strategies Project

    1999-05-01

    Based on work at IIASA, typology for technology analysis is presented and methods to analyze the impact of technological changes on the global environment, especially global warming are discussed, focusing on energy technologies. Much improved treatment of technology is possible using both historical analysis and new modeling techniques. In the historical record characteristic `learning rates` are identified that allow simple quantified characterization of the improvement in cost and performance due to cumulative experience and investments. Patterns, processes and timescales typifying the diffusion of new technologies in competitive markets are identified. Technologies that are long-lived and are components of interlocking networks require the longest time to diffuse and co-evolve with other technologies in the network; such network effects yield high barriers to entry even for superior competitors. These observations allow improvements to modeling of technological change and its consequences for global environmental change. One is that the replacement of long-lived infrastructures over time has also replaced the fuels that power the economy to yield progressively more energy per unit of carbon pollution - from coal to oil to gas. Such replacement has `decarbonized` the global primary energy supply 0.3% per year. Most baseline projections for emissions of carbon ignore this historical trend and show little decarbonization. A second improvement is that by incorporating learning curves and uncertainty into micro scale models it is possible to endogenously generate patterns of technological choice that mirror the real world. Thirdly, learning phenomena can be included stylistically in macro-scale models. Arriving on that path by the year 2100 depends on intervening actions, such as incentives to promote greater diversity in technology. 112 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Distinct roles of the DmNav and DSC1 channels in the action of DDT and pyrethroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinkevich, Frank D; Du, Yuzhe; Tolinski, Josh; Ueda, Atsushi; Wu, Chun-Fang; Zhorov, Boris S; Dong, Ke

    2015-03-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav channels) are critical for electrical signaling in the nervous system and are the primary targets of the insecticides DDT and pyrethroids. In Drosophila melanogaster, besides the canonical Nav channel, Para (also called DmNav), there is a sodium channel-like cation channel called DSC1 (Drosophila sodium channel 1). Temperature-sensitive paralytic mutations in DmNav (para(ts)) confer resistance to DDT and pyrethroids, whereas DSC1 knockout flies exhibit enhanced sensitivity to pyrethroids. To further define the roles and interaction of DmNav and DSC1 channels in DDT and pyrethroid neurotoxicology, we generated a DmNav/DSC1 double mutant line by introducing a para(ts1) allele (carrying the I265N mutation) into a DSC1 knockout line. We confirmed that the I265N mutation reduced the sensitivity to two pyrethroids, permethrin and deltamethrin of a DmNav variant expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Computer modeling predicts that the I265N mutation confers pyrethroid resistance by allosterically altering the second pyrethroid receptor site on the DmNav channel. Furthermore, we found that I265N-mediated pyrethroid resistance in para(ts1) mutant flies was almost completely abolished in para(ts1);DSC1(-/-) double mutant flies. Unexpectedly, however, the DSC1 knockout flies were less sensitive to DDT, compared to the control flies (w(1118A)), and the para(ts1);DSC1(-/-) double mutant flies were even more resistant to DDT compared to the DSC1 knockout or para(ts1) mutant. Our findings revealed distinct roles of the DmNav and DSC1 channels in the neurotoxicology of DDT vs. pyrethroids and implicate the exciting possibility of using DSC1 channel blockers or modifiers in the management of pyrethroid resistance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Genetic basis of dyslipidemia in disease precipitation of coronary artery disease (CAD) associated type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Resal; Bhatti, Jasvinder Singh; Badada, Sanjay Kumar; Ramteke, Pramod W

    2015-10-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its complications are linked to environmental, clinical, and genetic factors. This review analyses the disorders of lipids and their genetics with respect to coronary artery disease (CAD) associated with T2DM. Cell organelles, hepatitis C-virus infection, reactive oxygen species produced in mitochondria, and defective insulin signaling due to the arrest of G1 phase to S phase transition of β-cells have significant roles in the precipitation of the diseases. Adiponectin is anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic and improves insulin resistance. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is atherosclerotic, and LDL-cholesterol in T2DM is associated with high-cardiovascular risk. Further, LDL cholesterol reduction significantly reduces cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is also anti-atherosclerotic due to HDL associated paraoxonase-1 serum enzyme, which prevents LDL oxidative modifications and the development of CAD. Moreover, elevated apolipoprotein B and apolipoprotein A-I (ApoB/ApoA-I) ratio in plasma is also a risk factor for CAD. LDL receptor, adiponectin, and endocannabinoid receptor-1 genes are independently associated with CAD and T2DM. Polymorphism of Apo E2 (epsilon2) is a positive factor to increase the T2DM risk and Apo E4 (epsilon4) is a negative factor to reduce the disease risk. Taq 1B polymorphism of cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP) gene contributes to the development of atherosclerosis, whereas haplotypes of APOA5, APOC3, APOC4, and APOC5 genes are in the same cluster and are independently associated with high plasma triglyceride level, CAD and T2DM. In conclusion, because various genes, LDLR, CETP, APOA5, Apo E, Apo B, and Apo A-I, are associated with the precipitation of CAD associated with T2DM, a personalized diet-gene intervention therapy may be advocated to reduce the disease precipitation. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Plasma amino acid and metabolite signatures tracking diabetes progression in the UCD-T2DM rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccolo, Brian D; Graham, James L; Stanhope, Kimber L; Fiehn, Oliver; Havel, Peter J; Adams, Sean H

    2016-06-01

    Elevations of plasma concentrations of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are observed in human insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); however, there has been some controversy with respect to the passive or causative nature of the BCAA phenotype. Using untargeted metabolomics, plasma BCAA and other metabolites were assessed in lean control Sprague-Dawley rats (LC) and temporally during diabetes development in the UCD-T2DM rat model, i.e., prediabetic (PD) and 2 wk (D2W), 3 mo (D3M), and 6 mo (D6M) post-onset of diabetes. Plasma leucine, isoleucine, and valine concentrations were elevated only in D6M rats compared with D2W rats (by 28, 29, and 30%, respectively). This was in contrast to decreased plasma concentrations of several other amino acids in D3M and/or D6M relative to LC rats (Ala, Arg, Glu, Gln, Met, Ser, Thr, and Trp). BCAAs were positively correlated with fasting glucose and negatively correlated with plasma insulin, total body weight, total adipose tissue weight, and gastrocnemius muscle weight in the D3M and D6M groups. Multivariate analysis revealed that D3M and D6M UCD-T2DM rats had lower concentrations of amino acids, amino acid derivatives, 1,5-anhydroglucitol, and conduritol-β-opoxide and higher concentrations of uronic acids, pantothenic acids, aconitate, benzoic acid, lactate, and monopalmitin-2-glyceride relative to PD and D2W UCD-T2DM rats. The UCD-T2DM rat does not display elevated plasma BCAA concentrations until 6 mo post-onset of diabetes. With the acknowledgement that this is a rodent model of T2DM, the results indicate that elevated plasma BCAA concentrations are not necessary or sufficient to elicit an insulin resistance or T2DM onset. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Preclinical safety profile of trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1): Mechanism of action of its cytotoxic component retained with improved tolerability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poon, Kirsten Achilles, E-mail: achilles.kirsten@gene.com [Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, CA (United States); Flagella, Kelly; Beyer, Joseph [Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, CA (United States); Tibbitts, Jay [UCB, Brussels (Belgium); Kaur, Surinder; Saad, Ola; Yi, Joo-Hee; Girish, Sandhya; Dybdal, Noel; Reynolds, Theresa [Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) is the first antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) approved for patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive metastatic breast cancer. The therapeutic premise of ADCs is based on the hypothesis that targeted delivery of potent cytotoxic drugs to tumors will provide better tolerability and efficacy compared with non-targeted delivery, where poor tolerability can limit efficacious doses. Here, we present results from preclinical studies characterizing the toxicity profile of T-DM1, including limited assessment of unconjugated DM1. T-DM1 binds primate ErbB2 and human HER2 but not the rodent homolog c-neu. Therefore, antigen-dependent and non-antigen-dependent toxicity was evaluated in monkeys and rats, respectively, in both single- and repeat-dose studies; toxicity of DM1 was assessed in rats only. T-DM1 was well tolerated at doses up to 40 mg/kg (∼ 4400 μg DM1/m{sup 2}) and 30 mg/kg (∼ 6000 μg DM1/m{sup 2}) in rats and monkeys, respectively. In contrast, DM1 was only tolerated up to 0.2 mg/kg (1600 μg DM1/m{sup 2}). This suggests that at least two-fold higher doses of the cytotoxic agent are tolerated in T-DM1, supporting the premise of ADCs to improve the therapeutic index. In addition, T-DM1 and DM1 safety profiles were similar and consistent with the mechanism of action of DM1 (i.e., microtubule disruption). Findings included hepatic, bone marrow/hematologic (primarily platelet), lymphoid organ, and neuronal toxicities, and increased numbers of cells of epithelial and phagocytic origin in metaphase arrest. These adverse effects did not worsen with chronic dosing in monkeys and are consistent with those reported in T-DM1-treated patients to date. - Highlights: • T-DM1 was well tolerated in preclinical studies in rats and cynomolgus monkeys. • T-DM1 is associated with bone marrow/hematologic, hepatic, and neuronal toxicities. • T-DM1 toxicities are related to DM1 mechanisms of action and pharmacologic

  5. Deterioration of plasticity and metabolic homeostasis in the brain of the UCD-T2DM rat model of naturally occurring type-2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, Rahul; Zhuang, Yumei; Cummings, Bethany P.; Stanhope, Kimber L.; Graham, James L.; Havel, Peter J.; Gomez-Pinilla, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The rising prevalence of type-2 diabetes (T2DM) is becoming a pressing issue based on emerging reports that T2DM can also adversely impact mental health. We have utilized the UCD-T2DM rat model in which the onset of T2DM develops spontaneously across time and can serve to understand the pathophysiology of diabetes in humans. An increased insulin resistance index and plasma glucose levels manifested the onset of T2DM. There was a decrease in hippocampal insulin receptor (InR) signaling in the ...

  6. T2DM Self-Management via Smartphone Applications: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Mingxuan; Wu, Xueyan; Mao, Jiangfeng; Wang, Xi; Nie, Min

    2016-01-01

    Mobile health interventions (mHealth) based on smartphone applications (apps) are promising tools to help improve diabetes care and self-management; however, more evidence on the efficacy of mHealth in diabetes care is needed. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effect of mHealth apps on changes in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), blood glucose, blood pressure, serum lipids, and body weight in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. Two independent reviewers searched three online databases (PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and EMBASE) to identify relevant studies published between January 2005 and June 2016. Of the 2,596 articles retrieved, 13 RCTs were included. We used random effects model to estimate the pooled results. Thirteen studies were selected for the systematic review, six of which with data available containing 1,022 patients were included for the meta-analysis. There was a moderate effect on glycemic control after the mHealth app-based interventions. The overall effect on HbA1c shown as mean difference (MD) was -0.40% (-4.37 mmol/mol) (95% confidence interval [CI] -0.69 to -0.11% [-7.54 to -1.20 mmol/mol]; p = 0.007) and standardized mean differences (SMD) was -0.40% (-4.37 mmol/mol) (95% confidence interval [CI] -0.69 to -0.10% [-7.54 to -1.09 mmol/mol]; p = 0.008). A subgroup analysis showed a similar effect with -0.33% (-3.61 mmol/mol) (95% CI -0.59 to -0.06% [-6.45 to -0.66 mmol/mol]; p = 0.02) in MD and -0.38% (-4.15 mmol/mol) (95% CI -0.71 to -0.05% [-7.76 to -0.55 mmol/mol]; p = 0.02) in SMD in studies where patients' baseline HbA1c levels were less than 8.0%. No effects of mHealth app interventions were found on blood pressure, serum lipids, or weight. Assessment of overall study quality and publication bias demonstrated a low risk of bias among the six studies. Smartphone apps offered moderate benefits for T2DM self-management. However, more research with

  7. Biohydrogen production from desugared molasses (DM) using thermophilic mixed cultures immobilized on heat treated anaerobic sludge granules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongjan, Prawit; O-Thong, Sompong; Angelidaki, Irini

    2011-01-01

    . The enriched hydrogen producing mixed culture achieved from the 16.7 g-sugars/L DM batch cultivation was immobilized on heat treated anaerobic sludge granules in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. The UASB reactor, operated at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 24 h fed with 16.7 g......-sugars/L DM showed good performance with a satisfactory hydrogen yield of 269.5 ml-H2/g-sugar and rate of 4500 ml H2/l⋅d. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of the microbial community of sludge from batch fermentation and the UASB-granules after 54 days of operation, was dominated...... by Thermoanaerobacterium spp., which are key players in fermentative hydrogen production of DM under thermophilic conditions. Furthermore, the granules in the UASB reactor were also significantly containing Thermoanaerobacterium spp. and phylum Firmecutes (most Clotridium, Bacillus and Desulfobacterium...

  8. Improvement in performance of DM plant, secondary systems for achieving chemistry performance indicator of KGS-3 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, B.S.; Raichur, P.G.; Srinivas, M.; Hansora, M.P.

    2015-01-01

    Kaiga Generating Station (KGS)-3 and 4 has two 220 MWe Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors. It uses Heavy water as moderator and coolant and DM (De-mineralized) water in secondary system for steam generation. Raw water for plant is taken from Kali River. Raw water is first treated in pretreatment plant and Dual media filter for turbidity removal. Chlorination is carried out for control of micro-organism. DM water is makeup to feed water which is the input to Steam Generator for production of steam for power generation. Continuous blow down through Boiler blow down (BBD) IX column is carried out to control Steam Generator (SG) chemistry. It was decided by Nuclear Power Corporation India Limited (NPCIL) management to calculate Chemistry Performance Indicator of KGS secondary system and it was found 2.6 which was much higher than Standard and best achievable value of 1.0. Detailed analysis was carried out and improvements required in DM plant, water treatment plant, BBD IX column, Steam Generator etc were identified and plan was made for improvement. Turbidity of filter water was brought below 2.0 NTU. Many changes were incorporated in DM plant. Regenerate concentration, regeneration levels and regeneration procedures were modified. Resin replacement frequencies were fixed and brine treatment of anion resin was started at regular interval. For DM water production two mixed resin columns in series were used in place of earlier one mixed resin column. By these modifications DM water Chloride, Sodium and Sulphate were brought <1.0 ppb from earlier 5-10 ppb. Regeneration procedure of BBD IX column were standardized. Service life of BBD IX column was fixed and was isolated from service before exhaustion. Design deficiencies of BBD IX column was rectified by applying innovative idea. Online sodium analyzer was installed in boiler blow down line. By implementing these improvements Chemistry Performance Indicator of both units were brought down to 1.0, which is standard and best

  9. IDM & iDM or the inert doublet model and inelastic dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arina, Chiara; Ling, Fu-Sin; Tytgat, Michel H. G.

    2009-10-01

    The annual modulation observed by DAMA/NaI and DAMA/Libra may be interpreted in terms of elastic or inelastic scattering of dark matter particles. In this paper we confront these two scenarios within the framework of a very simple extension of the Standard Model, the Inert Doublet Model (IDM). In this model the dark matter candidate is a scalar, the lightest component of an extra Higgs doublet. We first revisit the case for the elastic scattering of a light scalar WIMP, MDM ~ 10 GeV, a scenario which requires that a fraction of events in DAMA are channelled. Second we consider the possibility of inelastic Dark Matter (iDM). This option is technically natural in the IDM, in the sense that the mass splitting between the lightest and next-to-lightest neutral scalars may be protected by a Peccei-Quinn (PQ) symmetry. We show that candidates with a mass MDM between ~ 535 GeV and ~ 50 TeV may reproduce the DAMA data and have a cosmic abundance in agreement with WMAP. This range may be extended to candidates as light as ~ 50 GeV if we exploit the possibility that the approximate PQ symmetry is effectively conserved and that a primordial asymmetry in the dark sector may survive until freeze-out.

  10. DNA Damage Observed in Unaffected Individuals with Family History of T2DM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Nikhila; Abilash, V. G.

    2017-11-01

    Diabetes has been documented to cause high levels of DNA fragmentation in some cases. As diabetes is inheritable and influenced by both genetic and environmental factors, an investigation into the genomic stability of individuals who are strongly at risk of inheriting diabetes was conducted by inducing oxidative stress, as DNA damage in unaffected individuals could be a sign of onset of the disease or the presence of genetic alterations that reduce cellular defences against reactive oxygen species. In this study, alkaline comet assay was performed on isolated human leukocytes to determine whether individuals with a family history of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) are more prone to DNA damage under oxidative stress. Visual scoring of comets showed that these individuals have higher degree of DNA damage compared to a control individual with no family history of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Further studies with large sample could determine the presence of disabled cellular defences against oxidative stress in unaffected individuals and intervention with antioxidants could prevent or manage Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and its complications.

  11. Comparison of Antidiabetic Medications during the Treatment of Atherosclerosis in T2DM Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojie Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes is often associated with arterial atherosclerosis in large blood vessels. We set out to elucidate whether commonly used antidiabetic drugs metformin, sitagliptin, and pioglitazone will reduce atherosclerosis in T2DM patients. We enrolled 176 individuals with type 2 diabetes, which were divided into four treatment groups according to different oral drugs: metformin alone, sitagliptin alone, pioglitazone alone, or combination of metformin and sitagliptin. We assessed changes in glycometabolism, lipid metabolism, cytokine released, and carotid artery intima-media thickness as the readout for improvement in atherosclerosis. HbA1c levels were significantly decreased in all treatment groups (p<0.05, and FBG levels were also decreased in metformin and combined groups (p<0.05. In addition, we found IL-6 levels significantly decreased in all treatment groups (p<0.05. Treatment with pioglitazone showed a significant increase in BMI, HDL, and ADPN levels (p<0.05. We also observed a significant decrease in NHDL levels in the combined treatment group (p<0.05. Our data revealed that in addition to hypoglycemic properties of metformin, sitagliptin, and pioglitazone, these drugs also have the potential to promote an anti-inflammatory response. Therefore, combination therapy may be more beneficial for reducing atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes. The clinical trial is registered with ChiCTR-ORC-17010835.

  12. Effect of some environmental parameters on fermentative hydrogen production by Enterobacter cloacae DM11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Kaushik; Kumar, Anish; Das, Debabrata

    2006-06-01

    Fermentative hydrogen production was carried out by Enterobacter cloacae DM11, using glucose as the substrate. The effects of initial substrate concentration, initial medium pH, and temperature were investigated. Results showed that at an initial glucose concentration of 1.0% (m/v), the molar yield of hydrogen was 3.31 mol (mol glucose)(-1). However, at higher initial glucose concentration, both the rate and cumulative volume of hydrogen production decreased. The pH of 6.5 +/- 0.2 at a temperature of 37 degrees C was found most suitable with respect to maximum rate of production of hydrogen in batch fermentation. Activation enthalpies of fermentation and that of thermal deactivation of the present process were estimated following a modified Arrhenius equation. The values were 47.34 and 118.67 kJ mol(-1) K(-1), respectively. The effect of the addition of Fe(2+) on hydrogen production was also studied. It revealed that the presence of iron (Fe(2+)) in the media up to a concentration of 20 mg L(-1) had a marginal enhancing effect on total hydrogen production. A simple model developed from the modified Gompertz equation was applied to estimate the hydrogen production potential, production rate, and lag-phase time in a batch process, based on the cumulative hydrogen production curves, using the software program Curve Expert 1.3.

  13. Implementation of hybrid DCT/DPCM video-encoder in the DM642 EVM for educational purposes

    OpenAIRE

    Huska, J.; Kulla, P.

    2006-01-01

    There is presented implementation of hybrid DCT/DPCM video-encoder in the powerful TI’s media processor TMS320DM642 embed in evaluation module DM642 EVM. Code Composer Studio 3 is used as working space. Videoencoder is implemented with use of C code so it is easily understandable. The easiness is very important because the implemented video-encoder will be used for educational purposes. The structure of the encoder is lightly recognizable for students frequenting the courses Analo...

  14. Implementation of Hybrid DCT/DPCM Video-Encoder in the DM642 EVM for Educational Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Huska

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available There is presented implementation of hybrid DCT/DPCM video-encoder in the power ful TI’s media processor TMS320DM642 embed in evaluation module DM642 EVM. Code Composer Studio 3 is used as working space. Videoencoder is implemented with use of C code so it is easily understandable. The easiness is very important because the implemented video-encoder will be used for educational purposes. The structure of the encoder is lightly recognizable forstudents frequenting the courses Analog and Digital Television, Digital Image Processing and Encoding so some routines could lightly modified.

  15. Influence of ring size on the cognition-enhancing activity of DM235 and MN19, two potent nootropic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guandalini, L; Martini, E; Di Cesare Mannelli, L; Dei, S; Manetti, D; Scapecchi, S; Teodori, E; Ghelardini, C; Romanelli, M N

    2012-03-01

    A series of analogs of DM235 and MN19, characterized by rings with different size, have been prepared and evaluated for their nootropic activity in the mouse passive-avoidance test. It was found that the optimal ring size for the analogs of DM235, showing endocyclic both amidic groups, is 6 or 7 atoms. For the compounds structurally related to MN19, carrying an exocyclic amide group, the piperidine ring is the moiety which gives the most interesting compounds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Substituted piperazines as nootropic agents: 2- or 3-phenyl derivatives structurally related to the cognition-enhancer DM235.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guandalini, Luca; Martino, Maria Vittoria; Di Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo; Bartolucci, Gianluca; Melani, Fabrizio; Malik, Ruchi; Dei, Silvia; Floriddia, Elisa; Manetti, Dina; Orlandi, Francesca; Teodori, Elisabetta; Ghelardini, Carla; Romanelli, Maria Novella

    2015-04-15

    A series of 2-phenyl- or 3-phenyl piperazines, structurally related to DM235 and DM232, two potent nootropic agents, have been prepared and tested in the mouse passive-avoidance test, to assess their ability to revert scopolamine-induced amnesia. Although the newly synthesized molecules were less potent than the parent compounds, some useful information has been obtained from structure-activity relationships. A small but significant enantioselectivity has been found for the most potent compound 5a. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation der Pathogenität kurzer Repeat-Expansionen im DM2-Genlokus der Myotonen Dystrophie Typ 2

    OpenAIRE

    Ellrott, Helena

    2013-01-01

    Die Myotone Dystrophie Typ 2 (DM2) gehört, zusammen mit der Myotonen Dystrophie Typ 1 (DM1), zu den häufigsten erblichen Muskelerkrankungen des Erwachsenenalters. Sie wird autosomal dominant vererbt, ihre Inzidenz liegt bei 1:10.000 - 1:20.000. Die genetische Ursache der Myotonen Dystrophie Typ 2 ist ein abnorm expandiertes Tetranukleotid-CCTG-Repeat im Intron 1 des Zinkfinger-9-Gens (ZNF-9) auf Chromosom 3q21.3. Das kleinste, bisher in der Literatur beschriebene, Krankheitsallel zeigte eine ...

  18. CTX Correlation to Disease Duration and Adiponectin in Egyptian Children with T1DM/ Korelacija između CTX-a i trajanja bolesti i adiponektina kod egipatske dece sa T1DM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashim Amel A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Uvod: U ovoj studiji istraživali smo odnos između adiponektina i markera koštanih promena kod egipatske dece i ado­lescenata sa T1DM, uticaj trajanja bolesti na ove markere, kao i potencijalne korelacije između adiponektina i ko­štanih markera kod ovih pacijenata.

  19. Asupan vitamin C berhubungan dengan kadar glukosa darah pada pasien rawat jalan DM tipe 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riya Purwaningtyastuti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACKBackground: High sugar levels in people with diabetes mellitus causes changes in the body. One of its detrimental process called oxidation reaction that causes the increased formation of harmful substances called free radicals. Antioxidant vitamin A, C, and E helpful to reduce oxidative damage in people with diabetes mellitus and prevent complications. Objectives: The know relationship intake antioxidant with blood glocuse level outpatient type 2 diabetes mellitus in RSUD Panembahan Senopati Bantul Yogyakarta. Methods: This study was observasional with of cross sectional. The subjects in this study were outpatients with diabetes mellitus type 2 with sampels of 89 respondents. Purposive sampling technique. Data consumption pattern of antioxidant, used semi quantitative food frequency (SQFFQ laboratories to examination and blood glucose levels. Data analysis used Fisher’s Exact Test. Results: There is significant association between vitamin C intake with blood sugar levels in patients diabetes mellitus the value of p = 0.004. The existence of a no signifi cant association between vitamin E intake with blood sugar levels in patients diabetes mellitus the value of p = 0.073 and there is no signifi cant association between vitamin A intake with blood sugar levels in patients diabetes mellitus the value of p = 0.252. Conclusion: There is a relationship between vitamin C intake with blood sugar levels, while the intake of vitamin A and E are not related to blood sugar levels KEYWORDS: type 2 diabetes mellitus, blood glucose level, vitamin C intake, vitamin A intake, vitamin E intake. ABSTRAK Latar Belakang : Kadar glukosa yang tinggi pada penderita kencing manis/DM menyebabkan berbagai perubahan di dalam tubuh. Salah satu proses merugikan dinamakan reaksi oksidasi yang menyebabkan peningkatan pembentukan zat berbahaya yang disebut radikal bebas. Antioksidan vitamin A,C dan E bermanfaat dapat menurunkan kadar glukosa darah. Tujuan: Untuk

  20. Piezoelectric deformable mirror technologies for astronomy at IOE, CAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Chunlin; Fan, Xinlong; Zhang, Xiaojun; Zhou, Hong; Mu, Jinbo; Xue, Lixia; Wei, Kai; Xian, Hao; Rao, Changhui; Zhang, Yudong; Ling, Ning

    2014-07-01

    Institute of Optics & Electronics (IOE), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) has more than 30 years' experience on piezoelectric deformable mirror (DM) technologies research and developing since early 1980s. Several DMs of IOE have been used in many different application systems. A brief history of piezoelectric DMs development in IOE and several recently achievements, and the main characters, performance and test results of the DMs for astronomy will be presented in this paper. 1) High-order DM. DM prototype with 913-element for 4m telescope has been fabricated and tested in laboratory. 2) Adaptive Secondary Mirror (ASM). A 73-element ASM prototype with 12 microns stroke for 1.8m telescope has been fabricated. It will be installed onto the 1.8m telescope with a compact adaptive optics (AO) system. 3) Small spacing DM. A 6mm spacing 127-element DM based on the same construction with the High-order DM has been used in AO system of 1m New Vacuum Solar Telescope (NVST) in Yunnan Observatories. Higher density (3mm spacing) DM based on a novel construction has being developed. In 2012, the novel DM prototype with 100-element was fabricated and tested carefully in laboratory. Beside, a 6mm spacing 151-element DM based on the novel construction has being fabricated for the solar AO system.

  1. Characterization and biocompatibility of glucan: a safe food additive from probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum DM5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Deeplina; Goyal, Arun

    2014-03-15

    Exopolysaccharide produced by lactic acid bacteria are the subject of an increasing number of studies for their potential applications in the food industry as stabilizing, bio-thickening and immunostimulating agents. In this regard, the authors isolated an exopolysaccharide producing probiotic lactic acid bacterium from fermented beverage Marcha of north eastern Himalayas. The isolate Lactobacillus plantarum DM5 showed extracellular glucansucrase activity of 0.48 U mg⁻¹ by synthesizing natural exopolysaccharide glucan (1.87 mg mL⁻¹) from sucrose. Zymogram analysis of purified enzyme confirms the presence of glucosyltransferase of approximately 148 kDa with optimal activity of 18.7 U mg⁻¹ at 30 °C and pH 5.4. The exopolysaccharide was purified by gel permeation chromatography and had an average molecular weight of 1.11 × 10⁶ Da. Acid hydrolysis and structural characterization of exopolysaccharide revealed that it was composed of d-glucose residues, containing 86.5% of α-(1→6) and 13.5% of α-(1→3) linkages. Rheological study exhibited a shear thinning effect of glucan appropriate for food additives. A cytotoxicity test of glucan on human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK 293) and human cervical cancer (HeLa) cell lines revealed its nontoxic biocompatible nature. This is the first report on the structure and biocompatibility of homopolysaccharide α-D-glucan (dextran) from probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum strain and its unique physical and rheological properties that facilitate its application in the food industry as viscosifying and gelling agent. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. A Widespread, Clumpy Starburst in the Isolated Ongoing Dwarf Galaxy Merger dm1647+21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Privon, G. C. [Instituto de Astrofśica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Stierwalt, S.; Johnson, K. E.; Kallivayalil, N.; Liss, S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, 530 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Patton, D. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON K9L 0G2 (Canada); Besla, G. [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Pearson, S.; Putman, M., E-mail: gprivon@astro.puc.cl [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Collaboration: TiNy Titans

    2017-09-01

    Interactions between pairs of isolated dwarf galaxies provide a critical window into low-mass hierarchical, gas-dominated galaxy assembly and the build-up of stellar mass in low-metallicity systems. We present the first Very Large Telescope/Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (VLT/MUSE) optical integral field unit (IFU) observations of the interacting dwarf pair dm1647+21 selected from the TiNy Titans survey. The H α emission is widespread and corresponds to a total unobscured star formation rate (SFR) of 0.44 M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}, which is 2.7 times higher than the SFR inferred from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data. The implied specific SFR (sSFR) for the system is elevated by more than an order of magnitude above non-interacting dwarfs in the same mass range. This increase is dominated by the lower-mass galaxy, which has a sSFR enhancement of >50. Examining the spatially resolved maps of classic optical line diagnostics, we find that the interstellar medium (ISM) excitation can be fully explained by star formation. The velocity field of the ionized gas is not consistent with simple rotation. Dynamical simulations indicate that the irregular velocity field and the stellar structure is consistent with the identification of this system as an ongoing interaction between two dwarf galaxies. The widespread, clumpy enhancements in the star formation in this system point to important differences in the effect of mergers on dwarf galaxies, compared to massive galaxies; rather than the funneling of gas to the nucleus and giving rise to a nuclear starburst, starbursts in low-mass galaxy mergers may be triggered by large-scale ISM compression, and thus may be more distributed.

  3. Evaluation of 25(OH) Vitamin D3 with Reference to Magnesium Status and Insulin Resistance in T2DM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhe, Mahendra Bhauraoji; Jain, Keerthi; Gandhe, Swapnali Mahendra

    2013-11-01

    Calcium is a recognized second messenger implicated in insulin secretion. Vitamin D (1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, Calcitriol) plays a role in calcium metabolism. This explains the indirect role of Vitamin D in insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. Hence, low Vitamin D levels are implicated in decreased insulin secretion and increased insulin resistance. In this study, we tried to find out the probable association of Vitamin D3, calcium and magnesium with reference to insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) cases. It is well documented that measurement of circulating 25-Hydroxycholecalciferol {25 (OH)Vitamin D3} is a marker of total Vitamin D status. We measured 25(OH) Vitamin D3 levels in thirty T2DM subjects with thirty age and sex matched healthy controls. We estimated Vitamin D status, calcium and magnesium levels in the light of insulin resistance. Insulin resistance was measured by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Twenty five (OH) Vitamin-D3 level was significantly low among T2DM cases (12.29+2.32ng/ml) in comparison to healthy controls (19.55+0.50ng/ml) (pT2DM cases as compared to healthy controls (pinsulin levels, and insulin resistance (pinsulin levels suggest that the supplementation of Vitamin D has the potential to increase insulin sensitivity and lower the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  4. Regional heritability mapping provides insights into dry matter (DM) content in African white and yellow cassava populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The HarvestPlus program for cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) fortifies cassava with beta-carotene by breeding for carotene-rich tubers (yellow cassava). However, a negative correlation between yellowness and dry matter (DM) content has been identified. Here, we investigated the genetic control of ...

  5. Association of TCF7L2 gene polymorphisms with T2DM in the population of Hyderabad, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kommoju Uma Jyothi

    Full Text Available We attempt to evaluate the nature of association of TCF7L2 gene variants with T2DM, for the first time in the population of Hyderabad, which is considered to be diabetic capital of India. It is a case-control study of the three SNPs of TCF7L2, rs7903146, rs12255372 and rs11196205, genotyped on Sequenom Massarray platform, in a sample of 758 patients and 621 controls. The risk allele frequency of the three SNPs was found to be significantly higher in the T2DM cases than controls, implicating susceptibility for diabetes (p<0.01. The greatest risk of developing the disease was conferred by rs7903146. Further, the logistic regression of genotypes of each SNP under log additive model, and the haplotypes constituted by at least one of the three risk alleles also show significantly greater risk of developing T2DM when compared to the wild type haplotype. Further, BMI and WHR emerge as significant covariates with confounding effects. The strong association of the TCF7L2 SNPs with T2DM is consistent with the findings among other Indian and Non-Indian populations, suggesting universal phenomena of its association across ethnic groups globally, both within and outside the Indian subcontinent, albeit the functional relevance of these SNPs needs yet to be established.

  6. HLA-DO is a negative modulator of HLA-DM-mediated MHC class II peptide loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ham, S. M.; Tjin, E. P.; Lillemeier, B. F.; Grüneberg, U.; van Meijgaarden, K. E.; Pastoors, L.; Verwoerd, D.; Tulp, A.; Canas, B.; Rahman, D.; Ottenhoff, T. H.; Pappin, D. J.; Trowsdale, J.; Neefjes, J.

    1997-01-01

    Class II molecules of the major histocompatibility complex become loaded with antigenic peptides after dissociation of invariant chainderived peptides (CLIP) from the peptide-binding groove. The human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DM is a prerequisite for this process, which takes place in specialised

  7. Drosophila polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (DmPTB regulates dorso-ventral patterning genes in embryos.

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    Joseph Heimiller

    Full Text Available The Drosophila polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (dmPTB or hephaestus plays an important role during embryogenesis. A loss of function mutation, heph(03429, results in varied defects in embryonic developmental processes, leading to embryonic lethality. However, the suite of molecular functions that are disrupted in the mutant remains unknown. We have used an unbiased high throughput sequencing approach to identify transcripts that are misregulated in this mutant. Misregulated transcripts show evidence of significantly altered patterns of splicing (exon skipping, 5' and 3' splice site switching, alternative 5' ends, and mRNA level changes (up and down regulation. These findings are independently supported by reverse-transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR analysis and in situ hybridization. We show that a group of genes, such as Zerknüllt, z600 and screw are among the most upregulated in the mutant and have been functionally linked to dorso-ventral patterning and/or dorsal closure processes. Thus, loss of dmPTB function results in specific misregulated transcripts, including those that provide the missing link between the loss of dmPTB function and observed developmental defects in embryogenesis. This study provides the first comprehensive repertoire of genes affected in vivo in the heph mutant in Drosophila and offers insight into the role of dmPTB during embryonic development.

  8. Dutch myotonic dystrophy type 2 patients and a North-African DM2 family carry the common European founder haplotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, M.J.H.; Tieleman, A.A.; Schijvenaars, M.M.V.A.P.; Leferink, M.; Ranum, L.P.; Scheffer, H.; Engelen, B.G.M. van

    2011-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2) is a progressive multisystem disease with muscle weakness and myotonia as main characteristics. The disease is caused by a repeat expansion in the zinc-finger protein 9 (ZNF9) gene on chromosome 3q21. Several reports show that patients from European ancestry share an

  9. Prescription Pattern of Antihypertensive Agents in T2DM Patients Visiting Tertiary Care Centre in North India

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    Ethiraj Dhanaraj

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hypertension management is of a paramount importance in diabetic patients for cardiovascular risk reduction. Aim. To evaluate prescribing pattern of antihypertensive in T2DM (type 2 diabetes patients and compare with existing recent guidelines. Methods. A cross-sectional study involving evaluation of all T2DM patients referred to endocrinology unit at tertiary care centre for hypertension, comorbid complications, and recording prescription. Utilization of 5 different antihypertensive drug classes was compared for all patients receiving 1, 2, 3, 4, or more drugs. Logistical regression was used to assess likelihood of prescription of drugs and/or therapy for specific conditions mentioned in the guidelines. Results. Out of 1358, T2DM enrolled patients 1186 (87% had hypertension (males 52%, females 48%. The median duration (IQ of hypertension diabetics was 4 (1–10 years. A total of 25% patients had controlled BP and 75% with uncontrolled blood pressure (13% isolated systolic hypertension, 6% isolated diastolic hypertension, and 55% both elevated. Overall, ACE inhibitors (ACEIs were prescribed the highest (59% followed by angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs (52%, calcium channel blockers (CCBs (29%, diuretics (27%, and beta-blockers (14%. Overall, 55% of T2DM patients were on polytherapy, 41% on monotherapy, and 4% had no antihypertensive treatment. Polytherapy was more predominant with age, duration of diabetes, duration of hypertension, and comorbid complications. Conclusion. Although prescribing pattern of antihypertensive showed adherence to existing evidence-based guidelines, higher proportion of uncontrolled hypertensive patients was found.

  10. Alcohol Consumption Is a Risk Factor for Lower Extremity Arterial Disease in Chinese Patients with T2DM

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    Shanshan Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the relationship between alcohol consumption and diabetic lower extremity arterial disease (LEAD in hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Methods. We evaluated 138 hospitalized patients with T2DM who consumed alcohol and 833 who did not. We used propensity score matching to reduce the confounding bias between groups. Additionally, a logistic regression analysis was performed with the matched data to evaluate the LEAD risk. Results. In total, 119 pairs of patients who did and did not consume alcohol were matched. According to the logistic regression analysis, patients who consumed >8 U of alcohol/day had a higher risk of LEAD (odds ratio (OR: 6.35, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.78–22.65 than patients who did not consume alcohol. Additionally, after adjusting for age, gender, region, occupation, smoking status, body mass index, weight change, and duration of diabetes, the OR of peripheral artery disease after >20 years of alcohol consumption was 3.48 (95% CI: 1.09–11.15. Furthermore, we observed a significant dose-response relationship between alcohol consumption and LEAD. Conclusions. Alcohol consumption may be a risk factor of LEAD in patients with T2DM. Patients with T2DM should be advised to stop drinking, to prevent the onset of LEAD.

  11. Expansive hematoma in delayed cerebral radiation necrosis in patients treated with T-DM1: a report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsuya, Koichi; Watanabe, Junichiro; Nakasu, Yoko; Hayashi, Nakamasa; Harada, Hideyuki; Ito, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Multiple new targeted agents have been developed for patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2) – positive breast cancer. Patients with HER2– positive breast cancer will develop brain metastases with greater incidence than patients with non-HER2 cancers, and many of them will undergo stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) or other CNS radiotherapy. The interaction between radiation effects and new targeted agents is not well understood. We report two cases suggesting a novel adverse effect of T-DM1 (trastuzumab emtansine) on symptomatic enlargement of radiation necrosis (RN) after SRS. Two patients with HER2-positive breast cancer had received SRS for single brain metastasis more than 5-years ago. They had been heavily treated for HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer (trastuzumab and pacritaxel, lapatinib and capecitabine). They initiated T-DM1 therapy for progressive systematic disease 5.5 years after stereotactic irradiation, when a small RN was recognized on brain MR images of each patient. The RN lesions increased in size and became symptomatic during 13 or 14 months of T-DM1 treatment. The patients underwent surgical resection of the lesion. Pathological examination revealed necrosis, hematoma, granulation tissue and telangiectasia without neoplastic cells. A potential enhancement of RN by T-DM1 in the brain may be one of important adverse events associated with the use of T-DM1 for patients after SRS. These cases highlight the need of careful follow-up when combining new systemic targeted therapies and SRS for brain metastases

  12. Pioglitazone improves the ability of learning and memory via activating ERK1/2 signaling pathway in the hippocampus of T2DM rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, F; Zang, L; Wu, D Y; Li, Y J; Zhang, Q; Wang, H B; Tian, G L; Mu, Y M

    2017-06-09

    To explore the correlation between effect of PIO (pioglitazone, PIO) on learning as well as memory and ERK1/2 (extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2, ERK1/2) pathway in T2DM (type 2 diabetes mellitus, T2DM) rats, further to elucidate the potential mechanism of PIO in improvement of learning and memory. 12-week-old male SD rats (number of 10 per group) were randomly divided into control group (CON), T2DM group (DM) and T2DM +PIO group (DM+PG). Rats in DM and DM+PG groups were given high fat diet for 20 weeks, then treated with Streptozotocin (27mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection at 21week. After 72h, the FBG (fasting blood glucose, FBG) was greater than 7.0mmol/L can considered T2DM rats. DM+PG group was treated with PIO (10 mg·kg -1 ·d -1 ) by gavage daily. After Hyperinsulinemic-Euglycemic Clamp Study and Morris water maze test at 30-week, all of animals were sacrificed. The expressions of RKIP (Raf-1 kinase inhibitor protein, RKIP) and ERK1/2 in hippocampus were detected using Western Blot and real-time PCR. The FBG level: DM group (7.68±0.54mmol/L) was higher than CON group (5.35±0.63mmol/L) and DM+PG group (6.07±0.84mmol/L), the differences were considered statistically significant (P 0.05); The relative content of p-ERK1/2 protein in CON group and DM+PG group rats dorsal were higher than those in group DM, the difference was considered statistically significant (P0.05). Activation of ERK1/2 signal transduction pathway via reducing RKIP in the hippocampus may be one of the mechanisms of PIO to improve the learning and memory of the T2DM rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Study on the relationship between fasting blood sugar and GH, C-peptide levels in patients with DM2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Facheng; Chen Lishu; Hong Kai; Lin Meishan

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between fasting blood sugar (FBG) and growth hormone (GH), C-peptide (CP) levels in patients with type II diabetes mellitus (DM2). Methods: Serum fasting glucose (with biochemical method) GH, C-peptide (with RIA) levels were measured in 64 patients with DM2 and 31 controls. Results: In the 64 patients, 40 were relatively well-controlled (FBG <9.0mmol/L) and 24 were relatively poorly-controlled (FBG ≥ 9.0mmol/L), The serum GH levels in the poorly controlled group were significantly higher than those in the well-controlled group (P<0.01), which, in turn, were significantly higher than those in the controls (P<0.01). The reverse was exactly true for the C-peptide levels. Conclusion: The higher GH and lower C-peptide levels might be a contributory, cause of the inadequate control in these patients. (authors)

  14. Exercise for the diabetic brain: how physical training may help prevent dementia and Alzheimer's disease in T2DM patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Sebastian; Brixius, Klara; Brinkmann, Christian

    2016-08-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are at increased risk of developing dementia/Alzheimer's disease (AD). This review, which is based on recent studies, presents a molecular framework that links the two diseases and explains how physical training could help counteract neurodegeneration in T2DM patients. Inflammatory, oxidative, and metabolic changes in T2DM patients cause cerebrovascular complications and can lead to blood-brain-barrier (BBB) breakdown. Peripherally increased pro-inflammatory molecules can then pass the BBB more easily and activate stress-activated pathways, thereby promoting key pathological features of dementia/AD such as brain insulin resistance, mitochondrial dysfunction, and accumulation of neurotoxic beta-amyloid (Aβ) oligomers, leading to synaptic loss, neuronal dysfunction, and cell death. Ceramides can also pass the BBB, induce pro-inflammatory reactions, and disturb brain insulin signaling. In a vicious circle, oxidative stress and the pro-inflammatory environment intensify, leading to further cognitive decline. Low testosterone levels might be a common risk factor in T2DM and AD. Regular physical exercise reinforces antioxidative capacity, reduces oxidative stress, and has anti-inflammatory effects. It improves endothelial function and might increase brain capillarization. Physical training can further counteract dyslipidemia and reduce increased ceramide levels. It might also improve Aβ clearance by up-regulating Aβ transporters and, in some cases, increase basal testosterone levels. In addition, regular physical activity can induce neurogenesis. Physical training should therefore be emphasized as a part of prevention programs developed for diabetic patients to minimize the risk of the onset of neurodegenerative diseases among this specific patient group.

  15. Dynamics of energy technologies and global change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grubler, A.; Nakicenovic, N.; Victor, D.G.

    1999-01-01

    uncertainty into micro scale models it is possible to endogenously generate patterns of technological choice that mirror the real world. Those include S-shaped diffusion patterns and timescales of technological dynamics that are consistent with historical experience, they also include endogenous generation of 'surprises' such as the appearance of radically new technologies. Third, it is possible to include learning phenomena stylistically in macro-scale models; we show that doing so can yield projections with lessened environmental impacts without necessarily incurring negative effect on the economy. Arriving on that path by the year 2100 depends on intervening actions, such as incentives to promote greater diversity in technology and lower barriers to entry for new infrastructures that could accelerate historical trends of decarbonization. (author)

  16. Relationship between serum leptin levels, ATPase activity of erythrocyte membrance and development of diabetic nephropathy in patients with DM2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuming

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To study the possible mechanism of development of nephrosis affected by changes of serum leptin levels and alteration of activities of Na + K + -ATPase and Ca 2+ Mg 2+ -ATPase of erythrocyte membrane in patients with type 2 diabetes(DM2). Methods: Serum leptin levels (with RIA) and erythrocyte membrane Na + K + -ATPase and Ca 2+ Mg 2+ -ATPase activitities (with Reinila method) were determined in 40 DM2 patients without nephropathy, 32 DM2 patients with nephropathy and 35 controls. Results Serum leptin levels were significantly higher in the diabetics as a whole than those in controls (P + K + -ATPase and Ca 2+ Mg 2+ -ATPase activities were significantly lower (P<0.01). Among the diabetic patients, the serum leptin levels in patients without nephrosis (P<0.05), but the RBC membrance ATPase activities were significantly lower(P<0.05). Conclusion: Development of type 2 diabetes nephrosis might be correlated with the high serum leptin level and decreased ATPase activities of erythrocite membrane. (authors)

  17. Ectopic expression of Dahlia merckii defensin DmAMP1 improves papaya resistance to Phytophthora palmivora by reducing pathogen vigor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yun J; Agbayani, Ricelle; Moore, Paul H

    2007-06-01

    Phytophthora spp., some of the more important casual agents of plant diseases, are responsible for heavy economic losses worldwide. Plant defensins have been introduced as transgenes into a range of species to increase host resistance to pathogens to which they were originally susceptible. However, the effectiveness and mechanism of interaction of the defensins with Phytophthora spp. have not been clearly characterized in planta. In this study, we expressed the Dahlia merckii defensin, DmAMP1, in papaya (Carica papaya L.), a plant highly susceptible to a root, stem, and fruit rot disease caused by Phytophthora palmivora. Extracts of total leaf proteins from transformed plants inhibited growth of Phytophthora in vitro and discs cut from the leaves of transformed plants inhibited growth of Phytophthora in a bioassay. Results from our greenhouse inoculation experiments demonstrate that expressing the DmAMP1 gene in papaya plants increased resistance against P. palmivora and that this increased resistance was associated with reduced hyphae growth of P. palmivora at the infection sites. The inhibitory effects of DmAMP1 expression in papaya suggest this approach has good potential to impart transgenic resistance against Phytophthora in papaya.

  18. Ileal interposition surgery improves glucose and lipid metabolism and delays diabetes onset in the UCD-T2DM rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Bethany P; Strader, April D; Stanhope, Kimber L; Graham, James L; Lee, Jennifer; Raybould, Helen E; Baskin, Denis G; Havel, Peter J

    2010-06-01

    Bariatric surgery has been shown to reverse type 2 diabetes; however, mechanisms by which this occurs remain undefined. Ileal interposition (IT) is a surgical model that isolates the effects of increasing delivery of unabsorbed nutrients to the lower gastrointestinal tract. In this study we investigated effects of IT surgery on glucose tolerance and diabetes onset in UCD-T2DM (University of California at Davis type 2 diabetes mellitus) rats, a polygenic obese animal model of type 2 diabetes. IT or sham surgery was performed on 4-month-old male UCD-T2DM rats. All animals underwent oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT). A subset was killed 2 months after surgery for tissue analyses. The remainder was followed until diabetes onset and underwent oral fat tolerance testing (OFTT). IT surgery delayed diabetes onset by 120 +/- 49 days compared with sham surgery (P insulin secretion (P insulin content compared with sham-operated animals (P T2DM rats which may be related to increased nutrient-stimulated secretion of GLP-1(7-36) and PYY and improvements of insulin sensitivity, beta-cell function, and lipid metabolism. Copyright 2010 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Mitigation of Membrane Biofouling in MBR Using a Cellulolytic Bacterium, Undibacterium sp. DM-1, Isolated from Activated Sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahm, Chang Hyun; Lee, Seonki; Lee, Sang Hyun; Lee, Kibaek; Lee, Jaewoo; Kwon, Hyeokpil; Choo, Kwang-Ho; Lee, Jung-Kee; Jang, Jae Young; Lee, Chung-Hak; Park, Pyung-Kyu

    2017-03-28

    Biofilm formation on the membrane surface results in the loss of permeability in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) for wastewater treatment. Studies have revealed that cellulose is not only produced by a number of bacterial species but also plays a key role during formation of their biofilm. Hence, in this study, cellulase was introduced to a MBR as a cellulose-induced biofilm control strategy. For practical application of cellulase to MBR, a cellulolytic ( i.e ., cellulase-producing) bacterium, Undibacterium sp. DM-1, was isolated from a lab-scale MBR for wastewater treatment. Prior to its application to MBR, it was confirmed that the cell-free supernatant of DM-1 was capable of inhibiting biofilm formation and of detaching the mature biofilm of activated sludge and cellulose-producing bacteria. This suggested that cellulase could be an effective anti-biofouling agent for MBRs used in wastewater treatment. Undibacterium sp. DM-1-entrapping beads ( i.e ., cellulolytic-beads) were applied to a continuous MBR to mitigate membrane biofouling 2.2-fold, compared with an MBR with vacant-beads as a control. Subsequent analysis of the cellulose content in the biofilm formed on the membrane surface revealed that this mitigation was associated with an approximately 30% reduction in cellulose by cellulolytic-beads in MBR.

  20. The Drosophila melanogaster DmCK2beta transcription unit encodes for functionally non-redundant protein isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauch, Eike; Wecklein, Heike; Stark, Felix; Jauch, Mandy; Raabe, Thomas

    2006-06-07

    Genes encoding for the two evolutionary highly conserved subunits of a heterotetrameric protein kinase CK2 holoenzyme are present in all examined eukaryotic genomes. Depending on the organism, multiple transcription units encoding for a catalytically active CK2alpha subunit and/or a regulatory CK2beta subunit may exist. The phosphotransferase activity of members of the protein kinase CK2alpha family is thought to be independent of second messengers but is modulated by interaction with CK2beta-like proteins. In the genome of Drosophila melanogaster, one gene encoding for a CK2alpha subunit and three genes encoding for CK2beta-like proteins are present. The X-linked DmCK2beta transcription unit encodes for several CK2beta protein isoforms due to alternative splicing of its primary transcript. We addressed the question whether CK2beta-like proteins are redundant in function. Our in vivo experiments show that variations of the very C-terminal tail of CK2beta isoforms encoded by the X-linked DmCK2beta transcription unit influence their functional properties. In addition, we find that CK2beta-like proteins encoded by the autosomal D. melanogaster genes CK2betates and CK2beta' cannot fully substitute for a loss of CK2beta isoforms encoded by DmCK2beta.

  1. Performance of the CellaVision ® DM96 system for detecting red blood cell morphologic abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher L Horn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Red blood cell (RBC analysis is a key feature in the evaluation of hematological disorders. The gold standard light microscopy technique has high sensitivity, but is a relativity time-consuming and labor intensive procedure. This study tested the sensitivity and specificity of gold standard light microscopy manual differential to the CellaVision ® DM96 (CCS; CellaVision, Lund, Sweden automated image analysis system, which takes digital images of samples at high magnification and compares these images with an artificial neural network based on a database of cells and preclassified according to RBC morphology. Methods: In this study, 212 abnormal peripheral blood smears within the Calgary Laboratory Services network of hospital laboratories were selected and assessed for 15 different RBC morphologic abnormalities by manual microscopy. The same samples were reassessed as a manual addition from the instrument screen using the CellaVision ® DM96 system with 8 microscope high power fields (×100 objective and a 22 mm ocular. The results of the investigation were then used to calculate the sensitivity and specificity of the CellaVision ® DM96 system in reference to light microscopy. Results: The sensitivity ranged from a low of 33% (RBC agglutination to a high of 100% (sickle cells, stomatocytes. The remainder of the RBC abnormalities tested somewhere between these two extremes. The specificity ranged from 84% (schistocytes to 99.5% (sickle cells, stomatocytes. Conclusions: Our results showed generally high specificities but variable sensitivities for RBC morphologic abnormalities.

  2. The dynamics of energy technologies and global change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruebler, A.; Nakicenovic, N.; Victor, D.G.

    1999-08-01

    Typology for technology analysis is presented and methods to analyze the impact of technological changes on the global environment, especially global warming are discussed, focusing on energy technologies Much improved treatment of technology is possible using both historical analysis and new modelling techniques. In the historical record characteristics 'learning rates' are identified that allow simple quantified characterization of the improvement in cost and performance due to cumulative experience and investments. Patterns, processes and timescales typifying the diffusion of new technologies in competitive markets are identified. Technologies that are long-lived and are components of interlocking networks require the longest time to diffuse and co-evolve with other technologies in the network; such network effects yield high barriers to entry even for superior competitors. These observations allow improvements to modelling of technological change and its consequences for global environmental change. One is that the replacement of long-lived infrastructures over time has also replaced the fuels that power the economy to yield progressively more energy per unit of carbon pollution - from coal to oil to gas. Such replacement has 'decarbonized' the global primary energy supply 0.3% per year. Most baseline projections for emissions of carbon ignore this historical trend and show little decarbonization. A second improvement is that by incorporating learning curves and uncertainty into micro scale models it is possible to endogenously generate patterns of technological choice that mirror the real world. Thirdly, learning phenomena can be included stylistically in macro-scale models. Arriving on that path by the year 2100 depends on intervening actions, such as incentives to promote greater diversity in technology. 112 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. HbA1c as the diagnostic criterion for diabetes reduces incidence and prevalence of DM2 by 25% but strongly depending on analytical quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandslund, Ivan; Nielsen, Aneta Aleksandra; Hyldtoft Petersen, Per

    HbA1c as the diagnostic criterion for diabetes reduces incidence and prevalence of DM2 by 25% but strongly depending on analytical quality......HbA1c as the diagnostic criterion for diabetes reduces incidence and prevalence of DM2 by 25% but strongly depending on analytical quality...

  4. Poor glycemic control impacts linear and non-linear dynamics of heart rate in DM type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Bassi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: It is well known that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM produces cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN, which may affect the cardiac autonomic modulation. However, it is unclear whether the lack of glycemic control in T2DM without CAN could impact negatively on cardiac autonomic modulation. Objective: To evaluate the relationship between glycemic control and cardiac autonomic modulation in individuals with T2DM without CAN. Descriptive, prospective and cross sectional study.METHODS: Forty-nine patients with T2DM (51±7 years were divided into two groups according to glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c: G1≤7% and G2>7.0%. Resting heart rate (HR and RR interval (RRi were obtained and calculated by linear (Mean iRR; Mean HR; rMSSD; STD RR; LF; HF; LF/HF, TINN and RR Tri, and non-linear (SD1; SD2; DFα1; DFα2, Shannon entropy; ApEn; SampEn and CD methods of heart rate variability (HRV. Insulin, HOMA-IR, fasting glucose and HbA1c were obtained by blood tests.RESULTS: G2 (HbA1c≤7% showed lower values for the mean of iRR; STD RR; RR Tri, TINN, SD2, CD and higher mean HR when compared with G1 (HbA1c > 7%. Additionally, HbA1c correlated negatively with mean RRi (r=0.28, p=0.044; STD RR (r=0.33, p=0.017; RR Tri (r=-0.35, p=0.013, SD2 (r=-0.39, p=0.004 and positively with mean HR (r=0.28, p=0.045. Finally, fasting glucose correlated negatively with STD RR (r=-0.36, p=0.010; RR Tri (r=-0.36, p=0.010; TINN (r=-0.33, p=0.019 and SD2 (r=-0.42, p=0.002.CONCLUSION: We concluded that poor glycemic control is related to cardiac autonomic modulation indices in individuals with T2DM even if they do not present cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy.

  5. Commissioning of the ArDM experiment at the Canfranc underground laboratory: first steps towards a tonne-scale liquid argon time projection chamber for Dark Matter searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, J.; Cantini, C.; Crivelli, P.; Daniel, M.; Di Luise, S.; Gendotti, A.; Horikawa, S.; Montes, B.; Mu, W.; Murphy, S.; Natterer, G.; Nguyen, K.; Periale, L.; Quan, Y.; Radics, B.; Regenfus, C.; Romero, L.; Rubbia, A.; Santorelli, R.; Sergiampietri, F.; Viant, T.; Wu, S.

    2017-03-01

    The Argon Dark Matter (ArDM) experiment consists of a liquid argon (LAr) time projection chamber (TPC) sensitive to nuclear recoils, resulting from scattering of hypothetical Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) on argon targets. With an active target mass of 850 kg ArDM represents an important milestone towards developments for large LAr Dark Matter detectors. Here we present the experimental apparatus currently installed underground at the Laboratorio Subterráneo de Canfranc (LSC), Spain. We show data on gaseous or liquid argon targets recorded in 2015 during the commissioning of ArDM in single phase at zero E-field (ArDM Run I). The data confirms the overall good and stable performance of the ArDM tonne-scale LAr detector.

  6. Deterioration of plasticity and metabolic homeostasis in the brain of the UCD-T2DM rat model of naturally occurring type-2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Rahul; Zhuang, Yumei; Cummings, Bethany P; Stanhope, Kimber L; Graham, James L; Havel, Peter J; Gomez-Pinilla, Fernando

    2014-09-01

    The rising prevalence of type-2 diabetes is becoming a pressing issue based on emerging reports that T2DM can also adversely impact mental health. We have utilized the UCD-T2DM rat model in which the onset of T2DM develops spontaneously across time and can serve to understand the pathophysiology of diabetes in humans. An increased insulin resistance index and plasma glucose levels manifested the onset of T2DM. There was a decrease in hippocampal insulin receptor signaling in the hippocampus, which correlated with peripheral insulin resistance index along the course of diabetes onset (r=-0.56, pT2DM increased the hippocampal levels of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE; a marker of lipid peroxidation) in inverse proportion to the changes in the mitochondrial regulator PGC-1α. Disrupted energy homeostasis was further manifested by a concurrent reduction in energy metabolic markers, including TFAM, SIRT1, and AMPK phosphorylation. In addition, T2DM influenced brain plasticity as evidenced by a significant reduction of BDNF-TrkB signaling. These results suggest that the pathology of T2DM in the brain involves a progressive and coordinated disruption of insulin signaling, and energy homeostasis, with profound consequences for brain function and plasticity. All the described consequences of T2DM were attenuated by treatment with the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, liraglutide. Similar results to those of liraglutide were obtained by exposing T2DM rats to a food energy restricted diet, which suggest that normalization of brain energy metabolism is a crucial factor to counteract central insulin sensitivity and synaptic plasticity associated with T2DM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Canine differential leukocyte counting with the CellaVision DM96Vision, Sysmex XT-2000iV, and Advia 2120 hematology analyzers and a manual method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tvedten, Harold W; Lilliehöök, Inger E

    2011-09-01

    For differential leukocyte counts, automated blood smear evaluation systems have been too slow or inaccurate to replace or supplement the manual differential count. The CellaVision DM96Vision (DM96V), a new instrument, is an automated image analysis system that is rapid and accurate enough to be used for enumerating human leukocytes and may be useful for analysis of canine blood. The aims of this study were to evaluate the performance of the DM96V in differential counting of canine leukocytes, to compare its performance with that of other methods, and to analyze interoperator variability. Four methods of determining the leukocyte differential count of 108 canine blood samples were compared based on agreement, precision, and errors as well as relative performance. Differential counts were obtained using the DM96V, the manual method, and automated methods performed by the Advia 2120 and Sysmex XT-2000iV. All leukocyte types were detected by the DM96V and the manual method, and all 4 methods had similar mean and median results in most cases. The automated methods were more precise than either the DM96V or manual method when comparing identification of a single type of leukocyte, especially neutrophils and lymphocytes. However, precision of the automated methods was only fair for monocytes, and the Advia and Sysmex failed to identify basophils. The Advia reported fewer monocytes and eosinophils than did the other methods. Significantly fewer lymphocytes were identified by the manual method than by the Sysmex, Advia, and DM96V. The DM96V occasionally presented duplicate images of the same neutrophils. The CellaVision DM96V is a satisfactory system for facilitating canine differential leukocyte counting. The DM96V differential count was more similar to the manual count than to automated counts, which were more precise but had errors and omissions in detecting some types of leukocytes. ©2011 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  8. FINAL REPORT INTEGRATED DM1200 MELTER TESTING USING AZ 102 AND C 106/AY-102 HLW SIMULANTS: HLW SIMULANT VERIFICATION VSL-05R5800-1 REV 0 6/27/05

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; GONG W; BARDAKCI T; D' ANGELO NA; BRANDYS M; KOT WK; PEGG IL

    2011-12-29

    The principal objectives of the DM1200 melter tests were to determine the effects of feed rheology, feed solid content, and bubbler configuration on glass production rate and off-gas system performance while processing the HLW AZ-101 and C-106/AY-102 feed compositions; characterize melter off-gas emissions; characterize the performance of the prototypical off-gas system components, as well as their integrated performance; characterize the feed, glass product, and off-gas effluents; and perform pre- and post test inspections of system components. The specific objectives (including test success criteria) of this testing, along with how each objective was met, are outlined in a table. The data provided in this Final Report address the impacts of HLW melter feed rheology on melter throughput and validation of the simulated HLW melter feeds. The primary purpose of this testing is to further validate/verify the HLW melter simulants that have been used for previous melter testing and to support their continued use in developing melter and off-gas related processing information for the Project. The primary simulant property in question is rheology. Simulants and melter feeds used in all previous melter tests were produced by direct addition of chemicals; these feed tend to be less viscous than rheological the upper-bound feeds made from actual wastes. Data provided here compare melter processing for the melter feed used in all previous DM100 and DM1200 tests (nominal melter feed) with feed adjusted by the feed vendor (NOAH Technologies) to be more viscous, thereby simulating more closely the upperbounding feed produced from actual waste. This report provides results of tests that are described in the Test Plan for this work. The Test Plan is responsive to one of several test objectives covered in the WTP Test Specification for this work; consequently, only part of the scope described in the Test Specification was addressed in this particular Test Plan. For the purpose of

  9. Age of onset of RNA toxicity influences phenotypic severity: evidence from an inducible mouse model of myotonic dystrophy (DM1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan T Gladman

    Full Text Available Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1 is the most common muscular dystrophy in adults. It is caused by an expanded (CTGn tract in the 3' UTR of the Dystrophia Myotonica Protein Kinase (DMPK gene. This causes nuclear retention of the mutant mRNA into ribonuclear foci and sequestration of interacting RNA-binding proteins (such as muscleblind-like 1 (MBNL1. More severe congenital and childhood-onset forms of the disease exist but are less understood than the adult disease, due in part to the lack of adequate animal models. To address this, we utilized transgenic mice over-expressing the DMPK 3' UTR as part of an inducible RNA transcript to model early-onset myotonic dystrophy. In mice in which transgene expression was induced during embryogenesis, we found that by two weeks after birth, mice reproduced cardinal features of myotonic dystrophy, including myotonia, cardiac conduction abnormalities, muscle weakness, histopathology and mRNA splicing defects. Notably, these defects were more severe than in adult mice induced for an equivalent period of exposure to RNA toxicity. Additionally, the utility of the model was tested by over-expressing MBNL1, a key therapeutic strategy being actively pursued for treating the disease phenotypes associated with DM1. Significantly, increased MBNL1 in skeletal muscle partially corrected myotonia and splicing defects present in these mice, demonstrating the responsiveness of the model to relevant therapeutic interventions. Furthermore, these results also represent the first murine model for early-onset DM1 and provide a tool to investigate the effects of RNA toxicity at various stages of development.

  10. The Nile Rat (Arvicanthis niloticus as a Superior Carbohydrate-Sensitive Model for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinaash Subramaniam

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a multifactorial disease involving complex genetic and environmental interactions. No single animal model has so far mirrored all the characteristics or complications of diabetes in humans. Since this disease represents a chronic nutritional insult based on a diet bearing a high glycemic load, the ideal model should recapitulate the underlying dietary issues. Most rodent models have three shortcomings: (1 they are genetically or chemically modified to produce diabetes; (2 unlike humans, most require high-fat feeding; (3 and they take too long to develop diabetes. By contrast, Nile rats develop diabetes rapidly (8–10 weeks with high-carbohydrate (hiCHO diets, similar to humans, and are protected by high fat (with low glycemic load intake. This review describes diabetes progression in the Nile rat, including various aspects of breeding, feeding, and handling for best experimental outcomes. The diabetes is characterized by a striking genetic permissiveness influencing hyperphagia and hyperinsulinemia; random blood glucose is the best index of disease progression; and kidney failure with chronic morbidity and death are outcomes, all of which mimic uncontrolled T2DM in humans. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, also described in diabetic humans, results from hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol accumulation associated with rising blood glucose. Protection is afforded by low glycemic load diets rich in certain fibers or polyphenols. Accordingly, the Nile rat provides a unique opportunity to identify the nutritional factors and underlying genetic and molecular mechanisms that characterize human T2DM.

  11. ANAEMIA AS A RISK FACTOR FOR MICROVASCULAR COMPLICATIONS IN TYPE 2 DM- A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamanuru Ethirajulu Govindarajulu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND It is well known that diabetes adversely affects the kidneys finally leading to anaemia by various mechanisms. Several studies had postulated that anaemia developing before renal complications has an independent association with microvascular complication in type 2 diabetic patients. The aim of the study is to estimate the prevalence of anaemia in persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus and its role as a risk factor for the presence and the severity of microvascular complication in a populationbased study. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a cross-sectional study conducted in patients coming to OPD of the Department of General Medicine in Government Vellore Medical College for a duration of 3 months from June 01, 2016, to August 31, 2016. Type 2 DM patients between the age group 20-60 years attending our diabetic clinic of both sex were included in our study. RESULTS From a total of 100 patients, 41% had anaemia including 34% with normochromic normocytic, 65.85% with hyperchromic microcytic anaemia and none of the patient had macrocytic anaemia. Patients who are anaemic had more frequent microvascular complications. There was no significant difference between males and females. The average duration of diabetes has a positive correlation with anaemia. All the microvascular complications like neuropathy, nephropathy and retinopathy had significant association with the presence of anaemia in type 2 patients. Nephropathy had a significant higher frequency compared to others as a complication in type 2 DM. CONCLUSION Our study shows that there is increased prevalence of anaemia in type 2 DM patients and the prevalence of microvascular complications is significantly higher among the diabetic patients with anaemia.

  12. Ubiquitination of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DM by different membrane-associated RING-CH (MARCH) protein family E3 ligases targets different endocytic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnke, Martin; Trowsdale, John; Kelly, Adrian P

    2012-03-02

    HLA-DM plays an essential role in the peptide loading of classical class II molecules and is present both at the cell surface and in late endosomal peptide-loading compartments. Trafficking of DM within antigen-presenting cells is complex and is, in part, controlled by a tyrosine-based targeting signal present in the cytoplasmic tail of DMβ. Here, we show that DM also undergoes post-translational modification through ubiquitination of a single lysine residue present in the cytoplasmic tail of the α chain, DMα. Ubiquitination of DM by MARCH1 and MARCH9 induced loss of DM molecules from the cell surface by a mechanism that cumulatively involved both direct attachment of ubiquitin chains to DMα and a functional tyrosine-based signal on DMβ. In contrast, MARCH8-induced loss of surface DM was entirely dependent upon the tyrosine signal on DMβ. In the absence of this tyrosine residue, levels of DM remained unchanged irrespective of whether DMα was ubiquitinated by MARCH8. The influence of MARCH8 was indirect and may have resulted from modification of components of the endocytic machinery by ubiquitination.

  13. Ubiquitination of Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-DM by Different Membrane-associated RING-CH (MARCH) Protein Family E3 Ligases Targets Different Endocytic Pathways*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnke, Martin; Trowsdale, John; Kelly, Adrian P.

    2012-01-01

    HLA-DM plays an essential role in the peptide loading of classical class II molecules and is present both at the cell surface and in late endosomal peptide-loading compartments. Trafficking of DM within antigen-presenting cells is complex and is, in part, controlled by a tyrosine-based targeting signal present in the cytoplasmic tail of DMβ. Here, we show that DM also undergoes post-translational modification through ubiquitination of a single lysine residue present in the cytoplasmic tail of the α chain, DMα. Ubiquitination of DM by MARCH1 and MARCH9 induced loss of DM molecules from the cell surface by a mechanism that cumulatively involved both direct attachment of ubiquitin chains to DMα and a functional tyrosine-based signal on DMβ. In contrast, MARCH8-induced loss of surface DM was entirely dependent upon the tyrosine signal on DMβ. In the absence of this tyrosine residue, levels of DM remained unchanged irrespective of whether DMα was ubiquitinated by MARCH8. The influence of MARCH8 was indirect and may have resulted from modification of components of the endocytic machinery by ubiquitination. PMID:22247549

  14. Quantum manifestation of systems on the macro-scale – the concept ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1. Introduction. In a series of papers over the last few years the present author has developed the concept of a 'transition amplitude wave' in relation to the problem of charged parti- cle dynamics in a magnetic field [1–3]. The concept which is essentially of quantum origin, predicts the existence of one-dimensional matter ...

  15. Characterizing pesticide sorption and degradation in macro scale biopurification systems using column displacement experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilde, Tineke de; Spanoghe, Pieter; Mertens, Jan; Sniegowksi, Kristel; Ryckeboer, Jaak; Jaeken, Peter; Springael, Dirk

    2009-01-01

    The efficiency of biopurification systems to treat pesticide-contaminated water was previously studied in microcosms. To validate the obtained results, macrocosm systems were set-up. Four pesticides (linuron, isoproturon, bentazone, and metalaxyl) were continuously applied to ten different organic substrate mixes. Retention of the pesticides was similar and in some cases slightly lower in the macrocosms compared to the microcosms. Differences in retention between the different mixes were however minimal. Moreover, the classification of the retention strength of the pesticides was identical to that observed in microcosms: linuron > isoproturon > metalaxyl > bentazone. Monod kinetics were used to describe delayed degradation, which occurred for isoproturon, metalaxyl and bentazone. No breakthrough of linuron was observed, thus, this pesticide was appointed as the most retained and/or degraded pesticide, followed by isoproturon, metalaxyl and bentazone. Finally, most of the matrix mixes efficient in degrading or retaining pesticides were mixes containing dried cow manure. - Transport of pesticides in macrocosm containing organic substrates

  16. Turbulent velocity and concentration measurements in a macro-scale multi-inlet vortex nanoprecipitation reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenping; Fox, Rodney; Hill, James; Olsen, Michael

    2013-11-01

    Flash Nanoprecipitation (FNP) is a technique to produce monodisperse functional nanoparticles. Microscale multi-inlet vortex reactors (MIVR) have been effectively applied to FNP due to their ability to provide rapid mixing and flexibility of inlet flow conditions. A scaled-up MIVR could potentially generate large quantities of functional nanoparticles, giving FNP wider applicability in industry. In the presented research, the turbulent velocity field inside a scaled-up, macroscale MIVR is measured by particle image velocimetry (PIV). Within the reactor, velocity is measured using both two-dimensional and stereoscopic PIV at two Reynolds numbers (3500 and 8750) based on the flow at each inlet. Data have been collected at numerous locations in the inlet channels, the reaction chamber, and the reactor outlet. Mean velocity and Reynolds stresses have been obtained based on 5000 instantaneous velocity realizations at each measurement location. The turbulent mixing process has also been investigated with passive scalar planar laser-induced fluorescence and simultaneous PIV/PLIF. Velocity and concentration results are compared to results from previous experiments in a microscale MIVR. Scaled profiles of turbulent quantities are similar to those previously found in the microscale MIVR.

  17. Simultaneous detection of multiple adulterants in dry milk using macro-scale Raman chemical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jianwei; Chao, Kuanglin; Kim, Moon S

    2013-06-01

    The potential of Raman chemical imaging for simultaneously detecting multiple adulterants in milk powder was investigated. Potential chemical adulterants, including ammonium sulphate, dicyandiamide, melamine, and urea, were mixed together into skim dry milk in the concentration range of 0.1-5.0% for each adulterant. Using a 785-nm laser, a Raman imaging system acquired hyperspectral images in the wavenumber range of 102-2538 cm(-1) for a 25 × 25 mm(2) area of each mixture sample, with a spatial resolution of 0.25 mm. Self-modelling mixture analysis (SMA) was used to extract pure component spectra, by which the four types of the adulterants were identified at all concentration levels based on their spectral information divergence values to the reference spectra. Raman chemical images were created using the contribution images from SMA, and their use to effectively visualise identification and spatial distribution of the multiple adulterant particles in the dry milk was demonstrated. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. A global fingerprint of macro-scale changes in urban structure from 1999 to 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolking, Steve; Milliman, Tom; Seto, Karen C; Friedl, Mark A

    2013-01-01

    Urban population now exceeds rural population globally, and 60–80% of global energy consumption by households, businesses, transportation, and industry occurs in urban areas. There is growing evidence that built-up infrastructure contributes to carbon emissions inertia, and that investments in infrastructure today have delayed climate cost in the future. Although the United Nations statistics include data on urban population by country and select urban agglomerations, there are no empirical data on built-up infrastructure for a large sample of cities. Here we present the first study to examine changes in the structure of the world’s largest cities from 1999 to 2009. Combining data from two space-borne sensors—backscatter power (PR) from NASA’s SeaWinds microwave scatterometer, and nighttime lights (NL) from NOAA’s defense meteorological satellite program/operational linescan system (DMSP/OLS)—we report large increases in built-up infrastructure stock worldwide and show that cities are expanding both outward and upward. Our results reveal previously undocumented recent and rapid changes in urban areas worldwide that reflect pronounced shifts in the form and structure of cities. Increases in built-up infrastructure are highest in East Asian cities, with Chinese cities rapidly expanding their material infrastructure stock in both height and extent. In contrast, Indian cities are primarily building out and not increasing in verticality. This new dataset will help characterize the structure and form of cities, and ultimately improve our understanding of how cities affect regional-to-global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. (letter)

  19. Macro-scale complexity of nano-to micro-scale architecture of olivine ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The production of nano- to micro-scale olivine (magnesium and iron silicate) crystals has been achieved at relatively low temperatures through an iodine vapour transport of the metal onto amorphous silicon dioxide. The process occurs down a temperature gradient from 800 to 600°C yielding high quality crystals with long ...

  20. Macro-Scale Patterns in Upwelling/Downwelling Activity at North American West Coast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo Saldívar-Lucio

    Full Text Available The seasonal and interannual variability of vertical transport (upwelling/downwelling has been relatively well studied, mainly for the California Current System, including low-frequency changes and latitudinal heterogeneity. The aim of this work was to identify potentially predictable patterns in upwelling/downwelling activity along the North American west coast and discuss their plausible mechanisms. To this purpose we applied the min/max Autocorrelation Factor technique and time series analysis. We found that spatial co-variation of seawater vertical movements present three dominant low-frequency signals in the range of 33, 19 and 11 years, resembling periodicities of: atmospheric circulation, nodal moon tides and solar activity. Those periodicities might be related to the variability of vertical transport through their influence on dominant wind patterns, the position/intensity of pressure centers and the strength of atmospheric circulation cells (wind stress. The low-frequency signals identified in upwelling/downwelling are coherent with temporal patterns previously reported at the study region: sea surface temperature along the Pacific coast of North America, catch fluctuations of anchovy Engraulis mordax and sardine Sardinops sagax, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, changes in abundance and distribution of salmon populations, and variations in the position and intensity of the Aleutian low. Since the vertical transport is an oceanographic process with strong biological relevance, the recognition of their spatio-temporal patterns might allow for some reasonable forecasting capacity, potentially useful for marine resources management of the region.

  1. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF RELATIVE PERMEABILITY UPSCALING FROM THE MICRO-SCALE TO THE MACRO-SCALE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laura J. Pyrak-Nolte; Ping Yu; JiangTao Cheng; Daiquan Chen; Nicholas Giordano; Mirela Mustata; John Coy; Nathan Cooper; David D. Nolte

    2002-12-01

    The principal challenge of upscaling techniques for multi-phase fluid dynamics in porous media is to determine which properties on the micro-scale can be used to predict macroscopic flow and spatial distribution of phases at core- and field-scales. The most notable outcome of recent theories is the identification of interfacial areas per volume for multiple phases as a fundamental parameter that determines much of the multi-phase properties of the porous medium. A formal program of experimental research was begun to directly test upscaling theories in fluid flow through porous media by comparing measurements of relative permeability and capillary-saturation with measurements of interfacial area per volume. During this reporting period, we have shown experimentally that the coherence detection can be performed in a borescope. The measurement of interfacial area per volume (IAV), capillary pressure and saturation in two dimensional micro-models structures has shown the existence of a unique relationship among these hydraulic parameters for different pore geometry. The measurement of interfacial area per volume on a three-dimensional natural sample, i.e., sandstone, is essentially completed for imbibition conditions.

  2. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF RELATIVE PERMEABILITY UPSCALING FROM THE MICRO-SCALE TO THE MACRO-SCALE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JiangTao Cheng; Ping Yu; William Headley; Nicholas Giordao; Mirela Mustata; Daiquan Chen; Nathan Cooper; David D. Nolte; Laura J. Pyrak-Nolte

    2001-12-01

    The principal challenge of upscaling techniques for multi-phase fluid dynamics in porous media is to determine which properties on the micro-scale can be used to predict macroscopic flow and spatial distribution of phases at core- and field-scales. The most notable outcome of recent theories is the identification of interfacial areas per volume for multiple phases as a fundamental parameter that determines much of the multi-phase properties of the porous medium. A formal program of experimental research was begun to directly test upscaling theories in fluid flow through porous media by comparing measurements of relative permeability and capillary-saturation with measurements of interfacial area per volume. During this reporting period, we have shown experimentally and theoretically that the optical coherence imaging system is optimized for sandstone. The measurement of interfacial area per volume (IAV), capillary pressure and saturation in two dimensional micro-models structures that are statistically similar to real porous media has shown the existence of a unique relationship among these hydraulic parameters. The measurement of interfacial area per volume on a three-dimensional natural sample, i.e., sandstone, has the same length-scale as the values of IAV determined for the two-dimensional micro-models.

  3. A global fingerprint of macro-scale changes in urban structure from 1999 to 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolking, Steve; Milliman, Tom; Seto, Karen C.; Friedl, Mark A.

    2013-06-01

    Urban population now exceeds rural population globally, and 60-80% of global energy consumption by households, businesses, transportation, and industry occurs in urban areas. There is growing evidence that built-up infrastructure contributes to carbon emissions inertia, and that investments in infrastructure today have delayed climate cost in the future. Although the United Nations statistics include data on urban population by country and select urban agglomerations, there are no empirical data on built-up infrastructure for a large sample of cities. Here we present the first study to examine changes in the structure of the world’s largest cities from 1999 to 2009. Combining data from two space-borne sensors—backscatter power (PR) from NASA’s SeaWinds microwave scatterometer, and nighttime lights (NL) from NOAA’s defense meteorological satellite program/operational linescan system (DMSP/OLS)—we report large increases in built-up infrastructure stock worldwide and show that cities are expanding both outward and upward. Our results reveal previously undocumented recent and rapid changes in urban areas worldwide that reflect pronounced shifts in the form and structure of cities. Increases in built-up infrastructure are highest in East Asian cities, with Chinese cities rapidly expanding their material infrastructure stock in both height and extent. In contrast, Indian cities are primarily building out and not increasing in verticality. This new dataset will help characterize the structure and form of cities, and ultimately improve our understanding of how cities affect regional-to-global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions.

  4. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF RELATIVE PERMEABILITY UPSCALING FROM THE MICRO-SCALE TO THE MACRO-SCALE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laura J. Pyrak-Nolte; Nicholas J. Giordano; David D. Nolte

    2004-03-01

    The principal challenge of upscaling techniques for multi-phase fluid dynamics in porous media is to determine which properties on the micro-scale can be used to predict macroscopic flow and spatial distribution of phases at core- and field-scales. The most notable outcome of recent theories is the identification of interfacial areas per volume for multiple phases as a fundamental parameter that determines much of the multi-phase properties of the porous medium. A formal program of experimental research was begun to directly test upscaling theories in fluid flow through porous media by comparing measurements of relative permeability and capillary-saturation with measurements of interfacial area per volume. This project on the experimental investigation of relative permeability upscaling has produced a unique combination of three quite different technical approaches to the upscaling problem of obtaining pore-related microscopic properties and using them to predict macroscopic behavior. Several important ''firsts'' have been achieved during the course of the project. (1) Optical coherence imaging, a laser-based ranging and imaging technique, has produced the first images of grain and pore structure up to 1 mm beneath the surface of the sandstone and in a laboratory borehole. (2) Woods metal injection has connected for the first time microscopic pore-scale geometric measurements with macroscopic saturation in real sandstone cores. (3) The micro-model technique has produced the first invertible relationship between saturation and capillary pressure--showing that interfacial area per volume (IAV) provides the linking parameter. IAV is a key element in upscaling theories, so this experimental finding may represent the most important result of this project, with wide ramifications for predictions of fluid behavior in porous media.

  5. Experimental Investigation of Relative Permeability Upscaling from the Micro-Scale to the Macro-Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyrak-Nolte, Laura J.; Cheng, JiangTao; Yu, Ping; Giordano, Nicholas; Mustata, Mirela; Chen, Diaquam; Coy, John; Cooper, Nathan; Nolte, David D.

    2003-01-29

    During this reporting period, shown experimentally that the optical coherence imaging system can acquire information on grain interfaces and void shape for a maximum depth of half a millimeter into sandstone. The measurement of interfacial area per volume (IAV), capillary pressure and saturation in two dimensional micro-models structures has shown the existence of a unique relationship among these hydraulic parameters for different pore geometry. The measurement of interfacial area per volume on a three-dimensional natural sample, i.e., sandstone, has shown the homogeneity of IAV with depth in a sample when the fluids are in equilibrium.

  6. Describing macro-scale structure of the snow cover by a dynamic-stochastic model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Gelfan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Possibilities to investigate the spatial structure of snow cover by means of dynamic-stochastic model are discussed in this article. Basin of the Cheboksary reservoir (area of 376 500 sq.km was used as an example. Results of numerical experiments show that our dynamic-stochastic model of the snow cover formation reproduces a snow field structure with adequate accuracy. The fractal dimensions of the modeled fields are in good correspondence with respective dimensions of fields obtained from data of the in situ observations.

  7. Comparing Pore-scale and Macro-scale Capillary Pressure Measurements Using a Two- dimensional Micromodel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, K. I.; Porter, M. L.; Wildenschild, D.

    2007-12-01

    Capillary pressure plays a critical role in multiphase flow and transport in porous media. At the pore scale, capillary pressure is defined by Laplace's law which states that capillary pressure is a function of surface tension, contact angle and curvature. This study focuses on imaging and estimating pore scale properties that determine capillary pressure. Drainage and imbibition experiments for a NAPL-water system are conducted in a two-dimensional micro-scale porous medium. High resolution images of the phase distributions and associated interfaces within the pores are collected during the experiments. Images are taken at a rate of approximately 50 frames per second with a resolution between 1-10 ìm per pixel. In addition, the pressure in each phase is measured with a transducer outside the porous medium, and pressure-saturation curves are plotted from the data. We will attempt to use Laplace's Law to estimate the average pressure inside the porous medium based on measured curvatures. The two pressure values (measured outside the system versus calculated via Laplace's Law) will be compared. The images will allow for investigation of pore scale properties during dynamic flow conditions, as well as static conditions, and importantly, allow for comparison among the two situations. Specifically, relaxation of menisci interfaces and resulting changes in interface curvature, and thus capillary pressure, will be correlated to variations in system properties such as fluid-fluid viscosities and flow rates.

  8. Design of a shape-memory alloy actuated macro-scale morphing aircraft mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Justin; Garcia, Ephrahim; Wickenheiser, Adam; Horner, Garnett C.

    2005-05-01

    As more alternative, lightweight actuators have become available, the conventional fixed-wing configuration seen on modern aircraft is under investigation for efficiency on a broad scale. If an aircraft could be designed with multiple functional equilibria of drastically varying aerodynamic parameters, one craft capable of 'morphing' its shape could be used to replace two or three designed with particular intentions. One proposed shape for large-scale (geometry change on the same order of magnitude as wingspan) morphing is the Hyper-Elliptical Cambered Span (HECS) wing, designed at NASA Langley to be implemented on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Proposed mechanisms to accomplish the spanwise curvature (in the y-z plane of the craft) that allow near-continuous bending of the wing are narrowed to a tendon-based DC motor actuated system, and a shape memory alloy-based (SMA) mechanism. At Cornell, simulations and wind tunnel experiments assess the validity of the HECS wing as a potential shape for a blended-wing body craft with the potential to effectively serve the needs of two conventional UAVs, and analyze the energetics of actuation associated with a morphing maneuver accomplished with both a DC motor and SMA wire.

  9. The divining root: moisture-driven responses of roots at the micro- and macro-scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Neil E; Dinneny, José R

    2015-04-01

    Water is fundamental to plant life, but the mechanisms by which plant roots sense and respond to variations in water availability in the soil are poorly understood. Many studies of responses to water deficit have focused on large-scale effects of this stress, but have overlooked responses at the sub-organ or cellular level that give rise to emergent whole-plant phenotypes. We have recently discovered hydropatterning, an adaptive environmental response in which roots position new lateral branches according to the spatial distribution of available water across the circumferential axis. This discovery illustrates that roots are capable of sensing and responding to water availability at spatial scales far lower than those normally studied for such processes. This review will explore how roots respond to water availability with an emphasis on what is currently known at different spatial scales. Beginning at the micro-scale, there is a discussion of water physiology at the cellular level and proposed sensory mechanisms cells use to detect osmotic status. The implications of these principles are then explored in the context of cell and organ growth under non-stress and water-deficit conditions. Following this, several adaptive responses employed by roots to tailor their functionality to the local moisture environment are discussed, including patterning of lateral root development and generation of hydraulic barriers to limit water loss. We speculate that these micro-scale responses are necessary for optimal functionality of the root system in a heterogeneous moisture environment, allowing for efficient water uptake with minimal water loss during periods of drought. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Quantum manifestation of systems on the macro-scale – the concept ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Physical Research Laboratory, Navrangpura, Ahmedabad 380 009, India. E-mail: ramkvarma@gmail.com ... qualitative derivation of the required expression was presented in the Appendix of the experimental paper [2]. ... of particles is only at the point X, then we write ψ(X1,t1) = δ(X − X1), so that ψ(X2,t2) = KV (X2,t2; X,t1),.

  11. Negative-resistance voltage-current characteristics of superconductor contact junctions for macro-scale applications

    CERN Document Server

    Takayasu, M; Minervini, J V; 10.1109/TASC.2003.812854

    2003-01-01

    Voltage-current characteristics of mechanical pressure contact junctions between superconducting wires are investigated using a voltage-driving method. It is found that the switching regions at low voltages result from negative resistance of the contact junction. The current transport of the contact junctions is discussed from the perspective of two existing models: the multiple Andreev reflections at the two SN interfaces of a SNS (Superconductor/Normal metal /Superconductor) junction and the inhomogeneous multiple Josephson weak-link array. (13 refs).

  12. Biocrust ecology: Unifying micro- and macro-scales to confront global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrenberg, Scott; Reed, Sasha C.

    2017-01-01

    Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are communities of microbes, lichens and bryophytes living at the soil surface in drylands (Fig. 1; Belnap et al., 2016). Biocrusts occur on all continents and can comprise a majority of cover in some systems (Belnap et al., 2016). While species diversity and distributions have long been a research focus, interest in controls on community composition and cover has expanded as biocrusts are increasingly recognized for their roles in ecosystem functioning (Deane-Coe and Stanton, 2017). For example, biocrust organisms can stabilize soils (Belnap et al., 2016; Faist et al., 2017), fix atmospheric carbon (C) (Sancho et al., 2016), and serve as the foremost source of ‘new’ soil nitrogen (N) in drylands, via N2 fixation (Barger et al., 2016) These contributions to gross primary production and soil fertility could be quite large, as high-end estimates suggest biocrusts and similar communities of bryophytes and lichens might account for 10% of terrestrial C- and 50% of N-fixation globally (Elbert et al., 2012). Yet verifying these and other biocrust roles in ecosystem functioning is complicated by limited knowledge of biocrust cover and composition across the vast dryland biome (Ferrenberg et al., 2017).It was against this backdrop that ‘Biocrust3: the 3rd International workshop on biological soil crusts’ was held in Moab, UT, USA, on 26-30 September 2016. The workshop brought together over 50 scientists from 21 countries and six continents, and included numerous biocrust science pioneers (Fig. 2). The meeting was notable for its cross-scale focus, discussion of novel molecular and imaging techniques, and sessions on mapping and restoring biocrusts in a changing world. Here, we synthesize a central theme that emerged from Biocrust3, namely the potential for combining cutting edge tools with studies focused on organismal traits, ecosystem functions, and global change biology to advance the frontier of biocrust ecology.

  13. Macro-scale complexity of nano- to micro-scale architecture of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The production of nano- to micro-scale olivine (magnesium and iron silicate) crystals has been achieved at relatively low temperatures through an iodine vapour transport of the metal onto amorphous silicon dioxide. The process occurs down a temperature gradient from 800 to 600 ◦C yielding high quality crystals ...

  14. Cmin - herramienta case basada en crisp-dm para el soporte de proyectos de minería de datos

    OpenAIRE

    Cobos, Carlos; Zuñiga, Jhon; Guarin, Juan; León, Elizabeth; Mendoza, Martha

    2010-01-01

    En este artículo se presenta la CMIN, una herramienta CASE (Computer Aided Software Engineering) integrada (que soporta todas las fases de un proceso) basada en CRISP-DM 1.0 (Cross – Industry Standard Process for Data Mining) para soportar el desarrollo de proyectos de minería de datos.Primero se expone la funcionalidad general de CMIN, lo que incluye la gestión de procesos, plantillas y proyectos, y se destaca la capacidad de CMIN para realizar el seguimiento de los proyectos de una forma fá...

  15. Perspectives on Peripheral Neuropathy as a Consequence of Metformin-Induced Vitamin B12 Deficiency in T2DM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan A. Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral neuropathy (PN is a primary complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and a direct manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency. Examining the effects of metformin use on PN status became imperative following clinical studies that showed the vitamin B12-lowering effect of the medication. The complexity of the topic and the inconsistency of the results warrant consideration of topic-specific perspectives for better understanding of the available evidence and more appropriate design of future studies.

  16. Aberrant brain regional homogeneity and functional connectivity in middle-aged T2DM patients: a resting-state functional MRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daihong Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM has been associated with cognitive impairment. However, its neurological mechanism remains elusive. Combining regional homogeneity (ReHo and functional connectivity (FC analyses, the present study aimed to investigate brain functional alterations in middle-aged T2DM patients, which could provide complementary information for the neural substrates underlying T2DM-associated brain dysfunction. Twenty-five T2DM patients and 25 healthy controls were involved in neuropsychological testing and structural and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data acquisition. ReHo analysis was conducted to determine the peak coordinates of brain regions with abnormal local brain activity synchronization. Then, the identified brain regions were considered as seeds, and FC between these brain regions and global voxels was computed. Finally, the potential correlations between the imaging indices and neuropsychological data were also explored. Compared with healthy controls, T2DM patients exhibited higher ReHo values in the anterior cingulate gyrus and lower ReHo in right fusiform gyrus, right precentral gyrus and right medial orbit of the superior frontal gyrus. Considering these areas as seed regions, T2DM patients displayed aberrant FC, mainly in the frontal and parietal lobes. The pattern of FC alterations in T2DM patients was characterized by decreased connectivity and positive to negative or negative to positive converted connectivity. Digital Span Test forward scores revealed significant correlations with the ReHo values of the right precentral gyrus (ρ = 0.527, p = 0.014 and FC between the right fusiform gyrus and middle temporal gyrus (ρ = -0.437, p = 0.048. Our findings suggest that T2DM patients suffer from cognitive dysfunction related to spatially local and remote brain activity synchronization impairment. The patterns of ReHo and FC alterations shed light on the mechanisms underlying T2DM-associated brain

  17. Effect of Dapagliflozin With and Without Acipimox on Insulin Sensitivity and Insulin Secretion in T2DM Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merovci, Aurora; Abdul-Ghani, Muhammad; Mari, Andrea; Solis-Herrera, Carolina; Xiong, Juan; Daniele, Giuseppe; Tripathy, Devjit; DeFronzo, Ralph A

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the effect of lowering the plasma glucose and free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations with dapagliflozin and acipimox, respectively, on insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in T2DM individuals. Fourteen male T2DM patients received an oral glucose tolerance test and euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp at baseline and were treated for 3 weeks with dapagliflozin (10 mg per day). During week 3, acipimox (250 mg four times per day) treatment was added to dapagliflozin. The oral glucose tolerance test and insulin clamp were repeated at the end of weeks 2 and 3. Dapagliflozin caused glucosuria and significantly lowered the plasma glucose concentration (by 35 mg/dL; P insulin-mediated glucose disposal increased significantly at week 2 (from 4.48 ± 0.50 to 5.30 ± 0.50 mg/kg · min; P insulin-mediated glucose disposal at week 3 (after the addition of acipimox) did not differ significantly from that at week 2. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion at week 2 increased significantly compared to baseline, and it increased further and significantly at week 3 compared to week 2. Lowering the plasma glucose concentration with dapagliflozin improves both insulin sensitivity and β-cell function, whereas lowering plasma FFA concentration by addition of acipimox to dapagliflozin improves β-cell function without significantly affecting insulin sensitivity.

  18. CMIN - herramienta case basada en CRISP-DM para el soporte de proyectos de minería de datos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Cobos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta la CMIN, una herramienta CASE (Computer Aided Software Engineering integrada (que soporta todas las fases de un proceso basada en CRISP-DM 1.0 (Cross – Industry Standard Process for Data Mining para soportar el desarrollo de proyectos de minería de datos.Primero se expone la funcionalidad general de CMIN, lo que incluye la gestión de procesos, plantillas y proyectos, y se destaca la capacidad de CMIN para realizar el seguimiento de los proyectos de una forma fácil e intuitiva y la manera como CMIN posibilita que el usuario incremente su conocimiento en el uso de CRISP-DM o de cualquier otro proceso que se defina en la herramienta a través de las ayudas e información que se ofrece en cada paso del proceso. Después, se detalla cómo CMIN permite enlazar en tiempo de ejecución (sin necesidad de volver a compilar la herramienta nuevos algoritmos de minería de datos que apoyen la labor de modelado (basada en un flujo de trabajo o workflow en un proyecto de minería de datos. Finalmente, se ofrecen los resultados de dos evaluaciones de la herramienta, las conclusiones y el trabajo futuro.

  19. Observation and modelling of main-sequence star chromospheres - XIX. FIES and FEROS observations of dM1 stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houdebine, E. R.; Butler, C. J.; Garcia-Alvarez, D.; Telting, J.

    2012-10-01

    We present 187 high-resolution spectra for 62 different M1 dwarfs from observations obtained with the FIbre-fed Echelle Spectrograph (FIES) on the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) and from observations with the Fibre-fed Extended Range Echelle Spectrograph (FEROS) from the European Southern Observatory (ESO) data base. We also compiled other measurements available in the literature. We observed two stars, Gl 745A and Gl 745B, with no Ca II line core emission and Hα line equivalent widths (EWs) of only 0.171 and 0.188 Å, respectively. We also observed another very low activity M1 dwarf, Gl 63, with an Hα line EW of only 0.199 Å. These are the lowest activity M dwarfs ever observed and are of particular interest for the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium radiative transfer modelling of M1 dwarfs. Thanks to the high signal-to-noise ratio of most of our spectra, we were able to measure the Ca II H&K full width at half-maximum (FWHM) for most of our stars. We find good correlations between the FWHM values and the mean Ca II line EW for dM1 stars. Then the FWHM seems to saturate for dM1e stars. Our previous models of M1 dwarfs can reproduce the FWHM for dM1e stars and the most active dM1 stars, but fail to reproduce the observations of lower activity M1 dwarfs. We believe this is due to an effect of metallicity. We also investigate the dependence of the Hα line FWHM as a function of its EW. We find that the models globally agree with the observations including subwarfs, but tend to produce too narrow profiles for dM1e stars. We re-investigate the correlation between the Ca II line mean EW and the absolute magnitude. With our new data that notably include several M1 subdwarfs, we find a slightly different and better correlation with a slope of -0.779 instead of -0.909. We also re-investigate the variations of the Hα line EW as a function of radius and find that the EW increases continuously with increasing radius. This confirms our previous finding that the level of

  20. Funding of energy research: BMFT expenditures for energy research and energy technologies, 3rd program, a review and a forecast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacke, S.

    1990-01-01

    Between the early sixties and late 1989, the German Federal Government spent some DM 23 billion to support research and development of the entire field of nuclear technology (such as fundamental research, industrial applications, medicine, safety technology, advanced energy systems) in the Federal Republic of Germany. Of this amount, approx. DM 11 billion was spent on the technology of nuclear power plants equipped with light water reactors, on safety research, and on the nuclear fuel cycle. Comparing the expenditures of the Federal Government for the conversion of nuclear power into electricity with the savings achieved in electricity generating costs of approx. DM 58 billion by late 1989 (the cost advantage of nuclear power being approx. Pf 5/kWh), one arrives at a cost advantage to the whole economy of approx. DM 47 billion by the date shown above; by the year 2000, this advantage will have risen to some DM 150 billion. (orig.) [de

  1. Pengendalian status gizi, kadar glukosa darah, dan tekanan darah melalui terapi gizi medis pada pasien diabetes mellitus (DM tipe 2 rawat jalan di RSU Mataram NTB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhaema Suhaema

    2010-11-01

    Conclusion: Intake of nutrient, nutrition status, blood glucose level and blood pressure of type 2 DM patients that got MNT was more controllable than of those that got conventional nutrition counseling.

  2. UCP2 and UCP3 variants and gene-environment interaction associated with prediabetes and T2DM in a rural population: a case control study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Meifang; Chen, Xiaoying; Chen, Yue; Wang, Congyun; Li, Songtao; Ying, Xuhua; Xiao, Tian; Wang, Na; Jiang, Qingwu; Fu, Chaowei

    2018-03-12

    There are disparities for the association between uncoupling proteins (UCP) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The study was to examine the associations of genetic variants of UCP2 and UCP3 with prediabetes and T2DM in a rural Chinese population. A population-based case-control study of 397 adults with T2DM, 394 with prediabetes and 409 with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) was carried out in 2014 in a rural community in eastern China. Three groups were identified through a community survey and the prediabetes and NGT groups were frequently matched by age and gender with the T2DM group and they were not relatives of T2DM subjects. With r 2  ≥ 0.8 and minor allele frequency (MAF) ≥0.05 for tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with potential function, three (rs660339, rs45560234 and rs643064) and six (rs7930460, rs15763, rs647126, rs1800849, rs3781907 and rs1685356) SNPs were selected respectively for UCP2 and UCP3 and genotyped in real time using the MassARRAY system (Sequenom; USA). The haplotypes, gene-environmental interaction and association between genetic variants of UCP2 and UCP3 and prediabetes or T2DM were explored. There were no significant differences in age and sex among three study groups. After the adjustment for possible covariates, the A allele of rs1800849 in UCP3 was significantly associated with prediabetes (aOR AA vs GG  = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.02-2.78), and the association was also significant under the recessive model (aOR AA vs GA + GG  = 1.64, 95% CI: 1.02-2.66). Also, rs15763 was found to be marginally significantly associated with T2DM under dominant model (OR GA + AA vs GG  = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.52-1.03, P = 0.072). No haplotype was significantly associated with prediabetes or T2DM. Multiplicative interactions for rs660339-overweight on T2DM were observed. In addition, the AA genotype of rs660339 was associated with an increased risk of T2DM in overweight subjects (OR = 1.48, 95%CI: 0.87-2.52) but with a decreased

  3. Emerging Technologies: Biosecurity and Consequence Management Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Dana; Nordmann, Brian

    The natural outbreaks of disease and pandemics are transnational threats that create international challenges when detection and containment are not timely due to scarce human and material resources. Whether the cause of those outbreaks is natural or intentional in origin, the main goal of consequence management operations is to save lives. The consequence management process is a continuum of inter-connected phases such as planning, preparation, response, and recovery. The rapid advances of life sciences and the emergence of dual-use technologies such as synthetic biology and nanotechnology pose additional challenges in terms of planning for the unknown potential threats whether they may be synthetic microorganisms with unpredictable dissemination patterns or nanoscale-manipulated biological agents evading current detection capabilities. The US National Strategy for Countering Biological Threats is emphasizing prevention while continuing to support the national preparedness goals and response/recovery capabilities. The recent policies, guidelines, and recommendations on overhauling the biological risk management in the United States are a proactive stance to a rapidly changing global environment. They include optimization of the current oversight frameworks and active engagement of the industry and academia in order to reduce the risk that individuals with ill intent may exploit the commercial application of nucleic acid synthesis technology to access genetic material derived from or by encoding Biological Select Agents or Toxins. We are also actively seeking to increase our knowledge of health effects of various types of nanomaterials, and how to assess, control, and prevent harmful exposure, taking into consideration the numerous gaps that currently exist with regard to the distinct behavior of nanoparticles compared to the same chemical or material at "macro-scale". Fundamentally, a biological incident, whether it is of natural, accidental, or deliberate origin

  4. Arsenic Exposure and Calpain-10 Polymorphisms Impair the Function of Pancreatic Beta-Cells in Humans: A Pilot Study of Risk Factors for T2DM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Villaseñor, Andrea; Cruz, Laura; Cebrián, Arturo; Hernández-Ramírez, Raúl U.; Hiriart, Marcia; García-Vargas, Gonzálo; Bassol, Susana; Sordo, Monserrat; Gandolfi, A. Jay; Klimecki, Walter T.; López-Carillo, Lizbeth; Cebrián, Mariano E.; Ostrosky-Wegman, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing worldwide and diverse environmental and genetic risk factors are well recognized. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the calpain-10 gene (CAPN-10), which encodes a protein involved in the secretion and action of insulin, and chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) through drinking water have been independently associated with an increase in the risk for T2DM. In the present work we evaluated if CAPN-10 SNPs and iAs exposure jointly contribute to the outcome of T2DM. Insulin secretion (beta-cell function) and insulin sensitivity were evaluated indirectly through validated indexes (HOMA2) in subjects with and without T2DM who have been exposed to a gradient of iAs in their drinking water in northern Mexico. The results were analyzed taking into account the presence of the risk factor SNPs SNP-43 and -44 in CAPN-10. Subjects with T2DM had significantly lower beta-cell function and insulin sensitivity. An inverse association was found between beta-cell function and iAs exposure, the association being more pronounced in subjects with T2DM. Subjects without T2DM who were carriers of the at-risk genotype SNP-43 or -44, also had significantly lower beta-cell function. The association of SNP-43 with beta-cell function was dependent on iAs exposure, age, gender and BMI, whereas the association with SNP-44 was independent of all of these factors. Chronic exposure to iAs seems to be a risk factor for T2DM in humans through the reduction of beta-cell function, with an enhanced effect seen in the presence of the at-risk genotype of SNP-43 in CAPN-10. Carriers of CAPN-10 SNP-44 have also shown reduced beta-cell function. PMID:23349674

  5. Diabetes and pulmonary tuberculosis: a global overview with special focus on the situation in Asian countries with high TB-DM burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chunlan; Hu, Minhui; Gao, Feng

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The double burden of tuberculosis (TB) and diabetes mellitus (DM) is hitting certain Asian countries harder than other areas. In a global estimate, 15% of all TB cases could be attributable to DM, with 40% of those cases coming from India and China. Many other countries of South, East, and South-East Asia are of particular concern given their TB burdens, large projected increases in DM prevalence, and population size. Objective: In this narrative review, we aimed to: (i) give an overall insight into the evidence on TB-DM epidemiology from high double burden Asian countries, (ii) present the evidence on bi-directional screening implementation in this region, (iii) discuss possible factors related to higher TB susceptibility of Asian diabetic patients, and (iv) identify TB-DM comorbidity treatment challenges. Methods: The PubMed and Google Scholar databases were searched for all studies addressing DM/TB epidemiology, bi-directional screening and management in South, East and South-East Asia. Results: We identified the DM prevalences among TB patients as ranging from approximately 5% to more than 50%, whereas TB prevalences among diabetic patients were 1.8–9.5 times higher than in the general population in developing Asian countries. Evidence from studies designed to address diagnosis and treatment of the dual disease in these critical regions is scarce as well as the evidence related to possible DM patients’ genetic and acquired predisposition for TB. Conclusion: More prospective studies specifically designed to address adequate screening techniques, identify patients at risk, and define an adequate treatment of dual disease in this region are needed without delay. PMID:28245710

  6. Arsenic exposure and calpain-10 polymorphisms impair the function of pancreatic beta-cells in humans: a pilot study of risk factors for T2DM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Díaz-Villaseñor

    Full Text Available The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is increasing worldwide and diverse environmental and genetic risk factors are well recognized. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the calpain-10 gene (CAPN-10, which encodes a protein involved in the secretion and action of insulin, and chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs through drinking water have been independently associated with an increase in the risk for T2DM. In the present work we evaluated if CAPN-10 SNPs and iAs exposure jointly contribute to the outcome of T2DM. Insulin secretion (beta-cell function and insulin sensitivity were evaluated indirectly through validated indexes (HOMA2 in subjects with and without T2DM who have been exposed to a gradient of iAs in their drinking water in northern Mexico. The results were analyzed taking into account the presence of the risk factor SNPs SNP-43 and -44 in CAPN-10. Subjects with T2DM had significantly lower beta-cell function and insulin sensitivity. An inverse association was found between beta-cell function and iAs exposure, the association being more pronounced in subjects with T2DM. Subjects without T2DM who were carriers of the at-risk genotype SNP-43 or -44, also had significantly lower beta-cell function. The association of SNP-43 with beta-cell function was dependent on iAs exposure, age, gender and BMI, whereas the association with SNP-44 was independent of all of these factors. Chronic exposure to iAs seems to be a risk factor for T2DM in humans through the reduction of beta-cell function, with an enhanced effect seen in the presence of the at-risk genotype of SNP-43 in CAPN-10. Carriers of CAPN-10 SNP-44 have also shown reduced beta-cell function.

  7. Extension of a Computer Assisted Decision Support (CADS) Study to Improve Outcomes in Patients with Type 2 DM Treated by Primary Care Providers. Addendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Acquisition Activity [USAMRAA], contract number W81XWH-09-2-0196, for a prospective, cluster, randomized controlled trial (RCT). The ongoing project is a...disease that occurs in up to 80% of patients with DM (9). Several large randomized clinical trials (RCTs), including the UKPDS, demonstrated that...of patients with DM are managed by primary care providers (PCPs), including family practitioners , nurse generalists, nurse practitioners , and

  8. Oligomerization and chaperone-like activity of Drosophila melanogaster small heat shock protein DmHsp27 and three arginine mutants in the alpha-crystallin domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutaoufik, Mohamed Taha; Morrow, Geneviève; Maaroufi, Halim; Férard, Céline; Finet, Stéphanie; Tanguay, Robert M

    2017-07-01

    The small Hsp DmHsp27 from Drosophila melanogaster is one of the few small heat shock proteins (sHsps) found within the nucleus. We report that its dimerization is independent of disulfide bond formation and seems to rely on salt bridges. Unlike metazoan sHsps, DmHsp27 forms two populations of oligomers not in equilibrium. Mutations at highly conserved arginine residues in mammalian sHsps have been reported to be associated with protein conformational defects and intracellular aggregation. Independent mutation of three highly conserved arginines (R122, R131, and R135) to glycine in DmHsp27 results in only one population of higher molecular weight form. In vitro, the chaperone-like activity of wild-type DmHsp27 was comparable with that of its two isolated populations and to the single population of the R122G, R131G, and R135G using luciferase as substrate. However, using insulin, the chaperone-like activity of wild-type DmHsp27 was lower than that of R122G and R131G mutants. Altogether, the results characterize wild-type DmHsp27 and its alpha-crystallin domain (ACD) arginine mutants and may give insight into protection mechanism of sHsps.

  9. Evidences of +896 A/G TLR4 Polymorphism as an Indicative of Prevalence of Complications in T2DM Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Rita Balistreri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available T2DM is today considered as world-wide health problem, with complications responsible of an enhanced mortality and morbidity. Thus, new strategies for its prevention and therapy are necessary. For this reason, the research interest has focused its attention on TLR4 and its polymorphisms, particularly the rs4986790. However, no conclusive findings have been reported until now about the role of this polymorphism in development of T2DM and its complications, even if a recent meta-analysis showed its T2DM association in Caucasians. In this study, we sought to evaluate the weight of rs4986790 polymorphism in the risk of the major T2DM complications, including 367 T2DM patients complicated for the 55.6%. Patients with A/A and A/G TLR4 genotypes showed significant differences in complication’s prevalence. In particular, AG carriers had higher risk prevalence for neuropathy (P=0.026, lower limb arteriopathy (P=0.013, and the major cardiovascular pathologies (P=0.017. Their cumulative risk was significant (P=0.01, with a threefold risk to develop neuropathy, lower limb arteriopathy, and major cardiovascular events in AG cases compared to AA cases. The adjusted OR for the confounding variables was 3.788 (95% CI: 1.642–8.741. Thus, the rs4986790 polymorphism may be an indicative of prevalence of complications in T2DM patients.

  10. Differences in mtDNA haplogroup distribution among 3 Jewish populations alter susceptibility to T2DM complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dadon Sarah

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent genome-wide association studies searching for candidate susceptibility loci for common complex diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and its common complications have uncovered novel disease-associated genes. Nevertheless these large-scale population screens often overlook the tremendous variation in the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA and its involvement in complex disorders. Results We have analyzed the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA genetic variability in Ashkenazi (Ash, Sephardic (Seph and North African (NAF Jewish populations (total n = 1179. Our analysis showed significant differences (p Conclusion Our findings support the possibility that recent bottleneck events leading to over-representation of minor mtDNA alleles in specific genetic isolates, could result in population-specific susceptibility loci to complex disorders.

  11. Piperazines as nootropic agents: New derivatives of the potent cognition-enhancer DM235 carrying hydrophilic substituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Maria Vittoria; Guandalini, Luca; Di Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo; Menicatti, Marta; Bartolucci, Gianluca; Dei, Silvia; Manetti, Dina; Teodori, Elisabetta; Ghelardini, Carla; Romanelli, Maria Novella

    2017-03-15

    The piperazine ring of the potent nootropic drug DM235 has been decorated with H-bond donor and acceptor groups (CH 2 OH, CH 2 OMe, CH 2 OCOMe, COOEt); the aim was to insert new functional groups, suitable for further chemical manipulation. The influence of these modifications on nootropic activity was assessed by means of the mouse passive avoidance test; some of the newly synthesized molecules (alcohol 7b, acetate 8b and ester 10d) showed interesting in vivo potency. This makes it possible to use these functional groups for adding other residues, in order to increase molecular diversity, or for anchoring a biotin group, to obtain compounds useful to capture the biological target. Moreover, the new compounds will improve our knowledge of structure activity relationships of this family of drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Montagnuphilones A-G, Azaphilones from Montagnulaceae sp. DM0194, a Fungal Endophyte of Submerged Roots of Persicaria amphibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jian-Guang; Xu, Ya-Ming; Sandberg, Dustin C; Arnold, A Elizabeth; Gunatilaka, A A Leslie

    2017-01-27

    Seven azaphilones, montagnuphilones A-G (1-7), together with previously known azaphilones 8-11, were encountered in Montagnulaceae sp. DM0194, an endophytic fungus isolated from submerged roots of Persicaria amphibia. The structures of 1-7 were elucidated on the basis of their MS and NMR spectroscopic analysis. Compounds 1-8 were evaluated for their cytotoxicity and ability to inhibit nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide-activated RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Among these, none were found to be cytotoxic to RAW264.7 cells up to 100.0 μM, but 8, 5, and 2 showed NO inhibitory activity with IC 50 values of 9.2 ± 0.9, 25.5 ± 1.1, and 39.6 ± 1.8 μM, respectively.

  13. GPR119 agonists: a promising approach for T2DM treatment? A SWOT analysis of GPR119.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sang-Uk

    2013-12-01

    Ever since its advent as a promising therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), G-protein-coupled receptor 119 (GPR119) has received much interest from the pharmaceutical industry. This interest peaked in June 2010, when Sanofi-Aventis agreed to pay Metabolex (Cymabay Therapeutics) US$375 million for MBX-2982, which was a representative orally active GPR119 agonist. However, Sanofi-Aventis opted to terminate the deal in May 2011 and another leading GPR119 agonist, GSK1292263, had a loss of efficacy during its clinical trial. In this review, I discuss the pros and cons of GPR119 through a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis and propose development strategies for the eventual success of a GPR119 agonist development program. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Relationship between perception with the quality of life of T2DM patients in Dok II Jayapura Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perwitasari, D. A.; Faridah, I. N.; Kulle, Y.; Yulistika, M.

    2017-11-01

    Diabetes mellitus disease is one of the chronic diseases which can cause a fatal risk if its management is not appropriate. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between perception and quality of life in Dok II Jayapura hospital. This study used an observational research design with cross sectional approach with prospective sampling in diabetic patients in internal disease policemen who were underwent outpatient treatment at Dok II Jayapura hospital. Research instruments used EQ-5D (European Quality-5 Dimension) and B-IPQ (Brief Illness Perception Quetionare). Data analysis used was univariate analysis by using percentage or mean value, bivariate using T-test or Mann-Whitney test, and multivariate using multiple linear regression. There were 80 T2DM patients who met the inclusion criteria. Based on patient demographic data, there were 29 people (36.6%) male patients and 51 people (63.8%) female patients, with mean age of patient (55.79±10.52) year. Perception has correlation with quality of life influenced by index value on treatment control (6.73±1.475) and emotional response (3.11±2.199) and by visual analog scale on understanding (5.99±1.587), duration (6.50±2.968), and personal controls (6.20±1.641). Based on the results obtained to improve the quality of life of T2DM patients that is on the index value on the control of treatment and emotional response and on visual analog scale on the understanding, duration and personal control should be changed so that the quality of life of patients increases. The family history, social status and type of treatment factors also affect the quality of life.

  15. Assessment of robustness against dissolved oxygen/substrate oscillations for C. glutamicum DM1933 in two-compartment bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Käß, Friedrich; Hariskos, Ioanna; Michel, Andrea; Brandt, Hans-Jürgen; Spann, Robert; Junne, Stefan; Wiechert, Wolfgang; Neubauer, Peter; Oldiges, Marco

    2014-06-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum is an important organism for industrial biotechnology; particularly, in amino acid production (e.g. L-lysine). Production scales often reach reactor working volumes of several hundred cubic meters, which triggers inhomogeneous distribution of substrates and dissolved gasses due to increasing mixing times. Individual cells which follow the flow profile through the reactor are experiencing oscillating microenvironments. Oscillations can have an influence on the process performance, which is a subject of scale-down experiments. In this work, L-lysine-producing C. glutamicum DM1933 was assessed for its robustness against continuous dissolved oxygen and substrate supply oscillation in two-compartment scale-down bioreactors. Aerobic, substrate-limited stirred tank and non-aerated, substrate-excess plug flow compartments were applied for oscillation. Inhomogeneity of substrate and oxygen supply was observed to cause rapid side product turnover, redistribution of oxygen uptake from oxygen limited into fully aerobic zones, and intermediate medium acidification. However, process inhomogeneity did not impair productivity or growth at plug flow residence times of several minutes. In a focused analysis of proteome, metabolome, transcriptome, and other physiological parameters, no changes were identified in response to process inhomogeneity. In conclusion, fed-batch processes with C. glutamicum DM1933 possess remarkable robustness against oxygen and substrate supply oscillation, which is a unique property in the field of published scale-down studies. Microbial physiology of C. glutamicum appears to be ideally adapted to both homogeneous and inhomogeneous conditions. This ensures exceptional suitability for cultivation at increased mixing times, which is suggested to constitute an important basis for the long-lasting success in large scale bioprocess application.

  16. Aproveitamento de subproduto industrial de óleos vegetais para produção de riboflavina por Candida guilliermondii DM 644 Utilization industrial waste from vegetal oils riboflavine production by candida guilliermondii DM 644

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lourdes Andrade Pessoa

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A produção e consumo de alimentos industrializados têm aumentado a preocupação com suplementação e enriquecimento de alimentos com vitaminas e sais minerais, visando repor as possíveis perdas durante os processos de fabricação, principalmente das vitaminas hidrossolúveis, mais especificamente da vitamina B2 ou riboflavina. Assim sendo, a proposta deste trabalho foi utilizar como componente principal do meio, para produção da riboflavina, um subproduto do refino de óleos vegetais e o microrganismo Candida guillermondii DM 644. A produção da vitamina B2 foi realizada por fermentação em batelada utilizando Erlenmeyer. As condições empregadas foram agitação orbital, ausência de luz, 30°C, e 24h de incubação. A otimização da produção de riboflavina foi realizada através de Delineamento Fatorial Fracionário, para avaliar os efeitos da concentração de matéria graxa, fonte de nitrogênio, pH, velocidade de agitação, fonte de fósforo e extrato de levedura e as possíveis interações. A concentração máxima de riboflavina foi 19,12mg/mL. Os fatores mais importantes para produção de riboflavina foram a concentração de matéria graxa e a fonte de nitrogênio, enquanto que a fonte de fósforo e o extrato de leveduras não estimularam sua biossíntese. A máxima produção foi obtida com matéria graxa a 10g/L, uréia a 2,5g/L e pH 5,0. A velocidade de agitação (200 e 400rpm não interferiu no processo biotecnológico.The ever growing production and consumption of industrialized foods have increased the concern about supplementation and enrichment of food with vitamins and minerals, attempting the replenishment of the possible losses during their production processes, mainly the hydrosoluble vitamins, more specifically B2 vitamin or riboflavin. A subproduct of vegetal oil refining and the microorganism Candida guilliermondii DM 644 were used as the main substrate. The vitamin B2 was produced by the batch

  17. The Constellation of Macrovascular Risk Factors in Early Onset T2DM: A Cross-Sectional Study in Xinjiang Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingchen Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Despite a rapid popular of early onset type 2 diabetes (defined as diagnosis at <40 years old recently, there is a lack of studies on this population in economically undeveloped area. We aimed to investigate the risk factors of macrovascular complications in the early onset T2DM patients in Xinjiang, China. Methods. A cross-sectional survey of 1736 consecutive patients with T2DM was conducted. Macrovascular complications and risk factors were documented. Another nondiabetic population matched with age and sex was as a control group. Logistic regression analysis was performed to obtain odds ratios (OR for macrovascular complications in early and late onset T2DM, respectively. Results. The final analysis consisted of 1036 late onset and 219 early onset T2DM patients. The mean HbA1c in the early onset group was higher than that in the late onset group (9.1 ± 2.4% versus 8.3 ± 2.2%, P=0.039 despite a higher proportion of patients in the early onset group receiving insulin treatment (73.1% versus 58.7%, P<0.001. Compared to the control, early onset patients had higher blood pressure and worse lipid profiles (all P<0.01. More than half of the early onset T2DM patients already had macro- and microvascular complications, despite of their young age (39.5 ± 10.8 and short DM duration (6.6 ± 8.0. In the early onset group, women had a ~3-fold hazard of atherosclerotic plaques compared with men (OR 3.22, 95% CI 1.53–6.78. Conclusions. Patients with early onset T2DM have worse glycemic control and higher burden of atherogenic risk factors. The prevalence of macro- and microvascular complications is astonishingly high in these young adults with T2DM. Moreover, young women with T2DM are more susceptible to cardiovascular complications than their male counterpart.

  18. sfDM: Open-Source Software for Temporal Analysis and Visualization of Brain Tumor Diffusion MR Using Serial Functional Diffusion Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceschin, Rafael; Panigrahy, Ashok; Gopalakrishnan, Vanathi

    2015-01-01

    A major challenge in the diagnosis and treatment of brain tumors is tissue heterogeneity leading to mixed treatment response. Additionally, they are often difficult or at very high risk for biopsy, further hindering the clinical management process. To overcome this, novel advanced imaging methods are increasingly being adapted clinically to identify useful noninvasive biomarkers capable of disease stage characterization and treatment response prediction. One promising technique is called functional diffusion mapping (fDM), which uses diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) to generate parametric maps between two imaging time points in order to identify significant voxel-wise changes in water diffusion within the tumor tissue. Here we introduce serial functional diffusion mapping (sfDM), an extension of existing fDM methods, to analyze the entire tumor diffusion profile along the temporal course of the disease. sfDM provides the tools necessary to analyze a tumor data set in the context of spatiotemporal parametric mapping: the image registration pipeline, biomarker extraction, and visualization tools. We present the general workflow of the pipeline, along with a typical use case for the software. sfDM is written in Python and is freely available as an open-source package under the Berkley Software Distribution (BSD) license to promote transparency and reproducibility.

  19. A cross-sectional study on the associations of insulin resistance with sex hormone, abnormal lipid metabolism in T2DM and IGT patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoxia; Xian, Tongzhang; Jia, Xiaofan; Zhang, Lina; Liu, Li; Man, Fuli; Zhang, Xianbo; Zhang, Jie; Pan, Qi; Guo, Lixin

    2017-06-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a long-term metabolic disorder. It is characterized by hyperglycemia, insulin resistance (IR), and relative impairment in insulin secretion. IR plays a major role in the pathogenesis of T2DM. Many previous studies have investigated the relationship between estrogen, androgen, and obesity, but few focused on the relationship between sex hormones, abnormal lipid metabolism, and IR. The goal for the present study was to identify the association of IR with sex hormone, abnormal lipid metabolism in type 2 diabetes, and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) patients.In total 13,400 participants were analyzed based on the results of the glucose tolerance test. Using a cross-sectional study, we showed the relationship between IR and the level of sex hormones among 3 different glucose tolerance states: normal control people, IGT, and T2DM patients. We also analyzed the relationship between IR and abnormal lipid metabolism.Significantly, luteinizing, progesterone, estradiol, prolactin, and follicle-stimulating hormone levels decreased in T2DM and IGT patients compared with those in normal control people. The association between IR and lipid metabolism disorders in T2DM and IGT patients was also observed.Our clinical findings may offer new insights into understanding the mechanism of metabolic disorders and in new therapeutic methods for the treatment of the prevalence of type 2 diabetes.

  20. Impact of faecal DM excretion on faecal calcium losses in dogs eating complete moist and dry pet foods - food digestibility is a major determinant of calcium requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienzle, Ellen; Brenten, Thomas; Dobenecker, Britta

    2017-01-01

    The recommendations for the Ca supply for maintenance of dogs have been reduced by about 75 % in the last decades. An important factor for Ca requirements is faecal Ca losses. In previous studies with experimental diets faecal Ca losses depended on Ca intake and on faecal DM excretion. A predictive equation for faecal Ca losses in mg/kg body weight (BW) developed in a fibre model is: faecal losses = -33·8 + (13·6 faecal DM excretion (g/kg BW)) + (0·78 Ca intake (mg/kg BW)). The present study aimed at testing this equation in pet food with material from trials carried out for other purposes. Digestion trials with twenty-five dry and fifteen moist foods (326 observations in total) were evaluated retrospectively. Faecal DM excretion and faecal Ca losses were significantly correlated ( r 2  0·86; P  food. Faecal DM excretion has a considerable impact on faecal Ca losses in a practical feeding situation. In conclusion, Ca requirements for maintenance may vary with food DM intake and digestibility.

  1. Association of increased levels of MCP-1 and cathepsin-D in young onset type 2 diabetes patients (T2DM-Y) with severity of diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Sruthi; Amutha, Anandakumar; Rajalakshmi, Ramachandran; Bhaskaran, Regin; Monickaraj, Finny; Rangasamy, Sampathkumar; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Abhijit, Shiny; Gokulakrishnan, Kuppan; Das, Arup; Mohan, Viswanathan; Balasubramanyam, Muthuswamy

    2017-05-01

    Young onset type 2 diabetes patients (T2DM-Y) have been shown to possess an increased risk of developing microvascular complications particularly diabetic retinopathy. However, the molecular mechanisms are not clearly understood. In this study, we investigated the serum levels of monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) and cathepsin-D in patients with T2DM-Y without and with diabetic retinopathy. In this case-control study, participants comprised individuals with normal glucose tolerance (NGT=40), patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM=35), non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR=35) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR=35). Clinical characterization of the study subjects was done by standard procedures and MCP-1 and cathepsin-D were measured by ELISA. Compared to control individuals, patients with T2DM-Y, NPDR and PDR exhibited significantly (pdiabetic retinopathy. Correlation analysis revealed a positive association (ppredict the development of retinopathy in T2DM-Y patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. First search for a dark matter annual modulation signal with NaI(Tl) in the Southern Hemisphere by DM-Ice17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa de Souza, E.; Cherwinka, J.; Cole, A.; Ezeribe, A. C.; Grant, D.; Halzen, F.; Heeger, K. M.; Hsu, L.; Hubbard, A. J. F.; Jo, J. H.; Karle, A.; Kauer, M.; Kudryavtsev, V. A.; Lim, K. E.; Macdonald, C.; Maruyama, R. H.; Mouton, F.; Paling, S. M.; Pettus, W.; Pierpoint, Z. P.; Reilly, B. N.; Robinson, M.; Rogers, F. R.; Sandstrom, P.; Scarff, A.; Spooner, N. J. C.; Telfer, S.; Yang, L.

    2017-02-28

    The first search for a dark matter annual modulation signal with NaI(Tl) target material in the Southern Hemisphere conducted with the DM-Ice17 experiment is presented. DM-Ice17 consists of 17 kg of NaI(Tl) scintillating crystal under 2200 m.w.e. overburden of Antarctic glacial ice. The analysis presented here utilizes a 60.8 kg yr exposure. While unable to exclude the signal reported by DAMA/LIBRA, the DM-Ice17 data are consistent with no modulation in the energy range of 4-20 keV, providing the strongest limits on WIMP candidates from a direct detection experiment located in the Southern Hemisphere. Additionally, the successful deployment and stable operation of 17 kg of NaI(Tl) crystal over 3.5 years establishes the South Pole ice as a viable location for future underground, low-background experiments.

  3. Correlation of microvascular abnormalities and endothelial dysfunction in Type-1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM): a real-time intravital microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Anthony T W; Tomic, M Meighan Smith; Chen, Peter C Y; Miguelino, Eric; Li, Chin-Shang; Devaraj, Sridevi

    2009-01-01

    We hypothesize that real-time in vivo microvascular abnormalities should correlate with biochemical markers of inflammation/endothelial dysfunction in T1DM. Real-time quantification of T1DM and healthy non-diabetic control microcirculation was conducted utilizing computer-assisted intravital microscopy. Selected biochemical markers (high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecules (sVCAM), soluble intercellular adhesion molecules (sICAM), soluble E-selectin (sE-selectin), nitrotyrosine, superoxide anion (O2-), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)) were used for correlation. The severity of microvascular abnormalities, as reflected by the arithmetic severity index (SI), was significantly increased in T1DM vs. controls (5.89 +/- 1.47 vs. 2.34 +/- 1.48; Pprogression and therapeutic efficacy studies.

  4. Can Integrated Micro-Optical Concentrator Technology Revolutionize Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Solar Energy Harvesting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Michael W.

    2015-12-01

    The economies-of-scale and enhanced performance of integrated micro-technologies have repeatedly delivered disruptive market impact. Examples range from microelectronics to displays to lighting. However, integrated micro-scale technologies have yet to be applied in a transformational way to solar photovoltaic panels. The recently announced Micro-scale Optimized Solar-cell Arrays with Integrated Concentration (MOSAIC) program aims to create a new paradigm in solar photovoltaic panel technology based on the incorporation of micro-concentrating photo-voltaic (μ-CPV) cells. As depicted in Figure 1, MOSAIC will integrate arrays of micro-optical concentrating elements and micro-scale PV elements to achieve the same aggregated collection area and high conversion efficiency of a conventional (i.e., macro-scale) CPV approach, but with the low profile and mass, and hopefully cost, of a conventional non-concentrated PV panel. The reduced size and weight, and enhanced wiring complexity, of the MOSAIC approach provide the opportunity to access the high-performance/low-cost region between the conventional CPV and flat-plate (1-sun) PV domains shown in Figure 2. Accessing this portion of the graph in Figure 2 will expand the geographic and market reach of flat-plate PV. This talk reviews the motivation and goals for the MOSAIC program. The diversity of the technical approaches to micro-concentration, embedded solar tracking, and hybrid direct/diffuse solar resource collection found in the MOSAIC portfolio of projects will also be highlighted.

  5. Lab-On-a-Chip Application Development (LOCAD): Bridging Technology Readiness for Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearing, Scott F.; Jenkins, Andy

    2004-01-01

    At Marshall Space Flight Center we have established a capability to investigate the use of microfluidics for space flight. The Lab-On-a-Chip Application Development (LOCAD) team has created a program for advancing Technology Readiness Levels (TRL) of 1 and 2 to TRL 6 and 7, quickly and economically for Lab-On-a-Chip (LOC) applications. Scientists and engineers can utilize LOCAD'S process to efficiently learn about microfluidics and determine if microfluidics is applicable to their needs. Once the applicability has been determined, LOCAD can then perform tests to develop the new fluidic protocols which are different from macro-scale chemical reaction protocols. With this information new micro-fluidic devices can be created and tested. Currently, LOCAD is focused on using microfluidics for both Environmental Monitoring & Control, and Medical Systems. Eventually, handheld portable units utilizing LOC technology will perform rapid tests to determine water quality, and microbial contamination levels. Since LOC technology is drastically reduced in physical size, it thereby reduces power, weight, volume, and sample requirements, a big advantage considering the resource constraints associated with spaceflight. Another one of LOCAD's current activities is the development of a microfluidic system to aid in the search for life on Mars.

  6. Attitudes and barriers to exercise in adults with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and how best to address them: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lascar, Nadia; Kennedy, Amy; Hancock, Beverley; Jenkins, David; Andrews, Robert C; Greenfield, Sheila; Narendran, Parth

    2014-01-01

    Regular physical activity has recognised health benefits for people with T1DM. However a significant proportion of them do not undertake the recommended levels of activity. Whilst questionnaire-based studies have examined barriers to exercise in people with T1DM, a formal qualitative analysis of these barriers has not been undertaken. Our aims were to explore attitudes, barriers and facilitators to exercise in patients with T1DM. A purposeful sample of long standing T1DM patients were invited to participate in this qualitative study. Twenty-six adults were interviewed using a semi-structured interview schedule to determine their level of exercise and barriers to initiation and maintenance of an exercise programme. Six main barriers to exercise were identified: lack of time and work related factors; access to facilities; lack of motivation; embarrassment and body image; weather; and diabetes specific barriers (low levels of knowledge about managing diabetes and its complications around exercise). Four motivators to exercise were identified: physical benefits from exercise; improvements in body image; enjoyment and the social interaction of exercising at gym or in groups. Three facilitators to exercise were identified: free or reduced admission to gyms and pools, help with time management, and advice and encouragement around managing diabetes for exercise. Many of the barriers to exercise in people with T1DM are shared with the non-diabetic population. The primary difference is the requirement for education about the effect of exercise on diabetes control and its complications. There was a preference for support to be given on a one to one basis rather than in a group environment. This suggests that with the addition of the above educational requirements, one to one techniques that have been successful in increasing activity in patients with other chronic disease and the general public should be successful in increasing activity in patients with T1DM.

  7. Attitudes and barriers to exercise in adults with type 1 diabetes (T1DM and how best to address them: a qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Lascar

    Full Text Available Regular physical activity has recognised health benefits for people with T1DM. However a significant proportion of them do not undertake the recommended levels of activity. Whilst questionnaire-based studies have examined barriers to exercise in people with T1DM, a formal qualitative analysis of these barriers has not been undertaken. Our aims were to explore attitudes, barriers and facilitators to exercise in patients with T1DM.A purposeful sample of long standing T1DM patients were invited to participate in this qualitative study. Twenty-six adults were interviewed using a semi-structured interview schedule to determine their level of exercise and barriers to initiation and maintenance of an exercise programme.Six main barriers to exercise were identified: lack of time and work related factors; access to facilities; lack of motivation; embarrassment and body image; weather; and diabetes specific barriers (low levels of knowledge about managing diabetes and its complications around exercise. Four motivators to exercise were identified: physical benefits from exercise; improvements in body image; enjoyment and the social interaction of exercising at gym or in groups. Three facilitators to exercise were identified: free or reduced admission to gyms and pools, help with time management, and advice and encouragement around managing diabetes for exercise.Many of the barriers to exercise in people with T1DM are shared with the non-diabetic population. The primary difference is the requirement for education about the effect of exercise on diabetes control and its complications. There was a preference for support to be given on a one to one basis rather than in a group environment. This suggests that with the addition of the above educational requirements, one to one techniques that have been successful in increasing activity in patients with other chronic disease and the general public should be successful in increasing activity in patients with T1DM.

  8. Clinical significance of changes of serum APN, plasma VEGF, Hcy and urine albumin levels in patients with DM2 nephrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yuejin; Zhang Xinfang; Hu Ying

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Explore type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and complicating with kidney disease patients homocysteine (Hcy), adiponectin (APN), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and urine albumin change relations. Methods: A normal controls and no complications of diabetes groups, combined with nephropathy. A comparison were measured of serum APN, plasma VEGF, Hcy and urine albumin level among. Results: Two groups of patients with diabetes fasting blood glucose level were no significant difference. Also there is no difference of BUN and Cr in three groups urine albumin in diabetic-nephropathy albumin increased significantly (P<0.01), than without complications group. Three groups of Hcy concentrations were significantly higher than that of normal control group (P<0.01), serum APN, plasma VEGF level obviously lower than normal control group, which increased in patients with nephropathy increased or reduced more apparently no complications group also have obvious difference (P<0.01). Conclusion: In patients with diabetes in two groups, plasma Hcy and urine albumin were significantly higher APN, and VEGF decreased significantly. In patients with nephropathy manifested more apparently, but renal damage did not enter decompensated period, clinically necessary for people with diabetes testing serum APN, plasma VEGF, Hcy and urine Albumin level, promptly intervention to prevent or relieve the further development of diabetes. (authors)

  9. INTEGRATED DM 1200 MELTER TESTING OF HLW C-106/AY-102 COMPOSITION USING BUBBLERS VSL-03R3800-1 REV 0 9/15/03

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; GONG W; BARDAKCI T; D' ANGELO NA; KOT WK; PEGG IL

    2011-12-29

    This report documents melter and off-gas performance results obtained on the DM1200 HLW Pilot Melter during processing of simulated HLW C-106/AY-102 feed. The principal objectives of the DM1200 melter testing were to determine the achievable glass production rates for simulated HLW C-106/AY-102 feed; determine the effect of bubbling rate on production rate; characterize melter off-gas emissions; characterize the performance of the prototypical off-gas system components as well as their integrated performance; characterize the feed, glass product, and off-gas effluents; and to perform pre- and post test inspections of system components.

  10. Who Must We Target Now to Minimize Future Cardiovascular Events and Total Mortality?: Lessons From the Surveillance, Prevention and Management of Diabetes Mellitus (SUPREME-DM) Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Jay R; Vazquez-Benitez, Gabriela; Xu, Zhiyuan; Schroeder, Emily B; Karter, Andrew J; Steiner, John F; Nichols, Gregory A; Reynolds, Kristi; Xu, Stanley; Newton, Katherine; Pathak, Ram D; Waitzfelder, Beth; Lafata, Jennifer Elston; Butler, Melissa G; Kirchner, H Lester; Thomas, Abraham; O'Connor, Patrick J

    2015-09-01

    Examining trends in cardiovascular events and mortality in US health systems can guide the design of targeted clinical and public health strategies to reduce cardiovascular events and mortality rates. We conducted an observational cohort study from 2005 to 2011 among 1.25 million diabetic subjects and 1.25 million nondiabetic subjects from 11 health systems that participate in the Surveillance, Prevention and Management of Diabetes Mellitus (SUPREME-DM) DataLink. Annual rates (per 1000 person-years) of myocardial infarction/acute coronary syndrome (International Classification of Diseases-Ninth Revision, 410.0–410.91, 411.1–411.8), stroke (International Classification of Diseases-Ninth Revision, 430–432.9, 433–434.9), heart failure (International Classification of Diseases-Ninth Revision, 428–428.9), and all-cause mortality were monitored by diabetes mellitus (DM) status, age, sex, race/ethnicity, and a prior cardiovascular history. We observed significant declines in cardiovascular events and mortality rates in subjects with and without DM. However, there was substantial variation by age, sex, race/ethnicity, and prior cardiovascular history. Mortality declined from 44.7 to 27.1 (P<0.0001) for those with DM and cardiovascular disease (CVD), from 11.2 to 10.9 (P=0.03) for those with DM only, and from 18.9 to 13.0 (P<0.0001) for those with CVD only. Yet, in the [almost equal to]85% of subjects with neither DM nor CVD, overall mortality (7.0 to 6.8; P=0.10) and stroke rates (1.6–1.6; P=0.77) did not decline and heart failure rates increased (0.9–1.15; P=0.0005). To sustain improvements in myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure, and mortality, health systems that have successfully focused on care improvement in high-risk adults with DM or CVD must broaden their improvement strategies to target lower risk adults who have not yet developed DM or CVD.

  11. An integrated multiple-analyte pharmacokinetic model to characterize trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) clearance pathways and to evaluate reduced pharmacokinetic sampling in patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dan; Joshi, Amita; Wang, Bei; Olsen, Steve; Yi, Joo-Hee; Krop, Ian E; Burris, Howard A; Girish, Sandhya

    2013-08-01

    Trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) is an antibody-drug conjugate recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive metastatic breast cancer previously treated with trastuzumab and taxane chemotherapy. It comprises the microtubule inhibitory cytotoxic agent DM1 conjugated to the HER2-targeted humanized monoclonal antibody trastuzumab via a stable linker. To characterize the pharmacokinetics of T-DM1 in patients with metastatic breast cancer, concentrations of multiple analytes were quantified, including serum concentrations of T-DM1 conjugate and total trastuzumab (the sum of conjugated and unconjugated trastuzumab), as well as plasma concentrations of DM1. The clearance of T-DM1 conjugate is approximately 2 to 3 times faster than its parent antibody, trastuzumab. However, the clearance pathways accounting for this faster clearance rate are unclear. An integrated population pharmacokinetic model that simultaneously fits the pharmacokinetics of T-DM1 conjugate and total trastuzumab can help to elucidate the clearance pathways of T-DM1. The model can also be used to predict total trastuzumab pharmacokinetic profiles based on T-DM1 conjugate pharmacokinetic data and sparse total trastuzumab pharmacokinetic data, thereby reducing the frequency of pharmacokinetic sampling. T-DM1 conjugate and total trastuzumab serum concentration data, including baseline trastuzumab concentrations prior to T-DM1 treatment, from phase I and II studies were used to develop this integrated population pharmacokinetic model. Based on a hypothetical T-DM1 catabolism scheme, two-compartment models for T-DM1 conjugate and trastuzumab were integrated by assuming a one-step deconjugation clearance from T-DM1 conjugate to trastuzumab. The ability of the model to predict the total trastuzumab pharmacokinetic profile based on T-DM1 conjugate pharmacokinetics and various sampling schemes of total trastuzumab

  12. Influence of CSN1S2 protein from Caprine milk Etawah Breed (EB) on histology of microglial cells in rat (Rattus norvegicus) Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rika, Margareth; Fatchiyah

    2017-11-01

    Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a degenerative disease that causes an imbalance in the metabolism. The aim of this research is to determine the influences of CSN1S2 on the structure of microglial cells in T2DM. Rats (Rattus norvegicus) were divided into eight groups of treatment with looping three times each between treatment groups (CM) Control. The control is given a milk treatment with doses of 375 mg/kg (CM375), 750 mg/kg (CM750), and 1500 mg/kg (CM1500), T2DM (DMK), and T2DM with CSN1S2 375 mg/kg dose (DM375), 750mg/kg (DM750), and 1500 mg/kg (DM1500). The animal model T2DM was induced by a high-fat diet in the form of feed followed by injection of STZ (dose of 25 mg/kg of animal treatment) and treatment of CSN1S2 for 28 days. Brain organs were taken and analysed in histopathology stained by Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and observed using Olympus BX53. Based on the results, it was concluded that CSN1S2 protein is influential for induction of microglial cell proliferation in animal models of T2DM, as immunity responds to the inflammatory condition in T2DM.

  13. Anthropometric cutoff values for predicting metabolic syndrome in a Saudi community: from the SAUDI-DM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rubean, Khalid; Youssef, Amira M; AlFarsi, Yousuf; Al-Sharqawi, Ahmad H; Bawazeer, Nahla; AlOtaibi, Mohammad T; AlRumaih, Fahd Issa; Zaidi, Muhammad Shoaib

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome varies widely by ethnicity and by the criteria used in its definition. To identify the optimal cutoff values for waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and body mass index (BMI) for identifying metabolic syndrome among the Saudi population. Nationwide household cross-sectional population-based survey. Thirteen health sectors in Saudi Arabia. We used data for subjects in the Saudi Abnormal Glucose Metabolism and Diabetes Impact Study (SAUDI-DM), which was conducted from 2007 to 2009. Using International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria, metabolic syndrome and its different components were assessed using anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides and HDL cholesterol. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to assess sensitivity and specificity for different cutoff values of WC, WHR, and BMI. The Youden index was used to calculate the optimal cutoff value for each anthropometric measurement. Optimal cutoff value for WC, WHR, and BMI for identifying the risk of metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of two or more risk factors for metabolic syndrome was observed in 43.42% of the total cohort of 12126 study participants >=18 years of age. The presence of two or more risk factors were significantly higher among men (46.81%) than women (40.53%) (P metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of elevated triglycerides, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose significantly increased with age for both genders. The proposed WC cutoff values were better than WHR and BMI in predicting metabolic syndrome and could be used for screening people at high risk for metabolic syndrome in the Saudi population. No direct measure of body fatness and fat distribution, cross-sectional design.

  14. A study of e+e- annihilation in the 1400-2250 MeV energy range with the magnetic detector DM2 at DCI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augustin, J.E.; Ayach, L.; Calcaterra, S.

    1983-07-01

    We present here the results obtained with the magnetic detector DM2 on the Orsay e + e - colliding beams DCI for 1400 -1 over the whole energy range. Cross sections are given for e + e - annihilation into pantip, π + π - π 0 , π + π - π + π - and K + K -

  15. Study of J/psi→γrhoγ and J/psi→γphiphi with the DM2 detector at DCI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augustin, J.E.; Ayach, L.; Calcaterra, S.

    1983-07-01

    Preliminary results from the DM2 experiment at DCI are presented on radiative transitions from J/psi. No evidence has been found for the decay J/psi→γiota iota→rhoγ and an upper limit is given. In the reaction J/psi→γphiphi two good candidates in the channel γK + K - K + K - have been observed

  16. Age-related modulation of plasmatic beta-Galactosidase activity in healthy subjects and in patients affected by T2DM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spazzafumo, Liana; Mensà, Emanuela; Matacchione, Giulia; Galeazzi, Tiziana; Zampini, Lucia; Recchioni, Rina; Marcheselli, Fiorella; Prattichizzo, Francesco; Testa, Roberto; Antonicelli, Roberto; Garagnani, Paolo; Boemi, Massimo; Bonafè, Massimiliano; Bonfigli, Anna Rita; Procopio, Antonio Domenico; Olivieri, Fabiola

    2017-01-01

    β-Galactosidase (β-Gal) activity has been the most extensively utilized biomarker for the detection of cellular senescence. It can be measured also in plasma, and few recent evidence showed an altered plasmatic β-Gal activity in patients affected by some age-related diseases (ARDs). Since T2DM is one of the most common ARDs, we aimed to investigate if plasmatic β-Gal activity is modulated in T2DM patients and if “age” could affect such modulation. To gain mechanistic insights we paralleled this investigation with the evaluation of β-Gal activity in young and senescent endothelial cells (HUVECs) cultured in normo- and hyper-glycaemic environment. A significant age-related increase of plasmatic β-Gal activity was observed in healthy subjects (n. 230; 55-87 years), whereas the enzymatic activity was significantly reduced in T2DM patients (n. 230; 55-96 years) compared to healthy subjects. β-Gal activity detectable both in cells and in the culture medium was significantly increased in senescent cells compared to the younger ones, both under normo- and hyper-glycaemic condition. However, the hyper-glycaemic condition was not associated with an increased β-Gal activity in milieu compared to normo-glycaemic condition. Overall our data reinforce the notion that plasmatic β-Gal activity could be a systemic biomarker of aging, whereas T2DM patients are characterized by a different age-releated trend. PMID:29212153

  17. Effect of combined Jiqi hypoglycemic tablet conventional western medicine treatment on plasma ET-1 and sICAM-1 levels in patients with DM2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jun; Qi Falian; Wang Bing; Ke Bingshen; Chen Yingjian; Yin Qiuxia

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical beneficial effect of Jiqi hypoglycemic tablet on lowering the plasma ET-1 and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) levels in patients with DM2. Methods: Plasma ET-1 and sICAM-1 levels were determined with ELISA in 30 patients with DM2 randomly selected to be treated with conventional western only medicine and 30 other DM2 patients selected to be treated with additional Jiqi hypoglycemic tablet both before and after 3 months' treatment. The blood sugar level, HbAlc percentage and lipid test (cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, LDL) were also examined. Results: Blood sugar levels decreased significantly after 3 months' treatment in both groups. However, favorable changes of levels of other parameters (HbAlc, TC, TG, HDL, LDL, ET-1, sICAM-1) were demonstrated only in the patients treated with combined Jiqi hypoglycemic tablet and conventional western medicine (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Conclusion: Additional Jiqi hypoglycemic tablet might be desirable for the treatment of DM2 patients, especially due to the possible protection on vascular endothelium through lowering of the plasma ET-1 and sICAM-1 levels. (authors)

  18. Levels of 25(OHD3, IL-2, and C-peptide in Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM Receiving Vitamin D3 Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjahyo Suryanto

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM has become a health problem in many countries. T1DM is the consequence of autoimmune destruction process of β cells. There was relationship between vitamin D deficiency with T1DM. The destruction process was caused by an imbalance of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. One of the pro-inflammatory cytokines is IL-2. C-peptide examination to see the function of beta cells due to destruction of pancreatic beta cell. Administration of vitamin D3 supplementation still cause controversy and give varying results. This randomized clinical trial was conducted to determine the levels of 25(OHD3, IL-2, and C-peptide in people with T1DM who received vitamin D3 supplementation. The subjects were 26 children with T1DM, divided into K1 group (received vitamin D3 supplementation and K2 group (received placebo. The results showed higher levels of 25(OHD3 in the K1 group and statistically found a significant difference (p = 0.00. Higher levels of IL-2 and lower C-peptide were obtained in the K1 group and no statistically significant differences were found (p = 0.76 and p= 0.26. The insignificant relationship and the negative correlation were found between 25(OHD3 and IL-2 (p = 0.71; r = - 0.12, 25(OHD3 and C-peptide (p = 0.59; r = -0.16, also levels of IL-2 and C-peptide (p = 0.13; r = -0.44 in children with type 1 diabetes who received vitamin D3 supplementation. From this study can be concluded that administration vitamin D3 supplementation in patients with T1DM can increase levels 25(OHD3 significantly. This increase has not significantly lowered levels of IL-2 and increased levels of C-peptide. However, there was an absolute decrease in the rate of slower C-peptide in the supplemented group than in the placebo group.

  19. The effect of Liuwei Dihuang decoction on PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in liver of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rats with insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Bing; Wu, Qinxuan; Zeng, Chengxi; Zhang, Jiani; Cao, Luting; Xiao, Zizeng; Yang, Menglin

    2016-11-04

    Liuwei Dihaung decoction (LWDHT) is a well-known classic traditional Chinese medicine formula, consists of six herbs including Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch.(family: Scrophulariaceae), Cornus officinalis Sieb.(family: Cornaceae), Dioscorea opposite Thunb.(family: Dioscoreaceae), Alisma orientale(G. Samuelsson) Juz (family: Alismataceae), Poria cocos (Schw.) Wolf (family: Polyporaceae) and Paeonia suffruticosa Andrews (family: Paeoniaceae). It has been used in the treatment of many types of diseases with signs of deficiency of Yin in the kidneys in China clinically. This study is aimed at investigating the effect of Liuwei dihuang decoction on PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in liver of T2DM rats with insulin resistance. T2DM model was induced in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats by high sugar and high fat diets combined with small dose of streptozocin (STZ) injection. The successful T2DM rats were randomly allocated three group--vehicle group, positive control group and Liuwei Dihuang decoction group. After 12-weeks treatment with distilled water, rosiglitazone and LWDHT by intragastric administration respectively, the rats were put to death in batches. The variance of fasting blood glucose (FBG) and fasting insulin (FINS) in serum were determined, the pathological changes of each rats' liver were observed by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, the expression of insulin receptor substrate 2(IRS2), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinas B (Akt) involving the canonical PI3K/Akt signaling pathway were detected by Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (RT-PCR), and the expression level of IRS2, PI3K, Akt protein and phosphorylated IRS2, PI3K, Akt protein were evaluated by Western Blot. All the data were analyzed by SPSS 17.0. Four weeks of treatment with LWDHT could significantly decrease the level of FBG and FINS in serum, improve the cellular morphology of liver, kidney, pancreas tissue, and the expression of IRS2, PI3K, Akt mRNA and phosphorylated IRS2, PI3K, Akt

  20. Relations Between Atherogenic Index of Plasma, Ratio of Small Dense Low Density Lipoprotein/Lecithin Cholesterol Acyl Transferase and Ratio of Small Dense Low Density Lipoprotein/Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein of Controlled and Uncontrolled Type 2 DM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellis Susanti

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with Diabetes Melitus are proven to be prone to atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease, especially type 2 Diabetes Melitus (T2DM patient who have higher risk and mortality for cardiovascular risk factor. The Dyslipidemia condition is very common in T2DM as one of the risk factors. Diabetic dyslipidemia is marked by the increased triglyceride (TG, low HDL cholesterol (HDL-C, and increased small dense LDL and apolipoprotein B. Therefore the aim of this study is to assess the differential and correlation between Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP, ratio of small dense low density lipoprotein (sdLDL/lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase (LCAT and ratio of sdLDL/cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP of controlled and uncontrolled T2DM. METHODS: This study was observational with cross sectional design. In total of 72 patients with T2DM consist of 36 controlled and 36 uncontrolled, participated in this study. The serum TG, HDL-C, sdLDL, LCAT and CETP were examined in their relationship with to T2DM risk. RESULTS: The results of the study indicate that the AIP (p<0.001 increase controlled and uncontrolled T2DM and the ratio of sdLDL/CETP (p=0.004, odds ratio of AIP was 4 (95% CI: 1.501-10.658 and odds ratio of sdLDL/CETP ratio was 4 (95% CI: 1.501-10.658 in uncontrolled T2DM. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that the AIP and ratio of small dense LDL/CETP had a significant correlation with the uncontrolled T2DM. The AIP and ratio of small dense LDL/CETP increase was found at the uncontrolled T2DM to be 4 times greater than the controlled T2DM. KEYWORDS: T2DM, atherosclerosis, atherogenic index of plasma, small dense LDL, LCAT, CETP, ratio of sdLDL/LCAT, ratio of sdLDL/CETP.

  1. FINAL REPORT DM1200 TESTS WITH AZ 101 HLW SIMULANTS VSL-03R3800-4 REV 0 2/17/04

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; BARDAKCI T; D' ANGELO NA; GONG W; KOT WK; PEGG IL

    2011-12-29

    This report documents melter and off-gas performance results obtained on the DM 1200 HLW Pilot Melter during processing of simulated HLW AZ-101 feed. The principal objectives of the DM1200 melter testing were to determine the achievable glass production rates for simulated HLW AZ-101 feed; determine the effect of bubbling rate and feed solids content on production rate; characterize melter off-gas emissions; characterize the performance of the prototypical off-gas system components as well as their integrated performance; characterize the feed, glass product, and off-gas effluents; and to perform pre- and post-test inspections of system components. The test objectives (including test success criteria), along with how they were met, are outlined in a table.

  2. DichroMatch at the protein circular dichroism data bank (DM@PCDDB): A web-based tool for identifying protein nearest neighbors using circular dichroism spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Lee; Mavridis, Lazaros; Wallace, B A; Janes, Robert W

    2018-01-01

    Circular dichroism spectroscopy is a well-used, but simple method in structural biology for providing information on the secondary structure and folds of proteins. DichroMatch (DM@PCDDB) is an online tool that is newly available in the Protein Circular Dichroism Data Bank (PCDDB), which takes advantage of the wealth of spectral and metadata deposited therein, to enable identification of spectral nearest neighbors of a query protein based on four different methods of spectral matching. DM@PCDDB can potentially provide novel information about structural relationships between proteins and can be used in comparison studies of protein homologs and orthologs. © 2017 The Authors Protein Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Protein Society.

  3. Topical or systemic 16,16 dm prostaglandin E sub 2 or WR-2721 (WR-1065) protects mice from alopecia after fractionated irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, L.; Malkinson, F.D. (Rush-Presbyterian-St. Luke' s Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States)); Hanson, W.R. (Hines VA Medical Center, IL (United States))

    1992-04-01

    Previous studies in mice demonstrated that systemic or topical 16,16 dm PGE{sub 2} protected against single dose radiation-induced hair loss. The authors have now investigated prostaglandin, or WR-2721, protection against murine alopecia produced by varying doses and schedules of fractionated radiation. In some studies with the radioprotectors given systematically, WR-2721 afforded slightly greater radioprotection than 16,16 dm PGE{sub 2}. The two compounds were essentially equally radioprotective in the topical application studies. Since both systemic and topical applications of the agents tested enhanced hair regrowth following radiation, the authors conclude that clinical use of these compounds may provide some protection of hair follicles, and perhaps other tissues, lying within a radiation therapy field. (author).

  4. Angiosperms Are Unique among Land Plant Lineages in the Occurrence of Key Genes in the RNA-Directed DNA Methylation (RdDM) Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lu; Hatlen, Andrea; Kelly, Laura J; Becher, Hannes; Wang, Wencai; Kovarik, Ales; Leitch, Ilia J; Leitch, Andrew R

    2015-09-02

    The RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) pathway can be divided into three phases: 1) small interfering RNA biogenesis, 2) de novo methylation, and 3) chromatin modification. To determine the degree of conservation of this pathway we searched for key genes among land plants. We used OrthoMCL and the OrthoMCL Viridiplantae database to analyze proteomes of species in bryophytes, lycophytes, monilophytes, gymnosperms, and angiosperms. We also analyzed small RNA size categories and, in two gymnosperms, cytosine methylation in ribosomal DNA. Six proteins were restricted to angiosperms, these being NRPD4/NRPE4, RDM1, DMS3 (defective in meristem silencing 3), SHH1 (SAWADEE homeodomain homolog 1), KTF1, and SUVR2, although we failed to find the latter three proteins in Fritillaria persica, a species with a giant genome. Small RNAs of 24 nt in length were abundant only in angiosperms. Phylogenetic analyses of Dicer-like (DCL) proteins showed that DCL2 was restricted to seed plants, although it was absent in Gnetum gnemon and Welwitschia mirabilis. The data suggest that phases (1) and (2) of the RdDM pathway, described for model angiosperms, evolved with angiosperms. The absence of some features of RdDM in F. persica may be associated with its large genome. Phase (3) is probably the most conserved part of the pathway across land plants. DCL2, involved in virus defense and interaction with the canonical RdDM pathway to facilitate methylation of CHH, is absent outside seed plants. Its absence in G. gnemon, and W. mirabilis coupled with distinctive patterns of CHH methylation, suggest a secondary loss of DCL2 following the divergence of Gnetales. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  5. Prediction of Methionine and Homocysteine levels in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats as a T2DM animal model after consumption of a Methionine-rich diet

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Nayoung; Chae, Jung-woo; Jeon, Jihyun; Lee, Jaeyeon; Back, Hyun-moon; Song, Byungjeong; Kwon, Kwang-il; Kim, Sang Kyum; Yun, Hwi-yeol

    2018-01-01

    Background Although alterations in the methionine metabolism cycle (MMC) have been associated with vascular complications of diabetes, there have not been consistent results about the levels of methionine and homocysteine in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of the current study was to predict changes in plasma methionine and homocysteine concentrations after simulated consumption of methionine-rich foods, following the development of a mathematical model for MMC in Zucker Diabetic Fat...

  6. PI3K-GLUT4 Signal Pathway Associated with Effects of EX-B3 Electroacupuncture on Hyperglycemia and Insulin Resistance of T2DM Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing-Yan Cao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To explore electroacupuncture’s (EA’s effects on fasting blood glucose (FBG and insulin resistance of type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM model rats and give a possible explanation for the effects. Method. It takes high fat diet and intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 30 mg/kg for model preparation. Model rats were randomly divided into T2DM Model group, EA weiwanxiashu (EX-B3 group, and sham EA group (n=12/group. EA (2 Hz continuous wave, 2 mA, 20 min/day, 6 days/week, 4 weeks was applied as intervention. FBG, area under curve (AUC of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR, pancreatic B cell function index (HOMA-B, skeletal muscle phosphorylated phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K, glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4, and membrane GLUT4 protein expression were measured. Results. EA weiwanxiashu (EX-B3 can greatly upregulate model rat’s significantly reduced skeletal muscle PI3K (Y607 and membrane GLUT4 protein expression (P<0.01, effectively reducing model rats’ FBG and AUC of OGTT (P<0.01. The effects are far superior to sham EA group. Conclusion. EA weiwanxiashu (EX-B3 can upregulate skeletal muscle phosphorylated PI3K protein expression, to stimulate membrane translocation of GLUT4 and thereby increase skeletal muscle glucose intake to treat T2DM.

  7. Heregulin-expressing HER2-positive breast and gastric cancer exhibited heterogeneous susceptibility to the anti-HER2 agents lapatinib, trastuzumab and T-DM1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonagase, Yoshikane; Yonesaka, Kimio; Kawakami, Hisato; Watanabe, Satomi; Haratani, Koji; Takahama, Takayuki; Takegawa, Naoki; Ueda, Hiroto; Tanizaki, Junko; Hayashi, Hidetoshi; Yoshida, Takeshi; Takeda, Masayuki; Chiba, Yasutaka; Tamura, Takao; Nakagawa, Kazuhiko; Tsurutani, Junji

    2016-12-20

    Overexpression of heregulin, a HER3 ligand, is one mechanism that confers resistance to the anti-HER2 agents trastuzumab and lapatinib. We investigated the impact of heregulin expression on the efficacy of HER2-targeted therapeutic agents, including trastuzumab, trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) and lapatinib, in vitro and in vivo and evaluated the heregulin messenger RNA (mRNA) levels in specimens from patients with HER2-positive breast or gastric cancer. Cell proliferation and apoptosis assays demonstrated that heregulin conferred robust resistance to lapatinib and trastuzumab via HER3-Akt pathway activation followed by survivin overexpression; however, heregulin conferred minimal or no resistance to T-DM1 and paclitaxel. The heregulin mRNA level of one of 10 patients was up-regulated after the acquisition of resistance to trastuzumab-based therapy. SK-BR-3, NCI-N87, BT-474, MDA-MB-453, HCC1954, SNU-216 and 4-1ST cells were pharmacologically treated with recombinant heregulin or transfected with the heregulin gene. We also assessed the expression of heregulin mRNA in HER2-positive breast or gastric cancer samples before and after trastuzumab-based therapy using a RT-PCR-based method. mRNA up-regulation of heregulin was observed in clinical breast cancer specimens during trastuzumab-based treatment, but heregulin overexpression had a limited effect on the sensitivity to T-DM1 in vitro and in vivo.

  8. Differential pattern for regulating insulin secretion, insulin resistance, and lipid metabolism by osteocalcin in male and female T2DM patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Xuefei; Xu, Bei; Su, Junlei; Pan, Chunping; Zhan, Chenyu; Su, Bin; Li, Hong; Wang, Jiying; Sheng, Hui; Qu, Shen

    2014-05-01

    Osteocalcin has been reported to be relevant to glucose and lipid metabolism, indicating it may stimulate insulin secretion and improve insulin resistance. Yet the difference between male and female patients is still not clear. We aimed to investigate the difference in serum osteocalcin, and its association with glucose, lipid metabolism, pancreatic function, insulin sensitivity, and resistance in male and female middle-aged and elderly type 2 diabetic (T2DM) patients. 739 T2DM patients were included. After measurement of body mass index (BMI), the levels of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), insulin (FINS), C peptide (FC-P), 2-h post-OGTT plasma glucose (2h-PG), HbA1C, and osteocalcin were determined. Homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-%B), homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity (HOMA-%S), and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were calculated. Females had higher osteocalcin concentration than males (Pinsulin (2h-INS), and HOMA-%B (Pmetabolism through enhancing insulin secretion in males, and through increasing insulin secretion and improving insulin resistance in females with T2DM. Osteocalcin probably also plays an important role in lipid metabolism.

  9. JTT-553, a novel Acyl CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) 1 inhibitor, improves glucose metabolism in diet-induced obesity and genetic T2DM mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomimoto, Daisuke; Okuma, Chihiro; Ishii, Yukihito; Kobayashi, Akio; Ohta, Takeshi; Kakutani, Makoto; Imanaka, Tsuneo; Ogawa, Nobuya

    2015-09-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) arises primarily due to lifestyle factors and genetics. A number of lifestyle factors are known to be important in the development of T2DM, including obesity. JTT-553, a novel Acyl CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 inhibitor, reduced body weight depending on dietary fat in diet-induced obesity (DIO) rats in our previous study. Here, the effect of JTT-553 on glucose metabolism was evaluated using body weight reduction in T2DM mice. JTT-553 was repeatedly administered to DIO and KK-A(y) mice. JTT-553 reduced body weight gain and fat weight in both mouse models. In DIO mice, JTT-553 decreased insulin, non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA), total cholesterol (TC), and liver triglyceride (TG) plasma concentrations in non-fasting conditions. JTT-553 also improved insulin-dependent glucose uptake in adipose tissues and glucose intolerance in DIO mice. In KK-A(y) mice, JTT-553 decreased glucose, NEFA, TC and liver TG plasma concentrations in non-fasting conditions. JTT-553 also decreased glucose, insulin, and TC plasma concentrations in fasting conditions. In addition, JTT-553 decreased TNF-α mRNA levels and increased GLUT4 mRNA levels in adipose tissues in KK-A(y) mice. These results suggest that JTT-553 improves insulin resistance in adipose tissues and systemic glucose metabolism through reductions in body weight. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of the accuracy of the CellaVision™ DM96 in a high HIV-prevalence population in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenifer L. Vaughan

    2016-03-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the DM96 in a South African laboratory, with emphasis on its performance in samples collected from HIV-positive patients. Methods: A total of 149 samples submitted for a routine differential white cell count in 2012 and 2013 at the Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital in Johannesburg, South Africa were included, of which 79 (53.0% were collected from HIV-positive patients. Results of DM96 analysis pre- and post-classification were compared with a manual differential white cell count and the impact of HIV infection and other variables of interest were assessed. Results: Pre- and post-classification accuracies were similar to those reported in developed countries. Reclassification was required in 16% of cells, with particularly high misclassification rates for eosinophils (31.7%, blasts (33.7% and basophils (93.5%. Multivariate analysis revealed a significant relationship between the number of misclassified cells and both the white cell count (p = 0.035 and the presence of malignant cells in the blood (p = 0.049, but not with any other variables analysed, including HIV status. Conclusion: The DM96 exhibited acceptable accuracy in this South African laboratory, which was not impacted by HIV infection. However, as it does not eliminate the need for experienced morphologists, its cost may be unjustifiable in a resource-constrained setting.

  11. A comparative between CRISP-DM and SEMMA through the construction of a MODIS repository for studies of land use and cover change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Jair Gómez Palacios

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the most popular methodologies for development of data mining projects are CRISP-DM and SEMMA, This research paper explains the reason why it was decided to compare them from a specific case study. Therefore, this document describes in detail each phase, task and activity proposed by each methodology, applying it in the construction of a MODIS repository for studies of land use and cover change. In addition to the obvious differences between the methodologies, there were found other differences in the activities proposed by each model that are crucial in non-typical studies of data mining. At the same time, this research determines safely the advantages and disadvantages of each model for this type of case studies. When the MODIS product repository construction process was completed, it was found that the additional time used by CRISP-DM in the first phase was composed in the following phases, since the planning, definition of mining goals, and generation of contingency plans, allow developing the proposed phases without inconvenience. It was also demonstrated that CRISP-DM is presented as a true methodology in comparison with SEMMA, because it describes in detail each phase and task through its official documentation and concrete examples of its application.

  12. Protection against T1DM-Induced Bone Loss by Zinc Supplementation: Biomechanical, Histomorphometric, and Molecular Analyses in STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Hernandes Bortolin

    Full Text Available Several studies have established an association between diabetes and alterations in bone metabolism; however, the underlying mechanism is not well established. Although zinc is recognized as a potential preventive agent against diabetes-induced bone loss, there is no evidence demonstrating its effect in chronic diabetic conditions. This study evaluated the effects of zinc supplementation in a chronic (90 days type 1 diabetes-induced bone-loss model. Male Wistar rats were distributed in three groups: control, type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM, and T1DM plus zinc supplementation (T1DMS. Serum biochemical analysis; tibia histomorphometric, biomechanical, and collagen-content analyses; and femur mRNA expression were evaluated. Relative to T1DM, the zinc-supplemented group showed increased histomorphometric parameters such as TbWi and BAr and decreased TbSp, increased biomechanical parameters (maximum load, stiffness, ultimate strain, and Young's modulus, and increased type I collagen content. Interestingly, similar values for these parameters were observed between the T1DMS and control groups. These results demonstrate the protective effect of zinc on the maintenance of bone strength and flexibility. In addition, downregulation of OPG, COL1A, and MMP-9 genes was observed in T1DMS, and the anabolic effects of zinc were evidenced by increased OC expression and serum ALP activity, both related to osteoblastogenesis, demonstrating a positive effect on bone formation. In contrast, T1DM showed excessive bone loss, observed through reduced histomorphometric and biomechanical parameters, characterizing diabetes-associated bone loss. The bone loss was also observed through upregulation of OPG, COL1A, and MMP-9 genes. In conclusion, zinc showed a positive effect on the maintenance of bone architecture and biomechanical parameters. Indeed, OC upregulation and control of expression of OPG, COL1A, and MMP-9 mRNAs, even in chronic hyperglycemia, support an anabolic

  13. Final Report Summary Of DM 1200 Operation At VSL VSL-06R6710-2, Rev. 0, 9/7/06

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, A.A.; Matlack, K.S.; Diener, G.; Bardakci, T.; Pegg, I.L.

    2011-01-01

    The principal objective of this report was to summarize the testing experience on the DuraMelter 1200 (DMI200), which is the High Level Waste (HLW) Pilot Melter located at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL). Further objectives were to provide descriptions of the history of all modifications and maintenance, methods of operation, problems and unit failures, and melter emissions and performance while processing a variety of simulated HL W and low activity waste (LAW) feeds for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and employing a variety of operating methods. All of these objectives were met. The River Protection Project - Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) Project has undertaken a 'tiered' approach to vitrification development testing involving computer-based glass formulation, glass property-composition models, crucible melts, and continuous melter tests of increasing, more realistic scales. Melter systems ranging from 0.02 to 1.2 m 2 installed at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) have been used for this purpose, which, in combination with the 3.3 m 2 low activity waste (LAW) Pilot Melter at Duratek, Inc., span more than two orders of magnitude in melt surface area. In this way, less-costly small-scale tests can be used to define the most appropriate tests to be conducted at the larger scales in order to extract maximum benefit from the large-scale tests. For high level waste (HLW) vitrification development, a key component in this approach is the one-third scale DuraMelter 1200 (DM 1200), which is the HLW Pilot Melter that has been installed at VSL with an integrated prototypical off-gas treatment system. That system replaced the DM1000 system that was used for HLW throughput testing during Part B1. Both melters have similar melt surface areas (1.2 m 2 ) but the DM1200 is prototypical of the present RPP-WTP HLW melter design whereas the DM1000 was not. In particular, the DM1200 provides for testing on a vitrification

  14. FINAL REPORT SUMMARY OF DM 1200 OPERATION AT VSL VSL-06R6710-2 REV 0 9/7/06

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; DIENER G; BARDAKCI T; PEGG IL

    2011-12-29

    The principal objective of this report was to summarize the testing experience on the DuraMelter 1200 (DMI200), which is the High Level Waste (HLW) Pilot Melter located at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL). Further objectives were to provide descriptions of the history of all modifications and maintenance, methods of operation, problems and unit failures, and melter emissions and performance while processing a variety of simulated HL W and low activity waste (LAW) feeds for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and employing a variety of operating methods. All of these objectives were met. The River Protection Project - Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) Project has undertaken a 'tiered' approach to vitrification development testing involving computer-based glass formulation, glass property-composition models, crucible melts, and continuous melter tests of increasing, more realistic scales. Melter systems ranging from 0.02 to 1.2 m{sup 2} installed at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) have been used for this purpose, which, in combination with the 3.3 m{sup 2} low activity waste (LAW) Pilot Melter at Duratek, Inc., span more than two orders of magnitude in melt surface area. In this way, less-costly small-scale tests can be used to define the most appropriate tests to be conducted at the larger scales in order to extract maximum benefit from the large-scale tests. For high level waste (HLW) vitrification development, a key component in this approach is the one-third scale DuraMelter 1200 (DM 1200), which is the HLW Pilot Melter that has been installed at VSL with an integrated prototypical off-gas treatment system. That system replaced the DM1000 system that was used for HLW throughput testing during Part B1. Both melters have similar melt surface areas (1.2 m{sup 2}) but the DM1200 is prototypical of the present RPP-WTP HLW melter design whereas the DM1000 was not. In particular, the DM1200 provides for

  15. A RETROSPECTIVE CASE CONTROL STUDY OF SERUM ZINC (Zn LEVEL IN DIABETES MELLITUS PATIENTS AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH COMPLICATIONS OF DM IN THANJAVUR MEDICAL COLLEGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Magesh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Zn is an essential trace mineral directly involved in the physiology and action of insulin. Insulin is stored as Zn crystals in the β cells of the pancreas. It has been suggested that abnormal Zn metabolism may play a role in the pathogenesis of diabetes and some of its complications. Zn depletion has several potential clinical implications. It is speculated that Zn repletion could improve insulin sensitivity in patients with DM and reduce the severity of certain complications of this disease. In order to understand the underlying pathobiochemical interrelationships of the late complications of diabetics in more detail, this study was undertaken. The aim of the study is to- 1. Detect serum zinc level in patients with diabetes mellitus. 2. Compare the serum zinc level in newly-diagnosed diabetic patients and in those with complications. 3. Find out the relationship between zinc deficiency and complications of diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS Study Centre- Thanjavur Medical College and Hospital. Study Duration- 6 months. Study Design- Retrospective case control study. Sample Size- 100 patients (cases and 50 controls. RESULTS There was no significant statistical variation in serum zinc levels between the various macrovascular complications. There was a significant negative correlation between HbA1c and serum zinc levels. It was also found in our study that compared to the newly-diagnosed patients with longstanding diabetes mellitus had lower levels of zinc. Also, patients with poor glycaemic control had lower zinc levels compared to the subjects with a better glycaemic control. CONCLUSION Diabetic individuals have significantly lower levels of zinc when compared to normal healthy individuals. Patients with longstanding DM have lower zinc levels than those who are newly diagnosed. Patients with poor glycaemic control have lower zinc levels compared to the subjects with a better glycaemic control. Zinc supplementation may have a

  16. Efficacy and safety of autologous bone marrow derived hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients with type 2 DM: A 15 months follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Bhansali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: there are dearths of studies describing the effect of autologous bone marrow derived stem cell transplantation (ABMSCT through targeted approach in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.This study reports the efficacy and safety of super-selective injection of ABMSCT in T2DM. Materials and Methods: Ten patients (8 men and 2 women with T2DM, with duration of disease >5 years and with documented triple drug failure receiving insulin (0.7 U/Kg/day, metformin and pioglitazone underwent super-selective injection of stem cells into superior pancreaticoduodenal artery under fluoroscopic guidance. The primary outcome measure was decrease in insulin requirement by ≥50% (defined as responders, while secondary endpoints were improvement in glucagon stimulated C-peptide levels, changes in weight, HbA1c, lipid profile and quality of life (QOL at the end of 15 months. Results: Six patients (60% were ′responders′ at 15 months of follow-up showing a reduction in mean insulin requirement by 74% as compared to baseline and one patient was off-insulin till the end of the study. Mean HbA1c reduction in ′responders′ was 1.1% (8.1 ± 0.5% to 7.0 ± 0.6%, P = 0.03, accompanied with a significant improvement in glucagon stimulated C-peptide levels (P = 0.03, Homeostasis Model Assessment -β (P = 0.03 and QOL scores. However, ′non-responders′ did not show any significant alterations in these parameters. No serious adverse events were noted. Conclusion: Our observations indicate that ABMSCT is effective in management of T2DM and its efficacy is maintained over a period of 15 months without any adverse events. However, more number of patients and longer duration of follow-up are required to substantiate these observations.

  17. Technetium Retention In WTP Law Glass With Recycle Flow-Sheet DM10 Melter Testing VSL-12R2640-1 REV 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowitz, Howard; Callow, Richard A.; Joseph, Innocent

    2012-01-01

    Melter tests were conducted to determine the retention of technetium and other volatiles in glass while processing simulated Low Activity Waste (LAW) streams through a DM10 melter equipped with a prototypical off-gas system that concentrates and recycles fluid effiuents back to the melter feed. To support these tests, an existing DM10 system installed at Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) was modified to add the required recycle loop. Based on the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) LAW off-gas system design, suitably scaled versions of the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS), Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP), and TLP vacuum evaporator were designed, built, and installed into the DM10 system. Process modeling was used to support this design effort and to ensure that issues associated with the short half life of the 99m Tc radioisotope that was used in this work were properly addressed and that the system would be capable of meeting the test objectives. In particular, this required that the overall time constant for the system was sufficiently short that a reasonable approach to steady state could be achieved before the 99m Tc activity dropped below the analytical limits of detection. The conceptual design, detailed design, flow sheet development, process model development, Piping and Instrumentation Diagram (P and ID) development, control system design, software design and development, system fabrication, installation, procedure development, operator training, and Test Plan development for the new system were all conducted during this project. The new system was commissioned and subjected to a series of shake-down tests before embarking on the planned test program. Various system performance issues that arose during testing were addressed through a series of modifications in order to improve the performance and reliability of the system. The resulting system provided a robust and reliable platform to address the test objectives

  18. TECHNETIUM RETENTION IN WTP LAW GLASS WITH RECYCLE FLOW-SHEET DM10 MELTER TESTING VSL-12R2640-1 REV 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramowitz, Howard [Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab.; Brandys, Marek [Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab.; Cecil, Richard [Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab.; D& #x27; Angelo, Nicholas [Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab.; Matlack, Keith S. [Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab.; Muller, Isabelle S. [Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab.; Pegg, Ian L. [Energy Solutions, Federal EPC, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Callow, Richard A. [Energy Solutions, Federal EPC, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Joseph, Innocent

    2012-12-11

    Melter tests were conducted to determine the retention of technetium and other volatiles in glass while processing simulated Low Activity Waste (LAW) streams through a DM10 melter equipped with a prototypical off-gas system that concentrates and recycles fluid effiuents back to the melter feed. To support these tests, an existing DM10 system installed at Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) was modified to add the required recycle loop. Based on the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) LAW off-gas system design, suitably scaled versions of the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS), Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP), and TLP vacuum evaporator were designed, built, and installed into the DM10 system. Process modeling was used to support this design effort and to ensure that issues associated with the short half life of the {sup 99m}Tc radioisotope that was used in this work were properly addressed and that the system would be capable of meeting the test objectives. In particular, this required that the overall time constant for the system was sufficiently short that a reasonable approach to steady state could be achieved before the {sup 99m}Tc activity dropped below the analytical limits of detection. The conceptual design, detailed design, flow sheet development, process model development, Piping and Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID) development, control system design, software design and development, system fabrication, installation, procedure development, operator training, and Test Plan development for the new system were all conducted during this project. The new system was commissioned and subjected to a series of shake-down tests before embarking on the planned test program. Various system performance issues that arose during testing were addressed through a series of modifications in order to improve the performance and reliability of the system. The resulting system provided a robust and reliable platform to address the test objectives.

  19. Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy and its relationship with glomerular filtration rate and other risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Spain. DM2 HOPE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Maribel; Cos, Francesc Xavier; Álvarez-Guisasola, Fernando; Fuster, Eva

    2017-09-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of blindness in working age population in developed countries. Albuminuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) have been considered biomarkers for DR. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of DR and its relationship with eGFR and other risk factors in type 2 diabetic patients (T2DM) in Spain. A cross-sectional and descriptive study has been performed in 14,266 patients. Clinical records were reviewed. Demographic data, clinical diagnoses, clinical variables, and results from laboratory tests were recorded. Prevalence rates of DR were calculated. Logistic regression analysis was applied to assess predictors of the DR presence/absence. DR prevalence was 14.9%, being more prevalent in women (p = 0.0087) and in older patients (p < 0.0001). Duration of disease (OR = 5.3, IC95% = 3.8-7.4; p < 0.0001), eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m 2 (OR = 2.0, IC95% 1.6-2.4; p < 0.0001), levels of HbA1c ≥ 7% (OR = 1.9, IC95% = 1.5-2.3; p < 0.0001) and high blood pressure (OR = 1.6, IC95% = 1.2-2.1; p = 0.0032) were associated with higher risk of DR. DR was also more frequent in patients taking insulin (32,6% vs. 10,2%; p < 0.0001). Around one in seven patients with T2DM has DR after nine years since diagnosis. Time since diagnosis, insulin therapy, cardiovascular profile, and renal dysfunction are associated with DR in patients with T2DM in Spain.

  20. A khorasan wheat-based replacement diet improves risk profile of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM): a randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Anne; Dinu, Monica; Cesari, Francesca; Gori, Anna Maria; Fiorillo, Claudia; Becatti, Matteo; Casini, Alessandro; Marcucci, Rossella; Benedettelli, Stefano; Sofi, Francesco

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether a replacement diet with products made with organic ancient khorasan wheat could provide additive protective effects in reducing glucose, insulin, lipid and inflammatory risk factors, and in restoring blood redox balance in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients compared to diet with product made with modern organic wheat. We conducted a randomized, double-blinded crossover trial with two intervention phases on 21 T2DM patients (14 females, 7 males). The participants were assigned to consume products (bread, pasta, crackers and biscuits) made using semi-whole flour from organic wheat that was either from ancient khorasan wheat or modern control wheat for 8 weeks in a random order. An 8-week washout period was implemented between the interventions. Laboratory analyses were performed both at the beginning and at the end of each intervention phase. The metabolic risk profile improved only after the khorasan intervention period, as measured by a reduction in total and LDL cholesterol (mean reduction: -3.7 and -3.4 %, respectively), insulin (-16.3 %) and blood glucose (-9.1 %). Similarly, there was a significant reduction in circulating levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and interleukin-1ra, and a significant increase of total antioxidant capacity (+6.3 %). No significant differences from baseline were noted after the modern control wheat intervention phase. The change (from pre- to post-intervention) between the two intervention arms was significantly different (p diet with ancient khorasan wheat consumption provided additive protection in reducing total and LDL cholesterol, insulin, blood glucose, ROS production, and some inflammatory risk factors, which are all key factors warranting of control in secondary prevention of T2DM compared to a diet with products made with modern wheat.

  1. Prediction of Methionine and Homocysteine levels in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats as a T2DM animal model after consumption of a Methionine-rich diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Nayoung; Chae, Jung-Woo; Jeon, Jihyun; Lee, Jaeyeon; Back, Hyun-Moon; Song, Byungjeong; Kwon, Kwang-Il; Kim, Sang Kyum; Yun, Hwi-Yeol

    2018-01-01

    Although alterations in the methionine metabolism cycle (MMC) have been associated with vascular complications of diabetes, there have not been consistent results about the levels of methionine and homocysteine in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of the current study was to predict changes in plasma methionine and homocysteine concentrations after simulated consumption of methionine-rich foods, following the development of a mathematical model for MMC in Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats, as a representative T2DM animal model. The model building and simulation were performed using NONMEM® (ver. 7.3.0) assisted by Perl-Speaks-NONMEM (PsN, ver. 4.3.0). Model parameters were derived using first-order conditional estimation method with interactions permitted among the parameters (FOCE-INTER). NCA was conducted using Phoenix (ver. 6.4.0). For all tests, we considered a P -value < 0.05 to reflect statistical significance. Our model featured seven compartments that considered all parts of the cycle by applying non-linear mixed effects model. Conversion of S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine (SAH) to homocysteine increased and the metabolism of homocysteine was reduced under diabetic conditions, and consequently homocysteine accumulated in the elimination phase.Using our model, we performed simulations to compare the changes in plasma methionine and homocysteine concentrations between ZDF and normal rats, by multiple administrations of the methionine-rich diet of 1 mmol/kg, daily for 60 days. The levels of methionine and homocysteine were elevated approximately two- and three-fold, respectively, in ZDF rats, while there were no changes observed in the normal control rats. These results can be interpreted to mean that both methionine and homocysteine will accumulate in patients with T2DM, who regularly consume high-methionine foods.

  2. Study on the relationship between blood glucose level and insulin resistance as pancreatic β-cell function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Xiaoping; Huang Huijian; Xu Ning; Huang Haibo; Zhuang Huiqin; Su Cainu; Hao Zhiqiang; He Haoming

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between serum immuno-reactive peptide (IR-CP) and true insulin (TI), pro-insulin (PI), immuno-reactive insulin (IR-I) contents and to calculate the insulin resistance (Home-IR), β-cell function (Homa-β) from these data in DM2 patients with different levels of fasting blood sugar (FBG<8.8 and ≥8.8 mmol/L). Methods: Fasting and 2h post- prandial serum TI, PI (with ELISA), IR-I, IR-CP (with RIA) contents were measured in 73 patients with DM2 and Homa-IR, Homa-β were calculated with Homa-model from these data, The 73 DM2 patients were of two groups: Group A, FBG≥8.8 mmol/L, n=46; Group B, FBG<8.8 mmol/L, n=27. Results: The Homa-β calculated from either TI or IR-I was significantly different in Group A and Group B patients. Homa-IR calculated from IR-I was also significantly different in the two groups of patients; however, Homa-IR calculated from TI was about the same in the two groups. relationship between C peptide and TI, PI, IR-I was less obvious in Group A than that in Group B. Both fasting and 2h TI in Group B were significantly higher than those in Group A; the other parameters tested were not much different. Conclusion: The higher FBG levels developed in Group A patients were mostly due to deterioration of β-cell function rather than increase of insulin resistance, as Homa-IR calculated from TI was not much different in the two groups. Further study on the management of diabetes should lay more emphasis on the change of β-cell function. (authors)

  3. Laser Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauger, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Describes lasers and indicates that learning about laser technology and creating laser technology activities are among the teacher enhancement processes needed to strengthen technology education. (JOW)

  4. Rare sugar d-psicose prevents progression and development of diabetes in T2DM model Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Akram; Yamaguchi, Fuminori; Hirose, Kayoko; Matsunaga, Toru; Sui, Li; Hirata, Yuko; Noguchi, Chisato; Katagi, Ayako; Kamitori, Kazuyo; Dong, Youyi; Tsukamoto, Ikuko; Tokuda, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    Background The fundamental cause of overweight and obesity is consumption of calorie-dense foods. We have introduced a zero-calorie sweet sugar, d-psicose (d-allulose), a rare sugar that has been proven to have strong antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects, and could be used as a replacement of natural sugar for the obese and diabetic subjects. Aim Above mentioned efficacy of d-psicose (d-allulose) has been confirmed in our previous studies on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) model Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats with short-term treatment. In this study we investigated the long-term effect of d-psicose in preventing the commencement and progression of T2DM with the mechanism of preservation of pancreatic β-cells in OLETF rats. Methods Treated OLETF rats were fed 5% d-psicose dissolved in water and control rats only water. Nondiabetic control rats, Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO), were taken as healthy control and fed water. To follow the progression of diabetes, periodic measurements of blood glucose, plasma insulin, and body weight changes were continued till sacrifice at 60 weeks. Periodic in vivo body fat mass was measured. On sacrifice, pancreas, liver, and abdominal adipose tissues were collected for various staining tests. Results d-Psicose prevented the commencement and progression of T2DM till 60 weeks through the maintenance of blood glucose levels, decrease in body weight gain, and the control of postprandial hyperglycemia, with decreased levels of HbA1c in comparison to nontreated control rats. This improvement in glycemic control was accompanied by the maintenance of plasma insulin levels and the preservation of pancreatic β-cells with the significant reduction in inflammatory markers. Body fat accumulation was significantly lower in the treatment group, with decreased infiltration of macrophages in the abdominal adipose tissue. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the rare sugar d-psicose could be beneficial for the

  5. INFLUENCIA DE LAS TÉCNICAS DE RELAJACIÓN Y MANEJO DEL ESTRÉS EN PACIENTES CON DM2 E HIPERTENSIÓN ARTERIAL.

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Sevillano, Brendha Liliana

    2012-01-01

    NTRODUCCION: La diabetes mellitus e hipertensión arterial, con frecuencia se acompañan de estrés. Las técnicas de relajación ayudan a disminuir el estrés. OBJETIVO: Identificar cambios en el estilo de vida y respuesta al estrés de pacientes con DM2 e HAS, después de la practica de técnicas de relajación y manejo del estrés. Cuasi- experimental. Se incluyeron 15 MATERIAL Y METODOS: estudio pacientes comparados con un grupo de pacientes que no recibieron técnicas de rela...

  6. Rare sugar D-psicose prevents progression and development of diabetes in T2DM model Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Akram; Yamaguchi, Fuminori; Hirose, Kayoko; Matsunaga, Toru; Sui, Li; Hirata, Yuko; Noguchi, Chisato; Katagi, Ayako; Kamitori, Kazuyo; Dong, Youyi; Tsukamoto, Ikuko; Tokuda, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    The fundamental cause of overweight and obesity is consumption of calorie-dense foods. We have introduced a zero-calorie sweet sugar, d-psicose (d-allulose), a rare sugar that has been proven to have strong antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects, and could be used as a replacement of natural sugar for the obese and diabetic subjects. Above mentioned efficacy of d-psicose (d-allulose) has been confirmed in our previous studies on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) model Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats with short-term treatment. In this study we investigated the long-term effect of d-psicose in preventing the commencement and progression of T2DM with the mechanism of preservation of pancreatic β-cells in OLETF rats. Treated OLETF rats were fed 5% d-psicose dissolved in water and control rats only water. Nondiabetic control rats, Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO), were taken as healthy control and fed water. To follow the progression of diabetes, periodic measurements of blood glucose, plasma insulin, and body weight changes were continued till sacrifice at 60 weeks. Periodic in vivo body fat mass was measured. On sacrifice, pancreas, liver, and abdominal adipose tissues were collected for various staining tests. d-Psicose prevented the commencement and progression of T2DM till 60 weeks through the maintenance of blood glucose levels, decrease in body weight gain, and the control of postprandial hyperglycemia, with decreased levels of HbA1c in comparison to nontreated control rats. This improvement in glycemic control was accompanied by the maintenance of plasma insulin levels and the preservation of pancreatic β-cells with the significant reduction in inflammatory markers. Body fat accumulation was significantly lower in the treatment group, with decreased infiltration of macrophages in the abdominal adipose tissue. Our findings suggest that the rare sugar d-psicose could be beneficial for the prevention and control of obesity and

  7. Previsão de tempos de internamento num hospital português: aplicação da metodologia CRISP-DM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul M. S. Laureano

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Com base nos dados disponíveis num hospital português relativos aos processos de internamento, ocorridos no período de 2000 a 2013, e seguindo a metodologia de data mining CRISP-DM, obteve-se um modelo de previsão dos tempos de internamento baseado no algoritmo random forest que apresentou uma elevada qualidade, e superior à obtida com outras técnicas de data mining, e que permitiu identificar os atributos clínicos do paciente como os mais importantes para a explicação dos tempos de internamento

  8. Quantitative analysis of maytansinoid (DM1) in human serum by on-line solid phase extraction coupled with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry - Method validation and its application to clinical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heudi, Olivier; Barteau, Samuel; Picard, Franck; Kretz, Olivier

    2016-02-20

    A sensitive and specific method was developed and validated for the quantitation of maytansinoid (DM1) in human serum using on-line solid phase extraction (SPE)-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Because DM1 contains a free thiol moiety, likely to readily dimerize or react with other thiol-containing molecules in serum, samples were pre-treated with a reducing agent [tris (2-carboxyethyl) phosphine] (TCEP) and further blocked with N-ethylmaleimide (NEM). The resulting samples were diluted with acetonitrile prior to the on-line solid phase extraction (SPE) on a C18 cartridge. A C18 (150×4.6mm ID 3μm particle size) column was used for chromatographic separation with a 10.0min HPLC gradient and DM1-NEM was detected in the selected reaction monitoring mode of a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. DM1 concentrations were back-calculated from DM1-NEM amount found in the human serum samples. The quantitation range of the method was 0.200-200ng/mL when using 0.25mL serum. Within-run day precisions (n=6) were 0.9-4.4% and between-run day (3 days runs; n=18) precisions 2.5-5.6%. Method biases were between 3.5-14.5% across the whole calibration range. DM1-NEM exhibited sufficiently stability under all relevant analytical conditions and no DM1 losses from the ADC were observed. Finally, the assay was used for DM1 determination in human serum concentration after the intravenous administration of an investigational antibody drug conjugate (ADC) containing DM1 as payload. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Diabetes technology and the human factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, A; Buckingham, B; Phillip, M

    2011-02-01

    When developing new technologies for human use the developer should take into consideration not only the efficacy and safety of the technology but also the desire and capabilities of the potential user. Any chronic disease is a challenge for both the patient and his/her caregivers. This statement is especially true in the case of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) where adherence to therapy is crucial 24 hours a day 365 days a year. No vacation days are possible for the T1DM patient. It is therefore obvious why any new technology which is developed for helping patients cope with the disease should take into consideration the 'human factor' before, during and after the production process starts. There is no doubt that technology has changed the life of patients with T1DM in the last few decades, but despite the availability of new meters, new syringes, new sophisticated insulin pumps and continuous glucose sensors and communication tools, these technologies have not been well utilised by many patients. It is therefore important to understand why the technology is not always utilised and to find new ways to maximise use and benefits from the technology to as many patients as possible. The present chapter will review papers published in the last year where the patient's ability or willingness was an important factor in the success of the technology. We will try to understand why insulin pumps, glucose sensors and self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) are not used enough or appropriately, whether there is a specific group that finds it more difficult than others to adopt new technologies and what can be done to overcome that issue. For this chapter we chose articles from a Public Medicine review of the literature related to human factors affecting the outcome of studies and of user acceptance of continuous glucose monitoring, insulin infusion pump therapy. We also searched the literature in the field of psychology in order to accurately define the problems

  10. Meso-Scale Experimental & Numerical Studies for Predicting Macro-scale Performance of Advanced Reactive Materials (ARMs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    stretching, bending and torsion . Parameter optimization is achieved through minimization of a cost function using a single parameter search algorithm. In...and multi-investigator research project, combines numerical simulations with time-resolved impact experiments, to determine the meso-scale mechanisms...Advanced Reactive Materials (ARMs) ABSTRACT Our collaborative, multi-disciplinary and multi-investigator research project, combines numerical

  11. Micro and Macro-scale Thermo-mechanical Modelling of Bulk Deformation in Early-age Cement-based Materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kozák, Vladislav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 465, - (2011), s. 111-114 ISSN 1013-9826. [MSMF6-Materials structure &Micromechanics of fracture. Brno, 28.06.2010-30.06.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/08/1304 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : cemen-based composites * scale bridging Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials

  12. Rolling viscous drops on a non-wettable surface containing both micro- and macro-scale roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolghasemibizaki, Mehran; Robertson, Connor J.; Fergusson, Christian P.; McMasters, Robert L.; Mohammadi, Reza

    2018-02-01

    It has previously been shown that when a liquid drop of high viscosity is placed on a non-wettable inclined surface, it rolls down at a constant descent velocity determined by the balance between viscous dissipation and the reduction rate of its gravitational potential energy. Since increasing the roughness of the surface boosts its non-wetting property, the drop should move faster on a surface structured with macrotextures (ribbed surface). Such a surface was obtained from a superhydrophobic soot coating on a solid specimen printed with an extruder-type 3D printer. The sample became superoleophobic after a functionalization process. The descent velocity of glycerol drops of different radii was then measured on the prepared surface for varied tilting angles. Our data show that the drops roll down on the ribbed surface approximately 27% faster (along the ridges) than on the macroscopically smooth counterpart. This faster velocity demonstrates that ribbed surfaces can be promising candidates for drag-reduction and self-cleaning applications. Moreover, we came up with a modified scaling model to predict the descent velocity of viscous rolling drops more accurately than what has previously been reported in the literature.

  13. Modelling PM10 aerosol data from the Qalabotjha low-smoke fuels macro-scale experiment in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Engelbrecht, JP

    2000-03-30

    Full Text Available D-grade (i.e. poor quality) coal is widely used for household cooking and heating purposes by lower-income urban communities in South Africa. The smoke from the combustion of coal has had a severe impact on the health of society in the townships...

  14. The Role of Water Governance and Irrigation Technologies in Regional-Scale Water Use and Consumption in the US West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, R. B.; Grogan, D. S.; Frolking, S. E.; Proussevitch, A. A.; Zuidema, S.; Fowler, L.; Caccese, R. T.; Peklak, D. L.; Fisher-Vanden, K.

    2017-12-01

    Water management in the Western USA is challenged by the demands of an increased population, ecological needs and changing values for water use, and a broadening of variability in climate, which together have created physical limits on water availability. The management of scarce water resources in this region is strictly constrained by the current legal structure (prior appropriation water rights) on one hand, and on the other assisted by the development of new, efficient water delivery and application technologies. Therefore, critical components for a complete understanding of the hydrological landscape include the institutions governing water rights, the technologies used for the highly water consumptive agricultural sector, and the role institutions and technologies play in altering when and where water is used and consumed by humans or reserved for the environment. To explore the sensitivities of water availability within the human-physical system, we present a method to incorporate water rights allocated under the prior appropriation doctrine for the western U.S. into the University of New Hampshire macro-scale Water Balance Model to capture the essential structure of these rights and their impacts on different economic sectors in Idaho and across the US West. In addition to legal structures, new irrigation technologies also alter the efficiency and timing of water use. We assess the impacts of a variety of technologies for both the delivery of water to the agricultural fields and the application methods for bringing water to the crops on consumptive and non-consumptive agricultural water use. We explore the impacts relative to natural climate variability, investigate the role that return flows from different agricultural technologies have on regional water balance, and examine the sensitivity of the entire system to extremes such as extended drought. These methods are sufficiently generalizable to be used by other hydrological models.

  15. FINAL REPORT REGULATORY OFF GAS EMISSIONS TESTING ON THE DM1200 MELTER SYSTEM USING HLW AND LAW SIMULANTS VSL-05R5830-1 REV 0 10/31/05

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; GONG W; BARDAKCI T; D' ANGELO NA; BRANDYS M; KOT WK; PEGG IL

    2011-12-29

    system was reconfigured to enable testing of the baseline HLW or LAW off-gas trains to perform off-gas emissions testing with both LAW and HLW simulants in the present work. During 2002 and 2003, many of these off-gas components were tested individually and in an integrated manner with the DM1200 Pilot Melter. Data from these tests are being used to support engineering design confirmation and to provide data to support air permitting activities. In fiscal year 2004, the WTP Project was directed by the Office of River Protection (ORP) to comply with Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) requirements for organics. This requires that the combined melter and off-gas system have destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) of >99.99% for principal organic dangerous constituents (PODCs). In order to provide confidence that the melter and off-gas system are able to achieve the required DRE, testing has been directed with both LAW and HLW feeds. The tests included both 'normal' and 'challenge' WTP melter conditions in order to obtain data for the potential range of operating conditions for the WTP melters and off-gas components. The WTP Project, Washington State Department of Ecology, and ORP have agreed that naphthalene will be used for testing to represent semi-volatile organics and allyl alcohol will be used to represent volatile organics. Testing was also performed to determine emissions of halides, metals, products of incomplete combustion (PICs), dioxins, furans, coplanar PCBs, total hydrocarbons, and COX and NOX, as well as the particle size distribution (PSD) of particulate matter discharged at the end of the off-gas train. A description of the melter test requirements and analytical methods used is provided in the Test Plan for this work. Test Exceptions were subsequently issued which changed the TCO catalyst, added total organic emissions (TOE) to exhaust sampling schedule, and allowing modification of the

  16. Diabetes Medication Assistance Service: the pharmacist's role in supporting patient self-management of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Bernadette; Armour, Carol; Lee, Mary; Song, Yun Ju; Stewart, Kay; Peterson, Greg; Hughes, Jeff; Smith, Lorraine; Krass, Ines

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate the capacity and effectiveness of trained community pharmacists in delivering the Diabetes Medication Assistance Service (DMAS) via (1) number and types of self-management support interventions (SMSIs); (2) number of goals set and attained by patients and (3) patient outcomes (glycaemic control, medication adherence and satisfaction). Pharmacists (n=109) from 90 community pharmacies in Australia were trained and credentialed to deliver the DMAS. The training focused on developing pharmacists' knowledge and skills in supporting patients' diabetes self-management. A total of 387 patients completed the trial. The mean number of SMSIs per patient was 35 (SD ±31) and the majority (87%) had at least one documented goal that was fully or partially attained. There were significant health benefits for patients including improved glycaemic control and a reduced risk of non-adherence to medications. Over 90% of DMAS patients reported improvements in their knowledge about diabetes self-management. The DMAS provides self management support in the community pharmacy for people with T2DM which may result in improved clinical outcomes. Given appropriate training in diabetes care and behavior change strategies, community pharmacists can offer programs which provide self-management support to their patients with T2DM and improve their health outcomes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Modeling of arylamide helix mimetics in the p53 peptide binding site of hDM2 suggests parallel and anti-parallel conformations are both stable.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan C Fuller

    Full Text Available The design of novel α-helix mimetic inhibitors of protein-protein interactions is of interest to pharmaceuticals and chemical genetics researchers as these inhibitors provide a chemical scaffold presenting side chains in the same geometry as an α-helix. This conformational arrangement allows the design of high affinity inhibitors mimicking known peptide sequences binding specific protein substrates. We show that GAFF and AutoDock potentials do not properly capture the conformational preferences of α-helix mimetics based on arylamide oligomers and identify alternate parameters matching solution NMR data and suitable for molecular dynamics simulation of arylamide compounds. Results from both docking and molecular dynamics simulations are consistent with the arylamides binding in the p53 peptide binding pocket. Simulations of arylamides in the p53 binding pocket of hDM2 are consistent with binding, exhibiting similar structural dynamics in the pocket as simulations of known hDM2 binders Nutlin-2 and a benzodiazepinedione compound. Arylamide conformations converge towards the same region of the binding pocket on the 20 ns time scale, and most, though not all dihedrals in the binding pocket are well sampled on this timescale. We show that there are two putative classes of binding modes for arylamide compounds supported equally by the modeling evidence. In the first, the arylamide compound lies parallel to the observed p53 helix. In the second class, not previously identified or proposed, the arylamide compound lies anti-parallel to the p53 helix.

  18. Efficacy of Exenatide Plus Pioglitazone Vs Basal/Bolus Insulin in T2DM Patients With Very High HbA1c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Ghani, Muhammad; Migahid, Osama; Megahed, Ayman; DeFronzo, Ralph A; Zirie, Mahmoud; Jayyousi, Amin

    2017-07-01

    To examine the efficacy and safety of combination therapy with exenatide plus pioglitazone vs basal/bolus insulin in patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with very high hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (>10%) receiving sulfonylurea plus metformin and with a long duration of disease. Participants (n = 101) in the Qatar Study with very poor glycemic control (HbA1c >10%) and a long duration of diabetes (10.9 years) receiving maximum/near-maximum doses of sulfonylurea plus metformin were randomly assigned to receive pioglitazone plus weekly exenatide (combination therapy), or basal plus prandial insulin (insulin therapy), to maintain HbA1c insulin therapy groups, respectively. At 6 months, combination therapy caused a robust decrease in HbA1c to 6.7% ± 0.1% (∆ = -4.8%) compared with 7.4% ± 0.1% (∆ = -3.8%) in subjects receiving insulin therapy. Combination therapy was effective in lowering the HbA1c independent of sex, ethnicity, or body mass index. Subjects in the insulin therapy group experienced significantly greater weight gain and a 2.5-fold higher rate of hypoglycemia compared with patients receiving combination therapy. Exenatide/pioglitazone combination therapy is an effective and safe therapeutic option in patients with poorly controlled T2DM receiving metformin plus sulfonylurea with very high HbA1c (>10%). Copyright © 2017 by the Endocrine Society

  19. Effect of cationic molecules on the oxygen reduction reaction on fuel cell grade Pt/C (20 wt%) catalyst in potassium hydroxide (aq, 1 mol dm(-3)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Ai Lien; Inglis, Kenneth K; Whelligan, Daniel K; Murphy, Sam; Varcoe, John R

    2015-05-14

    This study investigates the effect of 1 mmol dm(-3) concentrations of a selection of small cationic molecules on the performance of a fuel cell grade oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalyst (Johnson Matthey HiSPEC 3000, 20 mass% Pt/C) in aqueous KOH (1 mol dm(-3)). The cationic molecules studied include quaternary ammonium (including those based on bicyclic systems) and imidazolium types as well as a phosphonium example: these serve as fully solubilised models for the commonly encountered head-groups in alkaline anion-exchange membranes (AAEM) and anion-exchange ionomers (AEI) that are being developed for application in alkaline polymer electrolyte fuel cells (APEFCs), batteries and electrolysers. Both cyclic and hydrodynamic linear sweep rotating disk electrode voltammetry techniques were used. The resulting voltammograms and subsequently derived data (e.g. apparent electrochemical active surface areas, Tafel plots, and number of [reduction] electrons transferred per O2) were compared. The results show that the imidazolium examples produced the highest level of interference towards the ORR on the Pt/C catalyst under the experimental conditions used.

  20. Intermittent Vagal Nerve Block for Improvements in Obesity, Cardiovascular Risk Factors, and Glycemic Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: 2-Year Results of the VBLOC DM2 Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikora, Scott A; Toouli, James; Herrera, Miguel F; Kulseng, Bård; Brancatisano, Roy; Kow, Lilian; Pantoja, Juan P; Johnsen, Gjermund; Brancatisano, Anthony; Tweden, Katherine S; Knudson, Mark B; Billington, Charles J; Billingto, Charles J

    2016-05-01

    One-year results of the VBLOC DM2 study found that intermittent vagal blocking (VBLOC therapy) was safe among subjects with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and led to significant weight loss and improvements in glycemic parameters and cardiovascular risk factors. Longer-term data are needed to determine whether the results are sustained. VBLOC DM2 is a prospective, observational study of 28 subjects with T2DM and body mass index (BMI) between 30 and 40 kg/m(2) to assess mid-term safety and weight loss and improvements in glycemic parameters, and other cardiovascular risk factors with VBLOC therapy. Continuous outcome variables are reported using mixed models. At 24 months, the mean percentage of excess weight loss was 22% (95% CI, 15 to 28, p obesity and glycemic control were largely sustained after 2 years of treatment with VBLOC therapy with a well-tolerated risk profile.

  1. Nano-scale Materials and Nano-technology Processes in Environmental Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vissokov, Gh; Tzvetkoff, T.

    2003-01-01

    A number of environmental and energy technologies have benefited substantially from nano-scale technology: reduced waste and improved energy efficiency; environmentally friendly composite structures; waste remediation; energy conversion. In this report examples of current achievements and paradigm shifts are presented: from discovery to application; a nano structured materials; nanoparticles in the environment (plasma chemical preparation); nano-porous polymers and their applications in water purification; photo catalytic fluid purification; hierarchical self-assembled nano-structures for adsorption of heavy metals, etc. Several themes should be considered priorities in developing nano-scale processes related to environmental management: 1. To develop understanding and control of relevant processes, including protein precipitation and crystallisation, desorption of pollutants, stability of colloidal dispersion, micelle aggregation, microbe mobility, formation and mobility of nanoparticles, and tissue-nanoparticle interaction. Emphasis should be given to processes at phase boundaries (solid-liquid, solid-gas, liquid-gas) that involve mineral and organic soil components, aerosols, biomolecules (cells, microbes), bio tissues, derived components such as bio films and membranes, and anthropogenic additions (e.g. trace and heavy metals); 2. To carry out interdisciplinary research that initiates Noel approaches and adopts new methods for characterising surfaces and modelling complex systems to problems at interfaces and other nano-structures in the natural environment, including those involving biological or living systems. New technological advances such as optical traps, laser tweezers, and synchrotrons are extending examination of molecular and nano-scale processes to the single-molecule or single-cell level; 3. To integrate understanding of the roles of molecular and nano-scale phenomena and behaviour at the meso- and/or macro-scale over a period of time

  2. Full structural weld overlay application as a repair or mitigation measure for PWSCC susceptible alloy 82/182 DM welds in PWR plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Sung Soo [KHNP, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Tae [KPS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Charlie [WEC, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-04-15

    In recent years, cracking due to Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking (PWSCC) have been observed in Alloy 82/182 dissimilar metal (DM) welds both in the United States and abroad. These DM welds are used to connect stainless steel piping to low alloy steel or carbon steel components in Pressurizer Water Reactor (PWR) plants. Full Structural weld overlay (FSWOL) was implemented in some cases as a repair technique to mitigate PWSCC at these welds. Such repair technique is an acceptable ASME Code repair method and has already been successfully used to repair Intergranular Stress Corrosion Cracking (IGSCC) at the stainless steel pipe welds in Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) plants in the United States for over twenty years. FSWOL is a repair technique that can be used to reinforce nozzle safe end regions and pipes in PWR plants susceptible to PWSCC with cracks present. Such technique can also be used as a mitigation technique at locations without any cracking but are susceptible to PWSCC. The technique involves the application of a specified thickness and length of PWSCC resistant weld material over the region of interest in a configuration that maintains structural integrity and meets the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Section XI Code margins with cracks present. The reinforcement material forms a structural barrier to PWSCC and produces a compressive residual stress condition at the inner portion of the pipe that mitigates future crack initiation and/or propagation due to PWSCC. In addition, full structural weld overlay improves inspectability of the nozzle safe end weld regions and facilitates volumetric examinations by minimizing discontinuities in the nozzle safe end weld regions. Purpose of this paper is to describe the methodology and criteria for applying FSWOL as either a repair or mitigation measure for PWSCC susceptible Alloy 82/182 DM welds in PWR plants. It is planned by KHNP to have the methodology and criteria be implemented for the

  3. Taming Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branscomb, Lewis M.

    1971-01-01

    Reviews aspects of technology in our society: technology as a force for social change; reasons for the frustration and dissatisfaction with technology; how technology decentralizes power; the individual's influence; resolving conflicts in the ionized" society; regulation of technology; corporate responsibility; and the potential pitfalls for the…

  4. Final Report - Glass Formulation Development and DM10 Melter Testing with ORP LAW Glasses, VSL-09R1510-2, Rev. 0, dated 6/12/09

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Albert A.; Pegg, I. L.; Matlack, K. S.; Joseph, I.; Muller, I. S.; Gong, W.

    2013-11-13

    The principal objective of the work described in this Final Report is to extend the glass formulation methodology developed in the earlier work by development of acceptable glass compositions for four LAW compositions specified by ORP that cover the range of sulfate to sodium and potassium to sodium ratios expected in Hanford LAW. The glass formulations were designed to exclude titanium and iron as glass former additives, while tin and vanadium as glass former additives were evaluated for beneficial effects in increasing waste loading in the glasses. This was accomplished through a combination of crucible-scale tests and tests on the DM10 melter system. This melter is the most efficient melter platform for screening glass compositions over a wide range of sulfate concentrations and therefore was selected for the present tests. The current tests provide information on melter processing characteristics and off-gas data, including sulfur incorporation and partitioning.

  5. Rare sugar D-psicose prevents progression and development of diabetes in T2DM model Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain A

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Akram Hossain,1,2 Fuminori Yamaguchi,1 Kayoko Hirose,1 Toru Matsunaga,3 Li Sui,1 Yuko Hirata,1 Chisato Noguchi,1 Ayako Katagi,1 Kazuyo Kamitori,1 Youyi Dong,1 Ikuko Tsukamoto,4 Masaaki Tokuda11Department of Cell Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Ikenobe, Miki, Kagawa, Japan; 2Research and Development, Matsutani Chemical Industry Co., Ltd., Kitaitami, Itami-shi, Hyogo, Japan; 3Division of Hospital Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Ikenobe, Miki, Kagawa, Japan; 4Department of Pharmaco-Bio-Informatics, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Ikenobe, Miki, Kagawa, JapanBackground: The fundamental cause of overweight and obesity is consumption of calorie-dense foods. We have introduced a zero-calorie sweet sugar, D-psicose (D-allulose, a rare sugar that has been proven to have strong antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects, and could be used as a replacement of natural sugar for the obese and diabetic subjects.Aim: Above mentioned efficacy of D-psicose (D-allulose has been confirmed in our previous studies on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM model Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF rats with short-term treatment. In this study we investigated the long-term effect of D-psicose in preventing the commencement and progression of T2DM with the mechanism of preservation of pancreatic β-cells in OLETF rats.Methods: Treated OLETF rats were fed 5% d-psicose dissolved in water and control rats only water. Nondiabetic control rats, Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO, were taken as healthy control and fed water. To follow the progression of diabetes, periodic measurements of blood glucose, plasma insulin, and body weight changes were continued till sacrifice at 60 weeks. Periodic in vivo body fat mass was measured. On sacrifice, pancreas, liver, and abdominal adipose tissues were collected for various staining tests.Results: D-Psicose prevented the commencement and progression of T2DM till 60 weeks through the

  6. Bile-acid-mediated decrease in endoplasmic reticulum stress: a potential contributor to the metabolic benefits of ileal interposition surgery in UCD-T2DM rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Bethany P; Bettaieb, Ahmed; Graham, James L; Kim, Jaehyoung; Ma, Fangrui; Shibata, Noreene; Stanhope, Kimber L; Giulivi, Cecilia; Hansen, Frederik; Jelsing, Jacob; Vrang, Niels; Kowala, Mark; Chouinard, Michael L; Haj, Fawaz G; Havel, Peter J

    2013-03-01

    Post-operative increases in circulating bile acids have been suggested to contribute to the metabolic benefits of bariatric surgery; however, their mechanistic contributions remain undefined. We have previously reported that ileal interposition (IT) surgery delays the onset of type 2 diabetes in UCD-T2DM rats and increases circulating bile acids, independently of effects on energy intake or body weight. Therefore, we investigated potential mechanisms by which post-operative increases in circulating bile acids improve glucose homeostasis after IT surgery. IT, sham or no surgery was performed on 2-month-old weight-matched male UCD-T2DM rats. Animals underwent an oral fat tolerance test (OFTT) and serial oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT). Tissues were collected at 1.5 and 4.5 months after surgery. Cell culture models were used to investigate interactions between bile acids and ER stress. IT-operated animals exhibited marked improvements in glucose and lipid metabolism, with concurrent increases in postprandial glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion during the OFTT and OGTTs, independently of food intake and body weight. Measurement of circulating bile acid profiles revealed increases in circulating total bile acids in IT-operated animals, with a preferential increase in circulating cholic acid concentrations. Gut microbial populations were assessed as potential contributors to the increases in circulating bile acid concentrations, which revealed proportional increases in Gammaproteobacteria in IT-operated animals. Furthermore, IT surgery decreased all three sub-arms of ER stress signaling in liver, adipose and pancreas tissues. Amelioration of ER stress coincided with improved insulin signaling and preservation of β-cell mass in IT-operated animals. Incubation of hepatocyte, adipocyte and β-cell lines with cholic acid decreased ER stress. These results suggest that postoperative increases in circulating cholic acid concentration contribute to improvements in

  7. Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery Suppresses Hepatic Gluconeogenesis and Increases Intestinal Gluconeogenesis in a T2DM Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yong; Zhou, Zhou; Kong, Fanzhi; Feng, Suibin; Li, Xuzhong; Sha, Yanhua; Zhang, Guangjun; Liu, Haijun; Zhang, Haiqing; Wang, Shiguang; Hu, Cheng; Zhang, Xueli

    2016-11-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is an effective surgical treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The present study aimed to investigate the effects of RYGB on glucose homeostasis, lipid metabolism, and intestinal morphological adaption, as well as hepatic and intestinal gluconeogenesis. Twenty adult male T2DM rats induced by high-fat diet and low dose of streptozotocin were randomly divided into sham and RYGB groups. The parameters of body weight, food intake, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and serum lipid profiles were assessed to evaluate metabolic changes. Intestinal sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) for light microscopy examination. The messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression levels of key regulatory enzymes of gluconeogenesis [phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase)] were determined through reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and Western blotting, respectively. RYGB induced significant improvements in glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, along with weight loss and decreased food intake. RYGB also decreased serum triglyceride (TG) and free fatty acid (FFA) levels. The jejunum and ileum exhibited a marked increase in the length and number of intestinal villi after RYGB. The RYGB group exhibited downregulated mRNA and protein expression levels of PEPCK and G6Pase in the liver and upregulated expression of these enzymes in the jejunum and ileum tissues. RYGB ameliorates glucose and lipid metabolism accompanied by weight loss and calorie restriction. The small intestine shows hyperplasia and hypertrophy after RYGB. Meanwhile, our study demonstrated that the reduced hepatic gluconeogenesis and increased intestinal gluconeogenesis may contribute to improved glucose homeostasis after RYGB.

  8. Bile-acid-mediated decrease in endoplasmic reticulum stress: a potential contributor to the metabolic benefits of ileal interposition surgery in UCD-T2DM rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany P. Cummings

    2013-03-01

    Post-operative increases in circulating bile acids have been suggested to contribute to the metabolic benefits of bariatric surgery; however, their mechanistic contributions remain undefined. We have previously reported that ileal interposition (IT surgery delays the onset of type 2 diabetes in UCD-T2DM rats and increases circulating bile acids, independently of effects on energy intake or body weight. Therefore, we investigated potential mechanisms by which post-operative increases in circulating bile acids improve glucose homeostasis after IT surgery. IT, sham or no surgery was performed on 2-month-old weight-matched male UCD-T2DM rats. Animals underwent an oral fat tolerance test (OFTT and serial oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT. Tissues were collected at 1.5 and 4.5 months after surgery. Cell culture models were used to investigate interactions between bile acids and ER stress. IT-operated animals exhibited marked improvements in glucose and lipid metabolism, with concurrent increases in postprandial glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 secretion during the OFTT and OGTTs, independently of food intake and body weight. Measurement of circulating bile acid profiles revealed increases in circulating total bile acids in IT-operated animals, with a preferential increase in circulating cholic acid concentrations. Gut microbial populations were assessed as potential contributors to the increases in circulating bile acid concentrations, which revealed proportional increases in Gammaproteobacteria in IT-operated animals. Furthermore, IT surgery decreased all three sub-arms of ER stress signaling in liver, adipose and pancreas tissues. Amelioration of ER stress coincided with improved insulin signaling and preservation of β-cell mass in IT-operated animals. Incubation of hepatocyte, adipocyte and β-cell lines with cholic acid decreased ER stress. These results suggest that postoperative increases in circulating cholic acid concentration contribute to improvements in

  9. Construction of a Multisite DataLink Using Electronic Health Records for the Identification, Surveillance, Prevention, and Management of Diabetes Mellitus: The SUPREME-DM Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Jay; Elston Lafata, Jennifer; Lawrence, Jean M.; O’Connor, Patrick J.; Pathak, Ram D.; Raebel, Marsha A.; Reid, Robert J.; Selby, Joseph V.; Silverman, Barbara G.; Steiner, John F.; Stewart, W.F.; Vupputuri, Suma; Waitzfelder, Beth

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Electronic health record (EHR) data enhance opportunities for conducting surveillance of diabetes. The objective of this study was to identify the number of people with diabetes from a diabetes DataLink developed as part of the SUPREME-DM (SUrveillance, PREvention, and ManagEment of Diabetes Mellitus) project, a consortium of 11 integrated health systems that use comprehensive EHR data for research. Methods We identified all members of 11 health care systems who had any enrollment from January 2005 through December 2009. For these members, we searched inpatient and outpatient diagnosis codes, laboratory test results, and pharmaceutical dispensings from January 2000 through December 2009 to create indicator variables that could potentially identify a person with diabetes. Using this information, we estimated the number of people with diabetes and among them, the number of incident cases, defined as indication of diabetes after at least 2 years of continuous health system enrollment. Results The 11 health systems contributed 15,765,529 unique members, of whom 1,085,947 (6.9%) met 1 or more study criteria for diabetes. The nonstandardized proportion meeting study criteria for diabetes ranged from 4.2% to 12.4% across sites. Most members with diabetes (88%) met multiple criteria. Of the members with diabetes, 428,349 (39.4%) were incident cases. Conclusion The SUPREME-DM DataLink is a unique resource that provides an opportunity to conduct comparative effectiveness research, epidemiologic surveillance including longitudinal analyses, and population-based care management studies of people with diabetes. It also provides a useful data source for pragmatic clinical trials of prevention or treatment interventions. PMID:22677160

  10. Detection of intracellular parasites by use of the CellaVision DM96 analyzer during routine screening of peripheral blood smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racsa, Lori D; Gander, Rita M; Southern, Paul M; McElvania TeKippe, Erin; Doern, Christopher; Luu, Hung S

    2015-01-01

    Conventional microscopy is the gold standard for malaria diagnosis. The CellaVision DM96 is a digital hematology analyzer that utilizes neural networks to locate, digitize, and preclassify leukocytes and characterize red blood cell morphology. This study compared the detection rates of Plasmodium and Babesia species on peripheral blood smears utilizing the CellaVision DM96 with the rates for a routine red blood cell morphology scan. A total of 281 slides were analyzed, consisting of 130 slides positive for Plasmodium or Babesia species and 151 negative controls. Slides were blinded, randomized, and analyzed by CellaVision and microscopy for red cell morphology scans. The technologists were blinded to prior identification results. The parasite detection rate was 73% (95/130) for CellaVision and 81% (105/130) for microscopy for positive samples. The interobserver agreement between CellaVision and microscopy was fair, as Cohen's kappa coefficient equaled 0.36. Pathologist review of CellaVision images identified an additional 15 slides with parasites, bringing the total number of detectable positive slides to 110 of 130 (85%). Plasmodium ovale had the lowest rate of detection at 56% (5 of 9); Plasmodium malariae and Babesia spp. had the highest rate of detection at 100% (3/3 and 6/6, respectively). The detection rate by CellaVision was 100% (23/23) when the parasitemia was ≥2.5%. The detection rate for blood smears for red blood cell morphology. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Assistive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Page Resize Text Printer Friendly Online Chat Assistive Technology Assistive technology (AT) is any service or tool that helps ... be difficult or impossible. For older adults, such technology may be a walker to improve mobility or ...

  12. Sport Technology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kirkbride, T

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Technology is transforming the games themselves and at times with dire consequences. Tony Kirkbride, Head: CSIR Technology Centre said there are a variety of sports technologies and there have been advances in material sciences and advances...

  13. Data Mining Technologies Inspired from Visual Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zongben

    In this talk we review the recent work done by our group on data mining (DM) technologies deduced from simulating visual principle. Through viewing a DM problem as a cognition problems and treading a data set as an image with each light point located at a datum position, we developed a series of high efficient algorithms for clustering, classification and regression via mimicking visual principles. In pattern recognition, human eyes seem to possess a singular aptitude to group objects and find important structure in an efficient way. Thus, a DM algorithm simulating visual system may solve some basic problems in DM research. From this point of view, we proposed a new approach for data clustering by modeling the blurring effect of lateral retinal interconnections based on scale space theory. In this approach, as the data image blurs, smaller light blobs merge into large ones until the whole image becomes one light blob at a low enough level of resolution. By identifying each blob with a cluster, the blurring process then generates a family of clustering along the hierarchy. The proposed approach provides unique solutions to many long standing problems, such as the cluster validity and the sensitivity to initialization problems, in clustering. We extended such an approach to classification and regression problems, through combatively employing the Weber's law in physiology and the cell response classification facts. The resultant classification and regression algorithms are proven to be very efficient and solve the problems of model selection and applicability to huge size of data set in DM technologies. We finally applied the similar idea to the difficult parameter setting problem in support vector machine (SVM). Viewing the parameter setting problem as a recognition problem of choosing a visual scale at which the global and local structures of a data set can be preserved, and the difference between the two structures be maximized in the feature space, we derived a

  14. Rover Technologies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop and mature rover technologies supporting robotic exploration including rover design, controlling rovers over time delay and for exploring . Technology...

  15. Nano technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, In Sik

    2002-03-01

    This book is introduction of nano technology, which describes what nano technology is, alpha and omega of nano technology, the future of Korean nano technology and human being's future and nano technology. The contents of this book are nano period is coming, a engine of creation, what is molecular engineering, a huge nano technology, technique on making small things, nano materials with exorbitant possibility, the key of nano world the most desirable nano technology in bio industry, nano development plan of government, the direction of development for nano technology and children of heart.

  16. Superior in vitro and in vivo activity of trastuzumab-emtansine (T-DM1) in comparison to trastuzumab, pertuzumab and their combination in epithelial ovarian carcinoma with high HER2/neu expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menderes, Gulden; Bonazzoli, Elena; Bellone, Stefania; Altwerger, Gary; Black, Jonathan D; Dugan, Katherine; Pettinella, Francesca; Masserdotti, Alice; Riccio, Francesco; Bianchi, Anna; Zammataro, Luca; de Haydu, Christopher; Buza, Natalia; Hui, Pei; Wong, Serena; Huang, Gloria S; Litkouhi, Babak; Ratner, Elena; Silasi, Dan-Arin; Azodi, Masoud; Schwartz, Peter E; Santin, Alessandro D

    2017-10-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remains the most lethal gynecologic malignancy. The objective of this study was to compare the anti-tumor activity of HER2/neu-targeting monoclonal antibodies, trastuzumab (T), pertuzumab (P), combination of trastuzumab and pertuzumab (T+P) and trastuzumab-emtansine (T-DM1) in EOC with high HER2/neu expression. Primary EOC cell lines were established and cell blocks were analyzed for HER2/neu expression. Cytostatic, apoptotic and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) activities of T, P, T+P and T-DM1 were evaluated in vitro. The in vivo antitumor activity was tested in xenograft models with 3+ HER2/neu expression. High (3+) HER2/neu expression was detected in 40% of the primary EOC cell lines. T, P, T+P, and T-DM1 were similarly effective in inducing strong ADCC against primary EOC cell lines expressing 3+ HER2/neu. The combination of T and P was more cytostatic when compared with that of T or P used alone (p<0.0001 and p<0.0001, respectively). T-DM1 induced significantly more apoptosis when compared with T+P (p<0.0001). Finally, T-DM1 was significantly more effective in tumor growth inhibition in vivo in EOC xenografts overexpressing HER2/neu when compared to T alone, P alone and T+P (p=0.04). In vitro and in vivo experiments with 3+ HER2/neu expressing EOC revealed limited anti-tumor activity of T or P. T-DM1 showed superior anti-tumor activity to T and P as single agents and as a combination. Our preclinical data support the design of clinical studies with T-DM1 for the treatment of chemotherapy-resistant EOC overexpressing HER2/neu. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Biological aspects of the DM28C clone of Trypanosoma cruzi after metacylogenesis in chemically defined media Aspectos biológicos do clone Dm 28c de Trypanosoma cruzi após metaciclogênese em meio quimicamente definido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor T. Contreras

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available The biological characterization of the Trypanosoma cruzi clone Dm 28c in terms of its growth in LIT medium, cell-cycle, infectivity to mice and interaction with professional and non-professional phagocytic cells shows that it behaves as a bona fide T. cruzi representant. The biological properties of this myotropic clone do not change according to the origin of the trypomastigote forms (i. e., from triatomines, infected mice, cell-culture or from the chemically defined TAUP and TAU3AAG media. In addition Dm 28c metacyclic trypomastigotes from TAU3AAG medium display a high infectivity level to fibroblasts and muscle cells. Experiments on binding of cationized ferritin to trypomastigotes surface show the existence of cap-like structures of ferritin in regions near the kinetoplast. However the nature and role of these anionic sites remain to be determined. The results indicate that metacyclic trypomastigotes from Dm 28c clone obtained under chemically defined conditions reproduce the biological behaviour of T. cruzi, rendering this system very suitable for the study of cell-parasite interactions and for the isolation of trypanosome relevant macromolecules.A caracterização biológica do clone Dm 28c de Trypanosoma cruzi em termos do seu crescimento em meio LIT, ciclo celular, infectividade para camundongos e interação com células fagocíticas profissionais e não-profissionais, mostra que o mesmo comporta-se como um fiel representante da espécie T. cruzi. As propriedades biológicas deste clone miotrópico não mudam de acordo com a proveniência das formas tripomastigotas (i. e., de triatomíneos, de camundongos infectados, de cultura celular ou dos meios quimicamente definidos TAUP e TAU3AAG. Ainda mais, formas tripomastigotas metacíclicas do clone Dm 28c derivado do meio TAU3AAG apresentam um alto grau de infectividade para fibroblastos e células de músculo. Experimentos de ligação de ferritina cationizada à superfície de

  18. Architecture of DM-TFET

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Schematic of the p-i-n and p-n-p-n TFET biosensor with air and bio molecules in the cavity gap. Schematic of the p-i-n and p-n-p-n TFET biosensor with air and bio molecules in the cavity gap. For p-n-p-n TFET,. Region I is a heavily doped n+ layer and Region II is the channel ...

  19. « Et ils ne vécurent pas heureux » : la fin de Jane Eyre réécrite dans Charlotte de D.M. Thomas “And they didn’t live happily ever after”: D.M. Thomas’s Rewriting of the Ending of Jane Eyre in Charlotte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armelle Parey

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available D.M. Thomas’s rewriting of Jane Eyre in Charlotte (2000 takes the shape of a transformation of the ending which enables the second Mrs Rochester’s story to be continued in the West Indies, thus also acknowledging Jean Rhys’s Wide Sargasso Sea as another intertext. In order to challenge the narrative and ideological hierarchy of the source text by rewriting its ending, the pastiche defamiliarises it while some chapters set in 1999 move the limits of rewriting and take the reader into a narrative spiral.

  20. Information Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The first wave delivered a range of services to most areas of the world through a vast, carefully constructed global network. Cellular technology ...Information Technology and Services Alliance. Digital Planet 2002: The Global Information Economy. February 2002. Yegyazarian, Anush. Sales Taxes...Information Technology ABSTRACT: The information technology (IT) industry affects virtually every industry in the n economy. During the late 90

  1. Technology Innovation Of Organic Waste Decomposition In Providing Feedstuffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Prawirodigdo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous investigations in Indonesia indicated that an inactive ovary was a chronically reproduction problem in ruminants. There was a tendency that nutrition deficiency inhibited ovulation, oestrus occurrence, and conception in ruminants. Obviously, there is a correlation between sufficient nutrient consumption and reproduction performance of such animals. Thus, application of the production/reproduction technology innovation for improving ruminant’s productivity in the villages needs to be supported by the availability of sufficient feed. Whilst, there is a competition among ruminants in fulfilling feed requirement. On the other hand, there are large amounts of organic waste of food and plantation estate industries which are potential for non-traditional feedstuffs. The examples of such organic wastes are: 4,817,630 ton dry matter (DM of cacao pod, 314,042.51 ton DM of coffee pulp and hulls, and 29,700,000 ton DM of palm frond, leaves and trunks. Unfortunately, such materials contain anti-nutritive substance. Nevertheless, technology innovation for decomposing organic waste is available and its validity has been proven to be satisfactory and appropriate. Regarding the limitation of feedstuffs, introduction of technology innovation for organic waste decomposition to provide feed for improving livestock productivity is promising to be applied.

  2. Electronic technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Su

    2010-07-01

    This book is composed of five chapters, which introduces electronic technology about understanding of electronic, electronic component, radio, electronic application, communication technology, semiconductor on its basic, free electron and hole, intrinsic semiconductor and semiconductor element, Diode such as PN junction diode, characteristic of junction diode, rectifier circuit and smoothing circuit, transistor on structure of transistor, characteristic of transistor and common emitter circuit, electronic application about electronic equipment, communication technology and education, robot technology and high electronic technology.

  3. Effects of Clear Kefir on Biomolecular Aspects of Glycemic Status of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM Patients in Bandung, West Java [Study on Human Blood Glucose, c Peptide and Insulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judiono J

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes Mellitus (DM triggers an excessive reaction of free-radicals. It increases reactive oxygen species and reduces antioxidants status as well as the β cell damage. Clear kefir was used for DM therapies, however it limited biomolecular exploration of its bioactive roles. Research aimed to investigate the effects of clear kefir on the biomolecular nature of the glycemic status of T2DM in Bandung. Methods: The randomized pretest-posttest control group was conducted by 106 T2DM patients. Research was done in several hospitals in Bandung and Cimahi, West Java from 2012–2013. Samples were divided randomly into three groups: (1 T2DM with HbA1c 7 fed standard diet and supplemented 200 ml/day by clear kefir, (3 T2DM with HbA1c was fed a standard diet as a control group. Dose response was obtained from a preeliminary vivo study, and then converted to human dosage by year 2011. Intervention was effectively done for 30 days. HbA1c was measured by HPLC. Fasting blood glucose (FBG and Postprandial blood glucose levels (PBG were measured by enzymes levels. C Peptide and insulin were measured by Elisa. Data was analyzed by a statictics programme by significance p<0,05. Study was approved by ethic committee. Results : HbA1c was significantly reduced in delta level (p<0.01 and FBG (p<0.015 among kefir groups. PBG was not significantly reduced among groups. C-Peptide was significantly increased in delta level, except in control group (p<0.014. Insulin was reduced significantly, except in control group (p<0.003. Conclusions : Supplementation of clear kefir reduced blood glucose levels (HbA1c, FBG, PBG and increased c-peptide. Clear kefir’s biomolecular mechanisms and chemistry characterization is a challenge for future studies.

  4. Patient-reported outcomes from EMILIA, a randomized phase 3 study of trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) versus capecitabine and lapatinib in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welslau, Manfred; Diéras, Veronique; Sohn, Joo-Hyuk; Hurvitz, Sara A; Lalla, Deepa; Fang, Liang; Althaus, Betsy; Guardino, Ellie; Miles, David

    2014-03-01

    This report describes the results of an analysis of patient-reported outcomes from EMILIA (TDM4370g/BO21977), a randomized phase 3 study of the antibody-drug conjugate trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) versus capecitabine and lapatinib in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer. A secondary endpoint of the EMILIA study was time to symptom worsening (time from randomization to the first documentation of a ≥ 5-point decrease from baseline) as measured by the Trial Outcome Index Physical/Functional/Breast (TOI-PFB) subset of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast questionnaire. Predefined exploratory patient-reported outcome endpoints included proportion of patients with a clinically significant improvement in symptoms (per TOI-PFB) and proportion of patients with diarrhea symptoms (per Diarrhea Assessment Scale). In the T-DM1 arm, 450 of 495 patients had a baseline and ≥ 1 postbaseline TOI-PFB score versus 445 of 496 patients in the capecitabine-plus-lapatinib arm. Time to symptom worsening was delayed in the T-DM1 arm versus the capecitabine-plus-lapatinib arm (7.1 months versus 4.6 months, respectively; hazard ratio = 0.796; P = .0121). In the T-DM1 arm, 55.3% of patients developed clinically significant improvement in symptoms from baseline versus 49.4% in the capecitabine-plus-lapatinib arm (P = .0842). Although similar at baseline, the number of patients reporting diarrhea symptoms increased 1.5- to 2-fold during treatment with capecitabine and lapatinib but remained near baseline levels in the T-DM1 arm. Together with the EMILIA primary data, these results support the concept that T-DM1 has greater efficacy and tolerability than capecitabine plus lapatinib, which may translate into improvements in health-related quality of life. © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  5. The Role of DmCatD, a Cathepsin D-Like Peptidase, and Acid Phosphatase in the Process of Follicular Atresia in Dipetalogaster maxima (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), a Vector of Chagas' Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyria, Jimena; Fruttero, Leonardo L.; Nazar, Magalí; Canavoso, Lilián E.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we have investigated the involvement of DmCatD, a cathepsin D-like peptidase, and acid phosphatase in the process of follicular atresia of Dipetalogaster maxima, a hematophagous insect vector of Chagas’ disease. For the studies, fat bodies, ovaries and hemolymph were sampled from anautogenous females at representative days of the reproductive cycle: pre-vitellogenesis, vitellogenesis as well as early and late atresia. Real time PCR (qPCR) and western blot assays showed that DmCatD was expressed in fat bodies and ovaries at all reproductive stages, being the expression of its active form significantly higher at the atretic stages. In hemolymph samples, only the immunoreactive band compatible with pro-DmCatD was observed by western blot. Acid phosphatase activity in ovarian tissues significantly increased during follicular atresia in comparison to pre-vitellogenesis and vitellogenesis. A further enzyme characterization with inhibitors showed that the high levels of acid phosphatase activity in atretic ovaries corresponded mainly to a tyrosine phosphatase. Immunofluorescence assays demonstrated that DmCatD and tyrosine phosphatase were associated with yolk bodies in vitellogenic follicles, while in atretic stages they displayed a different cellular distribution. DmCatD and tyrosine phosphatase partially co-localized with vitellin. Moreover, their interaction was supported by FRET analysis. In vitro assays using homogenates of atretic ovaries as the enzyme source and enzyme inhibitors demonstrated that DmCatD, together with a tyrosine phosphatase, were necessary to promote the degradation of vitellin. Taken together, the results strongly suggested that both acid hydrolases play a central role in early vitellin proteolysis during the process of follicular atresia. PMID:26091289

  6. Data supporting characterization of CLIC1, CLIC4, CLIC5 and DmCLIC antibodies and localization of CLICs in endoplasmic reticulum of cardiomyocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devasena Ponnalagu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Chloride intracellular channel (CLICs proteins show 60–70% sequence identity to each other, and exclusively localize to the intracellular organelle membranes and cytosol. In support of our recent publication, “Molecular identity of cardiac mitochondrial chloride intracellular channel proteins” (Ponnalagu et al., 2016 [1], it was important to characterize the specificity of different CLIC paralogs/ortholog (CLIC1, CLIC4, CLIC5 and DmCLIC antibodies used to decipher their localization in cardiac cells. In addition, localization of CLICs in the other organelles such as endoplasmic reticulum (ER of cardiomyocytes was established. This article also provides data on the different primers used to show the relative abundance of CLIC paralogs in cardiac tissue and the specificity of the various CLIC antibodies used. We demonstrate that the predominant CLICs in the heart, namely CLIC1, CLIC4 and CLIC5, show differential distribution in endoplasmic reticulum. CLIC1 and CLIC4 both show co-localization to the endoplasmic reticulum whereas CLIC5 does not.

  7. Effects of lorcaserin on fat and lean mass loss in obese and overweight patients without and with type 2 diabetes mellitus: the BLOSSOM and BLOOM-DM studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apovian, C; Palmer, K; Fain, R; Perdomo, C; Rubino, D

    2016-09-01

    Body composition was determined using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in a subset of patients without (BLOSSOM) and with (BLOOM-DM) type 2 diabetes who received diet and exercise counselling along with either lorcaserin 10 mg twice daily or placebo. DXA scans were performed on study day 1 (baseline), week 24 and week 52. Baseline demographics of the subpopulations (without diabetes, n = 189; with diabetes, n = 63) were similar between studies and representative of their study populations. At week 52, patients without diabetes on lorcaserin lost significantly more fat mass relative to those on placebo (-12.06% vs -5.93%; p = 0.008). In patients with diabetes, fat mass was also decreased with lorcaserin relative to placebo (-9.87% vs -1.65%; p diabetes: -3.31% vs -2.05%; with diabetes: -3.65% vs -0.36%). Weight loss with lorcaserin was associated with a greater degree of fat mass loss than lean mass loss, and most of the fat mass lost for patients without and with diabetes was from the central region of the body. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Hydrocarbon production and reservoir management: recent advances in closed-loop optimization technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, O.A.; Hanea, R.G.; Nennie, E.D.; Peters, R.C.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Petroleum production is a relatively inefficient process. For oil production, it is, generally, less than 60 % effective on a macro scale and less than 60 % effective on a micro scale. This results, commonly, in an actual oil recovery of less than 35 %. Optimization of the production process will,

  9. Development of Nanotools for Applications in (sub-)Femtofluidics and Graphene Technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez Garza, H.H.

    2015-01-01

    Properties of matter at the nano-scale may be very different from the ones observed at the macro-scale. The continuous variation of characteristics with diminishing size results in relevant changes in behavior. Similarly, these changes are caused by the rise of completely new phenomena (i.e. quantum

  10. Globalization & technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Narula, Rajneesh

    Technology and globalization are interdependent processes. Globalization has a fundamental influence on the creation and diffusion of technology, which, in turn, affects the interdependence of firms and locations. This volume examines the international aspect of this interdependence at two levels...

  11. Living Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    This book is aimed at anyone who is interested in learning more about living technology, whether coming from business, the government, policy centers, academia, or anywhere else. Its purpose is to help people to learn what living technology is, what it might develop into, and how it might impact...... our lives. The phrase 'living technology' was coined to refer to technology that is alive as well as technology that is useful because it shares the fundamental properties of living systems. In particular, the invention of this phrase was called for to describe the trend of our technology becoming...... increasingly life-like or literally alive. Still, the phrase has different interpretations depending on how one views what life is. This book presents nineteen perspectives on living technology. Taken together, the interviews convey the collective wisdom on living technology's power and promise, as well as its...

  12. Earthing Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we reflect on the conditions under which new technologies emerge in the Anthropocene and raise the question of how to conceptualize sustainable technologies therein. To this end, we explore an eco-centric approach to technology development, called biomimicry. We discuss opposing

  13. Technology Tiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer

    2015-01-01

    A technology tier is a level in a product system: final product, system, subsystem, component, or part. As a concept, it contrasts traditional “vertical” special technologies (for example, mechanics and electronics) and focuses “horizontal” feature technologies such as product characteristics...

  14. The development of an innovative education curriculum for 11-16 yr old children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Julie; Waller, Helen; Eiser, Christine; Heller, Simon; Roberts, Julie; Lewis, Michael; Wilson, Kim; Hutchinson, Tim; Willan, Mal; Bavelja, Petar; Bennet, G; Price, Kath

    2006-12-01

    Evidence-based, structured education is recommended for all people with diabetes; tailored to meet their personal needs and learning styles. Adult courses exist in the UK but are of limited value for children. The aim of this study was to adapt the adult Dose Adjustment For Normal Eating (DAFNE) course to design a skills training course, for children aged 11-16 yr, focusing on self-management skills within an intensive insulin regime. To ensure that the course format meets the developmental, intellectual and social needs of children and adolescents and is delivered using educationally sound techniques. Relevant professionals and potential users of the course were involved in curriculum design and content in the following ways: (i) The views of 95 pediatric diabetes specialist nurses were sought through a postal survey; (ii) Focus group discussions were conducted with children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and their families to contribute to content and design; and (iii) Secondary school teachers worked with experienced pediatric diabetes staff advising on educational content and teaching format. The developed curriculum uses a progressive modular-based structure to improve self-management in a variety of medical and social situations. It has clear learning objectives and is based on the format of UK schools curricula. Additional support is provided through dedicated parent sessions, involvement of friends and the provision of a school resource pack. Collaborative working between health professionals, school teachers and families has resulted in an age-appropriate curriculum, which employs validated educational techniques. This will be refined following pilot courses before formal evaluation in a multicentre randomized controlled trial.

  15. Biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticle by using secondary metabolites from Pseudomonas aeruginosa DM1 and its anti-algal effect on Chlorella vulgaris and Chlorella pyrenoidosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Rima; Barsainya, Manjari; Singh, Devendra Pratap

    2017-02-01

    Biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using extracellular metabolites from the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa DM1 offers an eco-friendly and sustainable way of metal nanoparticle synthesis. The present work highlights the biotransformation of silver nitrate solution into AgNP, mediated by extracellular secondary metabolite pyoverdine, a siderophore produced by P. aeruginosa. The bioreduction of silver ions into AgNPs by using pyoverdine was recorded in terms of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis and color change in the reaction mixture (AgNO 3 + pyoverdine) from pale yellow to dark brown with absorption maxima at 415 nm. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of AgNPs showed its crystalline face-centered cubic structure. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) pictures of AgNPs showed spherical morphology of AgNP in the range of 45-100 nm, with tendency of agglomerations. The energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis of particles provided strong signal of elemental silver with few minor peaks of other impurities. The present approach offers a unique in vitro method of metal nanoparticle synthesis by exogenously produced bacterial secondary metabolites, where direct contact between the toxic metal and biological resource material can be avoided. The biologically synthesized AgNPs are found to have anti-algal effects against two species of Chlorella (Chlorella vulgaris and Chlorella pyenoidosa), as indicated by zone of growth inhibition on algal culture plates. Further results exhibit concentration-dependent progressive inhibition of chlorophyll content in the algal cells by AgNPs, confirming the algicidal effect of AgNPs.

  16. The electrochemical behaviour of copper in aerated 1 mol·dm-3 NaCl at room temperature: Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, F.; Litke, C.D.

    1989-05-01

    Uniform corrosion will be an important process in determining the lifetime of a copper nuclear fuel waste container. We need to know the mechanism of the corrosion reaction if we are to make reliable predictions about the long-term corrosion behaviour. This series of reports summarizes the results of an electrochemical investigation of the corrosion of copper in aerated 1 mol·dm -3 NaCl at room temperature. In part 2 we discuss the cathodic reduction of oxygen on a copper rotating disc electrode. The anodic dissolution of copper and the behaviour under freely corroding conditions are considered in Parts 1 and 3, respectively. The mechanism of the oxygen reduction reaction has been studied over a wide range of applied potentials. At potentials close to the corrosion potential, the mechanism is complicated and not fully understood. It is possible that in this potential region, oxygen is reduced to peroxide. At more negative applied potentials, between -0.50 and -0.90 V sce , the predominant process is the 4-electron reduction of oxygen to hydroxide. In this potential region, the rate is controlled jointly by the interfacial reaction and the rate of supply of oxygen to the electrode surface. At an applied potential of about -1.0 V sce , the rate of reduction is almost totally controlled by the rate of transport of oxygen. Values for the kinetic parameters for the 4-electron reaction have been determined. In addition, the diffusion coefficient of oxygen was found to be 1.7 3 ± 0.0 5 x 10 -5 cm 2 ·s -1 . These data, along with the results on the anodic dissolution of copper, will be used to explain the behaviour of copper under freely corroding conditions

  17. Soulful Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2010-01-01

    or anthropomorphism is important for the branding of new technology. Technology is seen as creating a techno-transcendence towards a more qualified humanity which is in contact with fundamental human values like intuition, vision, and sensing; all the qualities that technology, industrialization, and rationalization......, - in short modernity - have taken away from human existence. What old technology has removed now comes back through new technology promoting a better humanity. The present article investigates how digital technology and affects are presented and combined, with examples from everyday imagery, e.g. TV......Samsung introduced in 2008 a mobile phone called "Soul" made with a human touch and including itself a "magic touch". Through the analysis of a Nokia mobile phone TV-commercials I want to examine the function and form of digital technology in everyday images. The mobile phone and its digital camera...

  18. A retrospective analysis of a societal experiment among the Danish population suggests that exposure to extra doses of Vitamin A during fetal development may lower type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) risk later in life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Amélie; Ängquist, Lars; Jacobsen, Ramune

    2017-01-01

    ) and those with lower prenatal exposure (born 1 September 1959-31 December 1960) were followed up with regard to development of T2DM before 31 December 2012 in the Danish National Diabetes Registry and National Patient Register. Logistic and Cox regression analyses were performed to determine the risk of T2...

  19. Clinical significance of combined determination of serum relevant inflammatory factors (TNF-αm, hs-CRP) and HbAlc contents in patients with newly diagnosed DM2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Runhua; Yu Yunyun; Shen Liyan; Ge Yinlin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the inter-relationship between the serum contents of TNF-α, hs-CRP and HbAlc in patients with newly diagnosed DM2. Methods: Serum TNF-α, hs-CRP (with RIA), glucose (with biochemistry) and HbAlc (with micro column cbromatograpy) contents were examlued in 50 patients with newly diagnosed DM2 before any treatment and 50 controls. Results: The serum contents of TNF-α, hs-CRP and HbAlc in patients with newly diagnosed DM2 were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.001). Serum TNF-α, hs-CRP, HbAlc and glucose contents were mutually positively correlated (P<0.05). Conclusion: Serum TNF-α, hs-CRP and HbAlc contents were all significantly increased in patients with new]y diagnosed DM2, indicating participation of imflammatory factors in the development of diabetes. Combined determination of these parameters would be helpful for monitoring the progression of disease and outcome prediction. (authors)

  20. A retrospective analysis of a societal experiment among the Danish population suggests that exposure to extra doses of vitamin A during fetal development may lower type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) risk later in life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Amélie; Ängquist, Lars; Jacobsen, Ramune

    2017-01-01

    ·001, after adjustment for sex. Fetal exposure to small, extra amounts of vitamin A from food fortification may reduce the risk of T2DM. These results may have public health relevance, as they demonstrate that one of the most costly chronic diseases may be prevented by food fortification – a simple...... and affordable public health nutrition intervention....

  1. Effects of the Multidisciplinary Risk Assessment and Management Program for Patients with Diabetes Mellitus (RAMP-DM) on biomedical outcomes, observed cardiovascular events and cardiovascular risks in primary care: a longitudinal comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Fang Fang; Fung, Colman Siu Cheung; Wong, Carlos King Ho; Wan, Yuk Fai; Dai, Daisy; Kwok, Ruby; Lam, Cindy Lo Kuen

    2014-08-21

    To assess whether the Multidisciplinary Risk Assessment and Management Program for Patients with Diabetes Mellitus (RAMP-DM) led to improvements in biomedical outcomes, observed cardiovascular events and predicted cardiovascular risks after 12-month intervention in the primary care setting. A random sample of 1,248 people with diabetes enrolled to RAMP-DM for at least 12 months was selected and 1,248 people with diabetes under the usual primary care were matched by age, sex, and HbA1c level at baseline as the usual care group. Biomedical and cardiovascular outcomes were measured at baseline and at 12-month after the enrollment. Difference-in-differences approach was employed to measure the effect of RAMP-DM on the changes in biomedical outcomes, proportion of subjects reaching treatment targets, observed and predicted cardiovascular risks. Compared to the usual care group, RAMP-DM group had lower cardiovascular events incidence (1.21% vs 2.89%, P = 0.003), and net decrease in HbA1c (-0.20%, P managing Chinese people with diabetes in the primary care setting. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02034695.

  2. Technology '90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories have a long history of excellence in performing research and development in a number of areas, including the basic sciences, applied-energy technology, and weapons-related technology. Although technology transfer has always been an element of DOE and laboratory activities, it has received increasing emphasis in recent years as US industrial competitiveness has eroded and efforts have increased to better utilize the research and development resources the laboratories provide. This document, Technology '90, is the latest in a series that is intended to communicate some of the many opportunities available for US industry and universities to work with the DOE and its laboratories in the vital activity of improving technology transfer to meet national needs. Technology '90 is divided into three sections: Overview, Technologies, and Laboratories. The Overview section describes the activities and accomplishments of the DOE research and development program offices. The Technologies section provides descriptions of new technologies developed at the DOE laboratories. The Laboratories section presents information on the missions, programs, and facilities of each laboratory, along with a name and telephone number of a technology transfer contact for additional information. Separate papers were prepared for appropriate sections of this report

  3. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-related single nucleotide polymorphisms rs10738760 and rs6921438 are not associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR in Slovenian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rifet Terzić

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy (DR is a complication of diabetes characterized by vascular permeability, increased tissue ischemia, and angiogenesis. One of the most important proteins involved in angiogenesis is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, also known as VEGFA. A previous study demonstrated that two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, rs6921438 and rs10738760, account for nearly half the variation in circulating VEGF levels. The aim of our study was to assess the association between rs6921438 and rs10738760 and DR in Slovenian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. This case-control study enrolled 1037 unrelated Slovenian individuals (Caucasians with T2DM. DR group included 415 T2DM patients with DR, while control group included 622 T2DM patients with no clinical signs of DR. The clinical and laboratory data were obtained from the medical records of the patients. The genotyping of rs6921438 and rs10738760 SNPs was carried out with real-time PCR assays. Significant differences were observed between patients with DR and controls in the duration of diabetes (p < 0.001, insulin therapy (p < 0.001, glycated hemoglobin (p = 0.001, body mass index (p = 0.002, total cholesterol (p = 0.002, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p < 0.001. However, we did not observe significant differences in the genotype and allele distribution of the two SNPs, between DR and control group (p < 0.05. Logistic regression analysis showed that rs6921438 and rs10738760 were not independent genetic risk factors for DR in the co-dominant model adjusted for the above-mentioned clinical and laboratory data. In conclusion, VEGF-related SNPs rs10738760 and rs6921438 are not associated with DR in our group of Slovenian patients (Caucasians with T2DM.

  4. Instrument for assessing mobile technology acceptability in diabetes self-management: a validation and reliability study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frandes M

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Mirela Frandes,1 Anca V Deiac,2 Bogdan Timar,1,3 Diana Lungeanu1,2 1Department of Functional Sciences, “Victor Babes” University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Timisoara, 2Department of Mathematics, Polytechnic University of Timisoara, 3Third Medical Clinic, Emergency Hospital of Timisoara, Timisoara, Romania Background: Nowadays, mobile technologies are part of everyday life, but the lack of instruments to assess their acceptability for the management of chronic diseases makes their actual adoption for this purpose slow.Objective: The objective of this study was to develop a survey instrument for assessing patients’ attitude toward and intention to use mobile technology for diabetes mellitus (DM self-management, as well as to identify sociodemographic characteristics and quality of life factors that affect them.Methods: We first conducted the documentation and instrument design phases, which were subsequently followed by the pilot study and instrument validation. Afterward, the instrument was administered 103 patients (median age: 37 years; range: 18–65 years diagnosed with type 1 or type 2 DM, who accepted to participate in the study. The reliability and construct validity were assessed by computing Cronbach’s alpha and using factor analysis, respectively.Results: The instrument included statements about the actual use of electronic devices for DM management, interaction between patient and physician, attitude toward using mobile technology, and quality of life evaluation. Cronbach’s alpha was 0.9 for attitude toward using mobile technology and 0.97 for attitude toward using mobile device applications for DM self-management. Younger patients (Spearman’s ρ=-0.429; P<0.001 with better glycemic control (Spearman’s ρ=-0.322; P<0.001 and higher education level (Kendall’s τ=0.51; P<0.001 had significantly more favorable attitude toward using mobile assistive applications for DM control. Moreover, patients with a higher quality of

  5. Onsite Greywater Treatment using Pilot Scale Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzoor-ul-Haq Rajput

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The GROW Technology for greywater treatment was installed at the MUET (Mehran University of Engineering & Technology, hostel and run under continuous flow conditions with hydraulic loading rate of 0.15m.d-1. The monitoring and analysis of influent and effluent water were carried out during January-December, 2010. Local plants species such as water hyacinth, Pennywort (duck weed, Mint and Cattail were used in the GROW rig as a mixed mode. Coarse Gravels were filled in the troughs as a medium. The collected samples were analyzed for BOD5 (Biochemical Oxygen Demand, COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand, TSS (Total Suspended Solids, pH, and DO (Dissolved Oxygen. Removal efficiencies of BOD5, COD and TSS were calculated as 83.0,69.0 and 84.0% respectively. DO was found increased from 0.6-3.5 mg.dm-3 while pH was observed between 6.5-7.8

  6. Sensemaking technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Øland

    Research scope: The scope of the project is to study technological implementation processes by using Weick's sensemaking concept (Weick, 1995). The purpose of using a social constructivist approach to investigate technological implementation processes is to find out how new technologies transform...... patterns of social action and interaction in organisations (Barley 1986; 1990, Orlikowski 2000). Current research in the field shows that new technologies affect organisational routines/structures/social relationships/power relations/dependencies and alter organisational roles (Barley 1986; 1990, Burkhardt......, Orlikowski 2000). Viewing the use of technology as a process of enactment opens up for investigating the social processes of interpreting new technology into the organisation (Orlikowski 2000). The scope of the PhD project will therefore be to gain a deeper understanding of how the enactment of new...

  7. Technological risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinke, A.; Renn, O.

    1998-01-01

    The empirical part about the technological risks deals with different technologies: nuclear energy, early warning systems of nuclear weapons and NBC-weapons, and electromagnetic fields. The potential of damage, the contemporary management strategies and the relevant characteristics will be described for each technology: risks of nuclear energy; risks of early warning systems of nuclear weapons and NBC-weapons; risks of electromagnetic fields. (authors)

  8. Technological risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinke, A.; Renn, O. [Center of Technology Assessment in Baden-Wuerttemberg, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1998-07-01

    The empirical part about the technological risks deals with different technologies: nuclear energy, early warning systems of nuclear weapons and NBC-weapons, and electromagnetic fields. The potential of damage, the contemporary management strategies and the relevant characteristics will be described for each technology: risks of nuclear energy; risks of early warning systems of nuclear weapons and NBC-weapons; risks of electromagnetic fields. (authors)

  9. Technology alliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torgerson, D.F.; Boczar, P.G.; Kugler, G.

    1991-10-01

    In the field of nuclear technology, Canada and Korea developed a highly successful relationship that could serve as a model for other high-technology industries. This is particularly significant when one considers the complexity and technical depth required to design, build and operate a nuclear reactor. This paper will outline the overall framework for technology transfer and cooperation between Canada and Korea, and will focus on cooperation in nuclear R and D between the two countries

  10. Chemistry Technology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Chemistry technology experts at NCATS engage in a variety of innovative translational research activities, including:Design of bioactive small molecules.Development...

  11. FINAL REPORT INTEGRATED DM1200 MELTER TESTING OF BUBBLER CONFIGURATIONS USING HLW AZ-101 SIMULANTS VSL-04R4800-4 REV 0 10/5/04

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; GONG W; BARDAKCI T; D' ANGELO NA; LUTZE W; CALLOW RA; BRANDYS M; KOT WK; PEGG IL

    2011-12-29

    This report documents melter and off-gas performance results obtained on the DM1200 HLW Pilot Melter during processing of AZ-101 HLW simulants. The tests reported herein are a subset of six tests from a larger series of tests described in the Test Plan for the work; results from the other tests have been reported separately. The solids contents of the melter feeds were based on the WTP baseline value for the solids content of the feeds from pretreatment which changed during these tests from 20% to 15% undissolved solids resulting in tests conducted at two feed solids contents. Based on the results of earlier tests with single outlet 'J' bubblers, initial tests were performed with a total bubbling rate of 651 pm. The first set of tests (Tests 1A-1E) addressed the effects of skewing this total air flow rate back and forth between the two installed bubblers in comparison to a fixed equal division of flow between them. The second set of tests (2A-2D) addressed the effects of bubbler depth. Subsequently, as the location, type and number of bubbling outlets were varied, the optimum bubbling rate for each was determined. A third (3A-3C) and fourth (8A-8C) set of tests evaluated the effects of alternative bubbler designs with two gas outlets per bubbler instead of one by placing four bubblers in positions simulating multiple-outlet bubblers. Data from the simulated multiple outlet bubblers were used to design bubblers with two outlets for an additional set of tests (9A-9C). Test 9 was also used to determine the effect of small sugar additions to the feed on ruthenium volatility. Another set of tests (10A-10D) evaluated the effects on production rate of spiking the feed with chloride and sulfate. Variables held constant to the extent possible included melt temperature, plenum temperature, cold cap coverage, the waste simulant composition, and the target glass composition. The feed rate was increased to the point that a constant, essentially complete, cold cap was

  12. Technology Catalogue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    The Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) is responsible for remediating its contaminated sites and managing its waste inventory in a safe and efficient manner. EM's Office of Technology Development (OTD) supports applied research and demonstration efforts to develop and transfer innovative, cost-effective technologies to its site clean-up and waste management programs within EM's Office of Environmental Restoration and Office of Waste Management. The purpose of the Technology Catalogue is to provide performance data on OTD-developed technologies to scientists and engineers assessing and recommending technical solutions within the Department's clean-up and waste management programs, as well as to industry, other federal and state agencies, and the academic community. OTD's applied research and demonstration activities are conducted in programs referred to as Integrated Demonstrations (IDs) and Integrated Programs (IPs). The IDs test and evaluate.systems, consisting of coupled technologies, at specific sites to address generic problems, such as the sensing, treatment, and disposal of buried waste containers. The IPs support applied research activities in specific applications areas, such as in situ remediation, efficient separations processes, and site characterization. The Technology Catalogue is a means for communicating the status. of the development of these innovative technologies. The FY93 Technology Catalogue features technologies successfully demonstrated in the field through IDs and sufficiently mature to be used in the near-term. Technologies from the following IDs are featured in the FY93 Technology Catalogue: Buried Waste ID (Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho); Mixed Waste Landfill ID (Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico); Underground Storage Tank ID (Hanford, Washington); Volatile organic compound (VOC) Arid ID (Richland, Washington); and VOC Non-Arid ID (Savannah River Site, South Carolina)

  13. Thermally activated technologies: Technology Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2003-05-01

    The purpose of this Technology Roadmap is to outline a set of actions for government and industry to develop thermally activated technologies for converting America’s wasted heat resources into a reservoir of pollution-free energy for electric power, heating, cooling, refrigeration, and humidity control. Fuel flexibility is important. The actions also cover thermally activated technologies that use fossil fuels, biomass, and ultimately hydrogen, along with waste heat.

  14. Technological Advancements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Mike

    2010-01-01

    The influx of technology has brought significant improvements to school facilities. Many of those advancements can be found in classrooms, but when students head down the hall to use the washrooms, they are likely to find a host of technological innovations that have improved conditions in that part of the building. This article describes modern…

  15. Maritime Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Herman

    1997-01-01

    Elementary introduction to the subject "Maritime Technology".The contents include drawings, sketches and references in English without any supplementary text.......Elementary introduction to the subject "Maritime Technology".The contents include drawings, sketches and references in English without any supplementary text....

  16. Technology collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Jacob [Halliburton (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to present Halliburton's Brazilian technology center. Halliburton has technology centers in the United States, Saudi Arabia, India, Singapore and Brazil, all of which aim at delivering accelerated innovation in the oil sector. The technology centers engage in research and development activities with the help of various universities and in collaboration with the customer or supplier. The Halliburton Brazil technology center provides its customers with timely research and development solutions for enhancing recovery and mitigating reservoir uncertainty; they are specialized in finding solutions for pre- and post-salt carbonate drilling and in the enhancement of production from mature fields. This presentation showcased the work carried out by the Halliburton Brazil technology center to help customers develop their deepwater field activities.

  17. Sensemaking technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Øland

    Research objective: The object of the LOK research project is to gain a better understanding of the technological strategic processes in organisations by using the concept/metaphor of sensemaking. The project will investigate the technological strategies in organisations in order to gain a deeper...... understanding of the cognitive competencies and barriers towards implementing new technology in organisations. The research will therefore concentrate on researching the development process in the organisation's perception of the external environmental elements of customers, suppliers, competitors, internal...... and external technology and legislation and the internal environmental elements of structure, power relations and political arenas. All of these variables have influence on which/how technologies are implemented thus creating different outcomes all depending on the social dynamics that are triggered by changes...

  18. Efectividad de la educación diabetológica sistematizada en niños que debutan con Diabetes Mellitus tipo 1 Effectiveness of systematic diabetes education in children diagnosed with Diabetes Mellitus type 1 (DM1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Montilla-Pérez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo principal: Evaluar la efectividad de la educación diabetológica sistematizada en niños que debutan con DM1 en el Hospital Universitario de Fuenlabrada (HUF, Madrid. Metodología: Estudio comparativo entre dos muestras de niños de 0 a 14 años que debutaron con DM1 antes y después de haberse instaurado un programa de educación diabetológica Se estudió a 34 niños adscritos al HUF que ingresaron por debut de DM1. Para evaluar la efectividad del programa se realizaron análisis bivariados con el fin de encontrar relaciones entre la educación diabetológica sistematizada y las variables: días de ingreso, frecuentación a urgencias por complicaciones, permisos domiciliarios y HbA1c a los 3 y 6 meses del alta. Resultados principales: Los días de ingreso se redujeron 3 días (pObjective: Evaluate the effectiveness of systematic diabetes education in children diagnosed with Diabetes Mellitus type 1 (DM1, in Fuenlabrada University Hospital (Madrid. Methods: A comparative study of two sample groups of children aged 0 to 14 diagnosed with DM1, before and after having been inducted into the diabetes education program. 34 children, admitted with a DM1 diagnosis, both with and without ketoacidosis, and assigned to Fuenlabrada University Hospital were studied. To evaluate the effectiveness of the program, bivariable analysis was undertaken with the objective of finding relationships between systematic diabetes education and the variables. Those variables were; admission days, frequency of visits to the emergency ward due to complications, and permissions to go home and HbA1c at 3 to 6 months after discharge from the hospital. Results: The admission days was reduced 3 days (p< 0.001, the complications within the 6 month after discharge decreased 41,2% and the permissions to go home increased 23,6% (p=0.001. Conclusions: The results of the study suggest the effectiveness of systematic diabetes education.

  19. Evaluation of weight loss and metabolic profile of obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (dm2 versus non-dm2 subjects, one and three years after bariatric surgery Avaliação da perda ponderal e perfil metabólico pós-cirurgia bariátrica em pacientes obesos portadores de diabetes mellitus tipo 2 versus não diabéticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Fraga Napoli

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is a debate over results obtained from type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2 obese patients and non-DM2 patients, in reference to metabolic control and ponderal loss, after bariatric surgery. AIM: To evaluate weight loss and metabolic profile of obese patients with DM2 versus non-DM2 subjects, one and three years after bariatric surgery. METHODS: Data from 38 non-DM2 patients and 44 DM2 patients submitted to Roux-en-Y gastric-bypass were analysed retrospectively. For the pre-operatory, first and third year of post-operatory, were compared: weight, body mass index (BMI, fasting glucose (FG, high density lipoprotein (HDL and triglycerides (TG. RESULTS: Preoperatively, both groups were statistically equivalent in regards to weight, BMI (P = 0.90 and HDL (P = 0.73. This was not the case when TG (P = 0.043 and FG (PRACIONAL: Tem havido debate sobre os resultados obtidos da cirurgia bariátrica nos obesos diabéticos versus não diabéticos, no quesito controle metabólico e perda ponderal. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a perda ponderal e perfil metabólico dos obesos diabéticos e não diabéticos após um e três anos da cirurgia bariátrica. MÉTODO: Análise retrospectiva dos prontuários de 44 diabéticos tipo 2 (DM2 e 38 não-DM2 submetidos à gastroplastia com derivação em Y-de-Roux. Dados como peso, índice de massa corpórea (IMC, glicemia de jejum (GJ, lipoproteína de alta densidade (HDL e triglicérides (TG foram vistos no pré-operatório, primeiro (PO1 e terceiro ano (PO3 após a operação. RESULTADOS: No pré-operatório, ambos os grupos foram estatisticamente equivalentes em peso, IMC (P=0,90 e HDL (P=0.73. Não se verificou o mesmo quando TG (P=0.043 e GJ (P < 0.01 foram analisados. No PO1, ambos DM2 e não-DM2 mostraram redução no peso, IMC e TG, assim como GJ no grupo DM2 (P < 0.05. HDL aumentou (P < 0.05 no PO1 em ambos os grupos. No período seguinte, entre PO1 e PO3, somente TG continuou a cair nos não-DM2 diabéticos (P=0

  20. Measuring technology using holography and interferometry. HOLOMETEC. Pamphlet for the concluding presentation; Holografisch-interferometrische Messtechnik. HOLOMETEC. Broschuere zur Abschlusspraesentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The German Federal Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Technology (BMBF) provided funds to the focal item of research, `Laser science and laser technology`, for the development of measuring and testing methods based on holography and interferometry, for applications such as quality assurance and experimental stress analysis. The main objective of research activities with collaborators from science and industry was to develop the holographic and interferometric techniques to a contactless measuring technology fit for applications in industry. The BMBF contributed for the R and D programme financial support amounting to DM 6.6 million, in a total budget of DM 9.6 million. The concluding presentation was intended to summarize and demonstrate the work performed and results achieved. (orig./MM) [Deutsch] Das Bundesministerium fuer Bildung, Wissenschaft, Forschung und Technologie foerderte im Foerderschwerpunkt ``Laserforschung und Lasertechnik`` die Erarbeitung von Verfahrensgrundlagen zur holografisch-interferometrischen Messtechnik fuer die Qualitaetssicherung und experimentelle Spannungsanalyse. Wesentliches Ziel der Forschungsarbeiten, an denen sich Partner aus Wissenschaft und Wirtschaft beteiligten, war es, die holografisch-interferometrische Messtechnik als beruehrungsloses Mess- und Pruefverfahren fuer die industrielle Anwendung tauglich zu machen. Das BMBF unterstuetzte die F und E-Arbeiten mit insgesamt 6.6 Mio DM bei einem Gesamtaufwand von 9.6 Mio DM. Mit der Abschlusspraesentation sollen der Fachoeffentlichkeit die nun vorliegenden Ergebnisse der Forschungsarbeiten vorgestellt werden. (orig./MM)

  1. Technology Interventions to Manage Food Intake: Where Are We Now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allman-Farinelli, Margaret; Gemming, Luke

    2017-09-23

    This review describes the state-of-the-art for dietary assessment using smartphone apps and digital technology and provides an update on the efficacy of technology-mediated interventions for dietary change. Technology has progressed from apps requiring entry of foods consumed, to digital imaging to provide food intake data. However, these methods rely on patients being active in data collection. The automated estimation of the volume and composition of every meal consumed globally is years away. The use of text messaging, apps, social media, and combinations of these for interventions is growing and proving effective for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Effectiveness of text messaging for obesity management is improving and multicomponent interventions show promise. A stand-alone app is less likely to produce positive outcomes and social media is relatively unexplored. A concentrated effort will be needed to progress digital dietary assessment. Researcher-designed technology programs are producing positive outcomes for T2DM but further research is needed in the area of weight management.

  2. Ergonomics technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, W. L.

    1977-01-01

    Major areas of research and development in ergonomics technology for space environments are discussed. Attention is given to possible applications of the technology developed by NASA in industrial settings. A group of mass spectrometers for gas analysis capable of fully automatic operation has been developed for atmosphere control on spacecraft; a version for industrial use has been constructed. Advances have been made in personal cooling technology, remote monitoring of medical information, and aerosol particle control. Experience gained by NASA during the design and development of portable life support units has recently been applied to improve breathing equipment used by fire fighters.

  3. P-gp activity is a critical resistance factor against AVE9633 and DM4 cytotoxicity in leukaemia cell lines, but not a major mechanism of chemoresistance in cells from acute myeloid leukaemia patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Ruoping; Legrand, Ollivier; Marie, Jean-Pierre; Cohen, Simy; Perrot, Jean-Yves; Faussat, Anne-Marie; Zuany-Amorim, Claudia; Marjanovic, Zora; Morjani, Hamid; Fava, Fanny; Corre, Elise

    2009-01-01

    AVE9633 is a new immunoconjugate comprising a humanized monoclonal antibody, anti-CD33 antigen, linked through a disulfide bond to the maytansine derivative DM4, a cytotoxic agent and potent tubulin inhibitor. It is undergoing a phase I clinical trial. Chemoresistance to anti-mitotic agents has been shown to be related, in part, to overexpression of ABC proteins. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential roles of P-gp, MRP1 and BCRP in cytotoxicity in AVE9633-induced acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). This study used AML cell lines expressing different levels of P-gp, MRP1 or BCRP proteins and twenty-five samples from AML patients. Expression and functionality of the transporter protein were analyzed by flow cytometry. The cytotoxicity of the drug was evaluated by MTT and apoptosis assays. P-gp activity, but not MRP1 and BCRP, attenuated AVE9633 and DM4 cytotoxicity in myeloid cell lines. Zosuquidar, a potent specific P-gp inhibitor, restored the sensitivity of cells expressing P-gp to both AVE9633 and DM4. However, the data from AML patients show that 10/25 samples of AML cells (40%) were resistant to AVE9633 or DM4 (IC 50 > 500 nM), and this was not related to P-gp activity (p-Value: 0.7). Zosuquidar also failed to re-establish drug sensitivity. Furthermore, this resistance was not correlated with CD33 expression (p-Value: 0.6) in those cells. P-gp activity is not a crucial mechanism of chemoresistance to AVE9633. For patients whose resistance to conventional anthracycline AML regimens is related to ABC protein expression, a combination with AVE9633 could be beneficial. Other mechanisms such as microtubule alteration could play an important role in chemoresistance to AVE9633

  4. Dukungan keluarga dan jadwal makan dan sebelum edukasi berhubungan dengan kepatuhan jadwal makan pasien diabetes melitus (DM tipe 2 rawat jalan yang mendapat konseling gizi di RSUD Kota Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martalena Br Purba

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM is a clinical syndrome with symptoms of hyperglycemia, urinary glucose excretion and disorder of insulin mechanism. Approximately 90-95% of diabetic patients suffer from type 2 DM. Various studies show that compliance to treatment of chronic disease in general is low. Compliance to eating or food frequency amongst DM patients in hospital in particular is very low. The success of self management of blood glucose (SMBG needs participation of the patient, families, and educator team. Objective: To study the factors affecting eating compliance particularly eating schedule among type 2 diabetic out-patient who had nutrition counseling in RSUD Kota Yogyakarta. Method: It was an observasional study with cross sectional design and purposive sampling. Data collection was done in October 2008 with 98 subjects. The sampel were type 2 diabetic out-patients according to inclusion criteria at out- patient clinic in RSUD Kota Yogyakarta. Statistical test with 95% confidence interval was applied to investigate factors infuenced eating compliance. Results: There were no correlations between eating compliance and disease duration (RP=  1,253 and p =0,403, and also with type of occupation (RP= 1,047 dan p= 1,000. However, it was found that family support affected eating compliance (RP= 1,723 dan p= 0,025 as well as eating schedule before nutrition counseling (RP = 2,151 and p= 0,02. Conclusion: Duration of disease and type of occupation did not affect eating compliance. Nevertheless, family support and eating schedule before nutrition education affected eating compliance among type 2 DM out-patients in RSUD Kota Yogyakarta.

  5. Technology Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA produces innovative technologies and facilitates their creation in line with the Agency mission to create products such as the stormwater calculator, remote sensing, innovation clusters, and low-cost air sensors.

  6. Videodisc technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, F.E. Jr.

    1981-03-01

    An overview of the technology of videodiscs is given. The emphasis is on systems that use reflection or transmission of laser light. Possible use of videodiscs for storage of bibliographic information is considered. 6 figures, 3 tables. (RWR)

  7. Technology | FNLCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Frederick National Laboratory develops and applies advanced, next-generation technologies to solve basic and applied problems in the biomedical sciences, and serves as a national resource of shared high-tech facilities.

  8. Globalization & technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Narula, Rajneesh

    of innovation" understanding of learning. Narula and Smith reconcile an important paradox. On the one hand, locations and firms are increasingly interdependent through supranational organisations, regional integration, strategic alliances, and the flow of investments, technologies, ideas and people......Technology and globalization are interdependent processes. Globalization has a fundamental influence on the creation and diffusion of technology, which, in turn, affects the interdependence of firms and locations. This volume examines the international aspect of this interdependence at two levels....... The boundaries of firms and countries are increasingly porous and imprecise, because firms use alliances and outsourcing, and countries are rarely technologically self-sufficient. On the other hand, locations remain distinct and idiosyncratic, with innovation systems remaining largely nationally bound. Knowledge...

  9. Plasma technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drouet, M.G.

    1984-03-01

    IREQ was contracted by the Canadian Electrical Association to review plasma technology and assess the potential for application of this technology in Canada. A team of experts in the various aspects of this technology was assembled and each team member was asked to contribute to this report on the applications of plasma pertinent to his or her particular field of expertise. The following areas were examined in detail: iron, steel and strategic-metals production; surface treatment by spraying; welding and cutting; chemical processing; drying; and low-temperature treatment. A large market for the penetration of electricity has been identified. To build up confidence in the technology, support should be provided for selected R and D projects, plasma torch demonstrations at full power, and large-scale plasma process testing

  10. Exploration technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roennevik, H.C. [Saga Petroleum A/S, Forus (Norway)

    1996-12-31

    The paper evaluates exploration technology. Topics discussed are: Visions; the subsurface challenge; the creative tension; the exploration process; seismic; geology; organic geochemistry; seismic resolution; integration; drilling; value creation. 4 refs., 22 figs.

  11. Lasers technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The Laser Technology Program of IPEN is developed by the Center for Lasers and Applications (CLA) and is committed to the development of new lasers based on the research of new optical materials and new resonator technologies. Laser applications and research occur within several areas such as Nuclear, Medicine, Dentistry, Industry, Environment and Advanced Research. Additional goals of the Program are human resource development and innovation, in association with Brazilian Universities and commercial partners

  12. Cognitive technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Mello, Alan; Figueiredo, Fabrício; Figueiredo, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the next generation optical networks as well as mobile communication technologies. The reader will find chapters on Cognitive Optical Network, 5G Cognitive Wireless, LTE, Data Analysis and Natural Language Processing. It also presents a comprehensive view of the enhancements and requirements foreseen for Machine Type Communication. Moreover, some data analysis techniques and Brazilian Portuguese natural language processing technologies are also described here. .

  13. Assessment of oxLDL, anti-oxLDL antibodies and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 as cardiovascular risk markers in obese adolescents with and without T1DM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesreen N. Omar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL, anti-oxLDL antibodies (oxLDL Ab and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2 are the sequel of lipoprotein oxidation and were not studied contemporarily in obese adolescents with and without type 1 diabetes (T1DM. Subjects and methods: The current study enrolled seventy-five adolescents with T1DM who were selected as having hyperglycemia and seventy-five matched control subjects. Both the diabetic and the control groups were further divided into obese, normal weight and underweight subgroups according to body mass index (BMI. The following tests were performed: fasting plasma glucose (FG glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, insulin, apolipoprotein AI (apo AI, apolipoprotein B (apo B, oxLDL, oxLDL Ab and Lp-PLA2 mass. The diabetic subgroups were selected as having hyperglycemia. Results: Obese diabetic subgroup had higher insulin level and HOMA value than underweight and normal weight diabetic subgroups. oxLDL, oxLDL Ab and Lp-PLA2 showed higher concentrations in patients with T1DM than in control subjects (118.48 ± 23.7, 1231.8 ± 940 and 401.26 ± 97.2 vs. 58.1 ± 17.9, 424.9 ± 290.0 and 315.7 ± 70; p < 0.001.. In patients with T1DM, direct correlations were found between oxLDL, oxLDL Ab and Lp-PLA2 and cardiometabolic markers represented by apo B/apo AI ratio, FG and BMI. Conclusion: The current data provide evidence that oxLDL, its retroactive enzyme and antibody are present in circulation early in childhood when primed by obesity and hyperglycemia in T1DM and suggests that they could be useful markers for cardiovascular diseases (CVD. Keywords: OxLDL, OxLDL Ab, Lp-PLA2, Cardiometabolic markers, Obese, Diabetes

  14. Technology cycles and technology revolutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paganetto, Luigi; Scandizzo, Pasquale Lucio

    2010-09-15

    Technological cycles have been characterized as the basis of long and continuous periods economic growth through sustained changes in total factor productivity. While this hypothesis is in part consistent with several theories of growth, the sheer magnitude and length of the economic revolutions experienced by humankind seems to indicate surmise that more attention should be given to the origin of major technological and economic changes, with reference to one crucial question: role of production and use of energy in economic development.

  15. Uranium enrichment in South Africa: from the world-unique Z-plant to the use of high-technology lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, M.W.

    1995-01-01

    A historical discussion of the technology used in South Africa for the enrichment of uranium, as well as other technological spin-offs for the country that followed from the construction of the Z-plant. The national energy strategy and objectives of the government during the Apartheid years resulted in the development of several large-scale energy projects. The pressure of sanctions forced the Z-plant to be rushed into operation at an uneconomical capacity of 250 000 SWU per annum. In 1994 this implied that enriched uranium was produced at a cost of $200 per SWU while the world market price was below $90. While the production of enriched uranium at the Z-plant ceased early in 1995, the expertise gained will not be lost entirely. As a result of the high energy and financial capital intensive current methods of producing enriched uranium, research started in the early 1970's into alternative production processes making use of lasers. South Africa has opted for the MLIS (molecular laser isotope separation) process, as a result of its vast experience gained from the Z-plant in the handling of the molecular input gas UF6 (uranium hexafluoride), and this has been under development since the early 1980's. During 1994 significant progress was made with MLIS, in particular with single-step enrichment from natural uranium to better than 4% uranium 235 on a macro scale. The Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa's strategy is to licence the process internationally. 3 tabs., 3 figs

  16. Persuasive Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Persuasive Technology, PERSUASIVE 2010, held in Copenhagen Denmark in June 2010. The 25 papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 80 submissions. In addition three keynote papers are included in this vol......This book constitutes the proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Persuasive Technology, PERSUASIVE 2010, held in Copenhagen Denmark in June 2010. The 25 papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 80 submissions. In addition three keynote papers are included...... in this volume. The topics covered are emotions and user experience, ambient persuasive systems, persuasive design, persuasion profiles, designing for health, psychology of persuasion, embodied and conversational agents, economic incentives, and future directions for persuasive technology....

  17. Seafood Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børresen, Torger

    This presentation will fill the total picture of this conference between fisheries and aquaculture, blue biotech and bioconservation, by considering the optimal processing technology of marine resources from the raw material until the seafood reaches the plate of the consumer. The situation today...... must be performed such that total traceability and authenticity of the final products can be presented on demand. The most important aspects to be considered within seafood technology today are safety, healthy products and high eating quality. Safety can be divided into microbiological safety...... and not presenting any safety risk per se. Seafood is healthy due to the omega-3 fatty acids and the nutritional value of vitamins, peptides and proteins. The processing technology must however be performed such that these valuable features are not lost during production. The same applies to the eating quality. Any...

  18. Smart technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruckner, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    The success of smart technology in the pursuit of the Gulf War has accentuated the awareness of how the Safeguards and Security disciplines are changing in response to new weaponry. Throughout the Department of Energy Integrated Complex (IC) Safeguards and Security efforts such as: Protection Programs Operations; Materials, Controls and Accountability; Information Security; Computer Security; Operational Security; Personnel Security, Safeguards and/or Security (S and S) surveys, and Inspections and Evaluations are undergoing a reassessment and refocusing. Some of this is in response to such things as the DOE initiated Freeze Report and the Drell Report. An important aspect is also technological, adjusting the way business is done in light of the weapons, tools and processes/procedures becoming available. This paper addresses the S and S issues with the promise of using smart technology to develop new approaches and equipment across the IC

  19. Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products in type I diabetes mellitus: technological and regulatory challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Leal-Lopes

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Type 1 Diabetes mellitus (T1DM is an autoimmune disorder which arises from the destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic β-cells. Currently, Brazil’s advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP, developed for clinical research and therapeutic purposes, take place in the so-called Cellular Technology Centers (CTC, according to the Resolution nº. 9/2011 of the Collegiate Board of Directors (RDC, enacted by the National Health Surveillance Agency (Anvisa. Objective: This study was conducted with the main objective of describing and discussing the development of ATMP for T1DM treatment. Method: A qualitative research, narrative review and critical discussion of the literature were under taken. Results: ATMP promote new therapeutic approaches for Diabetes, holding great potential to restore the patients’ endogenous insulin secretion, improving their life quality, overcoming the chronic complications of Diabetes and reducing the socioeconomic burden. Nowadays, ATMP in T1DM comprise: a cell therapy; b gene therapy products; c tissue engineering and d ATMPassociated to biopharmaceutical products. Conclusions: Further research should contribute to stimulate public and private organizations to effectively act towards reducing the impact of Diabetes on individuals and the society as a whole. It is essential that Brazilian legislation closely follows the biotechnological developments, supporting the scientific progress and benefiting T1DM patients with modern and cutting-edge therapies.

  20. Technology Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nanette R.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this summer's work was to attempt to enhance Technology Application Group (TAG) ability to measure the outcomes of its efforts to transfer NASA technology. By reviewing existing literature, by explaining the economic principles involved in evaluating the economic impact of technology transfer, and by investigating the LaRC processes our William & Mary team has been able to lead this important discussion. In reviewing the existing literature, we identified many of the metrics that are currently being used in the area of technology transfer. Learning about the LaRC technology transfer processes and the metrics currently used to track the transfer process enabled us to compare other R&D facilities to LaRC. We discuss and diagram impacts of technology transfer in the short run and the long run. Significantly, it serves as the basis for analysis and provides guidance in thinking about what the measurement objectives ought to be. By focusing on the SBIR Program, valuable information regarding the strengths and weaknesses of this LaRC program are to be gained. A survey was developed to ask probing questions regarding SBIR contractors' experience with the program. Specifically we are interested in finding out whether the SBIR Program is accomplishing its mission, if the SBIR companies are providing the needed innovations specified by NASA and to what extent those innovations have led to commercial success. We also developed a survey to ask COTR's, who are NASA employees acting as technical advisors to the SBIR contractors, the same type of questions, evaluating the successes and problems with the SBIR Program as they see it. This survey was developed to be implemented interactively on computer. It is our hope that the statistical and econometric studies that can be done on the data collected from all of these sources will provide insight regarding the direction to take in developing systematic evaluations of programs like the SBIR Program so that they can

  1. Technology applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuskiewicz, T.; Johnston, J.; Leavitt, W.; Zimmerman, R. R.

    1972-01-01

    A summary of NASA Technology Utilization programs for the period of 1 December 1971 through 31 May 1972 is presented. An abbreviated description of the overall Technology Utilization Applications Program is provided as a background for the specific applications examples. Subjects discussed are in the broad headings of: (1) cancer, (2) cardiovascular disease, (2) medical instrumentation, (4) urinary system disorders, (5) rehabilitation medicine, (6) air and water pollution, (7) housing and urban construction, (8) fire safety, (9) law enforcement and criminalistics, (10) transportation, and (11) mine safety.

  2. Architectural technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    The booklet offers an overall introduction to the Institute of Architectural Technology and its projects and activities, and an invitation to the reader to contact the institute or the individual researcher for further information. The research, which takes place at the Institute of Architectural...... Technology at the Roayl Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture, reflects a spread between strategic, goal-oriented pilot projects, commissioned by a ministry, a fund or a private company, and on the other hand projects which originate from strong personal interests and enthusiasm of individual...

  3. Technology Transfer: Marketing Tomorrow's Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tcheng, Erene

    1995-01-01

    The globalization of the economy and the end of the Cold War have triggered many changes in the traditional practices of U.S. industry. To effectively apply the resources available to the United States, the federal government has firmly advocated a policy of technology transfer between private industry and government labs, in this case the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). NASA Administrator Daniel Goldin is a strong proponent of this policy and has organized technology transfer or commercialization programs at each of the NASA field centers. Here at Langley Research Center, the Technology Applications Group (TAG) is responsible for facilitating the transfer of Langley developed research and technology to U.S. industry. Entering the program, I had many objectives for my summer research with TAG. Certainly, I wanted to gain a more thorough understanding of the concept of technology transfer and Langley's implementation of a system to promote it to both the Langley community and the community at large. Also, I hoped to become more familiar with Langley's research capabilities and technology inventory available to the public. More specifically, I wanted to learn about the technology transfer process at Langley. Because my mentor is a member of Materials and Manufacturing marketing sector of the Technology Transfer Team, another overriding objective for my research was to take advantage of his work and experience in materials research to learn about the Advanced Materials Research agency wide and help market these developments to private industry. Through the various projects I have been assigned to work on in TAG, I have successfully satisfied the majority of these objectives. Work on the Problem Statement Process for TAG as well as the development of the Advanced Materials Research Brochure have provided me with the opportunity to learn about the technology transfer process from the outside looking in and the inside looking out. Because TAG covers

  4. Blast Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-27

    Team Leader Risa Scherer Blast Mitigation Interior and Laboratory Team Leader Blast Technologies POC’s Government Point Of Contacts (POCs): To...to yield injury assessments at higher fidelities and with higher confidence UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Risa Scherer Blast Mitigation Interior and

  5. Health technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolas, Delphine; Dangleant, Caroline; Ganier, Aude; Kaczmarek, Delphine

    2008-01-01

    The CEA is an organization with a primarily technological focus, and one of the key areas in which it carries out research is Health Technology. This field of research was recognized and approved by the French Atomic Energy Committee on July 20, 2004. The expectations of both the public and health care professionals relate to demands for the highest standards of health care, at minimum risk. This implies a need to diagnose illness and disease as accurately and as at early a stage as possible, to target surgery precisely to deal only with damaged organs or tissues, to minimize the risk of side effects, allergies and hospital-acquired infections, to follow-up and, as far as possible, tailor the health delivery system to each individual's needs and his or her lifestyle. The health care sector is subject to rapid changes and embraces a vast range of scientific fields. It now requires technological developments that will serve to gather increasing quantities of useful information, analyze and integrate it to obtain a full understanding of highly complex processes and to be able to treat the human body as un-invasively as possible. All the technologies developed require assessment, especially in the hospital environment. (authors)

  6. Technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boury, C.

    1986-01-01

    This paper emphasizes in the specific areas of design, engineering and component production. This paper presents what Framatome has to offer in these areas and its export oriented philosophy. Then, a typical example of this technology transfer philosophy is the collaboration with the South Korean firm, Korea Heavy Industries Corporation (KHIC) for the supply of KNU 9 and KNU 10 power stations

  7. Technology Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Kimberly R.

    1995-01-01

    The development and application of new technologies in the United States has always been important to the economic well being of the country. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been an important source of these new technologies for almost four decades. Recently, increasing global competition has emphasized the importance of fully utilizing federally funded technologies. Today NASA must meet its mission goals while at the same time, conduct research and development that contributes to securing US economic growth. NASA technologies must be quickly and effectively transferred into commercial products. In order to accomplish this task, NASA has formulated a new way of doing business with the private sector. Emphasis is placed on forming mutually beneficial partnerships between NASA and US industry. New standards have been set in response to the process that increase effectiveness, efficiency, and timely customer response. This summer I have identified potential markets for two NASA inventions: including the Radially Focused Eddy Current Sensor for Characterization of Flaws in Metallic Tubing and the Radiographic Moire. I have also worked to establish a cooperative program with TAG, private industry, and a university known as the TAG/Industry/Academia Program.

  8. Energy Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, William W.

    Reviewed are technological problems faced in energy production including locating, recovering, developing, storing, and distributing energy in clean, convenient, economical, and environmentally satisfactory manners. The energy resources of coal, oil, natural gas, hydroelectric power, nuclear energy, solar energy, geothermal energy, winds, tides,…

  9. (Environmental technology)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boston, H.L.

    1990-10-12

    The traveler participated in a conference on environmental technology in Paris, sponsored by the US Embassy-Paris, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the French Environmental Ministry, and others. The traveler sat on a panel for environmental aspects of energy technology and made a presentation on the potential contributions of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to a planned French-American Environmental Technologies Institute in Chattanooga, Tennessee, and Evry, France. This institute would provide opportunities for international cooperation on environmental issues and technology transfer related to environmental protection, monitoring, and restoration at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The traveler also attended the Fourth International Conference on Environmental Contamination in Barcelona. Conference topics included environmental chemistry, land disposal of wastes, treatment of toxic wastes, micropollutants, trace organics, artificial radionuclides in the environment, and the use biomonitoring and biosystems for environmental assessment. The traveler presented a paper on The Fate of Radionuclides in Sewage Sludge Applied to Land.'' Those findings corresponded well with results from studies addressing the fate of fallout radionuclides from the Chernobyl nuclear accident. There was an exchange of new information on a number of topics of interest to DOE waste management and environmental restoration needs.

  10. Geospatial Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Philip A.; Ritz, John

    2004-01-01

    Geospatial technology refers to a system that is used to acquire, store, analyze, and output data in two or three dimensions. This data is referenced to the earth by some type of coordinate system, such as a map projection. Geospatial systems include thematic mapping, the Global Positioning System (GPS), remote sensing (RS), telemetry, and…

  11. Photovoltaic technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagnall, Darren M.; Boreland, Matt

    2008-01-01

    Photovoltaics is already a billion dollar industry. It is experiencing rapid growth as concerns over fuel supplies and carbon emissions mean that governments and individuals are increasingly prepared to ignore its current high costs. It will become truly mainstream when its costs are comparable to other energy sources. At the moment, it is around four times too expensive for competitive commercial production. Three generations of photovoltaics have been envisaged that will take solar power into the mainstream. Currently, photovoltaic production is 90% first-generation and is based on silicon wafers. These devices are reliable and durable, but half of the cost is the silicon wafer and efficiencies are limited to around 20%. A second generation of solar cells would use cheap semiconductor thin films deposited on low-cost substrates to produce devices of slightly lower efficiency. A number of thin-film device technologies account for around 5-6% of the current market. As second-generation technology reduces the cost of active material, the substrate will eventually be the cost limit and higher efficiency will be needed to maintain the cost-reduction trend. Third-generation devices will use new technologies to produce high-efficiency devices. Advances in nanotechnology, photonics, optical metamaterials, plasmonics and semiconducting polymer sciences offer the prospect of cost-competitive photovoltaics. It is reasonable to expect that cost reductions, a move to second-generation technologies and the implementation of new technologies and third-generation concepts can lead to fully cost-competitive solar energy in 10-15 years. (author)

  12. Technology Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batistoni, Paola; De Marco, Francesco; Pieroni, Leonardo

    2005-01-01

    The technology activities carried out by the Euratom-ENEA Association in the framework of the European Fusion Development Agreement concern the Next Step (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor - ITER), the Long-Term Programme (breeder blanket, materials, International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility - IFMIF), Power Plant Conceptual Studies and Socio-Economic Studies. The Underlying Technology Programme was set up to complement the fusion activities as well to develop technologies with a wider range of interest. The Technology Programme mainly involves staff from the Frascati laboratories of the Fusion Technical and Scientific Unit and from the Brasimone laboratories of the Advanced Physics Technologies Unit. Other ENEA units also provide valuable contributions to the programme. ENEA is heavily engaged in component development/testing and in design and safety activities for the European Fusion Technology Programme. Although the work documented in the following covers a large range of topics that differ considerably because they concern the development of extremely complex systems, the high level of integration and coordination ensures the capability to cover the fusion system as a whole. In 2004 the most significant testing activities concerned the ITER primary beryllium-coated first wall. In the field of high-heat-flux components, an important achievement was the qualification of the process for depositing a copper liner on carbon fibre composite (CFC) hollow tiles. This new process, pre-brazed casting (PBC), allows the hot radial pressing (HRP) joining procedure to be used also for CFC-based armour monoblock divertor components. The PBC and HRP processes are candidates for the construction of the ITER divertor. In the materials field an important milestone was the commissioning of a new facility for chemical vapour infiltration/deposition, used for optimising silicon carbide composite (SiCf/SiC) components. Eight patents were deposited during 2004

  13. Technology Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batistoni, Paola; De Marco, Francesco; Pieroni, Leonardo (ed.)

    2005-07-01

    The technology activities carried out by the Euratom-ENEA Association in the framework of the European Fusion Development Agreement concern the Next Step (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor - ITER), the Long-Term Programme (breeder blanket, materials, International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility - IFMIF), Power Plant Conceptual Studies and Socio-Economic Studies. The Underlying Technology Programme was set up to complement the fusion activities as well to develop technologies with a wider range of interest. The Technology Programme mainly involves staff from the Frascati laboratories of the Fusion Technical and Scientific Unit and from the Brasimone laboratories of the Advanced Physics Technologies Unit. Other ENEA units also provide valuable contributions to the programme. ENEA is heavily engaged in component development/testing and in design and safety activities for the European Fusion Technology Programme. Although the work documented in the following covers a large range of topics that differ considerably because they concern the development of extremely complex systems, the high level of integration and coordination ensures the capability to cover the fusion system as a whole. In 2004 the most significant testing activities concerned the ITER primary beryllium-coated first wall. In the field of high-heat-flux components, an important achievement was the qualification of the process for depositing a copper liner on carbon fibre composite (CFC) hollow tiles. This new process, pre-brazed casting (PBC), allows the hot radial pressing (HRP) joining procedure to be used also for CFC-based armour monoblock divertor components. The PBC and HRP processes are candidates for the construction of the ITER divertor. In the materials field an important milestone was the commissioning of a new facility for chemical vapour infiltration/deposition, used for optimising silicon carbide composite (SiCf/SiC) components. Eight patents were deposited during 2004

  14. Technological Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Bivas

    The study of networks in the form of mathematical graph theory is one of the fundamental pillars of discrete mathematics. However, recent years have witnessed a substantial new movement in network research. The focus of the research is shifting away from the analysis of small graphs and the properties of individual vertices or edges to consideration of statistical properties of large scale networks. This new approach has been driven largely by the availability of technological networks like the Internet [12], World Wide Web network [2], etc. that allow us to gather and analyze data on a scale far larger than previously possible. At the same time, technological networks have evolved as a socio-technological system, as the concepts of social systems that are based on self-organization theory have become unified in technological networks [13]. In today’s society, we have a simple and universal access to great amounts of information and services. These information services are based upon the infrastructure of the Internet and the World Wide Web. The Internet is the system composed of ‘computers’ connected by cables or some other form of physical connections. Over this physical network, it is possible to exchange e-mails, transfer files, etc. On the other hand, the World Wide Web (commonly shortened to the Web) is a system of interlinked hypertext documents accessed via the Internet where nodes represent web pages and links represent hyperlinks between the pages. Peer-to-peer (P2P) networks [26] also have recently become a popular medium through which huge amounts of data can be shared. P2P file sharing systems, where files are searched and downloaded among peers without the help of central servers, have emerged as a major component of Internet traffic. An important advantage in P2P networks is that all clients provide resources, including bandwidth, storage space, and computing power. In this chapter, we discuss these technological networks in detail. The review

  15. Loss of coupling between calcium influx, energy consumption and insulin secretion associated with development of hyperglycaemia in the UCD-T2DM rat model of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rountree, A M; Reed, B J; Cummings, B P; Jung, S-R; Stanhope, K L; Graham, J L; Griffen, S C; Hull, R L; Havel, P J; Sweet, I R

    2013-04-01

    Previous studies on isolated islets have demonstrated tight coupling between calcium (Ca(2+)) influx and oxygen consumption rate (OCR) that is correlated with insulin secretion rate (ISR). To explain these observations, we have proposed a mechanism whereby the activation of a highly energetic process (Ca(2+)/metabolic coupling process [CMCP]) by Ca(2+) mediates the stimulation of ISR. The aim of the study was to test whether impairment of the CMCP could play a role in the development of type 2 diabetes. Glucose- and Ca(2+)-mediated changes in OCR and ISR in isolated islets were compared with the time course of changes of plasma insulin concentrations observed during the progression to hyperglycaemia in a rat model of type-2 diabetes (the University of California at Davis type 2 diabetes mellitus [UCD-T2DM] rat). Islets were isolated from UCD-T2DM rats before, 1 week, and 3 weeks after the onset of hyperglycaemia. Glucose stimulation of cytosolic Ca(2+) and OCR was similar for islets harvested before and 1 week after the onset of hyperglycaemia. In contrast, a loss of decrement in islet OCR and ISR in response to Ca(2+) channel blockade coincided with decreased fasting plasma insulin concentrations observed in rats 3 weeks after the onset of hyperglycaemia. These results suggest that phenotypic impairment of diabetic islets in the UCD-T2DM rat is downstream of Ca(2+) influx and involves unregulated stimulation of the CMCP. The continuously elevated levels of CMCP induced by chronic hyperglycaemia in these islets may mediate the loss of islet function.

  16. Passive antibodies derived from intramuscularly immunized toxoid fusion 3xSTaN12S-dmLT protect against STa+ enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) diarrhea in a pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandre, Rahul M; Duan, Qiangde; Wang, Yin; Zhang, Weiping

    2017-01-23

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are among the most common causes of children's diarrhea and travelers' diarrhea. Developing effective vaccines against ETEC associated diarrhea becomes a top priority. ETEC heat-labile toxin (LT) and heat-stable toxin (STa) toxoid fusion 3xSTa N12S -dmLT was demonstrated recently to induce neutralizing antitoxin antibodies in intraperitoneally or subcutaneously immunized mice. However, whether antibodies derived from this toxoid fusion are protective against ETEC diarrhea has not been examined. In this study, we intramuscularly immunized pregnant gilts with toxoid fusion 3xSTa N12S -dmLT, challenged suckling piglets with a STa-positive ETEC strain, and assessed protective efficacy of passive acquire antitoxin antibodies against ETEC diarrhea. Data showed all three immunized gilts developed anti-STa IgG and IgA antibodies, and piglets born to the immunized dams acquired anti-STa and anti-LT antibodies. When challenged with a STa+ ETEC strain, none of the piglets born to the immunized dams developed watery diarrhea, with 20 piglets remained normal and the other 8 piglets developed mild diarrhea indicated with stained butt. In contrast, the control dams and born piglets had no anti-STa or anti-LT antibodies detected, and 26 out 32 piglets developed watery diarrhea after challenge of the STa+ ETEC strain. These results indicated that passive acquired anti-STa antibodies are protective against ETEC diarrhea, and suggested potential application of toxoid fusion 3xSTa N12S -dmLT in ETEC vaccine development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Innovative Technology in Automotive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, John

    2007-01-01

    Automotive Technology combines hands-on training along with a fully integrated, interactive, computerized multistationed facility. Our program is a competency based, true open-entry/open-exit program that utilizes flexible self-paced course outlines. It is designed around an industry partnership that promotes community and economic development,…

  18. Playful Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv; Eriksson, Eva

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the design of future services for children in Danish public libraries is discussed, in the light of new challenges and opportunities in relation to new media and technologies. The Danish government has over the last few years initiated and described a range of initiatives regarding...... the future of public libraries, especially in relation to children as a particular user group. This paper explores play culture, and takes a stance especially in the project ‘Families at play in the library’, but also in experiences from related projects. The focus is on families playing together...... in the library, the changing role of the librarians and the library space. We argue that intertwining traditional library services with new media forms and engaging play is the core challenge for future design in physical public libraries, but also that it is through new media and technology that new...

  19. Technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Illustrated by the example of the FRG's nuclear energy exports, it is shown that the nuclear technology transfer leads to new dimensions of intergovernmental relations, which hold within themselves on account of multiple state-to-state, scientific, industrial and - last but not least - personal contacts the chance of far-reaching friendships between countries and people. If the chance is taken, this can also be seen as an important contribution towards maintaining the peace. (orig.) [de

  20. Group technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rome, C.P.

    1976-01-01

    Group Technology has been conceptually applied to the manufacture of batch-lots of 554 machined electromechanical parts which now require 79 different types of metal-removal tools. The products have been grouped into 7 distinct families which require from 8 to 22 machines in each machine-cell. Throughput time can be significantly reduced and savings can be realized from tooling, direct-labor, and indirect-labor costs

  1. Army Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    MUTT ) is a semi-autonomous robotic follower that lightens the load for Soldiers by decreasing the amount of equipment they need to carry when...dismounted in the toughest of terrains. The MUTT uses advanced, proven commercial technology that has been adapted for the rigors of the battlefield...With ultra-quiet electric motors, the MUTT gives Soldiers unmatched internal transportability options and expeditionary power that includes hands- free

  2. ADSL Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Šarić

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the ADSL (Asymmetric Digital SubscriberLine technology- the asymmetric digital telecommunicationtechnology. It is characterised by high-speed transmissionof data and simultaneous transmission of information regardingthe throughput capacity of the telephone network. Thisresults in better efficiency of transmission, and higher utilisationof the bandwidth. Due to its advantages, the use of ADSLtechnology is increasing daily, especially by ente1prises in Europeand worldwide.

  3. Nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-03-01

    This report examines nuclear technology in Canada, with emphasis on Quebec, as a means of revitilizing industry. The historical, present day, and future states of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited are examined. Future research programs are discussed in greatest detail. These range from disposal of porcine wastes to new applications for electricity to nuclear medical techniques (to cite only a few examples). The executive summary is written in English. (23 fig., 16 tab.)

  4. Emerging technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Shin-yee

    1993-03-01

    The mission of the Emerging Technologies thrust area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is to help individuals establish technology areas that have national and commercial impact, and are outside the scope of the existing thrust areas. We continue to encourage innovative ideas that bring quality results to existing programs. We also take as our mission the encouragement of investment in new technology areas that are important to the economic competitiveness of this nation. In fiscal year 1992, we have focused on nine projects, summarized in this report: (1) Tire, Accident, Handling, and Roadway Safety; (2) EXTRANSYT: An Expert System for Advanced Traffic Management; (3) Odin: A High-Power, Underwater, Acoustic Transmitter for Surveillance Applications; (4) Passive Seismic Reservoir Monitoring: Signal Processing Innovations; (5) Paste Extrudable Explosive Aft Charge for Multi-Stage Munitions; (6) A Continuum Model for Reinforced Concrete at High Pressures and Strain Rates: Interim Report; (7) Benchmarking of the Criticality Evaluation Code COG; (8) Fast Algorithm for Large-Scale Consensus DNA Sequence Assembly; and (9) Using Electrical Heating to Enhance the Extraction of Volatile Organic Compounds from Soil.

  5. Technology Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilkington, Alan

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a bibliometric analysis (co-citation network analysis) of 10 journals in the management of technology (MOT) field. As well as introducing various bibliometric ideas, network analysis tools identify and explore the concepts covered by the field and their inter-relationships. Spe......This paper reports a bibliometric analysis (co-citation network analysis) of 10 journals in the management of technology (MOT) field. As well as introducing various bibliometric ideas, network analysis tools identify and explore the concepts covered by the field and their inter......-relationships. Specific results from different levels of analysis show the different dimensions of technology management: • Co-word terms identify themes • Journal co-citation network: linking to other disciplines • Co-citation network show concentrations of themes The analysis shows that MOT has a bridging role...... in integrating ideas from several distinct disciplines. This suggests that management and strategy are central to MOT which essentially relates to the firm rather than policy. Similarly we have a dual focus on capabilities, but can see subtle differences in how we view these ideas, either through an inwards...

  6. Using technology to advance type 1 diabetes care among women during the reproductive years and in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polsky, Sarit; Giordano, Dominique; Voelmle, Mary K; Garcetti, Rachel; Garg, Satish K

    2016-05-01

    The prevalence of diabetes is increasing globally. Technology to improve care among individuals with diabetes is constantly being developed. Women living with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) have unique challenges affecting their glucose control relating to menstrual cycles, pregnancy, and menopause. The purpose of this review is to examine the literature related to the use of technology to help women with T1DM manage their diabetes during the reproductive years, pregnancy, and beyond. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) therapy can provider equivalent or better glucose control when compared with multiple daily injections (MDI), with less hypoglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, and weight gain. The CSII therapy has features that could help improve glucose control over the menstrual cycle, menopause, and pregnancy, although the most studied of these stages is pregnancy. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) can be combined with any insulin delivery system (MDI or CSII) to provide data on glucose values every few minutes and show glucose trends over time. CGM introduction can highlight glucose variability for women with T1DM, may be beneficial during pregnancy, and can reduce hypoglycemia. Sensor-augmented pump therapy and hybrid artificial pancreas (closed-loop) systems are promising tools that improve outcomes among individuals with diabetes. The use of modern technology to improve glucose and metabolic control among menopausal women with diabetes has not been well studied. Internet and phone-based technologies are emerging as important tools that may help with diabetes self-care for women living with diabetes.

  7. Remote sensing based evapotranspiration and runoff modeling of agricultural, forest and urban flux sites in Denmark: From field to macro-scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, E.; Poulsen, R.N.; Butts, M.

    2009-01-01

    representing agricultural, forest and urban land surfaces in physically based hydrological modeling makes it possible to reproduce much of the observed variability (48–73%) in stream flow (Q − Qb) when data and modeling is applied at an effective spatial resolution capable of representing land surface...

  8. Land market interactions between heterogeneous agents in a heterogeneous landscape-tracing the macro-scale effects of individual trade-offs between environmental amenities and disamenities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filatova, Tatiana; van der Veen, A.; Parker, Dawn C.

    2009-01-01

    Heterogeneity in both the spatial environment and economic agents is a crucial driver of land market dynamics. We present an agent-based land market model where land from agriculture use is transferred into urban. The model combines the microeconomic demand, supply, and bidding foundations of

  9. Multi-Scale Analysis for Characterizing Near-Field Constituent Concentrations in the Context of a Macro-Scale Semi-Lagrangian Numerical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yearsley, J. R.

    2017-12-01

    The semi-Lagrangian numerical scheme employed by RBM, a model for simulating time-dependent, one-dimensional water quality constituents in advection-dominated rivers, is highly scalable both in time and space. Although the model has been used at length scales of 150 meters and time scales of three hours, the majority of applications have been at length scales of 1/16th degree latitude/longitude (about 5 km) or greater and time scales of one day. Applications of the method at these scales has proven successful for characterizing the impacts of climate change on water temperatures in global rivers and on the vulnerability of thermoelectric power plants to changes in cooling water temperatures in large river systems. However, local effects can be very important in terms of ecosystem impacts, particularly in the case of developing mixing zones for wastewater discharges with pollutant loadings limited by regulations imposed by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (FWPCA). Mixing zone analyses have usually been decoupled from large-scale watershed influences by developing scenarios that represent critical scenarios for external processes associated with streamflow and weather conditions . By taking advantage of the particle-tracking characteristics of the numerical scheme, RBM can provide results at any point in time within the model domain. We develop a proof of concept for locations in the river network where local impacts such as mixing zones may be important. Simulated results from the semi-Lagrangian numerical scheme are treated as input to a finite difference model of the two-dimensional diffusion equation for water quality constituents such as water temperature or toxic substances. Simulations will provide time-dependent, two-dimensional constituent concentration in the near-field in response to long-term basin-wide processes. These results could provide decision support to water quality managers for evaluating mixing zone characteristics.

  10. Simulation and experimental determination of the macro-scale layer thickness distribution of electrodeposited Cu-line patterns on a wafer substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantleon, Karen; Bossche, Bart van den; Purcar, Marius

    2005-01-01

    on the patterned wafer, and layer thickness measurements by means of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The simulations are based on a potential model approach taking into account electrolyte ohmic drop and electrode polarization effects, combined to a boundary element method (BEM...

  11. Interconnecting Urban Planning with Multi-Scale Urban Quality : Review of Macro Scale Urban Redevelopment Project on Micro Scale Urban Quality in Shenzhen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deng, X.

    2015-01-01

    The Shenzhen planning system has been effective in promoting economic growth through the prodigious urbanization of land. It has given priority to the ‘macro-level’ planning goals of economic growth through physical development. Questions can be raised about the physical and social outcomes from the

  12. Macro-scale assessment of demographic and environmental variation within genetically derived evolutionary lineages of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), an imperiled conifer of the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantha M. Prasad; Kevin M. Potter

    2017-01-01

    Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) occupies a large swath of eastern North America and has historically undergone range expansion and contraction resulting in several genetically separate lineages. This conifer is currently experiencing mortality across most of its range following infestation of a non-native insect. With the goal of better...

  13. Wearable Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Wearable technology projects, to be useful, in the future, must be seamlessly integrated with the Flight Deck of the Future (F.F). The lab contains mockups of space vehicle cockpits, habitat living quarters, and workstations equipped with novel user interfaces. The Flight Deck of the Future is one element of the Integrated Power, Avionics, and Software (IPAS) facility, which, to a large extent, manages the F.F network and data systems. To date, integration with the Flight Deck of the Future has been limited by a lack of tools and understanding of the Flight Deck of the Future data handling systems. To remedy this problem it will be necessary to learn how data is managed in the Flight Deck of the Future and to develop tools or interfaces that enable easy integration of WEAR Lab and EV3 products into the Flight Deck of the Future mockups. This capability is critical to future prototype integration, evaluation, and demonstration. This will provide the ability for WEAR Lab products, EV3 human interface prototypes, and technologies from other JSC organizations to be evaluated and tested while in the Flight Deck of the Future. All WEAR Lab products must be integrated with the interface that will connect them to the Flight Deck of the Future. The WEAR Lab products will primarily be programmed in Arduino. Arduino will be used for the development of wearable controls and a tactile communication garment. Arduino will also be used in creating wearable methane detection and warning system.

  14. Understanding Technology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Bendtsen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We are facing radical changes in our ways of living in the nearest future. Not necessarily of our own choice, but because tchnological development is moving so fast, that it will have still greater impact on many aspects of our lives. We have seen the beginnings of that change within the latest 35 years or so, but according to newest research that change will speed up immensely in the nearest years to come. The impact of that change or these changes will affect our working life immensely as a consequence of automation. How these changes are brought about and which are their consequences in a broad sense is being attempted to be understood and guessed by researchers. No one knows for sure, but specific patterns are visible. This paper will not try to guess, what will come, but will rather try to understand the deepest ”nature” of technology in order to understand the driving factors in this development: the genesis of technology in a broad sense in order to contibute to the understanding of the basis for the expected development.

  15. Chemical composition and technological characteristics of wines from red grape varieties, selected in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Haygarov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Chemical analysis of grapes and technological characterization of wines from red varieties Storgoziya, Kaylashky rubin, Trapezitza, Rubin and Bouquet, created by the method of intraspecific and interspecific hybridization at the Institute of Viticulture and Enology – Pleven, Bulgaria were made. The technological maturity of the grapes as raw material for producing quality red wines was determined. Rubin variety was with the highest sugar content - 3 23.10±0.73 %, titratable acids - 6.18±0.34 g/dm and pH 3.40±0.71. The other varieties were with optimal condition for the production of red wines in terms of sugars and titratable acids. The chemical composition and organoleptic characteristics of the experimental wine samples were established. The ethyl alcohol content in the produced wines was in the range from 12.33±0.23 vol. % (Bouquet to 13.31±0.34 vol. % (Kaylashky rubin. The content of titratable acids was in 3 3 the range of 5.33±0.43 g/dm (Trapezitza up to 6.88±0.21 g/dm (Kaylashky rubin. There were no significant differences in the analyzed indicators and taste evaluation between experimental wines and wine of Vitis vinifera – Pinot noir grape variety used as control sample

  16. Photon technology. Hard photon technology; Photon technology. Hard photon gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Research results of hard photon technology have been summarized as a part of novel technology development highly utilizing the quantum nature of photon. Hard photon technology refers to photon beam technologies which use photon in the 0.1 to 200 nm wavelength region. Hard photon has not been used in industry due to the lack of suitable photon sources and optical devices. However, hard photon in this wavelength region is expected to bring about innovations in such areas as ultrafine processing and material synthesis due to its atom selective reaction, inner shell excitation reaction, and spatially high resolution. Then, technological themes and possibility have been surveyed. Although there are principle proposes and their verification of individual technologies for the technologies of hard photon generation, regulation and utilization, they are still far from the practical applications. For the photon source technology, the laser diode pumped driver laser technology, laser plasma photon source technology, synchrotron radiation photon source technology, and vacuum ultraviolet photon source technology are presented. For the optical device technology, the multi-layer film technology for beam mirrors and the non-spherical lens processing technology are introduced. Also are described the reduction lithography technology, hard photon excitation process, and methods of analysis and measurement. 430 refs., 165 figs., 23 tabs.

  17. Architectural Technology and Technological Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Giallocosta

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available At least three fundamental aspects of the many singular technological approaches to architectural planning are currently evolving significantly and are ripe for potential development. The first relates to enhanced opportunities for defining the ex-ante characteristics and performance of building products and components, but particularly concerns potential leadership assumptions in planning and the ‘reification’ of architecture through ‘collective’ behaviours. The second relates to the tendency to try and overcome the connotation of architectural projects, inclusive of their entire life cycle. The third relates to current evolutionary developments (either potential or simply implicit in performance approach.

  18. Technology round and management of technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yong Tae

    1994-04-01

    This book deals with beginning of technology round with background of it, change of scientific technique paradigm with economy, management and policy, change of international political environment globalization of technical and economic environment, formation of strategic alliance, intensifying regionalism, new GATT system, UR and technology round, new international technique regulation and technology round of OECD, feature and meaning of technology round, assignment and scientific technique of Korea, past and present of scientific technology in Korea, correspondence for technology round.

  19. Incineration technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Buekens, Alfons

    2013-01-01

    Waste incineration is the art of completely combusting waste, while maintaining or reducing emission levels below current emission standards. Where possible, objectives include the recovering of energy as well as the  combustion residues.  Successful waste incineration makes it possible to achieve a deep reduction in waste volume, obtain a compact and sterile residue, and eliminate a wide array of pollutants. This book places waste incineration within the wider context of waste management, and demonstrates that, in contrast to landfills and composting, waste incineration can eliminate objectionable and hazardous properties such as flammability and toxicity, result in a significant reduction in volume, and destroy gaseous and liquid waste streams leaving little or no residues beyond those linked to flue gas neutralization and treatment. Moreover, waste incineration sterilizes and destroys putrescible matter, and produces usable heat.  Incineration Technologies first appeared as a peer-reviewed contribution ...

  20. Robot technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertut, Jean; Coiffet, Philippe.

    1985-01-01

    Teleoperation is concerned with the exploration and exploitation of of spaces which do not allow, because of their inaccessibility or hostility, direct access to man. This volume (Parts 2, 3 and 4) covers the contribution of computer science and automatic control to this technology. Part 2 includes a description of teleoperation systems followed by chapters on the operator substitution function by computer feedback to the operator. Part 3 has chapters on performance evaluation of teleoperation systems and the human operator in the teleoperation system. Part 4 is about applications of teleoperation in the nuclear industry, underwater, in space, in medicine, in industry and in security and civil protection. The nuclear applications include research and pilot facilities, reactor operation and maintenance, reactor decommissioning and dismantling and in emergencies, for example following a reactor accident. (U.K.)

  1. Lander Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavers, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Since 2006 NASA has been formulating robotic missions to the lunar surface through programs and projects like the Robotic Lunar Exploration Program, Lunar Precursor Robotic Program, and International Lunar Network. All of these were led by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Due to funding shortfalls, the lunar missions associated with these efforts, the designs, were not completed. From 2010 to 2013, the Robotic Lunar Lander Development Activity was funded by the Science Mission Directorate (SMD) to develop technologies that would enable and enhance robotic lunar surface missions at lower costs. In 2013, a requirements-driven, low-cost robotic lunar lander concept was developed for the Resource Prospector Mission. Beginning in 2014, The Advanced Exploration Systems funded the lander team and established the MSFC, Johnson Space Center, Applied Physics Laboratory, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory team with MSFC leading the project. The lander concept to place a 300-kg rover on the lunar surface has been described in the New Technology Report Case Number MFS-33238-1. A low-cost lander concept for placing a robotic payload on the lunar surface is shown in figures 1 and 2. The NASA lander team has developed several lander concepts using common hardware and software to allow the lander to be configured for a specific mission need. In addition, the team began to transition lander expertise to United States (U.S.) industry to encourage the commercialization of space, specifically the lunar surface. The Lunar Cargo Transportation and Landing by Soft Touchdown (CATALYST) initiative was started and the NASA lander team listed above is partnering with three competitively selected U.S. companies (Astrobotic, Masten Space Systems, and Moon Express) to develop, test, and operate their lunar landers.

  2. Powder technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agueda, Horacio

    1989-01-01

    Powder technology is experiencing nowadays a great development and has broad application in different fields: nuclear energy, medicine, new energy sources, industrial and home artifacts, etc. Ceramic materials are of daily use as tableware and also in the building industry (bricks, tiles, etc.). However, in machine construction its utilization is not so common. The same happens with metals: powder metallurgy is employed less than traditional metal forming techniques. Both cases deal with powder technology and the forming techniques as far as the final consolidation through sintering processes are very similar. There are many different methods and techniques in the forming stage: cold-pressing, slip casting, injection molding, extrusion molding, isostatic pressing, hot-pressing (which involves also the final consolidation step), etc. This variety allows to obtain almost any desired form no matter how complex it could be. Some applications are very specific as in the case of UO 2 pellets (used as nuclear fuels) but with the same technique and other materials, it is possible to manufacture a great number of different products. This work shows the characteristics and behaviour of two magnetic ceramic materials (ferrites) fabricated in the laboratory of the Applied Research Division of the Bariloche Atomic Center for different purposes. Other materials and products made with the same method are also mentioned. Likewise, densities and shrinkage obtained by different methods of forming (cold-pressing, injection molding, slip casting and extrusion molding) using high-purity alumina (99.5% Al 2 O 3 ). Finally, different applications of such methods are given. (Author) [es

  3. Genetic variations in the PSMA3, PSMA6 and PSMC6 genes are associated with type 1 diabetes in Latvians and with expression level of number of UPS-related and T1DM-susceptible genes in HapMap individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjakste, Tatjana; Paramonova, Natalia; Osina, Kristine; Dokane, Kristine; Sokolovska, Jelizaveta; Sjakste, Nikolajs

    2016-04-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), a key player of proteostasis network in the body, was implicated in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) pathogenesis. Polymorphisms in genes encoding proteasome subunits may potentially affect system efficiency. However, data in this field are still limited. To fulfil this gap, single nucleotide polymorphisms in the PSMB5 (rs11543947), PSMA6 (rs2277460, rs1048990), PSMC6 (rs2295826, rs2295827) and PSMA3 (rs2348071) genes were genotyped on susceptibility to T1DM in Latvians. The rs11543947 was found to be neutral and other loci manifested disease susceptibility, with rs1048990 and rs2348071 being the most significantly associated (P UPS and 42 T1DM-susceptible genes encoding proteins involved in innate and adaptive immunity, antiviral response, insulin signalling, glucose-energy metabolism and other pathways implicated in T1DM pathogenesis. Genotype-phenotype and genotype-genotype clusterings support genotyping results. Our results provide evidence on new T1DM-susceptible loci in the PSMA3, PSMA6 and PSMC6 proteasome genes and give a new insight into the T1DM pathogenesis.

  4. THE ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN HYPOVITAMINOSIS D, HIGHER PTH LEVELS WITH BONE MINERAL DENSITIES, AND RISK OF THE 10-YEAR PROBABILITY OF MAJOR OSTEOPOROTIC FRACTURES IN CHINESE PATIENTS WITH T2DM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Feng; Yu, Jing-Jia; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Jing, Yi-Xuan; Sun, Li-Hao; Tao, Bei; Wang, Wei-Qing; Ning, Guang; Liu, Jian-Min; Zhao, Hong-Yan

    2018-04-01

    In the current study, we investigated the vitamin D status, and its relationships with parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels, bone mineral density (BMD), and the 10-year probability of fractures in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This was a cross-sectional study of 785 patients. BMDs at the lumbar spine (L2-4), femoral neck (FN), and total hip (TH) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and intact PTH were also quantified. The 10-year probability of fracture risk (major osteoporotic fracture [MOF] and hip fracture [HF]) was assessed using the fracture risk assessment tool (FRAX). The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 82.3%, and the mean 25(OH)D level was 36.9 ± 15.2 nmol/L. The adequate group had higher BMDs at the FN and TH and lower MOF risk than the inadequate groups. Lower 25(OH)D was associated with higher PTH ( r = -0.126, PPTH was negatively correlated with BMDs at 3 sites and positively correlated with MOF and HF, but this relationship disappeared in the adequate subgroup. Multivariate stepwise regression analysis revealed that PTH was the determinant of MOF (standard β = 0.073, P = .010) and HF (standard β = 0.094, P = .004). Our results identified a significantly high rate of vitamin D deficiency among Chinese patients with T2DM. PTH is an important risk factor responsible for the higher 10-year probability of osteoporotic fractures in diabetic patients, especially in those with lower vitamin D levels. AKP = alkaline phosphatase; ALB = serum albumin; BMD = bone mineral density; BMI = body mass index; Ca = calcium; CKD = chronic kidney disease; Cr = creatinine; FN = femoral neck; FRAX = fracture risk assessment tool; HbA1c = glycated hemoglobin A1c; HF = hip fracture; L2-4 = lumbar spine; MOF = major osteoporotic fracture; 25(OH)D = 25-hydroxyvitamin D; P = phosphorus; PTH = parathyroid hormone; T2DM = type 2 diabetes mellitus; TH = total hip; UA = uric acid.

  5. Study on the relationship between changes of serum true insulin (Tl) C-peptide, GAD-Ab, INS-Ab contents and age, course of disease, degree of obesity in patients with DM2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Tongxin; Wang Zizheng; Cao Jiwei; Wu Jindan; Tao Xiaojun

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of serum TI, C-peptide, GAD-Ab and INS-Ab in different groups of patients with DM2 (age,course of disease and degree of obesity). Methods: Serum C-peptide(with CLIA), INS-Ab(with RIA) and TI, GAD-Ab(with ELISA) contents were measured in altogether 428 patients with DM2. Relationship between changes of the above parameters and different groups of patients was studide in accordance with age, course of disease and degree of obesity respectively. Results: 1)Relationship among different age groups:(below 50, n=86, 51-70, n=216, over 71 n=126). The serum levels of the 4 parameters were significantly higher in all age group than those in the controls(n=40). Among the various age groups, the levels of all parameters were significantly lower in age group below 50 than the levels,in the other 2 groups with the only exception of INS-Ab, which was not significantly different from that in age group 51-70.The levels were significantly different between age-group 51-70 and age groups over 70, with the only exception of GAD-Ab, which was about the same in the two age-groups. 2)Relationship between changes of serum levels and course of disease(below 5yrs n=157, 6-10yrs n=168,over 1yrs,n=103). The serum levels in patients with disease less than 5years were significantly lower than those in other groups with the exception of GAD-Ab, which was not significantly different from that in patients with disease 6-10 years. 3) Relationship among different degree of obesity(non-obese, BMI BMI≥25, n=202, super-obese BMI≥32 n=50): The serum levels of all the parameters were significantly lower in the non-obese subjects than those in the other two groups.The levels in the super-obese group were also significantly higher than those in the obese group (P<0.01, P<0.05). Conclusion: Serum levels of the 4 parameters (TI, C-peptide, GAD-Ab, INS-Ab)were significantly increased in patients with DM2, especially in the older patients with prolonged course of disease as

  6. Onsite greywater treatment using pilot scale grow technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajput, M.U.

    2015-01-01

    The GROW Technology for greywater treatment was installed at the MUET (Mehran University of Engineering and Technology), hostel and run under continuous flow conditions with hydraulic loading rate of 0.15m.d-1. The monitoring and analysis of influent and effluent water were carried out during January-December, 2010. Local plants species such as water hyacinth, Pennywort (duck weed), Mint and Cattail were used in the GROW rig as a mixed mode. Coarse Gravels were filled in the troughs as a medium. The collected samples were analyzed for BOD5 (Biochemical Oxygen Demand), COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand), TSS (Total Suspended Solids), pH, and DO (Dissolved Oxygen). Removal efficiencies of BOD5, COD and TSS were calculated as 83.0,69.0 and 84.0% respectively. DO was found increased from 0.6-3.5 mg.dm-3 while pH was observed between 6.5-7.8. (author)

  7. Final Report - Effects of High Spinel and Chromium Oxide Crystal Contents on Simulated HLW Vitrification in DM100 Melter Tests, VSL-09R1520-1, Rev. 0, dated 6/22/09

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Albert A.; Matlack, K. S.; Kot, W.; Pegg, I. L.; Chaudhuri, M.; Lutze, W.

    2013-11-13

    The principal objective of the work was to evaluate the effects of spinel and chromium oxide particles on WTP HLW melter operations and potential impacts on melter life. This was accomplished through a combination of crucible-scale tests, settling and rheological tests, and tests on the DM100 melter system. Crucible testing was designed to develop and identify HLW glass compositions with high waste loadings that exhibit formation of crystalline spinel and/or chromium oxide phases up to relatively high crystal contents (i.e., > 1 vol%). Characterization of crystal settling and the effects on melt rheology was performed on the HLW glass formulations. Appropriate candidate HLW glass formulations were selected, based on characterization results, to support subsequent melter tests. In the present work, crucible melts were formulated that exhibit up to about 4.4 vol% crystallization.

  8. RETRACTED: Relationship between the ACE I/D gene polymorphism and T1DN susceptibility/risk of T1DM developing into T1DN in the Caucasian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tian-Biao; Guo, Xue-Feng; Jiang, Zongpei; Li, Hong-Yan

    2015-12-01

    The following article has been included in a multiple retraction: Tian-Biao Zhou, Xue-Feng Guo, Zongpei Jiang, and Hong-Yan Li Relationship between the ACE I/D gene polymorphism and T1DN susceptibility/risk of T1DM developing into T1DN in the Caucasian population Journal of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System 1470320314563425, first published on February 1, 2015 doi: 10.1177/1470320314563425 This article has been retracted at the request of the Editors and the Publisher. After conducting a thorough investigation, SAGE found that the submitting authors of a number of papers published in the Journal of the Renin-Angiotensin Aldosterone System ( JRAAS) (listed below) had supplied fabricated contact details for their nominated reviewers. The Editors accepted these papers based on the reports supplied by the individuals using these fake reviewer email accounts. After concluding that the peer review process was therefore seriously compromised, SAGE and the journal Editors have decided to retract all affected articles. Online First articles (these articles will not be published in an issue) Wenzhuang Tang, Tian-Biao Zhou, and Zongpei Jiang Association of the angiotensinogen M235T gene polymorphism with risk of diabetes mellitus developing into diabetic nephropathy Journal of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System 1470320314563426, first published on December 18, 2014 doi: 10.1177/1470320314563426 Tian-Biao Zhou, Hong-Yan Li, Zong-Pei Jiang, Jia-Fan Zhou, Miao-Fang Huang, and Zhi-Yang Zhou Role of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors in radiation nephropathy Journal of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System 1470320314563424, first published on December 18, 2014 doi: 10.1177/1470320314563424 Weiqiang Zhong, Zongpei Jiang, and Tian-Biao Zhou Association between the ACE I/D gene polymorphism and T2DN susceptibility: The risk of T2DM developing into T2DN in the Asian population Journal of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System 1470320314566019, first published on January

  9. RETRACTED: Association between the ACE I/D gene polymorphism and T2DN susceptibility: The risk of T2DM developing into T2DN in the Asian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Weiqiang; Jiang, Zongpei; Zhou, Tian-Biao

    2015-12-01

    This article has been included in a multiple retraction: Weiqiang Zhong, Zongpei Jiang, and Tian-Biao Zhou Association between the ACE I/D gene polymorphism and T2DN susceptibility: The risk of T2DM developing into T2DN in the Asian population Journal of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System 1470320314566019, first published on January 26, 2015 doi: 10.1177/1470320314566019 This article has been retracted at the request of the Editors and the Publisher. After conducting a thorough investigation, SAGE found that the submitting authors of a number of papers published in the Journal of the Renin-Angiotensin Aldosterone System ( JRAAS) (listed below) had supplied fabricated contact details for their nominated reviewers. The Editors accepted these papers based on the reports supplied by the individuals using these fake reviewer email accounts. After concluding that the peer review process was therefore seriously compromised, SAGE and the journal Editors have decided to retract all affected articles. Online First articles (these articles will not be published in an issue) Wenzhuang Tang, Tian-Biao Zhou, and Zongpei Jiang Association of the angiotensinogen M235T gene polymorphism with risk of diabetes mellitus developing into diabetic nephropathy Journal of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System 1470320314563426, first published on December 18, 2014 doi: 10.1177/1470320314563426 Tian-Biao Zhou, Hong-Yan Li, Zong-Pei Jiang, Jia-Fan Zhou, Miao-Fang Huang, and Zhi-Yang Zhou Role of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors in radiation nephropathy Journal of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System 1470320314563424, first published on December 18, 2014 doi: 10.1177/1470320314563424 Weiqiang Zhong, Zongpei Jiang, and Tian-Biao Zhou Association between the ACE I/D gene polymorphism and T2DN susceptibility: The risk of T2DM developing into T2DN in the Asian population Journal of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System 1470320314566019, first published on January 26, 2015 doi: 10

  10. Multimodality imaging and state-of-art GPU technology in discriminating benign from malignant breast lesions on real time decision support system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostopoulos, S; Glotsos, D; Kalatzis, I; Asvestas, P; Cavouras, D; Sidiropoulos, K; Dimitropoulos, N

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to design a pattern recognition system for assisting the diagnosis of breast lesions, using image information from Ultrasound (US) and Digital Mammography (DM) imaging modalities. State-of-art computer technology was employed based on commercial Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) cards and parallel programming. An experienced radiologist outlined breast lesions on both US and DM images from 59 patients employing a custom designed computer software application. Textural features were extracted from each lesion and were used to design the pattern recognition system. Several classifiers were tested for highest performance in discriminating benign from malignant lesions. Classifiers were also combined into ensemble schemes for further improvement of the system's classification accuracy. Following the pattern recognition system optimization, the final system was designed employing the Probabilistic Neural Network classifier (PNN) on the GPU card (GeForce 580GTX) using CUDA programming framework and C++ programming language. The use of such state-of-art technology renders the system capable of redesigning itself on site once additional verified US and DM data are collected. Mixture of US and DM features optimized performance with over 90% accuracy in correctly classifying the lesions

  11. Technology programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The technology activities carried out by the EURATOM-ENEA Association concern the continuation of the European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA) as well as the ITER activities coordinated by the ITER International Office and Fusion for Energy. Also included in the activities are design and RD under the Broader Approach Agreement between the EU and Japan. In order to better contribute to the programme a number of consortium agreements among the Associations are being signed. Collaboration with industries in view of their participation in the construction of ITER was further strengthened, mainly in the field of magnet and divertor components. The new European Test Blanket Facility at ENEA Brasimone was completed; the design of the ITER radial neutron camera was optimised and the performance achievable with the in-vessel viewing system was further assessed by experimental trials. Design activities for the JT-60SA magnet and power supply system as well as the design and experimental activities related to the target of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility were continued. Significant work was done to define quality assurance for neutronics analyses. Mockups of the ITER pre-compression ring made in glass fibre epoxy were tested. The activities and results documented in the following illustrate ENEA's efforts to support fusion development

  12. How Technology Teachers Understand Technological Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norström, Per

    2014-01-01

    Swedish technology teachers' views of technological knowledge are examined through a written survey and a series of interviews. The study indicates that technology teachers' understandings of what constitutes technological knowledge and how it is justified vary considerably. The philosophical discussions on the topic are unknown to them. This lack…

  13. International technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Won Gi

    1991-11-01

    This book introduces technology progress and economic growth, theoretical consideration of technology transfer, policy and mechanism on technology transfer of a developed country and a developing country, reality of international technology transfer technology transfer and industrial structure in Asia and the pacific region, technology transfer in Russia, China and Eastern Europe, cooperation of science and technology for development of Northeast Asia and strategy of technology transfer of Korea.

  14. Evaluation of Serum Fibrinogen, Plasminogen, α2-Anti-Plasmin, and Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Levels (PAI and Their Correlation with Presence of Retinopathy in Patients with Type 1 DM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sefika Burcak Polat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Diabetic retinopathy (DR is the leading cause of blindness in the world. Retinopathy can still progress despite optimal metabolic control. The aim of the study was to determine whether different degrees of DR (proliferative or nonproliferative were associated with abnormally modulated hemostatic parameters in patients with T1DM. Method. 52 T1DM patients and 40 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Patients were subdivided into three categories. Group I was defined as those without retinopathy, group II with NPRP, and group III with PRP. We compared these subgroups with each other and the control group (Group IV according to the serum fibrinogen, plasminogen, alpha2-anti-plasmin (α2-anti-plasmin, and PAI. Results. We detected that PAI-1, serum fibrinogen, and plasminogen levels were similar between the diabetic and control groups (P=0.209, P=0.224, and P=0.244, resp., whereas α2-anti-plasmin was higher in Groups I, II, and III compared to the control group (P<0.01, P<0.05, and P<0.001, resp.. There was a positive correlation between serum α2-anti-plasmin and HbA1c levels (r=0,268, P=0.031. Conclusion. To our knowledge there is scarce data in the literature about α2-anti-plasmin levels in type 1 diabetes. A positive correlation between α2-anti-plasmin with HbA1c suggests that fibrinolytic markers may improve with disease regulation and better glycemic control.

  15. Technological capabilities, technological dynamism and innovation offshoring

    OpenAIRE

    Schubert, Torben; Baier, Elisabeth; Rammer, Christian

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the conditions under which firms decide to offshore innovation. We consider the role of internal technological capabilities and technological dynamism in the firm environment, distinguishing speed and uncertainty of technological change. Using unique data from the German Innovation Survey we find that while high speed of technological change tends to drive innovation offshoring, high uncertainty about future technology developments results in more innovation offsho...

  16. Flywheel Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Lisa M.

    2004-01-01

    Throughout the summer of 2004, I am working on a number of different projects. While located in the Space Power and Propulsion Test Engineering branch, my main area of study is flywheel technology. I have been exposed to flywheels, their components, and their uses in today's society. I have been able to experience numerous flywheels here in the flywheel lab at NASA Glenn. My first main project was to explore the attributes and physical characteristics of a flywheel. Our branch was constructing a flywheel demonstration to be presented at the public open house taking place in June. Our Flywheel Interactive Demo, or FIDO, represents a real life multi-flywheel system here at NASA. I was given the opportunity to learn about how these flywheels store energy and are able to position a satellite. With all of this new knowledge, I was able to create the posters that explained how our demonstration worked. I also composed a step-by-step process made up of four experiments that any visitor could follow and perform on FIDO. By stepping through these experiments, the individual learns how a flywheel works. They not only read the explanation of what is happening, but they are also able to see it happen. Creating these two posters not only taught me, but also helped teach the general public during the open house, how flywheel technology is a very important part of our future. Through my research, I have learned that flywheels are able to store massive amounts of energy. They can be described as an electro-mechanical battery that stores kinetic energy while rotating. The faster it rotates, the more energy it stores. Their lifetime is about triple that of an ordinary battery. Flywheels also have the ability to combine energy storage with attitude control all in a single system. Attitude control is the ability to position a satellite as required. FIDO helps us to understand the rotational force (torque) that is applied upon a turn-table or satellite during wheel acceleration

  17. Geophysical data from boreholes DM1, DM2, DM3, and DM3a, New Hydraulic Fracturing Facility, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haase, C.S.

    1987-03-01

    A comprehensive suite of geophysical logs was obtained from four deep monitoring boreholes at the New Hydrofracture Facility. The logging was an attempt to obtain stratigraphic, structural, and hydrologic information on the subsurface environment surrounding the hydrofracture facility. Logs obtained include caliper, gamma, neutron, density, single-point resistance, long- and short-normal resistivity, spontaneous potential, temperature, acoustic velocity, variable density, and borehole televiewer. Analysis and interpretation of the geophysical logs allowed the stratigraphic section at the facility to be determined and, by comparison with calibrated geophysical logs from borehole ORNL-Joy No. 2, allowed detailed inferences to be drawn about rock types and properties at the hydrofracture facility. Porosity values measured from the logs for Conasauga Group strata, as well as permeability values inferred from the logs, are low. Several intervals of apparently greater permeability, associated primarily with limestone-rich portions of the Maryville Limestone and sandstone-rich portions of the Rome Formation, were noted. Numerous fractures were identified by using several logs in combination. No one geophysical log was reliable for fracture identification although the acoustic-televiewer log appeared to have the greatest success. In addition to their characterization of subsurface conditions in the vicinity of the hydrofracture facility, the geophysical logs provided data on the extent of hydraulic fractures. Anomalies on single-point resistance logs that corresponded to prominent fractures identified on televiewer logs indicate intervals affected by hydraulic fractures associated with waste injection at the New Hydrofracture Facility. 14 refs

  18. From "DSM" to "DM-ID"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Robert J.; Barnhill, Jarrett; McCarthy, Jane; Strydom, André

    2016-01-01

    Recognizing the diagnostic challenges that clinicians face when attempting to arrive at an accurate psychiatric diagnosis for individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) co-occurring with mental illness (MI), in 2007 the National Association for the Dually Diagnosed (NADD), in association with the American Psychiatric…

  19. New physics and DM searches from ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Ould-Saada, Farid; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Recent new physics results from the ATLAS experiment are presented. This includes searches for Dark Matter, in particular mono-X searches, interpreted within simplified models, effective field theory and supersymmetry. Other exotic searches are mentioned, including the few channels where small excess was reported.

  20. Marketing technologically advanced products

    OpenAIRE

    Bender, Horst

    1989-01-01

    This paper calls for a merger of technology and marketing under a customer value perspective; for an enhancement of the traditional technological innovation orientation of the technology-based firm with a market thrust. It establishes technology-based products as product-service offerings that are derived from technological innovation. The aim in marketing technology-based products is an improved understanding of how an organization can combine a technology orientation with a customer value t...

  1. Second Annual Clinical Diabetes Technology Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    and 5) motivate healthy behavior. SMBG has been clearly demonstrated to improve control in patients with T1DM and insulin-treated T2DM. The evidence...suggest TYPE 2 "* Is there a provocation: infection or other stress? "* Is there glucocorticoid Rx? "* Is there hyper- alimentation ? INITIAL

  2. Membrane processes in nuclear technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakrzewska-Trznadel, G.

    2006-01-01

    The treatment of radioactive wastes is necessary taking into account the potential hazard of radioactive substances to human health and surrounding environment. The choice of appropriate technology depends on capital and operational costs, wastes amount and their characteristics, appointed targets of the process, e.g. the values of decontamination factors and volume reduction coefficients. The conventional technologies applied for radioactive waste processing, such as precipitation coupled with sedimentation, ion exchange and evaporation have many drawbacks. These include high energy consumption and formation of secondary wastes, e.g. the sludge from sediment tanks, spent ion exchange adsorbents and regeneration solutions. There are also many limitations of such processes, i.e. foaming and drop entrainment in evaporators, loses of solvents and production of secondary wastes in solvent extraction or bed clogging in ion exchange columns. Membrane processes as the newest achievement of the process engineering can successfully supersede many non-effective, out-of-date methods. But in some instances they can also complement these methods whilst improving the parameters of effluents and purification economy. This monograph presents own research data on the application of recent achievements in the area of membrane processes for solving selected problems in nuclear technology. Relatively big space was devoted to the use of membrane processing of low and intermediate radioactive liquid wastes because of numerous applications of these processes in nuclear centres over the world and also because of the interests of the author that was reflected by her recent research projects and activity. This work presents a review on the membrane methods recently introduced into the nuclear technology against the background of the other, commonly applied separation techniques, with indications of the possibilities and prospects for their further developments. Particular attention was paid

  3. Sports and Technology. Resources in Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Fred W.

    1993-01-01

    Technology is making a significant impact in all areas of sports and recreation. New equipment and computer training methods in spectator sports have had a major social and economic impact, and individual sports have reaped the benefits of technology. (JOW)

  4. The Health Technology Assessment-disease management instrument reliably measured methodologic quality of health technology assessments of disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steuten, L M G; Vrijhoef, H J M; van Merode, G G; Severens, J L; Spreeuwenberg, C

    2004-09-01

    Systematic reviews aim to summarize the evidence in a particular topic area, giving attention to the identified methodologic quality of published research. Because research in a specific area may be susceptible to specific biases, it is assumed that the methodologic quality of Health Technology Assessment (HTA) of disease management cannot properly be measured with the existing methodologic quality assessment instruments. The purpose of this study was to describe to what extent existing instruments are useful in assessing the methodologic quality of HTA of disease management. An inventory was made of the problems that arise when assessing the methodologic quality of six HTAs of disease management with three different instruments. Based on these findings, a new instrument is proposed and validated. Problems mainly concern the items related to the study design, criteria for selection and restriction of patients, baseline and outcome measures, blinding of patients and providers, and the description of (co)-interventions. With its more specific characteristics, the HTA-DM addresses the problems mentioned. The HTA-DM is a reliable instrument for methodologic quality assessment of HTA of disease management in comparison with the other three instruments.

  5. Plasma technology directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, P.P.; Dybwad, G.L.

    1995-01-01

    The Plasma Technology Directory has two main goals: (1) promote, coordinate, and share plasma technology experience and equipment within the Department of Energy; and (2) facilitate technology transfer to the commercial sector where appropriate. Personnel are averaged first by Laboratory and next by technology area. The technology areas are accelerators, cleaning and etching deposition, diagnostics, and modeling

  6. Hydrogen technologies and the technology learning curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogner, H.-H.

    1998-01-01

    On their bumpy road to commercialization, hydrogen production, delivery and conversion technologies not only require dedicated research, development and demonstration efforts, but also protected niche markets and early adopters. While niche markets utilize the unique technological properties of hydrogen, adopters exhibit a willingness to pay a premium for hydrogen fueled energy services. The concept of the technology learning curve is applied to estimate the capital requirements associated with the commercialization process of several hydrogen technologies. (author)

  7. FINAL REPORT INTEGRATED DM1200 MELTER TESTING OF REDOX EFFECTS USING HLW AZ-101 AND C-106/AY-102 SIMULANTS VSL-04R4800-1 REV 0 5/6/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; GONG W; BARDAKCI T; D' ANGELO NA; LUTZE W; BIZOT PM; CALLOW RA; BRANDYS M; KOT WK; PEGG IL

    2011-12-29

    This report documents melter and off-gas performance results obtained on the DM1200 HLW Pilot Melter during processing of AZ-101 and C-106/AY-102 HLW simulants. The tests reported herein are a subset of three tests from a larger series of tests described in the Test Plan for the work; results from the remaining tests will be reported separately. Three nine day tests, one with AZ-101 and two with C-106/AY-102 feeds were conducted with variable amounts of added sugar to address the effects of redox. The test with AZ-101 included ruthenium spikes to also address the effects of redox on ruthenium volatility. One of tests addressed the effects of increased flow-sheet nitrate levels using C-106/AY-102 feeds. With high nitrate/nitrite feeds (such as WTP LAW feeds), reductants are required to prevent melt foaming and deleterious effects on glass production rates. Sugar is the baseline WTP reductant for this purpose. WTP HLW feeds typically have relatively low nitrate/nitrite content in comparison to the organic carbon content and, therefore, have typically not required sugar additions. However, HLW feed variability, particularly with respect to nitrate levels, may necessitate the use of sugar in some instances. The tests reported here investigate the effects of variable sugar additions to the melter feed as well as elevated nitrate levels in the waste. Variables held constant to the extent possible included melt temperature, bubbling rate, plenum temperature, cold cap coverage, the waste simulant composition, and the target glass composition. The principal objectives of the DM1200 melter testing were to determine the achievable glass production rates for simulated HLW feeds with variable amounts of added sugar and increased nitrate levels; characterize melter off-gas emissions; characterize the performance of the prototypical off-gas system components as well as their integrated performance; characterize the feed, glass product, and off-gas effluents; and perform pre- and

  8. Switch to Combined GLP1 Receptor Agonist Lixisenatide with Basal Insulin Glargine in Poorly Controlled T2DM Patients with Premixed Insulin Therapy: A Clinical Observation and Pilot Study in Nine Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harreiter, Jürgen; Kosi-Trebotic, Lana; Lukas, Albert; Wolf, Peter; Winhofer, Yvonne; Luger, Anton; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Krebs, Michael R

    2017-06-01

    To prove the feasibility and safety of a conversion to once-daily injected GLP1 agonist (lixisenatide) and long-acting basal insulin analogue (glargine) in patients with T2DM and poorly controlled glycemia previously treated with multiple injections of premixed insulins (iPremix) in an outpatient setting. Nine patients with T2DM currently receiving iPremix formulations and poor glycemic control were switched to once-daily injected lixisenatide (Lixi) and basal insulin analogue glargine (iGlar) for a 12-week period. Efficacy was defined as A1c reduction of at least 0.4% and weight loss of 0.5 kg or higher. Five of nine patients achieved A1c reductions of 0.4% (4 mmol/mol) or higher and six of nine patients a weight loss of 0.5 kg or higher. A mean A1C reduction of 0.5% ± 0.5% (6 mmol/mol) and mean weight loss of -1.4 ± 3.6 kg were observed in all patients. Total daily insulin dose after 12 weeks declined from 56 ± 26 IU with iPremix formulations to 47 ± 17 IU in patients taking combined iGlar and Lixi. Corrections with fast acting insulin glulisine (iGlu) were necessary in two patients on a regular basis and in four patients on an irregular basis (2.3 IU mean total daily dose). Two patients did not need additional iGlu. Postprandial glucose profiles were lower in the combined group compared with iPremix throughout the day, which resolved in the afternoon. No metabolic derangements occurred. Mild hypoglycemia and gastrointestinal symptoms were the most often reported adverse events affecting three patients. The conversion to once-daily injected GLP1 agonist Lixi and basal iGlar could safely be performed in an outpatient setting and was associated with better postprandial glycemic control throughout the day, except dinner, compared to iPremix. EU clinical trials register EudraCT number 2013-005334-37 and ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02168491. Sponsored by the Medical University of Vienna and in part supported by Sanofi-Aventis.

  9. Final Report Integrated DM1200 Melter Testing Of Redox Effects Using HLW AZ-101 And C-106/AY-102 Simulants VSL-04R4800-1, Rev. 0, 5/6/04

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, A.A.; Matlack, K.S.; Gong, W.; Bardakci, T.; D'Angelo, N.A.; Lutze, W.; Bizot, P.M.; Callow, R.A.; Brandys, M.; Kot, W.K.; Pegg, I.L.

    2011-01-01

    This report documents melter and off-gas performance results obtained on the DM1200 HLW Pilot Melter during processing of AZ-101 and C-106/AY-102 HLW simulants. The tests reported herein are a subset of three tests from a larger series of tests described in the Test Plan for the work; results from the remaining tests will be reported separately. Three nine day tests, one with AZ-101 and two with C-106/AY-102 feeds were conducted with variable amounts of added sugar to address the effects of redox. The test with AZ-101 included ruthenium spikes to also address the effects of redox on ruthenium volatility. One of tests addressed the effects of increased flow-sheet nitrate levels using C-106/AY-102 feeds. With high nitrate/nitrite feeds (such as WTP LAW feeds), reductants are required to prevent melt foaming and deleterious effects on glass production rates. Sugar is the baseline WTP reductant for this purpose. WTP HLW feeds typically have relatively low nitrate/nitrite content in comparison to the organic carbon content and, therefore, have typically not required sugar additions. However, HLW feed variability, particularly with respect to nitrate levels, may necessitate the use of sugar in some instances. The tests reported here investigate the effects of variable sugar additions to the melter feed as well as elevated nitrate levels in the waste. Variables held constant to the extent possible included melt temperature, bubbling rate, plenum temperature, cold cap coverage, the waste simulant composition, and the target glass composition. The principal objectives of the DM1200 melter testing were to determine the achievable glass production rates for simulated HLW feeds with variable amounts of added sugar and increased nitrate levels; characterize melter off-gas emissions; characterize the performance of the prototypical off-gas system components as well as their integrated performance; characterize the feed, glass product, and off-gas effluents; and perform pre- and

  10. International Technology Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Robert G.

    The flow of technology out of the United States is discussed. Methods of technology flow, such as licensing and investing, are identified, and the advantages and disadvantages of technology transfer are discussed, especially in relation to the government's role. (MLH)

  11. Computer technology and evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Mainzer, Klaus

    1998-01-01

    Computer technology and evolution : from artificial intelligence to artificial life. - In: Advances in the philosophy of technology / ed. by Evandro Agazzi ... - Newark, Del. : Soc. for Philosophy and Technology, 1999. - S. 105-119

  12. Excimer Laser Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Basting, Dirk

    2005-01-01

    This comprehensive survey on Excimer Lasers investigates the current range of the technology, applications and devices of this commonly used laser source, as well as the future of new technologies, such as F2 laser technology. Additional chapters on optics, devices and laser systems complete this compact handbook. A must read for laser technology students, process application researchers, engineers or anyone interested in excimer laser technology. An effective and understandable introduction to the current and future status of excimer laser technology.

  13. Technology Transfer Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Since its inception, Goddard has pursued a commitment to technology transfer and commercialization. For every space technology developed, Goddard strives to identify secondary applications. Goddard then provides the technologies, as well as NASA expertise and facilities, to U.S. companies, universities, and government agencies. These efforts are based in Goddard's Technology Commercialization Office. This report presents new technologies, commercialization success stories, and other Technology Commercialization Office activities in 1999.

  14. Technology transfer by multinationals

    OpenAIRE

    Kostyantyn Zuzik

    2003-01-01

    The paper analyses the issue of technology transfer by multinational corporations. The following questions are explored: (a) world market of technologies, the role of MNCs (b) Choice of the technology transfer mode, Dunning's OLI-theory as a factor of the choice of the mode of transfer (c) measurement and profitability of technology transfer (d) transfer of technology through partnerships, JVs, alliances and through M&As (e) aspects of technology transfer by services multinationals. Paper uti...

  15. Morgantown Energy Technology Center, technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    This document has been prepared by the DOE Environmental Management (EM) Office of Technology Development (OTD) to highlight its research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities funded through the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). Technologies and processes described have the potential to enhance DOE's cleanup and waste management efforts, as well as improve US industry's competitiveness in global environmental markets. METC's R ampersand D programs are focused on commercialization of technologies that will be carried out in the private sector. META has solicited two PRDAs for EM. The first, in the area of groundwater and soil technologies, resulted in twenty-one contact awards to private sector and university technology developers. The second PRDA solicited novel decontamination and decommissioning technologies and resulted in eighteen contract awards. In addition to the PRDAs, METC solicited the first EM ROA in 1993. The ROA solicited research in a broad range of EM-related topics including in situ remediation, characterization, sensors, and monitoring technologies, efficient separation technologies, mixed waste treatment technologies, and robotics. This document describes these technology development activities

  16. Formal derivation of a 6 equation macro scale model for two-phase flows - link with the 4 equation macro scale model implemented in Flica 4; Etablissement formel d'un modele diphasique macroscopique a 6 equations - lien avec le modele macroscopique a 4 equations flica 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregoire, O

    2008-07-01

    In order to simulate nuclear reactor cores, we presently use the 4 equation model implemented within FLICA4 code. This model is complemented with 2 algebraic closures for thermal disequilibrium and relative velocity between phases. Using such closures, means an 'a priori' knowledge of flows calculated in order to ensure that modelling assumptions apply. In order to improve the degree of universality to our macroscopic modelling, we propose in the report to derive a more general 6 equation model (balance equations for mass, momentum and enthalpy for each phase) for 2-phase flows. We apply the up-scaling procedure (Whitaker, 1999) classically used in porous media analysis to the statistically averaged equations (Aniel-Buchheit et al., 2003). By doing this, we apply the double-averaging procedure (Pedras and De Lemos, 2001 and Pinson et al. 2006): statistical and spatial averages. Then, using weighted averages (analogous to Favre's average) we extend the spatial averaging concept to variable density and 2-phase flows. This approach allows the global recovering of the structure of the systems of equations implemented in industrial codes. Supplementary contributions, such as dispersion, are also highlighted. Mechanical and thermal exchanges between solids and fluid are formally derived. Then, thanks to realistic simplifying assumptions, we show how it is possible to derive the original 4 equation model from the full 6 equation model. (author)

  17. Constructive Technology Assessmentand Technology Dynamics. The Case of Clean Technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schot, Johan

    1992-01-01

    A synthesis of neo-Schumpeterian evolutionary, sociological, and historical coevolution ary models could be used for constructive technology assessment, aimed at the active management of the process of technological change. This article proposes a synthetic quasi-evolutionary model, in which

  18. Fundamentals of technology roadmapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, M.L.; Bray, O.H.

    1997-04-01

    Technology planning is important for many reasons. Globally, companies are facing many competitive problems. Technology roadmapping, a form of technology planning can help deal with this increasingly competitive environment. While it has been used by some companies and industries, the focus has always been on the technology roadmap as a product, not on the process. This report focuses on formalizing the process so that it can be more broadly and easily used. As a DOE national security laboratory with R&D as a major product, Sandia must do effective technology planning to identify and develop the technologies required to meet its national security mission. Once identified, technology enhancements or new technologies may be developed internally or collaboratively with external partners. For either approach, technology roadmapping, as described in this report, is an effective tool for technology planning and coordination, which fits within a broader set of planning activities. This report, the second in a series on technology roadmapping, develops and documents this technology roadmapping process, which can be used by Sandia, other national labs, universities, and industry. The main benefit of technology roadmapping is that it provides information to make better technology investment decisions by identifying critical technologies and technology gaps and identifying ways to leverage R&D investments. It can also be used as a marketing tool. Technology roadmapping is critical when the technology investment decision is not straight forward. This occurs when it is not clear which alternative to pursue, how quickly the technology is needed, or when there is a need to coordinate the development of multiple technologies. The technology roadmapping process consists of three phases - preliminary activity, development of the technology roadmap, and follow-up activity.

  19. Educational Technology in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meifeng, Liu; Jinjiao, Lv; Cui, Kang

    2010-01-01

    This paper elaborates the two different academic views of the identity of educational technology in China at the current time--advanced-technology-oriented cognition, known as Electrifying Education, and problem-solving-oriented cognition, known as Educational Technology. It addresses five main modes of educational technology in China: as a…

  20. EPA'S ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of innovative technology is impeded by the lack of independent, credible information as to how the technology performs. Such data is needed by technology buyers and regulatory decision makers to make informed decisions on technologies that represent good financial invest...

  1. Emerging technology and ethics

    CERN Document Server

    Wakunuma, Kutoma

    2011-01-01

    This e-book on Emerging Technologies and Ethics includes a collection of essays which explore the future and ethics of emerging information and communication technologies. Articles in the collection include an overview of the legal implications which may be relevant to the ethical aspects of emerging technologies and also ethical issues arising from the mass-take up of mobile technologies.

  2. Student Technology Assistant Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eck, Rick; Marvin, Eric; Burr-McNeal, Blake; Jones, Marshall; Lowther, Deborah

    Schools face significant challenges in implementing computing technology within their curriculum. When technology support falters, the integrity of a school district's entire technology program is at risk. Teachers who have invested time to develop lesson plans using technology, especially those who are still newcomers, are less likely to continue…

  3. Marketing technology in macroeconomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamegawa, Kenichi

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we incorporate a marketing technology into a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model by assuming a matching friction for consumption. An improvement in matching can be interpreted as an increase in matching technology, which we call marketing technology because of similar properties. Using a simulation analysis, we confirm that a positive matching technology shock can increase output and consumption.

  4. Marketing technologically advanced products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bender, Horst

    1989-01-01

    This paper calls for a merger of technology and marketing under a customer value perspective; for an enhancement of the traditional technological innovation orientation of the technology-based firm with a market thrust. It establishes technology-based products as product-service offerings that are

  5. Soil washing technology evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suer, A.

    1995-04-01

    Environmental Restoration Engineering (ERE) continues to review innovative, efficient, and cost effective technologies for SRS soil and/or groundwater remediation. As part of this effort, this technical evaluation provides review and the latest information on the technology for SRS soil remediation. Additional technology evaluation reports will be issued periodically to update these reports. The purpose of this report is to review the soil washing technology and its potential application to SRS soil remediation. To assess whether the Soil Washing technology is a viable option for SRS soil remediation, it is necessary to review the technology/process, technology advantages/limitations, performance, applications, and cost analysis

  6. NASA Technology Transfer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Peter B.; Okimura, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    NTTS is the IT infrastructure for the Agency's Technology Transfer (T2) program containing 60,000+ technology portfolio supporting all ten NASA field centers and HQ. It is the enterprise IT system for facilitating the Agency's technology transfer process, which includes reporting of new technologies (e.g., technology invention disclosures NF1679), protecting intellectual properties (e.g., patents), and commercializing technologies through various technology licenses, software releases, spinoffs, and success stories using custom built workflow, reporting, data consolidation, integration, and search engines.

  7. Physics and high technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Liqin; Ma Junru.

    1992-01-01

    At present, the development of high technology has opened a new chapter in world's history of science and technology. This review describes the great impact of physics on high technology in six different fields (energy technology, new materials, information technology, biotechnology, space technology, and Ocean technology). It is shown that the new concepts and new methods created in physics and the special conditions and measurements established for physics researches not only deepen human's knowledge about nature but also point out new directions for engineering and technology. The achievements in physics have been more and more applied to high technology, while the development of high technology has explored some new research areas and raised many novel, important projects for physics. Therefore, it is important for us to strengthen the research on these major problems in physics

  8. Advancement in Engineering Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalia, Kartik; Rehman, M. Atiqur; Hussain, Dil muhammed Akbar

    2016-01-01

    but to harvest those ideas, technology is a must. With the huge requirement of engineering equipment's, the industry needs specialists who can manage and operate these technologies. Detailed information about the merits and demerits of technology is also mentioned in this paper. Findings: Technology has affected...... the environment on a great scale; in some cases, technology is even replacing human being or use of manpower. So proper counter measures have been mentioned, which can be used to control and limit harmful effect....

  9. Newnes communications technology handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Geoff

    1994-01-01

    Newnes Communications Technology Handbook provides a discussion on different topics relevant to communications technology. The book is comprised of 39 chapters that tackle a wide variety of concern in communications technology. The coverage of the text includes technologies, such as analog digital communications systems, radio frequency receiver, and satellite systems. The book also discusses some methods and techniques used in communications technology, including mixer signal processing, modulation and demodulation, and spread spectrum techniques. The text will be of great use to engineers, t

  10. Design and Optimization of an Efficient (96.1% and Compact (2 kW/dm3 Bidirectional Isolated Single-Phase Dual Active Bridge AC-DC Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Everts

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The growing attention on plug-in electric vehicles, and the associated high-performance demands, have initiated a development trend towards highly efficient and compact on-board battery chargers. These isolated ac-dc converters are most commonly realized using two conversion stages, combining a non-isolated power factor correction (PFC rectifier with an isolated dc-dc converter.This, however, involves two loss stages and a relatively high component count, limiting the achievable efficiency and power density and resulting in high costs. In this paper, a single-stage converter approach is analyzed to realize a single-phase ac-dc converter, combining all functionalities into one conversion stage and thus enabling a cost-effective efficiency and power density increase. The converter topology consists of a quasi-lossless synchronous rectifier followed by an isolated dual active bridge (DAB dc-dc converter, putting a small filter capacitor in between. To show the performance potential of this bidirectional, isolated ac-dc converter, a comprehensive design procedure and multi-objective optimization with respect to efficiency and power density is presented, using detailed loss and volume models. The models and procedures are verified by a 3.7kW hardware demonstrator, interfacing a 400Vdc-bus with the single-phase 230V,50Hz utility grid. Measurement results indicate a state-of-the-art efficiency of 96.1% and power density of 2 kW/dm3, confirming the competitiveness of the investigated single-stage DAB ac-dc converter.

  11. On the Dehydrocoupling of Alkenylacetylenes Mediated by Various Samarocene Complexes: A Charming Story of Metal Cooperativity Revealing a Novel Dual Metal σ-Bond Metathesis Type of Mechanism (DM|σ-BM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos E. Kefalidis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The prevailing reductive chemistry of Sm(II has been accessed and explored mostly by the use of samarocene precursors. The highly reducing character of these congeners, along with their Lewis acidity and predominantly ionic bonding, allows for the relatively facile activation of C–H bonds, as well as peculiar transformations of unsaturated substrates (e.g., C–C couplings. Among other important C–C coupling reactions, the reaction of phenylacetylene with different mono- or bimetallic samarocene complexes affords trienediyl complexes of the type {[(C5Me52Sm]2(µ-η2:η2-PhC4Ph}. In contrast, when t-butylacetylene is used, uncoupled monomers of the type (C5Me52Sm(C≡C–tBu were obtained. Although this type of reactivity may appear to be simple, the mechanism underlying these transformations is complex. This conclusion is drawn from the density functional theory (DFT mechanistic studies presented herein. The operating mechanistic paths consist of: (i the oxidation of each samarium center and the concomitant double reduction of the alkyne to afford a binuclear intermediate; (ii the C–H scission of the acetylinic bond that lies in between the two metals; (iii a dual metal σ-bond metathesis (DM|σ-SBM process that releases H2; and eventually (iv the C–C coupling of the two bridged μ-alkynides to give the final bimetallic trienediyl complexes. For the latter mechanistic route, the experimentally used phenylacetylene was considered first as well as the aliphatic hex-1-yne. More interestingly, we shed light into the formation of the mono(alkynide complex, being the final experimental product of the reaction with t-butylacetylene.

  12. Training in virtual reality: qualitative results from a comparison of technology types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebok, Angelia; Nystad, Espen

    2005-08-01

    The study described in HWR-734 consisted of three experiments. The first experiment compared procedural and configuration learning using four display technology types; the second experiment compared these same four technology types in a retention and transfer of training condition, and the third experiment compared assembly learning using three types of displays. The purpose of the study was to determine if the technology types differed in their ability to support learning. Thus, several different types of learning tasks were included (i.e., procedures, configuration and assembly). For all types of learning, short term training effectiveness was evaluated: subjects were tested immediately after the training session, in the same conditions in which they had been trained. In addition, procedural learning was also evaluated in a retention and transfer of training condition, where subjects were tested 24 hours after the initial training, in a real-world talk-through condition. In the Procedural / Configuration knowledge conditions, four technology types were evaluated. These include a desktop monoscopic display (DM), a desktop stereoscopic display (DS), a large-screen stereoscopic display (LS-S), and a head-mounted display with orientation tracking. In the Assembly knowledge condition, three technology types were evaluated: a desktop monoscopic display (DM), a large-screen monoscopic display (LS-M), and a head-mounted display without orientation tracking (HMD-nt). Twenty-four employees at the Halden Boiling Water Reactor (HBWR) participated in the study. The study lasted for one week, so all subjects attended for multiple days. Prior to starting the experiment, subjects attended a briefing where they were given instructions on how to use the equipment. They were allowed 10 minutes practice to get familiar with each technology type before each experimental session. During and after the experimental sessions, data were collected. These included objective data, such as

  13. Emerging Technologies Integrating Technology into Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin-Jones, Robert

    2016-01-01

    "Ready access to travel and to technology-enhanced social networking (e.g., Facebook or Skype) has changed the nature of study abroad to the point where today's experiences are fundamentally different from those of earlier eras" (Kinginger, 2013a, p. 345). In addition to more travel options and greater technology availability, study…

  14. Educational technology and the new technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, Pleunes Willem; Plomp, T.

    1989-01-01

    Like everywhere in our culture, new technologies gradually penetrate the field of education. This may be seen as a problem area, which asks for appropriate, actions by teachers, curriculum experts, instructional designers and others. As "technology" seems to be the main issue,one may quation whether

  15. Search Technologies | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our team of technology transfer specialists has specialized training in invention reporting, patenting, patent strategy, executing technology transfer agreements and marketing. TTC is comprised of professionals with diverse legal, scientific, and business/marketing expertise. Most of our staff hold doctorate-level technical and/or legal training.

  16. Available Technologies | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our team of technology transfer specialists has specialized training in invention reporting, patenting, patent strategy, executing technology transfer agreements and marketing. TTC is comprised of professionals with diverse legal, scientific, and business/marketing expertise. Most of our staff hold doctorate-level technical and/or legal training.

  17. SHARED TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GRIFFIN, JOHN M. HAUT, RICHARD C.

    2008-03-07

    The program established a collaborative process with domestic industries for the purpose of sharing Navy-developed technology. Private sector businesses were educated so as to increase their awareness of the vast amount of technologies that are available, with an initial focus on technology applications that are related to the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies (Hydrogen) Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. Specifically, the project worked to increase industry awareness of the vast technology resources available to them that have been developed with taxpayer funding. NAVSEA-Carderock and the Houston Advanced Research Center teamed with Nicholls State University to catalog NAVSEA-Carderock unclassified technologies, rated the level of readiness of the technologies and established a web based catalog of the technologies. In particular, the catalog contains technology descriptions, including testing summaries and overviews of related presentations.

  18. ACR-700 advanced technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapping, R.L.; Turner, C.W.; Yu, S.K.W.; Olmstead, R.; Speranzini, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    A successful advanced reactor plant will have optimized economics including reduced operating and maintenance costs, improved performance, and enhanced safety. Incorporating improvements based on advanced technologies ensures cost, safety and operational competitiveness of the ACR-700. These advanced technologies include modern configuration management; construction technologies; operational technology for the control centre and information systems for plant monitoring and analysis. This paper summarizes the advanced technologies used to achieve construction and operational improvements to enhance plant economic competitiveness, advances in the operational technology used for reactor control, and presents the development of the Smart CANDU suite of tools and its application to existing operating reactors and to the ACR-700. (author)

  19. Avionics systems integration technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stech, George; Williams, James R.

    1988-01-01

    A very dramatic and continuing explosion in digital electronics technology has been taking place in the last decade. The prudent and timely application of this technology will provide Army aviation the capability to prevail against a numerically superior enemy threat. The Army and NASA have exploited this technology explosion in the development and application of avionics systems integration technology for new and future aviation systems. A few selected Army avionics integration technology base efforts are discussed. Also discussed is the Avionics Integration Research Laboratory (AIRLAB) that NASA has established at Langley for research into the integration and validation of avionics systems, and evaluation of advanced technology in a total systems context.

  20. The Human Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    towards this very special and lost humanity. Without the technology, no special humanity is the prophecy. This personification or anthropomorphism is important for the branding of new technology. The technology is seen as creating a technotranscendens towards a more qualified humanity, which is in contact...... with fundamental human values like intuition, vision and sensing; all the qualities the technology, the industrialisation and rationalisation, or in short modernity, has been criticized for having taken away from human existence. What technology has taken away now comes back through new technology as an aid...