WorldWideScience

Sample records for technology lifecycle analysis

  1. Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Daniel A.; Mankins, John C.

    2004-01-01

    Developing credible mass and cost estimates for space exploration and development architectures require multidisciplinary analysis based on physics calculations, and parametric estimates derived from historical systems. Within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), concurrent engineering environment (CEE) activities integrate discipline oriented analysis tools through a computer network and accumulate the results of a multidisciplinary analysis team via a centralized database or spreadsheet Each minute of a design and analysis study within a concurrent engineering environment is expensive due the size of the team and supporting equipment The Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS) reduces the cost of architecture analysis by capturing the knowledge of discipline experts into system oriented spreadsheet models. A framework with a user interface presents a library of system models to an architecture analyst. The analyst selects models of launchers, in-space transportation systems, and excursion vehicles, as well as space and surface infrastructure such as propellant depots, habitats, and solar power satellites. After assembling the architecture from the selected models, the analyst can create a campaign comprised of missions spanning several years. The ATLAS controller passes analyst specified parameters to the models and data among the models. An integrator workbook calls a history based parametric analysis cost model to determine the costs. Also, the integrator estimates the flight rates, launched masses, and architecture benefits over the years of the campaign. An accumulator workbook presents the analytical results in a series of bar graphs. In no way does ATLAS compete with a CEE; instead, ATLAS complements a CEE by ensuring that the time of the experts is well spent Using ATLAS, an architecture analyst can perform technology sensitivity analysis, study many scenarios, and see the impact of design decisions. When the analyst is

  2. Second NASA Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM): Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS) Technology Tool Box (TTB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ONeil, D. A.; Mankins, J. C.; Christensen, C. B.; Gresham, E. C.

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS), a spreadsheet analysis tool suite, applies parametric equations for sizing and lifecycle cost estimation. Performance, operation, and programmatic data used by the equations come from a Technology Tool Box (TTB) database. In this second TTB Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM), technologists, system model developers, and architecture analysts discussed methods for modeling technology decisions in spreadsheet models, identified specific technology parameters, and defined detailed development requirements. This Conference Publication captures the consensus of the discussions and provides narrative explanations of the tool suite, the database, and applications of ATLAS within NASA s changing environment.

  3. NASA Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM): Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS) Technology Tool Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    ONeil, D. A.; Craig, D. A.; Christensen, C. B.; Gresham, E. C.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this Technical Interchange Meeting was to increase the quantity and quality of technical, cost, and programmatic data used to model the impact of investing in different technologies. The focus of this meeting was the Technology Tool Box (TTB), a database of performance, operations, and programmatic parameters provided by technologists and used by systems engineers. The TTB is the data repository used by a system of models known as the Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS). This report describes the result of the November meeting, and also provides background information on ATLAS and the TTB.

  4. Product Lifecycle Management Centre of Technology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Barnard, Rentia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available - Rentia Barnard.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 1 Interactive activities Contents Product Lifecycle Management Centre of Technology Rentia Barnard National Industrialisation Support Initiative (NISI) 3 Initiative (NISI...

  5. Well-to-wheels life-cycle analysis of alternative fuels and vehicle technologies in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Wei; Han Weijian; Chock, David; Chai Qinhu; Zhang Aling

    2012-01-01

    A well-to-wheels life cycle analysis on total energy consumptions and greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions for alternative fuels and accompanying vehicle technologies has been carried out for the base year 2010 and projected to 2020 based on data gathered and estimates developed for China. The fuels considered include gasoline, diesel, natural gas, liquid fuels from coal conversion, methanol, bio-ethanol and biodiesel, electricity and hydrogen. Use of liquid fuels including methanol and Fischer–Tropsch derived from coal will significantly increase GHG emissions relative to use of conventional gasoline. Use of starch-based bio-ethanol will incur a substantial carbon disbenefit because of the present highly inefficient agricultural practice and plant processing in China. Electrification of vehicles via hybrid electric, plug-in hybrid electric (PHEV) and battery electric vehicle technologies offers a progressively improved prospect for the reduction of energy consumption and GHG emission. However, the long-term carbon emission reduction is assured only when the needed electricity is generated by zero- or low-carbon sources, which means that carbon capture and storage is a necessity for fossil-based feedstocks. A PHEV that runs on zero- or low-carbon electricity and cellulosic ethanol may be one of the most attractive fuel-vehicle options in a carbon-constrained world. - Highlights: ► Data and estimates unique to China are used in this analysis. ► Use of starch-based bio-ethanol will incur a substantial carbon disbenefit in China. ► Use of methanol derived from coal will incur even more carbon disbenefit. ► Plug-in-hybrid with cellulosic ethanol and clean electricity may be a viable option.

  6. Life-Cycle Cost-Benefit Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    2010-01-01

    The future use of Life-Cycle Cost-Benefit (LCCB) analysis is discussed in this paper. A more complete analysis including not only the traditional factors and user costs, but also factors which are difficult to include in the analysis is needed in the future.......The future use of Life-Cycle Cost-Benefit (LCCB) analysis is discussed in this paper. A more complete analysis including not only the traditional factors and user costs, but also factors which are difficult to include in the analysis is needed in the future....

  7. Lifecycle Industry GreenHouse gas, Technology and Energy through the Use Phase (LIGHTEnUP) – Analysis Tool User’s Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrow, William R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Shehabi, Arman [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Smith, Sarah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division

    2016-06-22

    The LIGHTEnUP Analysis Tool (Lifecycle Industry GreenHouse gas, Technology and Energy through the Use Phase) has been developed for The United States Department of Energy’s (U.S. DOE) Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) to forecast both the manufacturing sector and product life-cycle energy consumption implications of manufactured products across the U.S. economy. The tool architecture incorporates publicly available historic and projection datasets of U.S. economy-wide energy use including manufacturing, buildings operations, electricity generation and transportation. The tool requires minimal inputs to define alternate scenarios to business-as-usual projection data. The tool is not an optimization or equilibrium model and therefore does not select technologies or deployment scenarios endogenously. Instead, inputs are developed exogenous to the tool by the user to reflect detailed engineering calculations, future targets and goals, or creative insights. The tool projects the scenario’s energy, CO2 emissions, and energy expenditure (i.e., economic spending to purchase energy) implications and provides documentation to communicate results. The tool provides a transparent and uniform system of comparing manufacturing and use-phase impacts of technologies. The tool allows the user to create multiple scenarios that can reflect a range of possible future outcomes. However, reasonable scenarios require careful attention to assumptions and details about the future. This tool is part of an emerging set of AMO’s life cycle analysis (LCA) tool such as the Material Flows the Industry (MFI) tool, and the Additive Manufacturing LCA tool.

  8. Towards a Lifecycle Information Framework and Technology in Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedberg, Thomas; Feeney, Allison Barnard; Helu, Moneer; Camelio, Jaime A

    2017-06-01

    Industry has been chasing the dream of integrating and linking data across the product lifecycle and enterprises for decades. However, industry has been challenged by the fact that the context in which data is used varies based on the function / role in the product lifecycle that is interacting with the data. Holistically, the data across the product lifecycle must be considered an unstructured data-set because multiple data repositories and domain-specific schema exist in each phase of the lifecycle. This paper explores a concept called the Lifecycle Information Framework and Technology (LIFT). LIFT is a conceptual framework for lifecycle information management and the integration of emerging and existing technologies, which together form the basis of a research agenda for dynamic information modeling in support of digital-data curation and reuse in manufacturing. This paper provides a discussion of the existing technologies and activities that the LIFT concept leverages. Also, the paper describes the motivation for applying such work to the domain of manufacturing. Then, the LIFT concept is discussed in detail, while underlying technologies are further examined and a use case is detailed. Lastly, potential impacts are explored.

  9. Product Lifecycle Management Architecture: A Model Based Systems Engineering Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noonan, Nicholas James [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This report is an analysis of the Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) program. The analysis is centered on a need statement generated by a Nuclear Weapons (NW) customer. The need statement captured in this report creates an opportunity for the PLM to provide a robust service as a solution. Lifecycles for both the NW and PLM are analyzed using Model Based System Engineering (MBSE).

  10. Life-cycle analysis of shale gas and natural gas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, C.E.; Han, J.; Burnham, A.; Dunn, J.B.; Wang, M. (Energy Systems); ( EVS)

    2012-01-27

    The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. Using the current state of knowledge of the recovery, processing, and distribution of shale gas and conventional natural gas, we have estimated up-to-date, life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we have developed distribution functions for key parameters in each pathway to examine uncertainty and identify data gaps - such as methane emissions from shale gas well completions and conventional natural gas liquid unloadings - that need to be addressed further. Our base case results show that shale gas life-cycle emissions are 6% lower than those of conventional natural gas. However, the range in values for shale and conventional gas overlap, so there is a statistical uncertainty regarding whether shale gas emissions are indeed lower than conventional gas emissions. This life-cycle analysis provides insight into the critical stages in the natural gas industry where emissions occur and where opportunities exist to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas.

  11. Life-cycle analysis of renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    1994-01-01

    An imlementation of life-cycle analysis (LCA) for energy systems is presented and applied to two renewable energy systems (wind turbines and building-integrated photovoltaic modules) and compared with coal plants......An imlementation of life-cycle analysis (LCA) for energy systems is presented and applied to two renewable energy systems (wind turbines and building-integrated photovoltaic modules) and compared with coal plants...

  12. Lifecycle-analysis for heavy vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaines, L.

    1998-01-01

    Various alternative fuels and improved engine and vehicle systems have been proposed in order to reduce emissions and energy use associated with heavy vehicles (predominantly trucks). For example, oil companies have proposed improved methods for converting natural gas to zero-aromatics, zero-sulfur diesel fuel via the Fischer-Tropsch process. Major heavy-duty diesel engine companies are working on ways to simultaneously reduce particulate-matter and NOX emissions. The trend in heavy vehicles is toward use of lightweight materials, tires with lower rolling resistance, and treatments to reduce aerodynamic drag. In this paper, we compare the Mecycle energy use and emissions from trucks using selected alternatives, such as Fisher-Tropsch diesel fuel and advanced fuel-efficient engines. We consider heavy-duty, Class 8 tractor-semitrailer combinations for this analysis. The total life cycle includes production and recycling of the vehicle itself, extraction, processing, and transportation of the fuel itself, and vehicle operation and maintenance. Energy use is considered in toto, as well as those portions that are imported, domestic, and renewable. Emissions of interest include greenhouse gases and criteria pollutants. Angonne's Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model is used to generate per-vehicle fuel cycle impacts. Energy use and emissions for materials manufacturing and vehicle disposal are estimated by means of materials information from Argonne studies. We conclude that there are trade-offs among impacts. For example, the lowest fossil energy use does not necessarily result in lowest total energy use, and lower tailpipe emissions may not necessarily result in lower lifecycle emissions of all criteria pollutants

  13. Analysis within the systems development life-cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Rock-Evans, Rosemary

    1987-01-01

    Analysis within the Systems Development Life-Cycle: Book 2, Data Analysis-The Methods describes the methods for carrying out data analysis within the systems development life-cycle and demonstrates how the results of fact gathering can be used to produce and verify the analysis deliverables. A number of alternative methods of analysis other than normalization are suggested. Comprised of seven chapters, this book shows the tasks to be carried out in the logical order of progression-preparation, collection, analysis of the existing system (which comprises the tasks of synthesis, verification, an

  14. Analysis within the systems development life-cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Rock-Evans, Rosemary

    1987-01-01

    Analysis within the Systems Development Life-Cycle: Book 4, Activity Analysis-The Methods describes the techniques and concepts for carrying out activity analysis within the systems development life-cycle. Reference is made to the deliverables of data analysis and more than one method of analysis, each a viable alternative to the other, are discussed. The """"bottom-up"""" and """"top-down"""" methods are highlighted. Comprised of seven chapters, this book illustrates how dependent data and activities are on each other. This point is especially brought home when the task of inventing new busin

  15. Analysis within the systems development life-cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Rock-Evans, Rosemary

    1987-01-01

    Analysis within the Systems Development Life-Cycle: Book 1, Data Analysis-The Deliverables provides a comprehensive treatment of data analysis within the systems development life-cycle and all the deliverables that need to be collected in analysis. The purpose of deliverables is explained and a number of alternative ways of collecting them are discussed. This book is comprised of five chapters and begins with an overview of what """"analysis"""" actually means, with particular reference to tasks such as hardware planning and software evaluation and where they fit into the overall cycle. The ne

  16. Comparative Life-Cycle Cost Analysis Of Solar Photovoltaic Power ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative Life-Cycle Cost Analysis Of Solar Photovoltaic Power System And Diesel Generator System For Remote Residential Application In Nigeria. ... like capital cost, and diesel fuel costs are varied. The results show the photovoltaic system to be more cost-effective at low-power ranges of electrical energy supply.

  17. Infrastructures and Life-Cycle Cost-Benefit Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    2012-01-01

    Design and maintenance of infrastructures using Life-Cycle Cost-Benefit analysis is discussed in this paper with special emphasis on users costs. This is for several infrastructures such as bridges, highways etc. of great importance. Repair or/and failure of infrastructures will usually result...

  18. Cradle-to-Grave Lifecycle Analysis of U.S. Light-Duty Vehicle-Fuel Pathways: A Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Economic Assessment of Current (2015) and Future (2025-2030) Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elgowainy, Amgad; Han, Jeongwoo; Ward, Jacob; Joseck, Fred; Gohlke, David; Lindauer, Alicia; Ramsden, Todd; Biddy, Mary; Alexander, Marcus; Barnhart, Steven; Sutherland, Ian; Verduzco, Laura; Wallington, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    This study provides a comprehensive life-cycle analysis (LCA), or cradle-to-grave (C2G) analysis, of the cost and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of a variety of vehicle-fuel pathways, as well as the levelized cost of driving (LCD) and cost of avoided GHG emissions. This study also estimates the technology readiness levels (TRLs) of key fuel and vehicle technologies along the pathways. The C2G analysis spans a full portfolio of midsize light-duty vehicles (LDVs), including conventional internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs), flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), battery electric vehicles (BEVs), and fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs). In evaluating the vehicle-fuel combinations, this study considers both low-volume and high-volume ''CURRENT TECHNOLOGY'' cases (nominally 2015) and a high-volume ''FUTURE TECHNOLOGY'' lower-carbon case (nominally 2025-2030). For the CURRENT TECHNOLOGY case, low-volume vehicle and fuel production pathways are examined to determine costs in the near term.

  19. Economics of lifecycle analysis and greenhouse gas regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, Deepak

    2009-11-01

    Interest in alternatives to fossil fuels has risen significantly during the current decade. Although a variety of different alternative technologies have experienced rapid growth, biofuels have emerged as the main alternative transportation fuel. Energy policies in several countries envision blending biofuels with fossil fuels as the main mechanism to increase energy independence and energy security. Climate change policies in several regions are also riding on the same hope for reducing emissions from transportation. The main advantage of biofuels is that they are technically mature, cheaper to produce and more convenient to use relative to other alternative fuels. However, the impact of current biofuels on the environment and on economic welfare, is controversial. In my dissertation I focus on three topics relevant to future energy and climate policies. The first is the economics of lifecycle analysis and its application to the assessment of environmental impact of biofuel policies. The potential of biofuel for reducing greenhouse gas emissions was brought to the fore by research that relied on the methodology called lifecycle analysis (LCA). Subsequent research however showed that the traditional LCA fails to account for market-mediated effects that will arise when biofuel technologies are scaled up. These effects can increase or decrease emissions at each stage of the lifecycle. I discuss how the LCA will differ depending on the scale, a single firm versus a region and why LCA of the future should be distinguished from LCA of the past. I describe some approaches for extending the LCA methodology so that it can be applied under these different situations. The second topic is the economic impact of biofuels. Biofuels reduce the demand for oil and increase the demand for agricultural goods. To high income countries which tend to be both large importers of oil and large exporters of agricultural goods, this implies two major benefits. One of the one hand it reduces

  20. Comparative evaluation by lifecycle and risk assessment of agrobiological and technological routes of production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moll, H.C.; Schoot Uiterkamp, A.J.M.

    The application of lifecycle and risk assessment methodologies for environmental assessment of agricultural products is growing and produces interesting results. This allows comparisons between agricultural and technological routes of production. An evaluation of such assessments provides increased

  1. Cradle-to-Grave Lifecycle Analysis of U.S. Light Duty Vehicle-Fuel Pathways: A Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Economic Assessment of Current (2015) and Future (2025-2030) Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgowainy, Amgad; Han, Jeongwoo; Ward, Jacob; Joseck, Fred; Gohlke, David; Lindauer, Alicia; Ramsden, Todd; Biddy, Mary; Alexander, Marcus; Barnhart, Steven; Sutherland, Ian; Verduzco, Laura; Wallington, Timothy

    2016-06-01

    This study provides a comprehensive lifecycle analysis (LCA), or cradle-to-grave (C2G) analysis, of the cost and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of a variety of vehicle-fuel pathways, as well as the levelized cost of driving (LCD) and cost of avoided GHG emissions. This study also estimates the technology readiness levels (TRLs) of key fuel and vehicle technologies along the pathways. The C2G analysis spans a full portfolio of midsize light-duty vehicles (LDVs), including conventional internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs), flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), battery electric vehicles (BEVs), and fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs). In evaluating the vehicle-fuel combinations, this study considers both low-volume and high-volume “CURRENT TECHNOLOGY” cases (nominally 2015) and a high-volume “FUTURE TECHNOLOGY” lower-carbon case (nominally 2025–2030). For the CURRENT TECHNOLOGY case, low-volume vehicle and fuel production pathways are examined to determine costs in the near term.

  2. Cradle-to-Grave Lifecycle Analysis of U.S. Light-Duty Vehicle-Fuel Pathways: A Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Economic Assessment of Current (2015) and Future (2025–2030) Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgowainy, Amgad [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Han, Jeongwoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Ward, Jacob [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States); Joseck, Fred [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States); Gohlke, David [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States); Lindauer, Alicia [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States); Ramsden, Todd [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Biddy, Mary [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Alexander, Marcus [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Barnhart, Steven [Fiat Chrysler Automobiles (FCA) US LLC, Auburn Hills, MI (United States); Sutherland, Ian [General Motors, Warren, MI (United States); Verduzco, Laura [Chevron Corporation, San Ramon, CA (United States); Wallington, Timothy J. [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This study provides a comprehensive life-cycle analysis (LCA), or cradle-to-grave (C2G) analysis, of the cost and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of a variety of vehicle-fuel pathways, as well as the levelized cost of driving (LCD) and cost of avoided GHG emissions. This study also estimates the technology readiness levels (TRLs) of key fuel and vehicle technologies along the pathways. The C2G analysis spans a full portfolio of midsize light-duty vehicles (LDVs), including conventional internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs), flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), battery electric vehicles (BEVs), and fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs). In evaluating the vehicle-fuel combinations, this study considers both low-volume and high-volume “CURRENT TECHNOLOGY” cases (nominally 2015) and a high-volume “FUTURE TECHNOLOGY” lower-carbon case (nominally 2025–2030). For the CURRENT TECHNOLOGY case, low-volume vehicle and fuel production pathways are examined to determine costs in the near term.

  3. A Life-Cycle Analysis of Social Security with Housing

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Kaiji

    2009-01-01

    This paper incorporates two features of housing in a life-cycle analysis of social security: housing as a durable good and housing market frictions. We find that with housing as a durable good unfunded social security substantially crowds out housing consumption throughout the life cycle. By contrast, aggregate non-durable consumption is higher when social security is present, although it is postponed until late in life. Moreover, in the presence of housing market frictions, social security l...

  4. Life-Cycle Analysis of Alternative Aviation Fuels in GREET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgowainy, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Han, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Carter, N. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Stratton, R. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Hileman, J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Malwitz, A. [Volpe National Transportation Systems Center, Cambridge, MA (United States); Balasubramanian, S. [Volpe National Transportation Systems Center, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2012-06-01

    The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, developed at Argonne National Laboratory, has been expanded to include well-to-wake (WTWa) analysis of aviation fuels and aircraft. This report documents the key WTWa stages and assumptions for fuels that represent alternatives to petroleum jet fuel. The aviation module in GREET consists of three spreadsheets that present detailed characterizations of well-to-pump and pump-to-wake parameters and WTWa results. By using the expanded GREET version (GREET1_2011), we estimate WTWa results for energy use (total, fossil, and petroleum energy) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide) for (1) each unit of energy (lower heating value) consumed by the aircraft or(2) each unit of distance traveled/ payload carried by the aircraft. The fuel pathways considered in this analysis include petroleum-based jet fuel from conventional and unconventional sources (i.e., oil sands); Fisher-Tropsch (FT) jet fuel from natural gas, coal, and biomass; bio-jet fuel from fast pyrolysis of cellulosic biomass; and bio-jet fuel from vegetable and algal oils, which falls under the American Society for Testing and Materials category of hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids. For aircraft operation, we considered six passenger aircraft classes and four freight aircraft classes in this analysis. Our analysis revealed that, depending on the feedstock source, the fuel conversion technology, and the allocation or displacement credit methodology applied to co-products, alternative bio-jet fuel pathways have the potential to reduce life-cycle GHG emissions by 55–85 percent compared with conventional (petroleum-based) jet fuel. Although producing FT jet fuel from fossil feedstock sources — such as natural gas and coal — could greatly reduce dependence on crude oil, production from such sources (especially coal) produces greater WTWa GHG emissions compared with petroleum jet

  5. Life-cycle analysis of alternative aviation fuels in GREET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgowainy, A.; Han, J.; Wang, M.; Carter, N.; Stratton, R.; Hileman, J.; Malwitz, A.; Balasubramanian, S. (Energy Systems)

    2012-07-23

    The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, developed at Argonne National Laboratory, has been expanded to include well-to-wake (WTWa) analysis of aviation fuels and aircraft. This report documents the key WTWa stages and assumptions for fuels that represent alternatives to petroleum jet fuel. The aviation module in GREET consists of three spreadsheets that present detailed characterizations of well-to-pump and pump-to-wake parameters and WTWa results. By using the expanded GREET version (GREET1{_}2011), we estimate WTWa results for energy use (total, fossil, and petroleum energy) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide) for (1) each unit of energy (lower heating value) consumed by the aircraft or (2) each unit of distance traveled/ payload carried by the aircraft. The fuel pathways considered in this analysis include petroleum-based jet fuel from conventional and unconventional sources (i.e., oil sands); Fisher-Tropsch (FT) jet fuel from natural gas, coal, and biomass; bio-jet fuel from fast pyrolysis of cellulosic biomass; and bio-jet fuel from vegetable and algal oils, which falls under the American Society for Testing and Materials category of hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids. For aircraft operation, we considered six passenger aircraft classes and four freight aircraft classes in this analysis. Our analysis revealed that, depending on the feedstock source, the fuel conversion technology, and the allocation or displacement credit methodology applied to co-products, alternative bio-jet fuel pathways have the potential to reduce life-cycle GHG emissions by 55-85 percent compared with conventional (petroleum-based) jet fuel. Although producing FT jet fuel from fossil feedstock sources - such as natural gas and coal - could greatly reduce dependence on crude oil, production from such sources (especially coal) produces greater WTWa GHG emissions compared with petroleum jet

  6. Analysis within the systems development life-cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Rock-Evans, Rosemary

    1987-01-01

    Analysis within the Systems Development Life-Cycle, Book 3: Activity Analysis - The Deliverables provides a comprehensive coverage of the deliverables of activity analysis. The book also details purpose of each deliverable in the context of the next tasks in the systems development cycle (SDC). The text first covers the concept of deliverables and the benefits of making deliverables visible. In the second chapter, the book introduces the main concepts and diagrammatic techniques of activity analysis. The third chapter deals with the important classes or categories of concept, while the fourth

  7. Analysis of the Lifecycle of Mechanical Engineering Products

    OpenAIRE

    Gubaidulina, Rauza Khamidovna; Gruby, S. V.; Davlatov, G. D.

    2016-01-01

    Principal phases of the lifecycle of mechanical engineering products are analyzed in the paper. The authors have developed methods and procedures to improve designing, manufacturing, operating and recycling of the machine. It has been revealed that economic lifecycle of the product is a base for appropriate organization of mechanical engineering production. This lifecycle is calculated as a minimal sum total of consumer and producer costs. The machine construction and its manufacturing techno...

  8. Optimal Life-Cycle Investing with Flexible Labor Supply: A Welfare Analysis of Life-Cycle Funds

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco J. Gomes; Laurence J. Kotlikoff; Luis M. Viceira

    2008-01-01

    We investigate optimal consumption, asset accumulation and portfolio decisions in a realistically calibrated life-cycle model with flexible labor supply. Our framework allows for wage rate uncertainly, variable labor supply, social security benefits and portfolio choice over safe bonds and risky equities. Our analysis reinforces prior findings that equities are the preferred asset for young households, with the optimal share of equities generally declining prior to retirement. However, variab...

  9. Reliability and life-cycle analysis of deteriorating systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-Silva, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    This book compiles and critically discusses modern engineering system degradation models and their impact on engineering decisions. In particular, the authors focus on modeling the uncertain nature of degradation considering both conceptual discussions and formal mathematical formulations. It also describes the basics concepts and the various modeling aspects of life-cycle analysis (LCA).  It highlights the role of degradation in LCA and defines optimum design and operation parameters. Given the relationship between operational decisions and the performance of the system’s condition over time, maintenance models are also discussed. The concepts and models presented have applications in a large variety of engineering fields such as Civil, Environmental, Industrial, Electrical and Mechanical engineering. However, special emphasis is given to problems related to large infrastructure systems. The book is intended to be used both as a reference resource for researchers and practitioners and as an academic text ...

  10. Life-cycle analysis of product integrated polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espinosa Martinez, Nieves; García-Valverde, Rafael; Krebs, Frederik C

    2011-01-01

    A life cycle analysis (LCA) on a product integrated polymer solar module is carried out in this study. These assessments are well-known to be useful in developmental stages of a product in order to identify the bottlenecks for the up-scaling in its production phase for several aspects spanning from...... economics through design to functionality. An LCA study was performed to quantify the energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from electricity use in the manufacture of a light-weight lamp based on a plastic foil, a lithium-polymer battery, a polymer solar cell, printed circuitry, blocking diode......, switch and a white light emitting semiconductor diode. The polymer solar cell employed in this prototype presents a power conversion efficiency in the range of 2 to 3% yielding energy payback times (EPBT) in the range of 1.3–2 years. Based on this it is worthwhile to undertake a life-cycle study...

  11. Techno-economic and life-cycle modeling and analysis of various energy storage technologies coupled with a solar photovoltaic array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Brian Andrew

    Renewable energies, such as wind and solar, are a growing piece of global energy consumption. The chief motivation to develop renewable energy is two-fold: reducing carbon dioxide emissions and reducing dependence on diminishing fossil fuel supplies. Energy storage is critical to the growth of renewable energy because it allows for renewably-generated electricity to be consumed at times when renewable sources are unavailable, and it also enhances power quality (maintaining voltage and frequency) on an electric grid which becomes increasingly unstable as more renewable energy is added. There are numerous means of storing energy with different advantages, but none has emerged as the clear solution of choice for renewable energy storage. This thesis attempts to explore the current and developing state of energy storage and how it can be efficiently implemented with crystalline silicon solar photovotlaics, which has a minimum expected lifetime of 25 years assumed in this thesis. A method of uniformly comparing vastly different energy storage technologies using empirical data was proposed. Energy storage technologies were compared based on both economic valuation over the system life and cradle-to-gate pollution rates for systems with electrochemical batteries. For stationary, non-space-constrained settings, lead-acid batteries proved to be the most economical. Carbon-enhanced lead-acid batteries were competitive, showing promise as an energy storage technology. Lithium-ion batteries showed the lowest pollution rate of electrochemical batteries examined, but both lithium-ion and lead-acid batteries produce comparable carbon dioxide to coal-derived electricity.

  12. A Review of the Application of Lifecycle Analysis to Renewable Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Chris; Biswas, Wahidul

    2008-01-01

    The lifecycle concept is a "cradle to grave" approach to thinking about products, processes, and services, recognizing that all stages have environmental and economic impacts. Any rigorous and meaningful comparison of energy supply options must be done using a lifecycle analysis approach. It has been applied to an increasing number of conventional…

  13. Simplified life-cycle analysis of PV systems in buildings: present situation and future trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankl, P.; Masini, A.; Gamberale, M.; Toccaceli, D.

    1998-01-01

    The integration of photovoltaic (PV) systems in buildings shows several advantages compared to conventional PV power plants. The main objectives of the present study are the quantitative evaluation of the benefits of building-integrated PV systems over their entire life-cycle and the identification of best solutions to maximise their energy efficiency and CO 2 mitigation potential. In order to achieve these objectives, a simplified life-cycle analysis (LCA) has been carried out. Firstly, a number of existing applications have been studied. Secondly, a parametric analysis of possible improvements in the balance-of-system (BOS) has been developed. Finally, the two steps have been combined with the analysis of crystalline silicon technologies. Results are reported in terms of several indicators: energy pay-back time, CO 2 yield and specific CO 2 emissions. The Indicators show that the integration of PV systems in buildings clearly increases the environmental benefits of present PV technology. These benefits will further increase with future PV technologies. Future optimised PV roof-integrated systems are expected to have an energy pay-back time of around 1-5 years (1 year with heat recovery) and to save during their lifetime more than 20 times the amount of CO 2 emitted during their manufacturing (34 times with heat recovery). (Author)

  14. Technology Trends and Opportunities for Construction Industry and Lifecycle Management

    OpenAIRE

    Janson, Vidar

    2017-01-01

    Master's thesis in for Offshore Technology: Industrial Asset Management The purpose of the report is to highlight methods that can make it easier for the construction industry and industry in general to benefit from new technology. The report is intended as a reference to technological solutions that along with some techniques, can streamline workflow for multiple tasks in planning, design, and operation and maintenance management. The problems focused on is how to: • Simplify the procu...

  15. Total life-cycle cost analysis of conventional and alternative fueled vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardullo, M.W.

    1993-01-01

    Total Life-Cycle Cost (TLCC) Analysis can indicate whether paying higher capital costs for advanced technology with low operating and/or environmental costs is advantageous over paying lower capital costs for conventional technology with higher operating and/or environmental costs. While minimizing total life-cycle cost is an important consideration, the consumer often identifies non-cost-related benefits or drawbacks that make more expensive options appear more attractive. The consumer is also likely to heavily weigh initial capital costs while giving limited consideration to operating and/or societal costs, whereas policy-makers considering external costs, such as those resulting from environmental impacts, may reach significantly different conclusions about which technologies are most advantageous to society. This paper summarizes a TLCC model which was developed to facilitate consideration of the various factors involved in both individual and societal policy decision making. The model was developed as part of a US Department of Energy Contract and has been revised to reflect changes necessary to make the model more realistic. The model considers capital, operating, salvage, and environmental costs for cars, vans, and buses using conventional and alternative fuels. The model has been developed to operate on an IBM or compatible personal computer platform using the commercial spreadsheet program MicroSoft Excell reg-sign Version 4 for Windows reg-sign and can be easily kept current because its modular structure allows straightforward access to embedded data sets for review and update

  16. Life-cycle cost analysis of adsorption cycles for desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Thu, Kyaw

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents the thermo-economic analysis of the adsorption desalination (AD) cycle that is driven by low-temperature waste heat from exhaust of industrial processes or renewable sources. The AD cycle uses an adsorbent such as the silica gel to desalt the sea or brackish water. Based on an experimental prototype AD plant, the life-cycle cost analysis of AD plants of assorted water production capacities has been simulated and these predictions are translated into unit cost of water production. Our results show that the specific energy consumption of the AD cycle is 1.38 kWh/m3 which is the lowest ever reported. For a plant capacity of 1000 m3/d, the AD cycle offers a unit cost of $0.457/m3 as compared to more than $0.9 for the average RO plants. Besides being cost-effective, the AD cycle is also environment-friendly as it emits less CO2 emission per m3 generated, typically 85% less, by comparison to an RO process. © 2010 Desalination Publications.

  17. Life-cycle cost analysis for Foreign Research Reactor, Spent Nuclear Fuel disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, P.B.; Geddes, R.L.; Jackson, W.N.; McDonell, W.R.; Dupont, M.E.; McWhorter, D.L.; Liutkus, A.S.

    1994-01-01

    DOE-EM-37 requested a life-cycle cost analysis for disposal of the Foreign Research Reactor-Spent Nuclear Fuel (FRR-SNF). The analysis was to address life-cycle and unit costs for a range of FRR-SNF elements from those currently available (6,000 elements) to the (then) bounding case (15,000 elements). Five alternative disposition strategies were devised for the FRR-SNF elements. Life-cycle costs were computed for each strategy. In addition, the five strategies were evaluated in terms of six societal and technical goals. This report summarizes the study that was originally documented to DOE-EM

  18. Comparative life-cycle cost analysis for low-level mixed waste remediation alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, J.A.; White, T.P.; Kloeber, J.M.; Toland, R.J.; Cain, J.P.; Buitrago, D.Y.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this study is two-fold: (1) to develop a generic, life-cycle cost model for evaluating low-level, mixed waste remediation alternatives, and (2) to apply the model specifically, to estimate remediation costs for a site similar to the Fernald Environmental Management Project near Cincinnati, OH. Life-cycle costs for vitrification, cementation, and dry removal process technologies are estimated. Since vitrification is in a conceptual phase, computer simulation is used to help characterize the support infrastructure of a large scale vitrification plant. Cost estimating relationships obtained from the simulation data, previous cost estimates, available process data, engineering judgment, and expert opinion all provide input to an Excel based spreadsheet for generating cash flow streams. Crystal Ball, an Excel add-on, was used for discounting cash flows for net present value analysis. The resulting LCC data was then analyzed using multi-attribute decision analysis techniques with cost and remediation time as criteria. The analytical framework presented allows alternatives to be evaluated in the context of budgetary, social, and political considerations. In general, the longer the remediation takes, the lower the net present value of the process. This is true because of the time value of money and large percentage of the costs attributed to storage or disposal

  19. Life-Cycle Inventory Analysis of Manufacturing Redwood Decking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman; Han-Sup Han; Elaine Oneil; Ivan L. Eastin

    2012-01-01

    Green building has become increasingly important. Therefore, consumers and builders often take into account the environmental attributes of a building material. This study determined the environmental attributes associated with manufacturing 38-mm × 138-mm (nominal 2 × 6) redwood decking in northern California using the life-cycle inventory method. Primary data...

  20. Modelling of environmental impacts of solid waste landfilling within the life-cycle analysis program EASEWASTE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkeby, Janus T; Birgisdottir, Harpa; Bhander, Gurbakash Singh; Hauschild, Michael; Christensen, Thomas H

    2007-01-01

    A new computer-based life-cycle assessment model (EASEWASTE) has been developed to evaluate resource and environmental consequences of solid waste management systems. This paper describes the landfilling sub-model used in the life-cycle assessment program EASEWASTE, and examines some of the implications of this sub-model. All quantities and concentrations of leachate and landfill gas can be modified by the user in order to bring them in agreement with the actual landfill that is assessed by the model. All emissions, except the generation of landfill gas, are process specific. The landfill gas generation is calculated on the basis of organic matter in the landfilled waste. A landfill assessment example is provided. For this example, the normalised environmental effects of landfill gas on global warming and photochemical smog are much greater than the environmental effects for landfill leachate or for landfill construction. A sensitivity analysis for this example indicates that the overall environmental impact is sensitive to the gas collection efficiency and the use of the gas, but not to the amount of leachate generated, or the amount of soil or liner material used in construction. The landfill model can be used for evaluating different technologies with different liners, gas and leachate collection efficiencies, and to compare the environmental consequences of landfilling with alternative waste treatment options such as incineration or anaerobic digestion.

  1. Modelling of environmental impacts of solid waste landfilling within the life-cycle analysis program EASEWASTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkeby, Janus T.; Birgisdottir, Harpa; Bhander, Gurbakash Singh; Hauschild, Michael; Christensen, Thomas H.

    2007-01-01

    A new computer-based life-cycle assessment model (EASEWASTE) has been developed to evaluate resource and environmental consequences of solid waste management systems. This paper describes the landfilling sub-model used in the life-cycle assessment program EASEWASTE, and examines some of the implications of this sub-model. All quantities and concentrations of leachate and landfill gas can be modified by the user in order to bring them in agreement with the actual landfill that is assessed by the model. All emissions, except the generation of landfill gas, are process specific. The landfill gas generation is calculated on the basis of organic matter in the landfilled waste. A landfill assessment example is provided. For this example, the normalised environmental effects of landfill gas on global warming and photochemical smog are much greater than the environmental effects for landfill leachate or for landfill construction. A sensitivity analysis for this example indicates that the overall environmental impact is sensitive to the gas collection efficiency and the use of the gas, but not to the amount of leachate generated, or the amount of soil or liner material used in construction. The landfill model can be used for evaluating different technologies with different liners, gas and leachate collection efficiencies, and to compare the environmental consequences of landfilling with alternative waste treatment options such as incineration or anaerobic digestion

  2. The Chicago Center for Green Technology: life-cycle assessment of a brownfield redevelopment project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brecheisen, Thomas; Theis, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The sustainable development of brownfields reflects a fundamental, yet logical, shift in thinking and policymaking regarding pollution prevention. Life-cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool that can be used to assist in determining the conformity of brownfield development projects to the sustainability paradigm. LCA was applied to the process of a real brownfield redevelopment project, now known as the Chicago Center for Green Technology, to determine the cumulative energy required to complete the following redevelopment stages: (1) brownfield assessment and remediation, (2) building rehabilitation and site development and (3) ten years of operation. The results of the LCA have shown that operational energy is the dominant life-cycle stage after ten years of operation. The preservation and rehabilitation of the existing building, the installation of renewable energy systems (geothermal and photovoltaic) on-site and the use of more sustainable building products resulted in 72 terajoules (TJ) of avoided energy impacts, which would provide 14 years of operational energy for the site. (letter)

  3. Stochastic cost estimating in repository life-cycle cost analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzemos, S.; Dippold, D.

    1986-01-01

    The conceptual development, the design, and the final construction and operation of a nuclear repository span many decades. Given this lengthy time frame, it is quite challenging to obtain a good approximation of the repository life-cycle cost. One can deal with this challenge by using an analytic method, the method of moments, to explicitly assess the uncertainty of the estimate. A series expansion is used to approximate the uncertainty distribution of the cost estimate. In this paper, the moment methodology is derived and is illustrated through a numerical example. The range of validity of the approximation is discussed. The method of moments is compared to the traditional stochastic cost estimating methods and found to provide more and better information on cost uncertainty. The tow methods converge to identical results as the number of convolved variables increases and approaches the range where the central limit theorem is valid

  4. A review of battery life-cycle analysis : state of knowledge and critical needs.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, J. L.; Gaines, L.; Energy Systems

    2010-12-22

    A literature review and evaluation has been conducted on cradle-to-gate life-cycle inventory studies of lead-acid, nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal hydride, sodium-sulfur, and lithium-ion battery technologies. Data were sought that represent the production of battery constituent materials and battery manufacture and assembly. Life-cycle production data for many battery materials are available and usable, though some need updating. For the remaining battery materials, lifecycle data either are nonexistent or, in some cases, in need of updating. Although battery manufacturing processes have occasionally been well described, detailed quantitative information on energy and material flows is missing. For all but the lithium-ion batteries, enough constituent material production energy data are available to approximate material production energies for the batteries, though improved input data for some materials are needed. Due to the potential benefit of battery recycling and a scarcity of associated data, there is a critical need for life-cycle data on battery material recycling. Either on a per kilogram or per watt-hour capacity basis, lead-acid batteries have the lowest production energy, carbon dioxide emissions, and criteria pollutant emissions. Some process-related emissions are also reviewed in this report.

  5. Resilience analytics with disruption of preferences and lifecycle cost analysis for energy microgrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, Michelle C.; Lambert, James H.; Connelly, Elizabeth B.; Barker, Kash

    2016-01-01

    Innovative technologies are presenting opportunities to improve resilience of energy plans for industrial and military installations. The investment rationale is complicated by uncertain future conditions across the system lifecycle, including technology, climate, economy, and others. This paper introduces resilience analytics with scenario-based preferences as follows. Risk is addressed here as the degree of disruption of priorities for investments in engineering systems. The particular concern of this paper is disruption from shifts in public values, and to evaluate the resilience of investment plans to such shifts. It recognizes resilience models as compilations of instantaneous framings of initiatives, objectives, stakeholder preferences, and uncertainties. Problem frames can be considered in series, where inputs to frames are the outputs of previous frames. Or frames can be considered in parallel, featuring joint inputs while addressing differing questions. This paper presents a case study of resilience analytics focusing on two quantitative frames. In the first frame, scenario-based preferences are used to identify combinations of factors disruptive to energy innovation at installations. In the second frame, estimation of lifecycle costs is performed with respect to factors that were identified as influential in the previous frame. - Highlights: • Develops method for resilience analytics of system plans with deep uncertainties. • Describes economic, regulatory, environmental, technology, and other stressors. • Demonstrates that stressors disrupt the prioritization of microgrid initiatives. • Describes how overlapping model frames emphasize various aspects of the mission. • Presents a two-part demonstration: Initiatives prioritization and lifecycle costs.

  6. Method for the Analysis of Temporal Change of Physical Structure in the Instrumentation and Control Life-Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goering, Markus [Vattenfall Europe Nuclear Energy GmbH, Hamburg, (Germany); Fay, Alexander [Helmut Schmidt Univ., Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    The design of computer-based instrumentation and control (I and C) systems is determined by the allocation of I and C functions to I and C systems and components. Due to the characteristics of computer-based technology, component failures can negatively affect several I and C functions, so that the reliability proof of the I and C systems requires the accomplishment of I and C system design analyses throughout the I and C life-cycle. On one hand, this paper proposes the restructuring of the sequential IEC 61513 I and C life-cycle according to the V-model, so as to adequately integrate the concept of verification and validation. On the other hand, based on a meta model for the modeling of I and C systems, this paper introduces a method for the modeling and analysis of the effects with respect to the superposition of failure combinations and event sequences on the I and C system design, i.e. the temporal change of physical structure is analyzed. In the first step, the method is concerned with the modeling of the I and C systems. In the second step, the method considers the analysis of temporal change of physical structure, which integrates the concepts of the diversity and defense-in-depth analysis, fault tree analysis, event tree analysis, and failure mode and effects analysis.

  7. Method for the Analysis of Temporal Change of Physical Structure in the Instrumentation and Control Life-Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goering, Markus; Fay, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The design of computer-based instrumentation and control (I and C) systems is determined by the allocation of I and C functions to I and C systems and components. Due to the characteristics of computer-based technology, component failures can negatively affect several I and C functions, so that the reliability proof of the I and C systems requires the accomplishment of I and C system design analyses throughout the I and C life-cycle. On one hand, this paper proposes the restructuring of the sequential IEC 61513 I and C life-cycle according to the V-model, so as to adequately integrate the concept of verification and validation. On the other hand, based on a meta model for the modeling of I and C systems, this paper introduces a method for the modeling and analysis of the effects with respect to the superposition of failure combinations and event sequences on the I and C system design, i.e. the temporal change of physical structure is analyzed. In the first step, the method is concerned with the modeling of the I and C systems. In the second step, the method considers the analysis of temporal change of physical structure, which integrates the concepts of the diversity and defense-in-depth analysis, fault tree analysis, event tree analysis, and failure mode and effects analysis

  8. An Analysis of BIM Web Service Requirements and Design to Support Energy Efficient Building Lifecycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufei Jiang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Energy Efficient Building (EEB design, construction, and operations require the development and sharing of building information among different individuals, organizations, and computer applications. The Representational State Transfer (RESTful Building Information Modeling (BIM web service is a solution to enable an effective exchange of data. This paper presents an investigation into the core RESTful web service requirements needed to effectively support the EEB project lifecycle. The requirements include information exchange requirements, distributed collaboration requirements, internal data storage requirements, and partial model query requirements. We also propose a RESTful web service design model on different abstraction layers to enhance the BIM lifecycle in energy efficient building design. We have implemented a RESTful Application Program Interface (API prototype on a mock BIMserver to demonstrate our idea. We evaluate our design by conducting a user study based on the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM. The results show that our design can enhance the efficiency of data exchange in EEB design scenarios.

  9. Integrating Life-cycle Assessment into Transport Cost-benefit Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzo, Stefano; Salling, Kim Bang

    2016-01-01

    Traditional transport Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) commonly ignores the indirect environmental impacts of an infrastructure project deriving from the overall life-cycle of the different project components. Such indirect impacts are instead of key importance in order to assess the long......-term sustainability of a transport infrastructure project. In the present study we suggest to overcome this limit by combining a conventional life-cycle assessment approach with standard transport cost-benefit analysis. The suggested methodology is tested upon a case study project related to the construction of a new...... fixed link across the Roskilde fjord in Frederikssund (Denmark). The results are then compared with those from a standard CBA framework. The analysis shows that indirect environmental impacts represent a relevant share of the estimated costs of the project, clearly affecting the final project evaluation...

  10. Make or Buy: An Analysis of the Impacts of 3D Printing Operations, 3D Laser Scanning Technology, and Collaborative Product Lifecycle Management on Ship Maintenance and Modernization Cost Savings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-21

    Policy - 37 - Naval Postgraduate School the number of brazes and welds from 25 to just five. There are currently more than 300 3D printing ...NPS-LM-15-002 ACQUISITION RESEARCH PROGRAM SPONSORED REPORT SERIES Make or Buy: An Analysis of the Impacts of 3D Printing Operations, 3D ...Program Sponsored Report Series Make or Buy: An Analysis of the Impacts of 3D Printing Operations, 3D Laser Scanning Technology, and Collaborative

  11. Environmental life-cycle comparisons of two polychlorinated biphenyl remediation technologies: incineration and base catalyzed decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xintao; Zhu, Jianxin; Ding, Qiong

    2011-07-15

    Remediation action is critical for the management of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contaminated sites. Dozens of remediation technologies developed internationally could be divided in two general categories incineration and non-incineration. In this paper, life cycle assessment (LCA) was carried out to study the environmental impacts of these two kinds of remediation technologies in selected PCB contaminated sites, where Infrared High Temperature Incineration (IHTI) and Base Catalyzed Decomposition (BCD) were selected as representatives of incineration and non-incineration. A combined midpoint/damage approach was adopted by using SimaPro 7.2 and IMPACTA2002+ to assess the human toxicity, ecotoxicity, climate change impact, and resource consumption from the five subsystems of IHTI and BCD technologies, respectively. It was found that the major environmental impacts through the whole lifecycle arose from energy consumption in both IHTI and BCD processes. For IHTI, primary and secondary combustion subsystem contributes more than 50% of midpoint impacts concerning with carcinogens, respiratory inorganics, respiratory organics, terrestrial ecotoxity, terrestrial acidification/eutrophication and global warming. In BCD process, the rotary kiln reactor subsystem presents the highest contribution to almost all the midpoint impacts including global warming, non-renewable energy, non-carcinogens, terrestrial ecotoxity and respiratory inorganics. In the view of midpoint impacts, the characterization values for global warming from IHTI and BCD were about 432.35 and 38.5 kg CO(2)-eq per ton PCB-containing soils, respectively. LCA results showed that the single score of BCD environmental impact was 1468.97 Pt while IHTI's score is 2785.15 Pt, which indicates BCD potentially has a lower environmental impact than IHTI technology in the PCB contaminated soil remediation process. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Determination of the appropriate use of pavement surface history in the KDOT life-cycle analysis process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate KDOTs pavement surfacing history and recommend : whether or not the departments life-cycle cost analysis (LCCA) procedure should include a surfacing history : component, and, if so, how the LC...

  13. Lifecycle Analysis of Different Motors from the Standpoint of Environmental Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlova S.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Comparative analysis is performed for different motors from the standpoint of damage inflicted by them during their lifecycle. Three types of motors have been considered: the synchronous reluctance motor, the permanent magnet assisted synchronous reluctance motor and the induction motor. The assessment of lifecycle has been made in terms of its four stages: manufacturing, distribution, use and end of life. The results show that the production costs of synchronous reluctance motor are lower compared to that of permanent magnet assisted motors, but due to their low efficiency they exert the greatest environmental impact. The main conclusion is that the assessment made at the early designing stage for the related environmental impact enables its reduction.

  14. Environmental life-cycle comparisons of two polychlorinated biphenyl remediation technologies: Incineration and base catalyzed decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Xintao; Zhu Jianxin; Ding Qiong

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We study the environmental impacts of two kinds of remediation technologies including Infrared High Temperature Incineration(IHTI) and Base Catalyzed Decomposition(BCD). → Combined midpoint/damage approaches were calculated for two technologies. → The results showed that major environmental impacts arose from energy consumption. → BCD has a lower environmental impact than IHTI in the view of single score. - Abstract: Remediation action is critical for the management of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contaminated sites. Dozens of remediation technologies developed internationally could be divided in two general categories incineration and non-incineration. In this paper, life cycle assessment (LCA) was carried out to study the environmental impacts of these two kinds of remediation technologies in selected PCB contaminated sites, where Infrared High Temperature Incineration (IHTI) and Base Catalyzed Decomposition (BCD) were selected as representatives of incineration and non-incineration. A combined midpoint/damage approach was adopted by using SimaPro 7.2 and IMPACTA2002+ to assess the human toxicity, ecotoxicity, climate change impact, and resource consumption from the five subsystems of IHTI and BCD technologies, respectively. It was found that the major environmental impacts through the whole lifecycle arose from energy consumption in both IHTI and BCD processes. For IHTI, primary and secondary combustion subsystem contributes more than 50% of midpoint impacts concerning with carcinogens, respiratory inorganics, respiratory organics, terrestrial ecotoxity, terrestrial acidification/eutrophication and global warming. In BCD process, the rotary kiln reactor subsystem presents the highest contribution to almost all the midpoint impacts including global warming, non-renewable energy, non-carcinogens, terrestrial ecotoxity and respiratory inorganics. In the view of midpoint impacts, the characterization values for global warming from IHTI and

  15. Life-cycle cost analysis of adsorption cycles for desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Thu, Kyaw; Chakraborty, A.; Saha, B.B.; Chun, Won Gee; Ng, K.C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the thermo-economic analysis of the adsorption desalination (AD) cycle that is driven by low-temperature waste heat from exhaust of industrial processes or renewable sources. The AD cycle uses an adsorbent such as the silica gel

  16. Energy life-cycle analysis modeling and decision support tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoza, M.; White, M.E.

    1993-06-01

    As one of DOE`s five multi-program national laboratories, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) develops and deploys technology for national missions in energy and the environment. The Energy Information Systems Group, within the Laboratory`s Computer Sciences Department, focuses on the development of the computational and data communications infrastructure and automated tools for the Transmission and Distribution energy sector and for advanced process engineering applications. The energy industry is being forced to operate in new ways and under new constraints. It is in a reactive mode, reacting to policies and politics, and to economics and environmental pressures. The transmission and distribution sectors are being forced to find new ways to maximize the use of their existing infrastructure, increase energy efficiency, and minimize environmental impacts, while continuing to meet the demands of an ever increasing population. The creation of a sustainable energy future will be a challenge for both the soft and hard sciences. It will require that we as creators of our future be bold in the way we think about our energy future and aggressive in its development. The development of tools to help bring about a sustainable future will not be simple either. The development of ELCAM, for example, represents a stretch for the computational sciences as well as for each of the domain sciences such as economics, which will have to be team members.

  17. Lifecycle analysis of different urban transport options for Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, Ijaz; Guelen, Guercan

    2007-01-01

    Once again, sustained high oil prices are forcing policy makers in oil importing countries to consider alternatives to oil products as transportation fuels. Unlike in the past, advancements in technology, relative success of some experiments and increased familiarity among and acceptance by the public of some alternatives indicate a higher likelihood of success. In particular, natural gas offers a couple of the best options as compressed natural gas (CNG) and chemical conversion of natural gas into diesel (gas-to-liquids, GTL). These options are likely to be most attractive in countries that have cheap access to natural gas. We compare lifetime costs of several individual transportation options for Bangladesh, an oil importer with natural gas reserves. The results are then used to inform the natural gas policy debate in the country. Assuming a natural gas price of 1.5 per million Btu, both the CNG and GTL options are competitive with conventional gasoline/diesel cars if the oil price stays higher than 35-40 per barrel. If natural gas price increases after new upstream developments, CNG becomes less attractive while GTL remains competitive up to 2.5 if capital costs of GTL facilities decline as expected. Under a government policy push (lower discounting), the breakeven price of oil falls to 30-35 per barrel. (author)

  18. Life-cycle analysis of bio-based aviation fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jeongwoo; Elgowainy, Amgad; Cai, Hao; Wang, Michael Q

    2013-12-01

    Well-to-wake (WTWa) analysis of bio-based aviation fuels, including hydroprocessed renewable jet (HRJ) from various oil seeds, Fischer-Tropsch jet (FTJ) from corn-stover and co-feeding of coal and corn-stover, and pyrolysis jet from corn stover, is conducted and compared with petroleum jet. WTWa GHG emission reductions relative to petroleum jet can be 41-63% for HRJ, 68-76% for pyrolysis jet and 89% for FTJ from corn stover. The HRJ production stage dominates WTWa GHG emissions from HRJ pathways. The differences in GHG emissions from HRJ production stage among considered feedstocks are much smaller than those from fertilizer use and N2O emissions related to feedstock collection stage. Sensitivity analyses on FTJ production from coal and corn-stover are also conducted, showing the importance of biomass share in the feedstock, carbon capture and sequestration options, and overall efficiency. For both HRJ and FTJ, co-product handling methods have significant impacts on WTWa results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The use of life-cycle analysis to address energy cycle externality problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soerensen, B.

    1996-01-01

    Life-cycle analysis is defined and the various impacts from energy systems to be included in such analysis are discussed. A preliminary version of a scenario for a future Danish energy systems based upon a bottom-up energy demand scenario and renewable energy sources. LCAs of wind turbine and Si solar roof-top modules are presented. The various impacts from Danish wind and building-integrated solar power generation are discussed and compared with the impacts from coal-fired power generation. The former electricity generating system looks more favorable. (author). 20 refs, 9 figs

  20. Life-cycle analysis and external costs in transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delucchi, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    The assessment of greenhouse gas impacts in the US shows that against a baseline gasoline vehicle, the impact of including the full fuel cycle generally reduces the relative advantages of alternative transportation fuels. While a switch to diesel is estimated to save 30% as compared to gasoline, the savings from natural gas/LPG are (around 20%), for ethanol from corn (8%) and for battery electricity vehicles using power from coal (6%) are much smaller. This is largely due to the use of LCA rather than end-use comparisons. However, the results also show that there would be large savings from the use of ethanol from fuel cells using methanol (39%) or natural gas (50%), while ethanol from wood in a conventional engine appears to have the greatest savings (63%). In external costs of motor vehicle use, analysis results were presented for both air pollution and energy security impacts (including SPR, military expenditures, macro-economic costs and pecuniary costs) as well as water pollution, noise and congestion impacts. The results suggest that externalities amount to 1.2 US cents per mile travelled in gasoline powered vehicle. The most significant externality is related to air pollution. Costs associated with US defence, the SPR, and climate change are quite insignificant. The only other variable of significance is the impact on the economy, through the transfer of wealth outside the US (referred to as 'pecuniary externality') and the oil price shock impacts on the economy. A comparison of external costs and subsidies for different transportation modes in the US (gas or electric cars, transit bus, light rail, heavy rail) showed that subsidies available to public transit system greatly outweigh the benefit in reduced externalities avoided. In the comparison of social costs of transportation alternatives, differences in external cost, while not trivial, are outweighed by the differences in direct costs or in subsidies. (author)

  1. Product Lifecycle Management Technology Applied in Missile Launching Systems Production and Installation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Karasev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the problems in the construction of the launch-site "Vostochniy" production and installation logistic. The stages of complex high-end product lifecycle described. The concepts and techniques of life cycle management and variants of their application offered as solution of this problems. Practical way to optimize logistics and lifecycle management processes using ILS Suite multi-agent software submitted. Side effect of this solution is creating of relevant integrated logistic support database, that could be used in the future projects. Results for tests and some perspectives for future investigation described.

  2. Approach on Lifecycles on Research Environment and Analysis Based on Systems Engineering (SE)

    OpenAIRE

    Lintala , Marja; Ovtcharova , Jivka; Bonnal , Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Part 8: Formalization for PLM; International audience; In recent years, researchers and industrial communities have been increasingly interested in Product Lifecycle Management (PLM); hence the product lifecycles have received considerable attention. The general features of the lifecycles are well known, however the special character of the equipment in research environment: the particularly long life, experimental character, complexity and interdisciplinary, are still not completely understo...

  3. The process of life-cycle cost analysis on the Fernald Environmental Management Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, D.Y.; Jacoboski, J.A.; Fisher, L.A.; Beirne, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Estimating Services Department of the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation (FERMCO) is formalizing the process of life-cycle cost analysis (LCCA) for the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). The LCCA process is based on the concepts, principles, and guidelines described by applicable Department of Energy's (DOE) orders, pertinent published literature, and the National Bureau of Standards handbook 135. LCC analyses will be performed following a ten-step process on the FEMP at the earliest possible decision point to support the selection of the least-cost alternatives for achieving the FERMCO mission

  4. Cost-effectiveness Analysis for Technology Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, A; Naware, S S

    2008-01-01

    In a developing country with limited resources, it is important to utilize the total cost visibility approach over the entire life-cycle of the technology and then analyse alternative options for acquiring technology. The present study analysed cost-effectiveness of an "In-house" magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan facility of a large service hospital against outsourcing possibilities. Cost per unit scan was calculated by operating costing method and break-even volume was calculated. Then life-cycle cost analysis was performed to enable total cost visibility of the MRI scan in both "In-house" and "outsourcing of facility" configuration. Finally, cost-effectiveness analysis was performed to identify the more acceptable decision option. Total cost for performing unit MRI scan was found to be Rs 3,875 for scans without contrast and Rs 4,129 with contrast. On life-cycle cost analysis, net present value (NPV) of the "In-house" configuration was found to be Rs-(4,09,06,265) while that of "outsourcing of facility" configuration was Rs-(5,70,23,315). Subsequently, cost-effectiveness analysis across eight Figures of Merit showed the "In-house" facility to be the more acceptable option for the system. Every decision for acquiring high-end technology must be subjected to life-cycle cost analysis.

  5. Water conservation implications for decarbonizing non-electric energy supply: A hybrid life-cycle analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiyuan; Wang, Can; Shi, Lei; Cai, Wenjia; Zhang, Lixiao

    2018-08-01

    Low-carbon transition in the non-electric energy sector, which includes transport and heating energy, is necessary for achieving the 2 °C target. Meanwhile, as non-electric energy accounts for over 60% of total water consumption in the energy supply sector, it is vital to understand future water trends in the context of decarbonization. However, few studies have focused on life-cycle water impacts for non-electric energy; besides, applying conventional LCA methodology to assess non-electric energy has limitations. In this paper, a Multi-Regional Hybrid Life-Cycle Assessment (MRHLCA) model is built to assess total CO 2 emissions and water consumption of 6 non-electric energy technologies - transport energy from biofuel and gasoline, heat supply from natural gas, biogas, coal, and residual biomass, within 7 major emitting economies. We find that a shift to natural gas and residual biomass heating can help economies reduce 14-65% CO 2 and save more than 21% water. However, developed and developing economies should take differentiated technical strategies. Then we apply scenarios from IMAGE model to demonstrate that if economies take cost-effective 2 °C pathways, the water conservation synergy for the whole energy supply sector, including electricity, can also be achieved. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. BeefTracker: Spatial Tracking and Geodatabase for Beef Herd Sustainability and Lifecycle Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltjen, J. W.; Stackhouse, J.; Forero, L.; Stackhouse-Lawson, K.

    2015-12-01

    We have developed a web-based mapping platform named "BeefTracker" to provide beef cattle ranchers a tool to determine how cattle production fits within sustainable ecosystems and to provide regional data to update beef sustainability lifecycle analysis. After initial identification and mapping of pastures, herd data (class and number of animals) are input on a mobile device in the field with a graphical pasture interface, stored in the cloud, and linked via the web to a personal computer for inventory tracking and analysis. Pasture use calculated on an animal basis provides quantifiable data regarding carrying capacity and subsequent beef production to provide more accurate data inputs for beef sustainability lifecycle analysis. After initial testing by university range scientists and ranchers we have enhanced the BeefTracker application to work when cell service is unavailable and to improve automation for increased ease of use. Thus far experiences with BeefTracker have been largely positive, due to livestock producers' perception of the need for this type of software application and its intuitive interface. We are now in the process of education to increase its use throughout the U.S.

  7. Lifecycle analysis of renewable natural gas and hydrocarbon fuels from wastewater treatment plants’ sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Uisung [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Han, Jeongwoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Urgun Demirtas, Meltem [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tao, Ling [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) produce sludge as a byproduct when they treat wastewater. In the United States, over 8 million dry tons of sludge are produced annually just from publicly owned WWTPs. Sludge is commonly treated in anaerobic digesters, which generate biogas; the biogas is then largely flared to reduce emissions of methane, a potent greenhouse gas. Because sludge is quite homogeneous and has a high energy content, it is a good potential feedstock for other conversion processes that make biofuels, bioproducts, and power. For example, biogas from anaerobic digesters can be used to generate renewable natural gas (RNG), which can be further processed to produce compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG). Sludge can be directly converted into hydrocarbon liquid fuels via thermochemical processes such as hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). Currently, the environmental impacts of converting sludge into energy are largely unknown, and only a few studies have focused on the environmental impacts of RNG produced from existing anaerobic digesters. As biofuels from sludge generate high interest, however, existing anaerobic digesters could be upgraded to technology with more economic potential and more environmental benefits. The environmental impacts of using a different anaerobic digestion (AD) technology to convert sludge into energy have yet to be analyzed. In addition, no studies are available about the direct conversion of sludge into liquid fuels. In order to estimate the energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions impacts of these alternative pathways (sludge-to-RNG and sludge-to-liquid), this study performed a lifecycle analysis (LCA) using the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET®) model. The energy uses and GHG emissions associated with the RNG and hydrocarbon liquid are analyzed relative to the current typical sludge management case, which consists of a single-stage mesophilic

  8. System Evaluation and Life-Cycle Cost Analysis of a Commercial-Scale High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwin A. Harvego; James E. O' Brien; Michael G. McKellar

    2012-11-01

    Results of a system evaluation and lifecycle cost analysis are presented for a commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) central hydrogen production plant. The plant design relies on grid electricity to power the electrolysis process and system components, and industrial natural gas to provide process heat. The HYSYS process analysis software was used to evaluate the reference central plant design capable of producing 50,000 kg/day of hydrogen. The HYSYS software performs mass and energy balances across all components to allow optimization of the design using a detailed process flow sheet and realistic operating conditions specified by the analyst. The lifecycle cost analysis was performed using the H2A analysis methodology developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program. This methodology utilizes Microsoft Excel spreadsheet analysis tools that require detailed plant performance information (obtained from HYSYS), along with financial and cost information to calculate lifecycle costs. The results of the lifecycle analyses indicate that for a 10% internal rate of return, a large central commercial-scale hydrogen production plant can produce 50,000 kg/day of hydrogen at an average cost of $2.68/kg. When the cost of carbon sequestration is taken into account, the average cost of hydrogen production increases by $0.40/kg to $3.08/kg.

  9. Make or Buy: An Analysis of the Impacts of 3D Printing Operations, 3D Laser Scanning Technology, and Collaborative Product Life-Cycle Management on Ship Maintenance and Modernization Cost Savings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-30

    ååì~ä=^Åèìáëáíáçå= oÉëÉ~êÅÜ=póãéçëáìã= tÉÇåÉëÇ~ó=pÉëëáçåë= sçäìãÉ=f= = Make or Buy: An Analysis of the Impacts of 3D Printing Operations, 3D Laser...COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Make or Buy: An Analysis of the Impacts of 3D Printing Operations, 3D Laser Scanning...Åèìáëáíáçå=oÉëÉ~êÅÜ=mêçÖê~ãW= `êÉ~íáåÖ=póåÉêÖó=Ñçê=fåÑçêãÉÇ=`Ü~åÖÉ= - 182 - Make or Buy: An Analysis of the Impacts of 3D Printing Operations, 3D Laser

  10. Life-cycle cost and payback period analysis for commercial unitary air conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenquist, Greg; Coughlin, Katie; Dale, Larry; McMahon, James; Meyers, Steve

    2004-03-31

    This report describes an analysis of the economic impacts of possible energy efficiency standards for commercial unitary air conditioners and heat pumps on individual customers in terms of two metrics: life-cycle cost (LCC) and payback period (PBP). For each of the two equipment classes considered, the 11.5 EER provides the largest mean LCC savings. The results show how the savings vary among customers facing different electricity prices and other conditions. At 11.5 EER, at least 80% of the users achieve a positive LCC savings. At 12.0 EER, the maximum efficiency analyzed, mean LCC savings are lower but still positive. For the {ge} $65,000 Btu/h to <135,000 Btu/h equipment class, 59% of users achieve a positive LCC savings. For the $135,000 Btu/h to <240,000 Btu/h equipment class, 91% of users achieve a positive LCC savings.

  11. Life-cycle cost analysis of energy efficiency design options for residential furnaces and boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, J.; Lekov, A.; Chan, P.; Dunham Whitehead, C.; Meyers, S.; McMahon, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Div.

    2006-03-01

    In 2001, the US Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a rulemaking process to consider whether to amend the existing energy efficiency standards for furnaces and boilers. A key factor in DOE's consideration of new standards is the economic impacts on consumers of possible revisions to energy-efficiency standards. Determining cost-effectiveness requires an appropriate comparison of the additional first cost of energy efficiency design options with the savings in operating costs. DOE's preferred approach involves comparing the total life-cycle cost (LCC) of owning and operating a more efficient appliance with the LCC for a baseline design. This study describes the method used to conduct the LCC analysis and presents the estimated change in LCC associated with more energy-efficient equipment. The results indicate that efficiency improvement relative to the baseline design can reduce the LCC in each of the product classes considered. (author)

  12. Energy and life-cycle cost analysis of a six-story office building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turiel, I.

    1981-10-01

    An energy analysis computer program, DOE-2, was used to compute annual energy use for a typical office building as originally designed and with several energy conserving design modifications. The largest energy use reductions were obtained with the incorporation of daylighting techniques, the use of double pane windows, night temperature setback, and the reduction of artificial lighting levels. A life-cycle cost model was developed to assess the cost-effectiveness of the design modifications discussed. The model incorporates such features as inclusion of taxes, depreciation, and financing of conservation investments. The energy conserving strategies are ranked according to economic criteria such as net present benefit, discounted payback period, and benefit to cost ratio.

  13. Life-cycle cost analysis of energy efficiency design options for residential furnaces and boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, James; Lekov, Alex; Chan, Peter; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Meyers, Steve; McMahon, James

    2006-01-01

    In 2001, the US Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a rulemaking process to consider whether to amend the existing energy efficiency standards for furnaces and boilers. A key factor in DOE's consideration of new standards is the economic impacts on consumers of possible revisions to energy-efficiency standards. Determining cost-effectiveness requires an appropriate comparison of the additional first cost of energy efficiency design options with the savings in operating costs. DOE's preferred approach involves comparing the total life-cycle cost (LCC) of owning and operating a more efficient appliance with the LCC for a baseline design. This study describes the method used to conduct the LCC analysis and presents the estimated change in LCC associated with more energy-efficient equipment. The results indicate that efficiency improvement relative to the baseline design can reduce the LCC in each of the product classes considered

  14. Investigation into life-cycle costing as a comparative analysis approach of energy systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mokheseng, B

    2010-08-31

    Full Text Available selection based on a simple payback period. Due to life-cycle stages, often the real costs of the project or equipment, either to the decision maker or the cost bearer, are not reflected by the upfront capital costs. In this paper, the life-cycle costing...

  15. Improving Students' Argumentation Skills through a Product Life-Cycle Analysis Project in Chemistry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juntunen, M. K.; Aksela, M. K.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study discussed in this paper was to link existing research about the argumentation skills of students to the teaching of life-cycle analysis (LCA) in order to promote an evidence-based approach to the teaching of and learning about materials used in consumer products. This case-study is part of a larger design research project that…

  16. Improving life-cycle cost management in the US. Army: analysis of the U.S. Army and Commercial Businesses life-cycle cost management.

    OpenAIRE

    White, Bradley A.

    2001-01-01

    The roles and responsibilities of the Army acquisition and logistics communities, as they pertain to the life-cycle management, are undergoing fundamental change. The early identification and total control of life-cycle cost, in particular operations and sustainment costs which comprises as much as 70-80% of a systems total life-cycle cost, is a high priority for the Army. The basis of this change is adoption of commercial best practices to support the Army's goal to organize. tram. equip, an...

  17. Life-cycle and freshwater withdrawal impact assessment of water supply technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godskesen, Berit; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Rygaard, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Four alternative cases for water supply were environmentally evaluated and compared based on the standard environmental impact categories from the life-cycle assessment (LCA) methodology extended with a freshwater withdrawal category (FWI). The cases were designed for Copenhagen, a part of Denmark...... with high population density and relatively low available water resources. FWI was applied at local groundwater catchments based on data from the national implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive. The base case of the study was the current practice of groundwater abstraction from well fields...... situated near Copenhagen. The 4 cases studied were: Rain & stormwater harvesting from several blocks in the city; Today's groundwater abstraction with compensating actions applied in the affected freshwater environments to ensure sufficient water flow in water courses; Establishment of well fields further...

  18. Life-cycle analysis on energy consumption and GHG emission intensities of alternative vehicle fuels in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou, Xunmin; Yan, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Xiliang; Liu, Zhen

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We analyzed the life cycle energy intensity and GHG emissions of about 40 pathways of alternative vehicle fuels in China. ► Coal-based liquid fuel has higher life cycle energy intensities and first generation technology bio-fuel has relatively lower intensity. ► By 2020 electricity will have significantly lower GHG intensity and second generation technology bio-fuel will have near zero intensities. -- Abstract: Fossil energy consumption (FEC) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission intensities of major alternative vehicle fuels (AVFs) in China are calculated and compared with conventional fuels by means of full life-cycle analysis. Currently most of the AVFs have not relatively obvious GHG emission reduction when compared to the gasoline pathway: (1) coal-based AVF has higher intensities in terms of both the FEC and GHG emissions; (2) electricity from the average Chinese grid has the GHG emission intensity similar to that of gasoline pathway although relatively lower FEC intensity; and (3) first generation technology bio-fuel has relatively lower GHG emission intensity and substantially lower FEC intensity. It is forecasted that by 2020 when still comparing to the gasoline pathway: (1) coal-based AVF will still have FEC and GHG emission intensities that are 1.5–1.8 and 1.8–2.5 time those of gasoline pathway, and the application of carbon capture and storage technology can reduce the GHG emission intensity of coal-based AVF; (2) electricity will have significantly lower GHG intensity; and (3) second generation technology bio-fuel will have near zero FEC and GHG intensities.

  19. Environmental hot spot analysis in agricultural life-cycle assessments – three case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Piringer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Present-day agricultural technology is facing the challenge of limiting the environmental impacts of agricultural production – such as greenhouse gas emissions and demand for additional land – while meeting growing demands for agricultural products. Using the well-established method of life-cycle assessment (LCA, potential environmental impacts of agricultural production chains can be quantified and analyzed. This study presents three case studies of how the method can pinpoint environmental hot spots at different levels of agricultural production systems. The first case study centers on the tractor as the key source of transportation and traction in modern agriculture. A common Austrian tractor model was investigated over its life-cycle, using primary data from a manufacturer and measured load profiles for field work. In all but one of the impact categories studied, potential impacts were dominated by the operation phase of the tractor’s life-cycle (mainly due to diesel fuel consumption, with 84.4-99.6% of total impacts. The production phase (raw materials and final assembly caused between 0.4% and 12.1% of impacts, while disposal of the tractor was below 1.9% in all impact categories. The second case study shifts the focus to an entire production chain for a common biogas feedstock, maize silage. System boundaries incorporate the effect of auxiliary materials such as fertilizer and pesticides manufacturing and application. The operation of machinery in the silage production chain was found to be critical to its environmental impact. For the climate change indicator GWP100 (global warming potential, 100-year reference period, emissions from tractor operation accounted for 15 g CO2-eq per kg silage (64% of total GWP100, followed by field emissions during fertilizer (biogas digestate application with 6 g CO2-eq per kg silage (24% of total GWP100. At a larger system scale that includes a silage-fed biogas plant with electricity generated by

  20. Economic potential of fuel recycling options: A lifecycle cost analysis of future nuclear system transition in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Ruxing; Choi, Sungyeol; Il Ko, Won; Kim, Sungki

    2017-01-01

    In today's profit-driven market, how best to pursue advanced nuclear fuel cycle technologies while maintaining the cost competitiveness of nuclear electricity is of crucial importance to determine the implementation of spent fuel reprocessing and recycling in China. In this study, a comprehensive techno-economic analysis is undertaken to evaluate the economic feasibility of ongoing national projects and the technical compatibility with China's future fuel cycle transition. We investigated the dynamic impacts of technical and economic uncertainties in the lifecycle of a nuclear system. The electricity generation costs associated with four potential fuel cycle transition scenarios were simulated by probabilistic and deterministic approaches and then compared in detail. The results showed that the total cost of a once-through system is lowest compared those of other advanced systems involving reprocessing and recycling. However, thanks to the consequential uncertainties caused by the further progress toward technology maturity, the economic potential of fuel recycling options was proven through a probabilistic uncertainty analysis. Furthermore, it is recommended that a compulsory executive of closed fuel cycle policy would pose some investment risk in the near term, though the execution of a series of R&D initiatives with a flexible roadmap would be valuable in the long run. - Highlights: • Real-time economic performance of the four scenarios of China's nuclear fuel cycle system transition until 2100. • Systematic assessments of techno-economic feasibility for ongoing national reprocessing projects. • Investigation the cost impact on nuclear electricity generation caused by uncertainties through probabilistic analysis. • Recommendation for sustainable implementation of fuel cycle R&D initiative ingrate with flexible roadmap in the long run.

  1. Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis of an Anaerobic Codigestion Facility Processing Dairy Manure and Industrial Food Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, Jacqueline H; Labatut, Rodrigo A; Rankin, Matthew J; Pronto, Jennifer L; Gooch, Curt A; Williamson, Anahita A; Trabold, Thomas A

    2015-09-15

    Anaerobic codigestion (AcoD) can address food waste disposal and manure management issues while delivering clean, renewable energy. Quantifying greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions due to implementation of AcoD is important to achieve this goal. A lifecycle analysis was performed on the basis of data from an on-farm AcoD in New York, resulting in a 71% reduction in GHG, or net reduction of 37.5 kg CO2e/t influent relative to conventional treatment of manure and food waste. Displacement of grid electricity provided the largest reduction, followed by avoidance of alternative food waste disposal options and reduced impacts associated with storage of digestate vs undigested manure. These reductions offset digester emissions and the net increase in emissions associated with land application in the AcoD case relative to the reference case. Sensitivity analysis showed that using feedstock diverted from high impact disposal pathways, control of digester emissions, and managing digestate storage emissions were opportunities to improve the AcoD GHG benefits. Regional and parametrized emissions factors for the storage emissions and land application phases would reduce uncertainty.

  2. Retrofitted Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems for Swedish Single-Family Houses—Evaluation of a Prototype and Life-Cycle Cost Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Ricardo Bernardo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available According to recent technology road maps, system cost reductions and development of standardised plug-and-function systems are some of the most important goals for solar heating technology development. Retrofitting hot water boilers in single-family houses when installing solar collectors has the potential to significantly reduce both material and installation costs. Previous studies have investigated such retrofitting, using theoretical simulations and laboratory tests, but no actual installations were made and tested in practice. This article describes the installation, measured performance and cost effectiveness of a retrofitting solution that converts existing domestic hot water heaters to a solar domestic hot water system. The measured performance is characterised by the monthly and annual solar fractions. The cost effectiveness is evaluated by a life-cycle cost analysis, comparing the retrofitted system to a conventional solar domestic hot water system and the case without any solar heating system. Measurements showed that approximately 50% of the 5000 kWh/year of domestic hot water consumption was saved by the retrofitted system in south Sweden. Such savings are in agreement with previous estimations and are comparable to the energy savings when using a conventional solar domestic hot water system. The life-cycle cost analysis showed that, according to the assumptions and given climate, the return on investment of the retrofitted system is approximately 17 years, while a conventional system does not reach profitability during its lifetime of 25 years.

  3. Life-Cycle Cost-Benefit (LCCB) Analysis of Bridges from a User and Social Point of View

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    2009-01-01

    is to present and discuss some of these problems from a user and social point of view. A brief presentation of a preliminary study of the importance of including benefits in life-cycle cost-benefit analysis in management systems for bridges is shown. Benefits may be positive as well as negative from the user...... point of view. In the paper, negative benefits (user costs) are discussed in relation to the maintenance of concrete bridges. A limited number of excerpts from published reports that are related to the importance of estimating user costs when repairs of bridges are planned, and when optimized strategies......During the last two decades, important progress has been made in the life-cycle cost-benefit (LCCB) analysis of structures, especially offshore platforms, bridges and nuclear installations. Due to the large uncertainties related to the deterioration, maintenance, and benefits of such structures...

  4. Integrate life-cycle assessment and risk analysis results, not methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkov, Igor; Trump, Benjamin D; Wender, Ben A; Seager, Thomas P; Kennedy, Alan J; Keisler, Jeffrey M

    2017-08-04

    Two analytic perspectives on environmental assessment dominate environmental policy and decision-making: risk analysis (RA) and life-cycle assessment (LCA). RA focuses on management of a toxicological hazard in a specific exposure scenario, while LCA seeks a holistic estimation of impacts of thousands of substances across multiple media, including non-toxicological and non-chemically deleterious effects. While recommendations to integrate the two approaches have remained a consistent feature of environmental scholarship for at least 15 years, the current perception is that progress is slow largely because of practical obstacles, such as a lack of data, rather than insurmountable theoretical difficulties. Nonetheless, the emergence of nanotechnology presents a serious challenge to both perspectives. Because the pace of nanomaterial innovation far outstrips acquisition of environmentally relevant data, it is now clear that a further integration of RA and LCA based on dataset completion will remain futile. In fact, the two approaches are suited for different purposes and answer different questions. A more pragmatic approach to providing better guidance to decision-makers is to apply the two methods in parallel, integrating only after obtaining separate results.

  5. Life-Cycle Inventory Analysis of Laminated Veneer Lumber Production in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman

    2015-01-01

    Documenting the environmental performance of building products is becoming increasingly common. Developing environmental product declarations (EPDs) based on life-cycle assessment (LCA) data is one way to provide scientific documentation. Many U.S. structural wood products have LCA-based “eco-labels” using the ISO standard. However, the standard requires underlying...

  6. Life-Cycle Inventory Analysis of I-joist Production in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman

    2015-01-01

    Documenting the environmental performance of building products is becoming increasingly common. Creating environmental product declarations (EPDs) based on life-cycle assessment (LCA) data is one approach to provide scientific documentation of the products’ environmental performance. Many U.S. structural wood products have LCA-based “eco-labels” developed under the ISO...

  7. A Review of Battery Life-Cycle Analysis. State of Knowledge and Critical Needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, J. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gaines, L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2010-10-01

    This report examines battery life-cycle assessments with a focus on cradle-to-gate (CTG) energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) and criteria emissions. This includes battery manufacturing and as the production of materials that make up batteries. The report covers both what is known about battery life cycles, as well as what needs to be established for better environmental evaluations.

  8. Does replacing coal with wood lower CO2 emissions? Dynamic lifecycle analysis of wood bioenergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterman, John D.; Siegel, Lori; Rooney-Varga, Juliette N.

    2018-01-01

    Bioenergy is booming as nations seek to cut their greenhouse gas emissions. The European Union declared biofuels to be carbon-neutral, triggering a surge in wood use. But do biofuels actually reduce emissions? A molecule of CO2 emitted today has the same impact on radiative forcing whether it comes from coal or biomass. Biofuels can only reduce atmospheric CO2 over time through post-harvest increases in net primary production (NPP). The climate impact of biofuels therefore depends on CO2 emissions from combustion of biofuels versus fossil fuels, the fate of the harvested land and dynamics of NPP. Here we develop a model for dynamic bioenergy lifecycle analysis. The model tracks carbon stocks and fluxes among the atmosphere, biomass, and soils, is extensible to multiple land types and regions, and runs in ≈1s, enabling rapid, interactive policy design and sensitivity testing. We simulate substitution of wood for coal in power generation, estimating the parameters governing NPP and other fluxes using data for forests in the eastern US and using published estimates for supply chain emissions. Because combustion and processing efficiencies for wood are less than coal, the immediate impact of substituting wood for coal is an increase in atmospheric CO2 relative to coal. The payback time for this carbon debt ranges from 44-104 years after clearcut, depending on forest type—assuming the land remains forest. Surprisingly, replanting hardwood forests with fast-growing pine plantations raises the CO2 impact of wood because the equilibrium carbon density of plantations is lower than natural forests. Further, projected growth in wood harvest for bioenergy would increase atmospheric CO2 for at least a century because new carbon debt continuously exceeds NPP. Assuming biofuels are carbon neutral may worsen irreversible impacts of climate change before benefits accrue. Instead, explicit dynamic models should be used to assess the climate impacts of biofuels.

  9. Integrating enzyme fermentation in lignocellulosic ethanol production: life-cycle assessment and techno-economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, Johanna; Barta, Zsolt; Börjesson, Pål; Wallberg, Ola

    2017-01-01

    Cellulase enzymes have been reported to contribute with a significant share of the total costs and greenhouse gas emissions of lignocellulosic ethanol production today. A potential future alternative to purchasing enzymes from an off-site manufacturer is to integrate enzyme and ethanol production, using microorganisms and part of the lignocellulosic material as feedstock for enzymes. This study modelled two such integrated process designs for ethanol from logging residues from spruce production, and compared it to an off-site case based on existing data regarding purchased enzymes. Greenhouse gas emissions and primary energy balances were studied in a life-cycle assessment, and cost performance in a techno-economic analysis. The base case scenario suggests that greenhouse gas emissions per MJ of ethanol could be significantly lower in the integrated cases than in the off-site case. However, the difference between the integrated and off-site cases is reduced with alternative assumptions regarding enzyme dosage and the environmental impact of the purchased enzymes. The comparison of primary energy balances did not show any significant difference between the cases. The minimum ethanol selling price, to reach break-even costs, was from 0.568 to 0.622 EUR L -1 for the integrated cases, as compared to 0.581 EUR L -1 for the off-site case. An integrated process design could reduce greenhouse gas emissions from lignocellulose-based ethanol production, and the cost of an integrated process could be comparable to purchasing enzymes produced off-site. This study focused on the environmental and economic assessment of an integrated process, and in order to strengthen the comparison to the off-site case, more detailed and updated data regarding industrial off-site enzyme production are especially important.

  10. Integrated life-cycle assessment of electricity-supply scenarios confirms global environmental benefit of low-carbon technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertwich, Edgar G; Gibon, Thomas; Bouman, Evert A; Arvesen, Anders; Suh, Sangwon; Heath, Garvin A; Bergesen, Joseph D; Ramirez, Andrea; Vega, Mabel I; Shi, Lei

    2015-05-19

    Decarbonization of electricity generation can support climate-change mitigation and presents an opportunity to address pollution resulting from fossil-fuel combustion. Generally, renewable technologies require higher initial investments in infrastructure than fossil-based power systems. To assess the tradeoffs of increased up-front emissions and reduced operational emissions, we present, to our knowledge, the first global, integrated life-cycle assessment (LCA) of long-term, wide-scale implementation of electricity generation from renewable sources (i.e., photovoltaic and solar thermal, wind, and hydropower) and of carbon dioxide capture and storage for fossil power generation. We compare emissions causing particulate matter exposure, freshwater ecotoxicity, freshwater eutrophication, and climate change for the climate-change-mitigation (BLUE Map) and business-as-usual (Baseline) scenarios of the International Energy Agency up to 2050. We use a vintage stock model to conduct an LCA of newly installed capacity year-by-year for each region, thus accounting for changes in the energy mix used to manufacture future power plants. Under the Baseline scenario, emissions of air and water pollutants more than double whereas the low-carbon technologies introduced in the BLUE Map scenario allow a doubling of electricity supply while stabilizing or even reducing pollution. Material requirements per unit generation for low-carbon technologies can be higher than for conventional fossil generation: 11-40 times more copper for photovoltaic systems and 6-14 times more iron for wind power plants. However, only two years of current global copper and one year of iron production will suffice to build a low-carbon energy system capable of supplying the world's electricity needs in 2050.

  11. Operating and life-cycle costs for uranium-contaminated soil treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douthat, D.M.; Armstrong, A.Q.

    1995-09-01

    The development of a nuclear industry in the US required mining, milling, and fabricating a large variety of uranium products. One of these products was purified uranium metal which was used in the Savannah River and Hanford Site reactors. Most of this feed material was produced at the US Department of Energy (DOE) facility formerly called the Feed Materials Production Center at Fernald, Ohio. During operation of this facility, soils became contaminated with uranium from a variety of sources. To avoid disposal of these soils in low-level radioactive waste burial sites, increasing emphasis has been placed on the remediating soils contaminated with uranium and other radionuclides. To address remediation and management of uranium-contaminated soils at sites owned by DOE, the DOE Office of Technology Development (OTD) evaluates and compares the versatility, efficiency, and economics of various technologies that may be combined into systems designed to characterize and remediate uranium-contaminated soils. Each technology must be able to (1) characterize the uranium in soil, (2) decontaminate or remove uranium from soil, (3) treat or dispose of resulting waste streams, (4) meet necessary state and federal regulations, and (5) meet performance assessment objectives. The role of the performance assessment objectives is to provide the information necessary to conduct evaluations of the technologies. These performance assessments provide the basis for selecting the optimum system for remediation of large areas contaminated with uranium. One of the performance assessment tasks is to address the economics of full-scale implementation of soil treatment technologies. The cost of treating contaminated soil is one of the criteria used in the decision-making process for selecting remedial alternatives

  12. Product lifecycle management

    CERN Document Server

    Stark, John

    2016-01-01

    This third edition updates and adds to the successful second edition and gives the reader a thorough description of PLM, providing them with a full understanding of the theory and the practical skills to implement PLM within their own business environment. This new and expanded edition is fully updated to reflect the many technological and management advances made in PLM since the release of the second edition. Describing the environment in which products are developed, manufactured and supported, before addressing the Five Pillars of PLM: business processes, product data, PLM applications, Organisational Change Management (OCM) and Project Management, this book explains what Product Lifecycle Management is, and why it’s needed. The final part of the book addresses the PLM timeline, showing the typical steps and activities of a PLM project or initiative. “Product Lifecycle Management” will broaden the reader’s understanding of PLM, nurturing the skills needed to implement PLM successfully and to achi...

  13. Analysis of material recovery facilities for use in life-cycle assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Pressley, Phillip N.; Levis, James W.; Damgaard, Anders; Barlaz, Morton A.; DeCarolis, Joseph F.

    2015-01-01

    Insights derived from life-cycle assessment of solid waste management strategies depend critically on assumptions, data, and modeling at the unit process level. Based on new primary data, a process model was developed to estimate the cost and energy use associated with material recovery facilities (MRFs), which are responsible for sorting recyclables into saleable streams and as such represent a key piece of recycling infrastructure. The model includes four modules, each with a different proc...

  14. Life-cycle assessment of semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Boyd, Sarah B

    2012-01-01

    Life-Cycle Assessment of Semiconductors presents the first and thus far only available transparent and complete life cycle assessment of semiconductor devices. A lack of reliable semiconductor LCA data has been a major challenge to evaluation of the potential environmental benefits of information technologies (IT). The analysis and results presented in this book will allow a higher degree of confidence and certainty in decisions concerning the use of IT in efforts to reduce climate change and other environmental effects. Coverage includes but is not limited to semiconductor manufacturing trends by product type and geography, unique coverage of life-cycle assessment, with a focus on uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of energy and global warming missions for CMOS logic devices, life cycle assessment of flash memory and life cycle assessment of DRAM. The information and conclusions discussed here will be highly relevant and useful to individuals and institutions. The book also: Provides a detailed, complete a...

  15. METHOD FOR THE ANALYSIS OF TEMPORAL CHANGE OF PHYSICAL STRUCTURE IN THE INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL LIFE-CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARKUS GÖRING

    2013-10-01

    On one hand, this paper proposes the restructuring of the sequential IEC 61513 I&C life-cycle according to the V-model, so as to adequately integrate the concept of verification and validation. On the other hand, based on a metamodel for the modeling of I&C systems, this paper introduces a method for the modeling and analysis of the effects with respect to the superposition of failure combinations and event sequences on the I&C system design, i.e. the temporal change of physical structure is analyzed. In the first step, the method is concerned with the modeling of the I&C systems. In the second step, the method considers the analysis of temporal change of physical structure, which integrates the concepts of the diversity and defense-in-depth analysis, fault tree analysis, event tree analysis, and failure mode and effects analysis.

  16. Life-cycle assessment of biodiesel versus petroleum diesel fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulon, R.; Camobreco, V.; Sheehan, J.; Duffield, J.

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's Office of Transportation Technologies, DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory, the US Department of Agriculture's Office of Energy, and Ecobalance are carrying out a comprehensive Life-Cycle Assessment of soy-based diesel fuel (biodiesel) to quantify the environmental aspects of the cradle-to-grave production and use of biodiesel. The purpose of the project is to produce an analytical tool and database for use by industry and government decision makers involved in alternative fuel use and production. The study also includes a parallel effort to develop a life-cycle model for petroleum diesel fuel. The two models are used to compare the life-cycle energy and environmental implications of petroleum diesel and biodiesel derived from soybean. Several scenarios are studied, analyzing the influence of transportation distances, agricultural practice and allocation rules used. The project also includes effort to integrate spatial data into the inventory analysis and probabilistic uncertainty considerations into the impact assessment stage. Traditional life-cycle inventory analysis includes an aggregation process that eliminates spatial, temporal, and threshold information. This project will demonstrate an approach to life-cycle inventory analysis that retains spatial data for use in impact assessment. Explicit probabilistic treatment of uncertainty in impact assessment will take account of scientific uncertainties, and will attempt to identify the level of spatial detail that most efficiently reduces impact assessment uncertainties

  17. Life-Cycle Inventory Analysis of Bioproducts from a Modular Advanced Biomass Pyrolysis System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Bergman; Hongmei Gu

    2014-01-01

    Expanding bioenergy production has the potential to reduce net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and improve energy security. Science-based assessments of new bioenergy technologies are essential tools for policy makers dealing with expanding renewable energy production. Using life cycle inventory (LCI) analysis, this study evaluated a 200-kWe...

  18. Development and Use of Life-Cycle Analysis Capabilities To Evaluate, Select, and Implement Plans to Accelerate Hanford Site Cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shay, Michael R.; Johnson, Wayne L.; Frey, Jeffrey A.

    2004-01-01

    Over the past year the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has made significant progress in developing and executing plans to transform and accelerate cleanup of the Hanford Site. Notable progress has been in the cleanup of the River Corridor, including the relocation of spent nuclear fuel to the Central Plateau, and the stabilization of plutonium materials. However, difficult work still remains. DOE has already accelerated the completion of the Environmental Management (EM) cleanup mission from 2070 to 2035 and believes its completion can be achieved even sooner by reducing excess conservatism, substantively changing technical strategy and management approach, and making new front-end investments. Work is well under way in the detailed planning, analyses and decision making required to implement and support the execution of the accelerated cleanup program at Hanford. Various cleanup, contract, and regulatory approaches are being explored. DOE has instituted a process that allows DOE to efficiently explore and test alternative cleanup approaches using a life-cycle model. This paper provides a means to share the planning approach and the life-cycle modeling and analysis tools used with other sites and interested parties. This paper will be of particular interest to analysts performing similar planning and evaluations at other sites as well as provide insight into the current status of Hanford's cleanup program and DOE's plans for the future

  19. The case for applying an early-lifecycle technology evaluation methodology to comparative evaluation of requirements engineering research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feather, Martin S.

    2003-01-01

    The premise of this paper is taht there is a useful analogy between evaluation of proposed problem solutions and evaluation of requirements engineering research itself. Both of these application areas face the challenges of evaluation early in the lifecycle, of the need to consider a wide variety of factors, and of the need to combine inputs from multiple stakeholders in making thse evaluation and subsequent decisions.

  20. Analysis of material recovery facilities for use in life-cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pressley, Phillip N.; Levis, James W.; Damgaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Insights derived from life-cycle assessment of solid waste management strategies depend critically on assumptions, data, and modeling at the unit process level. Based on new primary data, a process model was developed to estimate the cost and energy use associated with material recovery facilities...... (MRFs), which are responsible for sorting recyclables into saleable streams and as such represent a key piece of recycling infrastructure. The model includes four modules, each with a different process flow, for separation of single-stream, dual-stream, pre-sorted recyclables, and mixed-waste. Each MRF...... type has a distinct combination of equipment and default input waste composition. Model results for total amortized costs from each MRF type ranged from $19.8 to $24.9 per Mg (1 Mg = 1 metric ton) of waste input. Electricity use ranged from 4.7 to 7.8 kWh per Mg of waste input. In a single-stream MRF...

  1. Debris-flow risk analysis in a managed torrent based on a stochastic life-cycle performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballesteros Cánovas, J.A.; Stoffel, M.; Corona, C.; Schraml, K.; Gobiet, A.; Tani, S.; Sinabell, F.; Fuchs, S.; Kaitna, R.

    2016-01-01

    Two key factors can affect the functional ability of protection structures in mountains torrents, namely (i) infrastructure maintenance of existing infrastructures (as a majority of existing works is in the second half of their life cycle), and (ii) changes in debris-flow activity as a result of ongoing and expected future climatic changes. Here, we explore the applicability of a stochastic life-cycle performance to assess debris-flow risk in the heavily managed Wartschenbach torrent (Lienz region, Austria) and to quantify associated, expected economic losses. We do so by considering maintenance costs to restore infrastructure in the aftermath of debris-flow events as well as by assessing the probability of check dam failure (e.g., as a result of overload). Our analysis comprises two different management strategies as well as three scenarios defining future changes in debris-flow activity resulting from climatic changes. At the study site, an average debris-flow frequency of 21 events per decade was observed for the period 1950–2000; activity at the site is projected to change by + 38% to − 33%, according to the climate scenario used. Comparison of the different management alternatives suggests that the current mitigation strategy will allow to reduce expected damage to infrastructure and population almost fully (89%). However, to guarantee a comparable level of safety, maintenance costs is expected to increase by 57–63%, with an increase of maintenance costs by ca. 50% for each intervention. Our analysis therefore also highlights the importance of taking maintenance costs into account for risk assessments realized in managed torrent systems, as they result both from progressive and event-related deteriorations. We conclude that the stochastic life-cycle performance adopted in this study represents indeed an integrated approach to assess the long-term effects and costs of prevention structures in managed torrents. - Highlights: • Debris flows are considered

  2. Debris-flow risk analysis in a managed torrent based on a stochastic life-cycle performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballesteros Cánovas, J.A., E-mail: juan.ballesteros@dendrolab.ch [Dendrolab.ch. Institute for Geological Sciences, University of Bern, Baltzerstrasse 1 + 3, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Climate Change an Climate Impacts (C3i) Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Geneva, 66 Boulevard Carl-Vogt, CH-1205 Geneva (Switzerland); Stoffel, M. [Dendrolab.ch. Institute for Geological Sciences, University of Bern, Baltzerstrasse 1 + 3, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Climate Change an Climate Impacts (C3i) Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Geneva, 66 Boulevard Carl-Vogt, CH-1205 Geneva (Switzerland); Department of Earth Sciences, University of Geneva, 13 rue des Maraîchers, CH-1205 Geneva (Switzerland); Corona, C. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) UMR6042 Geolab, 4 rue Ledru, F-63057 Clermont-Ferrand Cedex (France); Schraml, K. [Institute for Alpine Hazards, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna (BOKU), A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Gobiet, A. [University of Graz, Wegener Center for Climate and Global Change (WegCenter), A-8010 Graz (Austria); Central Office for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG), A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Tani, S. [University of Graz, Wegener Center for Climate and Global Change (WegCenter), A-8010 Graz (Austria); Sinabell, F. [Austrian Institute of Economic Research, A-1030 Vienna (Austria); Fuchs, S.; Kaitna, R. [Institute for Alpine Hazards, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna (BOKU), A-1190 Vienna (Austria)

    2016-07-01

    Two key factors can affect the functional ability of protection structures in mountains torrents, namely (i) infrastructure maintenance of existing infrastructures (as a majority of existing works is in the second half of their life cycle), and (ii) changes in debris-flow activity as a result of ongoing and expected future climatic changes. Here, we explore the applicability of a stochastic life-cycle performance to assess debris-flow risk in the heavily managed Wartschenbach torrent (Lienz region, Austria) and to quantify associated, expected economic losses. We do so by considering maintenance costs to restore infrastructure in the aftermath of debris-flow events as well as by assessing the probability of check dam failure (e.g., as a result of overload). Our analysis comprises two different management strategies as well as three scenarios defining future changes in debris-flow activity resulting from climatic changes. At the study site, an average debris-flow frequency of 21 events per decade was observed for the period 1950–2000; activity at the site is projected to change by + 38% to − 33%, according to the climate scenario used. Comparison of the different management alternatives suggests that the current mitigation strategy will allow to reduce expected damage to infrastructure and population almost fully (89%). However, to guarantee a comparable level of safety, maintenance costs is expected to increase by 57–63%, with an increase of maintenance costs by ca. 50% for each intervention. Our analysis therefore also highlights the importance of taking maintenance costs into account for risk assessments realized in managed torrent systems, as they result both from progressive and event-related deteriorations. We conclude that the stochastic life-cycle performance adopted in this study represents indeed an integrated approach to assess the long-term effects and costs of prevention structures in managed torrents. - Highlights: • Debris flows are considered

  3. PRODUCT LIFECYCLE OPTIMISATION OF CAR CLIMATE CONTROLS USING ANALYTICAL HIERARCHICAL PROCESS (AHP ANALYSIS AND A MULTI-OBJECTIVE GROUPING GENETIC ALGORITHM (MOGGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MICHAEL J. LEE

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A product’s lifecycle performance (e.g. assembly, outsourcing, maintenance and recycling can often be improved through modularity. However, modularisation under different and often conflicting lifecycle objectives is a complex problem that will ultimately require trade-offs. This paper presents a novel multi-objective modularity optimisation framework; the application of which is illustrated through the modularisation of a car climate control system. Central to the framework is a specially designed multi-objective grouping genetic algorithm (MOGGA that is able to generate a whole range of alternative product modularisations. Scenario analysis, using the principles of the analytical hierarchical process (AHP, is then carried out to explore the solution set and choose a suitable modular architecture that optimises the product lifecycle according to the company’s strategic vision.

  4. PROCESS OF INNOVATION IN PRODUCT LIFECYCLE MANAGEMENT BUSINESS STRATEGY

    OpenAIRE

    VALENTINA GECEVSKA; FRANC CUS; RADMIL POLENAKOVIC; PAOLO CHABERT

    2011-01-01

    This article proposes a scenario of Product Lifecycle Management (PLM), as a innovative business strategy based on the analysis of business drivers, industry requirements, limit of current solution, and recent state-of-the-art review in the domain related to PLM. Potential industrial impact of the developed PLM technology solutions is analyzed. It is hoped that the proposed PLM technology solutions will form the frontier basis for further research, development, and application of PLM systems ...

  5. Trading away damage. Quantifying environmental leakage through consumption-based, life-cycle analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghertner, D. Asher; Fripp, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    This research quantifies the extent to which the US has shifted the environmental impact associated with the goods it consumes to other countries through trade. To achieve this, we use a life-cycle, consumption-based approach to measure the environmental impacts embodied in US trade activities for global warming potential (GWP), energy, toxics, and the criteria air pollutants. We use these values to determine the amount of environmental impact 'leaked' from current, production-based approaches to analyzing national environmental trends for the years 1998-2004. We find that in 2004, with reasonable assumptions about the environmental intensity of imports and exports, this leakage exceeds 10% for all studied impacts, exceeds 20% for GWP, energy, and most criteria air pollutants, and exceeds 80% for lead emissions and toxics. By including the environmental impacts embodied in trade activities into national environmental accounts, we provide consumption-based, US per capita, environmental impacts, which we use to evaluate the relationship between income and environmental impact. We find evidence for rising per capita environmental impacts over time in the US, contra the Environmental Kuznets Curve. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications for international environmental policy of increasing embodied emissions in trade. (author)

  6. Fuel economy and life-cycle cost analysis of a fuel cell hybrid vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Kwi Seong; Oh, Byeong Soo

    The most promising vehicle engine that can overcome the problem of present internal combustion is the hydrogen fuel cell. Fuel cells are devices that change chemical energy directly into electrical energy without combustion. Pure fuel cell vehicles and fuel cell hybrid vehicles (i.e. a combination of fuel cell and battery) as energy sources are studied. Considerations of efficiency, fuel economy, and the characteristics of power output in hybridization of fuel cell vehicle are necessary. In the case of Federal Urban Driving Schedule (FUDS) cycle simulation, hybridization is more efficient than a pure fuel cell vehicle. The reason is that it is possible to capture regenerative braking energy and to operate the fuel cell system within a more efficient range by using battery. Life-cycle cost is largely affected by the fuel cell size, fuel cell cost, and hydrogen cost. When the cost of fuel cell is high, hybridization is profitable, but when the cost of fuel cell is less than 400 US$/kW, a pure fuel cell vehicle is more profitable.

  7. Trading away damage. Quantifying environmental leakage through consumption-based, life-cycle analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghertner, D. Asher; Fripp, Matthias [Energy and Resources Group University of California, Berkeley 310 Barrows Hall 3050 Berkeley, CA 94720-3050 (United States)

    2007-08-01

    This research quantifies the extent to which the US has shifted the environmental impact associated with the goods it consumes to other countries through trade. To achieve this, we use a life-cycle, consumption-based approach to measure the environmental impacts embodied in US trade activities for global warming potential (GWP), energy, toxics, and the criteria air pollutants. We use these values to determine the amount of environmental impact 'leaked' from current, production-based approaches to analyzing national environmental trends for the years 1998-2004. We find that in 2004, with reasonable assumptions about the environmental intensity of imports and exports, this leakage exceeds 10% for all studied impacts, exceeds 20% for GWP, energy, and most criteria air pollutants, and exceeds 80% for lead emissions and toxics. By including the environmental impacts embodied in trade activities into national environmental accounts, we provide consumption-based, US per capita, environmental impacts, which we use to evaluate the relationship between income and environmental impact. We find evidence for rising per capita environmental impacts over time in the US, contra the Environmental Kuznets Curve. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications for international environmental policy of increasing embodied emissions in trade. (author)

  8. Life-cycle implications of hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicle technology for medium- and heavy-duty trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Yeon; Elgowainy, Amgad; Kotz, Andrew; Vijayagopal, Ram; Marcinkoski, Jason

    2018-07-01

    This study provides a comprehensive and up-to-date life-cycle comparison of hydrogen fuel cell electric trucks (FCETs) and their conventional diesel counterparts in terms of energy use and air emissions, based on the ensemble of well-established methods, high-fidelity vehicle dynamic simulations, and real-world vehicle test data. For the centralized steam methane reforming (SMR) pathway, hydrogen FCETs reduce life-cycle or well-to-wheel (WTW) petroleum energy use by more than 98% compared to their diesel counterparts. The reduction in WTW air emissions for gaseous hydrogen (G.H2) FCETs ranges from 20 to 45% for greenhouse gases, 37-65% for VOC, 49-77% for CO, 62-83% for NOx, 19-43% for PM10, and 27-44% for PM2.5, depending on vehicle weight classes and truck types. With the current U.S. average electricity generation mix, FCETs tend to create more WTW SOx emissions than their diesel counterparts, mainly because of the upstream emissions related to electricity use for hydrogen compression/liquefaction. Compared to G.H2, liquid hydrogen (L.H2) FCETs generally provide smaller WTW emissions reductions. For both G.H2 and L.H2 pathways for FCETs, because of electricity consumption for compression and liquefaction, spatio-temporal variations of electricity generation can affect the WTW results. FCETs retain the WTW emission reduction benefits, even when considering aggressive diesel engine efficiency improvement.

  9. Life-cycle Analysis of Bioproducts and Their Conventional Counterparts in GREET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Adom, Felix [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sather, Norm [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Han, Jeongwoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Snyder, Seth [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); He, Chang [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Gong, Jian [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Yue, Dajun [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); You, Fengqi [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    To further expand upon the literature in this field and to develop a platform for bioproduct LCA, we developed LCA results for ten bioproducts produced either from algal glycerol or from corn stover-derived sugars. We used Argonne National Laboratory’s Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREETTM) model as the platform for this study. The data and calculations reported herein are available to GREET users in a bioproducts module included in the fall 2015 GREET release. This report documents our approach to this analysis and the results. In Chapter 2, we review the process we underwent to select the bioproducts for analysis based on market and technology readiness criteria. In Chapter 3, we review key parameters for production of the two feedstocks we considered: corn stover and algae. Given the lack of publicly available information about the production of bioproducts, which is caused in large part by the emerging nature of the industry, we developed Aspen Plus® simulations of the processes that could be used to produce each bioproduct. From these simulations, we extracted the energy and material flows of these processes, which were important inputs to the GREET bioproducts module. Chapter 4 provides the details of these Aspen Plus simulations. It is important to compare the LCA results for bioproducts to those for their petroleum counterparts. We therefore also developed material and energy flow data for conventional products based mostly on the literature. These data are described in Chapter 5 and are also included in the GREET bioproducts module. In Chapter 6, we present results from this analysis and examine areas for refinement and future research.

  10. Cost Analysis and Long Term Planning Over the Lifecycle of an Enterprise Storage Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. McKnight

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This document will cover the basics of Storage Area Networks (SAN, IP-Based Storage Networks such as NAS, and the basics of choosing a technology for an Enterprise Storage infrastructure. This document will focus on SAS (Serial Attached Storage and SATA (Serial ATA disk drive technologies. The primary focus for this document will be to aid a manager in making a purchasing decision for the selection of storage technologies. I will cover purchase options such as buy, lease, and lease-to-buy. This document will cover the basic costs associated with maintenance and upgrades over the lifetime of different storage technologies.

  11. Review of life-cycle approaches coupled with data envelopment analysis: launching the CFP + DEA method for energy policy making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Rowe, Ian; Iribarren, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Life-cycle (LC) approaches play a significant role in energy policy making to determine the environmental impacts associated with the choice of energy source. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) can be combined with LC approaches to provide quantitative benchmarks that orientate the performance of energy systems towards environmental sustainability, with different implications depending on the selected LC + DEA method. The present paper examines currently available LC + DEA methods and develops a novel method combining carbon footprinting (CFP) and DEA. Thus, the CFP + DEA method is proposed, a five-step structure including data collection for multiple homogenous entities, calculation of target operating points, evaluation of current and target carbon footprints, and result interpretation. As the current context for energy policy implies an anthropocentric perspective with focus on the global warming impact of energy systems, the CFP + DEA method is foreseen to be the most consistent LC + DEA approach to provide benchmarks for energy policy making. The fact that this method relies on the definition of operating points with optimised resource intensity helps to moderate the concerns about the omission of other environmental impacts. Moreover, the CFP + DEA method benefits from CFP specifications in terms of flexibility, understanding, and reporting.

  12. Evaluating environmental impacts of alternative construction waste management approaches using supply-chain-linked life-cycle analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucukvar, Murat; Egilmez, Gokhan; Tatari, Omer

    2014-06-01

    Waste management in construction is critical for the sustainable treatment of building-related construction and demolition (C&D) waste materials, and recycling of these wastes has been considered as one of the best strategies in minimization of C&D debris. However, recycling of C&D materials may not always be a feasible strategy for every waste type and therefore recycling and other waste treatment strategies should be supported by robust decision-making models. With the aim of assessing the net carbon, energy, and water footprints of C&D recycling and other waste management alternatives, a comprehensive economic input-output-based hybrid life-cycle assessment model is developed by tracing all of the economy-wide supply-chain impacts of three waste management strategies: recycling, landfilling, and incineration. Analysis results showed that only the recycling of construction materials provided positive environmental footprint savings in terms of carbon, energy, and water footprints. Incineration is a better option as a secondary strategy after recycling for water and energy footprint categories, whereas landfilling is found to be as slightly better strategy when carbon footprint is considered as the main focus of comparison. In terms of construction materials' environmental footprint, nonferrous metals are found to have a significant environmental footprint reduction potential if recycled. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Life-Cycle Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis for Bio-Liquid Jet Fuel from Open Pond-Based Micro-Algae under China Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Xunmin Ou; Xiaoyu Yan; Xu Zhang; Xiliang Zhang

    2013-01-01

    A life-cycle analysis (LCA) of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy use was performed to study bio-jet fuel (BJF) production from micro-algae grown in open ponds under Chinese conditions using the Tsinghua University LCA Model (TLCAM). Attention was paid to energy recovery through biogas production and cogeneration of heat and power (CHP) from the residual biomass after oil extraction, including fugitive methane (CH 4 ) emissions during the production of biogas and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) ...

  14. Advancing Clouds Lifecycle Representation in Numerical Models Using Innovative Analysis Methods that Bridge ARM Observations and Models Over a Breadth of Scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kollias, Pavlos [McGill Univ., Montreal, QC (Canada

    2016-09-06

    This the final report for the DE-SC0007096 - Advancing Clouds Lifecycle Representation in Numerical Models Using Innovative Analysis Methods that Bridge ARM Observations and Models Over a Breadth of Scales - PI: Pavlos Kollias. The final report outline the main findings of the research conducted using the aforementioned award in the area of cloud research from the cloud scale (10-100 m) to the mesoscale (20-50 km).

  15. Life-cycle assessment of Nebraska bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Life-cycle cost analysis (LCCA) is a necessary component in bridge management systems (BMSs) for : assessing investment decisions and identifying the most cost-effective improvement alternatives. The : LCCA helps to identify the lowest cost alternati...

  16. Risk analysis of the proxy life-cycle investments in the second pillar pension scheme in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Kovačević

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we analyze the expected risk of pension funds with different risk profiles in the proxy life-cycle model of investments for the 2nd pillar pension scheme in Croatia. The benefits of implementing proxy life-cycle investments, compared to the previous model of mandatory pension funds investments, are clearly visible in the total expected amount of accumulated savings from the risk/return perspective. However, those benefits are partially diminished by the fact that the expected risk of a pension fund with the lowest risk profile is not substantially different from the expected risk of a pension fund with a medium risk profile, due to the lack of diversification. Additionally, we analyze the robustness of the proxy life-cycle model to a sudden and severe market shock, where we determine the presence of risk for those members who choose to switch to a pension fund with a lower risk profile at an unfavorable moment.

  17. The role of interest and inflation rates in life-cycle cost analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberger, I.; Remer, D. S.; Lorden, G.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of projected interest and inflation rates on life cycle cost calculations is discussed and a method is proposed for making such calculations which replaces these rates by a single parameter. Besides simplifying the analysis, the method clarifies the roles of these rates. An analysis of historical interest and inflation rates from 1950 to 1976 shows that the proposed method can be expected to yield very good projections of life cycle cost even if the rates themselves fluctuate considerably.

  18. The industrial metabolism of plastics : analysis of material flows, energy consumption and CO2 emissions in the lifecycle of plastics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, Ludovicus Antonius Josephus

    2001-01-01

    This thesis deals with the question: Which are promising options for decreasing material consumption, energy consumption and CO2 emissions in the lifecycle of plastics? The research described in this thesis mainly focuses on measures that change the material system, i.e. measures that change the

  19. Numerical Investigations into the Value of Information in Lifecycle Analysis of Structural Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konakli, Katerina; Sudret, Bruno; Faber, Michael Havbro

    2015-01-01

    of decisions related to maintenance of structural systems. In this context, experiments may refer to inspections or structural health monitoring. The value-of-information concept comprises a powerful tool for determining whether the experimental cost is justified by the expected gained benefit during...... investigations demonstrate how the decision problem is influenced by the assumed probabilistic models, including the type of probability distribution and the degree of uncertainty reflected in the coefficient of variation, the degradation law, the quantity and quality of information, and the probabilistic...... dependencies between the components of a system. Furthermore, challenges and potentials in value-of-information analysis for structural systems are discussed....

  20. Life-Cycle Analysis of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Water Consumption – Effects of Coal and Biomass Conversion to Liquid Fuels as Analyzed with the GREET Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qianfeng [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cai, Hao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Han, Jeongwoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The vast reserves of coal in the U.S. provide a significant incentive for the development of processes for coal conversion to liquid fuels (CTL). Also, CTL using domestic coal can help move the U.S. toward greater energy independence and security. However, current conversion technologies are less economically competitive and generate greater greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions than production of petroleum fuels. Altex Technologies Corporation (Altex, hereinafter) and Pennsylvania State University have developed a hybrid technology to produce jet fuel from a feedstock blend of coal and biomass. Collaborating with Altex, Argonne National Laboratory has expanded and used the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET®) model to assess the life-cycle GHG emissions and water consumption of this hybrid technology. Biomass feedstocks include corn stover, switchgrass, and wheat straw. The option of biomass densification (bales to pellets) is also evaluated in this study. The results show that the densification process generates additional GHG emissions as a result of additional biomass process energy demand. This process coproduces a large amount of char, and this study investigates two scenarios to treat char: landfill disposal (Char-LF) and combustion for combined heat and power (CHP). Since the CHP scenarios export excess heat and electricity as coproducts, two coproduct handling methods are used for well-to-wake (WTWa) analysis: displacement (Char-CHP-Disp) and energy allocation (Char-CHP-EnAllo). When the feedstock contains 15 wt% densified wheat straw and 85 wt% lignite coal, WTWa GHG emissions of the coal-and-biomass-to-liquid pathways are 116, 97, and 137 gCO2e per megajoule (MJ) under the Char-LF, Char-CHP-Disp, and Char-CHP-EnAllo scenarios, respectively, as compared to conventional jet fuel production at 84 gCO2e/MJ. WTWa water consumption values are 0.072, -0.046, and 0.044 gal/MJ for Char-LF, Char-CHP-Disp, and Char

  1. 3D And 4D Cloud Lifecycle Investigations Using Innovative Scanning Radar Analysis Methods. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kollias, Pavlos [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)

    2017-04-23

    With the vast upgrades to the ARM program radar measurement capabilities in 2010 and beyond, our ability to probe the 3D structure of clouds and associated precipitation has increased dramatically. This project build on the PI's and co-I's expertisein the analysis of radar observations. The first research thrust aims to document the 3D morphological (as depicted by the radar reflectivity structure) and 3D dynamical (cloud$-$scale eddies) structure of boundary layer clouds. Unraveling the 3D dynamical structure of stratocumulus and shallow cumulus clouds requires decomposition of the environmental wind contribution and particle sedimentation velocity from the observed radial Doppler velocity. The second thrust proposes to unravel the mechanism of cumulus entrainment (location, scales) and its impact on microphysics utilizing radar measurements from the vertically pointing and new scanning radars at the ARM sites. The third research thrust requires the development of a cloud$-$tracking algorithm that monitors the properties of cloud.

  2. VENTILATION TECHNOLOGY SYSTEMS ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a project to develop a systems analysis of ventilation technology and provide a state-of-the-art assessment of ventilation and indoor air quality (IAQ) research needs. (NOTE: Ventilation technology is defined as the hardware necessary to bring outdoor ...

  3. Dynamic Analysis of Product Lifecycle and Sea/Air Modal Choice: Evidence of Export from Japan1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Murakami

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Here, we test the hypothesis that commodities at their peak valuation are transported by air, while those at their inception and maturity are shipped by sea, as well as the theory that shippers choose air to transport high-valued commodities. We empirically investigated how the product lifecycle of commodities is reflected by shippers’ choices of air over seaborne transportation. We also assumed that commodities that achieved substantial innovation in their lifecycles would be moved by air transportation so that these commodities could reach targeted markets as quickly as possible to avoid the opportunity costs that might be generated by missed business chances. We constructed two sets of unbalanced panel data of 14 commodities for 24 years drawn from Japan's customs, demographic, and international statistics. By estimating structural equation systems that consisted of commodity-specific export and export air ratio functions, we found that the product lifecycle of cargo outgoing from Japan exactly matched the upward and downward movement of the air ratio.

  4. Lifecycle optimized ethanol-gasoline blends for turbocharged engines

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Bo

    2016-08-16

    This study presents a lifecycle (well-to-wheel) analysis to determine the CO2 emissions associated with ethanol blended gasoline in optimized turbocharged engines. This study provides a more accurate assessment on the best-achievable CO2 emission of ethanol blended gasoline mixtures in future engines. The optimal fuel blend (lowest CO2 emitting fuel) is identified. A range of gasoline fuels is studied, containing different ethanol volume percentages (E0–E40), research octane numbers (RON, 92–105), and octane sensitivities (8.5–15.5). Sugarcane-based and cellulosic ethanol-blended gasolines are shown to be effective in reducing lifecycle CO2 emission, while corn-based ethanol is not as effective. A refinery simulation of production emission was utilized, and combined with vehicle fuel consumption modeling to determine the lifecycle CO2 emissions associated with ethanol-blended gasoline in turbocharged engines. The critical parameters studied, and related to blended fuel lifecycle CO2 emissions, are ethanol content, research octane number, and octane sensitivity. The lowest-emitting blended fuel had an ethanol content of 32 vol%, RON of 105, and octane sensitivity of 15.5; resulting in a CO2 reduction of 7.1%, compared to the reference gasoline fuel and engine technology. The advantage of ethanol addition is greatest on a per unit basis at low concentrations. Finally, this study shows that engine-downsizing technology can yield an additional CO2 reduction of up to 25.5% in a two-stage downsized turbocharged engine burning the optimum sugarcane-based fuel blend. The social cost savings in the USA, from the CO2 reduction, is estimated to be as much as $187 billion/year. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  5. Analysis of current research addressing complementary use of life-cycle assessment and risk assessment for engineered nanomaterials: have lessons been learned from previous experience with chemicals?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grieger, Khara D.; Laurent, Alexis; Miseljic, Mirko; Christensen, Frans; Baun, Anders; Olsen, Stig I.

    2012-01-01

    While it is generally agreed that successful strategies to address the health and environmental impacts of engineered nanomaterials (NM) should consider the well-established frameworks for conducting life-cycle assessment (LCA) and risk assessment (RA), scientific research, and specific guidance on how to practically apply these methods are still very much under development. This paper evaluates how research efforts have applied LCA and RA together for NM, particularly reflecting on previous experiences with applying these methods to chemicals. Through a literature review and a separate analysis of research focused on applying LCA and RA together for NM, it appears that current research efforts have taken into account some key “lessons learned” from previous experience with chemicals while many key challenges remain for practically applying these methods to NM. We identified two main approaches for using these methods together for NM: “LC-based RA” (traditional RA applied in a life-cycle perspective) and “RA-complemented LCA” (conventional LCA supplemented by RA in specific life-cycle steps). Hence, the latter is the only identified approach which genuinely combines LC- and RA-based methods for NM-risk research efforts to date as the former is rather a continuation of normal RA according to standard assessment procedures (e.g., REACH). Both these approaches along with recommendations for using LCA and RA together for NM are similar to those made previously for chemicals, and thus, there does not appear to be much progress made specific for NM. We have identified one issue in particular that may be specific for NM when applying LCA and RA at this time: the need to establish proper dose metrics within both methods.

  6. Model of the Product Development Lifecycle.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Sunny L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roe, Natalie H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wood, Evan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nachtigal, Noel M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Helms, Jovana [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-01

    While the increased use of Commercial Off-The-Shelf information technology equipment has presented opportunities for improved cost effectiveness and flexibility, the corresponding loss of control over the product's development creates unique vulnerabilities and security concerns. Of particular interest is the possibility of a supply chain attack. A comprehensive model for the lifecycle of hardware and software products is proposed based on a survey of existing literature from academic, government, and industry sources. Seven major lifecycle stages are identified and defined: (1) Requirements, (2) Design, (3) Manufacturing for hardware and Development for software, (4) Testing, (5) Distribution, (6) Use and Maintenance, and (7) Disposal. The model is then applied to examine the risk of attacks at various stages of the lifecycle.

  7. Methods of dealing with co-products of biofuels in life-cycle analysis and consequent results within the U.S. context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Michael, E-mail: mqwang@anl.gov [Center for Transportation Research, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Huo Hong [Institute of Energy, Environment, and Economics, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Arora, Salil [Center for Transportation Research, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Products other than biofuels are produced in biofuel plants. For example, corn ethanol plants produce distillers' grains and solubles. Soybean crushing plants produce soy meal and soy oil, which is used for biodiesel production. Electricity is generated in sugarcane ethanol plants both for internal consumption and export to the electric grid. Future cellulosic ethanol plants could be designed to co-produce electricity with ethanol. It is important to take co-products into account in the life-cycle analysis of biofuels and several methods are available to do so. Although the International Standard Organization's ISO 14040 advocates the system boundary expansion method (also known as the 'displacement method' or the 'substitution method') for life-cycle analyses, application of the method has been limited because of the difficulty in identifying and quantifying potential products to be displaced by biofuel co-products. As a result, some LCA studies and policy-making processes have considered alternative methods. In this paper, we examine the available methods to deal with biofuel co-products, explore the strengths and weaknesses of each method, and present biofuel LCA results with different co-product methods within the U.S. context.

  8. Methods of dealing with co-products of biofuels in life-cycle analysis and consequent results within the U.S. context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Michael; Huo Hong; Arora, Salil

    2011-01-01

    Products other than biofuels are produced in biofuel plants. For example, corn ethanol plants produce distillers' grains and solubles. Soybean crushing plants produce soy meal and soy oil, which is used for biodiesel production. Electricity is generated in sugarcane ethanol plants both for internal consumption and export to the electric grid. Future cellulosic ethanol plants could be designed to co-produce electricity with ethanol. It is important to take co-products into account in the life-cycle analysis of biofuels and several methods are available to do so. Although the International Standard Organization's ISO 14040 advocates the system boundary expansion method (also known as the 'displacement method' or the 'substitution method') for life-cycle analyses, application of the method has been limited because of the difficulty in identifying and quantifying potential products to be displaced by biofuel co-products. As a result, some LCA studies and policy-making processes have considered alternative methods. In this paper, we examine the available methods to deal with biofuel co-products, explore the strengths and weaknesses of each method, and present biofuel LCA results with different co-product methods within the U.S. context.

  9. Streamline Your Project: A Lifecycle Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viren, John

    2000-01-01

    Discusses one approach to project organization providing a baseline lifecycle model for multimedia/CBT development. This variation of the standard four-phase model of Analysis, Design, Development, and Implementation includes a Pre-Analysis phase, called Definition, and a Post-Implementation phase, known as Maintenance. Each phase is described.…

  10. Refined life-cycle assessment of polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenzmann, F.; Kroon, J.; Andriessen, R.

    2011-01-01

    A refined life-cycle assessment of polymer solar cells is presented with a focus on critical components, i.e. the transparent conductive ITO layer and the encapsulation components. This present analysis gives a comprehensive sketch of the full environmental potential of polymer-OPV in comparison...... with other PV technologies. It is shown that on a m2 basis the environmental characteristics of polymer-OPV are highly beneficial, while on a watt-peak and on a kWh basis, these benefits are - at the current level of the development - still (over-)compensated by low module efficiency and limited lifetime...

  11. Analysis technologies firewall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Б.Я. Корнієнко

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available  With the purpose of research of properties and maintenance of protection of the information in telecommunication systems and information  systems is lead the comparative analysis of technologies of firewalls. Three basictechnologies of firewalls are considered: on the basis of popular free-of-charge sources of program maintenance, commercial program decisions and hardware-software decisions. Results of researches are presented in tables and conclusions.

  12. Life-cycle private-cost-based competitiveness analysis of electric vehicles in China considering the intangible cost of traffic policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diao, Qinghua; Sun, Wei; Yuan, Xinmei; Li, Lili; Zheng, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • LCCs of BEVs and CVs are compared, considering the effects of traffic policy. • BEVs are economically competitive with both national and local subsidies. • Traffic policies have a significant impact on the competitiveness of BEVs. • The promotion of electric vehicles should prioritize mega-cities. - Abstract: Electric vehicles produce zero tailpipe emissions during operation and have thus been considered a most promising method for providing mobility while reducing the greenhouse gas emissions of the transportation sector in the future. The life-cycle cost of electric vehicles has been widely studied to evaluate their competitiveness compared to conventional vehicles. However, the competitiveness of electric vehicles is highly dependent on government promotion policies, and the effects of non-economic incentive policies are currently difficult to include in life-cycle cost analysis. These non-economic effects are usually measured by the intangible cost. Traffic policies represent typical non-economic incentive policies. In China, electric vehicles are exempted from purchase restrictions (license plate control policy) and driving restrictions; thus, the intangible cost of traffic policies has significant effects on the comparison of electric vehicles and conventional vehicles. In this paper, from the consumers’ perspective, the intangible cost of purchase and driving restrictions is modeled and expressed in monetary terms; then, the impact of these non-economic incentive policies are compared with subsidies and other costs of vehicles. Thus, a more comprehensive comparison between electric and conventional vehicles can be provided. Using three selected typical battery electric vehicles and three correspondingly similarly sized conventional vehicles in China, the private life-cycle costs of battery electric vehicles and conventional vehicles are calculated and compared, a parametric variation analysis is performed, and the effects of economic

  13. Life-Cycle Analysis of Building Retrofits at the Urban Scale—A Case Study in United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Afshari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A consensus is forming among experts that the best way to achieve emissions’ reduction in the near and mid-term is increasing the demand-side energy efficiency—this is especially true in developing countries where the potential for demand reduction is significant and achievable at relatively lower cost. Enhanced energy efficiency also reduces energy costs and can result in a financial benefit to end-users, if the life-cycle value of energy savings offsets the upfront cost of implementing the measure. At the same time, reducing energy demand translates into lower pull for fossil fuel import and supply/distribution capacity expansion. An ideal candidate for the implementation of demand-side energy efficiency measures is the building sector, since it contributes to a large extent to the total amount of greenhouse gases (GHGs emitted worldwide. In most developing countries, the contribution of the building sector to the total national GHG emissions is significantly higher than the worldwide average. This is in part due to the lower level of industrial activity. Other drivers of the high emissions of the building sector are the inefficiency of the envelope and technical systems of the existing buildings, as well as harsh climatic conditions requiring the use of energy intensive air-conditioning equipment. The United Arab Emirates (UAE currently have the highest ecological footprint per capita in the world. The Emirate of Abu Dhabi, the focus of this study, can be expected to have a footprint that is even higher, being the largest economy and the major oil producer among the seven Emirates. In addition to the environmental consequences of unrestrained energy consumption, the fact that energy prices are heavily subsidized in Abu Dhabi results in a significant financial burden for the government. In the UAE and the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, the air-conditioning load in buildings is the ideal target for demand-side management because it constitutes more

  14. Origins of the debate on the life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption of first-generation biofuels – A sensitivity analysis approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoist, Anthony; Dron, Dominique; Zoughaib, Assaad

    2012-01-01

    Available results about energy and GreenHouse Gases (GHG) balances of biofuels from Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) or life-cycle based studies present large discrepancies and thus, may lead to contradictory policy-making measures. This work reviewed seven important European LCA studies in a sensitivity analysis approach in order to get a better understanding of the roots of such a debate for three major biofuels in European production: rape methyl ester and ethanol from wheat and sugar beet. Global trends and variability of energy and GHG balances were depicted and completed with a sensitivity analysis carried out for each methodological and data parameter, which allowed making recommendations on the carrying out of LCA in a policy-making or a biofuels comparison context. Methodological choices, and especially allocation rule, appeared as key elements for results variation with influences on balances up to 149%; system expansion approach was identified as the most relevant rule since it integrates the market potential and the environmental interest of by-products promotion, which was pointed out as a crucial point for biofuels sustainability. The influence of local specificity for cultivation data was evaluated up to 167%, which puts too large geographical coverage in question. Modelling uncertainties due to N 2 O emissions from soils showed influences from 17 to 46%, which represents a crucial challenge for research and for LCA results accuracy. Approximations evaluation pointed out the need to integrate agricultural machinery into the assessment. Finally, land-use issue revealed its dramatic importance for LCA results and the need to define explicit scenarios for land-use alternatives.

  15. Life-cycle analysis of the total Danish energy system. An assessment of the present Danish energy system and selected furture scenarios. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuemmel, B; Soerensen, B

    1997-01-01

    The promise of life-cycle analysis (LCA) is to enable the incorporation of environmental and social impacts into decision-making processes. The challenge is to do it on the basis of the always incomplete and uncertain data available, in a way that is sufficiently transparent to avoid that the modeller introduces any particular bias into the decision process, by the way of selecting and treating the incomplete data. The life-cycle analysis of the currently existing system is to be seen as a reference, against which alternative solutions to the same problem is weighed. However, as it takes time to introduce new systems, the alternative scenarios are for a future situation, which is chosen as the middle of the 21st century. The reason for using a 30-50 year period is a reflection on the time needed for a smooth transition to an energy system based on sources different from the ones used today, with implied differences all the way through the conversion and end-use system. A scenario will only be selected if it has been identified and if there is social support for it, so construction of more exotic scenarios by the researcher would only be meaningful, if its advantages are so convincing that an interest can be created and the necessary social support be forthcoming. One may say that the energy scenarios based on renewable energy sources are in this category, as they were identified by a minority group (of scientists and other individuals) and successfully brought to the attention of the public debate during 1970ies. In any case it should be kept in mind, that no claim of having identified the optimum solution can be made after assessing a finite number of scenarios. (EG) 88 refs.

  16. Biorefinery Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-06-01

    Fact sheet summarizing NREL's techno-economic analysis and life-cycle assessment capabilities to connect research with future commercial process integration, a critical step in the scale-up of biomass conversion technologies.

  17. Cloud Computing Governance Lifecycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soňa Karkošková

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Externally provisioned cloud services enable flexible and on-demand sourcing of IT resources. Cloud computing introduces new challenges such as need of business process redefinition, establishment of specialized governance and management, organizational structures and relationships with external providers and managing new types of risk arising from dependency on external providers. There is a general consensus that cloud computing in addition to challenges brings many benefits but it is unclear how to achieve them. Cloud computing governance helps to create business value through obtain benefits from use of cloud computing services while optimizing investment and risk. Challenge, which organizations are facing in relation to governing of cloud services, is how to design and implement cloud computing governance to gain expected benefits. This paper aims to provide guidance on implementation activities of proposed Cloud computing governance lifecycle from cloud consumer perspective. Proposed model is based on SOA Governance Framework and consists of lifecycle for implementation and continuous improvement of cloud computing governance model.

  18. Life-cycle analysis of energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, and water consumption in the 2016 MYPP algal biofuel scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, Edward [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Pegallapati, Ambica K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Davis, Ryan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Markham, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Coleman, Andre [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jones, Sue [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wigmosta, Mark S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhu, Yunhua [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-06-16

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) Multi-year Program Plan (MYPP) describes the bioenergy objectives pursued by BETO, the strategies for achieving those objectives, the current state of technology (SOT), and a number of design cases that explore cost and operational performance required to advance the SOT towards middle and long term goals (MYPP, 2016). Two options for converting algae to biofuel intermediates were considered in the MYPP, namely algal biofuel production via lipid extraction and algal biofuel production by thermal processing. The first option, lipid extraction, is represented by the Combined Algae Processing (CAP) pathway in which algae are hydrolyzed in a weak acid pretreatment step. The treated slurry is fermented for ethanol production from sugars. The fermentation stillage contains most of the lipids from the original biomass, which are recovered through wet solvent extraction. The process residuals after lipid extraction, which contain much of the original mass of amino acids and proteins, are directed to anaerobic digestion (AD) for biogas production and recycle of N and P nutrients. The second option, thermal processing, comprises direct hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of the wet biomass, separation of aqueous, gas, and oil phases, and treatment of the aqueous phase with catalytic hydrothermal gasification (CHG) to produce biogas and to recover N and P nutrients. The present report describes a life cycle analysis of energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of the CAP and HTL options for the three scenarios just described. Water use is also reported. Water use during algal biofuel production comes from evaporation during cultivation, discharge to bleed streams to control pond salinity (“blowdown”), and from use during preprocessing and upgrading. For scenarios considered to date, most water use was from evaporation and, secondarily, from bleed streams. Other use was relatively small at the level of

  19. Future forecast for life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of LNG and city gas 13A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, Tomohito; Furukawa, Michinobu; Ishitani, Hisashi

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze the most up-to-date data available on total greenhouse-gas emissions of a LNG fuel supply chain and life-cycle of city gas 13A based on surveys of the LNG projects delivering to Japan, which should provide useful basic-data for conducting life-cycle analyses of other product systems as well as future alternative energy systems, because of highly reliable data qualified in terms of its source and representativeness. In addition, the life-cycle greenhouse-gas emissions of LNG and city-gas 13A in 2010 were also predicted, taking into account not only the improvement of technologies, but also the change of composition of LNG projects. As a result of this analysis, the total amount of greenhouse-gas emissions of the whole city-gas 13A chain at present was calculated to be 61.91 g-CO 2 /MJ, and the life-cycle greenhouse-gas emissions of LNG and city-gas 13A in 2010 could be expected to decrease by about 1.1% of the current emissions

  20. Lifecycle optimized ethanol-gasoline blends for turbocharged engines

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Bo; Sarathy, Mani

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a lifecycle (well-to-wheel) analysis to determine the CO2 emissions associated with ethanol blended gasoline in optimized turbocharged engines. This study provides a more accurate assessment on the best-achievable CO2 emission

  1. Life-cycle private costs of hybrid electric vehicles in the current Chinese market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chengtao; Wu, Tian; Ou, Xunmin; Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Xiliang

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the life-cycle private cost (LCPC) of the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is important for market feasibility analysis. An HEV LCPC model was established to evaluate HEV market prospects in China compared with traditional internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEV). The Kluger HV, a full-hybrid HEV sports utility vehicle (SUV), aimed at the Chinese market, was simulated as the 2010 model's technology details were well publicized. The LCPC of the Kluger HV was roughly the same (about 1.06 times) as that of its comparable ICEV (Highlander SUV). This aligns with other compact and midsize HEV cars (e.g., Toyota Prius, Honda Civic and Toyota Camry HEV) in China. With oil prices predicted to rise in the long-term, the advantage of HEVs energy saving will partly compensate the high manufacturing costs associated with their additional motor/battery components. Besides supporting technology development, enabling policy should be implemented to introduce HEV technology into taxi fleets and business cars. This technology's cost-competitiveness, compared with traditional ICEVs, is advantageous for these higher mileage vehicles. - Highlights: ► A model is set up to evaluate the life-cycle private cost of HEVs. ► Life-cycle private costs of HEVs are higher than conventional cars in China. ► HEVs become competitive when the oil price rises

  2. Application of IT-technologies in visualization of innovation project life-cycle stages during the study of the course "Management of innovation projects"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolychev, V. D.; Prokhorov, I. V.

    2017-01-01

    The article presents a methodology for the application of IT-technologies in teaching discipline "Management of innovation projects," which helps students to be more competitive and gather the useful skills for their future specialization in high-tech areas. IT-technologies are widely used nowadays in educational and training spheres especially in knowledge-intensive disciplines such as systems analysis, the theory of games, operations research, theory of risks, innovation management etc. For studying such courses it is necessary to combine both mathematical models and information technology approaches for the clear understanding of the investigated object. That is why this article comprises both the framework of research and the IT-tools for investigation in the educational process. Taking into consideration the importance of the IT-system implementation especially for the university we assume to suggest the methods of research in the area of innovation projects with the help of IT-support.

  3. Methodology for systematic analysis and improvement of manufacturing unit process life-cycle inventory (UPLCI)—CO2PE! initiative (cooperative effort on process emissions in manufacturing). Part 1: Methodology description

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kellens, Karel; Dewulf, Wim; Overcash, Michael

    2012-01-01

    the provision of high-quality data for LCA studies of products using these unit process datasets for the manufacturing processes, as well as the in-depth analysis of individual manufacturing unit processes.In addition, the accruing availability of data for a range of similar machines (same process, different......This report proposes a life-cycle analysis (LCA)-oriented methodology for systematic inventory analysis of the use phase of manufacturing unit processes providing unit process datasets to be used in life-cycle inventory (LCI) databases and libraries. The methodology has been developed...... and resource efficiency improvements of the manufacturing unit process. To ensure optimal reproducibility and applicability, documentation guidelines for data and metadata are included in both approaches. Guidance on definition of functional unit and reference flow as well as on determination of system...

  4. Automation life-cycle cost model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathmann, Thomas P.; Reeves, Arlinda J.; Cline, Rick; Henrion, Max; Ruokangas, Corinne

    1992-01-01

    The problem domain being addressed by this contractual effort can be summarized by the following list: Automation and Robotics (A&R) technologies appear to be viable alternatives to current, manual operations; Life-cycle cost models are typically judged with suspicion due to implicit assumptions and little associated documentation; and Uncertainty is a reality for increasingly complex problems and few models explicitly account for its affect on the solution space. The objectives for this effort range from the near-term (1-2 years) to far-term (3-5 years). In the near-term, the envisioned capabilities of the modeling tool are annotated. In addition, a framework is defined and developed in the Decision Modelling System (DEMOS) environment. Our approach is summarized as follows: Assess desirable capabilities (structure into near- and far-term); Identify useful existing models/data; Identify parameters for utility analysis; Define tool framework; Encode scenario thread for model validation; and Provide transition path for tool development. This report contains all relevant, technical progress made on this contractual effort.

  5. Societal lifecycle costs of cars with alternative fuels/engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogden, Joan M.; Williams, Robert H.; Larson, Eric D.

    2004-01-01

    Effectively addressing concerns about air pollution (especially health impacts of small-particle air pollution), climate change, and oil supply insecurity will probably require radical changes in automotive engine/fuel technologies in directions that offer both the potential for achieving near-zero emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases and a diversification of the transport fuel system away from its present exclusive dependence on petroleum. The basis for comparing alternative automotive engine/fuel options in evolving toward these goals in the present analysis is the 'societal lifecycle cost' of transportation, including the vehicle first cost (assuming large-scale mass production), fuel costs (assuming a fully developed fuel infrastructure), externality costs for oil supply security, and damage costs for emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases calculated over the full fuel cycle. Several engine/fuel options are considered--including current gasoline internal combustion engines and a variety of advanced lightweight vehicles: internal combustion engine vehicles fueled with gasoline or hydrogen; internal combustion engine/hybrid electric vehicles fueled with gasoline, compressed natural gas, Diesel, Fischer-Tropsch liquids or hydrogen; and fuel cell vehicles fueled with gasoline, methanol or hydrogen (from natural gas, coal or wind power). To account for large uncertainties inherent in the analysis (for example in environmental damage costs, in oil supply security costs and in projected mass-produced costs of future vehicles), lifecycle costs are estimated for a range of possible future conditions. Under base-case conditions, several advanced options have roughly comparable lifecycle costs that are lower than for today's conventional gasoline internal combustion engine cars, when environmental and oil supply insecurity externalities are counted--including advanced gasoline internal combustion engine cars, internal combustion engine

  6. Life-Cycle Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis for Bio-Liquid Jet Fuel from Open Pond-Based Micro-Algae under China Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiliang Zhang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A life-cycle analysis (LCA of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and energy use was performed to study bio-jet fuel (BJF production from micro-algae grown in open ponds under Chinese conditions using the Tsinghua University LCA Model (TLCAM. Attention was paid to energy recovery through biogas production and cogeneration of heat and power (CHP from the residual biomass after oil extraction, including fugitive methane (CH4 emissions during the production of biogas and nitrous oxide (N2O emissions during the use of digestate (solid residue from anaerobic digestion as agricultural fertilizer. Analyses were performed based on examination of process parameters, mass balance conditions, material requirement, energy consumptions and the realities of energy supply and transport in China (i.e., electricity generation and heat supply primarily based on coal, multiple transport modes. Our LCA result of the BJF pathway showed that, compared with the traditional petrochemical pathway, this new pathway will increase the overall fossil energy use and carbon emission by 39% and 70%, respectively, while decrease petroleum consumption by about 84%, based on the same units of energy service. Moreover, the energy conservation and emission reduction benefit of this new pathway may be accomplished by two sets of approaches: wider adoption of low-carbon process fuels and optimization of algae cultivation and harvest, and oil extraction processes.

  7. Supply Chain Sustainability Analysis of Renewable Hydrocarbon Fuels via Indirect Liquefaction, Fast Pyrolysis, and Hydrothermal Liquefaction: Update of the 2016 State-of-Technology Cases and Design Cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Hao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States; Dunn, Jennifer [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States; Pegallapati, Ambica [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States; Li, Qianfeng [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States; Canter, Christina [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States; Tan, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Biddy, Mary [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Davis, Ryan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Markham, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Talmadge, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hartley, Damon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Thompson, David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Meyer, Pimphan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhu, Yunhua [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Snowden-Swan, Lesley [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jones, Susanne [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) aims to develop and deploy technologies to transform renewable biomass resources into commercially viable, high-performance biofuels, bioproducts and biopower through public and private partnerships (DOE, 2016). BETO and its national laboratory teams conduct in-depth technoeconomic assessments (TEA) of biomass feedstock supply and logistics and conversion technologies to produce biofuels, and life-cycle analysis of overall system sustainability.

  8. Consideration of black carbon and primary organic carbon emissions in life-cycle analysis of Greenhouse gas emissions of vehicle systems and fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hao; Wang, Michael Q

    2014-10-21

    The climate impact assessment of vehicle/fuel systems may be incomplete without considering short-lived climate forcers of black carbon (BC) and primary organic carbon (POC). We quantified life-cycle BC and POC emissions of a large variety of vehicle/fuel systems with an expanded Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation model developed at Argonne National Laboratory. Life-cycle BC and POC emissions have small impacts on life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of gasoline, diesel, and other fuel vehicles, but would add 34, 16, and 16 g CO2 equivalent (CO2e)/mile, or 125, 56, and 56 g CO2e/mile with the 100 or 20 year Global Warming Potentials of BC and POC emissions, respectively, for vehicles fueled with corn stover-, willow tree-, and Brazilian sugarcane-derived ethanol, mostly due to BC- and POC-intensive biomass-fired boilers in cellulosic and sugarcane ethanol plants for steam and electricity production, biomass open burning in sugarcane fields, and diesel-powered agricultural equipment for biomass feedstock production/harvest. As a result, life-cycle GHG emission reduction potentials of these ethanol types, though still significant, are reduced from those without considering BC and POC emissions. These findings, together with a newly expanded GREET version, help quantify the previously unknown impacts of BC and POC emissions on life-cycle GHG emissions of U.S. vehicle/fuel systems.

  9. Science foresight using life-cycle analysis, text mining and clustering : a case study on natural ventilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rezaeian, M.; Montazeri, H.; Loonen, R.C.G.M.

    2017-01-01

    Science foresight comprises a range of methods to analyze past, present and expected research trends, and uses this information to predict the future status of different fields of science and technology. With the ability to identify high-potential development directions, science foresight can be a

  10. Analysis of current research addressing complementary use of life-cycle assessment and risk assessment for engineered nanomaterials: have lessons been learned from previous experience with chemicals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grieger, Khara Deanne; Laurent, Alexis; Miseljic, Mirko

    2012-01-01

    of research focused on applying LCA and RA together for NM, it appears that current research efforts have taken into account some key ‘‘lessons learned’’ from previous experience with chemicals while many key challenges remain for practically applying these methods to NM. We identified two main approaches...... for using these methods together for NM: ‘‘LC-based RA’’ (traditional RA applied in a life-cycle perspective) and ‘‘RA-complemented LCA’’ (conventional LCA supplemented by RA in specific life-cycle steps). Hence, the latter is the only identified approach which genuinely combines LC- and RA-based methods......While it is generally agreed that successful strategies to address the health and environmental impacts of engineered nanomaterials (NM) should consider the well-established frameworks for conducting life-cycle assessment (LCA) and risk assessment (RA), scientific research, and specific guidance...

  11. Textile Technology Analysis Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Textile Analysis Labis built for evaluating and characterizing the physical properties of an array of textile materials, but specifically those used in aircrew...

  12. Nuclear Proliferation Technology Trends Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zentner, Michael D.; Coles, Garill A.; Talbert, Robert J.

    2005-10-04

    A process is underway to develop mature, integrated methodologies to address nonproliferation issues. A variety of methodologies (both qualitative and quantitative) are being considered. All have one thing in common, a need for a consistent set of proliferation related data that can be used as a basis for application. One approach to providing a basis for predicting and evaluating future proliferation events is to understand past proliferation events, that is, the different paths that have actually been taken to acquire or attempt to acquire special nuclear material. In order to provide this information, this report describing previous material acquisition activities (obtained from open source material) has been prepared. This report describes how, based on an evaluation of historical trends in nuclear technology development, conclusions can be reached concerning: (1) The length of time it takes to acquire a technology; (2) The length of time it takes for production of special nuclear material to begin; and (3) The type of approaches taken for acquiring the technology. In addition to examining time constants, the report is intended to provide information that could be used to support the use of the different non-proliferation analysis methodologies. Accordingly, each section includes: (1) Technology description; (2) Technology origin; (3) Basic theory; (4) Important components/materials; (5) Technology development; (6) Technological difficulties involved in use; (7) Changes/improvements in technology; (8) Countries that have used/attempted to use the technology; (9) Technology Information; (10) Acquisition approaches; (11) Time constants for technology development; and (12) Required Concurrent Technologies.

  13. Life-Cycle Analysis of Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Water Consumption in the 2016 MYPP Algal Biofuel Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, Edward; Pegallapati, Ambica; Davis, Ryan; Markham, Jennifer; Coleman, Andre; Jones, Sue; Wigmosta, Mark; Zhu, Yunhua

    2016-06-16

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) Multi-year Program Plan (MYPP) describes the bioenergy objectives pursued by BETO, the strategies for achieving those objectives, the current state of technology (SOT), and a number of design cases that explore cost and operational performance required to advance the SOT towards middle and long term goals (MYPP, 2016). Two options for converting algae to biofuel intermediates were considered in the MYPP, namely algal biofuel production via lipid extraction and algal biofuel production by thermal processing. The first option, lipid extraction, is represented by the Combined Algae Processing (CAP) pathway in which algae are hydrolyzed in a weak acid pretreatment step. The treated slurry is fermented for ethanol production from sugars. The fermentation stillage contains most of the lipids from the original biomass, which are recovered through wet solvent extraction. The process residuals after lipid extraction, which contain much of the original mass of amino acids and proteins, are directed to anaerobic digestion (AD) for biogas production and recycle of N and P nutrients. The second option, thermal processing, comprises direct hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of the wet biomass, separation of aqueous, gas, and oil phases, and treatment of the aqueous phase with catalytic hydrothermal gasification (CHG) to produce biogas and to recover N and P nutrients.

  14. An analysis of the dynamics of activity and travel needs in response to social network and life-cycle dynamics : a structural equation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharmeen, F.; Arentze, T.A.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Several studies in transportation literature have shown that in the short-term social networks play an important role in discretionary activity and travel decisions of an individual. However, social networks may not remain unchanged in the long term, particularly in response to life-cycle events

  15. Hybrid wind–photovoltaic–diesel–battery system sizing tool development using empirical approach, life-cycle cost and performance analysis: A case study in Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan, Leong Kit; Shek, Jonathan K.H.; Mueller, Markus A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Methods of sizing a hybrid wind–photovoltaic–diesel–battery system is described. • The hybrid system components are modelled using empirical data. • Twenty years lifecycle cost of the hybrid system is considered. • The trade-offs between battery storage capacity and diesel fuel usage is studied. • A hybrid system sizing tool has been developed as a graphical user interface (GUI). - Abstract: The concept of off-grid hybrid wind energy system is financially attractive and more reliable than stand-alone power systems since it is based on more than one electricity generation source. One of the most expensive components in a stand-alone wind-power system is the energy storage system as very often it is oversized to increase system autonomy. In this work, we consider a hybrid system which consists of wind turbines, photovoltaic panels, diesel generator and battery storage. One of the main challenges experienced by project managers is the sizing of components for different sites. This challenge is due to the variability of the renewable energy resource and the load demand for different sites. This paper introduces a sizing model that has been developed and implemented as a graphical user interface, which predicts the optimum configuration of a hybrid system. In particular, this paper focuses on seeking the optimal size of the batteries and the diesel generator usage. Both of these components are seen to be trade-offs from each other. The model simulates real time operation of the hybrid system, using the annual measured hourly wind speed and solar irradiation. The benefit of using time series approach is that it reflects a more realistic situation; here, the peaks and troughs of the renewable energy resource are a central part of the sizing model. Finally, load sensitivity and hybrid system performance analysis are demonstrated.

  16. Life-Cycle Cost and Risk Analysis of Alternative Configurations for Shipping Low-Level Radioactive Waste to the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PM Daling; SB Ross; BM Biwer

    1999-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is a major receiver of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) for disposal. Currently, all LLW received at NTS is shipped by truck. The trucks use highway routes to NTS that pass through the Las Vegas Valley and over Hoover Dam, which is a concern of local stakeholder groups in the State of Nevada. Rail service offers the opportunity to reduce transportation risks and costs, according to the Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM-PEIS). However, NTS and some DOE LLW generator sites are not served with direct rail service so intermodal transport is under consideration. Intermodal transport involves transport via two modes, in this case truck and rail, from the generator sites to NTS. LLW shipping containers would be transferred between trucks and railcars at intermodal transfer points near the LLW generator sites, NTS, or both. An Environmental Assessment (EA)for Intermodal Transportation of Low-Level Radioactive Waste to the Nevada Test Site (referred to as the NTSIntermodal -M) has been prepared to determine whether there are environmental impacts to alterations to the current truck routing or use of intermodal facilities within the State of Nevada. However, an analysis of the potential impacts outside the State of Nevada are not addressed in the NTS Intermodal EA. This study examines the rest of the transportation network between LLW generator sites and the NTS and evaluates the costs, risks, and feasibility of integrating intermodal shipments into the LLW transportation system. This study evaluates alternative transportation system configurations for NTS approved and potential generators based on complex-wide LLW load information. Technical judgments relative to the availability of DOE LLW generators to ship from their sites by rail were developed. Public and worker risk and life-cycle cost components are quantified. The study identifies and evaluates alternative scenarios that increase the use of rail (intermodal

  17. Life-Cycle Cost and Risk Analysis of Alternative Configurations for Shipping Low-Level Radioactive Waste to the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PM Daling; SB Ross; BM Biwer

    1999-12-17

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is a major receiver of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) for disposal. Currently, all LLW received at NTS is shipped by truck. The trucks use highway routes to NTS that pass through the Las Vegas Valley and over Hoover Dam, which is a concern of local stakeholder groups in the State of Nevada. Rail service offers the opportunity to reduce transportation risks and costs, according to the Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM-PEIS). However, NTS and some DOE LLW generator sites are not served with direct rail service so intermodal transport is under consideration. Intermodal transport involves transport via two modes, in this case truck and rail, from the generator sites to NTS. LLW shipping containers would be transferred between trucks and railcars at intermodal transfer points near the LLW generator sites, NTS, or both. An Environmental Assessment (EA)for Intermodal Transportation of Low-Level Radioactive Waste to the Nevada Test Site (referred to as the NTSIntermodal -M) has been prepared to determine whether there are environmental impacts to alterations to the current truck routing or use of intermodal facilities within the State of Nevada. However, an analysis of the potential impacts outside the State of Nevada are not addressed in the NTS Intermodal EA. This study examines the rest of the transportation network between LLW generator sites and the NTS and evaluates the costs, risks, and feasibility of integrating intermodal shipments into the LLW transportation system. This study evaluates alternative transportation system configurations for NTS approved and potential generators based on complex-wide LLW load information. Technical judgments relative to the availability of DOE LLW generators to ship from their sites by rail were developed. Public and worker risk and life-cycle cost components are quantified. The study identifies and evaluates alternative scenarios that increase the use of rail (intermodal

  18. Advancing cloud lifecycle representation in numerical models using innovative analysis methods that bridge arm observations over a breadth of scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tselioudis, George [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2016-03-04

    From its location on the subtropics-midlatitude boundary, the Azores is influenced by both the subtropical high pressure and the midlatitude baroclinic storm regimes, and therefore experiences a wide range of cloud structures, from fair-weather scenes to stratocumulus sheets to deep convective systems. This project combined three types of data sets to study cloud variability in the Azores: a satellite analysis of cloud regimes, a reanalysis characterization of storminess, and a 19-month field campaign that occurred on Graciosa Island. Combined analysis of the three data sets provides a detailed picture of cloud variability and the respective dynamic influences, with emphasis on low clouds that constitute a major uncertainty source in climate model simulations. The satellite cloud regime analysis shows that the Azores cloud distribution is similar to the mean global distribution and can therefore be used to evaluate cloud simulation in global models. Regime analysis of low clouds shows that stratocumulus decks occur under the influence of the Azores high-pressure system, while shallow cumulus clouds are sustained by cold-air outbreaks, as revealed by their preference for post-frontal environments and northwesterly flows. An evaluation of CMIP5 climate model cloud regimes over the Azores shows that all models severely underpredict shallow cumulus clouds, while most models also underpredict the occurrence of stratocumulus cloud decks. It is demonstrated that carefully selected case studies can be related through regime analysis to climatological cloud distributions, and a methodology is suggested utilizing process-resolving model simulations of individual cases to better understand cloud-dynamics interactions and attempt to explain and correct climate model cloud deficiencies.

  19. Scenario analysis on alternative fuel/vehicle for China's future road transport: Life-cycle energy demand and GHG emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou Xunmin; Zhang Xiliang; Chang Shiyan

    2010-01-01

    The rapid growth of vehicles has resulted in continuing growth in China's oil demand. This paper analyzes future trends of both direct and life cycle energy demand (ED) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in China's road transport sector, and assesses the effectiveness of possible reduction measures by using alternative vehicles/fuels. A model is developed to derive a historical trend and to project future trends. The government is assumed to do nothing additional in the future to influence the long-term trends in the business as usual (BAU) scenario. Four specific scenarios are used to describe the future cases where different alternative fuel/vehicles are applied. The best case scenario is set to represent the most optimized case. Direct ED and GHG emissions would reach 734 million tonnes of oil equivalent and 2384 million tonnes carbon dioxide equivalent by 2050 in the BAU case, respectively, more than 5.6 times of 2007 levels. Compared with the BAU case, the relative reductions achieved in the best case would be 15.8% and 27.6% for life cycle ED and GHG emissions, respectively. It is suggested for future policy implementation to support sustainable biofuel and high efficient electric-vehicles, and the deployment of coal-based fuels accompanied with low-carbon technology.

  20. Aqueous nitrate waste treatment: Technology comparison, cost/benefit, and market analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide information necessary for the Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate the practical utility of the Nitrate to Ammonia and Ceramic or Glass (NAC/NAG/NAX) process, which is under development in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The NAC/NACx/NAX process can convert aqueous radioactive nitrate-laden waste to a glass, ceramic, or grout solid waste form. The tasks include, but are not limited to, the following: Identify current commercial technologies to meet hazardous and radiological waste disposal requirements. The technologies may be thermal or non-thermal but must be all inclusive (i.e., must convert a radionuclide-containing nitrate waste with a pH around 12 to a stable form that can be disposed at permitted facilities); evaluate and compare DOE-sponsored vitrification, grouting, and minimum additive waste stabilization projects for life-cycle costs; compare the technologies above with respect to material costs, capital equipment costs, operating costs, and operating efficiencies. For the NAC/NAG/NAX process, assume aluminum reactant is government furnished and ammonia gas may be marketed; compare the identified technologies with respect to frequency of use within DOE for environmental management applications with appropriate rationale for use; Assess the potential size of the DOE market for the NAC/NAG/NAX process; assess and off-gas issues; and compare with international technologies, including life-cycle estimates.

  1. Aqueous nitrate waste treatment: Technology comparison, cost/benefit, and market analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide information necessary for the Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate the practical utility of the Nitrate to Ammonia and Ceramic or Glass (NAC/NAG/NAX) process, which is under development in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The NAC/NACx/NAX process can convert aqueous radioactive nitrate-laden waste to a glass, ceramic, or grout solid waste form. The tasks include, but are not limited to, the following: Identify current commercial technologies to meet hazardous and radiological waste disposal requirements. The technologies may be thermal or non-thermal but must be all inclusive (i.e., must convert a radionuclide-containing nitrate waste with a pH around 12 to a stable form that can be disposed at permitted facilities); evaluate and compare DOE-sponsored vitrification, grouting, and minimum additive waste stabilization projects for life-cycle costs; compare the technologies above with respect to material costs, capital equipment costs, operating costs, and operating efficiencies. For the NAC/NAG/NAX process, assume aluminum reactant is government furnished and ammonia gas may be marketed; compare the identified technologies with respect to frequency of use within DOE for environmental management applications with appropriate rationale for use; Assess the potential size of the DOE market for the NAC/NAG/NAX process; assess and off-gas issues; and compare with international technologies, including life-cycle estimates

  2. New technologies for DNA analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGinn, Steven; Bauer, David; Brefort, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The REvolutionary Approaches and Devices for Nucleic Acid analysis (READNA) project received funding from the European Commission for 4 1/2 years. The objectives of the project revolved around technological developments in nucleic acid analysis. The project partners have discovered, created and d...

  3. An autonomous strain-based Structural Monitoring Framework for Life-Cycle Analysis of a Novel Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus Emre Harmanci

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, developed societies have largely adopted smart systems operating on the basis of information extracted from data. For infrastructure systems as well, Structural Health Monitoring (SHM has long advocated a data-driven scheme for facilitating the operation and maintenance of infrastructure. In materializing such a goal, this paper demonstrates the procedures and outcomes of a SHM framework employed on an unconventional structure, namely the recently built Kaeng Krachan Elephant Shelter at the Zurich Zoo, relying on a deployed set of Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG strain sensors. The structure comprises an 80 meter span free-form timber-composite cupola, carried by a post-tensioned reinforced concrete (RC ring. FBG strain sensors are embedded into the ring in close vicinity to critical regions, selected in collaboration with the design engineers. The continuously acquired strain data is then exploited for extraction of performance indicators, relying on implementation of output-only identification methodologies. To this end, a non-parametric and a parametric output-only method, namely a Principal Component Analysis (PCA scheme versus a Vector AutoRegressive (VAR model, are employed and compared. Pre-conditioning of the predictive model is performed on the healthy, or undamaged, state of the structure, and the misfit between model predictions and subsequent measurements is exploited as a damage precursor. The VAR scheme proves in this case a more robust representation of the measured strains, when compared against PCA, as a result of its inherent feature of memory.

  4. The DCC Curation Lifecycle Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Higgins

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Lifecycle management of digital materials is necessary to ensure their continuity. The DCC Curation Lifecycle Model has been developed as a generic, curation-specific, tool which can be used, in conjunction with relevant standards, to plan curation and preservation activities to different levels of granularity. The DCC will use the model: as a training tool for data creators, data curators and data users; to organise and plan their resources; and to help organisations identify risks to their digital assets and plan management strategies for their successful curation.

  5. Life-cycle assessment of textiles manufacture of polyester shirt (VB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Othman, Samer; Peter, Oduro Justice; Hassan, Osama

    1998-01-01

    According to the EDIP (Environmental Design of Industrial Products), It is made possible to perform resource and environmental profile analysis of the 100% polyester shirt. In order to understand the true life-cycle consequences, life-cycle analysis of a typical 100% polyester shirt was carried out...

  6. Introduction to the ITIL service lifecycle

    CERN Document Server

    , AXELOS

    2012-01-01

    Introduction to the ITIL Service Lifecycle' introduces IT service management and ITIL. It summarises the best practices described in the 2011 editions' core guidance, explaining the basic concepts of ITIL and providing information on each stage of the service lifecycle.

  7. A life-cycle approach to technology, infrastructure, and climate policy decision making: Transitioning to plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and low-carbon electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaras, Constantine

    cycle assessment to evaluate options and opportunities for large GHG reductions from plug-in hybrids. After the options and uncertainties are framed, engineering economic analysis is used to evaluate the policy actions required for adoption of PHEVs at scale and the implications for low-carbon electricity investments. A logistic PHEV adoption model is constructed to parameterize implications for low-carbon electricity infrastructure investments and climate policy. This thesis concludes with an examination of what lessons can be learned for climate, innovation, and low-carbon energy policies from the evolution of wind power from an emerging alternative energy technology to a utility-scale power source. Policies to promote PHEVs and other emerging energy technologies can take lessons learned from the successes and challenges of wind power's development to optimize low-carbon energy policy and R&D programs going forward. The need for integrated climate policy, energy policy, sustainability, and urban mobility solutions will accelerate in the next two decades as concerns regarding GHG emissions and petroleum resources continue to be environmental and economic priorities. To assist in informing the discussions on climate policy and low-carbon energy R&D, this research and its methods will provide stakeholders in government and industry with plug-in hybrid and energy policy choices based on life cycle assessment, engineering economics, and systems analysis.

  8. Plant stress analysis technology deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Monitoring vegetation is an active area of laser-induced fluorescence imaging (LIFI) research. The Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University (FIU) is assisting in the transfer of the LIFI technology to the agricultural private sector through a market survey. The market survey will help identify the key eco-agricultural issues of the nations that could benefit from the use of sensor technologies developed by the Office of Science and Technology (OST). The principal region of interest is the Western Hemisphere, particularly, the rapidly growing countries of Latin America and the Caribbean. The analysis of needs will assure that the focus of present and future research will center on economically important issues facing both hemispheres. The application of the technology will be useful to the agriculture industry for airborne crop analysis as well as in the detection and characterization of contaminated sites by monitoring vegetation. LIFI airborne and close-proximity systems will be evaluated as stand-alone technologies and additions to existing sensor technologies that have been used to monitor crops in the field and in storage.

  9. Lifecycle cost assessment and carbon dioxide emissions of diesel, natural gas, hybrid electric, fuel cell hybrid and electric transit buses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lajunen, Antti; Lipman, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    This paper evaluates the lifecycle costs and carbon dioxide emissions of different types of city buses. The simulation models of the different powertrains were developed in the Autonomie vehicle simulation software. The carbon dioxide emissions were calculated both for the bus operation and for the fuel and energy pathways from well to tank. Two different operating environment case scenarios were used for the primary energy sources, which were Finland and California (USA). The fuel and energy pathways were selected appropriately in relation to the operating environment. The lifecycle costs take into account the purchase, operating, maintenance, and possible carbon emission costs. Based on the simulation results, the energy efficiency of city buses can be significantly improved by the alternative powertrain technologies. Hybrid buses have moderately lower carbon dioxide emissions during the service life than diesel buses whereas fully-electric buses have potential to significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions, by up to 75%. The lifecycle cost analysis indicates that diesel hybrid buses are already competitive with diesel and natural gas buses. The high costs of fuel cell and battery systems are the major challenges for the fuel cell hybrid buses in order to reduce lifecycle costs to more competitive levels. - Highlights: • Alternative powertrains can significantly improve energy efficiency of transit buses. • Operating environment has an important impact on the lifecycle costs of buses. • Diesel hybrid buses are already cost effective solution for public transportation. • The cost of fuel cell technology is the major challenge for fuel cell hybrid buses. • Fully-electric buses have potential to significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions.

  10. RNA-Seq analysis validates the use of culture-derived Trypanosoma brucei and provides new markers for mammalian and insect life-cycle stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naguleswaran, Arunasalam; Doiron, Nicholas; Roditi, Isabel

    2018-04-02

    Trypanosoma brucei brucei, the parasite causing Nagana in domestic animals, is closely related to the parasites causing sleeping sickness, but does not infect humans. In addition to its importance as a pathogen, the relative ease of genetic manipulation and an innate capacity for RNAi extend its use as a model organism in cell and infection biology. During its development in its mammalian and insect (tsetse fly) hosts, T. b. brucei passes through several different life-cycle stages. There are currently four life-cycle stages that can be cultured: slender forms and stumpy forms, which are equivalent to forms found in the mammal, and early and late procyclic forms, which are equivalent to forms in the tsetse midgut. Early procyclic forms show coordinated group movement (social motility) on semi-solid surfaces, whereas late procyclic forms do not. RNA-Seq was performed on biological replicates of each life-cycle stage. These constitute the first datasets for culture-derived slender and stumpy bloodstream forms and early and late procyclic forms. Expression profiles confirmed that genes known to be stage-regulated in the animal and insect hosts were also regulated in culture. Sequence reads of 100-125 bases provided sufficient precision to uncover differential expression of closely related genes. More than 100 transcripts showed peak expression in stumpy forms, including adenylate cyclases and several components of inositol metabolism. Early and late procyclic forms showed differential expression of 73 transcripts, a number of which encoded proteins that were previously shown to be stage-regulated. Moreover, two adenylate cyclases previously shown to reduce social motility are up-regulated in late procyclic forms. This study validates the use of cultured bloodstream forms as alternatives to animal-derived parasites and yields new markers for all four stages. In addition to underpinning recent findings that early and late procyclic forms are distinct life-cycle stages

  11. Molasses for ethanol: the economic and environmental impacts of a new pathway for the lifecycle greenhouse gas analysis of sugarcane ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopal, Anand R; Kammen, Daniel M

    2009-01-01

    Many biofuel standards, including California's recently adopted low carbon fuel standard, consider just one feedstock from one supplying country for the production of sugarcane ethanol: fresh mill-pressed cane juice from a Brazilian factory. While cane juice is the dominant feedstock for ethanol in most Brazilian factories, a large number of producers in Indonesia, India, and the Caribbean, and a significant number in Brazil, manufacture most of their ethanol from molasses, a low value co-product of raw sugar. Several producers in these countries have the capacity to export ethanol to California, but the GREET (from: greenhouse gas, regulated emissions and energy use in transportation) model, which is the LCA (lifecycle assessment) model of choice for most biofuel regulators including California, does not currently include this production pathway. We develop a modification to GREET to account for this pathway. We use the upstream and process lifecycle results from the existing GREET model for Brazilian ethanol to derive lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions for ethanol manufactured from any combination of molasses and fresh cane juice. We find that ethanol manufactured with only molasses as a feedstock with all other processes and inputs identical to those of the average Brazilian mill has a lifecycle GHG (greenhouse gas) rating of 15.1 gCO 2 - eq MJ -1 , which is significantly lower than the current California-GREET assigned rating of 26.6 gCO 2 - eq MJ -1 . Our model can be applied at any level of granulation from the individual factory to an industry-wide average. We examine some ways in which current sugarcane producers could inaccurately claim this molasses credit. We discuss methods for addressing this in regulation.

  12. Life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of shale gas, natural gas, coal, and petroleum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Andrew; Han, Jeongwoo; Clark, Corrie E; Wang, Michael; Dunn, Jennifer B; Palou-Rivera, Ignasi

    2012-01-17

    The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. It has been debated whether the fugitive methane emissions during natural gas production and transmission outweigh the lower carbon dioxide emissions during combustion when compared to coal and petroleum. Using the current state of knowledge of methane emissions from shale gas, conventional natural gas, coal, and petroleum, we estimated up-to-date life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we developed distribution functions for key parameters in each pathway to examine uncertainty and identify data gaps such as methane emissions from shale gas well completions and conventional natural gas liquid unloadings that need to be further addressed. Our base case results show that shale gas life-cycle emissions are 6% lower than conventional natural gas, 23% lower than gasoline, and 33% lower than coal. However, the range in values for shale and conventional gas overlap, so there is a statistical uncertainty whether shale gas emissions are indeed lower than conventional gas. Moreover, this life-cycle analysis, among other work in this area, provides insight on critical stages that the natural gas industry and government agencies can work together on to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas.

  13. Environmental impact assessment of european non-ferro mining industries through life-cycle assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisan Farjana, Shahjadi; Huda, Nazmul; Parvez Mahmud, M. A.

    2018-05-01

    European mining industries are the vast industrial sector which contributes largely on their economy which constitutes of ferro and non-ferro metals and minerals industries. The non-ferro metals extraction and processing industries require focus of attention due to sustainability concerns as their manufacturing processes are highly energy intensive and impacts globally on environment. This paper analyses major environmental effects caused by European metal industries based on the life-cycle impact analysis technologies. This research work is the first work in considering the comparative environmental impact analysis of European non-ferro metal industries which will reveal their technological similarities and dissimilarities to assess their environmental loads. The life-cycle inventory datasets are collected from the EcoInvent database while the analysis is done using the CML baseline and ReCipe endpoint method using SimaPro software version 8.4. The CML and ReCipe method are chosen because they are specialized impact assessment methods for European continent. The impact categories outlined for discussion here are human health, global warming and ecotoxicity. The analysis results reveal that the gold industry is vulnerable for the environment due to waste emission and similar result retained by silver mines a little bit. But copper, lead, manganese and zinc mining processes and industries are environment friendly in terms of metal extraction technologies and waste emissions.

  14. Life-cycle impacts from novel thorium–uranium-fuelled nuclear energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashley, S.F.; Fenner, R.A.; Nuttall, W.J.; Parks, G.T.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • LCA performed for three open cycle Th–U-fuelled nuclear energy systems. • LCA for open cycle U-fuelled nuclear energy system (Areva’s EPR) used as benchmark. • U-fuelled EPR had lowest emissions per kWh over all systems studied in this work. • LCA model developed for thorium recovered from monazitic beach sands. • LCA model developed for the production of heavy water. - Abstract: Electricity generated from nuclear power plants is generally associated with low emissions per kWh generated, an aspect that feeds into the wider debate surrounding nuclear power. This paper seeks to investigate how life-cycle emissions would be affected by including thorium in the nuclear fuel cycle, and in particular its inclusion in technologies that could prospectively operate open Th–U-based nuclear fuel cycles. Three potential Th–U-based systems operating with open nuclear fuel cycles are considered: AREVA’s European Pressurised Reactor; India’s Advanced Heavy Water Reactor; and General Atomics’ Gas-Turbine Modular Helium Reactor. These technologies are compared to a reference U-fuelled European Pressurised Reactor. A life-cycle analysis is performed that considers the construction, operation, and decommissioning of each of the reactor technologies and all of the other associated facilities in the open nuclear fuel cycle. This includes the development of life-cycle analysis models to describe the extraction of thorium from monazitic beach sands and for the production of heavy water. The results of the life-cycle impact analysis highlight that the reference U-fuelled system has the lowest overall emissions per kWh generated, predominantly due to having the second-lowest uranium ore requirement per kWh generated. The results highlight that the requirement for mined or recovered uranium (and thorium) ore is the greatest overall contributor to emissions, with the possible exception of nuclear energy systems that require heavy water. In terms of like

  15. Lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions of coal, conventional and unconventional natural gas for electricity generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    An analysis of the lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with natural gas use recently published by Howarth et al. (2011) stated that use of natural gas produced from shale formations via hydraulic fracturing would generate greater lifecycle GHG emissions than petro...

  16. Life-Cycle environmental impact assessment of mineral industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisan Farjana, Shahjadi; Huda, Nazmul; Parvez Mahmud, M. A.

    2018-05-01

    Mining is the extraction and processing of valuable ferro and non-ferro metals and minerals to be further used in manufacturing industries. Valuable metals and minerals are extracted from the geological deposits and ores deep in the surface through complex manufacturing technologies. The extraction and processing of mining industries involve particle emission to air or water, toxicity to the environment, contamination of water resources, ozone layer depletion and most importantly decay of human health. Despite all these negative impacts towards sustainability, mining industries are working throughout the world to facilitate the employment sector, economy and technological growth. The five most important miners in the world are South Africa, Russia, Australia, Ukraine, Guinea. The mining industries contributes to their GDP significantly. However, the most important issue is making the mining world sustainable thus reducing the emissions. To address the environmental impacts caused by the mining sectors, this paper is going to analyse the environmental impacts caused by the 5 major minerals extraction processes, which are bauxite, ilmenite, iron ore, rutile and uranium by using the life-cycle impact assessment technologies. The analysis is done here using SimaPro software version 8.4 using ReCipe, CML and Australian indicator method.

  17. The LifeCycle model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krink, Thiemo; Løvbjerg, Morten

    2002-01-01

    genetic algorithms (GAs), particle swarm optimisation (PSOs), and stochastic hill climbing to create a generally well-performing search heuristics. In the LifeCycle model, we consider candidate solutions and their fitness as individuals, which, based on their recent search progress, can decide to become...... either a GA individual, a particle of a PSO, or a single stochastic hill climber. First results from a comparison of our new approach with the single search algorithms indicate a generally good performance in numerical optimization....

  18. Advanced nuclear energy analysis technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauntt, Randall O.; Murata, Kenneth K.; Romero, Vicente Josce; Young, Michael Francis; Rochau, Gary Eugene

    2004-01-01

    A two-year effort focused on applying ASCI technology developed for the analysis of weapons systems to the state-of-the-art accident analysis of a nuclear reactor system was proposed. The Sandia SIERRA parallel computing platform for ASCI codes includes high-fidelity thermal, fluids, and structural codes whose coupling through SIERRA can be specifically tailored to the particular problem at hand to analyze complex multiphysics problems. Presently, however, the suite lacks several physics modules unique to the analysis of nuclear reactors. The NRC MELCOR code, not presently part of SIERRA, was developed to analyze severe accidents in present-technology reactor systems. We attempted to: (1) evaluate the SIERRA code suite for its current applicability to the analysis of next generation nuclear reactors, and the feasibility of implementing MELCOR models into the SIERRA suite, (2) examine the possibility of augmenting ASCI codes or alternatives by coupling to the MELCOR code, or portions thereof, to address physics particular to nuclear reactor issues, especially those facing next generation reactor designs, and (3) apply the coupled code set to a demonstration problem involving a nuclear reactor system. We were successful in completing the first two in sufficient detail to determine that an extensive demonstration problem was not feasible at this time. In the future, completion of this research would demonstrate the feasibility of performing high fidelity and rapid analyses of safety and design issues needed to support the development of next generation power reactor systems

  19. The Data Warehouse Lifecycle Toolkit

    CERN Document Server

    Kimball, Ralph; Thornthwaite, Warren; Mundy, Joy; Becker, Bob

    2011-01-01

    A thorough update to the industry standard for designing, developing, and deploying data warehouse and business intelligence systemsThe world of data warehousing has changed remarkably since the first edition of The Data Warehouse Lifecycle Toolkit was published in 1998. In that time, the data warehouse industry has reached full maturity and acceptance, hardware and software have made staggering advances, and the techniques promoted in the premiere edition of this book have been adopted by nearly all data warehouse vendors and practitioners. In addition, the term "business intelligence" emerge

  20. A Patent Analysis for Sustainable Technology Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhyeog Choi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Technology analysis (TA is an important issue in the management of technology. Most R&D (Research & Development policies have depended on diverse TA results. Traditional TA results have been obtained through qualitative approaches such as the Delphi expert survey, scenario analysis, or technology road mapping. Although they are representative methods for TA, they are not stable because their results are dependent on the experts’ knowledge and subjective experience. To solve this problem, recently many studies on TA have been focused on quantitative approaches, such as patent analysis. A patent document has diverse information of developed technologies, and thus, patent is one form of objective data for TA. In addition, sustainable technology has been a big issue in the TA fields, because most companies have their technological competitiveness through the sustainable technology. Sustainable technology is a technology keeping the technological superiority of a company. So a country as well as a company should consider sustainable technology for technological competition and continuous economic growth. Also it is important to manage sustainable technology in a given technology domain. In this paper, we propose a new patent analysis approach based on statistical analysis for the management of sustainable technology (MOST. Our proposed methodology for the MOST is to extract a technological structure and relationship for knowing the sustainable technology. To do this, we develop a hierarchical diagram of technology for finding the causal relationships among technological keywords of a given domain. The aim of the paper is to select the sustainable technology and to create the hierarchical technology paths to sustainable technology for the MOST. This contributes to planning R&D strategy for the sustainability of a company. To show how the methodology can be applied to real problem, we perform a case study using retrieved patent documents related to

  1. Towards real energy economics: Energy policy driven by life-cycle carbon emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenny, R.; Law, C.; Pearce, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Alternative energy technologies (AETs) have emerged as a solution to the challenge of simultaneously meeting rising electricity demand while reducing carbon emissions. However, as all AETs are responsible for some greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during their construction, carbon emission 'Ponzi Schemes' are currently possible, wherein an AET industry expands so quickly that the GHG emissions prevented by a given technology are negated to fabricate the next wave of AET deployment. In an era where there are physical constraints to the GHG emissions the climate can sustain in the short term this may be unacceptable. To provide quantitative solutions to this problem, this paper introduces the concept of dynamic carbon life-cycle analyses, which generate carbon-neutral growth rates. These conceptual tools become increasingly important as the world transitions to a low-carbon economy by reducing fossil fuel combustion. In choosing this method of evaluation it was possible to focus uniquely on reducing carbon emissions to the recommended levels by outlining the most carbon-effective approach to climate change mitigation. The results of using dynamic life-cycle analysis provide policy makers with standardized information that will drive the optimization of electricity generation for effective climate change mitigation.

  2. [A Medical Devices Management Information System Supporting Full Life-Cycle Process Management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Guoping; Hu, Liang

    2015-07-01

    Medical equipments are essential supplies to carry out medical work. How to ensure the safety and reliability of the medical equipments in diagnosis, and reduce procurement and maintenance costs is a topic of concern to everyone. In this paper, product lifecycle management (PLM) and enterprise resource planning (ERP) are cited to establish a lifecycle management information system. Through integrative and analysis of the various stages of the relevant data in life-cycle, it can ensure safety and reliability of medical equipments in the operation and provide the convincing data for meticulous management.

  3. Life-cycle analysis of energy and greenhouse gas emissions of automotive fuels in India: Part 1 – Tank-to-Wheel analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.; Patil, V.; Himabindu, M.; Ravikrishna, R.V.

    2016-01-01

    As part of a two-part life cycle efficiency and greenhouse gas emission analysis for various automotive fuels in the Indian context, this paper presents the first part, i.e., Tank-to-Wheel analysis of various fuel/powertrain configurations for a subcompact passenger car. The Tank-to-Wheel analysis was applied to 28 fuel/powertrain configurations using fuels such as gasoline, diesel, compressed natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas and hydrogen with various conventional and hybrid electric powertrains. The gasoline-equivalent fuel economy and carbon dioxide emission results for individual fuel/powertrain configuration are evaluated and compared. It is found that the split hybrid configuration is best among hybrids as it leads to fuel economy improvement and carbon dioxide emissions reduction by 20–40% over the Indian drive cycle. Further, the engine efficiency, engine on-off time and regenerative braking energy assessment is done to evaluate the causes for higher energy efficiency of hybrid electric vehicles. The hybridization increases average engine efficiency by 10–60% which includes 19–23% of energy recovered at wheel through regenerative braking over the drive cycle. Overall, the Tank-to-Wheel energy use and efficiency results are evaluated for all fuel/powertrain configurations which show Battery Electric Vehicle, fuel cell vehicles and diesel hybrids are near and long term energy efficient vehicle configurations. - Highlights: • Tank-to-Wheel energy use & CO_2 emissions for subcompact car on Indian driving cycle. • Gasoline, diesel, CNG, LPG, hydrogen and electric vehicles are evaluated in this study. • First comprehensive Tank-to-Wheel analysis for India on small passenger car platform. • Parallel, series and split hybrid electric vehicles with various fuels are analysed.

  4. Prospective analysis of energy security: A practical life-cycle approach focused on renewable power generation and oriented towards policy-makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Gusano, Diego; Iribarren, Diego; Garraín, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Formulation and application of the Renewable Energy Security Index (RESI). • Prospective analysis combining Energy Systems Modelling and Life Cycle Assessment. • Feasibility proven through two case studies of power generation in Spain and Norway. • Good coverage of key energy security aspects (availability, affordability, etc.). • Novel and easy-to-report index suitable for energy policy-making. - Abstract: Energy security is a wide-ranging term to encompass issues such as security of supply, reliability of infrastructures, affordability and environmental friendliness. This article develops a robust indicator – the Renewable Energy Security Index, RESI – to enrich the body of knowledge associated with the presence of renewable energy technologies within national electricity production mixes. RESI is built by combining environmental life cycle assessment and techno-economic energy systems modelling. Spain and Norway are used as illustrative case studies for the prospective analysis of power generation from an energy security standpoint. In the Spanish case, with a diversified electricity production mix and a growing presence of renewable technologies, RESI favourably “evolves” from 0.36 at present to 0.65 in 2050 in a business-as-usual scenario, reaching higher values in a highly-restricted CO_2 scenario. The Norwegian case study attains RESI values similar to 1 due to the leading role of renewable electricity (mainly hydropower) regarding both satisfaction of national demand and exportation of electricity surplus. A widespread use of RESI as a quantifiable energy security index of national power generation sectors is found to be feasible and practical for both analysts and energy policy-makers, covering a significant number of energy security aspects.

  5. Lifecycle management for nuclear engineering project documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Li; Zhang Ming; Zhang Ling

    2010-01-01

    The nuclear engineering project documents with great quantity and various types of data, in which the relationships of each document are complex, the edition of document update frequently, are managed difficultly. While the safety of project even the nuclear safety is threatened seriously by the false documents and mistakes. In order to ensure the integrality, veracity and validity of project documents, the lifecycle theory of document is applied to build documents center, record center, structure and database of document lifecycle management system. And the lifecycle management is used to the documents of nuclear engineering projects from the production to pigeonhole, to satisfy the quality requirement of nuclear engineering projects. (authors)

  6. Cost-benefit analysis of sustainable energy development using life-cycle co-benefits assessment and the system dynamics approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, Yi-Hsuan; Tseng, Chao-Heng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The energy policy was assessed using the system dynamics approach. • A life table approach was presented to estimate averted loss of life expectancy. • The mortality benefits estimated by VSL and VSLY are found to be similar. • Economic feasibility of the energy policy for climate change mitigation was presented. - Abstract: A novel Air Resource Co-benefits model was developed to estimate the social benefits of a Sustainable Energy Policy, involving both renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency improvements (EEI). The costs and benefits of the policy during 2010–2030 were quantified. A system dynamics model was constructed to simulate the amount of energy saving under the scenario of promoting both RE and EEI. The life-cycle co-reductions of five criteria pollutants (PM 10 , SO 2 , NOx, CO, and ozone) and greenhouse gas are estimated by assuming coal fired as marginal electricity suppliers. Moreover, a concise life table approach was developed to estimate averted years of life lost (YOLL). The results showed that YOLL totaling 0.11–0.21 years (41–78 days) per capita, or premature deaths totaling 126,507–251,169, is expected to be averted during 2010–2030 under the RE plus EEI scenario. Specifically, because of the higher investment cost, the benefit-cost ratio of 1.9–2.1 under the EEI scenario is lower than the 7.2–7.9 under the RE scenario. This difference reveals that RE is more socially beneficial than EEI. The net benefit of the RE and EEI scenarios during 2010–2030 totaled approximately US$ 5,972–6,893 per person or US$ 170–190 per MW h. To summarize, this study presents a new approach to estimate averted YOLL, and finds that the health benefits can justify the compliance costs associated with the Sustainable Energy Policy

  7. Understanding future emissions from low-carbon power systems by integration of life-cycle assessment and integrated energy modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehl, Michaja; Arvesen, Anders; Humpenöder, Florian; Popp, Alexander; Hertwich, Edgar G.; Luderer, Gunnar

    2017-12-01

    Both fossil-fuel and non-fossil-fuel power technologies induce life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions, mainly due to their embodied energy requirements for construction and operation, and upstream CH4 emissions. Here, we integrate prospective life-cycle assessment with global integrated energy-economy-land-use-climate modelling to explore life-cycle emissions of future low-carbon power supply systems and implications for technology choice. Future per-unit life-cycle emissions differ substantially across technologies. For a climate protection scenario, we project life-cycle emissions from fossil fuel carbon capture and sequestration plants of 78-110 gCO2eq kWh-1, compared with 3.5-12 gCO2eq kWh-1 for nuclear, wind and solar power for 2050. Life-cycle emissions from hydropower and bioenergy are substantial (˜100 gCO2eq kWh-1), but highly uncertain. We find that cumulative emissions attributable to upscaling low-carbon power other than hydropower are small compared with direct sectoral fossil fuel emissions and the total carbon budget. Fully considering life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions has only modest effects on the scale and structure of power production in cost-optimal mitigation scenarios.

  8. Materials Lifecycle and Environmental Consideration at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark-Ingram, Marceia

    2010-01-01

    The aerospace community faces tremendous challenges with continued availability of existing material supply chains during the lifecycle of a program. Many obsolescence drivers affect the availability of materials: environmental safety ahd health regulations, vendor and supply economics, market sector demands,and natural disasters. Materials selection has become increasingly more critical when designing aerospace hardware. NASA and DoD conducted a workshop with subject matter experts to discuss issues and define solutions for materials selections during the lifecycle phases of a product/system/component. The three primary lifecycle phases were: Conceptualization/Design, Production & Sustainment, and End of life / Reclamation. Materials obsolescence and pollution prevention considerations were explored for the aforementioned lifecycle phases. The recommended solutions from the workshop are being presented.

  9. Product Lifecycle Management and Sustainable Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Pamela W.; Dumbacher, Daniel L.; Grieves, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of product lifecycle management (PLM) in the general aerospace industry, its use and development at NASA and at Marshall Space Flight Center, and how the use of PLM can lead to sustainable space exploration.

  10. Life-Cycle Models for Survivable Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Linger, Richard

    2002-01-01

    .... Current software development life-cycle models are not focused on creating survivable systems, and exhibit shortcomings when the goal is to develop systems with a high degree of assurance of survivability...

  11. Improving Life-Cycle Cost Management of Spacecraft Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clardy, Dennon

    2010-01-01

    This presentation will explore the results of a recent NASA Life-Cycle Cost study and how project managers can use the findings and recommendations to improve planning and coordination early in the formulation cycle and avoid common pitfalls resulting in cost overruns. The typical NASA space science mission will exceed both the initial estimated and the confirmed life-cycle costs by the end of the mission. In a fixed-budget environment, these overruns translate to delays in starting or launching future missions, or in the worst case can lead to cancelled missions. Some of these overruns are due to issues outside the control of the project; others are due to the unpredictable problems (unknown unknowns) that can affect any development project. However, a recent study of life-cycle cost growth by the Discovery and New Frontiers Program Office identified a number of areas that are within the scope of project management to address. The study also found that the majority of the underlying causes for cost overruns are embedded in the project approach during the formulation and early design phases, but the actual impacts typically are not experienced until late in the project life cycle. Thus, project management focus in key areas such as integrated schedule development, management structure and contractor communications processes, heritage and technology assumptions, and operations planning, can be used to validate initial cost assumptions and set in place management processes to avoid the common pitfalls resulting in cost overruns.

  12. Strategic Analysis of Technology Integration at Allstream

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Innovation has been defined as the combination of invention and commercialization. Invention without commercialization is rarely, if ever, profitable. For the purposes of this paper the definition of innovation will be further expanded into the concept of technology integration. Successful technology integration not only includes new technology introduction, but also the operationalization of the new technology within each business unit of the enterprise. This paper conducts an analysis of Al...

  13. Research on the Enhancement Effects of Using Ecological Principles in Managing the Lifecycle of Industrial Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libin Guo

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a performance level concept for industrial land use. The performance level concept uses ecological principles to evaluate index systems for industrial land. We used this concept to integrate local economics, land use, development potential, environmental health and ecosystem management with innovation, harmony, floral preservation, and shared land use. The concept helps promote the efficient use of industrial land and the sustainable use of land resources. We used the chemical medicine manufacturing industry in Chongqing Changshou Economic and Technological Development Zone as a case study. We selected eight companies for analysis and calculated an industrial land performance level for each company. We created three industrial land performance levels: growth potential type, positive development type, and inefficient recession type. To determine economic development and land sustainability, we applied administrative, economic, legal and technical measures to evaluate the entire lifecycle of industrial land. This lifecycle included preliminary project audit access, mid-period dynamic supervision and post land exit management. We conclude by proposing measures to mitigate environmental harm occurring from the intensive use of land for industrial use.

  14. Corporate entrepreneurship in organisational life-cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Duobienė, Jurga

    2013-01-01

    Paper deals with the development of corporate entrepreneurship in different stages of organisational life-cycle. The research presents a model for the evaluation of corporate entrepreneurship and systemises relevant theoretical and empirical research in the field of entrepreneurship and corporate entrepreneurship. Moreover, it describes the development of corporate entrepreneurship in the entire organisational life-cycle since most of researchers who discuss the topics of corporate entreprene...

  15. ITER Remote Maintenance System (IRMS) lifecycle management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tesini, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.tesini@iter.org [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Otto' , Bede [Oxford Technologies Ltd, 7, Nuffield Way, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 1RJ (United Kingdom); Blight, John [FAAST 31c Allee de la Granette, 13600 Ceyreste (France); Choi, Chang-Hwan; Friconneau, Jean-Pierre; Gotewal, Krishan Kumar; Hamilton, David [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Heckendorn, Frank [FD Technologies, PO Box 6686, Aiken, SC (United States); Martins, Jean-Pierre [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Marty, Thomas [Westinghouse, 122, avenue de Hambourg, 13008 Marseille (France); Nakahira, Masataka; Palmer, Jim; Subramanian, Rajendran [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2011-10-15

    The availability of the ITER machine to perform its scientific program is strongly dependent on the performance of the different Remote Handling (RH) systems constituting the ITER Remote Maintenance System (IRMS). The lifecycle of the IRMS will largely exceed 40 years from initial concept design and proof testing through to machine decommissioning. Such a long lifecycle requires that a rigorous approach is put in place to guarantee the technical capabilities of the highly innovative IRMS, its efficiency and its availability. For this purpose, an IRMS System Engineering and IRMS lifecycle management approach has been adopted by ITER. The approach aims at ensuring the IRMS full operability and availability at an acceptable cost of ownership over the full ITER machine assembly and operations period. The IRMS lifecycle management method described in this paper covers such subjects as specific requirements for IRMS design reviews, monitoring during manufacture, factory and site acceptance testing, integrated commissioning, decontamination, maintenance and re-qualification strategies, requirements for Integrated Logistical Support during operations. The updating and implementation of the IRMS lifecycle strategy and this procedure will be managed and monitored by the Remote Handling Integrated Product Team (RH-IPT). Although developed for the IRMS, the basic principles and procedures of lifecycle management could be applied to other ITER plant systems whose reliability and availability will be essential for the continued operation of the ITER machine.

  16. ITER Remote Maintenance System (IRMS) lifecycle management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tesini, Alessandro; Otto', Bede; Blight, John; Choi, Chang-Hwan; Friconneau, Jean-Pierre; Gotewal, Krishan Kumar; Hamilton, David; Heckendorn, Frank; Martins, Jean-Pierre; Marty, Thomas; Nakahira, Masataka; Palmer, Jim; Subramanian, Rajendran

    2011-01-01

    The availability of the ITER machine to perform its scientific program is strongly dependent on the performance of the different Remote Handling (RH) systems constituting the ITER Remote Maintenance System (IRMS). The lifecycle of the IRMS will largely exceed 40 years from initial concept design and proof testing through to machine decommissioning. Such a long lifecycle requires that a rigorous approach is put in place to guarantee the technical capabilities of the highly innovative IRMS, its efficiency and its availability. For this purpose, an IRMS System Engineering and IRMS lifecycle management approach has been adopted by ITER. The approach aims at ensuring the IRMS full operability and availability at an acceptable cost of ownership over the full ITER machine assembly and operations period. The IRMS lifecycle management method described in this paper covers such subjects as specific requirements for IRMS design reviews, monitoring during manufacture, factory and site acceptance testing, integrated commissioning, decontamination, maintenance and re-qualification strategies, requirements for Integrated Logistical Support during operations. The updating and implementation of the IRMS lifecycle strategy and this procedure will be managed and monitored by the Remote Handling Integrated Product Team (RH-IPT). Although developed for the IRMS, the basic principles and procedures of lifecycle management could be applied to other ITER plant systems whose reliability and availability will be essential for the continued operation of the ITER machine.

  17. Virtual and augmented reality in the nuclear plant lifecycle perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnsen, Terje; Mark, Niels-Kristian

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents a subset of the research and development performed over the last decade by the OECD Halden Reactor Project (HRP) using virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) in design, operation, maintenance and decommissioning to solve real world problems in the nuclear plant lifecycle. The use of VR in training at Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant (LNPP) in Russia started in 1999 with the introduction of VR technology developed by Institute for Energy Technology (IFE) for the training and presentation of procedures related to safe operation and maintenance of the refuelling machine. At Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) in Ukraine, the establishment of the Chernobyl Decommissioning Visualisation Centre (CDVC) was started in 2007. The CDVC will be used for planning, training and presentation of dismantling procedures. In the future, the CDVC will also offer calculation of the occupational dose. VR has proven to be an effective technology for better communicating the layout of project proposals in design of control rooms. AR can be used to supplement reality by blending the physical and the virtual in the actual physical environment. IFE has developed a practical solution for using the AR technology. The paper also discusses how and for what areas the VR and AR applications can contribute to the nuclear safety for symbiosis and sustainability. Finally, IFE's plans for future use of VR and AR technologies in a nuclear plant lifecycle perspective are discussed. (author)

  18. Investigation of change in specifications during a product's lifecycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudin, Mohd Nizam Bin; Ahmed, Saeema

    2009-01-01

    design attributes likely be changed; the initiation of change and how change in specifications are described. For this purpose, document analysis for a complex product has been carried out. In total, 271 reports of change request of an aero-engine that were associated to change in specifications were......Engineering changes (ECs) constitutes a normal part of a product’s lifecycle. This paper aims to understand why changes are made to a product’s specification during a product’s lifecycle including understanding: the distribution of changes; the drivers for changes; how changes are discovered; which...... the request was initiated. The study showed that experience plays a vital role in discovering the need to change a complex product...

  19. Evaluation of life-cycle air emission factors of freight transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facanha, Cristiano; Horvath, Arpad

    2007-10-15

    Life-cycle air emission factors associated with road, rail, and air transportation of freight in the United States are analyzed. All life-cycle phases of vehicles, infrastructure, and fuels are accounted for in a hybrid life-cycle assessment (LCA). It includes not only fuel combustion, but also emissions from vehicle manufacturing, maintenance, and end of life, infrastructure construction, operation, maintenance, and end of life, and petroleum exploration, refining, and fuel distribution. Results indicate that total life-cycle emissions of freight transportation modes are underestimated if only tailpipe emissions are accounted for. In the case of CO2 and NOx, tailpipe emissions underestimate total emissions by up to 38%, depending on the mode. Total life-cycle emissions of CO and SO2 are up to seven times higher than tailpipe emissions. Sensitivity analysis considers the effects of vehicle type, geography, and mode efficiency on the final results. Policy implications of this analysis are also discussed. For example, while it is widely assumed that currently proposed regulations will result in substantial reductions in emissions, we find that this is true for NOx, emissions, because fuel combustion is the main cause, and to a lesser extent for SO2, but not for PM10 emissions, which are significantly affected by the other life-cycle phases.

  20. Anti-schistosomal intervention targets identified by lifecycle transcriptomic analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M Fitzpatrick

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Novel methods to identify anthelmintic drug and vaccine targets are urgently needed, especially for those parasite species currently being controlled by singular, often limited strategies. A clearer understanding of the transcriptional components underpinning helminth development will enable identification of exploitable molecules essential for successful parasite/host interactions. Towards this end, we present a combinatorial, bioinformatics-led approach, employing both statistical and network analyses of transcriptomic data, for identifying new immunoprophylactic and therapeutic lead targets to combat schistosomiasis.Utilisation of a Schistosoma mansoni oligonucleotide DNA microarray consisting of 37,632 elements enabled gene expression profiling from 15 distinct parasite lifecycle stages, spanning three unique ecological niches. Statistical approaches of data analysis revealed differential expression of 973 gene products that minimally describe the three major characteristics of schistosome development: asexual processes within intermediate snail hosts, sexual maturation within definitive vertebrate hosts and sexual dimorphism amongst adult male and female worms. Furthermore, we identified a group of 338 constitutively expressed schistosome gene products (including 41 transcripts sharing no sequence similarity outside the Platyhelminthes, which are likely to be essential for schistosome lifecycle progression. While highly informative, statistics-led bioinformatics mining of the transcriptional dataset has limitations, including the inability to identify higher order relationships between differentially expressed transcripts and lifecycle stages. Network analysis, coupled to Gene Ontology enrichment investigations, facilitated a re-examination of the dataset and identified 387 clusters (containing 12,132 gene products displaying novel examples of developmentally regulated classes (including 294 schistosomula and/or adult transcripts with no

  1. Testing and analysis SDN technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taher Abdullah

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Software Defined Networking (SDN is currently one of the most promising technologies in mobile backhaul networks based on the OpenFlow protocol. OpenFlow provides a specification to migrate the control logic from a switch into the controller. In this paper we apply Mininet software to verify the OpenFlow protocol messages.

  2. Technology development for radiation shielding analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Jung Woo; Lee, Jae Kee; Kim, Jong Kyung

    1986-12-01

    Radiation shielding analysis in nuclear engineering fields is an important technology which is needed for the calculation of reactor shielding as well as radiation related safety problems in nuclear facilities. Moreover, the design technology required in high level radioactive waste management and disposal facilities is faced on serious problems with rapidly glowing nuclear industry development, and more advanced technology has to be developed for tomorrow. The main purpose of this study is therefore to build up the self supporting ability of technology development for the radiation shielding analysis in order to achieve successive development of nuclear industry. It is concluded that basic shielding calculations are possible to handle and analyze by using our current technology, but more advanced technology is still needed and has to be learned for the degree of accuracy in two-dimensional shielding calculation. (Author)

  3. Technology Trends Analysis Using Patent Landscaping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Vsevolodovich Kortov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis and the choice of the priorities in technology development and, particularly, to the use of patent landscaping as a tool for the study of technology trends. Currently, patent activity indicators are often used for technology foresight and for competitive intelligence as well. Nevertheless, causal relationship between these indicators, on the one hand, and strategic and tactical decisions in the sphere of technological development on meso- and microeconomic level, on the other hand, are not adequately investigated to solve practical tasks. The goal of the work is to systemize the challenges of technology trends analysis, which could be effectively solved on the base of patent landscape analysis. The article analyses the patent landscaping methodology and tools, as well as their use for evaluating the current competitive environment and technology foresight. The authors formulated the generalized classification for the criteria of promising technologies for a selected region. To assess the compliance of a technology with these criteria, we propose a system of corresponding indicators of patenting activity. Using the proposed methodology, we have analysed the patent landscape to select promising technologies for the Sverdlovsk region. The research confirmed the hypothesis of the patent landscapes performance in evaluating such technology indicators as stages of the life cycle stage, universality (applicability in different industries, pace of worldwide development, innovations and science availability in the region and potential possibilities for scientific collaboration with international research institutions and universities. The results of the research may be useful to the wide audience, including representatives small and medium enterprises, large companies and regional authorities for the tasks concerned with the technology trends analysis and technology strategy design

  4. Construction Process Simulation and Safety Analysis Based on Building Information Model and 4D Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zhenzhong; ZHANG Jianping; DENG Ziyin

    2008-01-01

    Time-dependent structure analysis theory has been proved to be more accurate and reliable com-pared to commonly used methods during construction. However, so far applications are limited to partial pe-riod and part of the structure because of immeasurable artificial intervention. Based on the building informa-tion model (BIM) and four-dimensional (4D) technology, this paper proposes an improves structure analysis method, which can generate structural geometry, resistance model, and loading conditions automatically by a close interlink of the schedule information, architectural model, and material properties. The method was applied to a safety analysis during a continuous and dynamic simulation of the entire construction process.The results show that the organic combination of the BIM, 4D technology, construction simulation, and safety analysis of time-dependent structures is feasible and practical. This research also lays a foundation for further researches on building lifecycle management by combining architectural design, structure analy-sis, and construction management.

  5. Analysis of technological, institutional and socioeconomic factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of technological, institutional and socioeconomic factors that influences poor reading culture among secondary school students in Nigeria. ... Proliferation and availability of smart phones, chatting culture and social media were identified as technological factors influencing poor reading culture among secondary ...

  6. Analysis of Laser Sintering Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Markovič

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The new, high-tech development and customization is one ofthe most important factors in promoting the country‘s economicgrowth indicators. The economic downturn in the industryrequires technology and equipment using a minimumof raw materials and providing maximum performance. Thisstatement perfectly describes the innovative, forward-looking,cost-effective laser powder sintering (SLS technology. Here,thanks to the latest engineering achievements, product surfacesare modified and improved, they gain new characteristics. SLSis viable in automobile, engineering, construction, aerospace,aircraft, printing, medical and other areas.In order to create a product which meets the standards andtechnical documentation it is necessary to use and ensure highquality of raw materials, high-end equipment, qualified personnel,the working environment with proper climatic conditions, ergonomics,etc. But all of these, the quality of the product becomesthe decisive indicators meaningless if know how to properly selectthe laser processing operation. Scanning speed, beam power,pulse frequency, protective gases, powder layer thickness – allof them are the physical and mechanical characteristics of thechange in a small range changes the quality of the product of thefuture, the field of application and performance characteristics.

  7. Spatial lifecycles of cleantech industries – The global development history of solar photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binz, Christian; Tang, Tian; Huenteler, Joern

    2017-01-01

    New industries develop in increasingly globalized networks, whose dynamics are not well understood by academia and policy making. Solar photovoltaics (PV) are a case in point for an industry that experienced several shifts in its spatial organization over a short period of time. A lively debate has recently emerged on whether the spatial dynamics in new cleantech sectors are in line with existing industry lifecycle models or whether globalization created new lifecycle patterns that are not fully explained in the literature. This paper addresses this question based on an extensive analysis of quantitative data in the solar PV sector. Comprehensive global databases containing 86,000 patents as well as manufacturing and sales records are used to analyze geographic shifts in the PV sector’s innovation, manufacturing and market deployment activities between 1990 and 2012. The analysis reveals spatial lifecycle patterns with lower-than-expected first mover advantages in manufacturing and market activities and an earlier entry of firms from emerging economies in manufacturing and knowledge creation. We discuss implications of these findings for the competitive positions of companies in developed and emerging economies, derive new stylized hypotheses for industry lifecycle theories, and sketch policy approaches that are reflexive of global interdependencies in emerging cleantech industries. - Highlights: • The global spatial lifecycle of the solar photovoltaic (PV) industry is analyzed. • Our data partly contradicts existing industry lifecycle theories. • Latecomers in China started manufacturing and deployment earlier than expected. • Pioneers in the US and EU retained significant first-mover advantages in patenting. • Industry lifecycle theory needs updates in the production and market dimensions.

  8. Multiscale design and life-cycle based sustainability assessment of polymer nanocomposite coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttarwar, Rohan G.

    simulations are performed using molecular dynamics methodology to study several structural and morphological features such as effect of polymer molecular weight, polydispersity, rheology, nanoparticle volume fraction, size, shape and chemical nature on the bulk mechanical and self-cleaning properties of the coating film. At macro-scale, a paint spray system which is used for automotive coating application is studied by using CFD-based simulation methodology to generate crucial information about the effects of nanocoating technology on environmental emissions and coating film quality. The cradle-to-grave life-cycle based sustainability assessment study address all the critical issues related to economic benefits, environmental implications and societal effects of nanocoating technology through case studies of automotive coating systems. It is accomplished by identifying crucial correlations among measurable parameters at different stages and developing sustainability indicator matrices for analysis of each stage of life-cycle. The findings from the research can have great potential to draft useful conclusions in favor of future development of coating systems with novel functionalities and improved sustainability.

  9. Sustainable Development Factors in Pavement Life-Cycle: Highway/Airport Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Babashamsi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability has gained as much importance as management in business. Sustainable pavement development as a business practice should involve making evaluations according to the triple bottom line in the pavement life-cycle. Despite the current approaches to evaluating the social as well as economic and environmental feasibility of pavement projects (involving highway and airport infrastructure, there has recently been a lack of consensus on a methodology to guarantee sustainability upon assessment and analysis during the pavement life-cycle. As sustainability is a complex issue, this study intends to further explore sustainability and elaborate on its meaning. The second step involves a general depiction of the major sustainability appraisal tools, namely cost-benefit analysis, life-cycle cost analysis, life-cycle assessment, multi-criteria decision-making, environmental impact assessment and social life-cycle assessment, and an explanation of their cons and pros. Subsequently, the article addresses the application of an organized methodology to highlight the main factors or concepts that should be applied in sustainable pavement development and, more specifically, in sustainable pavement management. In the final step, research recommendations toward sustainability are given. This study is aimed to assist decision-makers in pavement management to plan sustainability frameworks in accordance with probable boundaries and restrictions.

  10. Benchmarking Naval Shipbuilding with 3D Laser Scanning, Additive Manufacturing, and Collaborative Product Lifecycle Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-20

    are also available. These technologies are past the disillusionment stage and are in the enlightenment phase where benefits are being derived, as... technologies such as three-dimensional scanning (3DLS), product lifecycle management (PLM), and additive manufacturing (AM) to reduce costs while...naval shipbuilding savings. The research was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, secondary research was conducted on the three technologies

  11. Fuel Cell Technology Status Analysis | Hydrogen and Fuel Cells | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology Status Analysis Fuel Cell Technology Status Analysis Get Involved Fuel cell developers interested in collaborating with NREL on fuel cell technology status analysis should send an email to NREL's Technology Validation Team at techval@nrel.gov. NREL's analysis of fuel cell technology provides objective

  12. Value analysis for advanced technology products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulliere, Mark

    2011-03-01

    Technology by itself can be wondrous, but buyers of technology factor in the price they have to pay along with performance in their decisions. As a result, the ``best'' technology may not always win in the marketplace when ``good enough'' can be had at a lower price. Technology vendors often set pricing by ``cost plus margin,'' or by competitors' offerings. What if the product is new (or has yet to be invented)? Value pricing is a methodology to price products based on the value generated (e.g. money saved) by using one product vs. the next best technical alternative. Value analysis can often clarify what product attributes generate the most value. It can also assist in identifying market forces outside of the control of the technology vendor that also influence pricing. These principles are illustrated with examples.

  13. Cybersecurity and the Medical Device Product Development Lifecycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Richard W; Katzis, Konstantinos

    2017-01-01

    Protecting connected medical devices from evolving cyber related threats, requires a continuous lifecycle approach whereby cybersecurity is integrated within the product development lifecycle and both complements and re-enforces the safety risk management processes therein. This contribution reviews the guidance relating to medical device cybersecurity within the product development lifecycle.

  14. Discuss on luminescence dose data analysis technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Xinhua; Xiao Wuyun; Ai Xianyun; Shi Zhilan; Liu Ying

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the development of luminescence dose data measurement and processing technology. General design planning of luminescence dose data measurement and processing technology is put forward with the diverse demands. The emphasis is focused on dose data processing method, luminescence curve analysis method, using of network, mechanics of communication among computers, data base management system of individual dose in this paper. The main methods and skills used in this technology as well as their advantages are also discussed. And it offers general design references for development luminescence dose data processing software. (authors)

  15. Integrated manure utilization system life-cycle value assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Row, J.; Neabel, D. [Pembina Inst. for Appropriate Development, Drayton Valley, AB (Canada)

    2005-10-15

    A life-cycle assessment of the Alberta Research Council (ARC) and Highmark Renewables' development of an integrated manure utilization system (IMUS) were presented. The assessment focused on an evaluation of factors of primary importance to government, investors and the livestock industry. IMUS technology uses manure as a resource to produce electricity, heat, bio-based fertilizer and reusable water. Results of the assessment indicated that IMUS plants have the potential to be financially viable if a power purchase of $90 MWh on average can be purchased from a 30,000 head livestock operation. A capital cost of under $11 million is necessary, and an established biofertilizer price of $50 per tonne should be established. An IMUS plant was estimated to reduce life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions by 70 to 80 per cent when compared to land spreading. Reductions are accomplished through displacing electricity from the provincial grid and reducing nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions from spreading of manure The IMUS plants lessen environment impacts by reducing the extraction and consumption of non-renewable resources, and by displacing an estimated 11,700 GJ of coal and natural gas per 1000 head of cattle per year. In addition, various pathogens within manure are eliminated. The plants have the potential to eliminate the environmental hazards associated with the disposal of deadstock. The systems reduce manure odour, lessen truck traffic and are expected to contribute to rural economic diversification. Barriers to further implementation of IMUS were discussed, as well as emerging opportunities for IMUS developers. It was concluded that the initial assessments of the IMUS were positive. Further investigation is needed to determine actual life-cycle performance of the operations. 18 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs.

  16. Long-term affected energy production of waste to energy technologies identified by use of energy system analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Marie; Meibom, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Affected energy production is often decisive for the outcome of consequential life-cycle assessments when comparing the potential environmental impact of products or services. Affected energy production is however difficult to determine. In this article the future long-term affected energy...... production is identified by use of energy system analysis. The focus is on different uses of waste for energy production. The Waste-to-Energy technologies analysed include co-combustion of coal and waste, anaerobic digestion and thermal gasification. The analysis is based on optimization of both investments...... and production of electricity, district heating and bio-fuel in a future possible energy system in 2025 in the countries of the Northern European electricity market (Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Germany). Scenarios with different CO2 quota costs are analysed. It is demonstrated that the waste...

  17. Development of ultrasensitive spectroscopic analysis technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Hyung Ki; Song, K S; Kim, D H; Yang, K H; Jung, E C; Jeong, D Y; Yi, Y J; Lee, S M; Hong, K H; Han, J M; Yoo, B D; Rho, S P; Yi, J H; Park, H M; Cha, B H; Nam, S M; Lee, J M

    1997-09-01

    For the development of the laser initiated high resolution, ultra sensitive analysis technology following field of researches have been performed. (1) Laser resonance ionization technology, (2) Laser-induced rare isotope detection technology, (3) Laser-induced plasma analysis technology, (4) Microparticle analysis technology by using ion trap, (5) Laser induced remote sensing technique. As a result a monitoring system for photoionized product is developed and the test of system is performed with Sm sample. The rare isotope detection system is designed and a few key elements of the system are developed. In addition a laser-induced plasma analysis system is developed and samples such as Zircaloy, Zinc-base alloy, rock samples are reasonably analyzed. The detection sensitivity is identified as good as a few ppm order. An ion trap is developed and microparticles such as SiC are trapped inside the trap by ac and dc fields. The fluorescence signals from the organic dyes as well as rare earth element which are absorbed on the microparticles are detected. Several calibration curves are also obtained. In the field of laser remote sensing a mobile Lidar system is designed and several key elements are developed. In addition the developed system is used for the detection of Ozone, NO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, etc. (author). 57 refs., 42 figs.

  18. Development of ultrasensitive spectroscopic analysis technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Hyung Ki; Song, K. S.; Kim, D. H.; Yang, K. H.; Jung, E. C.; Jeong, D. Y.; Yi, Y. J.; Lee, S. M.; Hong, K. H.; Han, J. M.; Yoo, B. D.; Rho, S. P.; Yi, J. H.; Park, H. M.; Cha, B. H.; Nam, S. M.; Lee, J. M.

    1997-09-01

    For the development of the laser initiated high resolution, ultra sensitive analysis technology following field of researches have been performed. 1) Laser resonance ionization technology, 2) Laser-induced rare isotope detection technology, 3) Laser-induced plasma analysis technology, 4) Microparticle analysis technology by using ion trap, 5) Laser induced remote sensing technique. As a result a monitoring system for photoionized product is developed and the test of system is performed with Sm sample. The rare isotope detection system is designed and a few key elements of the system are developed. In addition a laser-induced plasma analysis system is developed and samples such as Zircaloy, Zinc-base alloy, rock samples are reasonably analyzed. The detection sensitivity is identified as good as a few ppm order. An ion trap is developed and microparticles such as SiC are trapped inside the trap by ac and dc fields. The fluorescence signals from the organic dyes as well as rare earth element which are absorbed on the microparticles are detected. Several calibration curves are also obtained. In the field of laser remote sensing a mobile Lidar system is designed and several key elements are developed. In addition the developed system is used for the detection of Ozone, NO 2 , SO 2 , etc. (author). 57 refs., 42 figs

  19. Seal analysis technology for reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Liangang; Zhang Liping; Yang Yu; Zang Fenggang

    2009-01-01

    There is the coolant with radiation, high temperature and high pressure in the reactor pressure vessel (RPV). It is closely correlated to RPV sealing capability whether the whole nuclear system work well or not. The aim of this paper is to study the seal analysis method and technology, such as the pre-tensioning of the bolt, elastoplastic contact and coupled technology of thermal and structure. The 3 D elastoplastic seal analysis method really and generally consider the loads and model the contact problem with friction between the contact plates. This method is easier than the specialized seal program and used widely. And it is more really than the 2 D seal analysis method. This 3 D elastoplastic seal analysis method has been successfully used in the design and analysis of RPV. (authors)

  20. Scenario analysis on alternative fuel/vehicle for China's future road transport: Life-cycle energy demand and GHG emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ou Xunmin, E-mail: oxm07@mails.tsinghua.edu.c [Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); School of Public Policy and Management (SPPM), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang Xiliang, E-mail: zhang_xl@tsinghua.edu.c [Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Chang Shiyan [Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-08-15

    The rapid growth of vehicles has resulted in continuing growth in China's oil demand. This paper analyzes future trends of both direct and life cycle energy demand (ED) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in China's road transport sector, and assesses the effectiveness of possible reduction measures by using alternative vehicles/fuels. A model is developed to derive a historical trend and to project future trends. The government is assumed to do nothing additional in the future to influence the long-term trends in the business as usual (BAU) scenario. Four specific scenarios are used to describe the future cases where different alternative fuel/vehicles are applied. The best case scenario is set to represent the most optimized case. Direct ED and GHG emissions would reach 734 million tonnes of oil equivalent and 2384 million tonnes carbon dioxide equivalent by 2050 in the BAU case, respectively, more than 5.6 times of 2007 levels. Compared with the BAU case, the relative reductions achieved in the best case would be 15.8% and 27.6% for life cycle ED and GHG emissions, respectively. It is suggested for future policy implementation to support sustainable biofuel and high efficient electric-vehicles, and the deployment of coal-based fuels accompanied with low-carbon technology.

  1. Scenario analysis on alternative fuel/vehicle for China's future road transport. Life-cycle energy demand and GHG emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ou, Xunmin [Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); School of Public Policy and Management (SPPM), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Xiliang; Chang, Shiyan [Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-08-15

    The rapid growth of vehicles has resulted in continuing growth in China's oil demand. This paper analyzes future trends of both direct and life cycle energy demand (ED) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in China's road transport sector, and assesses the effectiveness of possible reduction measures by using alternative vehicles/fuels. A model is developed to derive a historical trend and to project future trends. The government is assumed to do nothing additional in the future to influence the long-term trends in the business as usual (BAU) scenario. Four specific scenarios are used to describe the future cases where different alternative fuel/vehicles are applied. The best case scenario is set to represent the most optimized case. Direct ED and GHG emissions would reach 734 million tonnes of oil equivalent and 2384 million tonnes carbon dioxide equivalent by 2050 in the BAU case, respectively, more than 5.6 times of 2007 levels. Compared with the BAU case, the relative reductions achieved in the best case would be 15.8% and 27.6% for life cycle ED and GHG emissions, respectively. It is suggested for future policy implementation to support sustainable biofuel and high efficient electric-vehicles, and the deployment of coal-based fuels accompanied with low-carbon technology. (author)

  2. Application Analysis of BIM Technology in Metro Rail Transit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bei; Sun, Xianbin

    2018-03-01

    With the rapid development of urban roads, especially the construction of subway rail transit, it is an effective way to alleviate urban traffic congestion. There are limited site space, complex resource allocation, tight schedule, underground pipeline complex engineering problems. BIM technology, three-dimensional visualization, parameterization, virtual simulation and many other advantages can effectively solve these technical problems. Based on the project of Shenzhen Metro Line 9, BIM technology is innovatively researched throughout the lifecycle of BIM technology in the context of the metro rail transit project rarely used at this stage. The model information file is imported into Navisworks for four-dimensional animation simulation to determine the optimum construction scheme of the shield machine. Subway construction management application platform based on BIM and private cloud technology, the use of cameras and sensors to achieve electronic integration, dynamic monitoring of the operation and maintenance of underground facilities. Make full use of the many advantages of BIM technology to improve the engineering quality and construction efficiency of the subway rail transit project and to complete the operation and maintenance.

  3. Life-cycle assessment in the renewable energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goralczyk, M.

    2003-01-01

    The Polish energy industry is facing challenges regarding energetic safety, competitiveness, improvement of domestic companies and environmental protection. Ecological guidelines concern the elimination of detrimental solutions, and effective energy management, which will form the basis for sustainable development. The Polish power industry is required to systematically increase the share of energy taken from renewable sources in the total energy sold to customers. Besides the economic issues, particular importance is assigned to environmental factors associated with the choice of energy source. That is where life-cycle assessment (LCA) is important. The main purpose of LCA is to identify the environmental impacts of goods and services during the whole life cycle of the product or service. Therefore LCA can be applied to assess the impact on the environment of electricity generation and will allow producers to make better decisions pertaining to environmental protection. The renewable energy sources analysed in this paper include the energy from photovoltaics, wind turbines and hydroelectric power. The goal and scope of the analysis comprise the assessment of environmental impacts of production of 1 GJ of energy from the sources mentioned above. The study will cover the construction, operation and waste disposal at each power plant. Analysis will cover the impact categories, where the environmental influence is the most significant, i.e. resource depletion, global warmth potential, acidification and eutrophication. The LCA results will be shown on the basis of European and Australian research. This analysis will be extended with a comparison between environmental impacts of energy from renewable and conventional sources. This report will conclude with an analysis of possibilities of application of the existing research results and LCA rules in the Polish energy industry with a focus on Poland's future accession to the European Union. Definitions of LCA fundamental

  4. Development of safety analysis technology for LMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, Do Hee; Kwon, Y. M.; Suk, S. D.

    2002-05-01

    In the present study, the KALIMER safety analysis has been made for the transients considered in the design concept, hypothetical core disruptive accident (HCDA), and containment performance with the establishment of the design basis. Such analyses have not been possible without the computer code improvement, and the experience attained during this research period must have greatly contributed to the achievement of the self reliance in the domestic technology establishment on the safety analysis areas of the conceptual design. The safety analysis codes have been improved to extend their applicable ranges for detailed conceptual design, and a basic computer code system has been established for HCDA analysis. A code-to-code comparison analysis has been performed as a part of code verification attempt, and the leading edge technology of JNC also has been brought for the technology upgrade. In addition, the research and development on the area of the database establishment has been made for the efficient and systematic project implementation of the conceptual design, through performances on the development of a project scheduling management, integration of the individually developed technology, establishment of the product database, and so on, taking into account coupling of the activities conducted in each specific area

  5. Predictive Technology Management for the Identification of Future Development Trends and the Maximum Achievable Potential Based on a Quantitative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Fries

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A company’s ability to find the most profitable technology is based on a precise forecast of achievement potential. Technology Management (TM uses forecasting models to analyse future potentials, e.g. the Gartner Hype Cycle, Arthur D. Little’s technology lifecycle or McKinsey’s S-curve model. All these methods are useful for qualitative analysis in the planning of strategic research and development (R&D expenses. In a new approach, exponential and logistic growth functions are used to identify and quantify characteristic stages of technology development. Innovations from electrical, mechanical and computer engineering are observed and projected until the year 2025. Datasets from different industry sectors are analysed, as the number of active Facebook users worldwide, the tensile yield point of flat bar steel, the number of transistors per unit area on integrated circuits, the fuel efficiency per dimension of passenger cars, and the energy density of Lithium-Ion cells. Results show the period of performance doubling and the forecast for the end of the technological achievement potential. The methodology can help to answer key entrepreneurial questions such as the search for alternatives to applied technologies, as well as identifying the risk of substitution technology.

  6. Rapid Analysis and Manufacturing Propulsion Technology (RAMPT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikes, John C.

    2018-01-01

    NASA's strategic plan calls for the development of enabling technologies, improved production methods, and advanced design and analysis tools related to the agency's objectives to expand human presence in the solar system. NASA seeks to advance exploration, science, innovation, benefits to humanity, and international collaboration, as well as facilitate and utilize U.S. commercial capabilities to deliver cargo and crew to space.

  7. Integrating neural network technology and noise analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhrig, R.E.; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN

    1995-01-01

    The integrated use of neural network and noise analysis technologies offers advantages not available by the use of either technology alone. The application of neural network technology to noise analysis offers an opportunity to expand the scope of problems where noise analysis is useful and unique ways in which the integration of these technologies can be used productively. The two-sensor technique, in which the responses of two sensors to an unknown driving source are related, is used to demonstration such integration. The relationship between power spectral densities (PSDs) of accelerometer signals is derived theoretically using noise analysis to demonstrate its uniqueness. This relationship is modeled from experimental data using a neural network when the system is working properly, and the actual PSD of one sensor is compared with the PSD of that sensor predicted by the neural network using the PSD of the other sensor as an input. A significant deviation between the actual and predicted PSDs indicate that system is changing (i.e., failing). Experiments carried out on check values and bearings illustrate the usefulness of the methodology developed. (Author)

  8. Green Curriculum Analysis in Technological Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Arpita; Singh, Manvendra Pratap; Roy, Mousumi

    2018-01-01

    With rapid industrialization and technological development, India is facing adverse affects of unsustainable pattern of production and consumption. Education for sustainable development has been widely recognized to reduce the threat of environmental degradation and resource depletion. This paper used the content analysis method to explore the…

  9. Life-cycle energy impacts for adapting an urban water supply system to droughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Ka Leung; Stokes-Draut, Jennifer R; Horvath, Arpad; Lane, Joe L; Kenway, Steven J; Lant, Paul A

    2017-12-15

    In recent years, cities in some water stressed regions have explored alternative water sources such as seawater desalination and potable water recycling in spite of concerns over increasing energy consumption. In this study, we evaluate the current and future life-cycle energy impacts of four alternative water supply strategies introduced during a decade-long drought in South East Queensland (SEQ), Australia. These strategies were: seawater desalination, indirect potable water recycling, network integration, and rainwater tanks. Our work highlights the energy burden of alternative water supply strategies which added approximately 24% life-cycle energy use to the existing supply system (with surface water sources) in SEQ even for a current post-drought low utilisation status. Over half of this additional life-cycle energy use was from the centralised alternative supply strategies. Rainwater tanks contributed an estimated 3% to regional water supply, but added over 10% life-cycle energy use to the existing system. In the future scenario analysis, we compare the life-cycle energy use between "Normal", "Dry", "High water demand" and "Design capacity" scenarios. In the "Normal" scenario, a long-term low utilisation of the desalination system and the water recycling system has greatly reduced the energy burden of these centralised strategies to only 13%. In contrast, higher utilisation in the unlikely "Dry" and "Design capacity" scenarios add 86% and 140% to life-cycle energy use of the existing system respectively. In the "High water demand" scenario, a 20% increase in per capita water use over 20 years "consumes" more energy than is used by the four alternative strategies in the "Normal" scenario. This research provides insight for developing more realistic long-term scenarios to evaluate and compare life-cycle energy impacts of drought-adaptation infrastructure and regional decentralised water sources. Scenario building for life-cycle assessments of water supply

  10. Clinical Research Informatics: Supporting the Research Study Lifecycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S B

    2017-08-01

    Objectives: The primary goal of this review is to summarize significant developments in the field of Clinical Research Informatics (CRI) over the years 2015-2016. The secondary goal is to contribute to a deeper understanding of CRI as a field, through the development of a strategy for searching and classifying CRI publications. Methods: A search strategy was developed to query the PubMed database, using medical subject headings to both select and exclude articles, and filtering publications by date and other characteristics. A manual review classified publications using stages in the "research study lifecycle", with key stages that include study definition, participant enrollment, data management, data analysis, and results dissemination. Results: The search strategy generated 510 publications. The manual classification identified 125 publications as relevant to CRI, which were classified into seven different stages of the research lifecycle, and one additional class that pertained to multiple stages, referring to general infrastructure or standards. Important cross-cutting themes included new applications of electronic media (Internet, social media, mobile devices), standardization of data and procedures, and increased automation through the use of data mining and big data methods. Conclusions: The review revealed increased interest and support for CRI in large-scale projects across institutions, regionally, nationally, and internationally. A search strategy based on medical subject headings can find many relevant papers, but a large number of non-relevant papers need to be detected using text words which pertain to closely related fields such as computational statistics and clinical informatics. The research lifecycle was useful as a classification scheme by highlighting the relevance to the users of clinical research informatics solutions. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.

  11. Development of Mathematical Model for Lifecycle Management Process of New Type of Multirip Saw Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. V. Phung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of research is a new type of the multirip saw machine with circular reciprocating saw blades. This machine has a number of advantages in comparison with other machines of similar purpose. The paper presents an overview of different types of saw equipment and describes basic characteristics of the machine under investigation.Using the concept of lifecycle management of the considered machine in a unified information space is necessary to improve quality and competitiveness in the current production environment. In this lifecycle all the members, namely designers, technologists, customers, etc., have a philosophy to tend to optimize the overall machine design as much as possible. However, it is not always possible to achieve. Conversely, at the boundary between the phases there are several mismatching situations, if not even conflicting inconsistencies. For example, improvement of mass characteristics can lead to poor stability and rigidity of the saw blade. Machine output improvement through increasing frequency of the machine motor rotation, on the other side, results in reducing stable ability of the saw blades and so on.In order to provide a coherent framework for the collaborative environment between the members of the life cycle, the article presents a technique to construct a mathematical model that allows combining all different members’ requirements in the unified information model. The article also gives analysis of kinematic and dynamic behavior and technological characteristics of the machine. Describes in detail all the controlled parameters, functional constraints, and quality criteria of the machine under consideration. Depending on the controlled parameters, the analytical relationships formulate functional constraints and quality criteria of the machine. The proposed algorithm allows fast and exact calculation of all the functional constraints and quality criteria of the machine for a given vector of the control

  12. Improving sustainability by technology assessment and systems analysis: the case of IWRM Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayono, S.; Lehmann, A.; Kopfmüller, J.; Lehn, H.

    2016-09-01

    To support the implementation of the IWRM-Indonesia process in a water scarce and sanitation poor region of Central Java (Indonesia), sustainability assessments of several technology options of water supply and sanitation were carried out based on the conceptual framework of the integrative sustainability concept of the German Helmholtz association. In the case of water supply, the assessment was based on the life-cycle analysis and life-cycle-costing approach. In the sanitation sector, the focus was set on developing an analytical tool to improve planning procedures in the area of investigation, which can be applied in general to developing and newly emerging countries. Because sanitation systems in particular can be regarded as socio-technical systems, their permanent operability is closely related to cultural or religious preferences which influence acceptability. Therefore, the design of the tool and the assessment of sanitation technologies took into account the views of relevant stakeholders. The key results of the analyses are presented in this article.

  13. Analysis of Science and Technology Trend Based on Word Usage in Digitized Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jinhyuk; Kim, Pan-Jun; Jeong, Hawoong

    2013-03-01

    Throughout mankind's history, forecasting and predicting future has been a long-lasting interest to our society. Many fortune-tellers have tried to forecast the future by ``divine'' items. Sci-fi writers have also imagined what the future would look like. However most of them have been illogical and unscientific. Meanwhile, scientists have also attempted to discover future trend of science. Many researchers have used quantitative models to study how new ideas are used and spread. Besides the modeling works, in the early 21st century, the rise of data science has provided another prospect of forecasting future. However many studies have focused on very limited set of period or age, due to the limitations of dataset. Hence, many questions still remained unanswered. Fortunately, Google released a new dataset named ``Google N-Gram Dataset.'' This dataset provides us with 5 million words worth of literature dating from 1520 to 2008, and this is nearly 4% of publications ever printed. With this new time-varying dataset, we studied the spread and development of technologies by searching ``Science and Technology'' related words from 1800 to 2000. By statistical analysis, some general scaling laws were discovered. And finally, we determined factors that strongly affect the lifecycle of a word.

  14. .net core application lifecycle on Openshift

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    # .net core application lifecycle on Openshift I will show an example of a lifecycle of an OpenShift application with an emphasis on the continuous integration and deployment. The application compatible with [.net Standard](https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/dotnet/standard/net-standard) can be easily deployed on OpenShift using [Source2Image](https://docs.openshift.com/enterprise/3.0/architecture/core_concepts/builds_and_image_streams.html#source-build) functionality, which doesn't require developers to maintain docker images of the application. I will also present how to efficiently integrate this feature into GitLab pipelines with an automated deployment of the "review" environment, as one its parts.

  15. The NISTmAb Reference Material 8671 lifecycle management and quality plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiel, John E; Turner, Abigail

    2018-03-01

    Comprehensive analysis of monoclonal antibody therapeutics involves an ever expanding cadre of technologies. Lifecycle-appropriate application of current and emerging techniques requires rigorous testing followed by discussion between industry and regulators in a pre-competitive space, an effort that may be facilitated by a widely available test metric. Biopharmaceutical quality materials, however, are often difficult to access and/or are protected by intellectual property rights. The NISTmAb, humanized IgG1κ Reference Material 8671 (RM 8671), has been established with the intent of filling that void. The NISTmAb embodies the quality and characteristics of a typical biopharmaceutical product, is widely available to the biopharmaceutical community, and is an open innovation tool for development and dissemination of results. The NISTmAb lifecyle management plan described herein provides a hierarchical strategy for maintenance of quality over time through rigorous method qualification detailed in additional submissions in the current publication series. The NISTmAb RM 8671 is a representative monoclonal antibody material and provides a means to continually evaluate current best practices, promote innovative approaches, and inform regulatory paradigms as technology advances. Graphical abstract The NISTmAb Reference Material (RM) 8671 is intended to be an industry standard monoclonal antibody for pre-competitive harmonization of best practices and designing next generation characterization technologies for identity, quality, and stability testing.

  16. A Maturity Analysis of Big Data Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu BONCEA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years Big Data technologies have been developed at faster pace due to increase in demand from applications that generate and process vast amount of data. The Cloud Computing and the Internet of Things are the main drivers for developing enterprise solutions that support Business Intelligence which in turn, creates new opportunities and new business models. An enterprise can now collect data about its internal processes, process this data to gain new insights and business value and make better decisions. And this is the reason why Big Data is now seen as a vital component in any enterprise architecture. In this article the maturity of several Big Data technologies is put under analysis. For each technology there are several aspects considered, such as development status, market usage, licensing policies, availability for certifications, adoption, support for cloud computing and enterprise.

  17. Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting Products, Part 3: LED Environmental Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuenge, Jason R.; Hollomon, Brad; Dillon, Heather E.; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.

    2013-03-01

    This report covers the third part of a larger U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project to assess the life-cycle environmental and resource impacts in the manufacturing, transport, use, and disposal of light-emitting diode (LED) lighting products in relation to incumbent lighting technologies. All three reports are available on the DOE website (www.ssl.energy.gov/tech_reports.html). • Part 1: Review of the Life-Cycle Energy Consumption of Incandescent, Compact Fluorescent and LED Lamps; • Part 2: LED Manufacturing and Performance; • Part 3: LED Environmental Testing. Parts 1 and 2 were published in February and June 2012, respectively. The Part 1 report included a summary of the life-cycle assessment (LCA) process and methodology, provided a literature review of more than 25 existing LCA studies of various lamp types, and performed a meta-analysis comparing LED lamps with incandescent and compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs). Drawing from the Part 1 findings, Part 2 performed a more detailed assessment of the LED manufacturing process and used these findings to provide a comparative LCA taking into consideration a wider range of environmental impacts. Both reports concluded that the life-cycle environmental impact of a given lamp is dominated by the energy used during lamp operation—the upstream generation of electricity drives the total environmental footprint of the product. However, a more detailed understanding of end-of-life disposal considerations for LED products has become increasingly important as their installation base has grown. The Part 3 study (reported herein) was undertaken to augment the LCA findings with chemical analysis of a variety of LED, CFL, and incandescent lamps using standard testing procedures. A total of 22 samples, representing 11 different models, were tested to determine whether any of 17 elements were present at levels exceeding California or Federal regulatory thresholds for hazardous waste. Key findings include: • The selected

  18. Data analysis for the LISA Technology Package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewitson, M; Danzmann, K; Diepholz, I; GarcIa, A; Armano, M; Fauste, J; Benedetti, M; Bogenstahl, J; Bortoluzzi, D; Bosetti, P; Cristofolini, I; Brandt, N; Cavalleri, A; Ciani, G; Dolesi, R; Ferraioli, L; Cruise, M; Fertin, D; GarcIa, C; Fichter, W

    2009-01-01

    The LISA Technology Package (LTP) on board the LISA Pathfinder mission aims to demonstrate some key concepts for LISA which cannot be tested on ground. The mission consists of a series of preplanned experimental runs. The data analysis for each experiment must be designed in advance of the mission. During the mission, the analysis must be carried out promptly so that the results can be fed forward into subsequent experiments. As such a robust and flexible data analysis environment needs to be put in place. Since this software is used during mission operations and effects the mission timeline, it must be very robust and tested to a high degree. This paper presents the requirements, design and implementation of the data analysis environment (LTPDA) that will be used for analysing the data from LTP. The use of the analysis software to perform mock data challenges (MDC) is also discussed, and some highlights from the first MDC are presented.

  19. Data analysis for the LISA Technology Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewitson, M; Danzmann, K; Diepholz, I; GarcIa, A [Albert-Einstein-Institut, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik und Universitaet Hannover, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Armano, M; Fauste, J [European Space Agency, ESAC, Villanueva de la Canada, 28692 Madrid (Spain); Benedetti, M [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dei Materiali e Tecnologie Industriali, Universita di Trento and INFN, Gruppo Collegato di Trento, Mesiano, Trento (Italy); Bogenstahl, J [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Bortoluzzi, D; Bosetti, P; Cristofolini, I [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica e Strutturale, Universita di Trento and INFN, Gruppo Collegato di Trento, Mesiano, Trento (Italy); Brandt, N [Astrium GmbH, 88039 Friedrichshafen (Germany); Cavalleri, A; Ciani, G; Dolesi, R; Ferraioli, L [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trento and INFN, Gruppo Collegato di Trento, 38050 Povo, Trento (Italy); Cruise, M [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Fertin, D; GarcIa, C [European Space Agency, ESTEC, 2200 AG Noordwijk (Netherlands); Fichter, W, E-mail: martin.hewitson@aei.mpg.d [Institut fuer Flugmechanik und Flugregelung, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2009-05-07

    The LISA Technology Package (LTP) on board the LISA Pathfinder mission aims to demonstrate some key concepts for LISA which cannot be tested on ground. The mission consists of a series of preplanned experimental runs. The data analysis for each experiment must be designed in advance of the mission. During the mission, the analysis must be carried out promptly so that the results can be fed forward into subsequent experiments. As such a robust and flexible data analysis environment needs to be put in place. Since this software is used during mission operations and effects the mission timeline, it must be very robust and tested to a high degree. This paper presents the requirements, design and implementation of the data analysis environment (LTPDA) that will be used for analysing the data from LTP. The use of the analysis software to perform mock data challenges (MDC) is also discussed, and some highlights from the first MDC are presented.

  20. The Environmental Impact of Industrial Bamboo Products : Life-cycle Assessment and Carbon Sequestration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogtlander, J.G.; Van der Lugt, P.

    2014-01-01

    This report gives a Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) and carbon footprint analysis on a selection of industrial bamboo products. The LCA is made for cradle-to-gate, plus the end-of-life stages of the bamboo products. For end-of-life it is assumed that 90% of the bamboo products are incinerated in an

  1. Grazing-incident PIXE Analysis Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hongri; Wang Guangpu; Liang Kun; Yang Ru; Han Dejun

    2009-01-01

    In the article, the grazing incidence technology is first applied to the PIXE (proton induced X-ray emission) analysis. Three pieces of samples were investigated, including the contaminated aluminium substrate, the SIMOX (separated by oxygen implantation) SOI (Silicon on Insulator) sample and the silicon wafer implanted with Fe + . The results reveal that the grazing-incident proton can improve the sensitivity of PIXE in trace analysis, especially for samples contaminated on surface. With the penetration depth of the proton bean decreased, the ratio of the peak area to the detection limit raised observably and the sensitivity near the sample surface increased. (authors)

  2. Automated Technology for Verificiation and Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    -of-the-art research on theoretical and practical aspects of automated analysis, verification, and synthesis. Among 74 research papers and 10 tool papers submitted to ATVA 2009, the Program Committee accepted 23 as regular papers and 3 as tool papers. In all, 33 experts from 17 countries worked hard to make sure......This volume contains the papers presented at the 7th International Symposium on Automated Technology for Verification and Analysis held during October 13-16 in Macao SAR, China. The primary objective of the ATVA conferences remains the same: to exchange and promote the latest advances of state...

  3. Product Lifecycle Management and the Quest for Sustainable Space Exploration Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Pamela W.; Dumbacher, Daniel L.; Grieves, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) is an outcome of lean thinking to eliminate waste and increase productivity. PLM is inextricably tied to the systems engineering business philosophy, coupled with a methodology by which personnel, processes and practices, and information technology combine to form an architecture platform for product design, development, manufacturing, operations, and decommissioning. In this model, which is being implemented by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Engineering Directorate, total lifecycle costs are important variables for critical decision-making. With the ultimate goal to deliver quality products that meet or exceed requirements on time and within budget, PLM is a powerful concept to shape everything from engineering trade studies and testing goals, to integrated vehicle operations and retirement scenarios. This briefing will demonstrate how the MSFC Engineering Directorate is implementing PLM as part of an overall strategy to deliver safe, reliable, and affordable space exploration solutions and how that strategy aligns with the Agency and Center systems engineering policies and processes. Sustainable space exploration solutions demand that all lifecycle phases be optimized, and engineering the next generation space transportation system requires a paradigm shift such that digital tools and knowledge management, which are central elements of PLM, are used consistently to maximum effect. Adopting PLM, which has been used by the aerospace and automotive industry for many years, for spacecraft applications provides a foundation for strong, disciplined systems engineering and accountable return on investment. PLM enables better solutions using fewer resources by making lifecycle considerations in an integrative decision-making process.

  4. Application of analysis technology in nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaoka, Keiko; Miura, Hiromi; Umeda, Kenji

    1996-01-01

    Recently, thanks to the rapid improvement of EWS performance, the authors have been able to carry out design evaluation comparatively, easily, utilizing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technology. The Nuclear Plant Engineering Department has carried out some analyses in the past several years with the main purpose of evaluating the design of nuclear reactor internals. These studies included ''Thermal Hydraulic Analysis for Top Plenum'' and ''Flow Analysis for Lower Plenum''. It is considered to be a special matter in thermal hydraulic analysis of the top plenum that temperature distribution has been estimated with a relatively small number of meshes by means of an imaginary spray nozzle, and in the flow analysis for the lower plenum that flow distribution has been found to change largely, depending on the reactor internals. One of the ways to confirm the safety of nuclear plants, detailed structural analysis, is required for all possible combinations of transient and load conditions during operation. In particular, it is very important to clarify the thermal stress behavior under operating conditions and to evaluate fatigue analysis in accordance with the Code Requirements. However, it is very complicated and it takes a lot of time. A new system was developed which can operate continuously all of the definitions of the analytical model, the analyzation of pressurized thermal and external stress, and editing reports. In this paper, the authors introduce this system and apply it to a pressurized water reactor

  5. Development of safety analysis technology for LMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y. B.; Kwon, Y. M.; Suk, S. D.

    2005-03-01

    The MATRA-LMR-FB has been developed internally for the damage prevention as well as the safety assessment during a channel blockage accident and, as a the result, the quality of the code becomes comparable to that developed in the leading countries. For a code-to-code comparison, KAERI could have access to the SASSYS-1 through a bilateral collaboration between KAERI and ANL. The study could bring into the reliability improvements both on the reactivity models in the SSC-K and on the SSC-K prediction capability. It finally leads to the completion of the SSC-K version 1.3 resulting from the qualitative and quantitative code-to-code comparison. The preliminary analysis for a metal fueled LMR could also become possible with the MELT-III and the VENUS-II, which had originally been developed for the HCDA analysis with an oxidized fuel, by developing the relevant models For the development of the safety evaluation technology, the safety limits have been set up, and the analyses of the internal and external channel blockages in an assembly have also been performed. Besides, the more reliable analysis results on the key design concepts could be obtained by way of the methodology improvement resulting from the qualitative and quantitative comparison study. For an efficient and systematic control of the main project, the integration of the developed technologies and the establishment of their data base have been pursued. It has gone through the development of the process control with taking account of interfaces among the sub-projects, the overall coordination of the developed technologies, the data base for the design products, and so on

  6. Comprehensive Lifecycle for Assuring System Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, John C.; Rowanhill, Jonathan C.

    2017-01-01

    CLASS is a novel approach to the enhancement of system safety in which the system safety case becomes the focus of safety engineering throughout the system lifecycle. CLASS also expands the role of the safety case across all phases of the system's lifetime, from concept formation to decommissioning. As CLASS has been developed, the concept has been generalized to a more comprehensive notion of assurance becoming the driving goal, where safety is an important special case. This report summarizes major aspects of CLASS and contains a bibliography of papers that provide additional details.

  7. The US Army Corps of Engineers Roadmap for Life-Cycle Building Information Modeling (BIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    that have been incorporated into BIM technologies marketed by competing vendors (e.g., Industry Foundation Class [IFC], Construction Operations...ER D C SR -1 2- 2 The US Army Corps of Engineers Roadmap for Life-Cycle Building Information Modeling ( BIM ) En gi ne er R es ea rc h an...Information Modeling ( BIM ) US Army Corps of Engineers Directorate of Civil Works Engineering and Construction Branch Washington, DC 20314-1000 Final

  8. Assessing the Life-Cycle Performance of Hydrogen Production via Biofuel Reforming in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Susmozas, Ana; Iribarren, Diego; Dufour, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Currently, hydrogen is mainly produced through steam reforming of natural gas. However, this conventional process involves environmental and energy security concerns. This has led to the development of alternative technologies for (potentially) green hydrogen production. In this work, the environmental and energy performance of biohydrogen produced in Europe via steam reforming of glycerol and bio-oil is evaluated from a life-cycle perspective, and contrasted with that of conventional hydroge...

  9. Product Lifecycle Management and the Quest for Sustainable Space Explorations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Pamela W.; Dumbacher, Daniel L.

    2010-01-01

    Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) is an outcome of lean thinking to eliminate waste and increase productivity. PLM is inextricably tied to the systems engineering business philosophy, coupled with a methodology by which personnel, processes and practices, and information technology combine to form an architecture platform for product design, development, manufacturing, operations, and decommissioning. In this model, which is being implemented by the Engineering Directorate at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Marshall Space Flight Center, total lifecycle costs are important variables for critical decision-making. With the ultimate goal to deliver quality products that meet or exceed requirements on time and within budget, PLM is a powerful concept to shape everything from engineering trade studies and testing goals, to integrated vehicle operations and retirement scenarios. This paper will demonstrate how the Engineering Directorate is implementing PLM as part of an overall strategy to deliver safe, reliable, and affordable space exploration solutions. It has been 30 years since the United States fielded the Space Shuttle. The next generation space transportation system requires a paradigm shift such that digital tools and knowledge management, which are central elements of PLM, are used consistently to maximum effect. The outcome is a better use of scarce resources, along with more focus on stakeholder and customer requirements, as a new portfolio of enabling tools becomes second nature to the workforce. This paper will use the design and manufacturing processes, which have transitioned to digital-based activities, to show how PLM supports the comprehensive systems engineering and integration function. It also will go through a launch countdown scenario where an anomaly is detected to show how the virtual vehicle created from paperless processes will help solve technical challenges and improve the likelihood of launching on schedule

  10. Radioactive materials transportation life-cycle cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, P.C.; Donovan, K.S.; Spooner, O.R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses factors that should be considered when estimating the life-cycle cost of shipping radioactive materials and the development of a working model that has been successfully used. Today's environmental concerns have produced an increased emphasis on cleanup and restoration of production plants and interim storage sites for radioactive materials. The need to transport these radioactive materials to processing facilities or permanent repositories is offset by the reality of limited resources and ever-tightening budgets. Obtaining the true cost of transportation is often difficult because of the many direct and indirect costs involved and the variety of methods used to account for fixed and variable expenses. In order to make valid comparisons between the cost of alternate transportation systems for new and/or existing programs, one should consider more than just the cost of capital equipment or freight cost per mile. Of special interest is the cost of design, fabrication, use, and maintenance of shipping containers in accordance with the requirements of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. A spread sheet model was developed to compare the life-cycle costs of alternate fleet configurations of TRUPACT-II, which will be used to ship transuranic waste from U.S. Department of Energy sites to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant near Carlsbad, New Mexico

  11. Design Buildings Optimally: A Lifecycle Assessment Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Hosny, Ossama

    2013-01-01

    This paper structures a generic framework to support optimum design for multi-buildings in desert environment. The framework is targeting an environmental friendly design with minimum lifecycle cost, using Genetic Algorithms (Gas). GAs function through a set of success measures which evaluates the design, formulates a proper objective, and reflects possible tangible/intangible constraints. The framework optimizes the design and categorizes it under a certain environmental category at minimum Life Cycle Cost (LCC). It consists of three main modules: (1) a custom Building InformationModel (BIM) for desert buildings with a compatibility checker as a central interactive database; (2) a system evaluator module to evaluate the proposed success measures for the design; and (3) a GAs optimization module to ensure optimum design. The framework functions through three levels: the building components, integrated building, and multi-building levels. At the component level the design team should be able to select components in a designed sequence to ensure compatibility among various components, while at the building level; the team can relatively locate and orient each individual building. Finally, at the multi-building (compound) level the whole design can be evaluated using success measures of natural light, site capacity, shading impact on natural lighting, thermal change, visual access and energy saving. The framework through genetic algorithms optimizes the design by determining proper types of building components and relative buildings locations and orientations which ensure categorizing the design under a specific category or meet certain preferences at minimum lifecycle cost.

  12. Life-cycle of fuel peat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leijting, J.; Silvo, K.

    1998-01-01

    The share of peat in the primary energy supply in Finland in 1996 was about 6.5 % and the area used for peat production was about 535 km 2 , corresponding to about 0.5 % of the original peatland area of Finland. Fuel peat production is hence a significant form of using natural resources. About 1.4 % of the total peatland area has been reserved for peat production. Approximately 95 % of the peat excavated in Finland is used as fuel peat, and 5 % as horticultural peat. As raw material and fuel peat can be considered to be slowly renewable material. The environmental impacts of fuel peat production, transportation and peat combustion were evaluated in this research by methods used in life-cycle assessment. Preparation and production phases of peat production areas, fuel peat transportation to power plants, combustion of peat in power plants, and disposal of the ashes formed the basis for the investigation. Data collected in 1994-1996 was used as the basic material in the research. Special attention was paid to the estimation of greenhouse gas balance when using a virgin bog and the forest drained peatland areas as starting points. Post-production use of peatlands were not inspected in the life-cycle assessment. The work was carried out in 1997 in cooperation with Vapo Oy. The regional environmental centers, VTT and Helsinki and Joensuu Universities assisted significantly in acquisition of the material and planning of the work 3 refs

  13. Life-cycle assessment of computational logic produced from 1995 through 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, S B; Horvath, A; Dornfeld, D A

    2010-01-01

    Determination of the life-cycle environmental and human health impacts of semiconductor logic is essential to a better understanding of the role information technology can play in achieving energy efficiency or global warming potential reduction goals. This study provides a life-cycle assessment for digital logic chips over seven technology generations, spanning from 1995 through 2010. Environmental indicators include global warming potential, acidification, eutrophication, ground-level ozone (smog) formation, potential human cancer and non-cancer health effects, ecotoxicity and water use. While impacts per device area related to fabrication infrastructure and use-phase electricity have increased steadily, those due to transportation and fabrication direct emissions have fallen as a result of changes in process technology, device and wafer sizes and yields over the generations. Electricity, particularly in the use phase, and direct emissions from fabrication are the most important contributors to life-cycle impacts. Despite the large quantities of water used in fabrication, across the life cycle, the largest fraction of water is consumed in generation of electricity for use-phase power. Reducing power consumption in the use phase is the most effective way to limit impacts, particularly for the more recent generations of logic.

  14. The life-cycle research productivity of mathematicians and scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, A M

    1986-07-01

    Declining research productivity with age is implied by economic models of life-cycle human capital investment but is denied by some recent empirical studies. The purpose of the present study is to provide new evidence on whether a scientist's output generally declines with advancing age. A longitudinal data set has been compiled for scientists and mathematicians at six major departments, including data on age, salaries, annual citations (stock of human capital), citations to current output (flow of human capital), and quantity of current output measured both in number of articles and in number of pages. Analysis of the data indicates that salaries peak from the early to mid-60s, whereas annual citations appear to peak from age 39 to 89 for different departments with a mean age of 59 for the 6 departments. The quantity and quality of current research output appear to decline continuously with age.

  15. Bus Lifecycle Cost Model for Federal Land Management Agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    The Bus Lifecycle Cost Model is a spreadsheet-based planning tool that estimates capital, operating, and maintenance costs for various bus types over the full lifecycle of the vehicle. The model is based on a number of operating characteristics, incl...

  16. A standard methodology for cost-effectiveness analysis of new environmental technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, S.R.; Trocki, L.K.; Bowling, L.

    1994-01-01

    This paper outlines a methodology that is being applied to assess the cost-effectiveness of new environmental technologies under development by EM-50, DOE. Performance, total system effects, and life-cycle costs are all considered in the methodology to compare new technologies with existing or base-line technologies. An example of performance characterization is given in the paper. Sources of data for cost estimates and technology characterizations also appear in the paper. The Department of Energy (DOE) is facing a massive clean up effort of waste sites that contain hazardous, radioactive, or mixed materials. DOE has recognized that improvements in environmental restoration and waste management methods can potentially save the taxpayers billions of dollars as older, less-effective technologies are displaced. Consequently, DOE has targeted significant funding to search for new technologies and to test and demonstrate them in rapid and cost-effective manner with the goal of applying them quickly to address environmental problems

  17. Prehispanic goldwork technology study by PIXE analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zucchiatti, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.zucchiatti@uam.es [Centro de Micro Análisis de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Calle de Faraday 3, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Climent Font, Aurelio [Centro de Micro Análisis de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Calle de Faraday 3, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Gutierrez Neira, Patricia Carolina; Perea, Alicia [Centro de Ciencias Humanas y Sociales, CSIC, Calle Albasanz 26-28, Madrid 28037 (Spain); Fernandez Esquivel, Patricia [Fundación Museos, Banco Central de Costa Rica, San José (Costa Rica); Rovira Llorens, Salvador [Museo Arqueológico Nacional, Calle Serrano 13, Madrid 28006 (Spain); Ruvalcaba Sil, José Luis [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico, Mexici DF 28006 (Mexico); Verde, Ana [Museo de América, Avda. de los Reyes Católicos 6, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2014-08-01

    Technological characterization of pre-Hispanic gold metallurgy has still a wide deficit of analytical data. A set of 103 pieces from the so called “Quimbaya’s treasure” (QT) and the “Costa Rica collection” (CRC) of the Museo de America of Madrid were submitted to IBA analysis (PIXE and RBS) at the CMAM in three phases and the metal composition was determined. Only in a limited number of cases, due to the dramatic erosion of the gilded layer, produced by abrasive cleaning methods applied after the discovery and before the seventies, it was possible to determine also the sequence of layers, which gives information on the manufacture technology and the type and purity of the metals. PIXE results are reported and discussed. Data show that the CRC objects have very high gold levels (>80% in weight) while the QT have a more variable composition with significant Cu levels associated to the so called Tumbaga-alloy. In the cases where polishing had a tolerable effect, PIXE (and RBS), point to depletion gilding as a standard finishing process in the Costa Rica production, resulting in a gold rich surface alloy, while the variable composition of the QT objects may well be linked to deliberate colour choice.

  18. Mission Benefits Analysis of Logistics Reduction Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, Michael K.; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Future space exploration missions will need to use less logistical supplies if humans are to live for longer periods away from our home planet. Anything that can be done to reduce initial mass and volume of supplies or reuse or recycle items that have been launched will be very valuable. Reuse and recycling also reduce the trash burden and associated nuisances, such as smell, but require good systems engineering and operations integration to reap the greatest benefits. A systems analysis was conducted to quantify the mass and volume savings of four different technologies currently under development by NASA s Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Logistics Reduction and Repurposing project. Advanced clothing systems lead to savings by direct mass reduction and increased wear duration. Reuse of logistical items, such as packaging, for a second purpose allows fewer items to be launched. A device known as a heat melt compactor drastically reduces the volume of trash, recovers water and produces a stable tile that can be used instead of launching additional radiation protection. The fourth technology, called trash-to-gas, can benefit a mission by supplying fuel such as methane to the propulsion system. This systems engineering work will help improve logistics planning and overall mission architectures by determining the most effective use, and reuse, of all resources.

  19. Entropy Generation Analysis of Desalination Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John H. Lienhard V

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasing global demand for fresh water is driving the development and implementation of a wide variety of seawater desalination technologies. Entropy generation analysis, and specifically, Second Law efficiency, is an important tool for illustrating the influence of irreversibilities within a system on the required energy input. When defining Second Law efficiency, the useful exergy output of the system must be properly defined. For desalination systems, this is the minimum least work of separation required to extract a unit of water from a feed stream of a given salinity. In order to evaluate the Second Law efficiency, entropy generation mechanisms present in a wide range of desalination processes are analyzed. In particular, entropy generated in the run down to equilibrium of discharge streams must be considered. Physical models are applied to estimate the magnitude of entropy generation by component and individual processes. These formulations are applied to calculate the total entropy generation in several desalination systems including multiple effect distillation, multistage flash, membrane distillation, mechanical vapor compression, reverse osmosis, and humidification-dehumidification. Within each technology, the relative importance of each source of entropy generation is discussed in order to determine which should be the target of entropy generation minimization. As given here, the correct application of Second Law efficiency shows which systems operate closest to the reversible limit and helps to indicate which systems have the greatest potential for improvement.

  20. BUSINESS PROCESS MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY COMPONENTS ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Giovanni Spelta

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The information technology that supports the implementation of the business process management appproach is called Business Process Management System (BPMS. The main components of the BPMS solution framework are process definition repository, process instances repository, transaction manager, conectors framework, process engine and middleware. In this paper we define and characterize the role and importance of the components of BPMS's framework. The research method adopted was the case study, through the analysis of the implementation of the BPMS solution in an insurance company called Chubb do Brasil. In the case study, the process "Manage Coinsured Events"" is described and characterized, as well as the components of the BPMS solution adopted and implemented by Chubb do Brasil for managing this process.

  1. Life-cycle costs for the Department of Energy waste management programmatic environmental impact statement (draft)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherick, M.J.; Shropshire, D.E.; Hsu, K.M.

    1995-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management has produced a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) in order to assess the potential consequences resulting from a cross section of possible waste management strategies for the DOE complex. The PEIS has been prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act, and includes evaluations of a variety of alternatives. The analysis performed for the PEIS included the development of life-cycle cost estimates for the different waste management alternatives being considered. These cost estimates were used in the PEIS to support the identification and evaluation of economic impacts. Information developed during the preparation of the life-cycle cost estimates was also used to support risk and socioeconomic analyses performed for each of the alternatives. This technical report provides an overview of the methodology used to develop the life-cycle cost estimates for the PEIS alternatives. The methodology that was applied made use of the Waste Management Facility Cost Information Reports, which provided a consistent approach and estimating basis for the PEIS cost evaluations. By maintaining consistency throughout the cost analyses, life-cycle costs of the various alternatives can be compared and evaluated on a relative basis. This technical report also includes the life-cycle cost estimate results for each of the PEIS alternatives evaluated. Summary graphs showing the results for each waste type are provided in the main document, and tables showing different breakdowns of the cost estimates are provided in the Appendices A-D. Appendix E contains PEIS cost information that was developed using an approach different than the standard methodology described in this report

  2. Long-term affected energy production of waste to energy technologies identified by use of energy system analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münster, M; Meibom, P

    2010-12-01

    Affected energy production is often decisive for the outcome of consequential life-cycle assessments when comparing the potential environmental impact of products or services. Affected energy production is however difficult to determine. In this article the future long-term affected energy production is identified by use of energy system analysis. The focus is on different uses of waste for energy production. The Waste-to-Energy technologies analysed include co-combustion of coal and waste, anaerobic digestion and thermal gasification. The analysis is based on optimization of both investments and production of electricity, district heating and bio-fuel in a future possible energy system in 2025 in the countries of the Northern European electricity market (Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Germany). Scenarios with different CO(2) quota costs are analysed. It is demonstrated that the waste incineration continues to treat the largest amount of waste. Investments in new waste incineration capacity may, however, be superseded by investments in new Waste-to-Energy technologies, particularly those utilising sorted fractions such as organic waste and refuse derived fuel. The changed use of waste proves to always affect a combination of technologies. What is affected varies among the different Waste-to-Energy technologies and is furthermore dependent on the CO(2) quota costs and on the geographical scope. The necessity for investments in flexibility measures varies with the different technologies such as storage of heat and waste as well as expansion of district heating networks. Finally, inflexible technologies such as nuclear power plants are shown to be affected. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Life-Cycle Evaluation of Concrete Building Construction as a Strategy for Sustainable Cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadel, Alexander [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Gursel, Petek [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Masanet, Eric [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-01-18

    Structural materials in commercial buildings in the United States account for a significant fraction of national energy use, resource consumption, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Robust decisions for balancing and minimizing these various environmental effects require that structural materials selections follow a life-cycle, systems modeling approach. This report provides a concise overview of the development and use of a new life-cycle assessment (LCA) model for structural materials in U.S. commercial buildings-the Berkeley Lab Building Materials Pathways (B-PATH) model. B-PATH aims to enhance environmental decision-making in the commercial building LCA, design, and planning communities through the following key features: (1) Modeling of discrete technology options in the production, transportation, construction, and end of life processes associated U.S. structural building materials; (2) Modeling of energy supply options for electricity provision and directly combusted fuels across the building life cycle; (3) Comprehensiveness of relevant building mass and energy flows and environmental indicators; (4) Ability to estimate modeling uncertainties through easy creation of different life-cycle technology and energy supply pathways for structural materials; and (5) Encapsulation of the above features in a transparent public use model. The report summarizes literature review findings, methods development, model use, and recommendations for future work in the area of LCA for commercial buildings.

  4. SILICATE TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION'S SOLIDIFICATION/ STABILIZATION TECHNOLOGY FOR ORGANIC AND INORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN SOILS - APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Applications Analysis Report evaluates the solidification/stabilization treatment process of Silicate Technology Corporation (STC) for the on-site treatment of hazardous waste. The STC immobilization technology utilizes a proprietary product (FMS Silicate) to chemically stab...

  5. Role of Knowledge Management in Development and Lifecycle Management of Biopharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Anurag S; Garcia-Aponte, Oscar Fabián; Golabgir, Aydin; Vallejo-Diaz, Bibiana Margarita; Herwig, Christoph

    2017-02-01

    Knowledge Management (KM) is a key enabler for achieving quality in a lifecycle approach for production of biopharmaceuticals. Due to the important role that it plays towards successful implementation of Quality by Design (QbD), an analysis of KM solutions is needed. This work provides a comprehensive review of the interface between KM and QbD-driven biopharmaceutical production systems as perceived by academic as well as industrial viewpoints. A comprehensive set of 356 publications addressing the applications of KM tools to QbD-related tasks were screened and a query to gather industrial inputs from 17 major biopharmaceutical organizations was performed. Three KM tool classes were identified as having high relevance for biopharmaceutical production systems and have been further explored: knowledge indicators, ontologies, and process modeling. A proposed categorization of 16 distinct KM tool classes allowed for the identification of holistic technologies supporting QbD. In addition, the classification allowed for addressing the disparity between industrial and academic expectations regarding the application of KM methodologies. This is a first of a kind attempt and thus we think that this paper would be of considerable interest to those in academia and industry that are engaged in accelerating development and commercialization of biopharmaceuticals.

  6. Preliminary life-cycle assessment of biomass-derived refinery feedstocks for reducing CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marano, J.J.; Rogers, S.; Spath, P.L.; Mann, M.K.

    1995-01-01

    The US by ratification of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change has pledged to emit no higher levels of greenhouse gases in the year 2000 than it did in 1990. Biomass-derived products have been touted as a possible solution to the potential problem of global warming. However, past studies related to the production of liquid fuels, chemicals, gaseous products, or electricity from biomass, have only considered the economics of producing these commodities. The environmental benefits have not been fully quantified and factored into these estimates until recently. Evaluating the environmental impact of various biomass systems has begun using life-cycle assessment. A refinery Linear Programming model previously developed has been modified to examine the effects of CO 2 -capping on the US refining industry and the transportation sector as a whole. By incorporating the results of a CO 2 emissions inventory into the model, the economic impact of emissions reduction strategies can be estimated. Thus, the degree to which global warming can be solved by supplementing fossil fuels with biomass-derived products can be measured, allowing research and development to be concentrated on the most environmentally and economically attractive technology mix. Biomass gasification to produce four different refinery feedstocks was considered in this analysis. These biomass-derived products include power, fuel gas, hydrogen for refinery processing, and Fischer-Tropsch liquids for upgrading and blending into finished transportation fuels

  7. Terahertz Technology: A Boon to Tablet Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, M. P.; Sonawane, Y. H.; Joshi, O. U.

    2009-01-01

    The terahertz gap has a frequency ranges from ∼0.3 THz to ∼10 THz in the electromagnetic spectrum which is in between microwave and infrared. The terahertz radiations are invisible to naked eye. In comparison with x-ray they are intrinsically safe, non-destructive and non-invasive. Terahertz spectroscopy enables 3D imaging of structures and materials, and the measurement of the unique spectral fingerprints of chemical and physical forms. Terahertz radiations are produced by a dendrimer based high power terahertz source and spectroscopy technologies. It resolves many of the questions left unanswered by complementary techniques, such as optical imaging, Raman and infrared spectra. In the pharmaceutical industries it enables nondestructive, internal, chemical analysis of tablets, capsules, and other dosage forms. Tablet coatings are a major factor in drug bioavailability. Therefore tablet coatings integrity and uniformity are of crucial importance to quality. Terahertz imaging gives an unparalleled certainty about the integrity of tablet coatings and the matrix performance of tablet cores. This article demonstrates the potential of terahertz pulse imaging for the analysis of tablet coating thickness by illustrating the technique on tablets. PMID:20490288

  8. Analysis of technologies databases use in physical education and sport

    OpenAIRE

    Usychenko V.V.; Byshevets N.G.

    2010-01-01

    Analysis and systematization is conducted scientific methodical and the special literature. The questions of the use of technology of databases rise in the system of preparation of sportsmen. The necessity of application of technologies of operative treatment of large arrays of sporting information is rotined. Collected taking on the use of computer-aided technologies of account and analysis of results of testing of parameters of training process. The question of influence of technologies is ...

  9. A Lifecycle Emissions Model (LEM): Lifecycle Emissions from Transportation Fuels, Motor Vehicles, Transportation Modes, Electricity Use, Heating and Cooking Fuels, and Materials, APPENDIX A: Energy Use and Emissions from the Lifecycle of Diesel-Like Fuels Derived From Biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Delucchi, Mark; Lipman, Timothy

    2003-01-01

    An Appendix to the Report, “A Lifecycle Emissions Model (LEM): Lifecycle Emissions From Transportation Fuels, Motor Vehicles, Transportation Modes, Electricity Use, Heating and Cooking Fuels, and Materialsâ€

  10. Life?cycle impacts of ethanol production from spruce wood chips under high-gravity conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, Matty; Xiros, Charilaos; Tillman, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Background Development of more sustainable biofuel production processes is ongoing, and technology to run these processes at a high dry matter content, also called high-gravity conditions, is one option. This paper presents the results of a life?cycle assessment (LCA) of such a technology currently in development for the production of bio-ethanol from spruce wood chips. Results The cradle-to-gate LCA used lab results from a set of 30 experiments (or process configurations) in which the main p...

  11. The development of severe accident analysis technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Heuy Dong; Cho, Sung Won; Kim, Sang Baek; Park, Jong Hwa; Lee, Kyu Jung; Park, Lae Joon; Hu, Hoh; Hong, Sung Wan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-07-01

    The objective of the development of severe accident analysis technology is to understand the severe accident phenomena such as core melt progression and to provide a reliable analytical tool to assess severe accidents in a nuclear power plant. Furthermore, establishment of the accident management strategies for the prevention/mitigation of severe accidents is also the purpose of this research. The study may be categorized into three areas. For the first area, two specific issues were reviewed to identify the further research direction, that is the natural circulation in the reactor coolant system and the fuel-coolant interaction as an in-vessel and an ex-vessel phenomenological study. For the second area, the MELCOR and the CONTAIN codes have been upgraded, and a validation calculation of the MELCOR has been performed for the PHEBUS-B9+ experiment. Finally, the experimental program has been established for the in-vessel and the ex-vessel severe accident phenomena with the in-pile test loop in KMRR and the integral containment test facilities, respectively. (Author).

  12. Life-cycle cost assessment of optimally designed reinforced concrete buildings under seismic actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitropoulou, Chara Ch.; Lagaros, Nikos D.; Papadrakakis, Manolis

    2011-01-01

    Life-cycle cost analysis (LCCA) is an assessment tool for studying the performance of systems in many fields of engineering. In earthquake engineering LCCA demands the calculation of the cost components that are related to the performance of the structure in multiple earthquake hazard levels. Incremental static and dynamic analyses are two procedures that can be used for estimating the seismic capacity of a structural system and can therefore be incorporated into the LCCA methodology. In this work the effect of the analysis procedure, the number of seismic records imposed, the performance criterion used and the structural type (regular or irregular) is investigated, on the life-cycle cost analysis of 3D reinforced concrete structures. Furthermore, the influence of uncertainties on the seismic response of structural systems and their impact on LCCA is examined. The uncertainty on the material properties, the cross-section dimensions and the record-incident angle is taking into account with the incorporation of the Latin hypercube sampling method into the incremental dynamic analysis procedure. In addition, the LCCA methodology is used as an assessment tool for the designs obtained by means of prescriptive and performance-based optimum design methodologies. The first one is obtained from a single-objective optimization problem, where the initial construction cost was the objective to be minimized, while the second one as a two-objective optimization problem where the life-cycle cost was the additional objective also to be minimized.

  13. Spent Nuclear Fuel Alternative Technology Decision Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shedrow, C.B.

    1999-01-01

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) made a FY98 commitment to the Department of Energy (DOE) to recommend a technology for the disposal of aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The two technologies being considered, direct co-disposal and melt and dilute, had been previously selected from a group of eleven potential SNF management technologies by the Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Task Team chartered by the DOE''s Office of Spent Fuel Management. To meet this commitment, WSRC organized the SNF Alternative Technology Program to further develop the direct co-disposal and melt and dilute technologies and ultimately provide a WSRC recommendation to DOE on a preferred SNF alternative management technology

  14. Spent Nuclear Fuel Alternative Technology Decision Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shedrow, C.B.

    1999-11-29

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) made a FY98 commitment to the Department of Energy (DOE) to recommend a technology for the disposal of aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The two technologies being considered, direct co-disposal and melt and dilute, had been previously selected from a group of eleven potential SNF management technologies by the Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Task Team chartered by the DOE''s Office of Spent Fuel Management. To meet this commitment, WSRC organized the SNF Alternative Technology Program to further develop the direct co-disposal and melt and dilute technologies and ultimately provide a WSRC recommendation to DOE on a preferred SNF alternative management technology.

  15. Nano market and analysis of technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-10-01

    This book gives descriptions of summary of nano technology with meaning, character and field, trend of technical development in domestic, current condition of nano basic research in domestic, trend of technical development in foreign country such as summary, trend of technology by industrial field, machine and metronics, material and process, standard of nano mechanism, scale of market and trend, competitiveness of nano technology of major country and research development system in Japan, Korean company and major countries.

  16. Exploring health information technology education: an analysis of the research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgona, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This article is an analysis of the Health Information Technology Education published research. The purpose of this study was to examine selected literature using variables such as journal frequency, keyword analysis, universities associated with the research and geographic diversity. The analysis presented in this paper has identified intellectually significant studies that have contributed to the development and accumulation of intellectual wealth of Health Information Technology. The keyword analysis suggests that Health Information Technology research has evolved from establishing concepts and domains of health information systems, technology and management to contemporary issues such as education, outsourcing, web services and security. The research findings have implications for educators, researchers, journal.

  17. Characterizing Product Lifecycle in Online Marketing: Sales, Trust, Revenue, and Competition Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    C, Santosh K; Mukherjee, Arjun

    2017-01-01

    Recent researches have seen an upsurge in the analysis of consumer reviews. Although, several dimensions have been explored, less is known on the temporal dynamics of events that happen over the lifecycle of online products. What are the dominant sales patterns? How are they affected by review count, rating, helpfulness and sentiment? How is trust characterized and what are its effects on sales and revenue? What happens during a market competition? When does a takeover/recovery happen and by ...

  18. Report on the FY 1999 results of the development of the wide area energy utilization network system - Eco/energy urban system. 2/2. Study of the systematization technology/evaluation technology out of the study of the energy system design technology (Study of the application method of element technology/system and trial calculation of the introduction effect); Koiki energy riyo network system kaihatsu (eco energy toshi system). 2/2. Energy system sekkei gijutsu no kenkyu no uchi system ka gijutsu hyoka gijutsu no kenkyu 1999 nendo seika hokokusho (zenkoku no netsu juyo no bunpu jokyo chosa kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of smoothly introducing the equipment technology and system technology being studied in the development of element technology in the eco/energy urban project, the paper conducted the study of conditions/application method in applying the technology to the actual energy supply system, analysis of the introduction effect, arrangement of the subjects on technical development, etc. In the study, for the methanol/hydrogen base technology, heat pump technology, heat recovery technology, heat transport technology and heat power generation technology, the quantitative analysis was made in terms of the lifecycle energy consumption amount, lifecycle CO2 emission amount and lifecycle expenses. As to the methanol base system, the subject is the reduction in auxiliary power. Concerning the heat pump technology, the subject is the enlargement of simple equipment. As regards the heat recovery technology, the subject is the development of system with long useful year. Relating to the heat transport technology, subjects are the completion of the menu of large-diameter piping in the vacuum thermal insulation heat transport piping system, and reduction in conveyance power of heat medium. About the heat power generation technology, subjects are the stability/durability of the system. (NEDO).

  19. Dynamic changes of histone H3 marks during Caenorhabditis elegans lifecycle revealed by middle-down proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidoli, Simone; Vandamme, Julien; Elisabetta Salcini, Anna

    2016-01-01

    We applied a middle-down proteomics strategy for large scale protein analysis during in vivo development of Caenorhabditis elegans. We characterized post-translational modifications (PTMs) on histone H3 N-terminal tails at eight time points during the C. elegans lifecycle, including embryo, larval......-occurring PTMs. We measured temporally distinct combinatorial PTM profiles during C. elegans development. We show that the doubly modified form H3K23me3K27me3, which is rare or non-existent in mammals, is the most abundant PTM in all stages of C. elegans lifecycle. The abundance of H3K23me3 increased during...... that is transmitted during dauer formation. Collectively, our data describe the dynamics of histone H3 combinatorial code during C. elegans lifecycle and demonstrate the feasibility of using middle-down proteomics to study in vivo development of multicellular organisms. This article is protected by copyright. All...

  20. Lifecycle-Based Swarm Optimization Method for Numerical Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Shen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioinspired optimization algorithms have been widely used to solve various scientific and engineering problems. Inspired by biological lifecycle, this paper presents a novel optimization algorithm called lifecycle-based swarm optimization (LSO. Biological lifecycle includes four stages: birth, growth, reproduction, and death. With this process, even though individual organism died, the species will not perish. Furthermore, species will have stronger ability of adaptation to the environment and achieve perfect evolution. LSO simulates Biological lifecycle process through six optimization operators: chemotactic, assimilation, transposition, crossover, selection, and mutation. In addition, the spatial distribution of initialization population meets clumped distribution. Experiments were conducted on unconstrained benchmark optimization problems and mechanical design optimization problems. Unconstrained benchmark problems include both unimodal and multimodal cases the demonstration of the optimal performance and stability, and the mechanical design problem was tested for algorithm practicability. The results demonstrate remarkable performance of the LSO algorithm on all chosen benchmark functions when compared to several successful optimization techniques.

  1. Product Lifecycle Management: CERN to host an important international conference

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    CERN designs, builds and operates machines that contain millions of items of many types, such as software, electronics, and electrical, mechanical and chemical components. It is a challenge to maintain a coherent configuration of everything that has been developed and installed. To do this, CERN developed the EDMS system – an integrated Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) platform that enables management of all the information related to the entire lifecycle of each single component. On 5 and 6 September CERN will host an international PLM conference at which participants will exchange experience and address how best to apply PLM in their organisations.   Pictogram representation of a typical product lifecycle. Picture by the National Institute of Standards and Technology’s Manufacturing Engineering via Wikimedia Commons [Public domain]. PLM is the activity of managing, in the most effective way, an organisation’s products all the way through their lifecycles: from th...

  2. Towards the Building Information Modeling-Based Capital Project Lifecycle Management in the Luxury Yacht Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Fuyong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available It will be a new approach that BIM’s capital project lifecycle management (CPLM applied to the yacht industry. This paper explored the feasibility of applying the principles and rationales of BIM for capital project lifecycle management in luxury yacht design, engineering, fabrication, construction and operation. The paper examined the premises and backbone technology of BIM. It then evaluated leading naval engineering and shipbuilding software applications and their development trends from the functional lens of BIM. To systematically investigate a BIM-based approach for capital project lifecycle management (CPLM in the luxury yacht industry, the paper proposed and outlined an implementation framework. A case study and a student competition use case were discussed to delineate the core constituents and processes of the proposed framework. The case of BIM was reviewed. Through the domestic custom luxury yacht design and prototyping student competition, the application of this framework in educational research is demonstrated and the initial quantitative assessment of the framework is carried out. Conclusions: a BIM-based CPLM implementation framework can help the luxury yacht industry capitalize on the global transformation to an information-centric and data-driven new business paradigm in shipbuilding with integrated design, manufacturing and production.

  3. The evolution, approval and implementation of the U.S. Geological Survey Science Data Lifecycle Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faundeen, John L.; Hutchison, Vivian

    2017-01-01

    This paper details how the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Community for Data Integration (CDI) Data Management Working Group developed a Science Data Lifecycle Model, and the role the Model plays in shaping agency-wide policies. Starting with an extensive literature review of existing data Lifecycle models, representatives from various backgrounds in USGS attended a two-day meeting where the basic elements for the Science Data Lifecycle Model were determined. Refinements and reviews spanned two years, leading to finalization of the model and documentation in a formal agency publication . The Model serves as a critical framework for data management policy, instructional resources, and tools. The Model helps the USGS address both the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) for increased public access to federally funded research, and the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) 2013 Open Data directives, as the foundation for a series of agency policies related to data management planning, metadata development, data release procedures, and the long-term preservation of data. Additionally, the agency website devoted to data management instruction and best practices (www2.usgs.gov/datamanagement) is designed around the Model’s structure and concepts. This paper also illustrates how the Model is being used to develop tools for supporting USGS research and data management processes.

  4. Spatial analysis of digital technologies and impact on socio - cultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the spatial distribution of digital technologies and ascertain whether digital technologies have significant impact on socio - cultural values or not. Moran's index and Getis and Ord's statistic were used for cluster and hotspots analysis. The unique locations of digital technologies ...

  5. US electric industry response to carbon constraint: a life-cycle assessment of supply side alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, P.J.; Wilson, P.P.H.; Kulcinski, G.L.; Denholm, P.L.

    2005-01-01

    This study explores the boundaries of electric industry fuel switching in response to US carbon constraints. A ternary model quantifies how supply side compliance alternatives would change under increasingly stringent climate policies and continued growth in electricity use. Under the White House Climate Change Initiative, greenhouse gas emissions may increase and little or no change in fuel-mix is necessary. As expected, the more significant carbon reductions proposed under the Kyoto Protocol (1990--7% levels) and Climate Stewardship Act (CSA) (1990 levels) require an increase of some combination of renewable, nuclear, or natural gas generated electricity. The current trend of natural gas power plant construction warrants the investigation of this technology as a sustainable carbon-mitigating measure. A detailed life-cycle assessment shows that significant greenhouse gas emissions occur upstream of the natural gas power plant, primarily during fuel-cycle operations. Accounting for the entire life-cycle increases the base emission rate for combined-cycle natural gas power by 22%. Two carbon-mitigating strategies are tested using life-cycle emission rates developed for US electricity generation. Relying solely on new natural gas plants for CSA compliance would require a 600% increase in natural gas generated electricity and almost complete displacement of coal from the fuel mix. In contrast, a 240% increase in nuclear or renewable resources meets the same target with minimal coal displacement. This study further demonstrates how neglecting life-cycle emissions, in particular those occurring upstream of the natural gas power plant, may cause erroneous assessment of supply side compliance alternatives

  6. Rules of Thumb in Life-Cycle Saving Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Winter, Joachim; Schlafmann, Kathrin; Rodepeter, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    We analyse life-cycle saving decisions when households use simple heuristics, or rules of thumb, rather than solve the underlying intertemporal optimization problem. We simulate life-cycle saving decisions using three simple rules and compute utility losses relative to the solution of the optimization problem. Our simulations suggest that utility losses induced by following simple decision rules are relatively low. Moreover, the two main saving motives re ected by the canonical life-cyc...

  7. Life-cycle energy of residential buildings in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Yuan; Ries, Robert J.; Wang, Yaowu

    2013-01-01

    In the context of rapid urbanization and new construction in rural China, residential building energy consumption has the potential to increase with the expected increase in demand. A process-based hybrid life-cycle assessment model is used to quantify the life-cycle energy use for both urban and rural residential buildings in China and determine the energy use characteristics of each life cycle phase. An input–output model for the pre-use phases is based on 2007 Chinese economic benchmark data. A process-based life-cycle assessment model for estimating the operation and demolition phases uses historical energy-intensity data. Results show that operation energy in both urban and rural residential buildings is dominant and varies from 75% to 86% of life cycle energy respectively. Gaps in living standards as well as differences in building structure and materials result in a life-cycle energy intensity of urban residential buildings that is 20% higher than that of rural residential buildings. The life-cycle energy of urban residential buildings is most sensitive to the reduction of operational energy intensity excluding heating energy which depends on both the occupants' energy-saving behavior as well as the performance of the building itself. -- Highlights: •We developed a hybrid LCA model to quantify the life-cycle energy for urban and rural residential buildings in China. •Operation energy in urban and rural residential buildings is dominant, varying from 75% to 86% of life cycle energy respectively. •Compared with rural residential buildings, the life-cycle energy intensity of urban residential buildings is 20% higher. •The life-cycle energy of urban residential buildings is most sensitive to the reduction of daily activity energy

  8. Application of Cloud Storage on BIM Life-Cycle Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieyun Ding

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Because of its high information intensity, strong consistency and convenient visualization features, building information modelling (BIM has received widespread attention in the fields of construction and project management. However, due to large amounts of information, high integration, the need for resource sharing between various departments, the long time-span of the BIM application, challenges relating to data interoperability, security and cost all slow down the adoption of BIM. This paper constructs a BIM cloud storage concept system using cloud storage, an advanced computer technology, to solve the problem of mass data processing, information security, and cost problems in the existing application of BIM to full life-cycle management. This system takes full advantage of the cloud storage technique. Achievements are reached in four areas of BIM information management, involving security and licensing management, file management, work process management and collaborative management. The system expands the time and space scales, improves the level of participation, and reduces the cost of BIM. The construction of the BIM cloud storage system is one of the most important directions of the development of BIM, which benefits the promotion and further development of BIM to better serve construction and engineering project management.

  9. A lifecycle management program for NPP turbine balance of plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manabe, Jun; Yamakami, Katsuhiko; Hiraoka, Satoshi; Kawai, Toshinari

    2009-01-01

    A lifecycle management program, for turbine balance of plant of light water reactor units which had been operated for more than 20 years but still having a long intended residual life time, was proposed and implemented from the view point of system and equipment supplier. Here would be introduced the program executed for several utilities. The program consists of unit surveillance analyzing both operation and inspection data, degradation assessment for the equipment and prospecting for the future by planning the proper measures for the issues based on both technology and economy. The program is introduced exampling the generating power affected by main steam pressure reduction derived from the scale adhesion and degradation of equipment. Multidisciplinary optimum design for the replacement of the feedwater heaters, one of the items of the planning, is introduced. Additionally would be introduced the new concept maintenance support program, mainly applied to the units already replaced their principal machines and auxiliaries, configured with both the condition based maintenance system monitoring the trend of parameters of a component and the diagnosis of malfunctions ascertaining the equipment by analyzing and synthesizing operation parameters. (author)

  10. Life-cycle nitrogen trifluoride emissions from photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fthenakis, Vasilis; Clark, Daniel O; Moalem, Mehran; Chandler, Phil; Ridgeway, Robert G; Hulbert, Forrest E; Cooper, David B; Maroulis, Peter J

    2010-11-15

    Amorphous- and nanocrystalline-silicon thin-film photovoltaic modules are made in high-throughput manufacturing lines that necessitate quickly cleaning the reactor. Using NF₃, a potent greenhouse gas, as the cleaning agent triggered concerns as recent reports reveal that the atmospheric concentrations of this gas have increased significantly. We quantified the life-cycle emissions of NF₃ in photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing, on the basis of actual measurements at the facilities of a major producer of NF₃ and of a manufacturer of PV end-use equipment. From these, we defined the best practices and technologies that are the most likely to keep worldwide atmospheric concentrations of NF₃ at very low radiative forcing levels. For the average U.S. insolation and electricity-grid conditions, the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from manufacturing and using NF₃ in current PV a-Si and tandem a-Si/nc-Si facilities add 2 and 7 g CO₂(eq)/kWh, which can be displaced within the first 1-4 months of the PV system life.

  11. On Lifecycle Constraints of Artifact-Centric Workflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucukoguz, Esra; Su, Jianwen

    Data plays a fundamental role in modeling and management of business processes and workflows. Among the recent "data-aware" workflow models, artifact-centric models are particularly interesting. (Business) artifacts are the key data entities that are used in workflows and can reflect both the business logic and the execution states of a running workflow. The notion of artifacts succinctly captures the fluidity aspect of data during workflow executions. However, much of the technical dimension concerning artifacts in workflows is not well understood. In this paper, we study a key concept of an artifact "lifecycle". In particular, we allow declarative specifications/constraints of artifact lifecycle in the spirit of DecSerFlow, and formulate the notion of lifecycle as the set of all possible paths an artifact can navigate through. We investigate two technical problems: (Compliance) does a given workflow (schema) contain only lifecycle allowed by a constraint? And (automated construction) from a given lifecycle specification (constraint), is it possible to construct a "compliant" workflow? The study is based on a new formal variant of artifact-centric workflow model called "ArtiNets" and two classes of lifecycle constraints named "regular" and "counting" constraints. We present a range of technical results concerning compliance and automated construction, including: (1) compliance is decidable when workflow is atomic or constraints are regular, (2) for each constraint, we can always construct a workflow that satisfies the constraint, and (3) sufficient conditions where atomic workflows can be constructed.

  12. Adenomyosis: a life-cycle approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benagiano, Giuseppe; Brosens, Ivo; Habiba, Marwan

    2015-03-01

    The life-cycle approach to endometriosis highlighted unexpected features of the condition; the same approach was therefore applied to gain insight into the clinical features of adenomyosis and to draw a comparison with endometriosis. This is possible today thanks to new imaging techniques enabling non-invasive diagnosis of adenomyosis. The specificity and sensitivity of magnetic resonance imaging and transvaginal ultrasound remain uncertain. Unlike endometriosis, little information is available on the presence of classic adenomyosis in adolescents, except for rare cystic forms that may not represent the true disease. Adenomyosis is most likely to affect adult women, although most reported incidences are still based on post-hysterectomy studies, and are affected by diligence in histopathologic diagnosis and the adopted cut-off point. The traditionally accepted associations of adult adenomyosis, such as multiparity, a link to infertility and its effect on pregnancy are uncertain. Active adenomyosis has been found in pre- and peri-menopausal women and in postmenopausal women receiving tamoxifen. In conclusion, major diagnostic limitations and the systematic bias of hysterectomy make it difficult to draw firm conclusions from existing evidence. In addition, no information is available on the natural history of adenomyosis and no study has systematically evaluated its existence in adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Life-cycle of Operons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Morgan N.; Arkin, Adam P.; Alm, Eric J.

    2007-03-15

    Operons are a major feature of all prokaryotic genomes, buthow and why operon structures vary is not well understood. To elucidatethe life-cycle of operons, we compared gene order between Escherichiacoli K12 and its relatives and identified the recently formed anddestroyed operons in E. coli. This allowed us to determine how operonsform, how they become closely spaced, and how they die. Our findingssuggest that operon evolution may be driven by selection on geneexpression patterns. First, both operon creation and operon destructionlead to large changes in gene expression patterns. For example, theremoval of lysA and ruvA from ancestral operons that contained essentialgenes allowed their expression to respond to lysine levels and DNAdamage, respectively. Second, some operons have undergone acceleratedevolution, with multiple new genes being added during a brief period.Third, although genes within operons are usually closely spaced becauseof a neutral bias toward deletion and because of selection against largeoverlaps, genes in highly expressed operons tend to be widely spacedbecause of regulatory fine-tuning by intervening sequences. Althoughoperon evolution may be adaptive, it need not be optimal: new operonsoften comprise functionally unrelated genes that were already inproximity before the operon formed.

  14. The Life-cycle of Operons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Morgan N.; Arkin, Adam P.; Alm, Eric J.

    2005-11-18

    Operons are a major feature of all prokaryotic genomes, but how and why operon structures vary is not well understood. To elucidate the life-cycle of operons, we compared gene order between Escherichia coli K12 and its relatives and identified the recently formed and destroyed operons in E. coli. This allowed us to determine how operons form, how they become closely spaced, and how they die. Our findings suggest that operon evolution is driven by selection on gene expression patterns. First, both operon creation and operon destruction lead to large changes in gene expression patterns. For example, the removal of lysA and ruvA from ancestral operons that contained essential genes allowed their expression to respond to lysine levels and DNA damage, respectively. Second, some operons have undergone accelerated evolution, with multiple new genes being added during a brief period. Third, although most operons are closely spaced because of a neutral bias towards deletion and because of selection against large overlaps, highly expressed operons tend to be widely spaced because of regulatory fine-tuning by intervening sequences. Although operon evolution seems to be adaptive, it need not be optimal: new operons often comprise functionally unrelated genes that were already in proximity before the operon formed.

  15. A sustainable life-cycle method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diruji Dugarte

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The need for innovative and cost effective approaches for infrastructure maintenance has never been more crucial. In fact, this has been a popular topic in technical reports like the McGraw Hill Construction, the Dutch Cobouw construction magazine and the new multidisciplinary journal “Infrastructure Asset Management” by the Institution of Civil Engineers. The financial status of Industrial Parks (IP and Business Parks (BP in the Netherlands, as well as in the rest of the world, has been greatly influenced by the 2007-2008 financial crisis. As a consequence, several IPs and BPs have suffered from infrastructural deterioration that needs to be revitalized. Therefore, one of the priorities facing municipalities nowadays is stimulating companies to invest and redefine such areas with the goal of improving its economic output and optimize the expenditure on its maintenance costs. The different stakeholders involved in the life-cycle management of these parks make strategic decisions based on data that has been gathered over time by its users, either private or public. However, gathering data is becoming more and more complex with time. Infrastructures in these parks are increasingly demanding custom supply of services by the private industry to cope with their technical operations. As a consequence, the level of detail of the assets information is very high. Hence, the digital collaboration and interoperability has become almost mandatory for enabling proper management in construction areas. Interoperability can be described as the ability of making systems and organization work together.

  16. [Trauma & the reproductive lifecycle in women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born, Leslie; Phillips, Shauna Dae; Steiner, Meir; Soares, Claudio N

    2005-10-01

    Women are at significantly higher risk for developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) than men, resulting in increased psychosocial burden and healthcare related costs. Recent research has shown complex interactions between the impact of traumatic experiences, and the reproductive lifecycle in women. For example, women suffering from premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) who also report a history of sexual or physical abuse are more likely to present with different neuroendocrine reactivity to stressors, when compared to premenstrual dysphoric disorder subjects without prior history of trauma or abuse or non-premenstrual dysphoric disorder subjects. In addition, women with a history of abuse or trauma may experience re-emergence of symptoms during pregnancy. Lastly, females who experience miscarriage may present with even higher prevalence rates of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. In this manuscript we examine the existing data on gender differences in post-traumatic stress disorder, with particular focus on psychological and physiological factors that might be relevant to the development of symptoms after exposure to traumatic events associated with the reproductive life cycle. Current options available for the treatment of such symptoms, including group and counselling therapies and debriefing are critically reviewed.

  17. Systemization of Design and Analysis Technology for Advanced Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Keung Koo; Lee, J.; Zee, S. K.

    2009-01-01

    The present study is performed to establish the base for the license application of the original technology by systemization and enhancement of the technology that is indispensable for the design and analysis of the advanced reactors including integral reactors. Technical reports and topical reports are prepared for this purpose on some important design/analysis methodology; design and analysis computer programs, structural integrity evaluation of main components and structures, digital I and C systems and man-machine interface design. PPS design concept is complemented reflecting typical safety analysis results. And test plans and requirements are developed for the verification of the advanced reactor technology. Moreover, studies are performed to draw up plans to apply to current or advanced power reactors the original technologies or base technologies such as patents, computer programs, test results, design concepts of the systems and components of the advanced reactors. Finally, pending issues are studied of the advanced reactors to improve the economics and technology realization

  18. Stochastic renewal process models for estimation of damage cost over the life-cycle of a structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pandey, Mahesh D.; van der Weide, J.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    In the life-cycle cost analysis of a structure, the total cost of damage caused by external hazards like earthquakes, wind storms and flood is an important but highly uncertain component. In the literature, the expected damage cost is typically analyzed under the assumption of either the

  19. Role of radiologists in CAD life-cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietka, Ewa; Kawa, Jacek; Spinczyk, Dominik; Badura, Pawel; Wieclawek, Wojciech; Czajkowska, Joanna; Rudzki, Marcin

    2011-01-01

    A modern CAD (computer-aided diagnosis) system development involves a multidisciplinary team whose members are experts in medical and technical fields. This study indicates the activities of medical experts at various stages of the CAD design, testing, and implementation. Those stages include a medical analysis of the diagnostic problem, data collection, image analysis, evaluation, and clinical verification. At each stage the physicians knowledge and experience are indispensable. The final implementation involves integration with the existing Picture Archiving and Communication System. The term CAD life-cycle describes an overall process of the design, testing, and implementation of a system that in its final form assists the radiologists in their daily clinical routine. Four CAD systems (applied to the bone age assessment, Multiple Sclerosis detection, lung nodule detection, and pneumothorax measurement) developed in our laboratory are given as examples of how consecutive stages are developed by the multidisciplinary team. Specific advantages of the CAD implementation that include the daily clinical routine as well as research and education activities are discussed.

  20. Role of radiologists in CAD life-cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietka, Ewa, E-mail: ewa.pietka@polsl.pl [Silesian University of Technology, Faculty of Automatic Control, Electronics and Computer Science, ul. Akademicka 16, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Kawa, Jacek, E-mail: jacek.kawa@polsl.pl [Silesian University of Technology, Faculty of Automatic Control, Electronics and Computer Science, ul. Akademicka 16, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Spinczyk, Dominik, E-mail: dominik.spinczyk@polsl.pl [Silesian University of Technology, Faculty of Automatic Control, Electronics and Computer Science, ul. Akademicka 16, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Badura, Pawel, E-mail: pawel.badura@polsl.pl [Silesian University of Technology, Faculty of Automatic Control, Electronics and Computer Science, ul. Akademicka 16, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Wieclawek, Wojciech, E-mail: wojciech.wieclawek@polsl.pl [Silesian University of Technology, Faculty of Automatic Control, Electronics and Computer Science, ul. Akademicka 16, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Czajkowska, Joanna, E-mail: joanna.czajkowska@polsl.pl [Silesian University of Technology, Faculty of Automatic Control, Electronics and Computer Science, ul. Akademicka 16, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Rudzki, Marcin, E-mail: marcin.rudzki@polsl.pl [Silesian University of Technology, Faculty of Automatic Control, Electronics and Computer Science, ul. Akademicka 16, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland)

    2011-05-15

    A modern CAD (computer-aided diagnosis) system development involves a multidisciplinary team whose members are experts in medical and technical fields. This study indicates the activities of medical experts at various stages of the CAD design, testing, and implementation. Those stages include a medical analysis of the diagnostic problem, data collection, image analysis, evaluation, and clinical verification. At each stage the physicians knowledge and experience are indispensable. The final implementation involves integration with the existing Picture Archiving and Communication System. The term CAD life-cycle describes an overall process of the design, testing, and implementation of a system that in its final form assists the radiologists in their daily clinical routine. Four CAD systems (applied to the bone age assessment, Multiple Sclerosis detection, lung nodule detection, and pneumothorax measurement) developed in our laboratory are given as examples of how consecutive stages are developed by the multidisciplinary team. Specific advantages of the CAD implementation that include the daily clinical routine as well as research and education activities are discussed.

  1. Quantitative Analysis of Technological Innovation in Urology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Nikita R; Davis, Niall F; Dalton, David M; McDermott, Ted; Flynn, Robert J; Thomas, Arun Z; Manecksha, Rustom P

    2018-01-01

    To assess major areas of technological innovation in urology in the last 20 years using patent and publication data. Patent and MEDLINE databases were searched between 1980 and 2012 electronically using the terms urology OR urological OR urologist AND "surgeon" OR "surgical" OR "surgery". The patent codes obtained were grouped in technology clusters, further analyzed with individual searches, and growth curves were plotted. Growth rates and patterns were analyzed, and patents were correlated with publications as a measure of scientific support and of clinical adoption. The initial search revealed 417 patents and 20,314 publications. The top 5 technology clusters in descending order were surgical instruments including urinary catheters, minimally invasive surgery (MIS), lasers, robotic surgery, and image guidance. MIS and robotic surgery were the most emergent clusters in the last 5 years. Publication and patent growth rates were closely correlated (Pearson coefficient 0.78, P innovation and adoption into clinical practice. Patent metrics identify emergent technological innovations and such trends are valuable to understand progress in the field of urology. New surgical technologies like robotic surgery and MIS showed exponential growth in the last decade with good scientific vigilance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Survey and analysis of federally developed technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, J.E.; Conrad, J.L.

    1983-02-01

    The methodology and results of a test effort to determine whether there exist unexpected opportunities for the direct transfer of technologies from federal laboratories to industry are presented. Specifically, the latest results of six federal laboratories with potential application in the pulp and paper industry, particularly those results applicable to improving energy productivity, were evaluated, cataloged, and distributed to industry representatives to gauge their reaction. The principal methodological steps in this effort were the development of a taxonomy of the pulp and paper industry, identification of industry needs and laboratory capabilities, laboratory visits, review of technology findings with industry, and evaluation and compilation of industry responses.

  3. A life-cycle comparison of alternative automobile fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, H L; Lave, L B; Lankey, R; Joshi, S

    2000-10-01

    We examine the life cycles of gasoline, diesel, compressed natural gas (CNG), and ethanol (C2H5OH)-fueled internal combustion engine (ICE) automobiles. Port and direct injection and spark and compression ignition engines are examined. We investigate diesel fuel from both petroleum and biosources as well as C2H5OH from corn, herbaceous bio-mass, and woody biomass. The baseline vehicle is a gasoline-fueled 1998 Ford Taurus. We optimize the other fuel/powertrain combinations for each specific fuel as a part of making the vehicles comparable to the baseline in terms of range, emissions level, and vehicle lifetime. Life-cycle calculations are done using the economic input-output life-cycle analysis (EIO-LCA) software; fuel cycles and vehicle end-of-life stages are based on published model results. We find that recent advances in gasoline vehicles, the low petroleum price, and the extensive gasoline infrastructure make it difficult for any alternative fuel to become commercially viable. The most attractive alternative fuel is compressed natural gas because it is less expensive than gasoline, has lower regulated pollutant and toxics emissions, produces less greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and is available in North America in large quantities. However, the bulk and weight of gas storage cylinders required for the vehicle to attain a range comparable to that of gasoline vehicles necessitates a redesign of the engine and chassis. Additional natural gas transportation and distribution infrastructure is required for large-scale use of natural gas for transportation. Diesel engines are extremely attractive in terms of energy efficiency, but expert judgment is divided on whether these engines will be able to meet strict emissions standards, even with reformulated fuel. The attractiveness of direct injection engines depends on their being able to meet strict emissions standards without losing their greater efficiency. Biofuels offer lower GHG emissions, are sustainable, and

  4. Life-Cycle Inventory and Costs of Different Car Powertrains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeder, Alexander

    2001-12-01

    This report contains two internal reports that document the data collected for a Ph.D. thesis (Roeder, A.: Integration of Life-Cycle Assessment and Energy Planning Models for the Evaluation of Car Power trains and Fuels, Dissertation ETH 14291, Zuerich/Villigen 2001). The aim of this thesis is a comparison of different car power trains and corresponding fuels under economic and ecological aspects. Such an analysis requires, of course, large amounts of data, and data mining was actually the most time-consuming part of the thesis. However, including a detailed documentation into the thesis would have made the latter far too bulky, so we decided to compile all data documentation into a single background document: the PSI report you are just reading. This report consists of two parts: The first part contains the life-cycle inventory (LCI), while the second part compiles the economic data. The LCI is based on the work of R. Frischknecht et al. that elaborated a very detailed inventory of energy systems in Switzerland (Frischknecht et al.: Oekoinventare von Energiesystemen, 3rd ed., BEW, Bern 1996). Processes already analysed in this reference (e.g. provision of most fossil energy carriers, basic processes such as standard materials or transport processes) have not been described here unless data quality requirements made a re-evaluation necessary (e.g. production of platinum- group metaIs). Within this report, you will find a description of the methodology used, the documentation of all input data, and a discussion of results. Numeric results can be found in the Appendix of the first part. The second part (that deals with the costs) is relatively short, compared to the LCI part. This is mainly because in many cases there was no need to analyse previous steps in a fuel chain or production chain in more detail: when the costs for natural gas for a European customer are known, it is clear that part of these costs is for exploration, part for extraction, part for processing

  5. A Life-Cycle Comparison of Alternative Automobile Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Heather L; Lave, Lester B; Lankey, Rebecca; Joshi, Satish

    2000-10-01

    We examine the life cycles of gasoline, diesel, compressed natural gas (CNG), and ethanol (C 2 H 5 OH)-fueled internal combustion engine (ICE) automobiles. Port and direct injection and spark and compression ignition engines are examined. We investigate diesel fuel from both petroleum and biosources as well as C 2 H 5 OH from corn, herbaceous bio-mass, and woody biomass. The baseline vehicle is a gasoline-fueled 1998 Ford Taurus. We optimize the other fuel/powertrain combinations for each specific fuel as a part of making the vehicles comparable to the baseline in terms of range, emissions level, and vehicle lifetime. Life-cycle calculations are done using the economic input-output life-cycle analysis (EIO-LCA) software; fuel cycles and vehicle end-of-life stages are based on published model results. We find that recent advances in gasoline vehicles, the low petroleum price, and the extensive gasoline infrastructure make it difficult for any alternative fuel to become commercially viable. The most attractive alternative fuel is compressed natural gas because it is less expensive than gasoline, has lower regulated pollutant and toxics emissions, produces less greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and is available in North America in large quantities. However, the bulk and weight of gas storage cylinders required for the vehicle to attain a range comparable to that of gasoline vehicles necessitates a redesign of the engine and chassis. Additional natural gas transportation and distribution infrastructure is required for large-scale use of natural gas for transportation. Diesel engines are extremely attractive in terms of energy efficiency, but expert judgment is divided on whether these engines will be able to meet strict emissions standards, even with reformulated fuel. The attractiveness of direct injection engines depends on their being able to meet strict emissions standards without losing their greater efficiency. Biofuels offer lower GHG emissions, are sustainable

  6. Infrastructure and automobile shifts: positioning transit to reduce life-cycle environmental impacts for urban sustainability goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chester, Mikhail; Pincetl, Stephanie; Elizabeth, Zoe; Eisenstein, William; Matute, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Public transportation systems are often part of strategies to reduce urban environmental impacts from passenger transportation, yet comprehensive energy and environmental life-cycle measures, including upfront infrastructure effects and indirect and supply chain processes, are rarely considered. Using the new bus rapid transit and light rail lines in Los Angeles, near-term and long-term life-cycle impact assessments are developed, including consideration of reduced automobile travel. Energy consumption and emissions of greenhouse gases and criteria pollutants are assessed, as well the potential for smog and respiratory impacts. Results show that life-cycle infrastructure, vehicle, and energy production components significantly increase the footprint of each mode (by 48–100% for energy and greenhouse gases, and up to 6200% for environmental impacts), and emerging technologies and renewable electricity standards will significantly reduce impacts. Life-cycle results are identified as either local (in Los Angeles) or remote, and show how the decision to build and operate a transit system in a city produces environmental impacts far outside of geopolitical boundaries. Ensuring shifts of between 20–30% of transit riders from automobiles will result in passenger transportation greenhouse gas reductions for the city, and the larger the shift, the quicker the payback, which should be considered for time-specific environmental goals. (letter)

  7. Infrastructure and automobile shifts: positioning transit to reduce life-cycle environmental impacts for urban sustainability goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, Mikhail; Pincetl, Stephanie; Elizabeth, Zoe; Eisenstein, William; Matute, Juan

    2013-03-01

    Public transportation systems are often part of strategies to reduce urban environmental impacts from passenger transportation, yet comprehensive energy and environmental life-cycle measures, including upfront infrastructure effects and indirect and supply chain processes, are rarely considered. Using the new bus rapid transit and light rail lines in Los Angeles, near-term and long-term life-cycle impact assessments are developed, including consideration of reduced automobile travel. Energy consumption and emissions of greenhouse gases and criteria pollutants are assessed, as well the potential for smog and respiratory impacts. Results show that life-cycle infrastructure, vehicle, and energy production components significantly increase the footprint of each mode (by 48-100% for energy and greenhouse gases, and up to 6200% for environmental impacts), and emerging technologies and renewable electricity standards will significantly reduce impacts. Life-cycle results are identified as either local (in Los Angeles) or remote, and show how the decision to build and operate a transit system in a city produces environmental impacts far outside of geopolitical boundaries. Ensuring shifts of between 20-30% of transit riders from automobiles will result in passenger transportation greenhouse gas reductions for the city, and the larger the shift, the quicker the payback, which should be considered for time-specific environmental goals.

  8. Analysis of technologies databases use in physical education and sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usychenko V.V.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Analysis and systematization is conducted scientific methodical and the special literature. The questions of the use of technology of databases rise in the system of preparation of sportsmen. The necessity of application of technologies of operative treatment of large arrays of sporting information is rotined. Collected taking on the use of computer-aided technologies of account and analysis of results of testing of parameters of training process. The question of influence of technologies is considered on training and competition activity. A database is presented «Athlete». A base contains anthropometric and myometrical indexes of sportsmen of bodybuilding of high qualification.

  9. Using Citation Network Analysis in Educational Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yonjoo; Park, Sunyoung

    2012-01-01

    Previous reviews in the field of Educational Technology (ET) have revealed some publication patterns according to authors, institutions, and affiliations. However, those previous reviews focused only on the rankings of individual authors and institutions, and did not provide qualitative details on relations and networks of scholars and scholarly…

  10. Development of safety analysis technology for LMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, Do Hee; Kwon, Y. M.; Kim, K. D.

    2000-05-01

    The analysis methodologies as well as the analysis computer code system for the transient, HCDA, and containment performance analyses, which are required for KALIMER safety analyses, have been developed. The SSC-K code has been developed based on SSC-L which is an analysis code for loop type LMR, by improving models necessary for the KALIMER system analysis, and additional models have been added to the code. In addition, HCDA analysis model has been developed and the containment performance analysis code has been also improved. The preliminary basis for the safety analysis has been established, and the preliminary safety analyses for the key design features have been performed. In addition, a state-of-art analysis for LMR PSA and overseas safety and licensing requirements have been reviewed. The design database for the systematic management of the design documents as well as design processes has been established as well

  11. Development of safety analysis technology for LMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Do Hee; Kwon, Y. M.; Kim, K. D. [and others

    2000-05-01

    The analysis methodologies as well as the analysis computer code system for the transient, HCDA, and containment performance analyses, which are required for KALIMER safety analyses, have been developed. The SSC-K code has been developed based on SSC-L which is an analysis code for loop type LMR, by improving models necessary for the KALIMER system analysis, and additional models have been added to the code. In addition, HCDA analysis model has been developed and the containment performance analysis code has been also improved. The preliminary basis for the safety analysis has been established, and the preliminary safety analyses for the key design features have been performed. In addition, a state-of-art analysis for LMR PSA and overseas safety and licensing requirements have been reviewed. The design database for the systematic management of the design documents as well as design processes has been established as well.

  12. Assessing the lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions from solar PV and wind energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nugent, Daniel; Sovacool, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    This paper critically screens 153 lifecycle studies covering a broad range of wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation technologies to identify 41 of the most relevant, recent, rigorous, original, and complete assessments so that the dynamics of their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions...... profiles can be determined. When viewed in a holistic manner, including initial materials extraction, manufacturing, use and disposal/decommissioning, these 41 studies show that both wind and solar systems are directly tied to and responsible for GHG emissions. They are thus not actually emissions free......, this article uncovers best practices in wind and solar design and deployment that can better inform climate change mitigation efforts in the electricity sector...

  13. Sustainable Nanotechnology: Through Green Methods and Life-Cycle Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapinder Sawhney

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Citing the myriad applications of nanotechnology, this paper emphasizes the need to conduct “life cycle” based assessments as early in the new product development process as possible, for a better understanding of the potential environmental and human health consequences of nanomaterials over the entire life cycle of a nano-enabled product. The importance of this reasoning is further reinforced through an illustrative case study on automotive exterior body panels, which shows that the perceived environmental benefits of nano-based products in the Use stage may not adequately represent the complete picture, without examining the impacts in the other life cycle stages, particularly Materials Processing and Manufacturing. Nanomanufacturing methods often have associated environmental and human health impacts, which must be kept in perspective when evaluating nanoproducts for their “greenness.” Incorporating life-cycle thinking for making informed decisions at the product design stage, combining life cycle and risk analysis, using sustainable manufacturing practices, and employing green chemistry alternatives are seen as possible solutions.

  14. Life-cycle cost as basis to optimize waste collection in space and time: A methodology for obtaining a detailed cost breakdown structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Vitor; Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Vaz, João M; Meireles, Inês

    2018-05-01

    Extensive research has been carried out on waste collection costs mainly to differentiate costs of distinct waste streams and spatial optimization of waste collection services (e.g. routes, number, and location of waste facilities). However, waste collection managers also face the challenge of optimizing assets in time, for instance deciding when to replace and how to maintain, or which technological solution to adopt. These issues require a more detailed knowledge about the waste collection services' cost breakdown structure. The present research adjusts the methodology for buildings' life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis, detailed in the ISO 15686-5:2008, to the waste collection assets. The proposed methodology is then applied to the waste collection assets owned and operated by a real municipality in Portugal (Cascais Ambiente - EMAC). The goal is to highlight the potential of the LCC tool in providing a baseline for time optimization of the waste collection service and assets, namely assisting on decisions regarding equipment operation and replacement.

  15. The investigation of nano-monitoring technology and the probability analysis of application of nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang Kejun; Wang Xuewu; Gao Wenhuan

    1999-01-01

    After several-decade of development, nano science/nano technology has become a scientific and technical frontier that with major trends foreseen in several disciplines. By connecting with the development of nano science/nano technology and considering the human body environment that the nano system is applicable in, the author analyzes the probability of the present nuclear detection technologies integrating and application with the monitoring of nano system, and draws an analysis of optimality choice

  16. Environmental Performance of Hypothetical Canadian Pre-Combustion Carbon Dioxide Capture Processes Using Life-Cycle Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakkana Piewkhaow

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The methodology of life-cycle assessment was applied in order to evaluate the environmental performance of a hypothetical Saskatchewan lignite-fueled Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC electricity generation, with and without pre-combustion carbon dioxide (CO2 capture from a full life-cycle perspective. The emphasis here is placed on environmental performance associated with air contaminants of the comparison between IGCC systems (with and without CO2 capture and a competing lignite pulverized coal-fired electricity generating station in order to reveal which technology offers the most positive environmental effects. Moreover, ambient air pollutant modeling was also conducted by using American Meteorological Society/Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model (AERMOD air dispersion modeling to determine the ground-level concentration of pollutants emitted from four different electricity generating stations. This study assumes that all stations are located close to Estevan. The results showed a significant reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and acidification potential by applying both post-combustion and pre-combustion CO2 capture processes. The GHG emissions were found to have reduced by 27%–86%, and IGCC systems were found to compare favorably to pulverized coal systems. However, in other environmental impact categories, there are multiple environmental trade-offs depending on the capture technology used. In the case of post-combustion capture, it was observed that the environmental impact category of eutrophication potential, summer smog, and ozone depletion increased due to the application of the CO2 capture process and the surface mining coal operation. IGCC systems, on the other hand, showed the same tendency as the conventional coal-fired electricity generation systems, but to a lesser degree. This is because the IGCC system is a cleaner technology that produces lower pollutant emission levels than the electricity

  17. Method of Data storing, collection and aggregation for definition of life-cycle resources of electromechanical equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukovskiy, Y.; Koteleva, N.

    2017-10-01

    Analysis of technical and technological conditions for the emergence of emergency situations during the operation of electromechanical equipment of enterprises of the mineral and raw materials complex shows that when developing the basis for ensuring safe operation, it is necessary to take into account not only the technical condition, but also the non-stationary operation of the operating conditions of equipment, and the nonstationarity of operational operating parameters of technological processes. Violations of the operation of individual parts of the machine, not detected in time, can lead to severe accidents at work, as well as to unplanned downtime and loss of profits. That is why, the issues of obtaining and processing Big data obtained during the life cycle of electromechanical equipment, for assessing the current state of the electromechanical equipment used, timely diagnostics of emergency and pre-emergency modes of its operation, estimating the residual resource, as well as prediction the technical state on the basis of machine learning are very important. This article is dedicated to developing the special method of data storing, collection and aggregation for definition of life-cycle resources of electromechanical equipment. This method can be used in working with big data and can allow extracting the knowledge from different data types: the plants’ historical data and the factory historical data. The data of the plants contains the information about electromechanical equipment operation and the data of the factory contains the information about a production of electromechanical equipment.

  18. Aptamer-based technology for food analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofei; Zhang, Xuewu

    2015-01-01

    Aptamers are short and functional single-stranded oligonucleotide sequences selected from systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) process, which have the capacity to recognize various classes of target molecules with high affinity and specificity. Various analytical aptamers acquired by SELEX are widely used in many research fields, such as medicine, biology, and chemistry. However, the application of this innovative and emerging technology to food safety is just in infant stage. Food safety plays a very important role in our daily lives because varieties of poisonous and harmful substances in food affect human health. Aptamer technique is promising, which can overcome many disadvantages of existing detection methods in food safety, such as long detection time, low sensitivity, difficult, and expensive antibody preparation. This review provides an overview of various aptamer screening technologies and summarizes the recent applications of aptamers in food safety, and future prospects are also discussed.

  19. ANALYSIS ON TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSES CLEANING OIL PIPELINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana PǍTRAŞCU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the researches are presented concerning the technological processes of oil pipelines.We know several technologies and materials used for cleaning the sludge deposits, iron and manganese oxides, dross, stone, etc.de on the inner walls of drinking water pipes or industries.For the oil industry, methods of removal of waste materials and waste pipes and liquid and gas transport networks are operations known long, tedious and expensive. The main methods and associated problems can be summarized as follows: 1 Blowing with compressed air.2 manual or mechanical brushing, sanding with water or dry.3 Wash with water jet of high pressure, solvent or chemical solution to remove the stone and hard deposits.4 The combined methods of cleaning machines that use water jets, cutters, chains, rotary heads cutters, etc.

  20. Digital Printing Quality Detection and Analysis Technology Based on CCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ming; Zheng, Liping

    2017-12-01

    With the help of CCD digital printing quality detection and analysis technology, it can carry out rapid evaluation and objective detection of printing quality, and can play a certain control effect on printing quality. It can be said CDD digital printing quality testing and analysis of the rational application of technology, its digital printing and printing materials for a variety of printing equipments to improve the quality of a very positive role. In this paper, we do an in-depth study and discussion based on the CCD digital print quality testing and analysis technology.

  1. Extended analysis on impact of nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainul Hayati Daud; Hazmimi Kasim

    2010-01-01

    This chapter discusses a number of economic, social and knowledge impacts of the applications of nuclear technology in Malaysia as well as benchmarking with Japan and the Republic of Korea. Under economic impacts, index of gross value of products and services, index of gross value of exports, index of gross value of training expenditures, and index of total number of human resource trained are developed. In addition, the contribution of the application of nuclear technology to both Gross Domestic Products (GDP) and GDP per capita are also highlighted. The impact of the application of nuclear technology to Total Factor Productivity (TFP) is also covered in this chapter. Much of the discussions on economic impacts are based on findings in private companies. That is because many of their operations can be expressed in monetary terms by virtue of them operating in commercial environment. Public agencies, however, play crucial role in enabling the private companies attain the level of development reported in this study. Towards that end, public agencies invested in Research and development activities, human capital development, as well as in the setting-up, operation and maintenance of both technical and administrative infrastructures. The impact of such activities is discussed in the later part of this chapter. (author)

  2. Ethical analysis to improve decision-making on health technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saarni, Samuli I; Hofmann, Bjørn; Lampe, Kristian

    2008-01-01

    Health technology assessment (HTA) is the multidisciplinary study of the implications of the development, diffusion and use of health technologies. It supports health-policy decisions by providing a joint knowledge base for decision-makers. To increase its policy relevance, HTA tries to extend...... beyond effectiveness and costs to also considering the social, organizational and ethical implications of technologies. However, a commonly accepted method for analysing the ethical aspects of health technologies is lacking. This paper describes a model for ethical analysis of health technology...... to only analyse the ethical consequences of a technology, but also the ethical issues of the whole HTA process must be considered. Selection of assessment topics, methods and outcomes is essentially a value-laden decision. Health technologies may challenge moral or cultural values and beliefs...

  3. Advanced PWR technology development -Development of advanced PWR system analysis technology-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Moon Heui; Hwang, Yung Dong; Kim, Sung Oh; Yoon, Joo Hyun; Jung, Bub Dong; Choi, Chul Jin; Lee, Yung Jin; Song, Jin Hoh [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    The primary scope of this study is to establish the analysis technology for the advanced reactor designed on the basis of the passive and inherent safety concepts. This study is extended to the application of these technology to the safety analysis of the passive reactor. The study was performed for the small and medium sized reactor and the large sized reactor by focusing on the development of the analysis technology for the passive components. Among the identified concepts the once-through steam generator, the natural circulation of the integral reactor, heat pipe for containment cooling, and hydraulic valve were selected as the high priority items to be developed and the related studies are being performed for these items. For the large sized passive reactor, the study plans to extend the applicability of the best estimate computer code RELAP5/MOD3 which is widely used for the safety analyses of the reactor system. The improvement and supplementation study of the analysis modeling and the methodology is planned to be carried out for these purpose. The newly developed technologies are expected to be applied to the domestic advanced reactor design and analysis and these technologies will play a key role in extending the domestic nuclear base technology and consolidating self-reliance in the essential nuclear technology. 72 figs, 15 tabs, 124 refs. (Author).

  4. Advanced analysis technology for MOX fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiyama, T.; Kamimura, K.

    1997-01-01

    PNC has developed MOX fuels for advanced thermal reactor (ATR) and fast breeder reactor (FBR). The MOX samples have been chemically analysed to characterize the MOX fuel for JOYO, MONJU, FUGEN and so on. The analysis of the MOX samples in glove box has required complicated and highly skilled operations. Therefore, for quality control analysis of the MOX fuel in a fabrication plant, simple, rapid and accurate analysis methods are necessary. To solve the above problems instrumental analysis and techniques were developed. This paper describes some of the recent developments in PNC. 2. Outline of recently developed analysis methods by PNC. 2.1 Determination of oxygen to metal atomic ratio (O/M) in MOX by non-dispersive infrared spectrophotometry after inert gas fusion. 7 refs, 9 figs, 4 tabs

  5. Supporting the scientific lifecycle through cloud services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gensch, S.; Klump, J. F.; Bertelmann, R.; Braune, C.

    2014-12-01

    Cloud computing has made resources and applications available for numerous use cases ranging from business processes in the private sector to scientific applications. Developers have created tools for data management, collaborative writing, social networking, data access and visualization, project management and many more; either for free or as paid premium services with additional or extended features. Scientists have begun to incorporate tools that fit their needs into their daily work. To satisfy specialized needs, some cloud applications specifically address the needs of scientists for sharing research data, literature search, laboratory documentation, or data visualization. Cloud services may vary in extent, user coverage, and inter-service integration and are also at risk of being abandonend or changed by the service providers making changes to their business model, or leaving the field entirely.Within the project Academic Enterprise Cloud we examine cloud based services that support the research lifecycle, using feature models to describe key properties in the areas of infrastructure and service provision, compliance to legal regulations, and data curation. Emphasis is put on the term Enterprise as to establish an academic cloud service provider infrastructure that satisfies demands of the research community through continious provision across the whole cloud stack. This could enable the research community to be independent from service providers regarding changes to terms of service and ensuring full control of its extent and usage. This shift towards a self-empowered scientific cloud provider infrastructure and its community raises implications about feasability of provision and overall costs. Legal aspects and licensing issues have to be considered, when moving data into cloud services, especially when personal data is involved.Educating researchers about cloud based tools is important to help in the transition towards effective and safe use. Scientists

  6. Assessment of major nuclear technologies with decision and risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterfeldt, D. von

    1995-01-01

    Selecting technologies for major nuclear programs involves several complexities, including multiple stakeholders, multiple conflicting objectives, uncertainties, and risk. In addition, the programmatic risks related to the schedule, cost, and performance of these technologies often become major issues in the selection process. This paper describes a decision analysis approach for addressing these complexities in a logical manner

  7. Open Innovation and Technology Maturity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-11

    INFOLOGIC Inc. All rights reserved. Innovation Management Model  Product: Technology-heavy (e.g: Airplane, iPod) OR Service-heavy (e.g: Starbucks ...System, eBay)  Process: Any critical business process to ensure the success of product (e.g: iTune for iPod, Marketing and Supply Chain Management...Integration and Voice of the Customer Voice of the Customer Integration M A T U R I T Y VALUE Radical Innovation Evolutionary Innovation INCREMENTAL

  8. Cost/benefit analysis for selected waste minimization technologies at TA-55

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerigter, S.T.

    1996-01-01

    The TA-55 plutonium facility at LANL is one of the remaining plutonium-handling facilities in the United States with significant operational capability. In recent years a great deal of attention has been focused on the waste streams generated by this facility. Costs of properly treating these streams have risen significantly. This paper discusses the characterization of several proposed radioactive waste minimization technologies as a function of Return on Investment (ROI). In particular, the DOE Environmental Management program has identified a specific funding channel for such technology development activities, but this funding channel requires a restrictive definition of ROI. Here, a simple extension to the required ROI equation is used to capture the lifecycle ROI due to offsets in future capital charges resulting from present spending

  9. A Network Analysis Model for Selecting Sustainable Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangsung Park

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Most companies develop technologies to improve their competitiveness in the marketplace. Typically, they then patent these technologies around the world in order to protect their intellectual property. Other companies may use patented technologies to develop new products, but must pay royalties to the patent holders or owners. Should they fail to do so, this can result in legal disputes in the form of patent infringement actions between companies. To avoid such situations, companies attempt to research and develop necessary technologies before their competitors do so. An important part of this process is analyzing existing patent documents in order to identify emerging technologies. In such analyses, extracting sustainable technology from patent data is important, because sustainable technology drives technological competition among companies and, thus, the development of new technologies. In addition, selecting sustainable technologies makes it possible to plan their R&D (research and development efficiently. In this study, we propose a network model that can be used to select the sustainable technology from patent documents, based on the centrality and degree of a social network analysis. To verify the performance of the proposed model, we carry out a case study using actual patent data from patent databases.

  10. Decision Analysis System for Selection of Appropriate Decontamination Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebadian, M.A.; Boudreaux, J.F.; Chinta, S.; Zanakis, S.H.

    1998-01-01

    The principal objective for designing Decision Analysis System for Decontamination (DASD) is to support DOE-EM's endeavor to employ the most efficient and effective technologies for treating radiologically contaminated surfaces while minimizing personnel and environmental risks. DASD will provide a tool for environmental decision makers to improve the quality, consistency, and efficacy of their technology selection decisions. The system will facilitate methodical comparisons between innovative and baseline decontamination technologies and aid in identifying the most suitable technologies for performing surface decontamination at DOE environmental restoration sites

  11. Analysis of Adsorbed Natural Gas Tank Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Ernest; Schultz, Conrad; Rash, Tyler; Dohnke, Elmar; Stalla, David; Gillespie, Andrew; Sweany, Mark; Seydel, Florian; Pfeifer, Peter

    With gasoline being an ever decreasing finite resource and with the desire to reduce humanity's carbon footprint, there has been an increasing focus on innovation of alternative fuel sources. Natural gas burns cleaner, is more abundant, and conforms to modern engines. However, storing compressed natural gas (CNG) requires large, heavy gas cylinders, which limits space and fuel efficiency. Adsorbed natural gas (ANG) technology allows for much greater fuel storage capacity and the ability to store the gas at a much lower pressure. Thus, ANG tanks are much more flexible in terms of their size, shape, and weight. Our ANG tank employs monolithic nanoporous activated carbon as its adsorbent material. Several different configurations of this Flat Panel Tank Assembly (FPTA) along with a Fuel Extraction System (FES) were examined to compare with the mass flow rate demands of an engine.

  12. Assessing software quality at each step of its life-cycle to enhance reliability of control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardion, V.; Buteau, A.; Leclercq, N.; Abeille, G.; Pierre-Joseph, Z.; Le, S.

    2012-01-01

    A distributed software control system aims to enhance the upgrade ability and reliability by sharing responsibility between several components. The disadvantage is that it makes it harder to detect problems on a significant number of modules. With Kaizen in mind we have chosen to continuously invest in automation to obtain a complete overview of software quality despite the growth of legacy code. The development process has already been mastered by staging each life-cycle step thanks to a continuous integration server based on JENKINS and MAVEN. We enhanced this process, focusing on 3 objectives: Automatic Test, Static Code Analysis and Post-Mortem Supervision. Now, the build process automatically includes a test section to detect regressions, incorrect behaviour and integration incompatibility. The in-house TANGOUNIT project satisfies the difficulties of testing distributed components such as Tango Devices. In the next step, the programming code has to pass a complete code quality check-up. The SONAR quality server has been integrated in the process, to collect each static code analysis and display the hot topics on summary web pages. Finally, the integration of Google BREAKPAD in every TANGO Devices gives us essential statistics from crash reports and enables us to replay the crash scenarios at any time. We have already gained greater visibility on current developments. Some concrete results will be presented including reliability enhancement, better management of subcontracted software development, quicker adoption of coding standards by new developers and understanding of impacts when moving to a new technology. (authors)

  13. Analysis of Advanced Fuel Kernel Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Seung Chul; Jeong, Kyung Chai; Kim, Yeon Ku; Kim, Young Min; Kim, Woong Ki; Lee, Young Woo; Cho, Moon Sung

    2010-03-01

    The reference fuel for prismatic reactor concepts is based on use of an LEU UCO TRISO fissile particle. This fuel form was selected in the early 1980s for large high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) concepts using LEU, and the selection was reconfirmed for modular designs in the mid-1980s. Limited existing irradiation data on LEU UCO TRISO fuel indicate the need for a substantial improvement in performance with regard to in-pile gaseous fission product release. Existing accident testing data on LEU UCO TRISO fuel are extremely limited, but it is generally expected that performance would be similar to that of LEU UO 2 TRISO fuel if performance under irradiation were successfully improved. Initial HTGR fuel technology was based on carbide fuel forms. In the early 1980s, as HTGR technology was transitioning from high-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to LEU fuel. An initial effort focused on LEU prismatic design for large HTGRs resulted in the selection of UCO kernels for the fissile particles and thorium oxide (ThO 2 ) for the fertile particles. The primary reason for selection of the UCO kernel over UO 2 was reduced CO pressure, allowing higher burnup for equivalent coating thicknesses and reduced potential for kernel migration, an important failure mechanism in earlier fuels. A subsequent assessment in the mid-1980s considering modular HTGR concepts again reached agreement on UCO for the fissile particle for a prismatic design. In the early 1990s, plant cost-reduction studies led to a decision to change the fertile material from thorium to natural uranium, primarily because of a lower long-term decay heat level for the natural uranium fissile particles. Ongoing economic optimization in combination with anticipated capabilities of the UCO particles resulted in peak fissile particle burnup projection of 26% FIMA in steam cycle and gas turbine concepts

  14. Health Monitoring System Technology Assessments: Cost Benefits Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Renee M.; Murphy, Dennis A.

    2000-01-01

    The subject of sensor-based structural health monitoring is very diverse and encompasses a wide range of activities including initiatives and innovations involving the development of advanced sensor, signal processing, data analysis, and actuation and control technologies. In addition, it embraces the consideration of the availability of low-cost, high-quality contributing technologies, computational utilities, and hardware and software resources that enable the operational realization of robust health monitoring technologies. This report presents a detailed analysis of the cost benefit and other logistics and operational considerations associated with the implementation and utilization of sensor-based technologies for use in aerospace structure health monitoring. The scope of this volume is to assess the economic impact, from an end-user perspective, implementation health monitoring technologies on three structures. It specifically focuses on evaluating the impact on maintaining and supporting these structures with and without health monitoring capability.

  15. Analysis on Japanese nuclear industrial technologies and their military implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H S; Yang, M H; Kim, H J. and others

    2000-10-01

    This study covered the following scopes : analysis of Japan's policy trend on the development and utilization of nuclear energy, international and domestic viewpoint of Japan's nuclear weapon capability, Japan's foreign affairs and international cooperation, status of Japan's nuclear technology development and its level, status and level of nuclear core technologies such as nuclear reactor and related fuel cycle technologies. Japan secures the whole spectrum of nuclear technologies including core technologies through the active implementation of nuclear policy for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy during the past five decades. Futhermore, as the result of the active cultivation of nuclear industry, Japan has most nuclear-related facilities and highly advanced nuclear industrial technologies. Therefore, it is reasonable that Japan might be recognized as one of countries having capability to get nuclear capability in several months.

  16. Analysis on Japanese nuclear industrial technologies and their military implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. S.; Yang, M. H.; Kim, H. J. and others

    2000-10-01

    This study covered the following scopes : analysis of Japan's policy trend on the development and utilization of nuclear energy, international and domestic viewpoint of Japan's nuclear weapon capability, Japan's foreign affairs and international cooperation, status of Japan's nuclear technology development and its level, status and level of nuclear core technologies such as nuclear reactor and related fuel cycle technologies. Japan secures the whole spectrum of nuclear technologies including core technologies through the active implementation of nuclear policy for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy during the past five decades. Futhermore, as the result of the active cultivation of nuclear industry, Japan has most nuclear-related facilities and highly advanced nuclear industrial technologies. Therefore, it is reasonable that Japan might be recognized as one of countries having capability to get nuclear capability in several months

  17. Analysis on Japanese nuclear industrial technologies and their military implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H. S.; Yang, M. H.; Kim, H. J. and others

    2000-10-01

    This study covered the following scopes : analysis of Japan's policy trend on the development and utilization of nuclear energy, international and domestic viewpoint of Japan's nuclear weapon capability, Japan's foreign affairs and international cooperation, status of Japan's nuclear technology development and its level, status and level of nuclear core technologies such as nuclear reactor and related fuel cycle technologies. Japan secures the whole spectrum of nuclear technologies including core technologies through the active implementation of nuclear policy for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy during the past five decades. Futhermore, as the result of the active cultivation of nuclear industry, Japan has most nuclear-related facilities and highly advanced nuclear industrial technologies. Therefore, it is reasonable that Japan might be recognized as one of countries having capability to get nuclear capability in several months.

  18. A life-cycle based decision-making framework for electricity generation system planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norrie, S.J.; Fang, L. [Ryerson Polytechnic Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Environmental Applied Science and Management Graduate Program

    2006-07-01

    This paper proposed a framework for the consideration of multiple objectives in the long-term planning of electricity generation systems. The framework was comprised of 3 components: (1) information based on life-cycle inventories of electricity generation technologies; (2) a set of alternative scenarios to be evaluated and ranked using the framework; and (3) stakeholder values for decision objectives. Scenarios were developed to represent a set of future conditions, and values were derived through the use of questionnaires. Planning for electricity generation in Ontario was selected as a test case for the DM framework. Three scenarios were presented: (1) a business as usual scenario characterized by large, central power plants; (2) a mix of central power plants, distributed generation, and advanced conventional fuel technologies; and (3) small-scale distributed and renewable energy sources and aggressive demand-side management. The life-cycle based information from the scenario evaluation was used to estimate the performance of each scenario on the established decision criteria. Results showed that scenario 3 was the closest to achieving the fundamental objectives according to the decision criteria. It was concluded that the DM framework showed that the use of holistic environmental information and preferential information for multiple objectives can be integrated into a framework that openly and consistently evaluates a set of alternative scenarios. 31 refs., 7 tabs., 4 figs.

  19. A Spatio-Temporal Building Exposure Database and Information Life-Cycle Management Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Wieland

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available With an ever-increasing volume and complexity of data collected from a variety of sources, the efficient management of geospatial information becomes a key topic in disaster risk management. For example, the representation of assets exposed to natural disasters is subjected to changes throughout the different phases of risk management reaching from pre-disaster mitigation to the response after an event and the long-term recovery of affected assets. Spatio-temporal changes need to be integrated into a sound conceptual and technological framework able to deal with data coming from different sources, at varying scales, and changing in space and time. Especially managing the information life-cycle, the integration of heterogeneous information and the distributed versioning and release of geospatial information are important topics that need to become essential parts of modern exposure modelling solutions. The main purpose of this study is to provide a conceptual and technological framework to tackle the requirements implied by disaster risk management for describing exposed assets in space and time. An information life-cycle management solution is proposed, based on a relational spatio-temporal database model coupled with Git and GeoGig repositories for distributed versioning. Two application scenarios focusing on the modelling of residential building stocks are presented to show the capabilities of the implemented solution. A prototype database model is shared on GitHub along with the necessary scenario data.

  20. Analysis of instrumentation technology for SMART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hur, Seop; Koo, I. S.; Park, H. Y.; Lee, C. K.; Kim, D. H.; Suh, Y. S.; Seong, S. H.; Jang, G. S.

    1998-03-01

    It is necessary that development requirements, techniques to be developed, and development tasks and approach are established to develop the SMART instrumentation system. It is important to establish the development strategies for input for developing SMART instrumentation system. To meet above needs, the industry general and nuclear instrumentation techniques were analyzed and reviewed, respectively, based on the classification of instrumentation to analyze the industrial instrumentation techniques, and analysis results which described the inherent merits and demerits of each technique can be used for inputs to select the instruments for SMART. For the instrumentation techniques for nuclear environments, the major instrumentation techniques were reviewed, and the instrumentation system were established. The following development approaches were established based on the development requirements and the analysis results of research and development trends of industrial and nuclear instrumentation techniques. (author). 90 refs., 38 tabs., 33 figs

  1. Social Network Analysis Utilizing Big Data Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Magnusson, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    As of late there has been an immense increase of data within modern society. This is evident within the field of telecommunications. The amount of mobile data is growing fast. For a telecommunication operator, this provides means of getting more information of specific subscribers. The applications of this are many, such as segmentation for marketing purposes or detection of churners, people about to switching operator. Thus the analysis and information extraction is of great value. An approa...

  2. [Technologies for Complex Intelligent Clinical Data Analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranov, A A; Namazova-Baranova, L S; Smirnov, I V; Devyatkin, D A; Shelmanov, A O; Vishneva, E A; Antonova, E V; Smirnov, V I

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the system for intelligent analysis of clinical information. Authors describe methods implemented in the system for clinical information retrieval, intelligent diagnostics of chronic diseases, patient's features importance and for detection of hidden dependencies between features. Results of the experimental evaluation of these methods are also presented. Healthcare facilities generate a large flow of both structured and unstructured data which contain important information about patients. Test results are usually retained as structured data but some data is retained in the form of natural language texts (medical history, the results of physical examination, and the results of other examinations, such as ultrasound, ECG or X-ray studies). Many tasks arising in clinical practice can be automated applying methods for intelligent analysis of accumulated structured array and unstructured data that leads to improvement of the healthcare quality. the creation of the complex system for intelligent data analysis in the multi-disciplinary pediatric center. Authors propose methods for information extraction from clinical texts in Russian. The methods are carried out on the basis of deep linguistic analysis. They retrieve terms of diseases, symptoms, areas of the body and drugs. The methods can recognize additional attributes such as "negation" (indicates that the disease is absent), "no patient" (indicates that the disease refers to the patient's family member, but not to the patient), "severity of illness", disease course", "body region to which the disease refers". Authors use a set of hand-drawn templates and various techniques based on machine learning to retrieve information using a medical thesaurus. The extracted information is used to solve the problem of automatic diagnosis of chronic diseases. A machine learning method for classification of patients with similar nosology and the methodfor determining the most informative patients'features are

  3. Using Cluster Analysis for Data Mining in Educational Technology Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonenko, Pavlo D.; Toy, Serkan; Niederhauser, Dale S.

    2012-01-01

    Cluster analysis is a group of statistical methods that has great potential for analyzing the vast amounts of web server-log data to understand student learning from hyperlinked information resources. In this methodological paper we provide an introduction to cluster analysis for educational technology researchers and illustrate its use through…

  4. DECISION ANALYSIS AND TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENTS FOR METAL AND MASONRY DECONTAMINATION TECHNOLOGIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to conduct a comparative analysis of innovative technologies for the non-aggressive removal of coatings from metal and masonry surfaces and the aggressive removal of one-quarter to one-inch thickness of surface from structural masonry. The technologies tested should be capable of being used in nuclear facilities. Innovative decontamination technologies are being evaluated under standard, non-nuclear conditions at the FIU-HCET technology assessment site in Miami, Florida. This study is being performed to support the OST, the Deactivation and Decommissioning (D and D) Focus Area, and the environmental restoration of DOE facilities throughout the DOE complex by providing objective evaluations of currently available decontamination technologies

  5. The lifecycle approach as a driver for innovative power contracting; Der Lifecycle-Ansatz als Treiber fuer innovatives Energie-Contracting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gayer, Alfred [RWE Energiedienstleistungen GmbH (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The sensible and efficient use of energy raises more and more the general awareness. The efficiency of projects will be influenced not only by the replacement of existing technology, but also mainly by the general conception of the design of decentralized energy supplies. The integration of waste heat from production-related processes as well as the use of all forms of energy such as electricity, heat, refrigeration and compressed air to meet the customer needs in a comprehensive energy plan increase the complexity and significantly the efficiencies. In the implementation of such projects the contracting is becoming increasingly important because the future gains in efficiency are taken into account directly. Contracting projects include the traditional total-cost-of-ownership approach (lifecycle approach). This approach considers the investment costs as well as the consequential costs of a project and shows how to optimize the total cost.

  6. Life-cycle stages of Dinophysis acuminata (Dinophyceae) in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite many observations of different life-cycle stages of Dinophysis species, the complete life history of the genus is still unknown owing to the difficulties encountered in culturing these species. The seasonal distribution of D. acuminata was followed at two offshore stations in the brackish Baltic Sea by means of in situ ...

  7. A full lifecycle bioenergetic model for bluefin tuna.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jusup, M.; Klanjscek, T.; Matsuda, H.; Kooijman, S.A.L.M.

    2011-01-01

    We formulated a full lifecycle bioenergetic model for bluefin tuna relying on the principles of Dynamic Energy Budget theory. Traditional bioenergetic models in fish research deduce energy input and utilization from observed growth and reproduction. In contrast, our model predicts growth and

  8. Life-cycle of the European compost worm Dendrobaena veneta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-06-05

    Jun 5, 1990 ... that this species does have potential to combat organic waste problems. The complete life-cycle of D. veneta has not been documented yeL We therefore included this ... in plastic containers with gauze lids. Fifty grams of the stabilized culture medium per wonn was added when the experiment was started.

  9. An introduction to Life-cycle Thinking and Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remmen, Arne

    This booklet descibes how enterprises can begin developing cleaner products based on a life-cycle perspective. It focuses on a simple approach to preventive environmental initiatives, where enterprises can begin at a level that matches their ambitions and their preconditions. The report is aimed...... at enterprises that, irregardless of size or sector, are interested in reducing environmental impacts from their products....

  10. A multi-objective decision framework for lifecycle investment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, S.H.J.T.; Schumacher, J.M.; Ponds, E.H.M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we propose a multi-objective decision framework for lifecycle investment choice. Instead of optimizing individual strategies with respect to a single-valued objective, we suggest evaluation of classes of strategies in terms of the quality of the tradeoffs that they provide. The

  11. The Lifecycle of Trust in Educational Leadership: An Ecological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsyuruba, Benjamin; Walker, Keith

    2015-01-01

    As establishing and fostering trust are imperative activities for school leaders, cognizance of the fundamental importance of trust is essential for the leader's moral agency and ethical decision-making. In this article, we use an ecological perspective to uncover the dynamics of the lifecycle of trust as evident from extant literature on…

  12. Transport biofuels - a life-cycle assessment approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.

    2008-01-01

    Life-cycle studies of the currently dominant transport biofuels (bioethanol made from starch or sugar and biodiesel made from vegetable oil) show that solar energy conversion efficiency is relatively poor if compared with solar cells and that such biofuels tend to do worse than conventional fossil

  13. 10 CFR 455.64 - Life-cycle cost methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-investment ratio is the ratio of the present value of net cost savings attributable to an energy conservation measure to the present value of the net increase in investment, maintenance and operating, and replacement... present value. The format for displaying life-cycle costs shall be a savings-to-investment ratio. (b) An...

  14. Lifecycle1: Flute (piccolo), oboe, clarinet (bass clarinet), bassoon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lifecycle1: Flute (piccolo), oboe, clarinet (bass clarinet), bassoon, horn, 2 percussionists, 2 violins and cello, Xhosa vocal ensemble and indigenous instruments. J Zaidel-Rudoulph. Abstract. No Abstract Journal for the Musical Arts in Africa Vol. 3 2007: pp. 80-81. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  15. Life-cycle air emissions from PV power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watt, M.E.; Johnson, A.J.; Outhred, H.R.; Ellis, M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper addresses the air emission of grid supply versus grid-connected and off-grid photovoltaic power generation, using the framework of life-cycle assessment, in the contents of rural household energy supply in Australia. Emissions of carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxde and nitrous oxides are calculated for the three life-cycle stages of manufacture, use and disposal. Sensitivities to materials and data inputs, as well as to component efficiencies, lifetimes and sizing are discussed. For each supply option, demand management options, including insulation and appliance choice, and the substitution of solar heating or bottled gas for electricity are considered. The best option in all cases, in terms of life-cycle air emissions, is a grid-connected photovoltaic system used to supply an energy-efficient household with a mix of solar, gas and electric appliances. However, in financial terms, with current Australian energy prices, this option represents a high capital and life-cycle costs. Additionally, for the grid options, electricity costs do not significantly disadvantage the high demand scenarios. Both results provide a clear illustration of current Australian energy-pricing policies being in conflict with long-term environmental sustainability. (Author)

  16. FileNet's BPM life-cycle support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Netjes, M.; Reijers, H.A.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.

    2006-01-01

    Business Process Management (BPM) systems provide a broad range of facilities to enact and manage operational business processes. Ideally, these systems should provide support for the complete BPM life-cycle: (re)design, configuration, execution, control, and diagnosis of processes. In the research

  17. Life-cycle of the European compost worm Dendrobaena veneta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The life-cycle of Dendrobaena veneta was studied to assess the potential of this species in vermiculture. The development, growth and reproduction were investigated by rearing worms at 25°C on urine-free cattle manure with a moisture content of 80% over a period of 200 days. It was found that cocoons are produced at a ...

  18. Enriching step-based product information models to support product life-cycle activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarigecili, Mehmet Ilteris

    The representation and management of product information in its life-cycle requires standardized data exchange protocols. Standard for Exchange of Product Model Data (STEP) is such a standard that has been used widely by the industries. Even though STEP-based product models are well defined and syntactically correct, populating product data according to these models is not easy because they are too big and disorganized. Data exchange specifications (DEXs) and templates provide re-organized information models required in data exchange of specific activities for various businesses. DEXs show us it would be possible to organize STEP-based product models in order to support different engineering activities at various stages of product life-cycle. In this study, STEP-based models are enriched and organized to support two engineering activities: materials information declaration and tolerance analysis. Due to new environmental regulations, the substance and materials information in products have to be screened closely by manufacturing industries. This requires a fast, unambiguous and complete product information exchange between the members of a supply chain. Tolerance analysis activity, on the other hand, is used to verify the functional requirements of an assembly considering the worst case (i.e., maximum and minimum) conditions for the part/assembly dimensions. Another issue with STEP-based product models is that the semantics of product data are represented implicitly. Hence, it is difficult to interpret the semantics of data for different product life-cycle phases for various application domains. OntoSTEP, developed at NIST, provides semantically enriched product models in OWL. In this thesis, we would like to present how to interpret the GD & T specifications in STEP for tolerance analysis by utilizing OntoSTEP.

  19. Life-cycle testing of receiving waters with Ceriodaphnia dubia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, A.J.; Beane, B.K.

    1995-01-01

    Seven-day tests with Ceriodaphnia are commonly used to estimate the toxicity of effluents or receiving waters, but may yield no toxicity outcomes even when pollutants are present (a possible type II error). The authors conducted two sets of full life-cycle tests with C. dubia to (1) see if tests with longer exposure periods revealed evidence for toxicity that might not be evident from shorter tests, and (2) determine the relative importance of water quality versus food as factors influencing C. dubia reproduction. In the first set of tests, daphnids were reared in diluted mineral water (control), water from a stream impacted by coal fly-ash, or water from a mercury-contaminated retention basin. The second set of tests used water from the retention basin only, but this water was either filtered or not filtered, and food was either added or not added. C. dubia survival and reproduction did not differ much among the three waters in the first set of tests. However, both parameters were strongly affected by the filtering and food-addition treatments in the second set of tests. Thus, C. dubia seems to be moderately insensitive to general water-quality factors, but quite sensitive to food-related parameters. Regression analysis showed that the predictability of life-time reproduction of C. dubia from 7-day test results was low in five of six cases. The increase in predictability as a function of test duration also differed among water types (first set of tests), and among treatments (second set of tests). Thus, 7-day tests with C. dubia may be used to quantify water-quality problems, but it may not be possible to reliably extrapolate the results of such tests to longer time scales

  20. Establishment of Safety Analysis System and Technology for CANDU Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Byung Joo; Kim, W. Y.; Kim, H. T.; Rhee, B. W.; Yoon, C.; Kang, H. S.; Yoo, K. J.

    2005-03-01

    To improve the CANDU design/operation safety analysis codes and the CANDU safety analysis methodology, the following works have been done. From the development of the lattice codes (WIMS/CANDU), the lattice model simulates the real core lattice geometry and the effect of the pressure tube creep to the core lattice parameter has been evaluated. From the development of the 3-dimensional thermal-hydraulic analysis model of the moderator behavior (CFX4-CAMO), validation of the model against STERN Lab experiment has been executed. The butterfly-shaped grid structure and the 3-dimensional flow resistance model for porous media were developed and applied to the moderator analysis for Wolsong units 2/3/4. The single fuel channel analysis codes for blowdown and post-blowdown were unified by CATHENA. The 3-dimensional fuel channel analysis model (CFX-CACH) has been developed for validation of CATHENA fuel channel analysis model. The interlinking analysis system (CANVAS) of the thermal-hydraulic safety analysis codes for the primary heat transport system and containment system has been executed. The database system of core physics and thermal-hydraulics experimental data for safety analysis has been established on the URL: http://CANTHIS.kaeri.re.kr. For documentation and Standardization of the general safety analysis procedure, the general safety analysis procedure is developed and applied to a large break LOCA. The present research results can be utilized for establishment of the independent safety analysis technology and acquisition of the optimal safety analysis technology

  1. Ethical analysis to improve decision-making on health technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saarni, Samuli I; Hofmann, Bjørn; Lampe, Kristian

    2008-01-01

    beyond effectiveness and costs to also considering the social, organizational and ethical implications of technologies. However, a commonly accepted method for analysing the ethical aspects of health technologies is lacking. This paper describes a model for ethical analysis of health technology...... that is easy and flexible to use in different organizational settings and cultures. The model is part of the EUnetHTA project, which focuses on the transferability of HTAs between countries. The EUnetHTA ethics model is based on the insight that the whole HTA process is value laden. It is not sufficient...... to only analyse the ethical consequences of a technology, but also the ethical issues of the whole HTA process must be considered. Selection of assessment topics, methods and outcomes is essentially a value-laden decision. Health technologies may challenge moral or cultural values and beliefs...

  2. Product Lifecycle Management as a Tool to Create Value in the Fashion System

    OpenAIRE

    D'Amico, Simona; Giustiniano, Luca; Nenni, Maria Elena; Pirolo, Luca

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the fashion system as a “cluster” and to evaluate the characteristics of Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) taking into account various factors, in particular the different approaches to dealing with market needs. More specifically, the “readyto- wear fashion” and “fast fashion” models will be presented and compared. The paper takes the Italian fashion system as the unit of analysis and assumes that consumer behavioural factors act in a non-predictable (i.e...

  3. Technology and Power. A Foucauldian Analysis of Electronic Monitoring Discourses

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Vitores; Miquel Domènech

    2007-01-01

    The article aims to show the importance of FOUCAULT within social studies of science and technology. It also illustrates how a Foucauldian analysis can be useful for studies of science, technology and society focused on power effects. To accomplish these objectives we analyze the emergence of a specific techno-scientific innovation: the electronic monitoring of offenders. We map the discontinuities and discourse dispersions linked to those practices that constitute different materializations ...

  4. Modeling energy technology choices. Which investment analysis tools are appropriate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, B.E.

    1994-01-01

    A variety of tools from modern investment theory appear to hold promise for unraveling observed energy technology investment behavior that often appears anomalous when analyzed using traditional investment analysis methods. This paper reviews the assumptions and important insights of the investment theories most commonly suggested as candidates for explaining the apparent ''energy technology investment paradox''. The applicability of each theory is considered in the light of important aspects of energy technology investment problems, such as sunk costs, uncertainty and imperfect information. The theories addressed include the capital asset pricing model, the arbitrage pricing theory, and the theory of irreversible investment. Enhanced net present value methods are also considered. (author)

  5. Green technologies for the use of urban wastewater: economic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Alfredo Gil

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban sewage is one of the biggest polluters of water resources. For treatment, the usual conventional technologies (CT are based on civil and hydraulic engineering; more recently, green technologies (GT based on biology and ecology began to be developed. The aim of this study was to assess the economic aspects of these technologies using cost-benefit analysis. The economic benefits are derived from the sale of forest products and the environmental benefits of water decontamination, valued by the avoided cost method. The results of the study establish that GT have better commercial and economic performance than CT, and that the inclusion of environmental benefit significantly improves the results.

  6. Product Lifecycle Management and the Quest for Sustainable Space Exploration Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Pamela W.; Dumbacher, Daniel L.

    2010-01-01

    Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) is an outcome of lean thinking to eliminate waste and increase productivity. PLM is inextricably tied to the systems engineering business philosophy, coupled with a methodology by which personnel, processes and practices, and information technology combine to form an architecture platform for product design, development, manufacturing, operations, and decommissioning. In this model, which is being implemented by the Engineering Directorate at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Marshall Space Flight Center, total lifecycle costs are important variables for critical decisionmaking. With the ultimate goal to deliver quality products that meet or exceed requirements on time and within budget, PLM is a powerful tool to shape everything from engineering trade studies and testing goals, to integrated vehicle operations and retirement scenarios. This paper will demonstrate how the Engineering Directorate is implementing PLM as part of an overall strategy to deliver safe, reliable, and affordable space exploration solutions. It has been 30 years since the United States fielded the Space Shuttle. The next generation space transportation system requires a paradigm shift such that digital tools and knowledge management, which are central elements of PLM, are used consistently to maximum effect. The outcome is a better use of scarce resources, along with more focus on stakeholder and customer requirements, as a new portfolio of enabling tools becomes second nature to the workforce. This paper will use the design and manufacturing processes, which have transitioned to digital-based activities, to show how PLM supports the comprehensive systems engineering and integration function. It also will go through a launch countdown scenario where an anomaly is detected to show how the virtual vehicle created from paperless processes will help solve technical challenges and improve the likelihood of launching on schedule, with

  7. Enabling Data-Driven Methodologies Across the Data Lifecycle and Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, R. J.; Crichton, D.

    2017-12-01

    opportunities to gain new insights from space missions and their vast data collections. We are working to innovate new architectures, exploit emerging technologies, develop new data-driven methodologies, and transfer them across disciplines, while working across the dual dimensions of the data lifecycle and the data ecosystem.

  8. Analysis of alternative technologies stamping compressor blades of marine engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олександр Сергійович Аніщенко

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The author has made an analysis of several technologies stamping forgings compressor blades from titanium alloy ВT3-1. These technologies use different types of forming equipment: crank hot press, high-speed hammers, screw presses with hydraulic drive (SPHD, as well as isothermal forging hydraulic press. He pointed out the main advantages and disadvantages of the technology, noting that high-speed punching in the shipbuilding industry of Ukraine is not used for the manufacture of forgings blades. The article contains an economic analysis of the cost of forgings blades, which are made on four technologies: punching and calibration to crank hot press, stamping and calibration to press for isothermal forging, stamping and calibration on SPHD-press, stamping on SPHD-press and calibration to press for isothermal forging. The author has identified the effective use of these technologies. He showed that the use of SPHD-presses and hydraulic presses for isothermal forging reduces the cost of forging on the average 12% in comparison with the technology at the crank hot stamping press, increases the utilization of metal 1,3-1,5 times more, reduces power consumption 1,05-3,0 times less and complexity of manufacturing 1,8-4,2 times. However SPHD-press increases capital investment in the organization of stamping technology 2,6-5,3 times more and depreciation 2-4 times. Isothermal forging technology requires the cost of the stamps in 1,4-2,0 times higher than stamps for crank presses. The author argues that stamping forging blades technology improvement should be implemented saving basic materials first of all. Efficiency of isothermal stamping and calibration will be the higher, the more geometric dimensions of stamped forgings are

  9. Life cycle environmental performance of renewable building materials in the context of residential construction : phase II research report: an extension to the 2005 phase I research report. Module C, Life-cycle inventory of hardwood lumber manufacturing in the Northeast and North Central United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Bergman; Scott A. Bowe

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this study was to find the environmental impact of hardwood lumber production through a gate-to-gate Life-Cycle Inventory (LCI) on hardwood sawmills in the northeast and northcentral (NE/NC) United States. Primary mill data was collected per CORRIM Research Guidelines (CORRIM 2001). Life-cycle analysis is beyond the scope of the study.

  10. Assessing the Life-Cycle Performance of Hydrogen Production via Biofuel Reforming in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Susmozas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, hydrogen is mainly produced through steam reforming of natural gas. However, this conventional process involves environmental and energy security concerns. This has led to the development of alternative technologies for (potentially green hydrogen production. In this work, the environmental and energy performance of biohydrogen produced in Europe via steam reforming of glycerol and bio-oil is evaluated from a life-cycle perspective, and contrasted with that of conventional hydrogen from steam methane reforming. Glycerol as a by-product from the production of rapeseed biodiesel and bio-oil from the fast pyrolysis of poplar biomass are considered. The processing plants are simulated in Aspen Plus® to provide inventory data for the life cycle assessment. The environmental impact potentials evaluated include abiotic depletion, global warming, ozone layer depletion, photochemical oxidant formation, land competition, acidification and eutrophication. Furthermore, the cumulative (total and non-renewable energy demand is calculated, as well as the corresponding renewability scores and life-cycle energy balances and efficiencies of the biohydrogen products. In addition to quantitative evidence of the (expected relevance of the feedstock and impact categories considered, results show that poplar-derived bio-oil could be a suitable feedstock for steam reforming, in contrast to first-generation bioglycerol.

  11. Using Teamcenter engineering software for a successive punching tool lifecycle management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaga, F.; Pele, A.-V.; Stǎnǎşel, I.; Buidoş, T.; Hule, V.

    2015-11-01

    The paper presents studies and researches results of the implementation of Teamcenter (TC) integrated management of a product lifecycle, in a virtual enterprise. The results are able to be implemented also in a real enterprise. The product was considered a successive punching and cutting tool, designed to materialize a metal sheet part. The paper defines the technical documentation flow (flow of information) in the process of constructive computer aided design of the tool. After the design phase is completed a list of parts is generated containing standard or manufactured components (BOM, Bill of Materials). The BOM may be exported to MS Excel (.xls) format and can be transferred to other departments of the company in order to supply the necessary materials and resources to achieve the final product. This paper describes the procedure to modify or change certain dimensions of sheet metal part obtained by punching. After 3D and 2D design, the digital prototype of punching tool moves to following lifecycle phase of the manufacturing process. For each operation of the technological process the corresponding phases are described in detail. Teamcenter enables to describe manufacturing company structure, underlying workstations that carry out various operations of manufacturing process. The paper revealed that the implementation of Teamcenter PDM in a company, improves efficiency of managing product information, eliminating time working with search, verification and correction of documentation, while ensuring the uniqueness and completeness of the product data.

  12. Development and Validation of a Lifecycle-based Prognostics Architecture with Test Bed Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hines, J. Wesley [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Upadhyaya, Belle [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Sharp, Michael [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Ramuhalli, Pradeep [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jeffries, Brien [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Nam, Alan [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Strong, Eric [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Tong, Matthew [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Welz, Zachary [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Barbieri, Federico [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Langford, Seth [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Meinweiser, Gregory [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Weeks, Matthew [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2014-11-06

    On-line monitoring and tracking of nuclear plant system and component degradation is being investigated as a method for improving the safety, reliability, and maintainability of aging nuclear power plants. Accurate prediction of the current degradation state of system components and structures is important for accurate estimates of their remaining useful life (RUL). The correct quantification and propagation of both the measurement uncertainty and model uncertainty is necessary for quantifying the uncertainty of the RUL prediction. This research project developed and validated methods to perform RUL estimation throughout the lifecycle of plant components. Prognostic methods should seamlessly operate from beginning of component life (BOL) to end of component life (EOL). We term this "Lifecycle Prognostics." When a component is put into use, the only information available may be past failure times of similar components used in similar conditions, and the predicted failure distribution can be estimated with reliability methods such as Weibull Analysis (Type I Prognostics). As the component operates, it begins to degrade and consume its available life. This life consumption may be a function of system stresses, and the failure distribution should be updated to account for the system operational stress levels (Type II Prognostics). When degradation becomes apparent, this information can be used to again improve the RUL estimate (Type III Prognostics). This research focused on developing prognostics algorithms for the three types of prognostics, developing uncertainty quantification methods for each of the algorithms, and, most importantly, developing a framework using Bayesian methods to transition between prognostic model types and update failure distribution estimates as new information becomes available. The developed methods were then validated on a range of accelerated degradation test beds. The ultimate goal of prognostics is to provide an accurate assessment for

  13. Nano-Launcher Technologies, Approaches, and Life Cycle Assessment. Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    Assist in understanding NASA technology and investment approaches, and other driving factors, necessary for enabling dedicated nano-launchers by industry at a cost and flight rate that (1) could support and be supported by an emerging nano-satellite market and (2) would benefit NASAs needs. Develop life-cycle cost, performance and other NASA analysis tools or models required to understand issues, drivers and challenges.

  14. 76 FR 68189 - Healthcare Technology Holdings, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Agreement Containing Consent Orders To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION [File No. 111 0097] Healthcare Technology Holdings, Inc.; Analysis of... Technology Holdings, Inc. (``Healthcare Technology''), subject to final approval, an Agreement Containing... Healthcare Technology's proposed acquisition of SDI Health LLC (``SDI'') from SDI Health Holdings LLC (``SDI...

  15. Social and ethical analysis in health technology assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantivess, Sripen

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a review of the domestic and international literature on the assessment of the social and ethical implications of health technologies. It gives an overview of the key concepts, principles, and approaches that should be taken into account when conducting a social and ethical analysis within health technology assessment (HTA). Although there is growing consensus among healthcare experts that the social and ethical ramifications of a given technology should be examined before its adoption, the demand for this kind of analysis among policy-makers around the world, including in Thailand, has so far been lacking. Currently decision-makers mainly base technology adoption decisions using evidence on clinical effectiveness, value for money, and budget impact, while social and ethical aspects have been neglected. Despite the recognized importance of considering equity, justice, and social issues when making decisions regarding health resource allocation, the absence of internationally-accepted principles and methodologies, among other factors, hinders research in these areas. Given that developing internationally agreed standards takes time, it has been recommended that priority be given to defining processes that are justifiable, transparent, and contestable. A discussion of the current situation in Thailand concerning social and ethical analysis of health technologies is also presented.

  16. Commercial sector gas cooling technology frontier and market share analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pine, G.D.; Mac Donald, J.M.; McLain, H.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a method, developed for the Gas Research Institute of the United States, that can assist planning for commercial sector natural gas cooling systems R and D. These systems are higher in first cost than conventional electric chillers. Yet, engine-driven chiller designs exist which are currently competitive in U.S. markets typified by high electricity or demand charges. Section II describes a scenario analysis approach used to develop and test the method. Section III defines the technology frontier, a conceptual tool for identifying new designs with sales potential. Section IV describes a discrete choice method for predicting market shares of technologies with sales potential. Section V shows how the method predicts operating parameter, cost, and/or performance goals for technologies without current sales potential (or for enhancing a frontier technology's sales potential). Section VI concludes with an illustrative example for the Chicago office building retrofit market

  17. [Guidelines for budget impact analysis of health technologies in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Da-Silva, Andre Luis; Ribeiro, Rodrigo Antonini; Santos, Vânia Cristina Canuto; Elias, Flávia Tavares Silva; d'Oliveira, Alexandre Lemgruber Portugal; Polanczyk, Carisi Anne

    2012-07-01

    Budget impact analysis (BIA) provides operational financial forecasts to implement new technologies in healthcare systems. There were no previous specific recommendations to conduct such analyses in Brazil. This paper reviews BIA methods for health technologies and proposes BIA guidelines for the public and private Brazilian healthcare system. The following recommendations were made: adopt the budget administrator's perspective; use a timeframe of 1 to 5 years; compare reference and alternative scenarios; consider the technology's rate of incorporation; estimate the target population by either an epidemiological approach or measured demand; consider restrictions on technologies' indication or factors that increase the demand for them; consider direct and averted costs; do not adjust for inflation or discounts; preferably, integrate information on a spreadsheet; calculate the incremental budget impact between scenarios; and summarize information in a budget impact report.

  18. Technology Clusters Exploration for Patent Portfolio through Patent Abstract Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabjo Kim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study explores technology clusters through patent analysis. The aim of exploring technology clusters is to grasp competitors’ levels of sustainable research and development (R&D and establish a sustainable strategy for entering an industry. To achieve this, we first grouped the patent documents with similar technologies by applying affinity propagation (AP clustering, which is effective while grouping large amounts of data. Next, in order to define the technology clusters, we adopted the term frequency-inverse document frequency (TF-IDF weight, which lists the terms in order of importance. We collected the patent data of Korean electric car companies from the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO to verify our proposed methodology. As a result, our proposed methodology presents more detailed information on the Korean electric car industry than previous studies.

  19. Strategic Technology Investment Analysis: An Integrated System Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adumitroaie, V.; Weisbin, C. R.

    2010-01-01

    Complex technology investment decisions within NASA are increasingly difficult to make such that the end results are satisfying the technical objectives and all the organizational constraints. Due to a restricted science budget environment and numerous required technology developments, the investment decisions need to take into account not only the functional impact on the program goals, but also development uncertainties and cost variations along with maintaining a healthy workforce. This paper describes an approach for optimizing and qualifying technology investment portfolios from the perspective of an integrated system model. The methodology encompasses multi-attribute decision theory elements and sensitivity analysis. The evaluation of the degree of robustness of the recommended portfolio provides the decision-maker with an array of viable selection alternatives, which take into account input uncertainties and possibly satisfy nontechnical constraints. The methodology is presented in the context of assessing capability development portfolios for NASA technology programs.

  20. Life-cycle cost and impacts: alternatives for managing KE basin sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.M.

    1997-01-01

    This document presents the results of a life-cycle cost and impacts evaluation of alternatives for managing sludge that will be removed from the K Basins. The two basins are located in the 100-K Area of the Hanford Site. This evaluation was conducted by Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH) and its subcontractors to support decisions regarding the ultimate disposition of the sludge. The long-range plan for the Hanford Site calls for spent nuclear fuel (SNF), sludge, debris, and water to be removed from the K East (KE) and K West (KW) Basins. This activity will be conducted as a removal action under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). The scope of the CERCLA action will be limited to removing the SNF, sludge, debris, and water from the basins and transferring them to authorized facilities for interim storage and/or treatment and disposal. The scope includes treating the sludge and water in the 100-K Area prior to the transfer. Alternatives for the removal action are evaluated in a CERCLA engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) and include different methods for managing sludge from the KE Basins. The scope of the removal action does not include storing, treating, or disposing of the sludge once it is transferred to the receiving facility and the EE/CA does not evaluate those downstream activities. This life-cycle evaluation goes beyond the EE/CA and considers the full life-cycle costs and impacts of dispositioning sludge

  1. Life-cycle energy implications of different residential settings: Recognizing buildings, travel, and public infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, Brice G.; Kockelman, Kara M.

    2014-01-01

    The built environment can be used to influence travel demand, but very few studies consider the relative energy savings of such policies in context of a complex urban system. This analysis quantifies the day-to-day and embodied energy consumption of four different neighborhoods in Austin, Texas, to examine how built environment variations influence various sources of urban energy consumption. A microsimulation combines models for petroleum use (from driving) and residential and commercial power and natural gas use with rigorously measured building stock and infrastructure materials quantities (to arrive at embodied energy). Results indicate that the more suburban neighborhoods, with mostly detached single-family homes, consume up to 320% more embodied energy, 150% more operational energy, and about 160% more total life-cycle energy (per capita) than a densely developed neighborhood with mostly low-rise-apartments and duplexes. Across all neighborhoods, operational energy use comprised 83 to 92% of total energy use, and transportation sources (including personal vehicles and transit, plus street, parking structure, and sidewalk infrastructure) made up 44 to 47% of the life-cycle energy demands tallied. Energy elasticity calculations across the neighborhoods suggest that increased population density and reduced residential unit size offer greatest life-cycle energy savings per capita, by reducing both operational demands from driving and home energy use, and from less embodied energy from construction. These results provide measurable metrics for comparing different neighborhood styles and develop a framework to anticipate energy-savings from changes in the built environment versus household energy efficiency. - Highlights: • Total energy demands (operational and embodied) of 5 Austin settings were studied here. • Suburban settings consume much more energy than densely developed neighborhoods. • Transportation sources make up 44 to 47% of the total energy

  2. RISK ANALYSIS IN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND COMMUNICATION OUTSOURCING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmir Parada Vasques Prado

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims at evaluating the risk analysis process in Information Technology and Communication (ICT outsourcing conducted by organizations of the private sector. The research is characterized by being a descriptive, quantitative and transversal type study, which was used the survey method. Data were collected through questionnaire, the sample is not random and we used a convenience sampling process. The research made contributions to understanding the risk analysis process in ICT services outsourcing, and identified statistically significant relationships between risk analysis, organization's size and its industry, and between risk analysis and diversity of outsourced services

  3. Analysis of the development of missile-borne IR imaging detecting technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jinxiang; Wang, Feng

    2017-10-01

    Today's infrared imaging guiding missiles are facing many challenges. With the development of targets' stealth, new-style IR countermeasures and penetrating technologies as well as the complexity of the operational environments, infrared imaging guiding missiles must meet the higher requirements of efficient target detection, capability of anti-interference and anti-jamming and the operational adaptability in complex, dynamic operating environments. Missileborne infrared imaging detecting systems are constrained by practical considerations like cost, size, weight and power (SWaP), and lifecycle requirements. Future-generation infrared imaging guiding missiles need to be resilient to changing operating environments and capable of doing more with fewer resources. Advanced IR imaging detecting and information exploring technologies are the key technologies that affect the future direction of IR imaging guidance missiles. Infrared imaging detecting and information exploring technologies research will support the development of more robust and efficient missile-borne infrared imaging detecting systems. Novelty IR imaging technologies, such as Infrared adaptive spectral imaging, are the key to effectively detect, recognize and track target under the complicated operating and countermeasures environments. Innovative information exploring techniques for the information of target, background and countermeasures provided by the detection system is the base for missile to recognize target and counter interference, jamming and countermeasure. Modular hardware and software development is the enabler for implementing multi-purpose, multi-function solutions. Uncooled IRFPA detectors and High-operating temperature IRFPA detectors as well as commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) technology will support the implementing of low-cost infrared imaging guiding missiles. In this paper, the current status and features of missile-borne IR imaging detecting technologies are summarized. The key

  4. Preliminary analysis of patent trends for magnetic fusion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, L.O.; Ashton, W.B.; Campbell, R.S.

    1984-02-01

    This study presents a preliminary analysis of development trends in magnetic fusion technology based on data from US patents. The research is limited to identification and description of general patent activity and ownership characteristics for 373 patents. The results suggest that more detailed studies of fusion patents could provide useful R and D planning information

  5. An analysis of CDTN performance in the reactors technology area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinheiro, R.B.

    1985-01-01

    The author makes an analysis of CDTN (Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear) performance in the reactors technology area, showing difficulties and failures, but emphasizing the particular competence and capacity acquired in this area, as for example: the capacity in codes and methods are of neutronic calculations and nuclear projects, experimental thermohydraulic program, tests services in components and the others. (C.M.) [pt

  6. Implementing risk-informed life-cycle design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, Ralph S. III

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a design process based on risk-informed probabilistic methodologies that cover a facility's life-cycle from start of conceptual design through decontamination and decommissioning. The concept uses probabilistic risk assessments to identify target reliabilities for facility systems and components. Target reliabilities are used in system and subsystem simulation analyses to determine the optimum combination of initial system and component construction reliability, maintenance frequency, and inspection frequency for both active and passive components. The target reliabilities are also used for system based code margin exchange to reduce excessive level of margins to appropriate levels resulting in a more flexible structure of codes and standards that improves facility reliability and cost. The paper includes a description of a risk informed life-cycle design process, a summary of work being done, and a discussion of work needed to implement the process. (author)

  7. Lifecycle assessment of fuel ethanol from sugarcane in Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ometto, A. R.; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Roma, W. N. L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the lifecycle assessment (LCA) of fuel ethanol, as 100% of the vehicle fuel, from sugarcane in Brazil. The functional unit is 10,000 km run in an urban area by a car with a 1,600-cm(3) engine running on fuel hydrated ethanol, and the resulting reference flow is 1,000 kg......, and study cases at sugarcane farms and fuel ethanol industries in the northeast of SA o pound Paulo State, Brazil. The methodological structure for this LCA study is in agreement with the International Standardization Organization, and the method used is the Environmental Design of Industrial Products...... fuel. The recommendations for the ethanol lifecycle are: harvesting the sugarcane without burning; more environmentally benign agricultural practices; renewable fuel rather than diesel; not washing sugarcane and implementing water recycling systems during the industrial processing; and improving...

  8. Road lifecycle innovative financing (Road LIFE) 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    This report is organized into five sections and nine chapters, and includes a set of appendices : containing supporting information and the results of data collection and analysis. The second : section of the report summarizes the state of practice o...

  9. Implementing recovery: an analysis of the key technologies in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Over the past ten years the promotion of recovery has become a stated aim of mental health policies within a number of English speaking countries, including Scotland. Implementation of a recovery approach involves a significant reorientation of mental health services and practices, which often poses significant challenges for reformers. This article examines how four key technologies of recovery have assisted in the move towards the creation of a recovery-oriented mental health system in Scotland. Methods Drawing on documentary analysis and a series of interviews we examine the construction and implementation of four key recovery 'technologies' as they have been put to use in Scotland: recovery narratives, the Scottish Recovery Indicator (SRI), Wellness Recovery Action Planning (WRAP) and peer support. Results Our findings illuminate how each of these technologies works to instantiate, exemplify and disseminate a 'recovery orientation' at different sites within the mental health system in order to bring about a 'recovery oriented' mental health system. They also enable us to identify some of the factors that facilitate or hinder the effectiveness of those technologies in bringing about a change in how mental health services are delivered in Scotland. These finding provide a basis for some general reflections on the utility of 'recovery technologies' to implement a shift towards recovery in mental health services in Scotland and elsewhere. Conclusions Our analysis of this process within the Scottish context will be valuable for policy makers and service coordinators wishing to implement recovery values within their own national mental health systems. PMID:21569633

  10. Implementing recovery: an analysis of the key technologies in Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sturdy Steve

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past ten years the promotion of recovery has become a stated aim of mental health policies within a number of English speaking countries, including Scotland. Implementation of a recovery approach involves a significant reorientation of mental health services and practices, which often poses significant challenges for reformers. This article examines how four key technologies of recovery have assisted in the move towards the creation of a recovery-oriented mental health system in Scotland. Methods Drawing on documentary analysis and a series of interviews we examine the construction and implementation of four key recovery 'technologies' as they have been put to use in Scotland: recovery narratives, the Scottish Recovery Indicator (SRI, Wellness Recovery Action Planning (WRAP and peer support. Results Our findings illuminate how each of these technologies works to instantiate, exemplify and disseminate a 'recovery orientation' at different sites within the mental health system in order to bring about a 'recovery oriented' mental health system. They also enable us to identify some of the factors that facilitate or hinder the effectiveness of those technologies in bringing about a change in how mental health services are delivered in Scotland. These finding provide a basis for some general reflections on the utility of 'recovery technologies' to implement a shift towards recovery in mental health services in Scotland and elsewhere. Conclusions Our analysis of this process within the Scottish context will be valuable for policy makers and service coordinators wishing to implement recovery values within their own national mental health systems.

  11. Rules of thumb in life-cycle savings models

    OpenAIRE

    Rodepeter, Ralf; Winter, Joachim

    1999-01-01

    We analyze life-cycle savings decisions when households use simple heuristics, or rules of thumb, rather than solve the underlying intertemporal optimization problem. The decision rules we explore are a simple Keynesian rule where consumption follows income; a simple consumption rule where only a fraction of positive income shocks is saved; a rule that corresponds to the permanent income hypothesis; and two rules that have been found in experimental studies. Using these rules, we simulate lif...

  12. Understanding Cloud Requirements - A Supply Chain Lifecycle Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Lindner, Mark; McDonald, Fiona; Conway, Gerry; Curry, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Cloud Computing is offering competitive advantages to companies through flexible and, scalable access to computing resources. More and more companies are moving to cloud environments; therefore understanding the requirements for this process is both important and beneficial. The requirements for migrating from a traditional computing environment to a cloud hosting environment are discussed in this paper, considering this migration from a supply chain lifecycle perspective...

  13. Fostering sustainable energy entrepreneurship among students : the Business Oriented Technological System Analysis (BOTSA) program at Eindhoven University of Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnker, M.A.S.G.; Kasteren, van Han; Romijn, H.A.

    2015-01-01

    The Business Oriented Technological System Analysis (BOTSA) program is a new teaching and learning concept developed by Eindhoven University of Technology (the Netherlands) with participation from innovative companies in renewable energy. It is designed to stimulate sustainable entrepreneurship

  14. Wireless Technology Use Case Requirement Analysis for Future Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi, Ali; Wilkerson, DeLisa

    2016-01-01

    This report presents various use case scenarios for wireless technology -including radio frequency (RF), optical, and acoustic- and studies requirements and boundary conditions in each scenario. The results of this study can be used to prioritize technology evaluation and development and in the long run help in development of a roadmap for future use of wireless technology. The presented scenarios cover the following application areas: (i) Space Vehicles (manned/unmanned), (ii) Satellites and Payloads, (iii) Surface Explorations, (iv) Ground Systems, and (v) Habitats. The requirement analysis covers two parallel set of conditions. The first set includes the environmental conditions such as temperature, radiation, noise/interference, wireless channel characteristics and accessibility. The second set of requirements are dictated by the application and may include parameters such as latency, throughput (effective data rate), error tolerance, and reliability. This report provides a comprehensive overview of all requirements from both perspectives and details their effects on wireless system reliability and network design. Application area examples are based on 2015 NASA Technology roadmap with specific focus on technology areas: TA 2.4, 3.3, 5.2, 5.5, 6.4, 7.4, and 10.4 sections that might benefit from wireless technology.

  15. Business of Nuclear Safety Analysis Office, Nuclear Technology Test Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Masahiko

    1981-01-01

    The Nuclear Technology Test Center established the Nuclear Safety Analysis Office to execute newly the works concerning nuclear safety analysis in addition to the works related to the proving tests of nuclear machinery and equipments. The regulations for the Nuclear Safety Analysis Office concerning its organization, business and others were specially decided, and it started the business formally in August, 1980. It is a most important subject to secure the safety of nuclear facilities in nuclear fuel cycle as the premise of developing atomic energy. In Japan, the strict regulation of safety is executed by the government at each stage of the installation, construction, operation and maintenance of nuclear facilities, based on the responsibility for the security of installers themselves. The Nuclear Safety Analysis Office was established as the special organ to help the safety examination related to the installation of nuclear power stations and others by the government. It improves and puts in order the safety analysis codes required for the cross checking in the safety examination, and carries out safety analysis calculation. It is operated by the cooperation of the Science and Technology Agency and the Agency of Natural Resources and Energy. The purpose of establishment, the operation and the business of the Nuclear Safety Analysis Office, the plan of improving and putting in order of analysis codes, and the state of the similar organs in foreign countries are described. (Kako, I.)

  16. Life-Cycle Evaluation of Domestic Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bando, Shigeru; Hihara, Eiji

    Among the growing number of environmental issues, the global warming due to the increasing emission of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide CO2, is the most serious one. In order to reduce CO2 emissions in energy use, it is necessary to reduce primary energy consumption, and to replace energy sources with alternatives that emit less CO2.One option of such ideas is to replace fossil gas for water heating with electricity generated by nuclear power, hydraulic power, and other methods with low CO2 emission. It is also important to use energy efficiently and to reduce waste heat. Co-generation system is one of the applications to be able to use waste heat from a generator as much as possible. The CO2 heat pump water heaters, the polymer electrolyte fuel cells, and the micro gas turbines have high potential for domestic energy systems. In the present study, the life-cycle cost, the life-cycle consumption of primary energy and the life-cycle emission of CO2 of these domestic energy systems are compare. The result shows that the CO2 heat pump water heaters have an ability to reduce CO2 emission by 10%, and the co-generation systems also have another ability to reduce primary energy consumption by 20%.

  17. Implementing risk-informed life-cycle design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, Ralph S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a design process based on risk-informed probabilistic design methodologies that cover a facility's life-cycle from start of conceptual design through decontamination and decommissioning. The concept embodies use of probabilistic risk assessments to establish target reliabilities for facility systems and components. The target reliabilities are used for system based code margin exchange and performance simulation analyses to optimize design over all phases (design, construction, operation and decommissioning) of a facility's life-cycle. System based code margin exchange reduces excessive level of construction margins for passive components to appropriate levels resulting in a more flexible structure of codes and standards that improves facility reliability and cost. System and subsystem simulation analyses determine the optimum combination of initial system and component construction reliability, maintenance frequency, and inspection frequency for both active and passive components. The paper includes a description of these risk-informed life-cycle design processes, a summary of work being done, and a discussion of additional work needed to implement the process.

  18. Life-Cycle Assessment of Pyrolysis Bio-Oil Production*

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, Philip; Puettmann, Maureen E.; Penmetsa, Venkata Kanthi; Cooper, Jerome E.

    2012-07-01

    As part ofthe Consortium for Research on Renewable Industrial Materials' Phase I life-cycle assessments ofbiofuels, lifecycle inventory burdens from the production of bio-oil were developed and compared with measures for residual fuel oil. Bio-oil feedstock was produced using whole southern pine (Pinus taeda) trees, chipped, and converted into bio-oil by fast pyrolysis. Input parameters and mass and energy balances were derived with Aspen. Mass and energy balances were input to SimaPro to determine the environmental performance of bio-oil compared with residual fuel oil as a heating fuel. Equivalent functional units of 1 MJ were used for demonstrating environmental preference in impact categories, such as fossil fuel use and global warming potential. Results showed near carbon neutrality of the bio-oil. Substituting bio-oil for residual fuel oil, based on the relative carbon emissions of the two fuels, estimated a reduction in CO2 emissions by 0.075 kg CO2 per MJ of fuel combustion or a 70 percent reduction in emission over residual fuel oil. The bio-oil production life-cycle stage consumed 92 percent of the total cradle-to-grave energy requirements, while feedstock collection, preparation, and transportation consumed 4 percent each. This model provides a framework to better understand the major factors affecting greenhouse gas emissions related to bio-oil production and conversion to boiler fuel during fast pyrolysis.

  19. Exploring the Client–AEC Interface in Building Lifecycle Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Kamara

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The creation and management of buildings over their lifecycle involves the cooperation of many organizations, which broadly fall into a client domain and AEC (architecture, engineering, construction domain. While this mix of expertise is essential, the ineffective management of the boundaries between these organizations can undermine building lifecycle performance. This paper explores client–AEC interactions at the project development and handover stages, with a view to discovering insights into client–AEC interface management for effective building lifecycle integration (BLI. The concept of boundary objects provided the theoretical framework to discuss findings from two case studies on the project development phase of a private finance initiative project, and the asset development process in a repeat client organization. The findings suggest that there are different emphases in boundary crossing activities at different stages, with boundary roles that relate to decision-making and authority to commit resources being more relevant at the project development stage, whereas the need to explain meanings appear to be more relevant at the handover stage. AEC professionals in client organizations play a crucial role in bridging knowledge boundaries about buildings, but this professional/functional strand to BLI needs to be effectively managed alongside the organizational boundaries, since the authority to resource BLI efforts resides within organizations.

  20. An ideal sealed source life-cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tompkins, Joseph Andrew

    2009-01-01

    In the last 40 years, barriers to compliant and timely disposition of radioactive sealed sources have become apparent. The story starts with the explosive growth of nuclear gauging technologies in the 1960s. Dozens of companies in the US manufactured sources and many more created nuclear solutions to industrial gauging problems. Today they do not yet know how many Cat 1, 2, or 3 sources there are in the US. There are, at minimum, tens of thousands of sources, perhaps hundreds of thousands of sources. Affordable transportation solutions to consolidate all of these sources and disposition pathways for these sources do not exist. The root problem seems to be a lack of necessary regulatory framework that has allowed all of these problems to accumulate with no national plan for solving the problem. In the 1960s, Pu-238 displaced Pu-239 for most neutron and alpha source applications. In the 1970s, the availability of inexpensive Am-241 resulted in a proliferation of low energy gamma sources used in nuclear gauging, well logging, pacemakers, and X-ray fluorescence applications for example. In the 1980s, rapid expansion of worldwide petroleum exploration resulted in the expansion of Am-241 sources into international locations. Improvements of technology and regulation resulted in a change in isotopic distribution as Am-241 made Pu-239 and Pu-238 obsolete. Many early nuclear gauge technologies have been made obsolete as they were replaced by non-nuclear technoogies. With uncertainties in source end of life disposition and increased requirements for sealed source security, nuclear gauging technology is the last choice for modern process engineering gauging solutions. Over the same period, much was learned about licensing LLW disposition facilities as evident by the closure of early disposition facilities like Maxey Flats. The current difficulties in sealed source disposition start with adoption of the NLLW policy act of 1985, which created the state LLW compact system they

  1. Engineering, Analysis and Technology FY 1995 Site Support Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suyama, R.M.

    1994-09-01

    The vision of the Engineering, Analysis and Technology organization is to be recognized as the cost-effective supplier of specialized, integrated, multi-disciplined engineering teams to support Hanford missions. The mission of the Engineering, Analysis and Technology organization is to provide centralized engineering services. These services are focused on supplying technical design, analytical engineering and related support services that support Hanford's environmental restoration mission. These services include engineering analysis, design and development of systems and engineered equipment, supplying multi-disciplined engineering teams to all Hanford programs and project organizations, engineering document release, and site-wide leadership in the development and implementation of engineering standards, engineering practices, and configuration management processes

  2. Ethical analysis to improve decision-making on health technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarni, Samuli I; Hofmann, Bjørn; Lampe, Kristian; Lühmann, Dagmar; Mäkelä, Marjukka; Velasco-Garrido, Marcial; Autti-Rämö, Ilona

    2008-08-01

    Health technology assessment (HTA) is the multidisciplinary study of the implications of the development, diffusion and use of health technologies. It supports health-policy decisions by providing a joint knowledge base for decision-makers. To increase its policy relevance, HTA tries to extend beyond effectiveness and costs to also considering the social, organizational and ethical implications of technologies. However, a commonly accepted method for analysing the ethical aspects of health technologies is lacking. This paper describes a model for ethical analysis of health technology that is easy and flexible to use in different organizational settings and cultures. The model is part of the EUnetHTA project, which focuses on the transferability of HTAs between countries. The EUnetHTA ethics model is based on the insight that the whole HTA process is value laden. It is not sufficient to only analyse the ethical consequences of a technology, but also the ethical issues of the whole HTA process must be considered. Selection of assessment topics, methods and outcomes is essentially a value-laden decision. Health technologies may challenge moral or cultural values and beliefs, and their implementation may also have significant impact on people other than the patient. These are essential considerations for health policy. The ethics model is structured around key ethical questions rather than philosophical theories, to be applicable to different cultures and usable by non-philosophers. Integrating ethical considerations into HTA can improve the relevance of technology assessments for health care and health policy in both developed and developing countries.

  3. The Comparative Analysis of the Efficiency of Coal Liquefaction Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudyka Viktor I.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Organization of production of synthetic liquid fuels (SLF in Ukraine becomes an especially topical and at the same time complex scientific and applied task, taking into consideration criteria of the techno-ecological and economic rationality. The article presents a methodical approach to the comparative analysis of efficiency of the main methods and technologies for the synthetic liquid fuels production and a carried out testing, the results of which allowed to conclude that the most rational is the technology of indirect coal liquefaction based on coal thermal plasma gasification.

  4. Experience curve analysis on South Korean nuclear technology and comparative analysis with South Korean renewable technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Wook; Chang, Hyun Joon

    2012-01-01

    Increasing awareness on environmental damage and climate change has induced many nations to engage in green growth. South Korea, as one of the largest consumers of energy, is no exception and has shown its determination to pursue green growth in the future. In order to do so, South Korea plans to substitute fossil fuel with alternative sources in electricity generation. However, the key constraint to green growth is the high cost faced by renewable electricity generation. Fortunately, nuclear energy can serve as an economic alternative to fossil fuel. To achieve CO 2 emission reduction and faster economic growth, it is wise to analyze prospects of alternatives using experience curve framework. The results and industry background are consistent for nuclear technology, and the results suggest that nuclear should serve as the main substitute. Consideration of policy risk inherent in renewable also strengthens the argument. Renewable technologies, on the other hand, showed overstated learning capacity that is partially inconsistent with technological background. Nevertheless, the renewable (photovoltaic and fuel cell) should help nuclear marginally in substituting fossil fuel in South Korea's Electricity Generation. - Highlights: ► Progress ratios of renewable energy show great prospect. ► The policy risk is inherent in renewable and may overestimate its prospect. ► Nuclear sources are economic and less affected by policy risk. ► Fuel cell and photovoltaic should help nuclear marginally in green growth.

  5. Optimal life-cycle profiles of fertility and labor supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, R

    1984-01-01

    A model of life cycle fertility is developed using the language and framework of optimal control theory. The chief characteristic of children that distinguishes them from other consumer durables is, in the language of the optimal growth theory, the "irreversibility of investment." As the good does not depreciate in the ordinary sense, the stock must be monotonically nondecreasing over time. The optimal profile of fertility is, for this reason, characterized by the same type of "bang-bang" behavior found in many optimal growth problems. Yet, the fertility decision is complicated considerably by several other factors. Chief among these is the intrinsic relation to the labor-supply decision, for having children implies inevitable constraints on the mother's or father's time. Thus, optimal labor-supply decisions also must be considered. The model is developed in stages, proceeding from very simple to the more complex models. 1 section introduces the impact of fertility on the future demands for home time. It is shown that optimal fertility profiles follow turnpike paths similar to those in the growth-theory literature. A subsequent section introduces labor-supply and human-captial considerations. As the models become more complex, solutions become harder to derive and are often only outlined. The analysis provides some theoretical basis for expecting certain shapes of the life-cycle profiles of fertility, labor supply, and wages. Fertility profiles may be of 2 shapes--one beginning at a high rate, falling to a lower rate, then to zero; and one beginning at zero, rising to a moderate rate, then falling back down to zero. Labor supply profiles can be of a number of different shapes, but the impact of childbearing is to lower hours worked during the early childrearing period. As the children mature, hours worked rise (or at least fall more slowly) as home time responsibilities lessen, although the level to which they rise will probably be lower than before the 1st birth

  6. Life-cycle assessment of energy consumption and environmental impact of an integrated food waste-based biogas plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Yiying; Chen, Ting; Chen, Xin; Yu, Zhixin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • 47.76% of the energy consumption is from the primary treatment process. • The dominant environmental impact comes from GWP100 emission (96.97 kgCO 2 -eq/t). • Increasing recycling rate of product can effectively reduce consumption and impact. - Abstract: Recycling food waste to produce biogas by anaerobic digestion (AD) is a promising process that can both provide renewable energy and dispose solid waste safely. However, this process affects the environment due to greenhouse gas emissions. By lifecycle assessment (LCA), we assessed the energy consumption (EC) and environmental impact (EI) of an integrated food waste-based biogas system and its subsystems. Data were collected from an actual plant in China that adopted a combination of wet-heat treatment and wet AD process at thermophilic condition. The EC of the system for processing 1 ton of waste was 663.89 MJ, among which 47.76% was from the primary treatment process (including pretreatment and AD). The GWP 100 (100-year global warming potential) emission of the system reached 96.97 kgCO 2 -eq/t, and the AP (acidification potential), EP (eutrophication potential), HTP inf (human toxicity potential) and FAETP inf (fresh water ecotoxicity) emissions were low. The EI was mainly generated by two subsystems, namely, the primary treatment and the secondary pollution control. Sensitivity analysis showed that a 40% increase of the feed fat content resulted in 38% increase in the net energy value output and 48% decrease in EP effect. The increase in oil content and biogas production rate could significantly reduce the EC and EI of the system. It has been shown that improving the technology of the process and increasing the recycling rate of products will result in the reduction of EC and EI of the biogas system. In addition, a quantitative assessment model of EC and EI in integrated food waste-based biogas technology is established

  7. Vehicle technology under CO2 constraint: a general equilibrium analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, Andreas; Jacoby, Henry D.

    2006-01-01

    A study is presented of the rates of penetration of different transport technologies under policy constraints on CO 2 emissions. The response of this sector is analyzed within an overall national level of restriction, with a focus on automobiles, light trucks, and heavy freight trucks. Using the US as an example, a linked set of three models is used to carry out the analysis: a multi-sector computable general equilibrium model of the economy, a MARKAL-type model of vehicle and fuel supply technology, and a model simulating the split of personal and freight transport among modes. Results highlight the importance of incremental improvements in conventional internal combustion engine technology, and, in the absence of policies to overcome observed consumer discount rates, the very long time horizons before radical alternatives like the internal combustion engine hybrid drive train vehicle are likely to take substantial market share

  8. Establishment of Safety Analysis System and Technology for CANDU Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Joo Hwan; Rhee, B. W.; Min, B. J.; Kim, H. T.; Kim, W. Y.; Yoon, C.; Chun, J. S.; Cho, M. S.; Jeong, J. Y.; Kang, H. S.

    2007-06-01

    The following 4 research items have been studied to establish a CANDU safety analysis system and to develop the relevant elementary technology for CANDU reactors. First, to improve and validate the CANDU design and operational safety analysis codes, the CANDU physics cell code WIMS-CANDU was improved, and validated, and an analysis of the moderator subcooling and pressure tube integrity has been performed for the large break LOCAs without ECCS. Also a CATHENA model and a CFD model for a post-blowdown fuel channel analysis have been developed and validated against two high temperature thermal-chemical experiments, CS28-1 and 2. Second, to improve the integrated operating system of the CANDU safety analysis codes, an extension has been made to them to include the core and fuel accident analyses, and a web-based CANDU database, CANTHIS version 2.0 was completed. Third, to assess the applicability of the ACR-7 safety analysis methodology to CANDU-6 the ACR-7 safety analysis methods were reviewed and the safety analysis methods of ACR-7 applicable to CANDU-6 were recommended. Last, to supplement and improve the existing CANDU safety analysis procedures, detailed analysis procedures have been prepared for individual accident scenarios. The results of this study can be used to resolve the CANDU safety issues, to improve the current design and operational safety analysis codes, and to technically support the Wolsong site to resolve their problems

  9. Learning curve analysis of mitral valve repair using telemanipulative technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charland, Patrick J; Robbins, Tom; Rodriguez, Evilio; Nifong, Wiley L; Chitwood, Randolph W

    2011-08-01

    To determine if the time required to perform mitral valve repairs using telemanipulation technology decreases with experience and how that decrease is influenced by patient and procedure variables. A single-center retrospective review was conducted using perioperative and outcomes data collected contemporaneously on 458 mitral valve repair surgeries using telemanipulative technology. A regression model was constructed to assess learning with this technology and predict total robot time using multiple predictive variables. Statistical analysis was used to determine if models were significantly useful, to rule out correlation between predictor variables, and to identify terms that did not contribute to the prediction of total robot time. We found a statistically significant learning curve (P learning percentage∗ derived from total robot times† for the first 458 recorded cases of mitral valve repair using telemanipulative technology is 95% (R(2) = .40). More than one third of the variability in total robot time can be explained through our model using the following variables: type of repair (chordal procedures, ablations, and leaflet resections), band size, use of clips alone in band implantation, and the presence of a fellow at bedside (P Learning in mitral valve repair surgery using telemanipulative technology occurs at the East Carolina Heart Institute according to a logarithmic curve, with a learning percentage of 95%. From our regression output, we can make an approximate prediction of total robot time using an additive model. These metrics can be used by programs for benchmarking to manage the implementation of this new technology, as well as for capacity planning, scheduling, and capital budget analysis. Copyright © 2011 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  10. Updated Life-Cycle Assessment of Aluminum Production and Semi-fabrication for the GREET Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Qiang [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kelly, Jarod C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Burnham, Andrew [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Elgowainy, Amgad [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report serves as an update for the life-cycle analysis (LCA) of aluminum production based on the most recent data representing the state-of-the-art of the industry in North America. The 2013 Aluminum Association (AA) LCA report on the environmental footprint of semifinished aluminum products in North America provides the basis for the update (The Aluminum Association, 2013). The scope of this study covers primary aluminum production, secondary aluminum production, as well as aluminum semi-fabrication processes including hot rolling, cold rolling, extrusion and shape casting. This report focuses on energy consumptions, material inputs and criteria air pollutant emissions for each process from the cradle-to-gate of aluminum, which starts from bauxite extraction, and ends with manufacturing of semi-fabricated aluminum products. The life-cycle inventory (LCI) tables compiled are to be incorporated into the vehicle cycle model of Argonne National Laboratory’s Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) Model for the release of its 2015 version.

  11. DCC DIFFUSE Standards Frameworks: A Standards Path through the Curation Lifecycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Higgins

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 DCC DIFFUSE Standards Frameworks aims to offer domain specific advice on standards relevant to digital preservation and curation, to help curators identify which standards they should be using and where they can be appropriately implemented, to ensure authoritative digital material. The Project uses the DCC Curation Lifecycle Model and Web 2.0 technology, to visually present standards frameworks for a number of disciplines. The Digital Curation Centre (DCC is actively working with a different relevant organisations to present searchable frameworks of standards, for a number of domains. These include digital repositories, records management, the geo-information sector, archives and the museum sector. Other domains, such as e-science, will shortly be investigated.

  12. Life-cycle assessment of photovoltaic systems: results of Swiss studies on energy chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dones, Roberto [Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen (Switzerland); Frischknecht, Rolf [Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1998-04-01

    The methodology used and results obtained for grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) plants in recent Swiss life-cycle assessment (LCA) studies on current and future energy systems are discussed. Mono- and polycrystalline silicon cell technologies utilised in current panels as well as monocrystalline and amorphous cells for future applications were analysed from Swiss conditions. The environmental inventories of slanted-roof solar panels and large plants are presented. Greenhouse gas emissions from present and future electricity systems are compared. The high electricity requirements for manufacturing determine most of the environmental burdens associated with current photovoltaics. However, due to increasing efficiency of production processes and cells, the environmental performance of PV systems is likely to improve substantially in the future. (Author)

  13. Life-cycle assessment of photovoltaic systems: results of Swiss studies on energy chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dones, Roberto; Frischknecht, Rolf

    1998-01-01

    The methodology used and results obtained for grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) plants in recent Swiss life-cycle assessment (LCA) studies on current and future energy systems are discussed. Mono- and polycrystalline silicon cell technologies utilised in current panels as well as monocrystalline and amorphous cells for future applications were analysed from Swiss conditions. The environmental inventories of slanted-roof solar panels and large plants are presented. Greenhouse gas emissions from present and future electricity systems are compared. The high electricity requirements for manufacturing determine most of the environmental burdens associated with current photovoltaics. However, due to increasing efficiency of production processes and cells, the environmental performance of PV systems is likely to improve substantially in the future. (Author)

  14. Open access for ALICE analysis based on virtualization technology

    CERN Document Server

    Buncic, P; Schutz, Y

    2015-01-01

    Open access is one of the important leverages for long-term data preservation for a HEP experiment. To guarantee the usability of data analysis tools beyond the experiment lifetime it is crucial that third party users from the scientific community have access to the data and associated software. The ALICE Collaboration has developed a layer of lightweight components built on top of virtualization technology to hide the complexity and details of the experiment-specific software. Users can perform basic analysis tasks within CernVM, a lightweight generic virtual machine, paired with an ALICE specific contextualization. Once the virtual machine is launched, a graphical user interface is automatically started without any additional configuration. This interface allows downloading the base ALICE analysis software and running a set of ALICE analysis modules. Currently the available tools include fully documented tutorials for ALICE analysis, such as the measurement of strange particle production or the nuclear modi...

  15. Decision analysis for the selection of tank waste retrieval technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DAVIS, FREDDIE J.; DEWEESE, GREGORY C.; PICKETT, WILLIAM W.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this report is to supplement the C-104 Alternatives Generation and Analysis (AGA) by providing a decision analysis for the alternative technologies described therein. The decision analysis used the Multi-Attribute Utility Analysis (MUA) technique. To the extent possible information will come from the AGA. Where data are not available, elicitation of expert opinion or engineering judgment is used and reviewed by the authors of the AGA. A key element of this particular analysis is the consideration of varying perspectives of parties interested in or affected by the decision. The six alternatives discussed are: sluicing; sluicing with vehicle mounted transfer pump; borehole mining; vehicle with attached sluicing nozzle and pump; articulated arm with attached sluicing nozzle; and mechanical dry retrieval. These are evaluated using four attributes, namely: schedule, cost, environmental impact, and safety

  16. The effect of life-cycle cost disclosure on consumer behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Matthias

    For more than 20 years, analysts have reported on the so-called "energy paradox" or the "energy efficiency gap", referring to the fact that economic agents could in principle lower their total cost at current prices by using more energy-efficient technology but, nevertheless, often decide not to do so. Theory suggests that providing information in a simplified way could potentially reduce this "efficiency gap". Such simplification may be achieved by providing the estimated monetary operating cost and life-cycle cost (LCC) of a given appliance---which has been a recurring theme within the energy policy and efficiency labeling community. Yet, little is known so far about the causal effects of LCC disclosure on consumer action because of the gap between the acquisition of efficiency information and consumer purchasing behavior in the real marketplace. This dissertation bridges the gap by experimentally integrating LCC disclosure into two major German commercial websites---a price comparison engine for cooling appliances, and an online shop for washing machines. Internet users arriving on these websites were randomly assigned to two experimental groups, and the groups were exposed to different visual stimuli. The control group received regular product price information, whereas the treatment group was, in addition, offered information about operating cost and total LCC. Click-stream data of consumers' shopping behavior was evaluated with multiple regression analysis by controlling for several product characteristics. This dissertation finds that LCC disclosure reduces the mean energy use of chosen cooling appliances by 2.5% (p<0.01), and the energy use of chosen washing machines by 0.8% (p<0.001). For the latter, it also reduces the mean water use by 0.7% (p<0.05). These effects suggest a potential role for public policy in promoting LCC disclosure. While I do not attempt to estimate the costs of such a policy, a simple quantification shows that the benefits amount to

  17. Analysis of some potential social effects of four coal technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, C.A.; Gould, L.C.

    1980-09-01

    This is an analysis of the potential social impacts of four coal technologies: conventional combustion, fluidized-bed combustion, liquifaction, and gasification. Because of their flexibility, and the abundance and relatively low costs of coal, the potential benefits of these technologies would seem to outweigh their potential social costs, both in the intermediate and long term. Nevertheless, the social costs of a coal industry are far more obscure and hard to quantify than the benefits. In general, however, it maybe expected that those technologies that can be deployed most quickly, that provide fuels that can substitute most easily for oil and natural gas, that are the cheapest, and that are the most thermally efficient will minimize social costs most in the intermediate term, while technologies that can guide energy infrastructure changes to become the most compatable with the fuels that will be most easily derived from inexhaustible sources (electricity and hydrogen) will minimize social costs most in the long run. An industry structured to favor eastern over western coal and plant sites in moderate sized communities, which could easily adapt to inexhaustible energy technologies (nuclear or solar) in the future, would be favored in either time period.

  18. Comparative analysis of battery electric, hydrogen fuel cell and hybrid vehicles in a future sustainable road transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Offer, G.J.; Howey, D.; Contestabile, M.; Clague, R.; Brandon, N.P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper compares battery electric vehicles (BEV) to hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV) and hydrogen fuel cell plug-in hybrid vehicles (FCHEV). Qualitative comparisons of technologies and infrastructural requirements, and quantitative comparisons of the lifecycle cost of the powertrain over 100,000 mile are undertaken, accounting for capital and fuel costs. A common vehicle platform is assumed. The 2030 scenario is discussed and compared to a conventional gasoline-fuelled internal combustion engine (ICE) powertrain. A comprehensive sensitivity analysis shows that in 2030 FCEVs could achieve lifecycle cost parity with conventional gasoline vehicles. However, both the BEV and FCHEV have significantly lower lifecycle costs. In the 2030 scenario, powertrain lifecycle costs of FCEVs range from $7360 to $22,580, whereas those for BEVs range from $6460 to $11,420 and FCHEVs, from $4310 to $12,540. All vehicle platforms exhibit significant cost sensitivity to powertrain capital cost. The BEV and FCHEV are relatively insensitive to electricity costs but the FCHEV and FCV are sensitive to hydrogen cost. The BEV and FCHEV are reasonably similar in lifecycle cost and one may offer an advantage over the other depending on driving patterns. A key conclusion is that the best path for future development of FCEVs is the FCHEV.

  19. Comparative analysis of battery electric, hydrogen fuel cell and hybrid vehicles in a future sustainable road transport system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Offer, G.J.; Brandon, N.P. [Department Earth Science Engineering, Imperial College London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Howey, D. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Imperial College London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Contestabile, M. [Centre for Environmental Policy, Imperial College London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Clague, R. [Energy Futures Lab, Imperial College London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-15

    This paper compares battery electric vehicles (BEV) to hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV) and hydrogen fuel cell plug-in hybrid vehicles (FCHEV). Qualitative comparisons of technologies and infrastructural requirements, and quantitative comparisons of the lifecycle cost of the powertrain over 100,000 mile are undertaken, accounting for capital and fuel costs. A common vehicle platform is assumed. The 2030 scenario is discussed and compared to a conventional gasoline-fuelled internal combustion engine (ICE) powertrain. A comprehensive sensitivity analysis shows that in 2030 FCEVs could achieve lifecycle cost parity with conventional gasoline vehicles. However, both the BEV and FCHEV have significantly lower lifecycle costs. In the 2030 scenario, powertrain lifecycle costs of FCEVs range from $7360 to $22,580, whereas those for BEVs range from $6460 to $11,420 and FCHEVs, from $4310 to $12,540. All vehicle platforms exhibit significant cost sensitivity to powertrain capital cost. The BEV and FCHEV are relatively insensitive to electricity costs but the FCHEV and FCV are sensitive to hydrogen cost. The BEV and FCHEV are reasonably similar in lifecycle cost and one may offer an advantage over the other depending on driving patterns. A key conclusion is that the best path for future development of FCEVs is the FCHEV. (author)

  20. Ultra Wideband Indoor Positioning Technologies: Analysis and Recent Advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarifi, Abdulrahman; Al-Salman, AbdulMalik; Alsaleh, Mansour; Alnafessah, Ahmad; Al-Hadhrami, Suheer; Al-Ammar, Mai A; Al-Khalifa, Hend S

    2016-05-16

    In recent years, indoor positioning has emerged as a critical function in many end-user applications; including military, civilian, disaster relief and peacekeeping missions. In comparison with outdoor environments, sensing location information in indoor environments requires a higher precision and is a more challenging task in part because various objects reflect and disperse signals. Ultra WideBand (UWB) is an emerging technology in the field of indoor positioning that has shown better performance compared to others. In order to set the stage for this work, we provide a survey of the state-of-the-art technologies in indoor positioning, followed by a detailed comparative analysis of UWB positioning technologies. We also provide an analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) to analyze the present state of UWB positioning technologies. While SWOT is not a quantitative approach, it helps in assessing the real status and in revealing the potential of UWB positioning to effectively address the indoor positioning problem. Unlike previous studies, this paper presents new taxonomies, reviews some major recent advances, and argues for further exploration by the research community of this challenging problem space.

  1. Ultra Wideband Indoor Positioning Technologies: Analysis and Recent Advances †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarifi, Abdulrahman; Al-Salman, AbdulMalik; Alsaleh, Mansour; Alnafessah, Ahmad; Al-Hadhrami, Suheer; Al-Ammar, Mai A.; Al-Khalifa, Hend S.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, indoor positioning has emerged as a critical function in many end-user applications; including military, civilian, disaster relief and peacekeeping missions. In comparison with outdoor environments, sensing location information in indoor environments requires a higher precision and is a more challenging task in part because various objects reflect and disperse signals. Ultra WideBand (UWB) is an emerging technology in the field of indoor positioning that has shown better performance compared to others. In order to set the stage for this work, we provide a survey of the state-of-the-art technologies in indoor positioning, followed by a detailed comparative analysis of UWB positioning technologies. We also provide an analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) to analyze the present state of UWB positioning technologies. While SWOT is not a quantitative approach, it helps in assessing the real status and in revealing the potential of UWB positioning to effectively address the indoor positioning problem. Unlike previous studies, this paper presents new taxonomies, reviews some major recent advances, and argues for further exploration by the research community of this challenging problem space. PMID:27196906

  2. Ultra Wideband Indoor Positioning Technologies: Analysis and Recent Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman Alarifi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, indoor positioning has emerged as a critical function in many end-user applications; including military, civilian, disaster relief and peacekeeping missions. In comparison with outdoor environments, sensing location information in indoor environments requires a higher precision and is a more challenging task in part because various objects reflect and disperse signals. Ultra WideBand (UWB is an emerging technology in the field of indoor positioning that has shown better performance compared to others. In order to set the stage for this work, we provide a survey of the state-of-the-art technologies in indoor positioning, followed by a detailed comparative analysis of UWB positioning technologies. We also provide an analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT to analyze the present state of UWB positioning technologies. While SWOT is not a quantitative approach, it helps in assessing the real status and in revealing the potential of UWB positioning to effectively address the indoor positioning problem. Unlike previous studies, this paper presents new taxonomies, reviews some major recent advances, and argues for further exploration by the research community of this challenging problem space.

  3. A Framework for BIM-Enabled Life-Cycle Information Management of Construction Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Xu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available BIM has been widely used in project management, but on the whole the applications have been scattered and the BIM models have not been deployed throughout the whole project life-cycle. Each participant builds their own BIM, so there is a major problem in how to integrate these dynamic and fragmented data together. In order to solve this problem, this paper focuses on BIM-based life-cycle information management and builds a framework for BIM-enabled life-cycle information management. To organize the life-cycle information well, the information components and information flow during the project life-cycle are defined. Then, the application of BIM in life-cycle information management is analysed. This framework will provide a unified platform for information management and ensure data integrity.

  4. Technology images and concepts of technology in transition. An analysis in the philosophy of technology and general technology; Technikbilder und Technikkonzepte im Wandel. Eine technikphilosophische und allgemeintechnische Analyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banse, G. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (DE). Inst. fuer Technikfolgen-Abschaetzung und Systemanalyse (ITAS); Meier, B. [Potsdam Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Arbeitslehre/Technik; Wolffgramm, H. (eds.)

    2002-02-01

    This volume contains contributions resulting from an expert discussion on 'Technology Images and Concepts of Technology in Transition - an analysis in the philosophy of technology and general technology. This expert discussion took place on 6 October 2000 at the State Pedagogical Institute Brandenburg in Ludwigsfelde-Struveshof and was conceived and organized co-operatively by the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institute for Technology Assessment and Systems Analysis, the University of Potsdam, Institute for the Theory of Work/Technology and Professor Horst Wolffgramm, Frankfurt (Oder). It was the aim of the expert discussion to compile, compare and relate the various positions in the philosophy of technology, general technology science, the history of technology and the didactics of technology of the 'conceptualisation' of technology as a basis for generally understanding technology or for a scientifically based 'image of technology' to each other, and then to make them accessible for curricula within a framework of conceiving general technical education at all school levels. The contributions are grouped according to the two main foci of the event: On the one hand they are concerned with determining a contemporary concept of technology ('Image of technology'). One of the aims is to characterize technological change from the historical-genetic perspective and in this way to access technology as a work of mankind, as an important element of our culture. At the same time it is necessary to forecast future developments or to make future paths of development visible to enable the indication of change by basic innovations. Second, on this basis and supported by educational theory, conclusions are drawn for future-oriented technical general education for all students. The main focus in this is on the linkage between goals, content and subject-specific methods. In order to enable the determination of competence of any individual

  5. Sustainability evaluation of water supply technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godskesen, Berit

    Sustainability evaluation of water supply systems is important to include in the decision making process when planning new technologies or resources for water supply. In Denmark the motivations may be many and different for changing technology, but since water supply is based on groundwater...... the main driver is the limitations of the available resource from the groundwater bodies. The environmental impact of products and systems can be evaluated by life-cycle assessment (LCA) which is a comprehensive and dominant decision support tool capable of evaluating a water system from the cradle......-criteria decision analysis method was used to develop a decision support system and applied to the study. In this thesis a standard LCA of the drinking water supply technology of today (base case) and 4 alternative cases for water supply technologies is conducted. The standard LCA points at the case rain...

  6. Task 11 - systems analysis of environmental management technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musich, M.A.

    1997-06-01

    A review was conducted of three systems analysis (SA) studies performed by Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO) on integrated thermal treatment systems (ITTs) and integrated nonthermal treatment systems (INTSs) for the remediation of mixed low-level waste (MLLW) stored throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) weapons complex. The review was performed by an independent team led by the Energy & Environment Research Center (EERC), including Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), the Waste Policy Institute (WPI), and Virginia Tech.

  7. Development of Ultra-sensitive Laser Spectroscopic Analysis Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, H. K.; Kim, D. H.; Song, K. S. (and others)

    2007-04-15

    Laser spectroscopic analysis technology has three distinct merits in detecting various nuclides found in nuclear fields. High selectivity originated from small bandwidth of tunable lasers makes it possible to distinguish various kinds of isotopes and isomers. High intensity of focused laser beam makes it possible to analyze ultratrace amount. Remote delivery of laser beam improves safety of workers who are exposed in dangerous environment. Also it can be applied to remote sensing of environment pollution.

  8. Development of Ultra-sensitive Laser Spectroscopic Analysis Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, H. K.; Kim, D. H.; Song, K. S.

    2007-04-01

    Laser spectroscopic analysis technology has three distinct merits in detecting various nuclides found in nuclear fields. High selectivity originated from small bandwidth of tunable lasers makes it possible to distinguish various kinds of isotopes and isomers. High intensity of focused laser beam makes it possible to analyze ultratrace amount. Remote delivery of laser beam improves safety of workers who are exposed in dangerous environment. Also it can be applied to remote sensing of environment pollution

  9. Task 11 - systems analysis of environmental management technologies. Topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musich, M.A.

    1997-06-01

    A review was conducted of three systems analysis (SA) studies performed by Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO) on integrated thermal treatment systems (ITTs) and integrated nonthermal treatment systems (INTSs) for the remediation of mixed low-level waste (MLLW) stored throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) weapons complex. The review was performed by an independent team led by the Energy ampersand Environment Research Center (EERC), including Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), the Waste Policy Institute (WPI), and Virginia Tech

  10. Systems analysis support to the waste management technology center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, A.L.; Osborne-Lee, I.W.; DePaoli, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a systems analysis concept being developed in support of waste management planning and analysis activities for Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), sites. This integrated systems model serves as a focus for the accumulation and documentation of technical and economic information from current waste management practices, improved operations projects, remedial actions, and new system development activities. The approach is generic and could be applied to a larger group of sites. This integrated model is a source of technical support to waste management groups in the Energy Systems complex for integrated waste management planning and related technology assessment activities. This problem-solving methodology for low-level waste (LLW) management is being developed through the Waste Management Technology Center (WMTC) for the Low-Level Waste Disposal, Development, and Demonstration (LLWDDD) Program. In support of long-range planning activities, this capability will include the development of management support tools such as specialized systems models, data bases, and information systems. These management support tools will provide continuing support in the identification and definition of technical and economic uncertainties to be addressed by technology demonstration programs. Technical planning activities and current efforts in the development of this system analysis capability for the LLWDDD Program are presented in this paper

  11. Java technology for implementing efficient numerical analysis in intranet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Hee Yong; Ko, Sung Ho

    2001-01-01

    This paper introduces some useful Java technologies for utilizing the internet in numerical analysis, and suggests one architecture performing efficient numerical analysis in the intranet by using them. The present work has verified it's possibility by implementing some parts of this architecture with two easy examples. One is based on Servlet-Applet communication, JDBC and swing. The other is adding multi-threads, file transfer and Java remote method invocation to the former. Through this work it has been intended to make the base for the later advanced and practical research that will include efficiency estimates of this architecture and deal with advanced load balancing

  12. High temperature structure design for FBRs and analysis technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, Koji

    1986-01-01

    In the case of FBRs, the operation temperature exceeds 500 deg C, therefore, the design taking the inelastic characteristics of structural materials, such as plasticity and creep, into account is required, and the high grade and detailed evaluation of design is demanded. This new high temperature structure design technology has been advanced in respective countries taking up experimental, prototype and demonstration reactors as the targets. The development of FBRs in Japan was begun with the experimental reactor 'Joyo' which has been operated since 1977, and now, the prototype FBR 'Monju' of 280 MWe is under construction, which is expected to attain the criticality in 1992. In order to realize FBRs which can compete with LWRs through the construction of a demonstration FBR, the construction of large scale plants and the heightening of the economy and reliability are necessary. The features and the role of FBR structural design, the method of high temperature structure design and the trend of its standardization, the trend of the structural analysis technology for FBRs such as inelastic analysis, buckling analysis and fluid and structure coupled vibration analysis, the present status of structural analysis programs, and the subjects for the future of high temperature structure design are explained. (Kako, I.)

  13. Addressing land use change and uncertainty in the life-cycle assessment of wheat-based bioethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malça, João; Freire, Fausto

    2012-01-01

    Despite the significant growth in the number of published life-cycle assessments of biofuels, important aspects have not captured sufficient attention, namely soil carbon emissions from land use change (LUC) and uncertainty analysis. The main goal of this article is to evaluate the implications of different LUC scenarios and uncertainty in the life-cycle energy renewability efficiency and GHG (greenhouse gases) intensity of wheat-based bioethanol replacing gasoline. A comprehensive assessment of different LUC scenarios (grassland or cropland converted to wheat cultivation) and agricultural practices is conducted, which results in different carbon stock change values. The types of uncertainty addressed include parameter uncertainty (propagated into LC (life-cycle) results using Monte-Carlo simulation) and uncertainty concerning how bioethanol co-product credits are accounted for. Results show that GHG emissions have considerably higher uncertainty than energy efficiency values, mainly due to soil carbon emissions from direct LUC and N 2 O release from cultivated soil. Moreover, LUC dominates the GHG intensity of bioethanol. Very different GHG emissions are calculated depending on the LUC scenario considered. Conversion of full- or low-tillage croplands to wheat cultivation results in bioethanol GHG emissions lower than gasoline emissions, whereas conversion of grassland does not contribute to bioethanol GHG savings over gasoline in the short- to mid-term. -- Highlights: ► We address different LUC scenarios and uncertainty in the LCA of wheat bioethanol. ► GHG emissions have considerably higher uncertainty than energy efficiency values. ► Bioethanol contributes to primary energy savings over gasoline. ► Very different life-cycle GHG emissions are calculated depending on the LUC scenario. ► GHG savings over gasoline are only achieved if cropland is the reference land use.

  14. Application of Ontology Technology in Health Statistic Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Minjiang; Hu, Hongpu; Lei, Xingyun

    2017-01-01

    Research Purpose: establish health management ontology for analysis of health statistic data. Proposed Methods: this paper established health management ontology based on the analysis of the concepts in China Health Statistics Yearbook, and used protégé to define the syntactic and semantic structure of health statistical data. six classes of top-level ontology concepts and their subclasses had been extracted and the object properties and data properties were defined to establish the construction of these classes. By ontology instantiation, we can integrate multi-source heterogeneous data and enable administrators to have an overall understanding and analysis of the health statistic data. ontology technology provides a comprehensive and unified information integration structure of the health management domain and lays a foundation for the efficient analysis of multi-source and heterogeneous health system management data and enhancement of the management efficiency.

  15. Life Cycle Analysis of Dedicated Nano-Launch Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Edgar; McCleskey, Carey (Editor); Martin, John; Lepsch, Roger; Ternani, Tosoc

    2014-01-01

    Recent technology advancements have enabled the development of small cheap satellites that can perform useful functions in the space environment. Currently, the only low cost option for getting these payloads into orbit is through ride share programs - small satellites awaiting the launch of a larger satellite, and then riding along on the same launcher. As a result, these small satellite customers await primary payload launches and a backlog exists. An alternative option would be dedicated nano-launch systems built and operated to provide more flexible launch services, higher availability, and affordable prices. The potential customer base that would drive requirements or support a business case includes commercial, academia, civil government and defense. Further, NASA technology investments could enable these alternative game changing options. With this context, in 2013 the Game Changing Development (GCD) program funded a NASA team to investigate the feasibility of dedicated nano-satellite launch systems with a recurring cost of less than $2 million per launch for a 5 kg payload to low Earth orbit. The team products would include potential concepts, technologies and factors for enabling the ambitious cost goal, exploring the nature of the goal itself, and informing the GCD program technology investment decision making process. This paper provides an overview of the life cycle analysis effort that was conducted in 2013 by an inter-center NASA team. This effort included the development of reference nano-launch system concepts, developing analysis processes and models, establishing a basis for cost estimates (development, manufacturing and launch) suitable to the scale of the systems, and especially, understanding the relationship of potential game changing technologies to life cycle costs, as well as other factors, such as flights per year.

  16. Life-cycle cost assessment of seismically base-isolated structures in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hao; Weng, Dagen; Lu, Xilin; Lu, Liang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The life-cycle cost of seismic base-isolated nuclear power plants is modeled. • The change law of life-cycle cost with seismic fortification intensity is studied. • The initial cost of laminated lead rubber bearings can be expressed as the function of volume. • The initial cost of a damper can be expressed as the function of its maximum displacement and tonnage. • The use of base-isolation can greatly reduce the expected damage cost, which leads to the reduction of the life-cycle cost. -- Abstract: Evaluation of seismically base-isolated structural life-cycle cost is the key problem in performance based seismic design. A method is being introduced to address the life-cycle cost of base-isolated reinforced concrete structures in nuclear power plants. Each composition of life-cycle cost is analyzed including the initial construction cost, the isolators cost and the excepted damage cost over life-cycle of the structure. The concept of seismic intensity is being used to estimate the expected damage cost, greatly simplifying the calculation. Moreover, French Cruas nuclear power plant is employed as an example to assess its life-cycle cost, compared to the cost of non-isolated plant at the same time. The results show that the proposed method is efficient and the expected damage cost is enormously reduced because of the application of isolators, which leads to the reduction of the life-cycle cost of nuclear power plants

  17. Characterization of EGS Fracture Network Lifecycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillian R. Foulger

    2008-03-31

    Geothermal energy is relatively clean, and is an important non-hydrocarbon source of energy. It can potentially reduce our dependence on fossil fuels and contribute to reduction in carbon emissions. High-temperature geothermal areas can be used for electricity generation if they contain permeable reservoirs of hot water or steam that can be extracted. The biggest challenge to achieving the full potential of the nation’s resources of this kind is maintaining and creating the fracture networks required for the circulation, heating, and extraction of hot fluids. The fundamental objective of the present research was to understand how fracture networks are created in hydraulic borehole injection experiments, and how they subsequently evolve. When high-pressure fluids are injected into boreholes in geothermal areas, they flow into hot rock at depth inducing thermal cracking and activating critically stressed pre-existing faults. This causes earthquake activity which, if monitored, can provide information on the locations of the cracks formed, their time-development and the type of cracking underway, e.g., whether shear movement on faults occurred or whether cracks opened up. Ultimately it may be possible to monitor the critical earthquake parameters in near-real-time so the information can be used to guide the hydraulic injection while it is in progress, e.g., how to adjust factors such as injectate pressure, volume and temperature. In order to achieve this, it is necessary to mature analysis techniques and software that were, at the start of this project, in an embryonic developmental state. Task 1 of the present project was to develop state-of-the-art techniques and software for calculating highly accurate earthquake locations, earthquake source mechanisms (moment tensors) and temporal changes in reservoir structure. Task 2 was to apply the new techniques to hydrofracturing (Enhanced Geothermal Systems, or “EGS”) experiments performed at the Coso geothermal field

  18. Multiple criteria decision analysis for health technology assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thokala, Praveen; Duenas, Alejandra

    2012-12-01

    Multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) has been suggested by some researchers as a method to capture the benefits beyond quality adjusted life-years in a transparent and consistent manner. The objectives of this article were to analyze the possible application of MCDA approaches in health technology assessment and to describe their relative advantages and disadvantages. This article begins with an introduction to the most common types of MCDA models and a critical review of state-of-the-art methods for incorporating multiple criteria in health technology assessment. An overview of MCDA is provided and is compared against the current UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence health technology appraisal process. A generic MCDA modeling approach is described, and the different MCDA modeling approaches are applied to a hypothetical case study. A comparison of the different MCDA approaches is provided, and the generic issues that need consideration before the application of MCDA in health technology assessment are examined. There are general practical issues that might arise from using an MCDA approach, and it is suggested that appropriate care be taken to ensure the success of MCDA techniques in the appraisal process. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Technology and Power. A Foucauldian Analysis of Electronic Monitoring Discourses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Vitores

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to show the importance of FOUCAULT within social studies of science and technology. It also illustrates how a Foucauldian analysis can be useful for studies of science, technology and society focused on power effects. To accomplish these objectives we analyze the emergence of a specific techno-scientific innovation: the electronic monitoring of offenders. We map the discontinuities and discourse dispersions linked to those practices that constitute different materializations of this electronic device. Because we start from questions concerning power technologies, rather than simply analyzing the ideologies and knowledges that legitimate electronic monitoring and its technical reliability, we attend to the assemblage of discourses, rhetorics, vocabularies, techniques and procedures by which knowledge is intertwined and joins with the exercise of power. In this way, we show how one of FOUCAULT's technologies of power—disciplinary technology—is articulated, nourished and contradicted by other emergent logics drawing on new forms of regulation and social control. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs070225

  20. URBAN CHILDHOOD ROUTINES MEDIATED BY TECHNOLOGY: A VISUAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Patiño, Javier

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available With the goal of documenting routines in which a technological component had some type of impact and observe the influences of immediate environments, exploring meaning and sense, interviews and some observations and, especially, a series of photographs taken by a young girl about her daily life were collected. The purpose of this article is to foster a critical debate about the social and developmental consequences that have been attributed to changes in the living conditions of contemporary Western urban children. For the analytical approach and the analysis of the data, it was especially important to take into consideration the characteristics of the case study participant, a high social class 12 year old pre-adolescent who lives in a home where a large variety of information and communication technology equipment is at her disposal. The conclusions that are presented mainly revolve around two issues. First, related to the emergence of multimodal communication situations, of increasingly semiotic complexity, promoted by digital practices visible in different styles of mediation in the uses of technologies identified as: "convergence", "divergence" and "accessibility". Second, that these technological practices facilitate transformations in space, whether public, private or virtual, altering the importance that traditionally held by other places in the processes of socialization of urban children. This article is published in Spanish.

  1. Comparisons of four categories of waste recycling in China’s paper industry based on physical input–output life-cycle assessment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Sai; Zhang, Tianzhu; Xu Yijian

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Using crop straws and wood wastes for paper production should be promoted. ► Bagasse and textile waste recycling should be properly limited. ► Imports of scrap paper should be encouraged. ► Sensitivity analysis, uncertainties and policy implications are discussed. - Abstract: Waste recycling for paper production is an important component of waste management. This study constructs a physical input–output life-cycle assessment (PIO-LCA) model. The PIO-LCA model is used to investigate environmental impacts of four categories of waste recycling in China’s paper industry: crop straws, bagasse, textile wastes and scrap paper. Crop straw recycling and wood utilization for paper production have small total intensity of environmental impacts. Moreover, environmental impacts reduction of crop straw recycling and wood utilization benefits the most from technology development. Thus, using crop straws and wood (including wood wastes) for paper production should be promoted. Technology development has small effects on environmental impacts reduction of bagasse recycling, textile waste recycling and scrap paper recycling. In addition, bagasse recycling and textile waste recycling have big total intensity of environmental impacts. Thus, the development of bagasse recycling and textile waste recycling should be properly limited. Other pathways for reusing bagasse and textile wastes should be explored and evaluated. Moreover, imports of scrap paper should be encouraged to reduce large indirect impacts of scrap paper recycling on domestic environment.

  2. FY 1996 solid waste integrated life-cycle forecast characteristics summary. Volumes 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Templeton, K.J.

    1996-05-23

    For the past six years, a waste volume forecast has been collected annually from onsite and offsite generators that currently ship or are planning to ship solid waste to the Westinghouse Hanford Company`s Central Waste Complex (CWC). This document provides a description of the physical waste forms, hazardous waste constituents, and radionuclides of the waste expected to be shipped to the CWC from 1996 through the remaining life cycle of the Hanford Site (assumed to extend to 2070). In previous years, forecast data has been reported for a 30-year time period; however, the life-cycle approach was adopted this year to maintain consistency with FY 1996 Multi-Year Program Plans. This document is a companion report to two previous reports: the more detailed report on waste volumes, WHC-EP-0900, FY1996 Solid Waste Integrated Life-Cycle Forecast Volume Summary and the report on expected containers, WHC-EP-0903, FY1996 Solid Waste Integrated Life-Cycle Forecast Container Summary. All three documents are based on data gathered during the FY 1995 data call and verified as of January, 1996. These documents are intended to be used in conjunction with other solid waste planning documents as references for short and long-term planning of the WHC Solid Waste Disposal Division`s treatment, storage, and disposal activities over the next several decades. This document focuses on two main characteristics: the physical waste forms and hazardous waste constituents of low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic waste (both non-mixed and mixed) (TRU(M)). The major generators for each waste category and waste characteristic are also discussed. The characteristics of low-level waste (LLW) are described in Appendix A. In addition, information on radionuclides present in the waste is provided in Appendix B. The FY 1996 forecast data indicate that about 100,900 cubic meters of LLMW and TRU(M) waste is expected to be received at the CWC over the remaining life cycle of the site. Based on

  3. FY 1996 solid waste integrated life-cycle forecast characteristics summary. Volumes 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templeton, K.J.

    1996-01-01

    For the past six years, a waste volume forecast has been collected annually from onsite and offsite generators that currently ship or are planning to ship solid waste to the Westinghouse Hanford Company's Central Waste Complex (CWC). This document provides a description of the physical waste forms, hazardous waste constituents, and radionuclides of the waste expected to be shipped to the CWC from 1996 through the remaining life cycle of the Hanford Site (assumed to extend to 2070). In previous years, forecast data has been reported for a 30-year time period; however, the life-cycle approach was adopted this year to maintain consistency with FY 1996 Multi-Year Program Plans. This document is a companion report to two previous reports: the more detailed report on waste volumes, WHC-EP-0900, FY1996 Solid Waste Integrated Life-Cycle Forecast Volume Summary and the report on expected containers, WHC-EP-0903, FY1996 Solid Waste Integrated Life-Cycle Forecast Container Summary. All three documents are based on data gathered during the FY 1995 data call and verified as of January, 1996. These documents are intended to be used in conjunction with other solid waste planning documents as references for short and long-term planning of the WHC Solid Waste Disposal Division's treatment, storage, and disposal activities over the next several decades. This document focuses on two main characteristics: the physical waste forms and hazardous waste constituents of low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic waste (both non-mixed and mixed) (TRU(M)). The major generators for each waste category and waste characteristic are also discussed. The characteristics of low-level waste (LLW) are described in Appendix A. In addition, information on radionuclides present in the waste is provided in Appendix B. The FY 1996 forecast data indicate that about 100,900 cubic meters of LLMW and TRU(M) waste is expected to be received at the CWC over the remaining life cycle of the site. Based on

  4. Analysis of key technologies for virtual instruments metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guixiong; Xu, Qingui; Gao, Furong; Guan, Qiuju; Fang, Qiang

    2008-12-01

    Virtual instruments (VIs) require metrological verification when applied as measuring instruments. Owing to the software-centered architecture, metrological evaluation of VIs includes two aspects: measurement functions and software characteristics. Complexity of software imposes difficulties on metrological testing of VIs. Key approaches and technologies for metrology evaluation of virtual instruments are investigated and analyzed in this paper. The principal issue is evaluation of measurement uncertainty. The nature and regularity of measurement uncertainty caused by software and algorithms can be evaluated by modeling, simulation, analysis, testing and statistics with support of powerful computing capability of PC. Another concern is evaluation of software features like correctness, reliability, stability, security and real-time of VIs. Technologies from software engineering, software testing and computer security domain can be used for these purposes. For example, a variety of black-box testing, white-box testing and modeling approaches can be used to evaluate the reliability of modules, components, applications and the whole VI software. The security of a VI can be assessed by methods like vulnerability scanning and penetration analysis. In order to facilitate metrology institutions to perform metrological verification of VIs efficiently, an automatic metrological tool for the above validation is essential. Based on technologies of numerical simulation, software testing and system benchmarking, a framework for the automatic tool is proposed in this paper. Investigation on implementation of existing automatic tools that perform calculation of measurement uncertainty, software testing and security assessment demonstrates the feasibility of the automatic framework advanced.

  5. Life cycle analysis of advanced nuclear power generation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Yoji; Yokoyama, Hayaichi

    1996-01-01

    In this research, as for light water reactors and fast breeder reactors, for the object of all the processes from the mining, transport and refining of fuel, electric power generation to the treatment and disposal of waste, the amount of energy input and the quantity of CO 2 emission over the life cycle were analyzed, and regarding the influence that the technical progress of nuclear power generation exerted to environment, the effect of improvement was elucidated. Attention has been paid to nuclear power generation as its CO 2 emission is least, and the effect of global warming is smallest. In order to reduce the quantity of radioactive waste generation in LWRs and the cost of fuel cycle, and to extend the operation cycle, the technical development for heightening fuel burnup is in progress. The process of investigation of the new technologies of nuclear power generation taken up in this research is described. The analysis of the energy balance of various power generation methods is discussed. In the case of pluthermal process, the improvement of energy balance ratio is dependent on uranium enrichment technology. Nuclear power generation requires much materials and energy for the construction, and emits CO 2 indirectly. The CO 2 unit emission based on the analysis of energy balance was determined for the new technologies of nuclear power generation, and the results are shown. (K.I.)

  6. Engineering Documentation Control Handbook Configuration Management and Product Lifecycle Management

    CERN Document Server

    Watts, Frank B

    2011-01-01

    In this new edition of his widely-used Handbook, Frank Watts, widely recognized for his significant contributions to engineering change control processes, provides a thoroughly practical guide to the implementation and improvement of Engineering Documentation Control (EDC), Product Lifecycle Management and Product Configuration Management (CM). Successful and error-free implementation of EDC/CM is critical to world-class manufacturing. Huge amounts of time are wasted in most product manufacturing environments over EDC/CM issues such as interchangeability, document release and change control -

  7. Site-dependent life-cycle impact assessment of acidification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Potting, Josepha Maria Barbara; Schöpp, W.; Blok, Kornelis

    1998-01-01

    The lack of spatial differentiation in current life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA) affects the relevance of the assessed impact. This article first describes a framework for constructing factors relating the region of emission to the acidifying impact on its deposition areas. Next, these factors...... are established for 44 European regions with the help of the RAINS model, an integrated assessment model that combines information on regional emission levels with information on long-range atmospheric transport to estimate patterns of deposition and concentration for comparison with critical loads and thresholds...

  8. Operational Changes in a Shared Resource Laboratory with the Use of a Product Lifecycle Management Approach: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hexley, Philip; Smith, Victoria; Wall, Samantha

    2016-04-01

    Shared Resource Laboratories (SRLs) provide investigators access to necessary scientific and resource expertise to leverage complex technologies fully for advancing high-quality biomedical research in a cost-effective manner. At the University of Nebraska Medical Center, the Flow Cytometry Research Facility (FCRF) offered access to exceptional technology, but the methods of operation were outdated and unsustainable. Whereas technology has advanced and the institute has expanded, the operations at the facility remained unchanged for 35 yr. To rectify this, at the end of 2013, we took a product lifecycle management approach to affect large operational changes and align the services offered with the SRL goal of education, as well as to provide service to researchers. These disruptive operational changes took over 10 mo to complete and allowed for independent end-user acquisition of flow cytometry data. The results have been monitored for the past 12 mo. The operational changes have had a positive impact on the quality of research, increased investigator-facility interaction, reduced stress of facility staff, and increased overall use of the resources. This product lifecycle management approach to facility operations allowed us to conceive of, design, implement, and monitor effectively the changes at the FCRF. This approach should be considered by SRL management when faced with the need for operationally disruptive measures.

  9. Total analysis systems with Thermochromic Etching Discs technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avella-Oliver, Miquel; Morais, Sergi; Carrascosa, Javier; Puchades, Rosa; Maquieira, Ángel

    2014-12-16

    A new analytical system based on Thermochromic Etching Discs (TED) technology is presented. TED comprises a number of attractive features such as track independency, selective irradiation, a high power laser, and the capability to create useful assay platforms. The analytical versatility of this tool opens up a wide range of possibilities to design new compact disc-based total analysis systems applicable in chemistry and life sciences. In this paper, TED analytical implementation is described and discussed, and their analytical potential is supported by several applications. Microarray immunoassay, immunofiltration assay, solution measurement, and cell culture approaches are herein addressed in order to demonstrate the practical capacity of this system. The analytical usefulness of TED technology is herein demonstrated, describing how to exploit this tool for developing truly integrated analytical systems that provide solutions within the point of care framework.

  10. Activation analysis in the environment: Science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenihan, J.

    1989-01-01

    Science is disciplined curiosity. Activation analysis was created more than 50 yr ago by Hevesy's curiosity and Levi's experimental skill. Technology is the exploitation of machines and materials for the fulfillment of human needs or wants. The early history of neutron activation analysis (NAA) was greatly influenced by military requirements. Since then the technique has found applications in many disciplines, including materials science, medicine, archaeology, geochemistry, agriculture, and forensic science. More recently, neutron activation analysts, responding to increasing public interest and concern, have made distinctive contributions to the study of environmental problems. Activation analysis, though it uses some procedures derived from physics, is essentially a chemical technique. The chemical study of the environment may be reviewed under many headings; three are discussed here: 1. occupational medicine 2. health of the general public 3. environmental pollution

  11. Development of HANARO Activation Analysis System and Utilization Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Y. S.; Moon, J. H.; Cho, H. J. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    1. Establishment of evaluation system using a data for a neutron activation analysis : Improvement of NAA measurement system and its identification, Development of combined data evaluation code of NAA/PGAA, International technical cooperation project 2. Development of technique for a industrial application of high precision gamma nuclide spectroscopic analysis : Analytical quality control, Development of industrial application techniques and its identification 3. Industrial application research for a prompt gamma-ray activation analysis : Improvement of Compton suppression counting system (PGAA), Development of applied technology using a PGAA system 4. Establishment of NAA user supporting system and KOLAS management : Development and validation of KOLAS/ISO accreditation testing and identification method, Cooperation researches for a industrial application, Establishment of integrated user analytical supporting system, Accomplishment of sample irradiation facility.

  12. Development of HANARO Activation Analysis System and Utilization Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Y. S.; Moon, J. H.; Cho, H. J.

    2007-06-01

    1. Establishment of evaluation system using a data for a neutron activation analysis : Improvement of NAA measurement system and its identification, Development of combined data evaluation code of NAA/PGAA, International technical cooperation project 2. Development of technique for a industrial application of high precision gamma nuclide spectroscopic analysis : Analytical quality control, Development of industrial application techniques and its identification 3. Industrial application research for a prompt gamma-ray activation analysis : Improvement of Compton suppression counting system (PGAA), Development of applied technology using a PGAA system 4. Establishment of NAA user supporting system and KOLAS management : Development and validation of KOLAS/ISO accreditation testing and identification method, Cooperation researches for a industrial application, Establishment of integrated user analytical supporting system, Accomplishment of sample irradiation facility

  13. The Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC): Providing Analysis and Insights on Clean Technology Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Nicholi S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-28

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC) provides objective analysis and up-to-date data on global supply chains and manufacturing of clean energy technologies. Policymakers and industry leaders seek CEMAC insights to inform choices to promote economic growth and the transition to a clean energy economy.

  14. Open access for ALICE analysis based on virtualization technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buncic, P; Gheata, M; Schutz, Y

    2015-01-01

    Open access is one of the important leverages for long-term data preservation for a HEP experiment. To guarantee the usability of data analysis tools beyond the experiment lifetime it is crucial that third party users from the scientific community have access to the data and associated software. The ALICE Collaboration has developed a layer of lightweight components built on top of virtualization technology to hide the complexity and details of the experiment-specific software. Users can perform basic analysis tasks within CernVM, a lightweight generic virtual machine, paired with an ALICE specific contextualization. Once the virtual machine is launched, a graphical user interface is automatically started without any additional configuration. This interface allows downloading the base ALICE analysis software and running a set of ALICE analysis modules. Currently the available tools include fully documented tutorials for ALICE analysis, such as the measurement of strange particle production or the nuclear modification factor in Pb-Pb collisions. The interface can be easily extended to include an arbitrary number of additional analysis modules. We present the current status of the tools used by ALICE through the CERN open access portal, and the plans for future extensions of this system. (paper)

  15. Getting more out of biomedical documents with GATE's full lifecycle open source text analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Hamish; Tablan, Valentin; Roberts, Angus; Bontcheva, Kalina

    2013-01-01

    This software article describes the GATE family of open source text analysis tools and processes. GATE is one of the most widely used systems of its type with yearly download rates of tens of thousands and many active users in both academic and industrial contexts. In this paper we report three examples of GATE-based systems operating in the life sciences and in medicine. First, in genome-wide association studies which have contributed to discovery of a head and neck cancer mutation association. Second, medical records analysis which has significantly increased the statistical power of treatment/outcome models in the UK's largest psychiatric patient cohort. Third, richer constructs in drug-related searching. We also explore the ways in which the GATE family supports the various stages of the lifecycle present in our examples. We conclude that the deployment of text mining for document abstraction or rich search and navigation is best thought of as a process, and that with the right computational tools and data collection strategies this process can be made defined and repeatable. The GATE research programme is now 20 years old and has grown from its roots as a specialist development tool for text processing to become a rather comprehensive ecosystem, bringing together software developers, language engineers and research staff from diverse fields. GATE now has a strong claim to cover a uniquely wide range of the lifecycle of text analysis systems. It forms a focal point for the integration and reuse of advances that have been made by many people (the majority outside of the authors' own group) who work in text processing for biomedicine and other areas. GATE is available online under GNU open source licences and runs on all major operating systems. Support is available from an active user and developer community and also on a commercial basis.

  16. Getting more out of biomedical documents with GATE's full lifecycle open source text analytics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamish Cunningham

    Full Text Available This software article describes the GATE family of open source text analysis tools and processes. GATE is one of the most widely used systems of its type with yearly download rates of tens of thousands and many active users in both academic and industrial contexts. In this paper we report three examples of GATE-based systems operating in the life sciences and in medicine. First, in genome-wide association studies which have contributed to discovery of a head and neck cancer mutation association. Second, medical records analysis which has significantly increased the statistical power of treatment/outcome models in the UK's largest psychiatric patient cohort. Third, richer constructs in drug-related searching. We also explore the ways in which the GATE family supports the various stages of the lifecycle present in our examples. We conclude that the deployment of text mining for document abstraction or rich search and navigation is best thought of as a process, and that with the right computational tools and data collection strategies this process can be made defined and repeatable. The GATE research programme is now 20 years old and has grown from its roots as a specialist development tool for text processing to become a rather comprehensive ecosystem, bringing together software developers, language engineers and research staff from diverse fields. GATE now has a strong claim to cover a uniquely wide range of the lifecycle of text analysis systems. It forms a focal point for the integration and reuse of advances that have been made by many people (the majority outside of the authors' own group who work in text processing for biomedicine and other areas. GATE is available online under GNU open source licences and runs on all major operating systems. Support is available from an active user and developer community and also on a commercial basis.

  17. Evaluation of Alternatives for the Passenger Road Transport Sector in Europe: A Life-Cycle Assessment Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Paulino

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The road passenger transport is responsible for a large share of energy consumption and pollutants emission in Europe. Efforts have been made in the definition of new policies to reduce the environmental impacts of this sector. However, an integrated and consistent assessment of the most promising policies is required, using specific European indicators. For that matter, a life-cycle analysis was applied to the road passenger transport, for the European Union with 27 countries (EU27 in 2010, following a basket-of-products methodology and considering three main stages: production, use, and end-of-life of vehicles. Simapro 8 software was used, along with Ecoinvent 3 database and the impact assessment method International Reference Life Cycle Data System (ILCD 2011 Midpoint+. Changes in vehicle production processes, vehicle constitution, and energy sources for vehicle propulsion were analyzed. The policies resulting in a decrease in all impact categories are the use of smaller or lightweight vehicles by positively influencing use, production, and end-of-life of vehicles. The use of more recent vehicles technology or diesel vehicles show substantial reductions in, respectively, five and eight impact categories (out of 15, justifying their adoption in the European fleet. Generally, the most notorious policies compared to the actual transport paradigm, like compressed natural gas (CNG, biofuels, or electric vehicles use, show the greatest reduction in climate change (up to 46% but also a very significant rise of impacts in the categories that in the conventional basket-of-products already resulted in the worst indicators after normalization.

  18. Incorporating Externalities and Uncertainty into Life-Cycle Cost Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    based on a variety of carbon policy scenarios, including that put forth in the American Clean Energy and Security Act (ACESA) of 2009 (H.R. 2454... Security Act (ACESA) of 2009 (House Resolution 2454) passed the United States House of Representatives in 2009 but failed to pass the United States...engineering honor society and Sigma Iota Epsilon honorary and professional management fraternity. Upon graduation, he will be assigned to the 60th

  19. Life-Cycle Analysis of Aircraft Turbine Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-11-01

    modeornize effiectivelv or ai nt~aill 0ective peac-0 jtie training and realdiness operations" that Would degri’de our war-fight’ing Capm - bility, This...over time and whether all relevant cost elements were indeed included, their results further depended heavily on the data sources and assumptions they...that have unequal value for him. The following assumptions and limitations apply to this methodology: I. The model implies steady, evolutionary

  20. Joint Removal Implications : Thermal Analysis and Life-Cycle Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-01

    Deck joints are causing significant bridge deterioration and maintenance problems for Departments of Transportation (DOTs). Colorado State University researchers partnered with the Colorado DOT to analyze the effects of temperature change and thermal...

  1. Acceptance Probability (P a) Analysis for Process Validation Lifecycle Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsmeyer, Daniel; Pazhayattil, Ajay; Chen, Shu; Munaretto, Francesco; Hye, Maksuda; Sanghvi, Pradeep

    2016-04-01

    This paper introduces an innovative statistical approach towards understanding how variation impacts the acceptance criteria of quality attributes. Because of more complex stage-wise acceptance criteria, traditional process capability measures are inadequate for general application in the pharmaceutical industry. The probability of acceptance concept provides a clear measure, derived from specific acceptance criteria for each quality attribute. In line with the 2011 FDA Guidance, this approach systematically evaluates data and scientifically establishes evidence that a process is capable of consistently delivering quality product. The probability of acceptance provides a direct and readily understandable indication of product risk. As with traditional capability indices, the acceptance probability approach assumes that underlying data distributions are normal. The computational solutions for dosage uniformity and dissolution acceptance criteria are readily applicable. For dosage uniformity, the expected AV range may be determined using the s lo and s hi values along with the worst case estimates of the mean. This approach permits a risk-based assessment of future batch performance of the critical quality attributes. The concept is also readily applicable to sterile/non sterile liquid dose products. Quality attributes such as deliverable volume and assay per spray have stage-wise acceptance that can be converted into an acceptance probability. Accepted statistical guidelines indicate processes with C pk > 1.33 as performing well within statistical control and those with C pk  1.33 is associated with a centered process that will statistically produce less than 63 defective units per million. This is equivalent to an acceptance probability of >99.99%.

  2. A Survey of Key Technology of Network Public Opinion Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Su Ying

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The internet has become an important base for internet users to make comments because of its interactivity and fast dissemination. The outbreak of internet public opinion has become a major risk for network information security. Domestic and foreign researchers had carried out extensive and in-depth study on public opinion. Fruitful results have achieved in the basic theory research and emergency handling and other aspects of public opinion. But research on the public opinion in China is still in the initial stage, the key technology of the public opinion analysis is still as a starting point for in-depth study and discussion.

  3. The Data Envelopment Analysis Method in Benchmarking of Technological Incubators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Kaczmarska

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an original concept for the application of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA in benchmarking processes within innovation and entrepreneurship centers based on the example of technological incubators. Applying the DEA method, it is possible to order analyzed objects, on the basis of explicitly defined relative efficiency, by compiling a rating list and rating classes. Establishing standards and indicating “clearances” allows the studied objects - innovation and entrepreneurship centers - to select a way of developing effectively, as well as preserving their individuality and a unique way of acting with the account of local needs. (original abstract

  4. ROLE OF UML SEQUENCE DIAGRAM CONSTRUCTS IN OBJECT LIFECYCLE CONCEPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Grgec

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available When modeling systems and using UML concepts, a real system can be viewed in several ways. The RUP (Rational Unified Process defines the "4 + 1 view": 1. Logical view (class diagram (CD, object diagram (OD, sequence diagram (SD, collaboration diagram (COD, state chart diagram (SCD, activity diagram (AD, 2.Process view (use case diagram, CD, OD, SD, COD, SCD, AD, 3. Development view (package diagram, component diagram, 4. Physical view (deployment diagram, and 5. Use case view (use case diagram, OD, SD, COD, SCD, AD which combines the four mentioned above. With sequence diagram constructs we are describing object behavior in scope of one use case and their interaction. Each object in system goes through a so called lifecycle (create, supplement object with data, use object, decommission object. The concept of the object lifecycle is used to understand and formalize the behavior of objects from creation to deletion. With help of sequence diagram concepts our paper will describe the way of interaction modeling between objects through lifeline of each of them, and their importance in software development.

  5. Market Timing, lifecycle stage and Seasoned Equity offerings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Sousa Ismael da Costa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The tradeoff theory suggests that companies must issue shares to investments, when its leverage index is greater than your target rate, while the pecking order theory predicts that when capital offerings occur, the capital will be used to finance investments as the last source of funding, after their debt capacity have been exhausted. In contrast, the market timing theory predicts arguments that companies will adopt opportunistic behavior by issuing shares to take advantage of the high prices of the shares. Although the market timing theory has a significant influence on the decision to make a SEO, Brazilian literature contains little evidence about their economic importance and their effects. Thus, the present research aims to fill this gap in the Brazilian scenario. Specifically, we sought to assess the explanatory power of the relationship of market timing and the lifecycle theory in the issuance of SEO, which predicts that young companies with high market-to-book (MB and low operating cash flow sell shares to finance the investment, while mature companies, with low MB, pay dividends and fund investment internally. The sample was composed by non-financial companies with shares traded on BM&FBovespa. As main results, we can conclude that there is relationship between SEO and MB and size. On the other hand, were not observed evidence confirming the relationship between lifecycle stage and stock return, both in the previous year, and the year following the completion of the offer.

  6. QUALITY OF VOCATIONAL TRAINING THROUGH PRODUCT LIFECYCLE MANAGEMENT INSTRUMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen\tCHAŞOVSCHI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It appears that, during the process of continuous training, there is a growing need from VET providers of a reliable and easy to use tool ensuring the quality of the services provided. Product life cycle active management, including the use of suitable PLM software, is or may be a tool for monitoring and controlling product portfolio of an educational institution. It can be recommended not only for reasons of quality assurance, but also to facilitate the development of products for greater transparency in strategic business areas, and not least, to maintain competitiveness of VET providers. The Q-PLM project analysed the core of the product life cycle management in other sectors, identified the relevant variables that have an impact on the life cycle of VET provision and, on this basis, developed the beta version of a IT tool (software for product life cycle management addressed to VET providers, and a user manual for product life cycle management. The Q-PLM software makes possible the identification of the training products lifecycle, the life cycle stages, the key success factors and indicators for the training products lifecycle, separately for each training program and for each college.

  7. Life-cycle environmental performance of renewable building materials in the context of residential construction : phase II research report : an extension to the 2005 phase I research report. Module N, Life-cycle inventory of manufacturing prefinished engineered wood flooring in the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman; Scott A. Bowe

    2011-01-01

    This study summarizes the environmental performance of prefinished engineered wood flooring using life-cycle inventory (LCI) analysis. Using primary mill data gathered from manufacturers in the eastern United States and applying the methods found in Consortium for Research on Renewable Industrial Materials (CORRIM) Research Guidelines and International Organization of...

  8. FY 1997 survey report on information sharing product life-cycle systems. 2; 1997 nendo joho kyoyugata product life cycle system ni kansuru chosa hokokusho. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Highly value-added products considering a total life-cycle of products by integrating both production and consumption activities are much in demand, and each information corresponding to each product should be realized by concept integrating both information and product as common element. Survey was made on what a social system integrating production and consumption should be, a product information model, and technology integrating both information and product for raw material, industrial machine and household appliance as examples. An information model shared by the whole production and consumption activities was first prepared. Based on this model, data storage, update, retrieval and dispatch technologies were surveyed and developed for life-cycle systems. Degradation and life sensing technology was surveyed for maintenance, repair and disposal activities using proper unstable information of each product. A support system for use of shared information was developed to promote a new highly value-added function. Total evaluation was made on information sharing product life-cycle systems. 10 refs., 23 figs., 7 tabs.

  9. SUCCESS CONCEPT ANALYSIS APPLIED TO THE INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY PROJECT MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassio C. Montenegro Duarte

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the concept of success in project management that is applicable to the IT universe, from the classical theory associated with the techniques of project management. Therefore, it applies the theoretical analysis associated to the context of information technology in enterprises as well as the classic literature of traditional project management, focusing on its application in business information technology. From the literature developed in the first part of the study, four propositions were prepared for study which formed the basis for the development of the field research with three large companies that develop projects of Information Technology. The methodology used in the study predicted the development of the multiple case study. Empirical evidence suggests that the concept of success found in the classical literature in project management adjusts to the environment management of IT projects. Showed that it is possible to create the model of standard IT projects in order to replicate it in future derivatives projects, which depends on the learning acquired at the end of a long and continuous process and sponsorship of senior management, which ultimately results in its merger into the company culture.

  10. Life-cycle modification in open oceans accounts for genome variability in a cosmopolitan phytoplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Dassow, Peter; John, Uwe; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Probert, Ian; Bendif, El Mahdi; Kegel, Jessica U; Audic, Stéphane; Wincker, Patrick; Da Silva, Corinne; Claverie, Jean-Michel; Doney, Scott; Glover, David M; Flores, Daniella Mella; Herrera, Yeritza; Lescot, Magali; Garet-Delmas, Marie-José; de Vargas, Colomban

    2015-06-01

    Emiliania huxleyi is the most abundant calcifying plankton in modern oceans with substantial intraspecific genome variability and a biphasic life cycle involving sexual alternation between calcified 2N and flagellated 1N cells. We show that high genome content variability in Emiliania relates to erosion of 1N-specific genes and loss of the ability to form flagellated cells. Analysis of 185 E. huxleyi strains isolated from world oceans suggests that loss of flagella occurred independently in lineages inhabiting oligotrophic open oceans over short evolutionary timescales. This environmentally linked physiogenomic change suggests life cycling is not advantageous in very large/diluted populations experiencing low biotic pressure and low ecological variability. Gene loss did not appear to reflect pressure for genome streamlining in oligotrophic oceans as previously observed in picoplankton. Life-cycle modifications might be common in plankton and cause major functional variability to be hidden from traditional taxonomic or molecular markers.

  11. Product Lifecycle Management as a Tool to Create Value in the Fashion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona D’Amico

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the fashion system as a “cluster” and to evaluate the characteristics of Product Lifecycle Management (PLM taking into account various factors, in particular the different approaches to dealing with market needs. More specifically, the “readyto- wear fashion” and “fast fashion” models will be presented and compared. The paper takes the Italian fashion system as the unit of analysis and assumes that consumer behavioural factors act in a non-predictable (i.e., random way in the constantly changing social and cultural environment. Considering the internal complexity of a whole market system, a simplified system dynamics model is proposed.

  12. Life-cycle assessments in the South African water sector: A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, in South Africa it is important to promote the use of LCAs for the water sector in order to improve efficiency of processes and systems, but also to promote life-cycle based water footprinting and to include differentiated water consumption data into life-cycle inventories to make more efficient use of water as a ...

  13. A two-level strategy to realize life-cycle production optimization in an operational setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essen, van G.M.; Hof, Van den P.M.J.; Jansen, J.D.

    2012-01-01

    We present a two-level strategy to improve robustness against uncertainty and model errors in life-cycle flooding optimization. At the upper level, a physics-based large-scale reservoir model is used to determine optimal life-cycle injection and production profiles. At the lower level these profiles

  14. A two-level strategy to realize life-cycle production optimization in an operational setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essen, van G.M.; Hof, Van den P.M.J.; Jansen, J.D.

    2013-01-01

    We present a two-level strategy to improve robustness against uncertainty and model errors in life-cycle flooding optimization. At the upper level, a physics-based large-scale reservoir model is used to determine optimal life-cycle injection and production profiles. At the lower level these profiles

  15. 77 FR 38766 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; International Client Life-Cycle Multi-Purpose...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... Request; International Client Life-Cycle Multi-Purpose Forms AGENCY: International Trade Administration...-0151, 0625-0215, 0625-0220, 0625-0228, and 0625- 0238. These collections include all client intake... trade events to U.S. organizations. The International Client Life-cycle Multi-Purpose Forms, previously...

  16. A Life-Cycle Model of Outmigration and Economic Assimilation of Immigrants in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bellemare, C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper estimates a structural dynamic life-cycle model of outmigration where, in each period, immigrants choose whether to work in the host country, not to work but remain in the host country, or outmigrate.The model incorporates several features of existing life-cycle theories of outmigration

  17. Development of safety analysis technology for integral reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Suk K.; Song, J. H.; Chung, Y. J. and others

    1999-03-01

    Inherent safety features and safety system characteristics of the SMART integral reactor are investigated in this study. Performance and safety of the SMART conceptual design have been evaluated and confirmed through the performance and safety analyses using safety analysis system codes as well as a preliminary performance and safety analysis methodology. SMART design base events and their acceptance criteria are identified to develop a preliminary PIRT for the SMART integral reactor. Using the preliminary PIRT, a set of experimental program for the thermal hydraulic separate effect tests and the integral effect tests was developed for the thermal hydraulic model development and the system code validation. Safety characteristics as well as the safety issues of the integral reactor has been identified during the study, which will be used to resolve the safety issues and guide the regulatory criteria for the integral reactor. The results of the performance and safety analyses performed during the study were used to feedback for the SMART conceptual design. The performance and safety analysis code systems as well as the preliminary safety analysis methodology developed in this study will be validated as the SMART design evolves. The performance and safety analysis technology developed during the study will be utilized for the SMART basic design development. (author)

  18. Integrated intelligent instruments using supercritical fluid technology for soil analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebman, S.A.; Phillips, C.; Fitzgerald, W.; Levy, E.J.

    1994-01-01

    Contaminated soils pose a significant challenge for characterization and remediation programs that require rapid, accurate and comprehensive data in the field or laboratory. Environmental analyzers based on supercritical fluid (SF) technology have been designed and developed for meeting these global needs. The analyzers are designated the CHAMP Systems (Chemical Hazards Automated Multimedia Processors). The prototype instrumentation features SF extraction (SFE) and on-line capillary gas chromatographic (GC) analysis with chromatographic and/or spectral identification detectors, such as ultra-violet, Fourier transform infrared and mass spectrometers. Illustrations are given for a highly automated SFE-capillary GC/flame ionization (FID) configuration to provide validated screening analysis for total extractable hydrocarbons within ca. 5--10 min, as well as a full qualitative/quantitative analysis in 25--30 min. Data analysis using optional expert system and neural networks software is demonstrated for test gasoline and diesel oil mixtures in this integrated intelligent instrument approach to trace organic analysis of soils and sediments

  19. Life-cycle assessment of selected management options for air pollution control residues from waste incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruergaard, Thilde; Hyks, Jiri; Astrup, Thomas

    2010-09-15

    Based on available technology and emission data seven selected management options for air-pollution-control (APC) residues from waste incineration were evaluated by life-cycle assessment (LCA) using the EASEWASTE model. Scenarios were evaluated with respect to both non-toxicity impact categories (e.g. global warming) and toxicity related impact categories (e.g. ecotoxicity and human toxicity). The assessment addressed treatment and final placement of 1 tonne of APC residue in seven scenarios: 1) direct landfilling without treatment (baseline), 2) backfilling in salt mines, 3) neutralization of waste acid, 4) filler material in asphalt, 5) Ferrox stabilization, 6) vitrification, and 7) melting with automobile shredder residues (ASR). The management scenarios were selected as examples of the wide range of different technologies available worldwide while at the same time using realistic technology data. Results from the LCA were discussed with respect to importance of: energy consumption/substitution, material substitution, leaching, air emissions, time horizon aspects for the assessment, and transportation distances. The LCA modeling showed that thermal processes were associated with the highest loads in the non-toxicity categories (energy consumption), while differences between the remaining alternatives were small and generally considered insignificant. In the toxicity categories, all treatment/utilization options were significantly better than direct landfilling without treatment (lower leaching), although the thermal processes had somewhat higher impacts than the others options (air emissions). Transportation distances did not affect the overall ranking of the management alternatives. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Information technology portfolio in supply chain management using factor analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Jaafarnejad

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of information technology (IT along with supply chain management (SCM has become increasingly a necessity among most businesses. This enhances supply chain (SC performance and helps companies achieve the organizational competitiveness. IT systems capture and analyze information and enable management to make decisions by considering a global scope across the entire SC. This paper reviews the existing literature on IT in SCM and considers pertinent criteria. Using principal component analysis (PCA of factor analysis (FA, a number of related criteria are divided into smaller groups. Finally, SC managers can develop an IT portfolio in SCM using mean values of few extracted components on the relevance –emergency matrix. A numerical example is provided to explain details of the proposed method.

  1. ANALYSIS AND COMPARISON OF EXISTING DECISION SUPPORT TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Rybak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of an analytical review and comparison of the most common managerial decision support technologies: the analytic hierarchy method, neural networks, fuzzy set theory, genetic algorithms and neural-fuzzy modeling. The advantages and disadvantages of these approaches are shown. Determine the scope of their application. It is shown that the hierarchy analysis method works well with the full initial information, but due to the need for expert comparison of alternatives and the selection of evaluation criteria has a high proportion of subjectivity. For problems in the conditions of risk and uncertainty prediction seems reasonable use of the theory of fuzzy sets and neural networks. It is also considered technology collective decision applied both in the general election, and the group of experts. It reduces the time for conciliation meetings to reach a consensus by the preliminary analysis of all views submitted for the plane in the form of points. At the same time the consistency of opinion is determined by the distance between them.

  2. State-of-the-Art Solid Waste Management Life-Cycle Modeling Workshop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Anders; Levis, James W.

    There are many alternatives for the management of solid waste including recycling, biological treatment, thermal treatment and landfill disposal. In many cases, solid waste management systems include the use of several of these processes. Solid waste life-cycle assessment models are often used...... to evaluate the environmental consequences of various waste management strategies. The foundation of every life-cycle model is the development and use of process models to estimate the emissions from solid waste unit processes. The objective of this workshop is to describe life-cycle modeling of the solid...... waste processes and systems. The workshop will begin with an introduction to solid waste life-cycle modeling and available models, which will be followed by sessions on life-cycle process modeling for individual processes (e.g., landfills, biological treatment, and thermal treatment). The first part...

  3. ENABLING SMART MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGIES FOR DECISION-MAKING SUPPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helu, Moneer; Libes, Don; Lubell, Joshua; Lyons, Kevin; Morris, KC

    2017-01-01

    Smart manufacturing combines advanced manufacturing capabilities and digital technologies throughout the product lifecycle. These technologies can provide decision-making support to manufacturers through improved monitoring, analysis, modeling, and simulation that generate more and better intelligence about manufacturing systems. However, challenges and barriers have impeded the adoption of smart manufacturing technologies. To begin to address this need, this paper defines requirements for data-driven decision making in manufacturing based on a generalized description of decision making. Using these requirements, we then focus on identifying key barriers that prevent the development and use of data-driven decision making in industry as well as examples of technologies and standards that have the potential to overcome these barriers. The goal of this research is to promote a common understanding among the manufacturing community that can enable standardization efforts and innovation needed to continue adoption and use of smart manufacturing technologies. PMID:28649678

  4. System Evaluations and Life-Cycle Cost Analyses for High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwin A. Harvego; James E. O' Brien; Michael G. McKellar

    2012-05-01

    This report presents results of system evaluations and lifecycle cost analyses performed for several different commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) hydrogen production concepts. The concepts presented in this report rely on grid electricity and non-nuclear high-temperature process heat sources for the required energy inputs. The HYSYS process analysis software was used to evaluate both central plant designs for large-scale hydrogen production (50,000 kg/day or larger) and forecourt plant designs for distributed production and delivery at about 1,500 kg/day. The HYSYS software inherently ensures mass and energy balances across all components and it includes thermodynamic data for all chemical species. The optimized designs described in this report are based on analyses of process flow diagrams that included realistic representations of fluid conditions and component efficiencies and operating parameters for each of the HTE hydrogen production configurations analyzed. As with previous HTE system analyses performed at the INL, a custom electrolyzer model was incorporated into the overall process flow sheet. This electrolyzer model allows for the determination of the average Nernst potential, cell operating voltage, gas outlet temperatures, and electrolyzer efficiency for any specified inlet steam, hydrogen, and sweep-gas flow rates, current density, cell active area, and external heat loss or gain. The lifecycle cost analyses were performed using the H2A analysis methodology developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program. This methodology utilizes spreadsheet analysis tools that require detailed plant performance information (obtained from HYSYS), along with financial and cost information to calculate lifecycle costs. There are standard default sets of assumptions that the methodology uses to ensure consistency when comparing the cost of different production or plant design options. However, these assumptions may also be varied within the

  5. Impact of Life-Cycle Stage and Gender on the Ability to Balance Work and Family Responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Christopher; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined impact of gender and life-cycle stage on three components of work-family conflict using sample of 3,616 respondents. For men, levels of work-family conflict were moderately lower in each successive life-cycle stage. For women, levels were similar in two early life-cycle stages but were significantly lower in later life-cycle stage.…

  6. Application of Open Source Technologies for Oceanographic Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, T.; Gangl, M.; Quach, N. T.; Wilson, B. D.; Chang, G.; Armstrong, E. M.; Chin, T. M.; Greguska, F.

    2015-12-01

    NEXUS is a data-intensive analysis solution developed with a new approach for handling science data that enables large-scale data analysis by leveraging open source technologies such as Apache Cassandra, Apache Spark, Apache Solr, and Webification. NEXUS has been selected to provide on-the-fly time-series and histogram generation for the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission for Level 2 and Level 3 Active, Passive, and Active Passive products. It also provides an on-the-fly data subsetting capability. NEXUS is designed to scale horizontally, enabling it to handle massive amounts of data in parallel. It takes a new approach on managing time and geo-referenced array data by dividing data artifacts into chunks and stores them in an industry-standard, horizontally scaled NoSQL database. This approach enables the development of scalable data analysis services that can infuse and leverage the elastic computing infrastructure of the Cloud. It is equipped with a high-performance geospatial and indexed data search solution, coupled with a high-performance data Webification solution free from file I/O bottlenecks, as well as a high-performance, in-memory data analysis engine. In this talk, we will focus on the recently funded AIST 2014 project by using NEXUS as the core for oceanographic anomaly detection service and web portal. We call it, OceanXtremes

  7. Education for sustainable development in technology education in Irish schools: a curriculum analysis

    OpenAIRE

    McGarr, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    peer-reviewed This paper explores the integration of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) in technology education and the extent to which it is currently addressed in curriculum documents and state examinations in technology education at post-primary level in Ireland. This analysis is conducted amidst the backdrop of considerable change in technology education at post-primary level. The analysis of the provision of technology education found, that among the range of technology relat...

  8. Technology integrated teaching in Malaysian schools: GIS, a SWOT analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibah Lateh, vasugiammai muniandy

    2011-08-01

    , articles and proceeding papers. Researches had been continuously done in integrating GIS into Geography syllabus. Thus, this article describes and discusses the barriers and opportunities of implementing GIS in schools with a deep focus of how GIS could enhance the process of teaching and learning geography. The purpose of the study is to determine the effectiveness of GIS in enhancing students’ interest towards the subject. Barriers that might limit the implementation of GIS in schools also briefly discussedin this article. The capabilities of GIS in schools and teaching with GIS is also a part of this article. SWOT analysis is used to find the strength, threaten, opportunities and weakness of GIS to be integrated in Malaysian schools. A content analysis was performed using articles from local and abroad publications regarding technology integration and GIS. Conference proceedings were also analyzed. This content analysis included 35 articles selected from ICT and GIS publication in Malaysia and abroad. The content analysis was done in order to identify the barriers of trying GIS in schools in Malaysia. Thus, this article discusses strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threatens. The future of GIS in Malaysian Schools has been added into the conclusion.

  9. UTILITY OF A FULL LIFE-CYCLE COPEPOD BIOASSAY APPROACH FOR ASSESSMENT OF SEDIMENT-ASSOCIATED CONTAMINANT MIXTURES. (R825279)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractWe compared a 21 day full life-cycle bioassay with an existing 14 day partial life-cycle bioassay for two species of meiobenthic copepods, Microarthridion littorale and Amphiascus tenuiremis. We hypothesized that full life-cycle tests would bette...

  10. Development of regulatory technology for thermal-hydraulic safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, Young Seok; Lee, S. H.; Ryu, Y. H.

    2001-02-01

    The present study aims to develop the regulation capability in thermal-hydraulic safety analysis which was required for the reasonable safety regulation in the current NPP, the next generation reactors, and the future-type reactors. The fourth fiscal year of the first phase of the research was focused on the following research topics: Investigation on the current status of the thermal-hydraulic safety analysis technology outside and inside of the country; Review on the improved features of the thermal-hydraulic safety analysis regulatory audit code, RELAP5/MOD3; Assessments of code with LOFT L9-3 ATWS experiment and LSTF SB-SG-10 multiple SGTR experiment; Application of the RELAP5/CANDU code to analyses of SLB and LBLOCA and evaluation of its effect on safety; Application of the code to IAEA PHWR ISP analysis; Assessments of RELAP5 and TRAC with UPTF downcomer injection test and Analysis of LBLOCA with RELAP5 for the performance evaluation of KNGR DVI; Setup of a coupled 3-D kinetics and thermal-hydraulics and application it to a reactivity accident analysis; and Extension of database and improvement of plant input decks. For supporting the resolution of safety issues, loss of RHR event during midloop operation was analyzed for Kori Unit 3, issues on high burnup fuel were reviewed and performance of FRAPCON-3 assessed. Also MSLB was analyzed to figure out the sensitivity of downcomer temperature supporting the PTS risk evaluation of Kori Unit 1. Thermal stratification in pipe was analyzed using the method proposed. And a method predicting the thermal-hydraulic performance of IRWST of KNGR was explored. The PWR ECCS performance criteria was issued as a MOST Article 200-19.and a regulatory guide on evaluation methodology was improved to cover concerns raised from the related licensing review process

  11. On-orbit servicing system assessment and optimization methods based on lifecycle simulation under mixed aleatory and epistemic uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Wen; Chen, Xiaoqian; Huang, Yiyong; van Tooren, Michel

    2013-06-01

    To assess the on-orbit servicing (OOS) paradigm and optimize its utilities by taking advantage of its inherent flexibility and responsiveness, the OOS system assessment and optimization methods based on lifecycle simulation under uncertainties are studied. The uncertainty sources considered in this paper include both the aleatory (random launch/OOS operation failure and on-orbit component failure) and the epistemic (the unknown trend of the end-used market price) types. Firstly, the lifecycle simulation under uncertainties is discussed. The chronological flowchart is presented. The cost and benefit models are established, and the uncertainties thereof are modeled. The dynamic programming method to make optimal decision in face of the uncertain events is introduced. Secondly, the method to analyze the propagation effects of the uncertainties on the OOS utilities is studied. With combined probability and evidence theory, a Monte Carlo lifecycle Simulation based Unified Uncertainty Analysis (MCS-UUA) approach is proposed, based on which the OOS utility assessment tool under mixed uncertainties is developed. Thirdly, to further optimize the OOS system under mixed uncertainties, the reliability-based optimization (RBO) method is studied. To alleviate the computational burden of the traditional RBO method which involves nested optimum search and uncertainty analysis, the framework of Sequential Optimization and Mixed Uncertainty Analysis (SOMUA) is employed to integrate MCS-UUA, and the RBO algorithm SOMUA-MCS is developed. Fourthly, a case study on the OOS system for a hypothetical GEO commercial communication satellite is investigated with the proposed assessment tool. Furthermore, the OOS system is optimized with SOMUA-MCS. Lastly, some conclusions are given and future research prospects are highlighted.

  12. Business Oriented Technological System Analysis (BOTSA) at Eindhoven University of Technology : an innovative learning method to foster entrepreneurship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnker, M.A.S.G.; van Kasteren, H.; Romijn, H.A.; Taufik, T.; Prabasari, I.; Rineksane, I.A.; Yana, R.; Widowati, R.; Putra Rosyidi, S.A.; Riyadi, S.; Harsanto, P.

    BOTSA is an innovative teaching method for students with technical background in the field of sustainable energy technologies and an interest in entrepreneurship. Two core features of this method, namely the connection between a technological analysis and a business case as well as the involvement

  13. Implementing and Sustaining Data Lifecycle best Practices: a Framework for Researchers and Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stall, S.

    2016-02-01

    Emerging data management mandates in conjunction with cross-domain international interoperability are posing new challenges for researchers and repositories. Domain repositories are serving in this critical, growing role monitoring and leading data management standards and capability within their own repository and working on mappings between repositories internationally. Leading research institutions and companies will also be important as they develop and expand data curation efforts. This landscape poses a number of challenges for developing and ensuring the use of best practices in curating research data, enabling discovery, elevating quality across diverse repositories, and helping researchers collect and organize it through the full data life cycle. This multidimensional challenge will continue to grow in complexity. The American Geophysical Union (AGU) is developing two programs to help researchers and data repositories develop and elevate best practices and address these challenges. The goal is to provide tools for the researchers and repositories, whether domain, institutional, or other, that improve performance throughout the data lifecycle across the Earth and space science community. For scientists and researchers, AGU is developing courses around handling data that can lead toward a certification in geoscience data management. Course materials will cover metadata management and collection, data analysis, integration of data, and data presentation. The course topics are being finalized by the advisory board with the first one planned to be available later this year. AGU is also developing a program aimed at helping data repositories, large and small, domain-specific to general, assess and improve data management practices. AGU has partnered with the CMMI® Institute to adapt their Data Management Maturity (DMM)SM framework within the Earth and space sciences. A data management assessment using the DMMSM involves identifying accomplishments and

  14. Life-cycle assessment of corn-based butanol as a potential transportation fuel.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, M.; Wang, M.; Liu, J.; Huo, H.; Energy Systems

    2007-12-31

    Butanol produced from bio-sources (such as corn) could have attractive properties as a transportation fuel. Production of butanol through a fermentation process called acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) has been the focus of increasing research and development efforts. Advances in ABE process development in recent years have led to drastic increases in ABE productivity and yields, making butanol production worthy of evaluation for use in motor vehicles. Consequently, chemical/fuel industries have announced their intention to produce butanol from bio-based materials. The purpose of this study is to estimate the potential life-cycle energy and emission effects associated with using bio-butanol as a transportation fuel. The study employs a well-to-wheels analysis tool--the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model developed at Argonne National Laboratory--and the Aspen Plus{reg_sign} model developed by AspenTech. The study describes the butanol production from corn, including grain processing, fermentation, gas stripping, distillation, and adsorption for products separation. The Aspen{reg_sign} results that we obtained for the corn-to-butanol production process provide the basis for GREET modeling to estimate life-cycle energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. The GREET model was expanded to simulate the bio-butanol life cycle, from agricultural chemical production to butanol use in motor vehicles. We then compared the results for bio-butanol with those of conventional gasoline. We also analyzed the bio-acetone that is coproduced with bio-butanol as an alternative to petroleum-based acetone. Our study shows that, while the use of corn-based butanol achieves energy benefits and reduces greenhouse gas emissions, the results are affected by the methods used to treat the acetone that is co-produced in butanol plants.

  15. Effects of co-products on the life-cycle impacts of microalgal biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soratana, Kullapa; Barr, William J; Landis, Amy E

    2014-05-01

    Microalgal biodiesel production has been investigated for decades, yet it is not commercially available. Part of the problem is that the production process is energy and chemical intensive due, in part, to the high portion of microalgal biomass left as residues. This study investigated cradle-to-gate life-cycle environmental impacts from six different scenarios of microalgal biodiesel and its co-products. Ozone depletion, global warming, photochemical smog formation, acidification and eutrophication potentials were assessed using the Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other environmental Impacts (TRACI). Monte Carlo Analysis was conducted to investigate the processes with major contribution in each impact category. The market opportunity for each co-product was examined based on supply, demand and prices of the products that could potentially be substituted by the co-products. The results indicated that the scenario with the least life-cycle environmental impacts in all the five impact categories with the highest net energy ratio was the scenario utilizing a multitude of co-products including bioethanol from lipid-extracted microalgae (LEA), biomethane (to produce electricity and heat) from simultaneous saccharification-fermentation (SSF) residues, land-applied material from SSF residue anaerobic digestion (AD) solid digestate, recycling nutrients from SSF residue AD liquid digestate and CO2 recovered from SSF process contributed. Decreasing the energy consumption of the centrifuge in the land-applied material production process and increasing the lipid content of microalgae can reduce environmental footprints of the co-products. The same scenario also had the highest total income indicating their potential as co-products in the market. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Analysis of Engineering Content within Technology Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantz, Todd D.; Katsioloudis, Petros J.

    2011-01-01

    In order to effectively teach engineering, technology teachers need to be taught engineering content, concepts, and related pedagogy. Some researchers posit that technology education programs may not have enough content to prepare technology teachers to teach engineering design. Certain technology teacher education programs have responded by…

  17. Information Technology: A Community of Practice. A Workplace Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Information Technology (IT) encompasses all aspects of computing technology. IT is concerned with issues relating to supporting technology users and meeting their needs within an organizational and societal context through the selection, creation, application, integration, and administration of computing technologies (Lunt, et. al., 2008). The…

  18. Requirements Engineering and Design Technology Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ganska, Ralph

    1995-01-01

    This report reviews the STSC's recommendations for the selection and usage of software engineering products aimed at the requirements analysis and high-level design portions of the software lifecycle...

  19. Multimedia Image Technology and Computer Aided Manufacturing Engineering Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Song

    2018-03-01

    Since the reform and opening up, with the continuous development of science and technology in China, more and more advanced science and technology have emerged under the trend of diversification. Multimedia imaging technology, for example, has a significant and positive impact on computer aided manufacturing engineering in China. From the perspective of scientific and technological advancement and development, the multimedia image technology has a very positive influence on the application and development of computer-aided manufacturing engineering, whether in function or function play. Therefore, this paper mainly starts from the concept of multimedia image technology to analyze the application of multimedia image technology in computer aided manufacturing engineering.

  20. Experimental investigation of thermal neutron analysis based landmine detection technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Jun; Chu Chengsheng; Ding Ge; Xiang Qingpei; Hao Fanhua; Luo Xiaobing

    2013-01-01

    Background: Recently, the prompt gamma-rays neutron activation analysis method is wildly used in coal analysis and explosive detection, however there were less application about landmine detection using neutron method especially in the domestic research. Purpose: In order to verify the feasibility of Thermal Neutron Analysis (TNA) method used in landmine detection, and explore the characteristic of this technology. Methods: An experimental system of TNA landmine detection was built based on LaBr 3 (Ce) fast scintillator detector and 252 Cf isotope neutron source. The system is comprised of the thermal neutron transition system, the shield system, and the detector system. Results: On the basis of the TNA, the wide energy area calibration method especially to the high energy area was investigated, and the least detection time for a typical mine was defined. In this study, the 72-type anti-tank mine, the 500 g TNT sample and several interferential objects are tested in loess, red soil, magnetic soil and sand respectively. Conclusions: The experimental results indicate that TNA is a reliable demining method, and it can be used to confirm the existence of Anti-Tank Mines (ATM) and large Anti-Personnel Mines (APM) in complicated condition. (authors)