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Sample records for technology keck time

  1. High-speed x-ray imaging with the Keck pixel array detector (Keck PAD) for time-resolved experiments at synchrotron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philipp, Hugh T., E-mail: htp2@cornell.edu; Tate, Mark W.; Purohit, Prafull; Shanks, Katherine S.; Weiss, Joel T. [Laboratory of Atomic and Solid State Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Chamberlain, Darol; Gruner, Sol M. [Laboratory of Atomic and Solid State Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2016-07-27

    Modern storage rings are readily capable of providing intense x-ray pulses, tens of picoseconds in duration, millions of times per second. Exploiting the temporal structure of these x-ray sources opens avenues for studying rapid structural changes in materials. Many processes (e.g. crack propagation, deformation on impact, turbulence, etc.) differ in detail from one sample trial to the next and would benefit from the ability to record successive x-ray images with single x-ray sensitivity while framing at 5 to 10 MHz rates. To this end, we have pursued the development of fast x-ray imaging detectors capable of collecting bursts of images that enable the isolation of single synchrotron bunches and/or bunch trains. The detector technology used is the hybrid pixel array detector (PAD) with a charge integrating front-end, and high-speed, in-pixel signal storage elements. A 384×256 pixel version, the Keck-PAD, with 150 µm × 150 µm pixels and 8 dedicated in-pixel storage elements is operational, has been tested at CHESS, and has collected data for compression wave studies. An updated version with 27 dedicated storage capacitors and identical pixel size has been fabricated.

  2. THE KECK INTERFEROMETER NULLER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serabyn, E.; Mennesson, B.; Colavita, M. M. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Koresko, C. [Argon ST, Inc., 1386 Connellsville Road, Lemont Furnace, PA 15456 (United States); Kuchner, M. J., E-mail: Gene.Serabyn@jpl.nasa.gov [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2012-03-20

    The Keck Interferometer Nuller (KIN), the first operational separated-aperture infrared nulling interferometer, was designed to null the mid-infrared emission from nearby stars so as to ease the measurement of faint circumstellar emission. This paper describes the basis of the KIN's four-beam, two-stage measurement approach and compares it to the simpler case of a two-beam nuller. In the four-beam KIN system, the starlight is first nulled in a pair of nullers operating on parallel 85 m Keck-Keck baselines, after which 'cross-combination' on 4 m baselines across the Keck apertures is used to modulate and detect residual coherent off-axis emission. Comparison to the constructive stellar fringe provides calibration. The response to an extended source is similar in the two cases, except that the four-beam response includes a term due to the visibility of the source on the cross-combiner baseline-a small effect for relatively compact sources. The characteristics of the dominant null depth errors are also compared for the two cases. In the two-beam nuller, instrumental imperfections and asymmetries lead to a series of quadratic, positive-definite null leakage terms. For the four-beam nuller, the leakage is instead a series of correlation cross-terms combining corresponding errors in each of the two nullers, which contribute offsets only to the extent that these errors are correlated on the timescale of the measurement. This four-beam architecture has allowed a significant ({approx}order of magnitude) improvement in mid-infrared long-baseline fringe-visibility accuracies.

  3. KPF: Keck Planet Finder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Steven R.; Howard, Andrew W.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Edelstein, Jerry; Wishnow, Edward H.; Poppett, Claire L.

    2016-08-01

    KPF is a fiber-fed, high-resolution, high-stability spectrometer in development at the UC Berkeley Space Sciences Laboratory for the W.M. Keck Observatory. The instrument is designed to characterize exoplanets via Doppler spectroscopy with a single measurement precision of 0.5ms-1 or better, however its resolution and stability will enable a wide variety of astrophysical pursuits. KPF will have a 200mm collimated beam diameter and a resolving power of >80,000. The design includes a green channel (440nm to 590 nm) and red channel (590nm to 850 nm). A novel design aspect of KPF is the use of a Zerodur optical bench, and Zerodur optics with integral mounts, to provide stability against thermal expansion and contraction effects.

  4. Technology Time Machine 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehner, Wolfgang; Fettweis, Gerhard; Fitzek, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The IEEE Technology Time Machine (TTM) is a unique event for industry leaders, academics, and decision making government officials who direct R&D activities, plan research programs or manage portfolios of research activities. This report covers the main topics of the 2nd Symposium of future...

  5. Neptunian Satellites observed with Keck AO system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchis, F.; Urata, R.; de Pater, I.; Gibbard, S.; Hammel, H. B.; Berthier, J.

    2004-05-01

    The Neptunian system was observed on 9 different nights between July 2002 and October 2003 with the 10-m Keck telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, and its facility instrument NIRC2 coupled with the Adaptive Optics system. Data were recorded in J (1.2μ m), and H (2.2μ m) bands. The angular resolution achieved on a one-minute integration time image is 0.50 arcsec, corresponding to a spatial resolution of 1100 km. The images display small structures such as the rings (de Pater et al. 2004), clouds in the atmosphere (Gibbard et al. 2003), and inner satellites, mainly Proteus, Larissa, Galatea, Despina, and Thalassa. On the 40 images, the positions and intensities of the satellites detected were accurately measured fitting the signal with a gaussian profile. The center of Neptune was obtained by fitting the disk position with an ellipse. After correcting for the detector distortion, we compared the satellite positions with the predicted ones delivered by several ephemerides. We used the JPL (NEP016 + NEP022 + DE405) and two IMCCE ephemerides, an old version (VSOP87+Owen et al., 1991) and a more recent one (DE405+Le Guyader et al., 1993). All cases, we confirmed the presence of an apparent shift between the predicted and the observed positions. Table 1 (see http://astron.berkeley.edu/ fmarchis/Science/Neptune/Satellites/) summarizes the mean distance of the shift for satellites most frequently observed and the various ephemerides. In this presentation, we will report the positions of the satellites, and present their color and possible photometric variations derived from the observations. This work has been partially supported by the National Science Foundation Science and Technology Center for Adaptive Optics, managed by the University of California at Santa Cruz under cooperative agreement No. AST - 9876783.

  6. Designing Real Time Assistive Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Tobias; Obel, Carsten; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2015-01-01

    design criteria in relation to three core components (sensing, recognizing, and assisting) for designing real time assistive technologies for children with ADHD. Based on these design criteria, we designed the Child Activity Sensing and Training Tool (CASTT), a real time assistive prototype that captures...... activities and assists the child in maintaining attention. From a preliminary evaluation of CASTT with 20 children in several schools, we and found that: 1) it is possible to create a wearable sensor system for children with ADHD that monitors physical and physiological activities in real time; and that 2......) real time assistive technologies have potential to assist children with ADHD in regaining attention in critical school situations....

  7. Designing Real Time Assistive Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Tobias; Obel, Carsten; Grønbæk, Kaj

    design criteria in relation to three core components (sensing, recognizing, and assisting) for designing real time assistive technologies for children with ADHD. Based on these design criteria, we designed the Child Activity Sensing and Training Tool (CASTT), a real time assistive prototype that captures...... activities and assists the child in maintaining attention. From a preliminary evaluation of CASTT with 20 children in several schools, we and found that: 1) it is possible to create a wearable sensor system for children with ADHD that monitors physical and physiological activities in real time; and that 2......) real time assistive technologies have potential to assist children with ADHD in regaining attention in critical school situations....

  8. Overview of the control system for the Keck Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Andrew J.; Eychaner, Glenn; Hovland, Erik; Johnson, Richard L., Jr.; Lupton, William; Niessner, Al; Palmer, Dean L.; Reder, Leonard J.; Rudeen, Andy C.; Smythe, Robert F.; Tsubota, Kevin

    2002-12-01

    The Keck Interferometer links the two 10m Keck Telescopes located atop Mauna Kea in Hawaii. It is the first 10m class, fully AO equipped interferometer to enter operation. Further, it is the first large interferometer designed to be handed over from a design and implementation team to a separate operations team, and be used by astronomers who are not interferometer specialists. As such it offers unique challenges in reducing an extremely complex and powerful system to an apparently simple user interface, and providing a well engineered system that can be maintained by people who did not develop it. This paper gives an overview of the control system that has been implemented for the single baseline operation of the instrument, and indicates how this will be extended to allow control of the future modes of the instrument (nulling, differential phase and astrometry). The control system has several parts. One is for control of "slow" sub-systems, which is based in the EPICS architecture, already ubiquitous at the Keck Observatory. Another, used to control hard real time sub-systems, is based on a new infrastructure developed at JPL, programmed in C++, Java, and using CORBA for communication. This infrastructure has been developed specifically with the problems of interferometric control in mind and is used in JPL's flight testbeds as well as the Keck Interferometer. Finally, a user interface and high level control layer is in development using a variety of tools including UML based modeling in the Rhapsody tool (using C++ and CORBA), Java, and Tcl/Tk for prototyping.

  9. It's TIME for Technology: The Technology in Mathematics Education Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the impact that the Technology in Mathematics Education (TIME) Project had on participating middle level and secondary mathematics teachers' preparedness to teach through technology. Results indicate that the TIME Project positively impacted participants' perceptions of their knowledge of technological resources and methods…

  10. Initial Performance of the Keck AO Wavefront Controller System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, E M; Acton, D S; An, J R; Avicola, K; Beeman, B V; Brase, J M; Carrano, C J; Gathright, J; Gavel, D T; Hurd, R L; Lai, O; Lupton, W; Macintosh, B A; Max, C E; Olivier, S S; Shelton, J C; Stomski, P J; Tsubota, K; Waltjen, K E; Watson, J A; Wizinowich, P L

    2001-03-01

    The wavefront controller for the Keck Observatory AO system consists of two separate real-time control loops: a tip-tilt control loop to remove tilt from the incoming wavefront, and a deformable mirror control loop to remove higher-order aberrations. In this paper, we describe these control loops and analyze their performance using diagnostic data acquired during the integration and testing of the AO system on the telescope. Disturbance rejection curves for the controllers are calculated from the experimental data and compared to theory. The residual wavefront errors due to control loop bandwidth are also calculated from the data, and possible improvements to the controller performance are discussed.

  11. New results from the multi-object Keck Exoplanet Tracker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. van Eyken

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The W. M. Keck Exoplanet Tracker is a pre- cision Doppler radial velocity instrument for extrasolar planet detection based on a new technique, dispersed fixed-delay interferome- try (DFDI, which allows for multi-object sur- veying for the first time. Installed at the 2.5- m Sloan telescope at Apache Point Observa- tory, the combination of Michelson interfer- ometer and medium resolution spectrograph (Erskine & Ge 2000; Ge 2002 allows design for simultaneous Doppler measurements of 60 targets (Ge et al. 2005.

  12. Photon-Weighted Midpoint Exposure Meter for Keck/HIRES Extrasolar Planet Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    NASA Grant was received for research involving the construction of a photon-weighting midpoint exposure meter for the Keck HIRES spectrometer, and for support of our NASA/Keck-based planet research with this instrumentation. The research funds were also to be used to make our iodine cell calibration system and exposure meter available to the NASA Keck observing community. Progress this past year, the second of the 3-year granting period, involved work in 4 areas: 1) Further construction of the midpoint exposure meter. 2) Assisting observers with use of the Iodine system. 3) Acquisition of precision radial velocity data on our program star sample with continued monitoring to proceed in subsequent years as available telescope time permits. 4) Reduction and analysis of incoming precision radial velocity data to reject problematic and uninteresting program stars, and to identify promising planet candidates.

  13. New developments in instrumentation at the W. M. Keck Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Sean M.; McLean, Ian S.; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Larkin, James E.; Lewis, Hilton A.; Martin, Christopher; Mawet, Dimitri; Prochaska, J. X.; Wizinowich, Peter

    2016-08-01

    The W. M. Keck Observatory is committed to maintaining the scientific leadership of our observing community by matching our observers' skills and passions in their fields of astronomical science with a continuing dedication by the Observatory and its collaborators to the development of state of the art instrumentation and systems. Our science driven strategic plan guides these developments and informs our plans for the future. In this paper we describe the performance of recently completed new instruments, instrument upgrades, and infrastructure upgrade projects. We also describe the expected performance of projects currently in the development or construction phases. Projects recently completed include a new laser for the Keck II AO system, the upgrade of the spectrograph detector in the OSIRIS instrument, and the upgrade to the telescope control system on the Keck II telescope. Projects in development include an upgrade to the telescope control system on the Keck I telescope, the blue channel of the Keck Cosmic Web Imager, the red channel of the Keck Cosmic Web Imager, the Keck Planet Finder, a deployable tertiary mirror for the Keck I telescope, an upgrade to the imager of OSIRIS, a major upgrade to the NIRSPEC instrument, and a fiber feed from the Keck II AO system to NIRSPEC.

  14. Asteroid (16) Psyche: Triaxial Ellipsoid Dimensions and Rotational Pole from Keck II NIRC2 AO Images and Keck I OSIRIS Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Jack D.; Conrad, Al; Reddy, Vishnu; de Kleer, Katherine R.; Adamkovics, Mate; de Pater, Imke; Merline, William J.; Tamblyn, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Adaptive optics (AO) images of asteroid (16) Psyche obtained at 4 epochs with the NIRC2 camera at the 10m W. M. Keck Observatory (Keck II) on UT 2015 December 25 lead to triaxial ellipsoid diameters of 279±4 x 230±2 x 195±14 km, and a rotational pole at RA=29° and Dec=-2°. Adding 6 more epochs obtained nearly simultaneously with the OSIRIS system at Keck I, as well as two more epochs from Keck II in 2009, yields diameters of 273±2 x 232±2 x 165±3 km, and a pole at RA=37° and Dec=+1°. (Errors are formal fit parameter uncertainties; an additional 4% uncertainty is possible from systematic biases.) The differing perspectives between 2015 (sub-Earth latitude Θ=-50°) and 2009 (Θ=-6°) improves primarily the c dimension and the location of the rotational pole, but illustrates how well images from even a single night can determine the size, shape, and pole of an asteroid. The 2015 observations were obtained as part of a campaign to study Psyche with many techniques over a few months, including radar from Arecibo and images from Magellan.These handful of images show the same rugged outline as the radius vector model available on the DAMIT website, constructed from many lightcurves and scaled by previous Keck AO images. In fact Psyche has rotated some 125,350 times between the first lightcurve in 1955 and our 2015 AO images, exactly 60 years apart to the day. Since the asteroid has such a high obliquity, these lightcurves have scanned well into both northern and southern hemispheres. The difference between the pole derived from our images and the radius vector model pole is only 7°, and the mean diameters of Psyche are 219 and 211 km, respectively.

  15. Keck Adaptive Optics Observations of Neptune's Ring and Satellite Keck Adaptive Optics Observations of Neptune's Ring and Satellite System

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pater, I.; Gibbard, S.; Martin, S.; Marchis, F.; Roe, H. G.; Macintosh, B.

    2003-05-01

    We observed Neptune, its satellites and ring system on UT 27 and 28 July 2002, with NIRC2 on the 10-m Keck II telescope at 2.2 micron. The total field of view was 10". Each image was integrated for 1 minute; on the first day we had a total of 18 frames, and 33 images on the second day, each spread out over a time interval of 1-2 hours. The complete Adams and Le Verrier rings are visible on each day, after combining all images. In the regions away from the ring arcs, we find that the Le Verrier ring is brighter (up to 20-40%) than the Adams ring. The ring arcs are readily apparent in combinations of the data that take into account Keplerian motion. The ring arc positions are in close agreement with Nicholson et al's (1995) result, as in HST/NICMOS images (Dumas et al. 2002). The Egalite ring has broadened even more since observed with HST/NICMOS in 1998, and is clearly the brightest ring arc. Liberte has decreased in intensity since Voyager and NICMOS. Courage was extremely faint in our images. The satellites Proteus, Larissa, Galatea and Despina are easily seen on individual frames. Thalassa is detected after properly shifting/rotating and adding several frames. This is the first time since the Voyager flybys that Thalassa is detected. Preliminary astrometric measurements suggest the satellites Larissa and Galathea, relative to Proteus, to be off from their nominal (JPL Horizons) positions by 0.3", and Despina by 0.1". Recent results indicate that Proteus is offset by 0.1" compared to Triton (Martins et al. 2003). Preliminary I/F values are 0.06 for Proteus, 0.045 for Larissa and Galatea, and 0.03 for Despina and Thalassa. These observations were supported by the National Science Foundation Science and Technology Center for Adaptive Optics, managed by the University of California at Santa Cruz under cooperative agreement No. AST-9876783

  16. KALI Camera: mid-infrared camera for the Keck Interferometer Nuller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech-Eakman, Michelle J.; Moore, James D.; Palmer, Dean L.; Serabyn, Eugene

    2003-03-01

    We present a brief overview of the KALI Camera, the mid-infrared camera for the Keck Interferometer Nulling Project, built at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The instrument utilizes mainly transmissive optics in four identical beam paths to spatially and spectrally filter, polarize, spectrally disperse and image the incoming 7-14 micron light from the four outputs of the Keck Nulling Beam Combiner onto a custom Boeing/DRS High Flux 128 X 128 BIB array. The electronics use a combination of JPL and Wallace Instruments boards to interface the array readout with the existing real-time control system of the Keck Interferometer. The cryogenic dewar, built by IR Laboratories, uses liquid nitrogen and liquid helium to cool the optics and the array, and includes six externally motorized mechanisms for aperture and pinhole control, focus, and optical component selection. The instrument will be assembled and tested through the summer of 2002, and is planned to be deployed as part of the Keck Interferometer Nulling experiment in 2003.

  17. Technology evaluation for time sensitive data transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessing, Henrik; Breach, Tony; Colmenero, Alberto

    Emerging research and commercial services like IPTV, high quality video conferencing, remote surgeries and cloud computing in particular are time sensitive and their successful deployment assumes network with minimal delay and jitter in combination with high bandwidth and preferably low packet loss....... The NREN communities must provide underlying network infrastructures and transport technologies to facilitate ser-vices with such requirements to the network. In this paper we investigate and evaluate circuit and packet based transport technologies from classic best effort IP over MPLS flavours, Provider...... overhead and restoration time. Thirdly, complexity and automation possibilities for establishment of paths for high demanding applica-tions, and finally how the technologies are backed by research communities and major vendors like Ciena, Alcatel-Lucent, Nokia-Siemens and Huawei. The technologies...

  18. Antenna-coupled TES bolometers for the Keck Array, Spider, and Polar-1

    CERN Document Server

    O'Brient, R; Ahmed, Z; Aikin, R W; Amiri, M; Benton, S; Bischoff, C; Bock, J J; Bonetti, J A; Brevik, J A; Burger, B; Davis, G; Day, P; Dowell, C D; Duband, L; Filippini, J P; Fliescher, S; Golwala, S R; Grayson, J; Halpern, M; Hasselfield, M; Hilton, G; Hristov, V V; Hui, H; Irwin, K; Kernasovskiy, S; Kovac, J M; Kuo, C L; Leitch, E; Lueker, M; Megerian, K; Moncelsi, L; Netterfield, C B; Nguyen, H T; Ogburn, R W; Pryke, C L; Reintsema, C; Ruhl, J E; Runyan, M C; Schwarz, R; Sheehy, C D; Staniszewski, Z; Sudiwala, R; Teply, G; Tolan, J E; Turner, A D; Tucker, R S; Vieregg, A; Wiebe, D V; Wilson, P; Wong, C L; Wu, W L K; Yoon, K W

    2012-01-01

    Between the BICEP2 and Keck Array experiments, we have deployed over 1500 dual polarized antenna coupled bolometers to map the Cosmic Microwave Background's polarization. We have been able to rapidly deploy these detectors because they are completely planar with an integrated phased-array antenna. Through our experience in these experiments, we have learned of several challenges with this technology- specifically the beam synthesis in the antenna- and in this paper we report on how we have modified our designs to mitigate these challenges. In particular, we discus differential steering errors between the polarization pairs' beam centroids due to microstrip cross talk and gradients of penetration depth in the niobium thin films of our millimeter wave circuits. We also discuss how we have suppressed side lobe response with a Gaussian taper of our antenna illumination pattern. These improvements will be used in Spider, Polar-1, and this season's retrofit of Keck Array.

  19. Metadata and Data Management for the Keck Observatory Archive

    CERN Document Server

    Tran, H D; Goodrich, R W; Mader, J A; Swain, M; Laity, A C; Kong, M; Gelino, C R; Berriman, G B

    2014-01-01

    A collaboration between the W. M. Keck Observatory (WMKO) in Hawaii and the NASA Exoplanet Science Institute (NExScI) in California, the Keck Observatory Archive (KOA) was commissioned in 2004 to archive observing data from WMKO, which operates two classically scheduled 10 m ground-based telescopes. The observing data from Keck is not suitable for direct ingestion into the archive since the metadata contained in the original FITS headers lack the information necessary for proper archiving. Coupled with different standards among instrument builders and the heterogeneous nature of the data inherent in classical observing, in which observers have complete control of the instruments and their observations, the data pose a number of technical challenges for KOA. We describe the methodologies and tools that we have developed to successfully address these difficulties, adding content to the FITS headers and "retrofitting" the metadata in order to support archiving Keck data, especially those obtained before the arch...

  20. Two Exoplanets Discovered at Keck Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Valenti, J A; Marcy, G W; Johnson, J A; Henry, G W; Wright, J T; Howard, A W; Giguere, M; Isaacson, H

    2009-01-01

    We present two exoplanets detected at Keck Observatory. HD 179079 is a G5 subgiant that hosts a hot Neptune planet with Msini = 27.5 M_earth in a 14.48 d, low-eccentricity orbit. The stellar reflex velocity induced by this planet has a semiamplitude of K = 6.6 m/s. HD 73534 is a G5 subgiant with a Jupiter-like planet of Msini = 1.1 M_jup and K = 16 m/s in a nearly circular 4.85 yr orbit. Both stars are chromospherically inactive and metal-rich. We discuss a known, classical bias in measuring eccentricities for orbits with velocity semiamplitudes, K, comparable to the radial velocity uncertainties. For exoplanets with periods longer than 10 days, the observed exoplanet eccentricity distribution is nearly flat for large amplitude systems (K > 80 m/s), but rises linearly toward low eccentricity for lower amplitude systems (K > 20 m/s).

  1. Real-time, face recognition technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, S.

    1995-11-01

    The Institute for Scientific Computing Research (ISCR) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory recently developed the real-time, face recognition technology KEN. KEN uses novel imaging devices such as silicon retinas developed at Caltech or off-the-shelf CCD cameras to acquire images of a face and to compare them to a database of known faces in a robust fashion. The KEN-Online project makes that recognition technology accessible through the World Wide Web (WWW), an internet service that has recently seen explosive growth. A WWW client can submit face images, add them to the database of known faces and submit other pictures that the system tries to recognize. KEN-Online serves to evaluate the recognition technology and grow a large face database. KEN-Online includes the use of public domain tools such as mSQL for its name-database and perl scripts to assist the uploading of images.

  2. Neptune’s zonal winds from near-IR Keck adaptive optics imaging in August 2001

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, S.C.; De Pater, I.; Marcus, P.

    2011-01-01

    We present H-band (1.4–1.8 μm) images of Neptune with a spatial resolution of ∼0.06″, taken with the W.M. Keck II telescope using the slit-viewing camera (SCAM) of the NIRSPEC instrument backed with Adaptive Optics. Images with 60-second integration times span 4 hours each on UT 20 and 21 August, 20

  3. Neptune’s zonal winds from near-IR Keck adaptive optics imaging in August 2001

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, S.C.; De Pater, I.; Marcus, P.

    2011-01-01

    We present H-band (1.4–1.8 μm) images of Neptune with a spatial resolution of ∼0.06″, taken with the W.M. Keck II telescope using the slit-viewing camera (SCAM) of the NIRSPEC instrument backed with Adaptive Optics. Images with 60-second integration times span 4 hours each on UT 20 and 21 August,

  4. Detailed Design of a Deployable Tertiary Mirror for the Keck I Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Prochaska, J Xavier; Cabak, Jerry; Tripsas, Alex; Adkins, Sean; Bolte, Michael; Cowley, David; Dahler, Mike; Deich, Will; Lewis, Hilton; Nelson, Jerry; Park, Sam; Peck, Michael; Phillips, Drew; Pollard, Mike; Randolph, Bill; Sanford, Dale; Ward, Jim; Wold, Truman

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the ever increasing pursuit of science with the transient sky (dubbed Time Domain Astronomy or TDA), we are fabricating and will commission a new deployable tertiary mirror for the Keck I telescope (K1DM3) at the W.M. Keck Observatory. This paper presents the detailed design of K1DM3 with emphasis on the opto-mechanics. This project has presented several design challenges. Foremost are the competing requirements to avoid vignetting the light path when retracted against a sufficiently rigid system for high-precision and repeatable pointing. The design utilizes an actuated swing arm to retract the mirror or deploy it into a kinematic coupling. The K1DM3 project has also required the design and development of custom connections to provide power, communications, and compressed air to the system. This NSF-MRI funded project is planned to be commissioned in Spring 2017.

  5. Detailed design of a deployable tertiary mirror for the Keck I telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, J. Xavier; Ratliff, Chris; Cabak, Jerry; Tripsas, Alex; Adkins, Sean; Bolte, Michael; Cowley, David; Dahler, Mike; Deich, Will; Lewis, Hilton; Nelson, Jerry; Park, Sam; Peck, Michael; Phillips, Drew; Pollard, Mike; Randolph, Bill; Sandford, Dale; Ward, Jim; Wold, Truman

    2016-07-01

    Motivated by the ever increasing pursuit of science with the transient sky (dubbed Time Domain Astronomy or TDA), we are fabricating and will commission a new deployable tertiary mirror for the Keck I telescope (K1DM3) at the W.M. Keck Observatory. This paper presents the detailed design of K1DM3 with emphasis on the opto- mechanics. This project has presented several design challenges. Foremost are the competing requirements to avoid vignetting the light path when retracted against a sufficiently rigid system for high-precision and repeatable pointing. The design utilizes an actuated swing arm to retract the mirror or deploy it into a kinematic coupling. The K1DM3 project has also required the design and development of custom connections to provide power, communications, and compressed air to the system. This NSF-MRI funded project is planned to be commissioned in Spring 2017.

  6. Spatially Resolved Emission of a z~3 Damped Lyman Alpha Galaxy with Keck/OSIRIS IFU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, Holly; Jorgenson, Regina

    2017-01-01

    The damped Lyman alpha (DLA) class of galaxies contains most of the neutral hydrogen gas over cosmic time. Few DLAs have been detected directly, which limits our knowledge of fundamental properties like size and mass. We present Keck/OSIRIS infrared integral field spectroscopy (IFU) observations of a DLA that was first detected in absorption toward a background quasar. Our observations use the Keck Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics system to reduce the point-spread function of the quasar, making it possible to spatially resolve the DLA emission. We map this emission in O[III] 5007 Å. At redshift z~3, this DLA represents one of the highest redshift DLAs mapped with IFU spectroscopy. We present measurements of the star formation rate, metallicity, and gas mass of the galaxy.This project was supported in part by the NSF REU grant AST-1358980 and by the Nantucket Maria Mitchell Association.

  7. Titan Imagery with Keck AO during and after Probe Entry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Pater, I; Adamkovics, M; Bouchez, A H; Brown, M E; Gibbard, S G; Marchis, F; Roe, H G; Schaller, E L; Young, E

    2006-02-03

    We present adaptive optics data from the 10-m W.M. Keck telescope that were taken during the time the Huygens probe descended through Titan's atmosphere, and on the days following touch-down. The spatial resolution of the images is typically {approx}0.04-inch, or {approx}240 km on Titan (60 km/pixel). No probe entry signal was detected at levels exceeding 0.8 {micro}Jy (3-{sigma}) per pixel (0.01-inch), which although within the range of predicted flux levels, cannot constrain any models. We present data on Titan's surface, troposphere and stratosphere during the days following probe entry, when the solar phase angle varied from 0.05{sup o} up to 0.8{sup o}, with the Sun in the West. Contrary to expectation, the data often showed the East side to be brightest. Adding data obtained with Keck and Gemini over the past few years reveals that the East-West asymmetry can be explained by a combination of the solar phase angle effect together with a general preponderance of haze on Titan's East or morning hemisphere. The troposphere was characterized by quiescent weather; only a few small clouds were present near the south pole, at typical altitudes of 30-40 km. While stratospheric haze was prominent over the northern hemisphere, tropospheric haze dominated the south, from the S. pole up to latitudes of {approx} -45{sup o}. An intriguing observation is that obtained at 1.22 {micro}m, which revealed haze in the form of a collar at -60{sup o}, in contrast to the polar haze cap as usually seen. A comparison of narrow band JHK images of Titan's surface with that obtained by Cassini ISS shows a striking resemblance in small-scale features. After a decent attempt to remove the atmosphere from the images, the surface contrast between dark and bright areas may be larger at 2 {micro}m than at 1.6 and 1.3 {micro}m. If true, this could imply that the dark areas on Titan's surface are covered by a coarser grained frost than the bright areas, and/or that there

  8. BICEP2 / Keck Array VII: Matrix based E/B Separation applied to BICEP2 and the Keck Array

    CERN Document Server

    Array, Keck; Ade, P; Ahmed, Z; Aikin, R W; Alexander, K D; Barkats, D; Benton, S J; Bischoff, C A; Bock, J J; Bowens-Rubin, R; Brevik, J A; Buder, I; Bullock, E; Buza, V; Connors, J; Crill, B P; Duband, L; Dvorkin, C; Filippini, J P; Fliescher, S; Grayson, J; Halpern, M; Harrison, S; Hildebrandt, S R; Hilton, G C; Hui, H; Irwin, K D; Kang, J; Karkare, K S; Karpel, E; Kaufman, J P; Keating, B G; Kefeli, S; Kernasovskiy, S A; Kovac, J; Kuo, C L; Leitch, E M; Lueker, M; Megerian, K G; Namikawa, T; Netterfield, C B; Nguyen, H T; O'Brient, R; W., R; Orlando, A; Pryke, C; Richter, S; Schwarz, R; Sheehy, C D; Staniszewski, Z K; Steinbach, B; Sudiwala, R V; Teply, G P; Thompson, K L; Tolan, J E; Tucker, C; Turner, A D; Vieregg, A G; Weber, A C; Wiebe, D V; Willmert, J; Wong, C L; Wu, W L; Yoon, K W

    2016-01-01

    A linear polarization field on the sphere can be uniquely decomposed into an E-mode and a B-mode component. These two components are analytically defined in terms of spin-2 spherical harmonics. Maps that contain filtered modes on a partial sky can also be decomposed into E-mode and B-mode components. However, the lack of full sky information prevents orthogonally separating these components using spherical harmonics. In this paper, we present a technique for decomposing an incomplete map into E and B-mode components using E and B eigenmodes of the pixel covariance in the observed map. This method is found to orthogonally define E and B in the presence of both partial sky coverage and spatial filtering. This method has been applied to the BICEP2 and the Keck Array maps and results in reducing E to B leakage from LCDM E-modes to a level corresponding to a tensor-to-scalar ratio of $r<1\\times10^{-4}$.

  9. The Design and Operation of The Keck Observatory Archive

    CERN Document Server

    Berriman, G Bruce; Goodrich, Robert W; Holt, Jennifer; Kong, Mihseh; Laity, Anastasia C; Mader, Jeffrey A; Swain, Melanie; Tran, Hien D

    2014-01-01

    The Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC) and the W. M. Keck Observatory (WMKO) operate an archive for the Keck Observatory. At the end of 2013, KOA completed the ingestion of data from all eight active observatory instruments. KOA will continue to ingest all newly obtained observations, at an anticipated volume of 4 TB per year. The data are transmitted electronically from WMKO to IPAC for storage and curation. Access to data is governed by a data use policy, and approximately two-thirds of the data in the archive are public.

  10. CMB Polarization with BICEP2 and Keck-Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryke, Clement; BICEP2 and Keck-Array Collaborations

    2013-01-01

    BICEP2 is an evolution from the highly successful BICEP CMB polarization experiment. In turn Keck-Array is an array of BICEP2 like receivers to achieve an additional increase in sensitivity. All these experiments are located at the South Pole in Antarctica and target the CMB B-mode polarization signal which is predicted to exist in many simpler models of Inflation at angular scales of several degrees. The design and performance of BICEP2 and Keck-Array is described and some preliminary polarization maps are presented.

  11. Multifrequency Beam Characterization and Systematics for the Keck Array, BICEP3, and Future CMB Polarization Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkare, Kirit S.; BICEP/Keck Array Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The BICEP/Keck Array cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization experiments located at the South Pole are a series of small-aperture refracting telescopes focused on the degree-scale B-mode signature of inflationary gravitational waves. These highly-targeted experiments have produced the world's deepest maps of CMB polarization, leading to the most stringent constraints on the tensor-to-scalar ratio to date: sigma(r) = 0.024 and r current instrument and analysis technology will scale with detector count.

  12. Impact of Technology on Teacher Efficacy and Instruction Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderNoor, Jeffrey Michael

    2014-01-01

    In light of the emerging emphasis on interpreting technology, this study investigated how teachers' technology self-efficacy influenced their use of technology in the classroom technology use. The secondary purpose was to examine the extent teacher technology self-efficacy was related to instructional time. The study findings answered questions of…

  13. BICEP3 performance overview and planned Keck Array upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, J. A.; Ade, P. A. R.; Ahmed, Z.; Alexander, K. D.; Amiri, M.; Barkats, D.; Benton, S. J.; Bischoff, C. A.; Bock, J. J.; Boenish, H.; Bowens-Rubin, R.; Buder, I.; Bullock, E.; Buza, V.; Connors, J.; Filippini, J. P.; Fliescher, S.; Halpern, M.; Harrison, S.; Hilton, G. C.; Hristov, V. V.; Hui, H.; Irwin, K. D.; Kang, J.; Karkare, K. S.; Karpel, E.; Kefeli, S.; Kernasovskiy, S. A.; Kovac, J. M.; Kuo, C. L.; Leitch, E. M.; Lueker, M.; Megerian, K. G.; Monticue, V.; Namikawa, T.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nguyen, H. T.; O'Brient, R.; Ogburn, R. W.; Pryke, C.; Reintsema, C. D.; Richter, S.; Schwarz, R.; Sorenson, C.; Sheehy, C. D.; Staniszewski, Z. K.; Steinbach, B.; Teply, G. P.; Thompson, K. L.; Tolan, J. E.; Tucker, C.; Turner, A. D.; Vieregg, A. G.; Wandui, A.; Weber, A. C.; Wiebe, D. V.; Willmert, J.; Wu, W. L. K.; Yoon, K. W.

    2016-07-01

    Bicep3 is a 520mm aperture, compact two-lens refractor designed to observe the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at 95 GHz. Its focal plane consists of modularized tiles of antenna-coupled transition edge sensors (TESs), similar to those used in Bicep2 and the Keck Array. The increased per-receiver optical throughput compared to Bicep2/Keck Array, due to both its faster f=1:7 optics and the larger aperture, more than doubles the combined mapping speed of the Bicep/Keck program. The Bicep3 receiver was recently upgraded to a full complement of 20 tiles of detectors (2560 TESs) and is now beginning its second year of observation (and first science season) at the South Pole. We report on its current performance and observing plans. Given its high per-receiver throughput while maintaining the advantages of a compact design, Bicep3- class receivers are ideally suited as building blocks for a 3rd-generation CMB experiment, consisting of multiple receivers spanning 35 GHz to 270 GHz with total detector count in the tens of thousands. We present plans for such an array, the new "BICEP Array" that will replace the Keck Array at the South Pole, including design optimization, frequency coverage, and deployment/observing strategies.

  14. bicep2/KECK ARRAY. IV. OPTICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND PERFORMANCE OF THE bicep2 AND KECK ARRAY EXPERIMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ade, P. A. R. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff, CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Aikin, R. W.; Bock, J. J.; Brevik, J. A.; Filippini, J. P.; Golwala, S. R.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hui, H. [Department of Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Barkats, D. [Joint ALMA Observatory, ESO, Santiago (Chile); Benton, S. J. [Department of Physics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Bischoff, C. A.; Bradford, K. J.; Buder, I. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street MS 42, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bullock, E. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Dowell, C. D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Duband, L. [Université Grenoble Alpes, CEA INAC-SBT, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Fliescher, S. [Department of Physics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Halpern, M.; Hasselfield, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Hilton, G. C., E-mail: avieregg@kicp.uchicago.edu [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Collaboration: bicep2 and Keck Array Collaborations; and others

    2015-06-20

    bicep2 and the Keck Array are polarization-sensitive microwave telescopes that observe the cosmic microwave background (CMB) from the South Pole at degree angular scales in search of a signature of inflation imprinted as B-mode polarization in the CMB. bicep2 was deployed in late 2009, observed for three years until the end of 2012 at 150 GHz with 512 antenna-coupled transition edge sensor bolometers, and has reported a detection of B-mode polarization on degree angular scales. The Keck Array was first deployed in late 2010 and will observe through 2016 with five receivers at several frequencies (95, 150, and 220 GHz). bicep2 and the Keck Array share a common optical design and employ the field-proven bicep1 strategy of using small-aperture, cold, on-axis refractive optics, providing excellent control of systematics while maintaining a large field of view. This design allows for full characterization of far-field optical performance using microwave sources on the ground. Here we describe the optical design of both instruments and report a full characterization of the optical performance and beams of bicep2 and the Keck Array at 150 GHz.

  15. Performance of the Keck Observatory adaptive optics system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Dam, M A; Mignant, D L; Macintosh, B A

    2004-01-19

    In this paper, the adaptive optics (AO) system at the W.M. Keck Observatory is characterized. The authors calculate the error budget of the Keck AO system operating in natural guide star mode with a near infrared imaging camera. By modeling the control loops and recording residual centroids, the measurement noise and band-width errors are obtained. The error budget is consistent with the images obtained. Results of sky performance tests are presented: the AO system is shown to deliver images with average Strehl ratios of up to 0.37 at 1.58 {micro}m using a bright guide star and 0.19 for a magnitude 12 star.

  16. Economy Bad? Great Time for Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Betsy

    2009-01-01

    Economic downturn or not, technology is poised to take a paramount role in teaching and learning. New learning theories have been chipping away at the textbook-led curriculum, shaping its foundation into an unsteady, teetering structure. Students need different approaches for learning. Teachers need various venues for delivering diversified…

  17. BICEP3 performance overview and planned Keck Array upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Grayson, J A; Ahmed, Z; Alexander, K D; Amiri, M; Barkats, D; Benton, S J; Bischoff, C A; Bock, J J; Boenish, H; Bowens-Rubin, R; Buder, I; Bullock, E; Buza, V; Connors, J; Filippini, J P; Fliescher, S; Halpern, M; Harrison, S; Hilton, G C; Hristov, V V; Hui, H; Irwin, K D; Kang, J; Karkare, K S; Karpel, E; Kefeli, S; Kernasovskiy, S A; Kovac, J M; Kuo, C L; Leitch, E M; Lueker, M; Megerian, K G; Monticue, V; Namikawa, T; Netterfield, C B; Nguyen, H T; O'Brient, R; Ogburn, R W; Pryke, C; Reintsema, C D; Richter, S; Schwarz, R; Sorensen, C; Sheehy, C D; Staniszewski, Z K; Steinbach, B; Teply, G P; Thompson, K L; Tolan, J E; Tucker, C; Turner, A D; Vieregg, A G; Wandui, A; Weber, A C; Wiebe, D V; Willmert, J; Wu, W L K; Yoon, K W

    2016-01-01

    BICEP3 is a 520 mm aperture, compact two-lens refractor designed to observe the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at 95 GHz. Its focal plane consists of modularized tiles of antenna-coupled transition edge sensors (TESs), similar to those used in BICEP2 and the Keck Array. The increased per-receiver optical throughput compared to BICEP2/Keck Array, due to both its faster f/1.7 optics and the larger aperture, more than doubles the combined mapping speed of the BICEP/Keck program. The BICEP3 receiver was recently upgraded to a full complement of 20 tiles of detectors (2560 TESs) and is now beginning its second year of observation (and first science season) at the South Pole. We report on its current performance and observing plans. Given its high per-receiver throughput while maintaining the advantages of a compact design, BICEP3-class receivers are ideally suited as building blocks for a 3rd-generation CMB experiment, consisting of multiple receivers spanning 35 GHz to 270 GHz with total de...

  18. Optical Communication on SmallSats - Enabling the Next Era in Space Science (a Keck Institute for Space Studies Workshop)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grefenstette, Brian

    2017-08-01

    Small satellites (science from space-borne platforms. A number of scientific CubeSats have been recently launched or are under development, including some bound for interplanetary space. Recent miniaturization of technology for high-precision pointing, high efficiency solar power, high-powered on-board processing, and scientific detectors provide the capability for groundbreaking, focused science from these resource-limited spacecraft. Similar innovations in both radio frequency and optical/laser communications are poised to increase telemetry bandwidth to a gigabit per second (Gb/s) or more. This enhancement can allow real-time, global science measurements and/or ultra-high fidelity (resolution, cadence, etc.) observations from tens or hundreds of Earth-orbiting satellites, or permit high-bandwidth, direct-to-earth communications for (inter)planetary missions. Here we present the results of a recent Keck Institue for Space Science workshop that brought together scientists and engineers from academia and industry to showcase the breakthrough science enabled by optical communications on small satellites for future missions.

  19. Hubble and Keck team up to find farthest known galaxy in the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-02-01

    -angle image spans 0.4 by 0.4 degrees and was taken by the 12k camera on Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, United States. The image is composited by three exposures through blue (B), red (R), and infrared (I) filters. The primeval galaxy was identified by combining the power of the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope and CARA's W. M. Keck Telescopes on Mauna Kea in Hawaii. These great observatories got a boost from the added magnification of a natural ‘cosmic gravitational lens’ in space that further amplifies the brightness of the distant object. The newly discovered galaxy is likely to be a young galaxy shining during the end of the so-called "Dark Ages" - the period in cosmic history which ended with the first galaxies and quasars transforming opaque, molecular hydrogen into the transparent, ionized Universe we see today. The new galaxy was detected in a long exposure of the nearby cluster of galaxies Abell 2218, taken with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on board the Hubble Space Telescope. This cluster is so massive that the light of distant objects passing through the cluster actually bends and is amplified, much as a magnifying glass bends and magnifies objects seen through it. Such natural gravitational ‘telescopes’ allow astronomers to see extremely distant and faint objects that could otherwise not be seen. The extremely faint galaxy is so far away its visible light has been stretched into infrared wavelengths, making the observations particularly difficult. "As we were searching for distant galaxies magnified by Abell 2218, we detected a pair of strikingly similar images whose arrangement and colour indicate a very distant object," said astronomer Jean-Paul Kneib (Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées and California Institute of Technology), who is lead author reporting the discovery in a forthcoming article in the Astrophysical Journal. Analysis of a sequence of Hubble images indicate the object lies between a redshift of 6.6 and 7.1, making it the

  20. HAMLET: HPCN Technology for Real-Time, Embedded Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mager, J.W.L.J.; Dam, A. ten

    1995-01-01

    Building an application by using HPCN technology makes the solution scalable and therefore more flexible. The uptake of HPCN technology for real-time, embedded applications, however, is severely hampered by the lack of real application development support. Within the Esprit project HAMLET, technolog

  1. Fiber scrambling for high-resolution spectrographs. II. A double fiber scrambler for Keck Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Spronck, Julien F P; Kaplan, Zachary; Jurgenson, Colby; Valenti, Jeff; Moriarty, John; Szymkowiak, Andrew E

    2015-01-01

    We have designed a fiber scrambler as a prototype for the Keck HIRES spectrograph, using double scrambling to stabilize illumination of the spectrometer and a pupil slicer to increase spectral resolution to R = 70,000 with minimal slit losses. We find that the spectral line spread function (SLSF) for the double scrambler observations is 18 times more stable than the SLSF for comparable slit observations and 9 times more stable than the SLSF for a single fiber scrambler that we tested in 2010. For the double scrambler test data, we further reduced the radial velocity scatter from an average of 2.1 m/s to 1.5 m/s after adopting a median description of the stabilized SLSF in our Doppler model. This demonstrates that inaccuracies in modeling the SLSF contribute to the velocity RMS. Imperfect knowledge of the SLSF, rather than stellar jitter, sets the precision floor for chromospherically quiet stars analyzed with the iodine technique using Keck HIRES and other slit-fed spectrometers. It is increasingly common pra...

  2. Technology evaluation for time sensitive data transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessing, Henrik; Breach, Tony; Colmenero, Alberto

    Emerging research and commercial services like IPTV, high quality video conferencing, remote surgeries and cloud computing in particular are time sensitive and their successful deployment assumes network with minimal delay and jitter in combination with high bandwidth and preferably low packet lo...

  3. A Joint Analysis of BICEP2/Keck Array and Planck Data

    CERN Document Server

    BICEP2/Keck,; Ade, P A R; Aghanim, N; Ahmed, Z; Aikin, R W; Alexander, K D; Arnaud, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barkats, D; Barreiro, R B; Bartlett, J G; Bartolo, N; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoit-Lévy, A; Benton, S J; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bischoff, C A; Bock, J J; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Boulanger, F; Brevik, J A; Bucher, M; Buder, I; Bullock, E; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Buza, V; Calabrese, E; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Challinor, A; Chary, R -R; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Colombo, L P L; Combet, C; Connors, J; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Delouis, J -M; Désert, F -X; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Dowell, C D; Duband, L; Ducout, A; Dunkley, J; Dupac, X; Dvorkin, C; Efstathiou, G; Elsner, F; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Filippini, J P; Finelli, F; Fliescher, S; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Frejsel, A; Galeotta, S; Galli, S; Ganga, K; Ghosh, T; Giard, M; Gjerløw, E; Golwala, S R; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Gudmundsson, J E; Halpern, M; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D L; Hasselfield, M; Helou, G; Henrot-Versillé, S; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hilton, G C; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hovest, W; Hristov, V V; Huffenberger, K M; Hui, H; Hurier, G; Irwin, K D; Jaffe, A H; Jaffe, T R; Jewell, J; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Karkare, K S; Kaufman, J P; Keating, B G; Kefeli, S; Keihänen, E; Kernasovskiy, S A; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Knox, L; Kovac, J M; Krachmalnicoff, N; Kunz, M; Kuo, C L; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Lawrence, C R; Leitch, E M; Leonardi, R; Levrier, F; Lewis, A; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Lueker, M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maffei, B; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Mangilli, A; Maris, M; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Mason, P; Matarrese, S; Megerian, K G; Meinhold, P R; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Moss, A; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nguyen, H T; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; O'Brient, R; Ogburn, R W; Orlando, A; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paladini, R; Paoletti, D; Partridge, B; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Pearson, T J; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Pratt, G W; Prunet, S; Pryke, C; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reach, W T; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Renzi, A; Richter, S; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rowan-Robinson, M; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Savelainen, M; Savini, G; Schwarz, R; Scott, D; Seiffert, M D; Sheehy, C D; Spencer, L D; Staniszewski, Z K; Stolyarov, V; Sudiwala, R; Sunyaev, R; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Teply, G P; Terenzi, L; Thompson, K L; Toffolatti, L; Tolan, J E; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Turner, A D; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vibert, L; Vielva, P; Vieregg, A G; Villa, F; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Watson, R; Weber, A C; Wehus, I K; White, M; White, S D M; Willmert, J; Wong, C L; Yoon, K W; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2015-01-01

    We report the results of a joint analysis of data from BICEP2/Keck Array and Planck. BICEP2 and Keck Array have observed the same approximately 400 deg$^2$ patch of sky centered on RA 0h, Dec. $-57.5\\deg$. The combined maps reach a depth of 57 nK deg in Stokes $Q$ and $U$ in a band centered at 150 GHz. Planck has observed the full sky in polarization at seven frequencies from 30 to 353 GHz, but much less deeply in any given region (1.2 $\\mu$K deg in $Q$ and $U$ at 143 GHz). We detect 150$\\times$353 cross-correlation in $B$-modes at high significance. We fit the single- and cross-frequency power spectra at frequencies above 150 GHz to a lensed-$\\Lambda$CDM model that includes dust and a possible contribution from inflationary gravitational waves (as parameterized by the tensor-to-scalar ratio $r$). We probe various model variations and extensions, including adding a synchrotron component in combination with lower frequency data, and find that these make little difference to the $r$ constraint. Finally we prese...

  4. Twenty Years of Precise Radial Velocities at Keck and Lick Observatories

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Jason T

    2016-01-01

    The precise radial velocity survey at Keck Observatory began over 20 years ago. Its survey of thousands of stars now has the time baseline to be sensitive to planets with decade-long orbits, including Jupiter analogs. I present several newly-finished orbital solutions for long-period giant planets. Although hot Jupiters are generally "lonely" (i.e. they are not part of multiplanet systems), those that are not appear to often have giant companions at 5 AU or beyond. I present two of the highest period- ratios among planets in a two-planet system, and some of the longest orbital periods ever measured for exoplanets. In many cases, combining Keck radial velocities from those from other long-term surveys at Lick Observatory, McDonald Observatory, HARPS, and, of course, OHP spectrographs, produces superior orbital fits, constraining both period and eccentricity better than could be possible with any single set alone. Stellar magnetic activity cycles can masquerade as long-period planets. In most cases this effect ...

  5. Point spread function determination for Keck adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragland, S.; Jolissaint, L.; Wizinowich, P.; van Dam, M. A.; Mugnier, L.; Bouxin, A.; Chock, J.; Kwok, S.; Mader, J.; Witzel, G.; Do, Tuan; Fitzgerald, M.; Ghez, A.; Lu, J.; Martinez, G.; Morris, M. R.; Sitarski, B.

    2016-07-01

    One of the primary scientific limitations of adaptive optics (AO) has been the incomplete knowledge of the point spread function (PSF), which has made it difficult to use AO for accurate photometry and astrometry in both crowded and sparse fields, for extracting intrinsic morphologies and spatially resolved kinematics, and for detecting faint sources in the presence of brighter sources. To address this limitation, we initiated a program to determine and demonstrate PSF reconstruction for science observations obtained with Keck AO. This paper aims to give a broad view of the progress achieved in implementing a PSF reconstruction capability for Keck AO science observations. This paper describes the implementation of the algorithms, and the design and development of the prototype operational tools for automated PSF reconstruction. On-sky performance is discussed by comparing the reconstructed PSFs to the measured PSF's on the NIRC2 science camera. The importance of knowing the control loop performance, accurate mapping of the telescope pupil to the deformable mirror and the science instrument pupil, and the telescope segment piston error are highlighted. We close by discussing lessons learned and near-term future plans.

  6. HAMLET: HPCN Technology for Real-Time, Embedded Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mager, J.W.L.J.; Dam, A. ten

    1995-01-01

    Building an application by using HPCN technology makes the solution scalable and therefore more flexible. The uptake of HPCN technology for real-time, embedded applications, however, is severely hampered by the lack of real application development support. Within the Esprit project HAMLET,

  7. Spatially Resolved Emission of a High-redshift DLA Galaxy with the Keck/OSIRIS IFU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, Regina A.; Wolfe, Arthur M.

    2014-04-01

    We present the first Keck/OSIRIS infrared IFU observations of a high-redshift damped Lyα (DLA) galaxy detected in the line of sight to a background quasar. By utilizing the Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics to reduce the quasar point-spread function to FWHM ~ 0.''15, we were able to search for and map the foreground DLA emission free from the quasar contamination. We present maps of the Hα and [O III] λλ5007, 4959 emission of DLA 2222-0946 at a redshift of z ~ 2.35. From the composite spectrum over the Hα emission region, we measure a star formation rate of 9.5 ± 1.0 M ⊙ yr-1 and a dynamical mass of M dyn = 6.1 × 109 M ⊙. The average star formation rate surface density is langΣSFRrang = 0.55 M ⊙ yr-1 kpc-2, with a central peak of 1.7 M ⊙ yr-1 kpc-2. Using the standard Kennicutt-Schmidt relation, this corresponds to a gas mass surface density of Σgas = 243 M ⊙ pc-2. Integrating over the size of the galaxy, we find a total gas mass of M gas = 4.2 × 109 M ⊙. We estimate the gas fraction of DLA 2222-0946 to be f gas ~ 40%. We detect [N II] λ6583 emission at 3σ significance with a flux corresponding to a metallicity of 75% solar. Comparing this metallicity with that derived from the low-ion absorption gas ~6 kpc away, ~30% solar, indicates possible evidence for a metallicity gradient or enriched in/outflow of gas. Kinematically, both Hα and [O III] emission show relatively constant velocity fields over the central galactic region. While we detect some red and blueshifted clumps of emission, they do not correspond with rotational signatures that support an edge-on disk interpretation. The data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  8. Keck spectroscopy of z = 1-3 ULIRGs from the Spitzer SWIRE survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berta, S.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Siana, B.; Farrah, D.; Smith, H. E.; Polletta, M. C.; Franceschini, A.; Fritz, J.; Perez-Fournon, I.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Shupe, D.; Surace, J.

    2007-05-01

    Context: High-redshift ultra luminous infrared galaxies contribute the bulk of the cosmic IR background and are the best candidates for very massive galaxies in formation at z>1.5. Aims: It is necessary to identify the energy source for their huge luminosities, starburst or AGN activity, in order to correctly interpret the role of ULIRGs in galaxy evolution, and compute reliable estimates of their star formation rates, stellar masses, and accretion luminosities. Methods: We present Keck/LRIS optical spectroscopy of 35 z≥1.4 luminous IR galaxies in the Spitzer Wide-area Infra-Red Extragalactic survey (SWIRE) northern fields (Lockman Hole, ELAIS-N1, ELAIS-N2). The primary targets belong to the "IR-peak" class of galaxies, having the 1.6 μm (restframe) stellar feature detected in the IRAC Spitzer channels. The spectral energy distributions of the main targets are thoroughly analyzed, by means of spectro-photometric synthesis and multi-component fits (stars + starburst dust + AGN torus). Results: The IR-peak selection technique is confirmed to successfully select objects above z=1.4, though some of the observed sources lie at lower redshift than expected. Among the 16 galaxies with spectroscopic redshift, 62% host an AGN component, two thirds being type-1 and one third type-2 objects. The selection, limited to r'1011 M_⊙) galaxies. The presence of an AGN component provides a plausible explanation for the spectroscopic/photometric redshift discrepancies, as the torus produces an apparent shift of the peak to longer wavelengths. These sources are analyzed in IRAC and optical-IR color spaces. In addition to the IR-peak galaxies, we present redshifts and spectral properties for 150 objects, out of a total of 301 sources on slits. Based on data obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership between the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and NASA, and made possible by the generous financial support of

  9. BICEP2 / Keck Array V: Measurements of B-mode Polarization at Degree Angular Scales and 150 GHz by the Keck Array

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Aikin, R W; Alexander, K D; Barkats, D; Benton, S J; Bischoff, C A; Bock, J J; Brevik, J A; Buder, I; Bullock, E; Buza, V; Connors, J; Crill, B P; Dowell, C D; Dvorkin, C; Duband, L; Filippini, J P; Fliescher, S; Golwala, S R; Halpern, M; Hasselfield, M; Hildebrandt, S R; Hilton, G C; Hristov, V V; Hui, H; Irwin, K D; Karkare, K S; Kaufman, J P; Keating, B G; Kefeli, S; Kernasovskiy, S A; Kovac, J M; Kuo, C L; Leitch, E M; Lueker, M; Mason, P; Megerian, K G; Netterfield, C B; Nguyen, H T; O'Brient, R; Ogburn, R W; Orlando, A; Pryke, C; Reintsema, C D; Richter, S; Schwarz, R; Sheehy, C D; Staniszewski, Z K; Sudiwala, R V; Teply, G P; Thompson, K L; Tolan, J E; Turner, A D; Vieregg, A G; Weber, A C; Willmert, J; Wong, C L; Yoon, K W

    2015-01-01

    The Keck Array is a system of cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarimeters, each similar to the BICEP2 experiment. In this paper we report results from the 2012 and 2013 observing seasons, during which the Keck Array consisted of five receivers all operating in the same (150 GHz) frequency band and observing field as BICEP2. We again find an excess of B-mode power over the lensed-$\\Lambda$CDM expectation of $> 5 \\sigma$ in the range $30 6\\sigma$.

  10. BICEP2 / Keck Array VI: Improved Constraints On Cosmology and Foregrounds When Adding 95 GHz Data From Keck Array

    CERN Document Server

    Array, Keck; Ade, P A R; Ahmed, Z; Aikin, R W; Alexander, K D; Barkats, D; Benton, S J; Bischoff, C A; Bock, J J; Bowens-Rubin, R; Brevik, J A; Buder, I; Bullock, E; Buza, V; Connors, J; Crill, B P; Duband, L; Dvorkin, C; Filippini, J P; Fliescher, S; Grayson, J; Halpern, M; Harrison, S; Hilton, G C; Hui, H; Irwin, K D; Karkare, K S; Karpel, E; Kaufman, J P; Keating, B G; Kefeli, S; Kernasovskiy, S A; Kovac, J M; Kuo, C L; Leitch, E M; Lueker, M; Megerian, K G; Netterfield, C B; Nguyen, H T; O'Brient, R; Ogburn, R W; Orlando, A; Pryke, C; Richter, S; Schwarz, R; Sheehy, C D; Staniszewski, Z K; Steinbach, B; Sudiwala, R V; Teply, G P; Thompson, K L; Tolan, J E; Tucker, C; Turner, A D; Vieregg, A G; Weber, A C; Wiebe, D V; Willmert, J; Wong, C L; Wu, W L K; Yoon, K W

    2016-01-01

    We present results from an analysis of all data taken by the BICEP2 & Keck Array CMB polarization experiments up to and including that taken during the 2014 observing season. This includes the first Keck Array observations at 95 GHz. The maps reach a depth of 50 nK deg in Stokes $Q$ and $U$ in the 150 GHz band and 127 nK deg in the 95 GHz band. We take auto- and cross-spectra between these maps and publicly available maps from WMAP and Planck at frequencies from 23 GHz to 353 GHz. An excess over lensed-LCDM is detected at modest significance in the 95x150 $BB$ spectrum, and is consistent with the dust contribution expected from our previous work. No significant evidence for synchrotron emission is found in spectra such as 23x95, or for dust/sync correlation in spectra such as 23x353. We take the likelihood of all the spectra for a multi-component model including lensed-LCDM, dust, synchrotron and a possible contribution from inflationary gravitational waves (as parametrized by the tensor-to-scalar ratio $...

  11. Antenna-coupled TES Bolometer Arrays for BICEP2/Keck and SPIDER

    CERN Document Server

    Orlando, A; Amiri, M; Bock, J J; Bonetti, J A; Brevik, J A; Burger, B; Chattopadthyay, G; Day, P K; Filippini, J P; Golwala, S R; Halpern, M; Hasselfield, M; Hilton, G C; Irwin, K D; Kenyon, M; Kovac, J M; Kuo, C L; Lange, A E; LeDuc, H G; Llombart, N; Nguyen, H T; Ogburn, R W; Reintsema, C D; Runyan, M C; Staniszewski, Z; Sudiwala, R; Teply, G; Trangsrud, A R; Turner, A D; Wilson, P

    2010-01-01

    BICEP2/Keck and SPIDER are cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarimeters targeting the B-mode polarization induced by primordial gravitational waves from inflation. They will be using planar arrays of polarization sensitive antenna-coupled TES bolometers, operating at frequencies between 90 GHz and 220 GHz. At 150 GHz each array consists of 64 polarimeters and four of these arrays are assembled together to make a focal plane, for a total of 256 dual-polarization elements (512 TES sensors). The detector arrays are integrated with a time-domain SQUID multiplexer developed at NIST and read out using the multi-channels electronics (MCE) developed at the University of British Columbia. Following our progress in improving detector parameters uniformity across the arrays and fabrication yield, our main effort has focused on improving detector arrays optical and noise performances, in order to produce science grade focal planes achieving target sensitivities. We report on changes in detector design implemented to op...

  12. Close Companions to Nearby Young Stars from Adaptive Optics Imaging on VLT and Keck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haisch, Karl E.; Jayawardhana, Ray; Brandeker, Alexis; Mardones, Diego

    We report the results of VLT and Keck adaptive optics surveys of known members of the η Chamaeleontis, MBM 12, and TW Hydrae (TWA) associations to search for close companions. The multiplicity statistics of η Cha, MBM 12, and TWA are quite high compared with other clusters and associations, although our errors are large due to small number statistics. We have resolved S18 in MBM 12 and RECX 9 in η Cha into triples for the first time. The tight binary TWA 5Aab in the TWA offers the prospect of measuring the dynamical masses of both components as well as an independent distance to the system within a few years. The AO detection of the close companion to the nearby young star χ1 Orionis, previously inferred from radial velocity and astrometric observations, has already made it possible to derive the dynamical masses of that system without any astrophysical assumption.

  13. Close Companions to Nearby Young Stars from Adaptive Optics Imaging on VLT and Keck

    CERN Document Server

    Haisch, K E; Brandeker, A; Mardones, D; Jr., Karl E. Haisch; Jayawardhana, Ray; Brandeker, Alexis; Mardones, Diego

    2003-01-01

    We report the results of VLT and Keck adaptive optics surveys of known members of the Eta Chamaeleontis, MBM 12, and TW Hydrae (TWA) associations to search for close companions. The multiplicity statistics of Eta Cha, MBM 12, and TWA are quite high compared with other clusters and associations, although our errors are large due to small number statistics. We have resolved S18 in MBM 12 and RECX 9 in Eta Cha into triples for the first time. The tight binary TWA 5Aab in the TWA offers the prospect of measuring the dynamical masses of both components as well as an independent distance to the system within a few years. The AO detection of the close companion to the nearby young star Chi^1 Orionis, previously inferred from radial velocity and astrometric observations, has already made it possible to derive the dynamical masses of that system without any astrophysical assumption.

  14. Climate impacts of energy technologies depend on emissions timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Morgan R.; Trancik, Jessika E.

    2014-05-01

    Energy technologies emit greenhouse gases with differing radiative efficiencies and atmospheric lifetimes. Standard practice for evaluating technologies, which uses the global warming potential (GWP) to compare the integrated radiative forcing of emitted gases over a fixed time horizon, does not acknowledge the importance of a changing background climate relative to climate change mitigation targets. Here we demonstrate that the GWP misvalues the impact of CH4-emitting technologies as mid-century approaches, and we propose a new class of metrics to evaluate technologies based on their time of use. The instantaneous climate impact (ICI) compares gases in an expected radiative forcing stabilization year, and the cumulative climate impact (CCI) compares their time-integrated radiative forcing up to a stabilization year. Using these dynamic metrics, we quantify the climate impacts of technologies and show that high-CH4-emitting energy sources become less advantageous over time. The impact of natural gas for transportation, with CH4 leakage, exceeds that of gasoline within 1-2 decades for a commonly cited 3 W m-2 stabilization target. The impact of algae biodiesel overtakes that of corn ethanol within 2-3 decades, where algae co-products are used to produce biogas and corn co-products are used for animal feed. The proposed metrics capture the changing importance of CH4 emissions as a climate threshold is approached, thereby addressing a major shortcoming of the GWP for technology evaluation.

  15. Keck Observations of 160 Gamma-Ray Burst Host Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Perley, Daniel A; Prochaska, Jason X

    2013-01-01

    We present a preliminary data release from our multi-year campaign at Keck Observatory to study the host galaxies of a large sample of Swift-era gamma-ray bursts via multi-color ground-based optical imaging and spectroscopy. With over 160 targets observed to date (and almost 100 host detections, most of which have not previously been reported in the literature) our effort represents the broadest GRB host survey to date. While targeting was heterogeneous, our observations span the known diversity of GRBs including short bursts, long bursts, spectrally soft GRBs (XRFs), ultra-energetic GRBs, X-ray faint GRBs, dark GRBs, SN-GRBs, and other sub-classes. We also present a preview of our database (currently available online via a convenient web interface) including a catalog of multi-color photometry, redshifts and line ID's. Final photometry and reduced imaging and spectra will be available in the near future.

  16. Joint analysis of BICEP2/keck array and Planck Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ade, P A R; Aghanim, N; Ahmed, Z; Aikin, R W; Alexander, K D; Arnaud, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barkats, D; Barreiro, R B; Bartlett, J G; Bartolo, N; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Benton, S J; Bernard, J-P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bischoff, C A; Bock, J J; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Boulanger, F; Brevik, J A; Bucher, M; Buder, I; Bullock, E; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Buza, V; Calabrese, E; Cardoso, J-F; Catalano, A; Challinor, A; Chary, R-R; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Colombo, L P L; Combet, C; Connors, J; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Delouis, J-M; Désert, F-X; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Dowell, C D; Duband, L; Ducout, A; Dunkley, J; Dupac, X; Dvorkin, C; Efstathiou, G; Elsner, F; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Falgarone, E; Filippini, J P; Finelli, F; Fliescher, S; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Frejsel, A; Galeotta, S; Galli, S; Ganga, K; Ghosh, T; Giard, M; Gjerløw, E; Golwala, S R; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Gudmundsson, J E; Halpern, M; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D L; Hasselfield, M; Helou, G; Henrot-Versillé, S; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hilton, G C; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hovest, W; Hristov, V V; Huffenberger, K M; Hui, H; Hurier, G; Irwin, K D; Jaffe, A H; Jaffe, T R; Jewell, J; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Karakci, A; Karkare, K S; Kaufman, J P; Keating, B G; Kefeli, S; Keihänen, E; Kernasovskiy, S A; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Knox, L; Kovac, J M; Krachmalnicoff, N; Kunz, M; Kuo, C L; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J-M; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Lawrence, C R; Leitch, E M; Leonardi, R; Levrier, F; Lewis, A; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Lueker, M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maffei, B; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Mangilli, A; Maris, M; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Mason, P; Matarrese, S; Megerian, K G; Meinhold, P R; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M-A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Moss, A; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nguyen, H T; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; O'Brient, R; Ogburn, R W; Orlando, A; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paladini, R; Paoletti, D; Partridge, B; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Pearson, T J; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Pratt, G W; Prunet, S; Pryke, C; Puget, J-L; Rachen, J P; Reach, W T; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Renzi, A; Richter, S; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rowan-Robinson, M; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Savelainen, M; Savini, G; Schwarz, R; Scott, D; Seiffert, M D; Sheehy, C D; Spencer, L D; Staniszewski, Z K; Stolyarov, V; Sudiwala, R; Sunyaev, R; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A-S; Sygnet, J-F; Tauber, J A; Teply, G P; Terenzi, L; Thompson, K L; Toffolatti, L; Tolan, J E; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Turner, A D; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vibert, L; Vielva, P; Vieregg, A G; Villa, F; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Watson, R; Weber, A C; Wehus, I K; White, M; White, S D M; Willmert, J; Wong, C L; Yoon, K W; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2015-03-13

    We report the results of a joint analysis of data from BICEP2/Keck Array and Planck. BICEP2 and Keck Array have observed the same approximately 400  deg^{2} patch of sky centered on RA 0 h, Dec. -57.5°. The combined maps reach a depth of 57 nK deg in Stokes Q and U in a band centered at 150 GHz. Planck has observed the full sky in polarization at seven frequencies from 30 to 353 GHz, but much less deeply in any given region (1.2  μK deg in Q and U at 143 GHz). We detect 150×353 cross-correlation in B modes at high significance. We fit the single- and cross-frequency power spectra at frequencies ≥150  GHz to a lensed-ΛCDM model that includes dust and a possible contribution from inflationary gravitational waves (as parametrized by the tensor-to-scalar ratio r), using a prior on the frequency spectral behavior of polarized dust emission from previous Planck analysis of other regions of the sky. We find strong evidence for dust and no statistically significant evidence for tensor modes. We probe various model variations and extensions, including adding a synchrotron component in combination with lower frequency data, and find that these make little difference to the r constraint. Finally, we present an alternative analysis which is similar to a map-based cleaning of the dust contribution, and show that this gives similar constraints. The final result is expressed as a likelihood curve for r, and yields an upper limit r_{0.05}<0.12 at 95% confidence. Marginalizing over dust and r, lensing B modes are detected at 7.0σ significance.

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Keck+Magellan survey for LLSs. III. (Prochaska+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, J. X.; O'Meara, J. M.; Fumagalli, M.; Bernstein, R. A.; Burles, S. M.

    2016-01-01

    The sample presented in this manuscript is intended to be a nearly all-inclusive set of Lyman Limit Systems (LLSs) discovered in the high-dispersion (echelle or echellette; R>5000) spectra that we have gathered at the Keck and Magellan telescopes. Regarding Keck, we have examined all of the data obtained by Principal Investigators (PIs) A. M. Wolfe and J. X. Prochaska at the W. M. Keck Observatory through 2012 April, and from PIs Burles, O'Meara, Bernstein, and Fumagalli at Magellan through 2012 July. We also include the Keck spectra analyzed by Penprase et al. (2010, J/ApJ/721/1). We present data obtained at the W. M. Keck and Las Campanas Observatories using the twin 10m Keck I and Keck II telescopes and the twin 6.5m Baade and Clay telescopes. Altogether, we used four spectrometers: (1) the High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer (HIRES); (2) the Echellette Spectrograph and Imager (ESI); (3) the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle (MIKE); and (4) the Magellan Echellette Spectrograph (MagE). Observing logs for the HIRES and MIKE spectra are provided in Tables 1 and 2. (5 data files).

  18. Technology as a Time Challenge: Study, Concept and Types of Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim M. Rozin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article divorce the concepts of engineering and technology. Designated four stages of technological development: the fi rst phase — “pilot technique”, it is characterized by magical conceptualization, the second — engineering (rational conceptualization, third design, fourth technology. For technical equipment is characterized by four features: technology is the artifacts, the technique can be considered as a “social body” of a person or society, technology is a useful way to use the forces of nature, and fi nally, the mediation in the form of tools, machines, and material environment that allows you to implement the ideas of man. It is argued that the conceptualization of technology is the essential characteristic of the concept. If you write, for example, about the technology of the Neolithic age or era of construction of the Egyptian pyramids, then we are talking about retrospective interpretation, from the point of view of modern understanding of technology. It’s not useless, for example, to determine preconditions of formation technology, but in terms of thinking creates problems and contradictions. The author argues that technology develops in the second half of the eighteenth century as a new reality, which describes the industrial activities in language operations and their conditions of division of labor and management. At the same time, technology is being characterized by the installation of quality, savings, standardization, and rational description of the production processes, their optimization for the training of new technologists. Discusses three stages of development of the technology and features of the main types of technology: production technology, engineering, large techno-social projects, global technology. Considering the author and the conditions of the development of new technologies. These include “technological zone of proximal development”, as well as two situation — relevant issues and

  19. FLIPPED CLASSROOM TECHNOLOGY IN DISTANCE AND FULL-TIME TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr I. Volnevych

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper there are considered some aspects of the application of new technology of learning process «flipped classroom» formation on the basis of dynamic video lectures in full-time and distance learning. The considered technology is aimed at enhancing the value of students’ independent work, primarily — through creative approach to creation of the lecture material conspectus. Reallocation of learning hours in the direction of increasing time of practical work contributes to the development of students' skills in applying the acquired knowledge. It is presented brief information about the implementation of this technology: definition of screencast, which is actually the base for creation of dynamic video lectures, the main characteristics of the existing software designed for the implementation of training video courses.

  20. The Operation and Architecture of the Keck Observatory Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berriman, G. B.; Gelino, C. R.; Laity, A.; Kong, M.; Swain, M.; Holt, J.; Goodrich, R.; Mader, J.; Tran, H. D.

    2014-05-01

    The Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC) and the W. M. Keck Observatory (WMKO) are collaborating to build an archive for the twin 10-m Keck Telescopes, located near the summit of Mauna Kea. The Keck Observatory Archive (KOA) takes advantage of IPAC's long experience with managing and archiving large and complex data sets from active missions and serving them to the community; and of the Observatory's knowledge of the operation of its sophisticated instrumentation and the organization of the data products. By the end of 2013, KOA will contain data from all eight active observatory instruments, with an anticipated volume of 28 TB. The data include raw science and observations, quick look products, weather information, and, for some instruments, reduced and calibrated products. The goal of including data from all instruments is the cumulation of a rapid expansion of the archive's holdings, and already data from four new instruments have been added since October 2012. One more active instrument, the integral field spectrograph OSIRIS, is scheduled for ingestion in December 2013. After preparation for ingestion into the archive, the data are transmitted electronically from WMKO to IPAC for curation in the physical archive. This process includes validation of the science and content of the data and verification that data were not corrupted in transmission. The archived data include both newly-acquired observations and all previously acquired observations. The older data extends back to the date of instrument commissioning; for some instruments, such as HIRES, these data can extend as far back as 1994. KOA will continue to ingest all newly obtained observations, at an anticipated volume of 4 TB per year, and plans to ingest data from two decommissioned instruments. Access to these data is governed by a data use policy that guarantees Principal Investigators (PI) exclusive access to their data for at least 18 months, and allows for extensions as granted by

  1. Servo control of the movable stages using PMAC controllers for the W.M. Keck Telescope adaptive optics system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kevin; Stomski, Paul J.; Sirota, Mark J.; Tsubota, Kevin

    1998-05-01

    The adaptive optics system design for the W. M. Keck Telescope incorporates over twenty tracking and movable stages on the optical bench. This paper presents a commercial solution for controlling and positioning these stages. It describes the hardware system and the EPICS software interface used to communicate with the off the shelf hardware controllers. It touches on the positional accuracy and repeatability requirements and the selection of hardware to meet those requirements. It examines the cost and packaging issues and tradeoffs between developing custom hardware and software versus commercially available equipment. A method of synchronizing the stages to absolute time for telescope tracking is also presented.

  2. bicep2/ KECK ARRAY . IV. OPTICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND PERFORMANCE OF THE bicep2 AND KECK ARRAY EXPERIMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ade, P.A.R.; Aikin, R.W.; Barkats, D.; Benton, S.J.; Bischoff, C.A.; Bock, J.J.; Bradford, K.J.; Brevik, J.A.; Buder, I.; Bullock, E.; Dowell, C.D.; Duband, L.; Filippini, J.P.; Fliescher, S.; Golwala, S.R.; Halpern, M.; Hasselfield, M.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hilton, G.C.; Hui, H.; Irwin, K.D.

    2015-06-18

    bicep2/KECK ARRAY. IV. OPTICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND PERFORMANCE OF THE bicep2 AND KECK ARRAY EXPERIMENTS P. A. R. Ade1, R. W. Aikin2, D. Barkats3, S. J. Benton4, C. A. Bischoff5, J. J. Bock2,6, K. J. Bradford5, J. A. Brevik2, I. Buder5, E. Bullock7Show full author list Published 2015 June 18 • © 2015. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 806, Number 2 Article PDF Figures Tables References Citations 273 Total downloads Cited by 6 articles Turn on MathJax Share this article Get permission to re-use this article Article information Abstract bicep2 and the Keck Array are polarization-sensitive microwave telescopes that observe the cosmic microwave background (CMB) from the South Pole at degree angular scales in search of a signature of inflation imprinted as B-mode polarization in the CMB. bicep2 was deployed in late 2009, observed for three years until the end of 2012 at 150 GHz with 512 antenna-coupled transition edge sensor bolometers, and has reported a detection of B-mode polarization on degree angular scales. The Keck Array was first deployed in late 2010 and will observe through 2016 with five receivers at several frequencies (95, 150, and 220 GHz). bicep2 and the Keck Array share a common optical design and employ the field-proven bicep1 strategy of using small-aperture, cold, on-axis refractive optics, providing excellent control of systematics while maintaining a large field of view. This design allows for full characterization of far-field optical performance using microwave sources on the ground. Here we describe the optical design of both instruments and report a full characterization of the optical performance and beams of bicep2 and the Keck Array at 150 GHz.

  3. Parental perceptions of technology and technology-focused parenting: Associations with youth screen time

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, Wesley; Parent, Justin; Forehand, Rex; Sullivan, Alexandra D.W.; Jones, Deborah J.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we propose a model linking parental perceptions of technology to technology-related parenting strategies to youth screen time, and, finally, to internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors. Participants were 615 parents drawn from three community samples of families with children across three developmental stages: young childhood, middle childhood, and adolescence. The model was tested at each stage with the strongest support emerging in the young childhood sample. O...

  4. Keck/MOSFIRE spectroscopy of five ULX counterparts

    CERN Document Server

    Heida, M; Torres, M A P; Roberts, T P; Walton, D J; Moon, D -S; Stern, D; Harrison, F A

    2016-01-01

    We present H-band spectra of the candidate counterparts of five ULXs (two in NGC 925, two in NGC 4136, and Holmberg II X-1) obtained with Keck/MOSFIRE. The candidate counterparts of two ULXs (J022721+333500 in NGC 925 and J120922+295559 in NGC 4136) have spectra consistent with (M-type) red supergiants (RSGs). We obtained two epochs of spectroscopy of the candidate counterpart to J022721+333500, separated by 10 months, but discovered no radial velocity variations with a 2-$\\sigma$ upper limit of 40 km/s. If the RSG is the donor star of the ULX, the most likely options are that either the system is seen at low inclination (< 40$^\\circ$), or the black hole mass is less than 100 M$_\\odot$, unless the orbital period is longer than 6 years, in which case the obtained limit is not constraining. The spectrum of the counterpart to J120922+295559 shows emission lines on top of its stellar spectrum, and the remaining three counterparts do not show absorption lines that can be associated with the atmosphere of a star...

  5. The Keck Aperture Masking Experiment: Dust Enshrouded Red Giants

    CERN Document Server

    Blasius, T D; Tuthill, P G; Danchi, W C; Anderson, M

    2012-01-01

    While the importance of dusty asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars to galactic chemical enrichment is widely recognised, a sophisticated understanding of the dust formation and wind-driving mechanisms has proven elusive due in part to the difficulty in spatially-resolving the dust formation regions themselves. We have observed twenty dust-enshrouded AGB stars as part of the Keck Aperture Masking Experiment, resolving all of them in multiple near-infrared bands between 1.5 microns and 3.1 microns. We find 45% of the targets to show measurable elongations that, when correcting for the greater distances of the targets, would correspond to significantly asymmetric dust shells on par with the well-known cases of IRC+10216 or CIT6. Using radiative transfer models, we find the sublimation temperature of 1130 +- 90 K and 1170 +- 60 K for silicates and amorphous carbon respectively, both somewhat lower than expected from laboratory measurements and vastly below temperatures inferred from the inner edge of YSO disks. Th...

  6. A Search for Optical Laser Emission Using Keck HIRES

    CERN Document Server

    Tellis, Nathaniel K

    2015-01-01

    We present a search for laser emission coming from point sources in the vicinity of 2796 stars, including 1368 Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs) that host one or more exoplanets. We search for extremely narrow emission lines in the wavelength region between 3640 and 7890 Angstroms using the Keck 10-meter telescope and spectroscopy with high resolution ($\\lambda/\\Delta \\lambda$ = 60,000). Laser emission lines coming from non-natural sources are distinguished from natural astrophysical sources by being monochromatic and coming from an unresolved point in space. We search for laser emission located 2-7 arcsec from the 2796 target stars. The detectability of laser emission is limited by Poisson statistics of the photons and scattered light, yielding a detection threshold flux of approximately $10^{-2}$ photons $m^{-2} s^{-1}$ for typical Kepler stars and 1 photon $m^{-2} s^{-1}$ for solar-type stars within 100 light-years. Diffraction-limited lasers having a 10-meter aperture can be detected from 100 light-years ...

  7. Illuminating Free-floating Planet Demographics with Keck AO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Calen B.

    2017-01-01

    The frequency and mass function of free-floating planets (FFPs) are unknown. Gravitational microlensing is able to explore the demographics of FFPs, which are identifiable as short-timescale microlensing events, lasting of-order 1 day for Jupiter-mass planets. In 2011, the MOA ground-based microlensing survey group announced the discovery of an excess of short-timescale microlensing events over what was expected from Galactic models that incorporate stellar densities and kinematics. They account for this excess by positing a population of Jupiter-mass FFPs that outnumbers stars by a ratio of nearly 2:1. However, there are several other possible astrophysical explanations for short-timescale microlensing events, including bound planets on wide orbits and high-velocity stars. Although the specific events identified by MOA lack mass measurements, high-resolution imaging can determine whether the lens systems are luminous, which would exclude the FFP conclusion through proof by contradiction. We have taken H-band adaptive optics (AO) observations of the MOA FFP candidates using NIRC2 on Keck II in order to test this result. Here I will present preliminary results from these AO observations, which will help inform our understanding of the demographics of FFPs.

  8. The Inner Kiloparsec of Mrk 273 with Keck Adaptive Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Vivian, U; Sanders, David; Max, Claire; Armus, Lee; Iwasawa, Kazushi; Evans, Aaron; Kewley, Lisa; Fazio, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    There is X-ray, optical, and mid-infrared imaging and spectroscopic evidence that the late-stage ultraluminous infrared galaxy merger Mrk 273 hosts a powerful active galactic nucleus (AGN). However, the exact location of the AGN and the nature of the nuclei have been difficult to determine due to dust obscuration and the limited wavelength coverage of available high-resolution data. Here we present near-infrared integral-field spectra and images of the nuclear region of Mrk 273 taken with OSIRIS and NIRC2 on the Keck II Telescope with laser guide star adaptive optics. We observe three spatially resolved components, and analyze the local molecular and ionized gas emission lines and their kinematics. We confirm the presence of the hard X-ray AGN in the southwest nucleus. In the north nucleus, we find a strongly rotating gas disk whose kinematics indicate a central black hole of mass 1.04 +/- 0.1 x 10^9 Msun. The H2 emission line shows an increase in velocity dispersion along the minor axis in both directions, a...

  9. Refining Mass Measurements of Kepler Planets with Keck/HIRES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacson, Howard T.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Howard, Andrew

    2015-12-01

    We present improved radial velocity mass measurements from Keck/HIRES for exoplanets detected by NASA’s Kepler Mission. Since Kepler’s launch 6 years ago, ~30 planetary systems have been monitored with radial velocities, resulting in measured masses for many planets between 1.0 and 4.0 Earth radii. The resulting planet masses have been used to determine the transition between planets with a rocky interior and those with a lower density interior which requiring significant H/He atmospheres. We provide updated masses and densities for those planets published in Marcy et al (2014) based on two additional observing seasons with HIRES of the Kepler field. These radial velocities also reveal non-transiting planets in systems with previously found transiting planets. One such system has a non-transiting planet with a period between two transiting planets, providing a constraint on the co-planarity of the system. Finally, we provide an updated mass-radius relation, showing the distinction between planets that must have a substantial iron-silicate interior, and those requiring significant contributions from volatiles such as hydrogen and helium.

  10. Keck Adaptive Optics Observations of TW Hydrae Association Members

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macintosh, B; Max, C; Zuckerman, B; Becklin, E E; Kaisler, D; Lowrance, P; Weinberger, A; Chirstou, J; Schneider, G; Acton, S

    2001-05-30

    Adaptive optics (AO) on 8-10 m telescopes is an enormously powerful tool for studying young nearby stars. It is especially useful for searching for companions. Using AO on the 10-m W.M. Keck II telescope we have measured the position of the brown dwarf companion to TWA5 and resolved the primary into an 0.055{double_prime} double. Over the next several years follow-up astrometry should permit an accurate determination of the masses of these young stars. We have also re-observed the candidate extrasolar planet TWAGB, but measurements of its motion relative to TWA6A are inconclusive. We are carrying out a search for new planetary or brown dwarf companions to TWA stars and, if current giant planet models are correct, are currently capable of detecting a 1 Jupiter-mass companion at {approx} 1.0{double_prime} and a 5 Jupiter-mass companion at {approx} 0.5{double_prime} around a typical TWA member.

  11. Keck observations of eruptions on Io in 2003-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pater, Imke; Davies, Ashley Gerard; Marchis, Franck

    2016-08-01

    We report observations of four energetic volcanic eruptions on Io: at Tupan Patera on UT 8 March 2003; Tung Yo Patera on UT 28 May 2004; Sui Jen Patera on UT 30 May 2004; and south of Babbar Patera on UT 31 May 2005. The Tung Yo, Sui Jen and south of Babbar Paterae eruptions are in locations where no activity had been seen before. Our observations were obtained at near-infrared wavelengths (1.2-4.7 μm) with the 10-m Keck telescope equipped with adaptive optics. We report single and two-temperature blackbody fits, as well as single-component and dual-component Io Flow Model (IFM) fits (Davies, 1996, Icarus, 124, 45-61) to all four eruptions where applicable. We use 2-μm and 5-μm radiant fluxes, the 2:5-μm radiant flux ratio, and radiant flux density of each thermal source to constrain the likely style of volcanic eruption. All eruptions are characterized by a high temperature IFM component (ranging from 1475 to ∼900 K) from a relatively small area (floor of the patera may have been resurfaced with silicate lava in 2003.

  12. Verifying Real-time Commit Protocols Using Dense-time Model Checking Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Bataineh, Omar I; French, Tim; Woodings, Terry

    2012-01-01

    The timed-based automata model, introduced by Alur and Dill, provides a useful formalism for describing real-time systems. Over the last two decades, several dense-time model checking tools have been developed based on that model. The paper considers the verification of real-time distributed commit protocols using dense-time model checking technology. More precisely, we model and verify the well-known timed two phase commit protocol in three different state-of-the-art real-time model checkers: UPPAAL, Rabbit, and RED, and compare the results.

  13. Development of a state machine sequencer for the Keck Interferometer: evolution, development, and lessons learned using a CASE tool approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reder, Leonard J.; Booth, Andrew; Hsieh, Jonathan; Summers, Kellee R.

    2004-09-01

    This paper presents a discussion of the evolution of a sequencer from a simple Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) based sequencer into a complex implementation designed utilizing UML (Unified Modeling Language) methodologies and a Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE) tool approach. The main purpose of the Interferometer Sequencer (called the IF Sequencer) is to provide overall control of the Keck Interferometer to enable science operations to be carried out by a single operator (and/or observer). The interferometer links the two 10m telescopes of the W. M. Keck Observatory at Mauna Kea, Hawaii. The IF Sequencer is a high-level, multi-threaded, Harel finite state machine software program designed to orchestrate several lower-level hardware and software hard real-time subsystems that must perform their work in a specific and sequential order. The sequencing need not be done in hard real-time. Each state machine thread commands either a high-speed real-time multiple mode embedded controller via CORBA, or slower controllers via EPICS Channel Access interfaces. The overall operation of the system is simplified by the automation. The UML is discussed and our use of it to implement the sequencer is presented. The decision to use the Rhapsody product as our CASE tool is explained and reflected upon. Most importantly, a section on lessons learned is presented and the difficulty of integrating CASE tool automatically generated C++ code into a large control system consisting of multiple infrastructures is presented.

  14. Development of a State Machine Sequencer for the Keck Interferometer: Evolution, Development and Lessons Learned using a CASE Tool Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rede, Leonard J.; Booth, Andrew; Hsieh, Jonathon; Summer, Kellee

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a discussion of the evolution of a sequencer from a simple EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System) based sequencer into a complex implementation designed utilizing UML (Unified Modeling Language) methodologies and a CASE (Computer Aided Software Engineering) tool approach. The main purpose of the sequencer (called the IF Sequencer) is to provide overall control of the Keck Interferometer to enable science operations be carried out by a single operator (and/or observer). The interferometer links the two 10m telescopes of the W. M. Keck Observatory at Mauna Kea, Hawaii. The IF Sequencer is a high-level, multi-threaded, Hare1 finite state machine, software program designed to orchestrate several lower-level hardware and software hard real time subsystems that must perform their work in a specific and sequential order. The sequencing need not be done in hard real-time. Each state machine thread commands either a high-speed real-time multiple mode embedded controller via CORB A, or slower controllers via EPICS Channel Access interfaces. The overall operation of the system is simplified by the automation. The UML is discussed and our use of it to implement the sequencer is presented. The decision to use the Rhapsody product as our CASE tool is explained and reflected upon. Most importantly, a section on lessons learned is presented and the difficulty of integrating CASE tool automatically generated C++ code into a large control system consisting of multiple infrastructures is presented.

  15. Planetary Magnetic Fields: Planetary Interiors and Habitability W. M. Keck Institute for Space Studies Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazio, T. Joseph; Shkolnik, Evgenya; Hallinan, Gregg

    2017-05-01

    The W. M. Keck Institute for Space Studies (KISS) sponsored the "Planetary Magnetic Fields: Planetary Interiors and Habitability" study to review the state of knowledge of extrasolar planetary magnetic fields and the prospects for their detection.There were multiple motivations for this Study. Planetary-scale magnetic fields are a window to a planet's interior and provide shielding of the planet's atmosphere. The Earth, Mercury, Ganymede, and the giant planets of the solar system all contain internal dynamo currents that generate planetary-scale magnetic fields. In turn, these internal dynamo currents arise from differential rotation, convection, compositional dynamics, or a combination of these in objects' interiors. If coupled to an energy source, such as the incident kinetic or magnetic energy from the solar wind or an orbiting satellite, a planet's magnetic field can produce intense electron cyclotron masers in its magnetic polar regions. The most well known example of this process in the solar system is the Jovian decametric emission, but all of the giant planets and the Earth contain similar electron cyclotron masers within their magnetospheres. Extrapolated to extrasolar planets, the remote detection of the magnetic field of an extrasolar planet would provide a means of obtaining constraints on the thermal state, composition, and dynamics of its interior--all of which will be difficult to determine by other means--as well as improved understanding of the basic planetary dynamo process.We review the findings from the Study, including potential mission concepts that emerged and recent developments toward one of the mission concepts, a space-based radio wavelength array. There was an identification of that radio wavelength observations would likely be key to making significant progress in this field.We acknowledge ideas and advice from the participants in the "Planetary Magnetic Fields: Planetary Interiors and Habitability" study organized by the W. M. Keck

  16. Reduction of Milling Time by Using CAQ Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaujec Rudolf

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on reducing machining time by using 3D optical scanner of ATOS Triplescan II. Workpiece was a forging die, which was renovated by hard facing. The contribution deals with comparing the CAM simulation of roughing process according to the STL model imported from ATOS, and simulation without thus-defined workpiece. The results indicate a significant improvement of machining time based on CAQ technology and usage of the ATOS device for measuring the errors of weld deposit.

  17. Basic technology development of a real-time graphic simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Jae Wook; Hong, Soon Hyuk; Lee, Kyung Hoon; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Hee Sub [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    In this research, we developed the basic technology of a Real-time graphic simulator for remote monitoring in hostile environment, the Spent Fuel Disassembling facility. The use of a real-time graphic simulator is very useful for building virtual workcell and simulating the virtual devices to preview the behavior of real devices in order to reduce the error in design step of devices and to evaluate and optimize the work processes. And also, it can be used to provide the visualization of operation information from working devices to ensure the reliable monitoring in the teleoperation system. Thus, the development of basic technology related to these is needed. In this system, because the Spent Fuel Disassembling facility should be managed in remote environment due to its characteristics, the transmission of operational information through the network should be used. And for real-time monitoring, the real-time visualization of operational information from real system should be available. Therefore, we defined the efficient message protocol format for real-time transmission of operational information to visualize these in the 3D graphic simulator. 14 refs., 44 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  18. The Real time Monitoring Of Technological Processes based on www technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roškanin Martin

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The contribution deals with the possibilities of acquisition information of technological process development in the real time. The ways and methods of representation of this information on client site in the www page form are discussed. The application of one of this method is illustrated.

  19. First faint dual-field phase-referenced observations on the Keck interferometer

    CERN Document Server

    Woillez, Julien; Akeson, Rachel; Colavita, Mark; Eisner, Josh; Millan-Gabet, Rafael; Monnier, John; Pott, Jorg-Uwe; Ragland, Sam; Appleby, Eric; Cooper, Andrew; Felizardo, Claude; Herstein, Jennifer; Martin, Olivier; Medeiros, Drew; Morrison, Douglas; Panteleeva, Tatyana; Smith, Brett; Summers, Kellee; Tsubota, Kevin; Tyau, Colette; Wetherell, Ed

    2012-01-01

    Ground-based long baseline interferometers have long been limited in sensitivity by the short integration periods imposed by atmospheric turbulence. The first observation fainter than this limit was performed on January 22, 2011 when the Keck Interferometer observed a K=11.5 target, about one magnitude fainter than its K=10.3 limit. This observation was made possible by the Dual Field Phase Referencing instrument of the ASTRA project: simultaneously measuring the real-time effects of the atmosphere on a nearby bright guide star, and correcting for it on the faint target, integration time longer than the turbulence time scale are made possible. As a prelude to this demonstration, we first present the implementation of Dual Field Phase Referencing on the interferometer. We then detail its on-sky performance focusing on the accuracy of the turbulence correction, and on the resulting fringe contrast stability. We conclude with a presentation of early results obtained with Laser Guide Star AO and the interferomete...

  20. A Study on the Timing Technology of Digital Satellite TV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, K. X.

    2013-03-01

    Based on analyzing and summarizing the modern timing technologies, through intensive analyzing the characteristics of the current digital satellite TV signals, and without changing equipment configuration of the digital satellite TV transmitter and signal system, this thesis puts forward the method of using the digital TV signal to transmit the standard time and frequency, and carries out the relevant researches on the key technologies. Meanwhile, we make experiments on the digital satellite TV timing system, which are based on the proposed timing method. Through analyzing the test data, the timing method is proved practicable and with a high precision. The main research work is as follows: (1) Firstly, we summarize the necessary conditions and key elements required for timing by analyzing the characteristics of modern timing methods, and analyze China’s digital satellite TV signal system; Secondly, we propose the idea that the inherent flag bit of source coding signals of TV is used to trigger event of timing and then complete this task; Thirdly, we propose the principle of transmitting the standard time and frequency through digital satellite TV signal, analyze the error sources which affect the accuracy of timing, and find the ways to reduce the error effect. (2) Synchronization clock signal is recovered from asynchronous serial interface (ASI) data to achieve bit synchronization, so that the transmitter can accurately access to the high-precision standard time code. At the same time, the TV signal transmission delay on the transmission channel is accurately measured in order to supply the necessary information for timing. Based on the analysis of the ASI data transmission characteristics and transmission standards, a method using over-sampling to recover the ASI clock signal and synchronize the digital TV signal source coding is proposed in this paper. This method is proved effective by the implementation on the FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array). (3) Using

  1. Overcoming Learning Time And Space Constraints Through Technological Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiseh Zarei

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Today the use of technological tools has become an evolution in language learning and language acquisition. Many instructors and lecturers believe that integrating Web-based learning tools into language courses allows pupils to become active learners during learning process. This study investigate how the Learning Management Blog (LMB overcomes the learning time and space constraints that contribute to students’ language learning and language acquisition processes. The participants were 30 ESL students at National University of Malaysia. A qualitative approach comprising an open-ended questionnaire and a semi-structured interview was used to collect data. The results of the study revealed that the students’ language learning and acquisition processes were enhanced. The students did not face any learning time and space limitations while being engaged in the learning process via the LMB. They learned and acquired knowledge using the language learning materials and forum at anytime and anywhere. Keywords: learning time, learning space, learning management blog

  2. Orbital structure of the GJ876 extrasolar planetary system, based on the latest Keck and HARPS radial velocity data

    CERN Document Server

    Baluev, Roman V

    2011-01-01

    We use full available array of radial velocity data, including recently published HARPS and Keck observatory sets, to characterize the orbital configuration of the planetary system orbiting GJ876. First, we propose and describe in detail a fast method to fit perturbed orbital configuration, based on the integration of the sensitivity equations inferred by the equations of the original $N$-body problem. Further, we find that it is unsatisfactory to treat the available radial velocity data for GJ876 in the traditional white noise model, because the actual noise appears autocorrelated (and demonstrates non-white frequency spectrum). The time scale of this correlation is about a few days, and the contribution of the correlated noise is about 2 m/s (i.e., similar to the level of internal errors in the Keck data). We propose a variation of the maximum-likelihood algorithm to estimate the orbital configuration of the system, taking into account the red noise effects. We show, in particular, that the non-zero orbital...

  3. Berkeley Sensor Database, an Implementation of CUAHSI's ODM for the Keck HydroWatch Wireless Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogle, G.; Bode, C.; Fung, I.

    2010-12-01

    The Keck HydroWatch Project is a multidisciplinary project devoted to understanding how water interacts with atmosphere, vegetation, soil, and fractured bedrock. It is experimenting with novel techniques to monitor and trace water pathways through these mediums, including developing an intensive wireless sensor network, in the Angelo Coast Range and Sagehen Reserves in California. The sensor time-series data is being supplemented with periodic campaigns experimenting with sampling and tracing techniques, including water chemistry, stable isotope analysis, electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), and neutron probes. Mechanistic and statistical modeling is being performed with these datasets. One goal of the HydroWatch project is to prototype technologies for intensive sampling that can be upscaled to the watershed scale. The Berkeley Sensor Database was designed to manage the large volumes of heterogeneous data coming from this sensor network. This system is based on the Observations Data Model (ODM) developed by the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc. (CUAHSI). Due to need for the use of open-source software, UC Berkeley ported the ODM to a LAMP system (Linux, Apache, MySQL, Perl). As of August 2010, the Berkeley Sensor Database contains 33 million measurements from 1200 devices, with several thousand new measurements being added each hour. Data for this research is being collected from a wide variety of equipment. Some of this equipment is experimental and subject to constant modification, others are industry standards. Well pressure transducers, sap flow sensors, experimental microclimate motes, standard weather stations, and multiple rock and soil moisture sensors are some examples. While the Hydrologic Information System (HIS) and the ODM are optimized for data interoperability, they are not focused on facility management and data quality control which occur at a complex research site. In this presentation, we describe our

  4. Real Time Technology Application Demonstration Project Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volpe, John [Univ of KY, Center for Applied Energy Research, Kentucky Research Consortium for Energy and Environment; Hampson, Steve [Univ of KY, Center for Applied Energy Research, Kentucky Research Consortium for Energy and Environment; Johnson, Robert L [Argonne National Lab, Environmental Science Div.

    2008-09-01

    The work and results described in this final report pertain to the demonstration of real-time characterization technologies applied to potentially contaminated surface soils in and around Area of Concern (AOC) 492 at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). The work was conducted under the auspices of Kentucky Research Consortium for Energy and Environment (KRCEE). KRCEE was created to support the Department of Energy's (DOE) efforts to complete the expeditious and economically viable environmental restoration of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), the Western Kentucky Wildlife Management Area (WKWMA), and surrounding areas.

  5. Embedded Web Technology: Internet Technology Applied to Real-Time System Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniele, Carl J.

    1998-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center is developing software tools to bridge the gap between the traditionally non-real-time Internet technology and the real-time, embedded-controls environment for space applications. Internet technology has been expanding at a phenomenal rate. The simple World Wide Web browsers (such as earlier versions of Netscape, Mosaic, and Internet Explorer) that resided on personal computers just a few years ago only enabled users to log into and view a remote computer site. With current browsers, users not only view but also interact with remote sites. In addition, the technology now supports numerous computer platforms (PC's, MAC's, and Unix platforms), thereby providing platform independence.In contrast, the development of software to interact with a microprocessor (embedded controller) that is used to monitor and control a space experiment has generally been a unique development effort. For each experiment, a specific graphical user interface (GUI) has been developed. This procedure works well for a single-user environment. However, the interface for the International Space Station (ISS) Fluids and Combustion Facility will have to enable scientists throughout the world and astronauts onboard the ISS, using different computer platforms, to interact with their experiments in the Fluids and Combustion Facility. Developing a specific GUI for all these users would be cost prohibitive. An innovative solution to this requirement, developed at Lewis, is to use Internet technology, where the general problem of platform independence has already been partially solved, and to leverage this expanding technology as new products are developed. This approach led to the development of the Embedded Web Technology (EWT) program at Lewis, which has the potential to significantly reduce software development costs for both flight and ground software.

  6. The Inner Kiloparsec of Mrk 273 with Keck Adaptive Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    U, Vivian; Medling, Anne; Sanders, David; Max, Claire; Armus, Lee; Iwasawa, Kazushi; Evans, Aaron; Kewley, Lisa; Fazio, Giovanni

    2013-10-01

    There is X-ray, optical, and mid-infrared imaging and spectroscopic evidence that the late-stage ultraluminous infrared galaxy merger Mrk 273 hosts a powerful active galactic nucleus (AGN). However, the exact location of the AGN and the nature of the nucleus have been difficult to determine due to dust obscuration and the limited wavelength coverage of available high-resolution data. Here we present near-infrared integral-field spectra and images of the nuclear region of Mrk 273 taken with OSIRIS and NIRC2 on the Keck II Telescope with laser guide star adaptive optics. We observe three spatially resolved components, and analyze the nuclear molecular and ionized gas emission lines and their kinematics. We confirm the presence of the hard X-ray AGN in the southwest nucleus. In the north nucleus, we find a strongly rotating gas disk whose kinematics indicate a central black hole of mass 1.04 ± 0.1 × 109 M ⊙. The H2 emission line shows an increase in velocity dispersion along the minor axis in both directions, and an increased flux with negative velocities in the southeast direction; this provides direct evidence for a collimated molecular outflow along the axis of rotation of the disk. The third spatially distinct component appears to the southeast, 640 and 750 pc from the north and southwest nuclei, respectively. This component is faint in continuum emission but shows several strong emission line features, including [Si VI] 1.964 μm which traces an extended coronal-line region. The geometry of the [Si VI] emission combined with shock models and energy arguments suggest that [Si VI] in the southeast component must be at least partly ionized by the SW AGN or a putative AGN in the northern disk, either through photoionization or through shock-heating from strong AGN- and circumnuclear-starburst-driven outflows. This lends support to a scenario in which Mrk 273 may be a dual AGN system.

  7. Sizes of main-belt asteroids by combining shape models and Keck adaptive aptics observations

    CERN Document Server

    Hanuš, J; Ďurech, J

    2013-01-01

    We select 50 main-belt asteroids with a diameter between 20 and 400 km for which we have (i) shape models derived by the lightcurve inversion method (LI) and (ii) resolved observations of good quality collected with the Keck II adaptive optics (AO) system in the near-infrared. We derive the size of these asteroids by minimizing the difference between the contours from deconvolved AO images and the projected silhouettes calculated from the shape model at the time of the AO observations. We compute the volume-equivalent diameters for 48 of these asteroids. For 15 of them, we remove the ambiguity of the pole orientation typical for shape models derived by the LI. We have found that our equivalent diameters are smaller by 3%, 7%, and 2% compared with the effective diameters derived from mid-IR photometric observations provided by IRAS, WISE and AKARI. For 40 asteroids with previously determined mass estimates, we compute their bulk densities and discuss the mass-density dependence with respect to taxonomic types.

  8. Status and new developments with the Keck I near-infrared tip-tilt sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Femenía Castellá, Bruno; Wizinowich, Peter; Rampy, Rachel; Cetre, Sylvain; Lilley, Scott; Lyke, Jim; Ragland, Sam; Stomski, Paul; van Dam, Marcos

    2016-07-01

    The sky coverage and performance of Laser Guide Star (LGS) adaptive optics (AO) systems is limited by the Natural Guide Star (NGS) used for low order correction (tip-tilt and defocus modes). This limitation can be reduced by measuring image motion of the NGS in the near-infrared where it is partially corrected by the LGS AO system and where stars are generally several magnitudes brighter than at visible wavelengths. We have integrated a Near-InfraRed Tip-Tilt Sensor (NIRTTS) with the Keck I telescopes LGS AO system. The sensor is a H2RG-based near-infrared camera with 0.05 arcsecond pixels. Low noise at high sample rates is achieved by only reading a small region of interest, from 2x2 to 16x16 pixels, centered on an NGS anywhere in an 100 arc second diameter field. The sensor operates at either Ks or H-band using light reflected by a choice of dichroic beam-splitters located in front of the OSIRIS integral field spectrograph. The implementation of the NIRTTS involved modifications to the AO bench, real-time control system, higher-level controls and operations software. NIRTTS is nearly ready for science operation in shared-risk mode. We are also implementing a number of enhancements to the NIRTTS system which involve substantial changes to the operations software. This work presents an update of the work performed since the NIRTTS system was reported in Ref. 1 and Ref. 2.

  9. Confirmation of transiting Neptunes from HATNet and HATSouth using Keck/HIRES and Subaru/HDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakos, Gaspar; Hartman, Joel D.; Bayliss, Daniel; Jordan, Andres; Sato, Bun'ei

    2014-02-01

    Wide-field photometric observations by the HATNet and HATSouth projects have identified ~ 1700 candidate transiting exoplanets (TEPs) around moderately bright stars (V ⪉ 14), leading to the publication of 49 TEPs, with many more confirmed planets undergoing analysis. Among the objects that we have identified are nine promising candidate transiting Neptunes. Only a handful of well- characterized Neptunes are known, and fewer still are known around bright stars, so it is imperative to confirm and characterize these candidates. Here we are proposing for 2 nights each on Keck/HIRES and Subaru/HDS (4 nights altogether) to confirm 6 of these candidate Neptunes. These are around moderately bright stars (V ≲ 13) and most have prior follow-up observations, including moderately high- precision RVs which place upper limits on the RV semiamplitudes ruling out hot Jupiters. If confirmed, these planets would represent a substantial increase in the number of well characterized Neptune-size planets with masses and radii measured to better than ~ 20% precision, and orbiting stars bright enough to permit further follow-up. We note that the HATSouth project is an equal collaboration between researchers in the US, Chile and Australia. For the Subaru/HDS component of this proposal, we request that the time allocation be split evenly between the NOAO, Chilean and Australian Gemini TACs.

  10. Deep Impact High Resolution Optical Spectroscopy with the ESO VLT and the Keck 1 telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Jehin, E; Cochran, A L; Hutsemékers, D; Jackson, W M; Manfroid, J; Rauer, H; Schulz, R; Zucconi, J M

    2006-01-01

    We report on observations of comet 9P/Tempel 1 carried out before, during, and after the NASA DEEP IMPACT event (UT July 4), with the optical spectrometers UVES and HIRES mounted on the telescopes Kueyen of the ESO VLT (Chile) and Keck 1 on Mauna Kea (Hawaii), respectively. A total observing time of about 60 hours, distributed over 15 nights around the impact date, allowed us (i) to find a periodic variation of 1.709 +/- 0.009 day in the CN and NH flux, explained by the presence of two major active regions; (ii) to derive a lifetime > ~ 5 x 10^4 s for the parent of the CN radical from a simple modeling of the CN light curve after the impact; (iii) to follow the gas and dust spatial profiles evolution during the 4 hours following the impact and derive the projected velocities (400 m/s and 150 m/s respectively); (iv) to show that the material released by the impact has the same carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition as the surface material (12C/13C = 95 +/- 15 and 14N/15N = 145 +/- 20).

  11. Hubble and Keck Telescope Observations of Active Asteroid 288P/300163 (2006 VW139)

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, Jessica; Weaver, Harold; Mutchler, Max; Larson, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope and Keck 10 meter telescope observations of active asteroid 288P/300163 (2006 VW139) taken to examine ejected dust. The nucleus is a C-type object with absolute magnitude $H_V$ = 17.0$\\pm$0.1 and estimated diameter $\\sim$2.6 km (for assumed visual geometric albedo $p_V$ = 0.04). Variations in the brightness of the nucleus at the 10% to 15% level are significant in both 2011 December and 2012 October but we possess too few data to distinguish variations caused by activity from those caused by rotation. The dust scattering cross-section in 2011 December is $\\sim$40 km$^2$, corresponding to a dust mass $\\sim$9$\\times$10$^6$ kg (88 $\\mu$m mean particle radius assumed). The full width at half maximum of the debris sheet varies from $\\sim$100 km near the nucleus to $\\sim$1000 km 30arcsec (40,000 km) east of it. Dust dynamical models indicate ejection speeds between 0.06 and 0.3 m s$^{-1}$, particle sizes between 10 and 300 $\\mu$m and an inverse square-root relation between particle...

  12. Keck Adaptive Optics Imaging of Nearby Young Stars: Detection of Close Multiple Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brandeker, A; Najita, J R; Brandeker, Alexis; Jayawardhana, Ray; Najita, Joan

    2003-01-01

    Using adaptive optics on the Keck II 10-meter telescope on Mauna Kea, we have surveyed 24 of the nearest young stars known in search of close companions. Our sample includes members of the MBM 12 and TW Hydrae young associations and the classical T Tauri binary UY Aurigae in the Taurus star-forming region. We present relative photometry and accurate astrometry for 10 close multiple systems. The multiplicity frequency in the TW Hydrae and MBM 12 groups are high in comparison to other young regions, though the significance of this result is low because of the small number statistics. We resolve S 18 into a triple system including a tight 63 mas (projected separation of 17 AU at a distance of 275 pc) binary for the first time, with a hierarchical configuration reminiscent of VW Chamaeleontis and T Tauri. Another tight binary in our sample -- TWA 5Aab (54 mas or 3 AU at 55 pc) -- offers the prospect of dynamical mass measurement using astrometric observations within a few years, and thus could be important for te...

  13. Estimating phase errors from pupil discontinuities from simulated on sky data: examples with VLT and Keck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Masen; Correia, Carlos; Sauvage, Jean-François; Véran, Jean-Pierre; Andersen, David; Vigan, Arthur; Wizinowich, Peter; van Dam, Marcos; Mugnier, Laurent; Bond, Charlotte

    2016-07-01

    We propose and apply two methods for estimating phase discontinuities for two realistic scenarios on VLT and Keck. The methods use both phase diversity and a form of image sharpening. For the case of VLT, we simulate the `low wind effect' (LWE) which is responsible for focal plane errors in low wind and good seeing conditions. We successfully estimate the LWE using both methods, and show that using both methods both independently and together yields promising results. We also show the use of single image phase diversity in the LWE estimation, and show that it too yields promising results. Finally, we simulate segmented piston effects on Keck/NIRC2 images and successfully recover the induced phase errors using single image phase diversity. We also show that on Keck we can estimate both the segmented piston errors and any Zernike modes affiliated with the non-common path.

  14. Sustainable Technologies: Finding Success the Second Time Around

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walkowicz, Kevin

    2016-03-03

    Presentation provides background on how to identify and quantify improvements for advanced vehicle technology and commercial fleet operations. It gives examples of next generation technology improvements that have been implemented within commercial fleets.

  15. The Time Is Now! Creating Technology Competencies for Teacher Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulger, Teresa S.; Graziano, Kevin J.; Slykhuis, David; Schmidt-Crawford, Denise; Trust, Torrey

    2016-01-01

    The way preservice teachers learn to use technology within their practice varies widely depending on the learning opportunities available (e.g., technology-infused teacher preparation program vs. standalone education technology course), and the knowledge, skills, and attitudes of the teacher educators within their teacher preparation programs.…

  16. The Optimal Timing of Adoption of a Green Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha-e-Sa, M.A.; Reis, A.B. [Faculdade de Economia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Campus de Campolide, P-1099-032 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2007-01-15

    We study the optimal timing of adoption of a cleaner technology and its effects on the rate of growth of an economy in the context of an AK endogenous growth model. We show that the results depend upon the behavior of the marginal utility of environmental quality with respect to consumption. When it is increasing, we derive the capital level at the optimal timing of adoption. We show that this capital threshold is independent of the initial conditions on the stock of capital, implying that capital-poor countries tend to take longer to adopt. Also, country-specific characteristics, as the existence of high barriers to adoption, may lead to different capital thresholds for different countries. If the marginal utility of environmental quality decreases with consumption, a country should never delay adoption; the optimal policy is either to adopt immediately or, if adoption costs are {sup t}oo high{sup ,} to never adopt. The policy implications of these results are discussed in the context of the international debate surrounding the environmental political agenda.

  17. Technological progress and regress in pre-industrial times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aiyar, Shekhar; Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Moav, Omer

    2008-01-01

    This paper offers micro-foundations for the dynamic relationship between technology and population in the pre-industrial world, accounting for both technological progress and the hitherto neglected but common phenomenon of technological regress. A positive feedback between population...... and the adoption of new techniques that increase the division of labor explains technological progress. A transient shock to productivity or population induces the neglect of some techniques rendered temporarily unprofitable, which are therefore not transmitted to the next generation. Productivity remains...... constrained by the smaller stock of knowledge and technology has thereby regressed. A slow process of rediscovery is required for the economy to reach its previous level of technological sophistication and population size. The model is employed to analyze specific historical examples of technological regress...

  18. Keck telescope constraint on cosmological variation of the proton-to-electron mass ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malec, A.L.; Buning, R.; Murphy, M.T.; Milutinovic, N.; Ellison, S.L.; Prochaska, J.X.; Kaper, L.; Tumlinson, J.; Carswell, R.F.; Ubachs, W.

    2010-01-01

    Molecular transitions recently discovered at redshift z(abs) = 2.059 towards the bright background quasar J2123-0050 are analysed to limit cosmological variation in the proton-to-electron mass ratio, mu equivalent to m(p)/m(e). Observed with the Keck telescope, the optical echelle spectrum has the h

  19. Novel Advancements in Internet-Based Real Time Data Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Gerry; Welch, Clara L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    AZ Technology has been working with MSFC Ground Systems Department to find ways to make it easier for remote experimenters (RPI's) to monitor their International Space Station (ISS) payloads in real-time from anywhere using standard/familiar devices. AZ Technology was awarded an SBIR Phase I grant to research the technologies behind and advancements of distributing live ISS data across the Internet. That research resulted in a product called "EZStream" which is in use on several ISS-related projects. Although the initial implementation is geared toward ISS, the architecture and lessons learned are applicable to other space-related programs. This paper presents the high-level architecture and components that make up EZStream. A combination of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) and custom components were used and their interaction will be discussed. The server is powered by Apache's Jakarta-Tomcat web server/servlet engine. User accounts are maintained in a My SQL database. Both Tomcat and MySQL are Open Source products. When used for ISS, EZStream pulls the live data directly from NASA's Telescience Resource Kit (TReK) API. TReK parses the ISS data stream into individual measurement parameters and performs on-the- fly engineering unit conversion and range checking before passing the data to EZStream for distribution. TReK is provided by NASA at no charge to ISS experimenters. By using a combination of well established Open Source, NASA-supplied. and AZ Technology-developed components, operations using EZStream are robust and economical. Security over the Internet is a major concern on most space programs. This paper describes how EZStream provides for secure connection to and transmission of space- related data over the public Internet. Display pages that show sensitive data can be placed under access control by EZStream. Users are required to login before being allowed to pull up those web pages. To enhance security, the EZStream client/server data transmissions can

  20. Time-on-task, technology and mathematics achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louw, Johann; Muller, Johan; Tredoux, Colin

    2008-02-01

    Information and communication technologies hold much promise for use in education in developing countries. This study reports on an evaluation conducted on the introduction of computers in the delivery of the mathematics curriculum in one of the provinces of South Africa. Although the request was for an outcome evaluation very early in the implementation of the program, it was tailored in such a way as to fulfill a more formative role. Despite substantial variability in implementation, and in most cases with very weak exposure of the learners to the intervention, sufficient evidence emerged to indicate that this mode of curriculum delivery may be effective. Improvement in mathematics performance was related to a range of variables: some concerned classroom teaching practices, some referred to social differences between the learners, and some to the specific intervention. The strongest of these predictors in the sample was the strength of the intervention: the more time learners spent on using the software to study mathematics, the more improvement they showed from 1 year to the next in their performance in the subject.

  1. A case study in adaptable and reusable infrastructure at the Keck Observatory Archive: VO interfaces, moving targets, and more

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berriman, G. Bruce; Cohen, Richard W.; Colson, Andrew; Gelino, Christopher R.; Good, John C.; Kong, Mihseh; Laity, Anastasia C.; Mader, Jeffrey A.; Swain, Melanie A.; Tran, Hien D.; Wang, Shin-Ywan

    2016-08-01

    The Keck Observatory Archive (KOA) (https://koa.ipac.caltech.edu) curates all observations acquired at the W. M. Keck Observatory (WMKO) since it began operations in 1994, including data from eight active instruments and two decommissioned instruments. The archive is a collaboration between WMKO and the NASA Exoplanet Science Institute (NExScI). Since its inception in 2004, the science information system used at KOA has adopted an architectural approach that emphasizes software re-use and adaptability. This paper describes how KOA is currently leveraging and extending open source software components to develop new services and to support delivery of a complete set of instrument metadata, which will enable more sophisticated and extensive queries than currently possible. In August 2015, KOA deployed a program interface to discover public data from all instruments equipped with an imaging mode. The interface complies with version 2 of the Simple Imaging Access Protocol (SIAP), under development by the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA), which defines a standard mechanism for discovering images through spatial queries. The heart of the KOA service is an R-tree-based, database-indexing mechanism prototyped by the Virtual Astronomical Observatory (VAO) and further developed by the Montage Image Mosaic project, designed to provide fast access to large imaging data sets as a first step in creating wide-area image mosaics (such as mosaics of subsets of the 4.7 million images of the SDSS DR9 release). The KOA service uses the results of the spatial R-tree search to create an SQLite data database for further relational filtering. The service uses a JSON configuration file to describe the association between instrument parameters and the service query parameters, and to make it applicable beyond the Keck instruments. The images generated at the Keck telescope usually do not encode the image footprints as WCS fields in the FITS file headers. Because SIAP

  2. Technology, Talk, and Time: Patterns of Group Communication and Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Laura Brown

    2015-01-01

    The effective use of technology is increasingly important in many fields where online and digital communication, collaboration, and production have become more prevalent. Although it is clear that many higher education students come into the classroom with skills involved with consuming technology, they often are much less capable of producing…

  3. Timing of Technology Upgrades: A Case of Enterprise Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claybaugh, Craig C.

    2010-01-01

    Technology upgrades are an inevitable part of dealing with any man-made invention utilized for productive gain. One key technology used for productive gain within a firm is enterprise software, specifically a firm's Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system. After the adoption of an ERP system, an organization is perpetually faced with the…

  4. Timing of Technology Upgrades: A Case of Enterprise Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claybaugh, Craig C.

    2010-01-01

    Technology upgrades are an inevitable part of dealing with any man-made invention utilized for productive gain. One key technology used for productive gain within a firm is enterprise software, specifically a firm's Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system. After the adoption of an ERP system, an organization is perpetually faced with the…

  5. Feasibility analysis of real-time physical modeling using WaveCore processor technology on FPGA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstraelen, Math; Pfeifle, Florian; Bader, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    WaveCore is a scalable many-core processor technology. This technology is specifically developed and optimized for real-time acoustical modeling applications. The programmable WaveCore soft-core processor is silicon-technology independent and hence can be targeted to ASIC or FPGA technologies. The W

  6. Cost, Time, and Risk Assessment of Different Wave Energy Converter Technology Development Trajectories: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Jochem W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Laird, Daniel [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Costello, Ronan [Wave Venture; Roberts, Jesse [Sandia National Laboratories; Bull, Diana [Sandia National Laboratories; Babarit, Aurelien [Ecole Centrale de Nantes; Nielsen, Kim [Ramboll; Ferreira, Claudio Bittencourt [DNV-GL; Kennedy, Ben [Wave Venture

    2017-09-14

    This paper presents a comparative assessment of three fundamentally different wave energy converter technology development trajectories. The three technology development trajectories are expressed and visualised as a function of technology readiness levels and technology performance levels. The assessment shows that development trajectories that initially prioritize technology readiness over technology performance are likely to require twice the development time, consume a threefold of the development cost, and are prone to a risk of technical or commercial failure of one order of magnitude higher than those development trajectories that initially prioritize technology performance over technology readiness.

  7. Taming Technology: The narrative anchor reconciling time, territory and technology in geoinformation infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koerten, H.

    2011-01-01

    It is often assumed that innovative technology is an essential resource for the establishment of an information infrastructure. This study on geoinformation infrastructures convincingly demonstrates that technology is an important and far more complex factor than much geoinformation practitioners wa

  8. Architecture for Multi-Technology Real-Time Location Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Rodas

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The rising popularity of location-based services has prompted considerable research in the field of indoor location systems. Since there is no single technology to support these systems, it is necessary to consider the fusion of the information coming from heterogeneous sensors. This paper presents a software architecture designed for a hybrid location system where we can merge information from multiple sensor technologies. The architecture was designed to be used by different kinds of actors independently and with mutual transparency: hardware administrators, algorithm developers and user applications. The paper presents the architecture design, work-flow, case study examples and some results to show how different technologies can be exploited to obtain a good estimation of a target position.

  9. The Launch Timing of New and Dominant Multigeneration Technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Hernández-Mireles (Carlos); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we introduce a model that is suitable to study the diffusion of new and dominant multi-generation technologies. Examples are computer operat- ing systems, mobile phone standards, video game consoles. Our model incorporates three new features that are not included in related

  10. BIOSENSOR TECHNOLOGY EVALUATIONS FOR REAL-TIME/SOURCE WATER PROTECTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent advances in electronics and computer technology have made great strides in the field of remote sensing and biomonitoring. The quality of drinking water sources has come under closer scrutiny in recent years. Issues ranging from ecological to public health and national se...

  11. Overcoming Learning Time and Space Constraints through Technological Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Nafiseh; Hussin, Supyan; Rashid, Taufik

    2015-01-01

    Today the use of technological tools has become an evolution in language learning and language acquisition. Many instructors and lecturers believe that integrating Web-based learning tools into language courses allows pupils to become active learners during learning process. This study investigates how the Learning Management Blog (LMB) overcomes…

  12. Supporting the Use of Technology in Organizations over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skattebo, Amie L.

    2009-01-01

    In the current research, I introduce a multidimensional construct, system support climate (SSC), and predict that different dimensions of this construct are more or less influential across different stages of the lifespan of a technology in the workplace. Specifically, I seek to address the following: (1) What are the dimensions of SSC that are…

  13. EDITORIAL: Progress in quantum technology: one photon at a time Progress in quantum technology: one photon at a time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2012-07-01

    Coulomb blockade ones, have struggled to achieve the sequential injection of the carriers that results from this approach. As the authors explain, the result is a highly efficient process with greater stability at high acoustic powers compared with direct optical pumping at the position of the post: 'Our findings demonstrate that quantum posts with their surrounding wide matrix quantum well are an ideal system for the realization of a precisely triggered SAW-controlled single-photon source'. The work of Völk, Krenner and their co-authors draws on a vast range of developments in fundamental physics and nanotechnology. As is so often the case, how developments in one direction facilitate work in another is only really apparent in hindsight. In his Nobel Prize acceptance speech, Max Planck remarked: 'The whole strenuous intellectual work of an industrious research worker would appear, after all, in vain and hopeless, if he were not occasionally through some striking facts to find that he had, at the end of all his criss-cross journeys, at last accomplished at least one step which was conclusively nearer the truth' [11]. Whether the cumulative efforts of all the researchers in theoretical physics and technology mentioned here bring us closer to the truth, time will tell. But it seems quite likely that they will bring us closer to turning the quantum capabilities of science-fiction to reality. References [1] Völk S, Knall F, Schülein J R, Truong T A, Kim J, Petroff P M, Wixforth A and Krenner H J 2012 Surface acoustic wave mediated into individual quantum post nano emitters Nanotechnology 23 285201 [2] Patel R B, Bennett A J, Cooper K, Atkinson P, Nicoll A A, Ritchie D A and Shields A J 2010 Quantum interference of electrically generated single photons from a quantum dot Nanotechnology 21 274011 [3] Kim J, Benson O, Kan H and Yamamoto Y 1999 A single-photon turnstile device Nature 397 500-3 [4] Rocke C, Zimmermann S, Wixforth A, Kotthaus J P, Böhm G and Weimann G 1997

  14. Time to shine applications of solar energy technology

    CERN Document Server

    Grupp, Michael

    2012-01-01

    As solar energy becomes increasingly more important in all of our lives, it is more important to learn how it works and how it can be implemented. This book is the perfect primer for the engineer, scientist, and layperson alike, for learning about the practical applications of solar energy technology and how it is being used today to heat homes, light city streets, and provide power worldwide.

  15. New research trends on high-precision time transfer technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG; Ruifang; QUAN; Run’ai; HOU; Feiyan; WANG; Shaofeng; XIANG; Xiao; ZHOU; Conghua; WANG; Mengmeng; LIU; Tao; ZHANG; Shou’gang

    2015-01-01

    High-precision time transfer plays an important role in the areas of fundamental research and applications. Accompanying w ith the remarkable improvements in the ability of generating and measuring high-accuracy time-frequency signal,seeking for new time-transfer techniques betw een distant clocks w ith much further improved accuracy attracts attentions w orld-w idely. The time-transfer technique based on optical pulses has the highest precision presently,and the further improvement in the accuracy is heavily dependent on the time-domain properties of the pulse as w ell as the sensitivity of the applied measurement on the exchanged pulse. The application of optical frequency comb in time transfer for a precision up to femtosecond level are currently the focus of much interest,and has recently achieved many breakthroughs. Further investigations show that,utilizing quantum techniques,i.e. quantum measurement technique and quantum optical pulse source,can lead to a new limit on the measured timing information. Furthermore,it can be immune from atmospheric parameters,such as pressure,temperature,humidity and so on.Such quantum improvements on time-transfer have a bright prospect in the future applications requiring extremely high-accuracy timing and ranging. The potential achievements w ill form a technical basis for the future realization of sub-femtosecond time transfer system.

  16. Extending the Global Dialogue about Media, Technology, Screen Time, and Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernest, James M.; Causey, Cora; Newton, Allison B.; Sharkins, Kimberly; Summerlin, Jennifer; Albaiz, Najla

    2014-01-01

    Questions about the potential benefits and dangers of media and technology use abound, with competing theories regarding its effects among young children. This article explores global perspectives on children's exposure to media, technology, and screen time (MeTS) in the schools, homes, and communities of an increasingly technology-driven…

  17. Extending the Global Dialogue about Media, Technology, Screen Time, and Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernest, James M.; Causey, Cora; Newton, Allison B.; Sharkins, Kimberly; Summerlin, Jennifer; Albaiz, Najla

    2014-01-01

    Questions about the potential benefits and dangers of media and technology use abound, with competing theories regarding its effects among young children. This article explores global perspectives on children's exposure to media, technology, and screen time (MeTS) in the schools, homes, and communities of an increasingly technology-driven world.…

  18. Extending the Global Dialogue about Media, Technology, Screen Time, and Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernest, James M.; Causey, Cora; Newton, Allison B.; Sharkins, Kimberly; Summerlin, Jennifer; Albaiz, Najla

    2014-01-01

    Questions about the potential benefits and dangers of media and technology use abound, with competing theories regarding its effects among young children. This article explores global perspectives on children's exposure to media, technology, and screen time (MeTS) in the schools, homes, and communities of an increasingly technology-driven world.…

  19. Optimum on-time duty cycle for micropulse technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Kevin R; Ronquillo, Cecinio; Jensen, Jason D; Zaugg, Brian; Barlow, William R; Stagg, Brian C; Pettey, Jeff H; Olson, Randall J

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the optimum on time for the most efficient removal of lens fragments using micropulsed ultrasound (US). John A. Moran Eye Center Laboratories, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. Experimental study. Twenty porcine lens nuclei were soaked in formalin for 2 hours and then divided into 2.0 mm cubes. Using an US machine with a 0.9 mm bent and a 30-degree bevel tip, the on time was varied every millisecond (ms) from 2 ms to 10 ms with the off time kept constant at 10 ms. Efficiency (time to lens removal) and chatter (number of lens fragment repulsions from the tip) were determined. The most efficient phacoemulsification was achieved with an on time of 6 ms. On times shorter than 6 ms were significantly less efficient (R2=.82, P=.04). Greater on times did not result in a significant difference in efficiency (R2=.03, P=.78) but did appear to have more chatter events when comparing 9 to 10 ms with 2 to 8 ms (P<.0001). With micropulsed longitudinal US, a 6 ms on time was equally as efficient as longer on times, while shorter on times (2 to 5 ms) had decreased efficiency. At 9 ms and 10 ms on time, significantly more chatter was noted. Therefore, to maximize phacoemulsification, an on-time setting of 6 ms is recommended. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2014 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Blue camera of the Keck cosmic web imager, fabrication and testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockosi, Constance; Cowley, David; Cabak, Jerry; Hilyard, David; Pfister, Terry

    2016-08-01

    The Keck Cosmic Web Imager (KCWI) is a new facility instrument being developed for the W. M. Keck Observatory and funded for construction by the Telescope System Instrumentation Program (TSIP) of the National Science Foundation (NSF). KCWI is a bench-mounted spectrograph for the Keck II right Nasmyth focal station, providing integral field spectroscopy over a seeing-limited field up to 20" x 33" in extent. Selectable Volume Phase Holographic (VPH) gratings provide high efficiency and spectral resolution in the range of 1000 to 20000. The dual-beam design of KCWI passed a Preliminary Design Review in summer 2011. The detailed design of the KCWI blue channel (350 to 700 nm) is now nearly complete, with the red channel (530 to 1050 nm) planned for a phased implementation contingent upon additional funding. KCWI builds on the experience of the Caltech team in implementing the Cosmic Web Imager (CWI), in operation since 2009 at Palomar Observatory. KCWI adds considerable flexibility to the CWI design, and will take full advantage of the excellent seeing and dark sky above Mauna Kea with a selectable nod-and-shuffle observing mode. In this paper, models of the expected KCWI sensitivity and background subtraction capability are presented, along with a detailed description of the instrument design. The KCWI team is lead by Caltech (project management, design and implementation) in partnership with the University of California at Santa Cruz (camera optical and mechanical design) and the W. M. Keck Observatory (program oversight and observatory interfaces). The optical design of the blue camera for the Keck Cosmic Web Imager (KCWI) by Harland Epps of the University of California, Santa Cruz is a lens assembly consisting of eight spherical optical elements. Half the elements are calcium fluoride and all elements are air spaced. The design of the camera barrel is unique in that all the optics are secured in their respective cells with an RTV annulus without additional hardware

  1. Facilitating Timely Completion of a College Degree with Optimization Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechter, Avi

    2009-01-01

    Students who pursue a bachelor's degree in four-year colleges and universities often take longer than four years to complete their degrees. The reasons for prolonging the time to degree seem to fall into three broad categories: part-time enrollment, deficiencies in academic readiness, and inadequate course planning. This paper focuses on the…

  2. Ground-based observations of Saturn's H3+ aurora and ring rain from Keck in 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donoghue, J.; Melin, H.; Stallard, T.; Provan, G.; Moore, L.; Badman, S. V.; Baines, K. H.; Miller, S.; Cowley, S. W. H.

    2014-12-01

    The ground-based 10-metre Keck telescope was used to probe Saturn's H3+ ionosphere in 2013. The slit on the high resolution near infrared spectrometer (NIRSPEC; (R~25,000) was aligned pole-to-pole along Saturn's rotational axis at local noon. This is also aligned (within uncertainties) to the effectively dipolar magnetic field. Four polar/auroral regions of Saturn's ionosphere were measured simultaneously as the planet rotated: 1) the northern noon main auroral oval; 2) the northern midnight main oval; 3) the northern polar cap and 4) the southern main oval at noon. The results here contain twenty-three H3+ temperatures, column densities and total emissions located at the above regions spread over timescales of both hours and days. The main findings of this study are that ionospheric temperatures in the northern main oval are cooler than their southern counterparts by tens of K; supportive of the hypothesis that the total thermospheric heating rate (Joule heating and ion drag) is inversely proportional to magnetic field strength. The main oval H3+ density and emission is lower at northern midnight than at noon, and this is in agreement with an electron influx peaking at 08:00 Saturn local time and having a minimum at midnight. When ordering the northern main oval parameters of H3+ as a function of the oscillation period seen in Saturn's magnetic field - the planetary period oscillation (PPO) phase - we see a large peak in H3+ density and emission at ˜110° phase, with a full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of ˜40°. This seems to indicate that the influx of electrons associated with the PPO phase at 90° is responsible at least in part for the behavior of all H3+ parameters. In addition to the auroral/polar data we also present the latest results from observations of Saturn's mid-to-low latitude H3+ emission. This emission is thought to be modulated by charged water product influx which flows into the planet along magnetic field lines from Saturn's rings, i.e. ring

  3. Accuracy of Travel Time Estimation using Bluetooth Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Araghi, Bahar Namaki; Skoven Pedersen, Kristian; Tørholm Christensen, Lars

    2012-01-01

    , the concept of outliers and corresponding impacts on travel time accuracy are discussed. Four different estimators named Min-BT, Max-BT, Med-BT and Avg-BT with different outlier detection logic are presented in this paper. These methods are used to estimate travel times using a BT derived dataset. In order...... to quantify the accuracy and robustness of these estimators against outliers, a comparative study between BT and Floating Car Data (FCD) is conducted. Results show that the Min-BT and Med-BT are more robust concerning the existence of outliers in the dataset and can provide more accurate travel time estimates...

  4. Breast cancer in tough economic times: disruptive technology emerging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretz, Phillip; Lynch, Richard

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of melding three emerging technologies: Pharmacogenomics, Modified Military Digital Infrared and Halo to establish their capability in diagnosing ultra-small breast cancers as well as other cancers. Mammography, ultrasound and MRI technologies have been available for over forty years, however, there is still no uniform utilization by women, costs continue to escalate and problems persist like high false positive rates for MRI and high false negative rates for mammography. Of the first 500 IR patients, 499 were female and 1 male. Of 550 OncoVue patients, 129 opted to undergo IR. A total of 19 were lost to follow-up. Patients who were negative on IR: 419/500 (84%). Of these, 63/419 went to biopsy because of findings of other diagnostic modalities. Of these 61/63 with negative IR had a negative biopsy. Of two missed, one was the fault of the investigator but was included. In this series 2/500 were false negative (0.4%). The sensitivity was 96% and the specificity was 79%. In total, 46 cancers were identified including five outside the breast (e.g. 2 lung cancers). A total of 92 MRIs were done and in 71/92 patients IR and MRI agreed. Using these three modalities the smallest cancer found was a 4 mm invasive cancer. The study demonstrated that these diagnostic techniques can dramatically lower cost and provide results at least as good as the older paradigms. Further research and a multicenter clinical trial are necessary to shift the paradigm of breast cancer diagnosis and treatment.

  5. Academic Librarians' Perceptions of Teamwork and Organizational Structure in a Time of Rapid Technological Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strecker, Beth L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of academic librarians on two topics: the delivery of services to students and faculty in a time of rapid technological changes and an organizational structure appropriate for delivering services to students in a time of rapid technological changes. Several researchers agree that to…

  6. The Impact of Training on the Time Required to Implement Technology in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Troy

    2014-01-01

    Many teachers are using technology to improve student achievement, but only a few are attaining an improvement in student achievement. The purpose of this quantitative study was to identify: (1) how much time teachers spend integrating technology into their classroom, (2) how much time teachers believe is required to maximize the effectiveness of…

  7. Academic Librarians' Perceptions of Teamwork and Organizational Structure in a Time of Rapid Technological Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strecker, Beth L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of academic librarians on two topics: the delivery of services to students and faculty in a time of rapid technological changes and an organizational structure appropriate for delivering services to students in a time of rapid technological changes. Several researchers agree that to…

  8. Reliability of Bluetooth Technology for Travel Time Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Araghi, Bahar Namaki; Olesen, Jonas Hammershøj; Krishnan, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    .1 seconds), the size and shape of the sensor's detection zone, and the time span that the Bluetooth-enabled device is within the detection zone. The influences of size of Bluetooth sensor detection zones and Bluetooth discovery procedure on multiple detection events have been mentioned in previous research...

  9. Real-time PCR: Advanced technologies and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book brings together contributions from 20 experts in the field of PCR, providing a broad perspective of the applications of quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). The editors state in the preface that the aim is to provide detailed insight into underlying principles and methods of qPCR to provide ...

  10. Real-Time Beam Loss Monitor Display Using FPGA Technology

    CERN Document Server

    North, Matt R W

    2005-01-01

    This paper outlines the design of a Real-time Beam Loss Monitor Display for the ISIS Synchrotron based at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (Oxon, UK). Beam loss is monitored using 39 argon filled ionisation chambers positioned around the synchrotron, the levels of which are sampled four times in each cycle. The new BLM display acquires the signals and displays four histograms, each relating to an individual sample period; the data acquisition and signal processing required to build the display fields are completed within each machine cycle (50 Hz). Attributes of the new system include setting limits for individual monitors; displaying over-limit detection, and freezing the display field when a beam trip has occurred. The design is based around a reconfigurable Field Programmable Gate Array, interfacing to a desktop monitor via the VGA standard. Results gained using simulated monitor signals have proven the system.

  11. Commissioning and first light results of an L'-band vortex coronagraph with the Keck II adaptive optics NIRC2 science instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Femenía Castellá, Bruno; Serabyn, Eugene; Mawet, Dimitri; Absil, Olivier; Wizinowich, Peter; Matthews, Keith; Huby, Elsa; Bottom, Michael; Campbell, Randy; Chan, Dwight; Carlomagno, Brunella; Cetre, Sylvain; Defrère, Denis; Delacroix, Christian; Gomez Gonzalez, Carlos; Jolivet, Aïssa; Karlsson, Mikael; Lanclos, Kyle; Lilley, Scott; Milner, Steven; Ngo, Henry; Reggiani, Maddalena; Simmons, Julia; Tran, Hien; Vargas Catalan, Ernesto; Wertz, Olivier

    2016-07-01

    On March 2015 an L'-band vortex coronagraph based on an Annular Groove Phase Mask made up of a diamond sub-wavelength grating was installed on NIRC2 as a demonstration project. This vortex coronagraph operates in the L' band not only in order to take advantage from the favorable star/planet contrast ratio when observing beyond the K band, but also to exploit the fact that the Keck II Adaptive Optics (AO) system delivers nearly extreme adaptive optics image quality (Strehl ratios values near 90%) at 3.7μm. We describe the hardware installation of the vortex phase mask during a routine NIRC2 service mission. The success of the project depends on extensive software development which has allowed the achievement of exquisite real-time pointing control as well as further contrast improvements by using speckle nulling to mitigate the effect of static speckles. First light of the new coronagraphic mode was on June 2015 with already very good initial results. Subsequent commissioning nights were interlaced with science nights by members of the VORTEX team with their respective scientific programs. The new capability and excellent results so far have motivated the VORTEX team and the Keck Science Steering Committee (KSSC) to offer the new mode in shared risk mode for 2016B.

  12. KUNDALINI YOGA & MEDITATION – TECHNOLOGY FOR THE TIMES

    OpenAIRE

    Khalsa, Keval Kaur

    2012-01-01

    As we move into the 21st century, we find ourselves in an age of information overload, widespread and constant stress, lack of time, and increased social and personal demands. Human activity is directly and negatively impacting the web of life on a global scale, and yet our consciousness as a species is still limited and self-centered. How can we move beyond our limited ego-self, building spiritual capacity? How do we maintain mental, emotional and physical flexibility and stamina and integra...

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Team Keck Redshift Survey 2 (TKRS2) (Wirth+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, G. D.; Trump, J. R.; Barro, G.; Guo, Y.; Koo, D. C.; Liu, F.; Kassis, M.; Lyke, J.; Rizzi, L.; Campbell, R.; Goodrich, R. W.; Faber, S. M.

    2016-04-01

    We present the Team Keck Redshift Survey 2 (TKRS2), a spectroscopic survey of 97 distant galaxies exploiting the capabilities of the Multi-Object Spectrometer For Infra-Red Exploration (MOSFIRE) on the Keck I telescope at the W. M. Keck Observatory. MOSFIRE features a 2048*2048 pixel HAWAII-2RG HgCdTe detector array from Teledyne Imaging Sensors that couples high quantum efficiency with low noise and low dark current. The operating range of 0.97-2.41μm covers the YJHK infrared passbands, with wavelength coverage of 0.97-1.12μm in Y, 1.15-1.35μm in J, 1.47-1.80μm in H, and 1.95-2.40μm in K. The resolving power for the default slit width of 0.7" is R=3380 in Y, 3310 in J, 3660 in H, and 3620 in K, corresponding to full-width-half-maximum (FWHM) spectral resolutions of 3.1Å in Y, 3.7Å in J, 4.4Å in H, and 6.0Å in K. Our survey targets the south-central region of the GOODS-North survey field (Giavalisco et al. 2004, cat. II/261). We employed MOSFIRE to acquire spectra in the GOODS-North field over a series of partial nights spanning the period from 2012 November to 2013 May. We present the results of our survey in Table3 and on the website (http://arcoiris.ucsc.edu/TKRS2/) devoted to the survey. (1 data file).

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: LCES HIRES/Keck radial velocity Exoplanet Survey (Butler+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, R. P.; Vogt, S. S.; Laughlin, G.; Burt, J. A.; Rivera, E. J.; Tuomi, M.; Teske, J.; Arriagada, P.; Diaz, M.; Holden, B.; Keiser, S.

    2017-08-01

    We present 60949 precision radial velocities of 1624 stars obtained over the past 20 years from the Lick-Carnegie Exoplanet Survey Team (LCES) survey with the HIgh-Resolution Echelle Spectrometer (HIRES) spectrometer on the Keck I telescope. We tabulate a list of 357 significant periodic signals that are of constant period and phase, and not coincident in period and/or phase with stellar activity indices. For this survey, the HIRES spectrometer was configured to operate at a nominal spectral resolving power of R~60000 and wavelength range of 3700-8000Å. (4 data files).

  15. The Outer Galactic Halo As Probed By RR Lyr Stars From the Palomar Transient Facility + Keck

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Judith G; Banholzer, Sophianna

    2015-01-01

    We present initial results from our study of the outer halo of the Milky Way using a large sample of RR Lyr(ab) variables datamined from the archives of the Palomar Transient Facility. Of the 464 RR Lyr in our sample with distances exceeding 50 kpc, 62 have been observed spectroscopically at the Keck Observatory. Radial velocities and sigma(vr) are given as a function of distance between 50 and 110 kpc, and a very preliminary rather low total mass for the Milky Way out to 110 kpc of ~7 (+-1.5) x 10**11 solar masses is derived from our data.

  16. BIMA and Keck Imaging of the Radio Ring PKS 1830-211

    CERN Document Server

    Frye, B L; Broadhurst, T J; Welch, W J; Lidman, C E; Magain, P; Pahre, M A; Djorgovski, S G

    1998-01-01

    We discuss BIMA (Berkeley Illinois Maryland Association) data and present new high quality optical and near-IR Keck images of the bright radio ring PKS 1830-211. Applying a powerful new deconvolution algorithm we have been able to identify both images of the radio source. In addition we recover an extended source in the optical, consistent with the expected location of the lensing galaxy. The source counterparts are very red, I-K=7, suggesting strong Galactic absorption with additional absorption by the lensing galaxy at z=0.885, and consistent with the detection of high redshift molecules in the lens.

  17. Racing against Time: Using Technology To Explore Distance, Rate, and Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essex, N. Kathryn; Lambdin, Diana V.; McGraw, Rebecca H.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates ways to analyze change in various contexts. Focuses on computer technology providing contexts for children's investigations of patterns of change and helping to develop foundational ideas of algebra and calculus. Discusses relationships between patterns of change, fundamental algebraic notions as linear and nonlinear functions, and…

  18. The Resolved Structure and Dynamics of an Isolated Dwarf Galaxy: A VLT and Keck Spectroscopic Survey of WLM

    CERN Document Server

    Leaman, Ryan; Brooks, Alyson M; Battaglia, Giuseppina; Cole, Andrew A; Ibata, Rodrigo A; Irwin, Mike J; McConnachie, Alan W; Mendel, J Trevor; Tolstoy, Eline

    2012-01-01

    We present spectroscopic data for 180 red giant branch stars in the isolated dwarf irregular galaxy WLM. Observations of the Calcium II triplet lines in spectra of RGB stars covering the entire galaxy were obtained with FORS2 at the VLT and DEIMOS on Keck II allowing us to derive velocities, metallicities, and ages for the stars. With accompanying photometric and radio data we have measured the structural parameters of the stellar and gaseous populations over the full galaxy. The stellar populations show an intrinsically thick configuration with $0.39 \\leq q_{0} \\leq 0.57$. The stellar rotation in WLM is measured to be $17 \\pm 1$ km s$^{-1}$, however the ratio of rotation to pressure support for the stars is $V/\\sigma \\sim 1$, in contrast to the gas whose ratio is seven times larger. This, along with the structural data and alignment of the kinematic and photometric axes, suggests we are viewing WLM as a highly inclined oblate spheroid. Stellar rotation curves, corrected for asymmetric drift, are used to comp...

  19. Confronting Standard Models of Proto--Planetary Disks With New Mid--Infrared Sizes from the Keck Interferometer

    CERN Document Server

    Millan-Gabet, Rafael; Monnier, John D; Sitko, Michael L; Russell, Ray W; Grady, Carol A; Day, Amanda N; Perry, R B; Harries, Tim J; Aarnio, Alicia N; Colavita, Mark M; Wizinowich, Peter L; Ragland, Sam; Woillez, Julien

    2016-01-01

    We present near and mid-infrared interferometric observations made with the Keck Interferometer Nuller and near-contemporaneous spectro-photometry from the IRTF of 11 well known young stellar objects, several observed for the first time in these spectral and spatial resolution regimes. With AU-level spatial resolution, we first establish characteristic sizes of the infrared emission using a simple geometrical model consisting of a hot inner rim and mid-infrared disk emission. We find a high degree of correlation between the stellar luminosity and the mid-infrared disk sizes after using near-infrared data to remove the contribution from the inner rim. We then use a semi-analytical physical model to also find that the very widely used "star + inner dust rim + flared disk" class of models strongly fails to reproduce the SED and spatially-resolved mid-infrared data simultaneously; specifically a more compact source of mid-infrared emission is required than results from the standard flared disk model. We explore t...

  20. Just-in-time support for teachers’ technology-infused lesson planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, N.; Lazonder, A.W.

    2015-01-01

    Teachers need support when integrating innovative technologies in their lessons. In this research, two types of just-in-time support for lesson planning were compared on perceived usefulness and effectiveness. Both types contained the same technological information but differed regarding pedagogical

  1. Real-Time Assessment of Problem-Solving of Physics Students Using Computer-Based Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gok, Tolga

    2012-01-01

    The change in students' problem solving ability in upper-level course through the application of a technological interactive environment--Tablet PC running InkSurvey--was investigated in present study. Tablet PC/InkSurvey interactive technology allowing the instructor to receive real-time formative assessment as the class works through the problem…

  2. Moving beyond Screen Time: Redefining Developmentally Appropriate Technology Use in Early Childhood Education. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Lindsay; Dossani, Rafiq; Johnson, Erin-Elizabeth; Wright, Cameron

    2014-01-01

    Conversations about what constitutes "developmentally appropriate" use of technology in early childhood education have, to date, focused largely on a single, blunt measure--screen time--that fails to capture important nuances, such as what type of media a child is accessing and whether technology use is taking place solo or with peers.…

  3. Antenna-coupled TES bolometers used in BICEP2, Keck array, and SPIDER

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Amiri, M; Barkats, D; Benton, S J; Bischoff, C A; Bock, J J; Bonetti, J A; Brevik, J A; Buder, I; Bullock, E; Chattopadhyay, G; Davis, G; Day, P K; Dowell, C D; Duband, L; Filippini, J P; Fliescher, S; Golwala, S R; Halpern, M; Hasselfield, M; Hildebrandt, S R; Hilton, G C; Hristov, V; Hui, H; Irwin, K D; Jones, W C; Karkare, K S; Kaufman, J P; Keating, B G; Kefeli, S; Kernasovskiy, S A; Kovac, J M; Kuo, C L; Leduc, H G; Leitch, E M; Llombart, N; Lueker, M; Mason, P; Megerian, K; Moncelsi, L; Netterfield, C B; Nguyen, H T; O'Brient, R; Ogburn, R W; Orlando, A; Pryke, C; Rahlin, A S; Reintsema, C D; Richter, S; Runyan, M C; Schwarz, R; Sheehy, C D; Staniszewski, Z K; Sudiwala, R V; Teply, G P; Tolan, J E; Trangsrud, A; Tucker, R S; Turner, A D; Vieregg, A G; Weber, A; Wiebe, D V; Wilson, P; Wong, C L; Yoon, K W; Zmuidzinas, J

    2015-01-01

    We have developed antenna-coupled transition-edge sensor (TES) bolometers for a wide range of cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarimetry experiments, including BICEP2, Keck Array, and the balloon borne SPIDER. These detectors have reached maturity and this paper reports on their design principles, overall performance, and key challenges associated with design and production. Our detector arrays repeatedly produce spectral bands with 20%-30% bandwidth at 95, 150, or 220~GHz. The integrated antenna arrays synthesize symmetric co-aligned beams with controlled side-lobe levels. Cross-polarized response on boresight is typically ~0.5%, consistent with cross-talk in our multiplexed readout system. End-to-end optical efficiencies in our cameras are routinely 35% or higher, with per detector sensitivities of NET~300 uKrts. Thanks to the scalability of this design, we have deployed 2560 detectors as 1280 matched pairs in Keck Array with a combined instantaneous sensitivity of ~9 uKrts, as measured directly from CMB...

  4. Meridional variation in tropospheric methane on Titan observed with AO spectroscopy at Keck and VLT

    CERN Document Server

    Ádámkovics, Máté; Hayes, Alexander G; Rojo, Patricio M; Corlies, Paul; Barnes, Jason W; Ivanov, Valentin D; Brown, Robert H; Baines, Kevin H; Buratti, Bonnie J; Clark, Roger N; Nicholson, Philip D; Sotin, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    The spatial distribution of the tropospheric methane on Titan was measured using near-infrared spectroscopy. Ground-based observations at 1.5$\\mu{\\rm m}$ (H-band) were performed during the same night using instruments with adaptive optics at both the W. M. Keck Observatory and at the Paranal Observatory on 17 July 2014 UT. The integral field observations with SINFONI on the VLT covered the entire H-band at moderate resolving power, $R=\\lambda/\\Delta\\lambda\\approx1,500$, while the Keck observations were performed with NIRSPAO near 1.55254$\\mu{\\rm m}$ at higher resolution, $R\\approx25,000$. The moderate resolution observations are used for flux calibration and for the determination of model parameters that can be degenerate in the interpretation of high resolution spectra. Line-by-line calculations of CH$_4$ and CH$_3$D correlated $k$ distributions from the HITRAN 2012 database were used, which incorporate revised line assignments near 1.5$\\mu{\\rm m}$. We fit the surface albedo and aerosol distributions in the ...

  5. The Team Keck Redshift Survey 2: MOSFIRE Spectroscopy of the GOODS-North Field

    CERN Document Server

    Wirth, Gregory D; Barro, Guillermo; Guo, Yicheng; Koo, David C; Liu, Fengshan; Kassis, Marc; Lyke, Jim; Rizzi, Luca; Campbell, Randy; Goodrich, Robert W; Faber, S M

    2015-01-01

    We present the Team Keck Redshift Survey 2 (TKRS2), a near-infrared spectral observing program targeting selected galaxies within the CANDELS subsection of the GOODS-North Field. The TKRS2 program exploits the unique capabilities of MOSFIRE, an infrared multi-object spectrometer which entered service on the Keck I telescope in 2012 and contributes substantially to the study of galaxy spectral features at redshifts inaccessible to optical spectrographs. The TKRS2 project targets 97 galaxies drawn from samples that include z~2 emission-line galaxies with features observable in the JHK bands as well as lower-redshift targets with features in the Y band. We present a detailed measurement of MOSFIRE's sensitivity as a function of wavelength, including the effects of telluric features across the YJHK filters. The largest utility of our survey is in providing rest-frame-optical emission lines for z>1 galaxies, and we demonstrate that the ratios of strong, optical emission lines of z~2 galaxies suggest the presence o...

  6. THE TEAM KECK REDSHIFT SURVEY 2: MOSFIRE SPECTROSCOPY OF THE GOODS-NORTH FIELD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirth, Gregory D.; Kassis, Marc; Lyke, Jim; Rizzi, Luca; Campbell, Randy; Goodrich, Robert W. [W. M. Keck Observatory, 65-1120 Mamalahoa Hwy, Kamuela, HI 96743 (United States); Trump, Jonathan R.; Barro, Guillermo; Guo, Yicheng; Koo, David C.; Liu, Fengshan; Faber, S. M., E-mail: gregory.wirth@gmail.com [University of California Observatories, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    We present the Team Keck Redshift Survey 2 (TKRS2), a near-infrared spectral observing program targeting selected galaxies within the CANDELS subsection of the GOODS-North Field. The TKRS2 program exploits the unique capabilities of the Multi-Object Spectrometer For Infra-Red Exploration (MOSFIRE), which entered service on the Keck I telescope in 2012 and contributes substantially to the study of galaxy spectral features at redshifts inaccessible to optical spectrographs. The TKRS2 project targets 97 galaxies drawn from samples that include z ≈ 2 emission-line galaxies with features observable in the JHK bands as well as lower-redshift targets with features in the Y band. We present a detailed measurement of MOSFIRE’s sensitivity as a function of wavelength, including the effects of telluric features across the YJHK filters. The largest utility of our survey is in providing rest-frame-optical emission lines for z > 1 galaxies, and we demonstrate that the ratios of strong, optical emission lines of z ≈ 2 galaxies suggest the presence of either higher N/O abundances than are found in z ≈ 0 galaxies or low-metallicity gas ionized by an active galactic nucleus. We have released all TKRS2 data products into the public domain to allow researchers access to representative raw and reduced MOSFIRE spectra.

  7. New Developments in Quantitative Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadkar, Vija yJ; Filion, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Real time-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) technology has revolutionized the detection landscape in every area of molecular biology. The fundamental basis of this technology has remained unchanged since its inception, however various modifications have enhanced the overall performance of this highly versatile technology. These improvements have ranged from changes in the individual components of the enzymatic reaction cocktail (polymerizing enzymes, reaction buffers, probes, etc.) to the detection system itself (instrumentation, software, etc.). The RT-qPCR technology currently available to researchers is more sensitive, faster and affordable than when this technology was first introduced. In this article, we summarize the developments of the last few years in RT-qPCR technology and nucleic acid amplification.

  8. Realization of Timed Reliable Communication over Off-The-Shelf Wireless Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malinowsky, B.; Groenbaek, Jesper; Schwefel, Hans-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Industrial and safety-critical applications pose strict requirements for timeliness and reliability for the communication solution. Thereby the use of off-the-shelf (OTS) wireless communication technologies can be attractive to achieve low cost and easy deployment. This paper presents and analyses...... a protocol and its analytical model, enabling to configure for explicit timeliness and message reliability requirements under different link technologies and conditions. We assess the timing behavior and reliability properties studying a scenario of distributing safety-critical alerts. Our evaluation covers...... and link measurements to contribute to a (self-)configurable timed reliable protocol deployed on multiple technologies....

  9. New and Emerging Technologies for Real-Time Air and Surface Beryllium Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phifer, B.E. Jr.; Churnetski, E.L.; Cooke, L.E.; Reed, J.J.; Howell, M.L.; Smith, V.D.

    2001-09-01

    In this study, five emerging technologies were identified for real-time monitoring of airborne beryllium: Microwave-Induced Plasma Spectroscopy (MIPS), Aerosol Beam-Focused Laser-Induced Plasma Spectroscopy (ABFLIPS), Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), Surfaced-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) Spectroscopy, and Micro-Calorimetric Spectroscopy (CalSpec). Desired features of real-time air beryllium monitoring instrumentation were developed from the Y-12 CBDPP. These features were used as guidelines for the identification of potential technologies as well as their unique demonstrated capability to provide real-time monitoring of similar materials. However, best available technologies were considered, regardless of their ability to comply with the desired features. None of the five technologies have the capability to measure the particle size of airborne beryllium. Although reducing the total concentration of airborne beryllium is important, current literature suggests that reducing or eliminating the concentration of respirable beryllium is critical for worker health protection. Eight emerging technologies were identified for surface monitoring of beryllium. CalSpec, MIPS, SERS, LIBS, Laser Ablation, Absorptive Stripping Voltametry (ASV), Modified Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) Spectroscopy, and Gamma BeAST. Desired features of real-time surface beryllium monitoring were developed from the Y-12 CBDPP. These features were used as guidelines for the identification of potential technologies. However, the best available technologies were considered regardless of their ability to comply with the desired features.

  10. Status of NIF mirror technologies for completion of the NIF facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolz, C J

    2008-08-07

    The 1600 mirrors required for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) are now coated with the last optics currently being installed. The combined surface area of the NIF mirrors is almost 450 square meters, roughly 3.4 times greater than the surface area of the two Keck primary mirrors. Additionally, the power handling specification of NIF mirrors is 19 orders of magnitude greater than that of the Keck mirrors. The NIF laser will be at least 40x greater energy than the previous LLNL fusion laser called NOVA. To manufacture these mirrors, a number of new technologies (electrolytic in-situ dressing, ion figuring, source stabilization) were used that were not available for previous fusion laser optics. Post deposition technologies designed to increase laser resistance (off-line laser conditioning, solarization, air knives) have also been utilized. This paper summarizes the differences in technologies used to manufacture NIF mirrors from those used for previous fusion lasers and examines potential future technologies that would enable higher fluence operations and extend lifetimes.

  11. Evolution of early-type galaxies in distant clusters : The fundamental plane from Hubble Space Telescope imaging and Keck spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelson, DD; vanDokkum, PG; Franx, M; Illingworth, GD; Fabricant, D

    1997-01-01

    We present new results on the fundamental plane of galaxies in two rich clusters, Cl 1358+62 at z = 0.33 and MS 2053-04 at z = 0.58, based on Keck and Hubble Space Telescope observations. Our new data triple the sample of galaxies with measured fundamental plane parameters at intermediate redshift.

  12. Direct detection and orbital analysis of the exoplanets HR 8799 bcd from archival 2005 Keck/NIRC2 data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Currie, T.; Fukagawa, M.; Thalmann, C.; Matsumura, S.; Plavchan, P.

    2012-01-01

    We present previously unpublished 2005 July H-band coronagraphic data of the young, planet-hosting star HR 8799 from the newly released Keck/NIRC2 archive. Despite poor observing conditions, we detect three of the planets (HR 8799 bcd), two of them (HR 8799 bc) without advanced image processing.

  13. A New Distortion Solution for NIRC2 on the Keck II Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Service, M.; Lu, J. R.; Campbell, R.; Sitarski, B. N.; Ghez, A. M.; Anderson, J.

    2016-09-01

    We present a new geometric distortion model for the narrow-field mode of the near-infrared camera (NIRC2) fed by the adaptive optics system on the W. M. Keck II telescope. The adaptive optics system and NIRC2 camera were realigned on 2015 April 13. Observations of the crowded globular cluster, M53, were obtained before and after the realignment to characterize the geometric field distortion. The distorted NIRC2 positions of M53 stars were compared with precise astrometry of this cluster from Hubble Space Telescope observations. The resulting distortion map constructed just before the realignment is consistent with the previous solution derived using data from 2007 to 2009, indicating that the distortion has been stable to ∼0.5 mas. The distortion map changed significantly after a realignment of 4.5 mas (75%) rms, and the new distortion model for post-realignment observations have a total accuracy of ∼1.1 mas.

  14. The W. M. Keck Telescope segmented primary mirror active control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jared, R.C.; Arthur, A.A.; Andreae, S.; Biocca, A.; Cohen, R.W.; Fuertes, J.M.; Franck, J.; Gabor, G.; Llacer, J.; Mast, T.; Meng, J.; Merrick, T.; Minor, R.; Nelson, J.; Orayani, M.; Salz, P.; Schaefer, B.; Witebsky, C.

    1989-07-01

    The ten meter diameter primary mirror of the W. M. Keck Telescope is a mosaic of thirty-six hexagonal mirrors. An active control system stabilizes the primary mirror. The active control system uses 168 measurements of the relative positions of adjacent mirror segments and 3 measurements of the primary mirror position in the telescope structure to control the 108 degrees of freedom needed to stabilize the figure and position of the primary mirror. The components of the active control system are relative position sensors, electronics, computers, actuators that position the mirrors, and software. The software algorithms control the primary mirror, perform star image stacking, emulate the segments, store and fit calibration data, and locate hardware defects. We give an overview of the active control system, its functional requirements and test measurements. 12 refs.

  15. Limits on Entanglement Effects in the String Landscape from Planck and BICEP/Keck Data

    CERN Document Server

    Kinney, William H

    2016-01-01

    We consider observational limits on a proposed model of the string landscape in inflation. In this scenario, effects from the decoherence of entangled quantum states in long-wavelength modes in the universe result in modifications to the Friedmann Equation and a corresponding modification to inflationary dynamics. Previous work by Holman, Mersini-Houghton, and Takahashi suggested that such effects could provide an explanation for well-known anomalies in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), such as the lack of power on large scales and the "cold spot" seen by both the WMAP and Planck satellites. In this paper, we compute limits on these entanglement effects from the Planck CMB data combined with the BICEP/Keck polarization measurement, and find no evidence for observable modulations to the power spectrum from landscape entanglement, and no sourcing of observable CMB anomalies. The originally proposed model with an exponential potential is ruled out to high significance. Assuming a Starobinsky-type $R^2$ infl...

  16. Properties of Two New M31 dSph Companions from Keck Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Grebel, E K; Grebel, Eva K.; Guhathakurta, Puragra

    1999-01-01

    We have obtained Keck Low Resolution Imaging Spectrograph images in V and I of the newly discovered Local Group dwarf galaxies Pegasus dSph and Cassiopeia dSph and their surrounding field. The first stellar luminosity functions and color-magnitude diagrams are presented for stars with V , of -1.3 +/- 0.3 for Peg dSph and -1.4 +/- 0.3 for Cas dSph. Their central surface brightness--absolute magnitude relationship follows that of other Local Group dSphs, dwarf ellipticals, and dwarf irregulars. In contrast to four out of nine Milky Way dSphs (the four that lie beyond D_MW =100 kpc), none of the six known M31 dSphs appears to have a dominant intermediate-age population.

  17. Correcting systematic polarization effects in Keck LRISp spectropolarimetry to <0.05%

    CERN Document Server

    Harrington, David M; Kuzmychov, Oleksii; Kuhn, Jeffrey R

    2015-01-01

    Spectropolarimetric measurements at moderate spectral resolutions are effective tracers of stellar magnetic fields and circumstellar environments when signal to noise ratios (SNRs) above 2000 can be achieved. The LRISp spectropolarimeter is capable of achieving these SNRs on faint targets with the 10m aperture of the Keck telescope, provided several instrumental artifacts can be suppressed. We describe here several methods to overcome instrumental error sources that are required to achieve these high SNRs on LRISp. We explore high SNR techniques such as defocusing and slit-stepping during integration with high spectral and spatial oversampling. We find that the instrument flexure and interference fringes introduced by the achromatic retarders create artificial signals at 0.5\\% levels in the red channel which mimic real stellar signals and limit the sensitivity and calibration stability of LRISp. Careful spectral extraction and data filtering algorithms can remove these error sources. For faint targets and lon...

  18. Identifying Young Kepler Planet Host Stars from Keck-HIRES Spectra of Lithium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Travis Allen; Howard, Andrew; Boesgaard, Ann M.

    2017-01-01

    The lithium doublet at 6708 A provides an age diagnostic for FGK stars. We measured the abundance of lithium in 1149 stars with detected transiting planets from the Kepler Mission using high resolution spectroscopy. Our catalog of lithium measurements from this sample have a range of abundance from A(Li) = 3.13 +/- 0.05 to a lower limit of -0.79. For a magnitude-limited sample that comprises 930 of the 1149 stars, our Keck-HIRES spectra have a median S/N = 45 per pixel at spectral resolution R = 55,000. We identify 79 young stars that have A(Li) values greater than the Hyades at their respective effective temperatures; these stars are younger than ~650 Myr old, the approximate age of the Hyades. We then compare the distribution of A(Li) with planet size, disposition, multiplicity, orbital period, and insolation flux.

  19. Timing Successive Product Introductions with Demand Diffusion and Stochastic Technology Improvement

    OpenAIRE

    R. Mark Krankel; Izak Duenyas; Roman Kapuscinski

    2006-01-01

    This paper considers a firm's decisions on the introduction timing for successive product generations. We examine the case where a firm introduces multiple generations of a durable product for which demand is characterized by a demand diffusion process. Under fixed introduction costs, we consider the case where available product technology improves stochastically. As such, delaying introduction to a later date may lead to the capture of further technology improvements, potentially at the cost...

  20. Life in the fast lane? Towards a sociology of technology and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajcman, Judy

    2008-03-01

    Assumptions about the pace of life speeding up abound in contemporary social theory. While many factors are contributing to this phenomenon, information and communication technologies are seen as the main drivers. This article considers the way social theorists analyse the concepts of time and speed and then examines how these claims might be assessed in the light of empirical research. Such research shows that time compression has multiple dimensions, and that the effect of digital devices like the mobile phone is not simply one of acceleration. In particular, I suggest that the social studies of technology offers a richer analysis of the reciprocal relationship between technological innovation and changing time practices. My argument is that while the hitherto neglected temporal dimension in sociological theory is now being addressed, there is an urgent need for increased dialogue to connect social theory with detailed empirical studies. Without this, we will continue to have difficulty distinguishing social science from science fiction.

  1. THE RESOLVED STRUCTURE AND DYNAMICS OF AN ISOLATED DWARF GALAXY: A VLT AND KECK SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY OF WLM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leaman, Ryan; Venn, Kim A.; Mendel, J. Trevor [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8P 1A1 (Canada); Brooks, Alyson M. [California Institute of Technology, M/C 350-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Battaglia, Giuseppina [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Cole, Andrew A. [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 37, Hobart, TAS (Australia); Ibata, Rodrigo A. [Observatoire Astronomique, Universite de Strasbourg, CNRS, 11 rue de I' Universite, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Irwin, Mike J. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); McConnachie, Alan W. [NRC Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Tolstoy, Eline, E-mail: rleaman@uvic.ca [Kapteyn Institute, University of Groningen, Postbus 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands)

    2012-05-01

    We present spectroscopic data for 180 red giant branch (RGB) stars in the isolated dwarf irregular galaxy Wolf-Lundmark-Mellote (WLM). Observations of the calcium II triplet lines in spectra of RGB stars covering the entire galaxy were obtained with FORS2 at the Very Large Telescope and DEIMOS on Keck II, allowing us to derive velocities, metallicities, and ages for the stars. With accompanying photometric and radio data we have measured the structural parameters of the stellar and gaseous populations over the full galaxy. The stellar populations show an intrinsically thick configuration with 0.39 {<=} q{sub 0} {<=} 0.57. The stellar rotation in WLM is measured to be 17 {+-} 1 km s{sup -1}; however, the ratio of rotation to pressure support for the stars is V/{sigma} {approx} 1, in contrast to the gas, whose ratio is seven times larger. This, along with the structural data and alignment of the kinematic and photometric axes, suggests we are viewing WLM as a highly inclined oblate spheroid. Stellar rotation curves, corrected for asymmetric drift, are used to compute a dynamical mass of (4.3 {+-} 0.3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} M{sub Sun} at the half-light radius (r{sub h} = 1656 {+-} 49 pc). The stellar velocity dispersion increases with stellar age in a manner consistent with giant molecular cloud and substructure interactions producing the heating in WLM. Coupled with WLM's isolation, this suggests that the extended vertical structure of its stellar and gaseous components and increase in stellar velocity dispersion with age are due to internal feedback, rather than tidally driven evolution. These represent some of the first observational results from an isolated Local Group dwarf galaxy that can offer important constraints on how strongly internal feedback and secular processes modulate star formation and dynamical evolution in low-mass isolated objects.

  2. Using tablet-based technology to deliver time-efficient ototoxicity monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brungart, Douglas; Schurman, Jaclyn; Konrad-Martin, Dawn; Watts, Kelly; Buckey, Jay; Clavier, Odile; Jacobs, Peter G; Gordon, Samuel; Dille, Marilyn F

    2017-09-12

    The goal of this article is to highlight mobile technology that is not yet standard of care but could be considered for use in an ototoxicity monitoring programme (OMP) as an adjunct to traditional audiometric testing. Current guidelines for ototoxicity monitoring include extensive test protocols performed by an audiologist in an audiometric booth. This approach is comprehensive, but it may be taxing for patients suffering from life-threatening illnesses and cost prohibitive if it requires serial clinical appointments. With the use of mobile technology, testing outside of the confines of the audiometric booth may be possible, which could create more efficient and less burdensome OMPs. A non-systematic review of new OMP technology was performed. Experts were canvassed regarding the impact of new technology on OMPs. OMP devices and technologies that are commercially available and discussed in the literature. The benefits and limitations of portable, tablet-based technology that can be deployed for efficient ototoxicity monitoring are discussed. New mobile technology has the potential to influence the development and implementation of OMPs and lower barriers to patient access by providing time efficient, portable and self-administered testing options for use in the clinic and in the patient's home.

  3. Application of terahertz time-domain spectroscopy technology on cosmetics testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xinfeng; Yu, Bin; Zhao, Guozhong; Zhang, Cunlin

    2008-03-01

    As a new technology, the terahertz technology had made a great progress in security inspection and medical field. This paper shows the application of the terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) technology on cosmetic testing. We obtain the THz spectra of three kinds of usual cosmetics powders. Two kind of powder have an obvious absorption peak at 1.14 THz, but the third one has no absorption peak. The positions of absorption peaks in the infrared spectra of three kinds of powders are approximately identical. These results show that THz-TDS technology has the advantage and potential application on the cosmetic testing. In addition, we also measure some solid and liquid cosmetic components, such as Titanium-dioxide, Magnesium Stearate, Kaolin, Glycerol, etc. THz spectra of their refractive index and absorption coefficient are obtained experimentally. We are trying to establish the fingerprint spectra database of cosmetic components for further research and application.

  4. Movement and Time in the Nexus between Technological Modes with Jean Tinguely’s Kineticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Chau

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses auto-destructive artworks by Jean Tinguely, Homage to New York (1960 and Study for an End of the World No. 2 (1962, to explore a changing consciousness of time in a period of technological transition from modern industrial machines towards the domestication of televisual devices. One effect of these is works is a contribution to a turbulent consciousness of time by orchestrating new perceptions of temporality with mechanical and tele-communicational media. Tinguely’s kineticism is useful for articulating how different technologies can be used to rationalize time in different ways and highlight an incompatibility between the expression of time as an unfolding duration with mechanical media, and the temporal demands of televisual broadcast media.

  5. Managing Information Technology as a Catalyst of Change. Track I: Leadership during Times of Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CAUSE, Boulder, CO.

    Eight papers are presented from the 1993 CAUSE conference track on leadership challenges facing managers of information technology during times of change at colleges and universities. Papers include: (1) "ASURITE: How To Avoid Creating a Distributed Computing 'Tower of Babel'!" (Neil Armann and others), which discusses the Arizona State…

  6. Just-in-Time Teaching Techniques through Web Technologies for Vocational Students' Reading and Writing Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantoem, Rewadee; Rattanavich, Saowalak

    2016-01-01

    This research compares the English language achievements of vocational students, their reading and writing abilities, and their attitudes towards learning English taught with just-in-time teaching techniques through web technologies and conventional methods. The experimental and control groups were formed, a randomized true control group…

  7. Application verification research of cloud computing technology in the field of real time aerospace experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Junwei; Chen, Hongyan; Zhao, Jing

    2017-08-01

    According to the requirements of real-time, reliability and safety for aerospace experiment, the single center cloud computing technology application verification platform is constructed. At the IAAS level, the feasibility of the cloud computing technology be applied to the field of aerospace experiment is tested and verified. Based on the analysis of the test results, a preliminary conclusion is obtained: Cloud computing platform can be applied to the aerospace experiment computing intensive business. For I/O intensive business, it is recommended to use the traditional physical machine.

  8. CHANDRA, KECK, AND VLA OBSERVATIONS OF THE CRAB NEBULA DURING THE 2011-APRIL GAMMA-RAY FLARE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.; Tennant, Allyn F.; O' Dell, Stephen L. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Astrophysics Office (ZP12), Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Arons, Jonathan [Astronomy Department and Theoretical Astrophysics Center, University of California, Berkeley, 601 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Blandford, Roger; Funk, Stefan; Romani, Roger W. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Buehler, Rolf [DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Caraveo, Patrizia; De Luca, Andrea [INAF-IASF Milano, via E. Bassini 15, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Cheung, Chi C. [National Research Council Research Associate, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC 20001 (United States); Costa, Enrico [INFN Roma Tor Vergata, via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Ferrigno, Carlo [ISDC, Data Center for Astrophysics of the University of Geneva, chemin d' cogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Fu, Hai [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Habermehl, Moritz; Horns, Dieter [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Universitaet Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg (Germany); Linford, Justin D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, MSC07 4220, Albuquerque, NM 87131-0001 (United States); Lobanov, Andrei [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Max, Claire [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Mignani, Roberto [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); and others

    2013-03-01

    We present results from our analysis of Chandra X-Ray Observatory, W. M. Keck Observatory, and Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) images of the Crab Nebula that were contemporaneous with the {gamma}-ray flare of 2011 April. Despite hints in the X-ray data, we find no evidence for statistically significant variations that pinpoint the specific location of the flares within the Nebula. The Keck observations extend this conclusion to the 'inner knot', i.e., the feature within an arcsecond of the pulsar. The VLA observations support this conclusion. We also discuss theoretical implications of the {gamma}-ray flares and suggest that the most dramatic {gamma}-ray flares are due to radiation-reaction-limited synchrotron emission associated with sudden, dissipative changes in the current system sustained by the central pulsar.

  9. Phasing the segments of the Keck and Thirty Meter Telescopes via the narrowband phasing algorithm: chromatic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanan, Gary; Troy, Mitchell; Raouf, Nasrat

    2016-07-01

    The narrowband phasing algorithm that was originally developed at Keck has largely been replaced by a broad- band algorithm that, although it is slower and less accurate than the former, has proved to be much more robust. A systematic investigation into the lack of robustness of the narrowband algorithm has shown that it results from systematic errors (of order 20 nm) that are wavelength-dependent. These errors are not well-understood at present, but they do not appear to arise from instrumental effects in the Keck phasing cameras, or from the segment coatings. This leaves high spatial frequency aberrations or scattering within 60 mm of the segment edges as the most likely origin of the effect.

  10. Review of Maintenance and Repair Times for Components in Technological Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. C. Cadwallader

    2012-11-01

    This report is a compilation of some unique component repair time data and it also presents citations of more extensive reports where lists of repair times can be found. This collection of information should support analysts who seek to quantify maintainability and availability of high technology and nuclear energy production systems. While there are newer sources of repair time information, most, if not all, of the newer sources are proprietary and cannot be shared. This report offers data that, while older, is openly accessible and can serve as reasonable estimates of repair times, at least for initial studies. Some times were found for maintenance times in radiation environments, and some guidance for multiplicative factors to use to account for work in contamination areas.

  11. A passive optical network based on optical code division multiplexing and time division multiple access technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A passive optical network (PON) scheme based on optical code division multiplexing (OCDM) for the downstream traffics is proposed and analyzed in detail. In the PON, the downstream traffics are broadcasted by OCDM technology to guarantee the security, while the upstream traffics pass through the same optical fiber by the common time division multiple access (TDMA) technology to decrease the cost.This schemes are denoted as OCDM/TDMA-PON, which can be applied to an optical access network (OAN) with full services on demand, such as Internet protocol, video on demand, tele-presence and high quality audio. The proposed OCDM/TDMA-PON scheme combines advantages of PON, TDMA, and OCDM technology. Simulation results indicate that the designed scheme improves the OAN performance,and enhances flexibility and scalability of the system.

  12. THE OPTIMAL TIME FOR SUBSTITUTION OF Eucalyptus spp. PLANTATIONS –THE TECHNOLOGICAL PROGRESS CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Pereira de Rezende

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The importance of technological progress for the Brazilian forest enterprises cannot be denied. Its influencecomprehends all the activities, but can be summarized in the increase of income via yield increase or cost reduction and, mainly,in the two cases occurring together. Technological effects influence, among other aspects, the cutting age and the optimal time torenewal (a new plantinting or “reforma” Eucalyptus plantations. Studies to determine these times are not so common in theliterature since it requires both forestry and economic knowledge. Before renewing an Eucalyptus stand, it is necessary totechnically and economically to define the optimal cut age the original planting and the coppicings and after how many cuttingsthe substitution of the plantations should be done. This study aimed at studying the optimal time to substitute Eucalyptus spp.Plantations, considering the gains earned through technological progress; to determine the cutting age of the population, theincome being increasing and the cost being decreasing; to propose and verify the efficiency of a mathematical model whichallows modeling the effects of technological progress; to study the substitution chain between 1960 and 2000 and between 2000and 2040, considering technological progress; and to test the results in a case study. The Gompertz Function was employed toobtain the volumes at the various ages. The criterion employed for the economic evaluation of the projects was the Presente NetValue (PNV. The proposed model allowed the calculation of yields and costs through time, study the effect of yield increaseand cost reduction and determine the rates of these increase and, or, reductions as well as determining rates which served asmoderators so that the yield and costs did not reach unreal values. It was concluded that: The rotation, with current values, is at 7years of age; the model proved to be efficient for estimates up to 40 years; with the income and costs from

  13. Improving Undergraduate Research Experiences With An Intentional Mentoring Program: Lessons Learned Through Assessment of Keck Geology Consortium Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, K. R.; Garver, J. I.; Greer, L.; Pollock, M.; Varga, R. J.; Davidson, C. M.; Frey, H. M.; Hubbard, D. K.; Peck, W. H.; Wobus, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Keck Geology Consortium, with support from the National Science Foundation (REU Program) and ExxonMobil, is a collaborative effort by 18 colleges to improve geoscience education through high-quality research experiences. Since its inception in 1987 more than 1350 undergraduate students and 145 faculty have been involved in 189 yearlong research projects. This non-traditional REU model offers exceptional opportunities for students to address research questions at a deep level, to learn and utilize sophisticated analytical methods, and to engage in authentic collaborative research that culminates in an undergraduate research symposium and published abstracts volume. The large numbers of student and faculty participants in Keck projects also affords a unique opportunity to study the impacts of program design on undergraduate research experiences in the geosciences. Students who participate in Keck projects generally report significant gains in personal and professional dimensions, as well as in clarification of educational and career goals. Survey data from student participants, project directors, and campus advisors identify mentoring as one of the most critical and challenging elements of successful undergraduate research experiences. Additional challenges arise from the distributed nature of Keck projects (i.e., participants, project directors, advisors, and other collaborators are at different institutions) and across the span of yearlong projects. In an endeavor to improve student learning about the nature and process of science, and to make mentoring practices more intentional, the Consortium has developed workshops and materials to support both project directors and campus research advisors (e.g., best practices for mentoring, teaching ethical professional conduct, benchmarks for progress, activities to support students during research process). The Consortium continues to evolve its practices to better support students from underrepresented groups.

  14. Orbital Constraints on the (beta) Pic Inner Planet Candidate with Keck Adaptive Optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzgerald, M P; Kalas, P G; Graham, J R

    2009-09-23

    A point source observed 8AU in projection from {beta} Pictoris in L{prime} (3.8 {micro}m) imaging in 2003 has been recently presented as a planet candidate. Here we show the results of L{prime}-band adaptive optics imaging obtained at Keck Observatory in 2008. We do not detect {beta} Pic b beyond a limiting radius of 0.29-inch, or 5.5AU in projection, from the star. If {beta} Pic b is an orbiting planet, then it has moved {ge} 0.12-inch (2.4AU in projection) closer to the star in the five years separating the two epochs of observation. We examine the range of orbital parameters consistent with the observations, including likely bounds from the locations of previously inferred planetesimal belts. We find a family of low-eccentricity orbits with semimajor axes {approx} 8-9AU that are completely allowed, as well as a broad region of orbits with e {approx}< 0.2, a {approx}> 10AU that are allowed if the apparent motion of the planet was towards the star in 2003. We compare this allowed space with predictions of the planetary orbital elements from the literature. Additionally, we show how similar observations in the next several years can further constrain the space of allowed orbits. Non-detections of the source through 2013 will exclude the interpretation of the candidate as a planet orbiting between the 6.4 and 16AU planetesimal belts.

  15. Models of the Eta Corvi debris disk from the Keck Interferometer, Spitzer and Herschel

    CERN Document Server

    Lebreton, J; Bryden, G; Defrère, D; Mennesson, B; Millan-Gabet, R; Boccaletti, A

    2015-01-01

    Debris disks are signposts of analogues to small body populations of the Solar System, often however with much higher masses and dust production rates. The disk associated with the nearby star Eta Corvi is especially striking as it shows strong mid- and far-infrared excesses despite an age of ~1.4 Gyr. We undertake to construct a consistent model of the system able to explain a diverse collection of spatial and spectral data. We analyze Keck Interferometer Nuller measurements and revisit Spitzer and additional spectro-photometric data, as well as resolved Herschel images to determine the dust spatial distribution in the inner exozodi and in the outer belt. We model in detail the two-component disk and the dust properties from the sub-AU scale to the outermost regions by fitting simultaneously all measurements against a large parameter space. The properties of the cold belt are consistent with a collisional cascade in a reservoir of ice-free planetesimals at 133 AU. It shows marginal evidence for asymmetries a...

  16. Measuring temperature and ammonia hydrate ice on Charon in 2015 from Keck/OSIRIS spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Holler, Bryan J; Buie, Marc W; Grundy, William M; Lyke, James E; Young, Eliot F; Roe, Henry G

    2016-01-01

    In this work we investigated the longitudinal (zonal) variability of H$_2$O and ammonia (NH$_3$) hydrate ices on the surface of Charon through analysis of the 1.65 $\\mu$m and 2.21 $\\mu$m absorption features, respectively. Near-infrared spectra presented here were obtained between 2015-07-14 and 2015-08-30 UT with the OSIRIS integral field spectrograph on Keck I. Spectra centered on six different sub-observer longitudes were obtained through the Hbb (1.473-1.803 $\\mu$m) and Kbb (1.965-2.381 $\\mu$m) filters. Gaussian functions were fit to the aforementioned bands to obtain information on band center, band depth, full width at half maximum, and band area. The shift in the band center of the temperature-dependent 1.65 $\\mu$m feature was used to calculate the H$_2$O ice temperature. The mean temperature of the ice on the observable portion of Charon's surface is 45$\\pm$14 K and we report no statistically significant variations in temperature across the surface. We hypothesize that the crystalline and amorphous pha...

  17. ZFIRE: A KECK/MOSFIRE Spectroscopic Survey of Galaxies in Rich Environments at z~2

    CERN Document Server

    Nanayakkara, Themiya; Kacprzak, Glenn G; Yuan, Tiantian; Tran, Kim-Vy; Spitler, Lee; Straatman, Lisa Kewley Caroline; Cowley, Michael; Fisher, David; Labbe, Ivo; Tomczak, Adam; Allen, Rebecca; Alcorn, Leo

    2016-01-01

    We present an overview and the first data release of ZFIRE, a spectroscopic redshift survey of star-forming galaxies that utilizes the MOSFIRE instrument on Keck-I to study galaxy properties in rich environments at $1.5

  18. Is Draco II one of the faintest dwarf galaxies? First evidence from Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Nicolas F; Ibata, Rodrigo A; Collins, Michelle L M; Laevens, Benjamin P M; Bell, Eric F; Rix, Hans-Walter; Ferguson, Annette M N; Chambers, Kenneth C; Wainscoat, Richard J; Waters, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    We present the first spectroscopic analysis of the faint and compact stellar system Draco II (Dra II, M_V=-2.9 +/- 0.8, r_h=19^{+8}_{-6} pc), recently discovered in the Pan-STARRS1 3\\pi survey. The observations, conducted with DEIMOS on the Keck II telescope, reveal a cold velocity peak with 9 member stars at a systemic heliocentric velocity =-347.6^{+1.7}_{-1.8} km/s, thereby confirming Dra II is a satellite of the Milky Way. We infer a marginally resolved velocity dispersion with \\sigma_{vr}=2.9 +/- 2.1 km/s, which hints that this system is kinematically hotter than implied from its baryonic mass alone and potentially dark-matter-dominated (\\log_{10}(M_{1/2})=5.5^{+0.4}_{-0.6} and log_{10}((M/L)_{1/2})=2.7^{+0.5}_{-0.8}, in Solar units). Furthermore, very weak Calcium triplet lines in the spectra of the high signal-to-noise member stars indicate that its metallicity is likely lower than that of the globular cluster NGC 2419 ([Fe/H]<-2.1). Finally, variations in the line strengths of two stars with simila...

  19. An interferometric study of the Fomalhaut inner debris disk II. Keck Nuller mid-infrared observations

    CERN Document Server

    Mennesson, B; Lebreton, J; Augereau, J -C; Serabyn, E; Colavita, M M; Millan-Gabet, R; Liu, W; Hinz, P; Thebault, P

    2012-01-01

    We report on high contrast mid-infrared observations of Fomalhaut obtained with the Keck Interferometer Nuller (KIN) showing a small resolved excess over the level expected from the stellar photosphere. The measured null excess has a mean value of 0.35% +/- 0.10% between 8 and 11 microns and increases from 8 to 13 microns. Given the small field of view of the instrument, the source of this marginal excess must be contained within 2AU of Fomalhaut. This result is reminiscent of previous VLTI K-band observations, which implied the presence of a ~ 0.88% excess, and argued that thermal emission from hot dusty grains located within 6 AU from Fomalhaut was the most plausible explanation. Using a parametric 2D radiative transfer code and a Bayesian analysis, we examine different dust disk structures to reproduce both the near and mid-infrared data simultaneously. While not a definitive explanation of the hot excess of Fomalhaut, our model suggests that the most likely inner few AU disk geometry consists of a two-com...

  20. Resolving the Multiple Outflows in the Egg Nebula with Keck II Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Mignant, D Le; Bouchez, A; Campbell, R; van Dam, M; Chin, J; Johansson, E; Hartman, S; Lafon, R; Lyke, J; Stomski, P; Summers, D; Wizinowich, P

    2007-01-01

    The Egg Nebula has been regarded as the archetype of bipolar proto-planetary nebulae, yet we lack a coherent model that can explain the morphology and kinematics of the nebular and dusty components observed at high-spatial and spectral resolution. Here, we report on two sets of observations obtained with the Keck Adaptive Optics Laser Guide Star: H to M-band NIRC2 imaging, and narrow bandpath K-band OSIRIS 3-D imaging-spectroscopy (through the H2 2.121micron emission line). While the central star or engine remains un-detected at all bands, we clearly resolve the dusty components in the central region and confirm that peak A is not a companion star. The spatially-resolved spectral analysis provide kinematic information of the H_2 emission regions in the eastern and central parts of the nebula and show projected velocities for the H_2 emission higher than 100 km/s. We discuss these observations against a possible formation scenario for the nebular components.

  1. Keck Observations of the Hidden Quasar IRAS P09104+4109

    CERN Document Server

    Tran, H D; Villar-Martin, M; Tran, Hien D.

    2000-01-01

    We present imaging and spectro- polarimetric observations of the ultraluminous infrared galaxy IRAS P09104+4109 using the Keck 10-m Telescope. We detect the clear presence of broad Hb, Hg, and MgII 2800 emission lines in the polarized flux spectra of the nucleus and of an extranuclear emission region ~ 4" away, confirming the presence of a hidden central quasar. The polarization of the broad Mg II emission line is high (~ 29%), consistent with the remarkably high polarization (~ 30%-40%) observed in the extended continuum emission. The narrow emission lines are polarized in a stratified fashion, with the high ionization lines being polarized 0.7%-1.7% and [O II] essentially unpolarized. The line polarizations are positively correlated with critical density, ionization potential, and velocity width of the emission lines. This indicates that the NLR may be partially shadowed by the putative torus, with the higher ionization lines originating closer to the nucleus. One notable characteristic of the extranuclear ...

  2. Keck/NIRC2 Imaging of the Warped, Asymmetric Debris Disk around HD 32297

    CERN Document Server

    Currie, Thayne; Debes, John; Plavchan, Peter; Kuchner, Marc; Jang-Condell, Hannah; Wilner, David; Andrews, Sean; Kraus, Adam; Dahm, Scott; Robitaille, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We present Keck/NIRC2 $K_{s}$ band high-contrast coronagraphic imaging of the luminous debris disk around the nearby, young A star HD 32297 resolved at a projected separation of $r$ = 0.3-2.5\\arcsec{} ($\\approx$ 35-280 AU). The disk is highly warped to the north and exhibits a complex, "wavy" surface brightness profile interior to $r$ $\\approx$ 110 AU, where the peaks/plateaus in the profiles are shifted between the NE and SW disk lobes. The SW side of the disk is 50--100% brighter at $r$ = 35-80 AU, and the location of its peak brightness roughly coincides with the disk's mm emission peak. Spectral energy distribution modeling suggests that HD 32297 has at least two dust populations that may originate from two separate belts likely at different locations, possibly at distances coinciding with the surface brightness peaks. A disk model for a single dust belt including a phase function with two components and a 5-10 AU pericenter offset explains the disk's warped structure and reproduces some of the surface br...

  3. Keck spectroscopy of z=1-3 ULIRGs from the Spitzer SWIRE survey

    CERN Document Server

    Berta, S; Siana, B; Farrah, D; Smith, H E; Polletta, M; Franceschini, A; Fritz, J; Pérez-Fournon, I; Rowan-Robinson, M; Shupe, D; Surace, J

    2007-01-01

    (Abridged) High-redshift ultra luminous infrared galaxies contribute the bulk of the cosmic IR background and are the best candidates for very massive galaxies in formation at z>1.5. We present Keck/LRIS optical spectroscopy of 35 z>1.4 luminous IR galaxies in the Spitzer Wide-area Infra-Red Extragalactic survey (SWIRE) northern fields (Lockman Hole, ELAIS-N1, ELAIS-N2). The primary targets belong to the ``IR-peak'' class of galaxies, having the 1.6 micron (restframe) stellar feature detected in the IRAC Spitzer channels.The spectral energy distributions of the main targets are thoroughly analyzed, by means of spectro-photometric synthesis and multi-component fits (stars + starburst dust + AGN torus). The IR-peak selection technique is confirmed to successfully select objects above z=1.4, though some of the observed sources lie at lower redshift than expected. Among the 16 galaxies with spectroscopic redshift, 62% host an AGN component, two thirds being type-1 and one third type-2 objects. The selection, limi...

  4. The Keck+Magellan Survey for Lyman Limit Absorption III: Sample Definition and Column Density Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Prochaska, J Xavier; Fumagalli, Michele; Bernstein, Rebecca A; Burles, Scott M

    2015-01-01

    We present an absorption-line survey of optically thick gas clouds -- Lyman Limit Systems (LLSs) -- observed at high dispersion with spectrometers on the Keck and Magellan telescopes. We measure column densities of neutral hydrogen NHI and associated metal-line transitions for 157 LLSs at z=1.76-4.39 restricted to 10^17.3 < NHI < 10^20.3. An empirical analysis of ionic ratios indicates an increasing ionization state of the gas with decreasing NHI and that the majority of LLSs are highly ionized, confirming previous expectations. The Si^+/H^0 ratio spans nearly four orders-of-magnitude, implying a large dispersion in the gas metallicity. Fewer than 5% of these LLSs have no positive detection of a metal transition; by z~3, nearly all gas that is dense enough to exhibit a very high Lyman limit opacity has previously been polluted by heavy elements. We add new measurements to the small subset of LLS (~5-10) that may have super-solar abundances. High Si^+/Fe^+ ratios suggest an alpha-enhanced medium whereas ...

  5. High Resolution Optical Spectroscopy of Rosetta Target 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko Using Keck HIRES

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Adam; Cochran, Anita L.; Bodewits, Dennis; A'Hearn, Michael F.; Altwegg, Kathrin; Gulkis, Samuel; Snodgrass, Colin; Borro, Miguel de Val; Kelley, Michael S.; Feaga, Lori M.; Wooden, Diane H.; Bauer, James M.; Kramer, Emily A.

    2016-10-01

    We present high spectral resolution optical spectroscopy of Rosetta target 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko obtained on UT Dec 26 and 27, 2015 using the HIRES instrument on Keck I when the comet was at a heliocentric distance of approximately 2 AU post-perihelion. The spectra cover a spectral range of 3500-10000 Angstroms at a spectral resolution of 67,000. These observations aim to provide high spectral resolution, large projected field of view context for the high spatial resolution and small projected field of view observations obtained from the Rosetta instrument suite. We report detections of CN, NH2, and [OI] emission. From the [OI]6300 emission we derive a water production rate of approximately 2 x 1027 mol/s. Production rates (or upper limits) for other species will be presented and placed in context with recent results from Rosetta. We will also present results pertaining to the [OI]5577 line, which combined with the [OI]6300 emission can be used as a proxy for CO2. We will compare our results to observations obtained by Rosetta as well as NEOWISE and Spitzer.

  6. Keck II Observations of Hemispherical Differences in H2O2 on Europa

    CERN Document Server

    Hand, Kevin P; 10.1088/2041-8205/766/2/L21

    2013-01-01

    We present results from Keck II observations of Europa over four consecutive nights using the near-infrared spectrograph (NIRSPEC). Spectra were collected in the 3.14--4.0 micron range, allowing detection and monitoring of the 3.5 micron feature due to hydrogen peroxide. Galileo Near-Infrared Spectrometer (NIMS) results first revealed hydrogen peroxide on Europa in the anti-jovian region of the leading hemisphere at an abundance of 0.13+/-0.07% by number abundance relative to water. We find comparable results for the two nights over which we observed the leading hemisphere. Significantly, we observed a small amount of hydrogen peroxide (~0.04%) during observations of Europa's anti- and sub-Jovian hemispheres. Almost no hydrogen peroxide was detected during observations of just the trailing hemisphere. We conclude that the Galileo observations likely represent the maximum hydrogen peroxide concentration, the exception potentially being the cold water ice regions of the poles, which are not readily observable f...

  7. Induced-Gravity Inflation in Supergravity Confronted with Planck 2015 & BICEP2/Keck Array

    CERN Document Server

    Pallis, C

    2015-01-01

    Supersymmetric versions of induced-gravity inflation are formulated within Supergravity (SUGRA) employing two gauge singlet chiral superfields. The proposed superpotential is uniquely determined by applying a continuous R and a discrete Z_2 symmetry. We also employ a logarithmic Kahler potential respecting the symmetries above and including all the allowed terms up to fourth order in powers of the various fields. When the Kahler manifold exhibits a no-scale-type symmetry, the model predicts spectral index ns=0.963 and tensor-to-scalar r=0.004. Beyond no-scale SUGRA, ns and r depend crucially on the coefficient ksphi involved in the fourth order term, which mixes the inflaton \\Phi\\ with the accompanying non-inflaton superfield S in the Kahler potential, and the prefactor encountered in it. Increasing slightly the latter above (-3), an efficient enhancement of the resulting r can be achieved putting it in the observable range favored by the Planck and BICEP2/Keck Array results. In all cases, imposing a lower bo...

  8. A DEEP KECK/NIRC2 SEARCH FOR THERMAL EMISSION FROM PLANETARY COMPANIONS ORBITING FOMALHAUT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Currie, Thayne; Cloutier, Ryan [University of Toronto, 50 St George St., Toronto, ON M5S 1A1 (Canada); Debes, John H. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Kenyon, Scott J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kaisler, Denise [Citrus College, 1000 West Foothill Boulevard, Glendora, CA 91741 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    We present deep Keck/NIRC2 1.6 and 3.8 μm imaging of Fomalhaut to constrain the near-infrared brightness of Fomalhaut b, recently confirmed as a likely planet, and search for additional planets at r {sub proj} = 15-150 AU. Using advanced/novel point spread function subtraction techniques, we identify seven candidate substellar companions Fomalhaut b-like projected separations. However, multi-epoch data show them to be background objects. We set a new 3σ upper limit for Fomalhaut b's H-band brightness of m(H) ∼23.15 or 1.5-4.5 M{sub J} . We do not recover the possible point source reported from Spitzer/IRAC data: at its location detection limits are similar to those for Fomalhaut b. Our data when combined with other recent work rule out planets with masses and projected separations comparable to HR 8799 bcde and M > 3 M{sub J} planets at r {sub proj} > 45 AU. The James Webb Space Telescope will likely be required to shed substantial further light on Fomalhaut's planetary system in the next decade.

  9. Characterization of the gaseous companion {\\kappa} Andromedae b: New Keck and LBTI high-contrast observations

    CERN Document Server

    Bonnefoy, M; Marleau, G -D; Schlieder, J E; Wisniewski, J; Carson, J; Covey, K R; Henning, T; Biller, B; Hinz, P; Klahr, H; Boyer, A N Marsh; Zimmerman, N; Janson, M; McElwain, M; Mordasini, C; Skemer, A; Bailey, V; Defrère, D; Thalmann, C; Skrutskie, M; Allard, F; Homeier, D; Tamura, M; Feldt, M; Cumming, A; Grady, C; Brandner, W; Kandori, R; Kuzuhara, M; Fukagawa, M; Kwon, J; Kudo, T; Hashimoto, J; Kusakabe, N; Abe, L; Brandt, T; Egner, S; Guyon, O; Hayano, Y; Hayashi, M; Hayashi, S; Hodapp, K; Ishii, M; Iye, M; Knapp, G; Matsuo, T; Mede, K; Miyama, M; Morino, J -I; Moro-Martin, A; Nishimura, T; Pyo, T; Serabyn, E; Suenaga, T; Suto, H; Suzuki, R; Takahashi,; Takami, M; Takato, N; Terada, H; Tomono, D; Turner, E; Watanabe, M; Yamada, T; Takami, H; Usuda, T

    2013-01-01

    We previously reported the direct detection of a low mass companion at a projected separation of 55+-2 AU around the B9 type star {\\kappa} Andromedae. The properties of the system (mass ratio, separation) make it a benchmark for the understanding of the formation and evolution of gas giant planets and brown dwarfs on wide-orbits. We present new angular differential imaging (ADI) images of the Kappa Andromedae system at 2.146 (Ks), 3.776 (L'), 4.052 (NB 4.05) and 4.78 {\\mu}m (M') obtained with Keck/NIRC2 and LBTI/LMIRCam, as well as more accurate near-infrared photometry of the star with the MIMIR instrument. We derive a more accurate J = 15.86 +- 0.21, H = 14.95 +- 0.13, Ks = 14.32 +- 0.09 mag for {\\kappa} And b. We redetect the companion in all our high contrast observations. We confirm previous contrasts obtained at Ks and L' band. We derive NB 4.05 = 13.0 +- 0.2 and M' = 13.3 +- 0.3 mag and estimate Log10(L/Lsun) = -3.76 +- 0.06. We build the 1-5 microns spectral energy distribution of the companion and co...

  10. Precise Infrared Radial Velocities from Keck/NIRSPEC and the Search for Young Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Bailey, John I; Blake, Cullen H; Charbonneau, Dave; Barman, Travis S; Tanner, Angelle M; Torres, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    We present a high-precision infrared radial velocity study of late-type stars using spectra obtained with NIRSPEC at the W. M. Keck Observatory. Radial velocity precisions of 50 m/s are achieved for old field mid-M dwarfs using telluric features for precise wavelength calibration. Using this technique, 20 young stars in the {\\beta} Pic (age ~12 Myr) and TW Hya (age ~8 Myr) Associations were monitored over several years to search for low mass companions; we also included the chromospherically active field star GJ 873 (EV Lac) in this survey. Based on comparisons with previous optical observations of these young active stars, radial velocity measurements at infrared wavelengths mitigate the radial velocity noise caused by star spots by a factor of ~3. Nevertheless, star spot noise is still the dominant source of measurement error for young stars at 2.3 {\\mu}m, and limits the precision to ~77 m/s for the slowest rotating stars (v sin i 12 km/s). The observations reveal both GJ 3305 and TWA 23 to be single-lined...

  11. RESOLVING GAS FLOWS IN THE ULTRALUMINOUS STARBURST IRAS 23365+3604 WITH KECK LGSAO/OSIRIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Crystal L. [Physics Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9530 (United States); Soto, Kurt T. [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zurich, Zurich 8093 (Switzerland)

    2016-03-01

    Keck OSIRIS/LGSAO observations of the ultraluminous galaxy IRAS 23365+3604 resolve a circumnuclear bar (or irregular disk) of semimajor axis 0.″42 (520 pc) in Paα emission. The line-of-sight velocity of the ionized gas increases from the northeast toward the southwest; this gradient is perpendicular to the photometric major axis of the infrared emission. Two pairs of bends in the zero-velocity line are detected. The inner bend provides evidence for gas inflow onto the circumnuclear disk/bar structure. We interpret the gas kinematics on kiloparsec scales in relation to the molecular gas disk and multiphase outflow discovered previously. In particular, the fast component of the ouflow (detected previously in line wings) is not detected, adding support to the conjecture that the fast wind originates well beyond the nucleus. These data directly show the dynamics of gas inflow and outflow in the central kiloparsec of a late-stage, gas-rich merger and demonstrate the potential of integral field spectroscopy to improve our understanding of the role of gas flows during the growth phase of bulges and supermassive black holes.

  12. Resolving Gas Flows in the Ultraluminous Starburst IRAS23365+3604 with Keck LGSAO/OSIRIS

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Crystal L

    2015-01-01

    Keck OSIRIS/LGSAO observations of the ultraluminous galaxy IRAS 23365+3604 resolve a non-axisymmetric, circumnuclear structure of semi-major axis 0.42" (520 pc) in Paschen-alpha emission. The line-of-sight velocity of the ionized gas increases from the northeast towards the southwest; this gradient is perpendicular to the photometric major axis of the infrared emission. Two pairs of bends in the zero velocity line are detected. The inner bend provides evidence for gas inflow onto the circumnuclear structure. We interpret the gas kinematics on kiloparsec scales in relation to the molecular gas disk and multiphase outflow discovered previously. In particular, the fast component of the outflow (detected previously with lower spatial resolution) is not detected, adding support to the conjecture that the fast wind originates well-beyond the nucleus. These data directly show the dynamics of gas inflow and outflow in the central kiloparsec of a late-stage, gas-rich merger and demonstrate the potential of integral fi...

  13. Morphologies of High Redshift, Dust Obscured Galaxies from Keck Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Melbourne, J; Armus, Lee; Dey, Arjun; Brand, K; Thompson, D; Soifer, B T; Matthews, K; Jannuzi, B T; Houck, J R

    2008-01-01

    Spitzer MIPS images in the Bootes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey have revealed a class of extremely dust obscured galaxy (DOG) at z~2. The DOGs are defined by very red optical to mid-IR (observed-frame) colors, R - [24 um] > 14 mag, i.e. f_v (24 um) / f_v (R) > 1000. They are Ultra-Luminous Infrared Galaxies with L_8-1000 um > 10^12 -10^14 L_sun, but typically have very faint optical (rest-frame UV) fluxes. We imaged three DOGs with the Keck Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics (LGSAO) system, obtaining ~0.06'' resolution in the K'-band. One system was dominated by a point source, while the other two were clearly resolved. Of the resolved sources, one can be modeled as a exponential disk system. The other is consistent with a de Vaucouleurs profile typical of elliptical galaxies. The non-parametric measures of their concentration and asymmetry, show the DOGs to be both compact and smooth. The AO images rule out double nuclei with separations of greater than 0.1'' (< 1 kpc at z=2), making it unlikely ...

  14. Strategic Technological Sourcing Decisions in the Context of Timing and Market Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brem, Alexander; Gerhard, D.; Voigt, K.-I.

    2014-01-01

    In times of changing business models and international competition, there is an inherent need for companies to foster and develop mechanisms to absorb new technologies for innovative products and processes effectively. Such considerations lead to the strategic make-or-buy decision which was the s......In times of changing business models and international competition, there is an inherent need for companies to foster and develop mechanisms to absorb new technologies for innovative products and processes effectively. Such considerations lead to the strategic make-or-buy decision which...... was the subject of our research. This quantitative explanatory study in the German industry shows in particular that companies base their decision for internal or external sourcing on multiple weighted criteria with scoring models and, even more common, with portfolio matrices. These results are in common...... with the proposed characteristics of these strategic focuses in literature. Implications for theory and practice are given to foster future research in this area....

  15. Integration of multidisciplinary technologies for real time target visualization and verification for radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang WC

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Wen-Chung Chang,1,* Chin-Sheng Chen,2,* Hung-Chi Tai,3 Chia-Yuan Liu,4,5 Yu-Jen Chen3 1Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan; 2Graduate Institute of Automation Technology, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan; 3Department of Radiation Oncology, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 4Department of Internal Medicine, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 5Department of Medicine, Mackay Medical College, New Taipei City, Taiwan  *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: The current practice of radiotherapy examines target coverage solely from digitally reconstructed beam's eye view (BEV in a way that is indirectly accessible and that is not in real time. We aimed to visualize treatment targets in real time from each BEV. The image data of phantom or patients from ultrasound (US and computed tomography (CT scans were captured to perform image registration. We integrated US, CT, US/CT image registration, robotic manipulation of US, a radiation treatment planning system, and a linear accelerator to constitute an innovative target visualization system. The performance of this algorithm segmented the target organ in CT images, transformed and reconstructed US images to match each orientation, and generated image registration in real time mode with acceptable accuracy. This image transformation allowed physicians to visualize the CT image-reconstructed target via a US probe outside the BEV that was non-coplanar to the beam's plane. It allowed the physicians to remotely control the US probe that was equipped on a robotic arm to dynamically trace and real time monitor the coverage of the target within the BEV during a simulated beam-on situation. This target visualization system may provide a direct remotely accessible and real time way to visualize, verify, and ensure tumor targeting during radiotherapy. Keywords: ultrasound, computerized tomography

  16. Neutral Hydrogen Optical Depth near Star-forming Galaxies at z ≈ 2.4 in the Keck Baryonic Structure Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakic, Olivera; Schaye, Joop; Steidel, Charles C.; Rudie, Gwen C.

    2012-06-01

    We study the interface between galaxies and the intergalactic medium by measuring the absorption by neutral hydrogen in the vicinity of star-forming galaxies at z ≈ 2.4. Our sample consists of 679 rest-frame UV-selected galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts that have impact parameters background QSOs and that fall within the redshift range of its Lyα forest. We present the first two-dimensional maps of the absorption around galaxies, plotting the median Lyα pixel optical depth as a function of transverse and line-of-sight separation from galaxies. The Lyα optical depths are measured using an automatic algorithm that takes advantage of all available Lyman series lines. The median optical depth, and hence the median density of atomic hydrogen, drops by more than an order of magnitude around 100 kpc, which is similar to the virial radius of the halos thought to host the galaxies. The median remains enhanced, at the >3σ level, out to at least 2.8 Mpc (i.e., >9 comoving Mpc), but the scatter at a given distance is large compared with the median excess optical depth, suggesting that the gas is clumpy. Within 100 (200) kpc, and over ±165 km s-1, the covering fraction of gas with Lyα optical depth greater than unity is 100+0 - 32% (66% ± 16%). Absorbers with τLyα > 0.1 are typically closer to galaxies than random. The mean galaxy overdensity around absorbers increases with the optical depth and also as the length scale over which the galaxy overdensity is evaluated is decreased. Absorbers with τLyα ~ 1 reside in regions where the galaxy number density is close to the cosmic mean on scales >=0.25 Mpc. We clearly detect two types of redshift space anisotropies. On scales 3σ significance), an effect that we attribute to large-scale infall (i.e., the Kaiser effect). Based on data obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and NASA, and was made

  17. Real-time image processing for non-contact monitoring of dynamic displacements using smartphone technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Jae-Hong; Gelo, Nikolas J.; Jo, Hongki

    2016-04-01

    The newly developed smartphone application, named RINO, in this study allows measuring absolute dynamic displacements and processing them in real time using state-of-the-art smartphone technologies, such as high-performance graphics processing unit (GPU), in addition to already powerful CPU and memories, embedded high-speed/ resolution camera, and open-source computer vision libraries. A carefully designed color-patterned target and user-adjustable crop filter enable accurate and fast image processing, allowing up to 240fps for complete displacement calculation and real-time display. The performances of the developed smartphone application are experimentally validated, showing comparable accuracy with those of conventional laser displacement sensor.

  18. Particle tower technology applied to metallurgic plants and peak-time boosting of steam power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsbeck, Lars; Buck, Reiner; Prosin, Tobias

    2016-05-01

    Using solar tower technology with ceramic particles as heat transfer and storage medium to preheat scrap for induction furnaces in foundries provides solar generated heat to save electricity. With such a system an unsubsidized payback time of only 4 years is achieved for a 70000t/a foundry in Brazil. The same system can be also used for heat treatment of metals. If electricity is used to heat inert atmospheres a favorable economic performance is also achievable for the particle system. The storage in a particle system enables solar boosting to be restricted to only peak times, enabling an interesting business case opportunity.

  19. Introducing time delay in the evolution of new technology: the case study of nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgalis, Evangelos E.; Aifantis, Elias C.

    2013-12-01

    Starting with Feynman's "There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom" prophetic lecture at Caltech in the 1960s, the term "nanotechnology" was first coined in the scientific literature in the 1980s. This was followed by the unprecedented growth in the corresponding scientific field in 2000 due to the financial incentive provided by President Clinton in the US, followed up by similar efforts in Europe, Japan, China and Russia. Today, nanotechnology has become a driving force for economic development, with applications in all fields of engineering, information technology, transport and energy, as well as biology and medicine. Thus, it is important to forecast its future growth and evolution on the basis of two different criteria: (1) the government and private capital invested in related activities, and (2) the number of scientific publications and popular articles dedicated to this field. This article aims to extract forecasts on the evolution of nanotechnology, using the standard logistic equation that result in familiar sigmoid curves, as well as to explore the effect of time delay on its evolution. Time delay is commonly known from previous biological and ecological models, in which time lag is either already known or can be experimentally measured. In contrast, in the case of a new technology, we must first define the method for determining time delay and then interpret its existence and role. Then we describe the implications that time delay may have on the stability of the sigmoidal behavior of nanotechnology evolution and on the related oscillations that may appear.

  20. Engaging science communication that are time-saving for scientists using new online technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilja Bye, Bente

    2016-04-01

    Science communication is a time consuming and challenging task. Communicating scientific results comes on top of doing science itself and the administrative work the modern day scientists have to cope with. The competition on peoples time and attention is also fierce. In order to get peoples attention and interest, it is today often required that there is a two-way communication. The audience needs and wants to be engaged, even in real-time. The skills and times required to do that is normally not included in the university curricula. In this presentation we will look at new technologies that can help scientists overcome some of those skills and time challenges. The new online technologies that has been tested and developed in other societal areas, can be of great use for research and the important science communication. We will illustrate this through an example from biodiversity, wetlands and these fields use of Earth observations. Both the scientists themselves representing different fields of research and the general public are being engaged effectively and efficiently through specifically designed online events/seminars/workshops. The scientists are able to learn from each other while also engaging in live dialogues with the audience. A cooperation between the Group of Earth Observations and the Ramsar Convention of Wetlands will be used to illustrate the method. Within the global Earth observation community, where this example comes from, there is a great potential for efficient capacity building, targeting both experts, decision-makers and the general public. The method presented is demonstrating one way of tapping into that potential using new online technologies and it can easily be transferred to other fields of geoscience and science in general.

  1. Technologies for Real-Time Monitoring and Surveillance of High-Valued Assets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickett, Chris A [ORNL; Richardson, Dave [ORNL; Stinson, Brad J [ORNL; Younkin, James R [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been working on technologies that can provide real-time monitoring and surveillance of high-valued assets. It is hoped through effective system design that some of these technologies can be utilized as the technical equivalent for the "two person rule" (required for many domestic safeguards operations). The major efforts associated with this work to date involve the integration and adaptation of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) radio frequency-based technologies into basic system elements that can be effectively layered into integrated unobtrusive monitoring systems that are specifically designed to detect unauthorized asset movements. Each system element is designed to provide real-time monitoring and surveillance of both protected assets and the people who have access to them. The goal is to accomplish up-to-the-minute status of monitored assets using site-specific, rules-based algorithms. The overall system concepts focus on early detection (of theft or diversion) at the asset, followed by appropriate alarms or notifications that can be used to initiate appropriate response(s).

  2. Back to the future: virtualization of the computing environment at the W. M. Keck Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Kevin L.; Birch, Denny A.; Holt, Jennifer M.; Randolph, William B.; Ward, Josephine A.

    2014-07-01

    Over its two decades of science operations, the W.M. Keck Observatory computing environment has evolved to contain a distributed hybrid mix of hundreds of servers, desktops and laptops of multiple different hardware platforms, O/S versions and vintages. Supporting the growing computing capabilities to meet the observatory's diverse, evolving computing demands within fixed budget constraints, presents many challenges. This paper describes the significant role that virtualization is playing in addressing these challenges while improving the level and quality of service as well as realizing significant savings across many cost areas. Starting in December 2012, the observatory embarked on an ambitious plan to incrementally test and deploy a migration to virtualized platforms to address a broad range of specific opportunities. Implementation to date has been surprisingly glitch free, progressing well and yielding tangible benefits much faster than many expected. We describe here the general approach, starting with the initial identification of some low hanging fruit which also provided opportunity to gain experience and build confidence among both the implementation team and the user community. We describe the range of challenges, opportunities and cost savings potential. Very significant among these was the substantial power savings which resulted in strong broad support for moving forward. We go on to describe the phasing plan, the evolving scalable architecture, some of the specific technical choices, as well as some of the individual technical issues encountered along the way. The phased implementation spans Windows and Unix servers for scientific, engineering and business operations, virtualized desktops for typical office users as well as more the more demanding graphics intensive CAD users. Other areas discussed in this paper include staff training, load balancing, redundancy, scalability, remote access, disaster readiness and recovery.

  3. THE COS-HALOS SURVEY: KECK LRIS AND MAGELLAN MagE OPTICAL SPECTROSCOPY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werk, Jessica K.; Prochaska, J. Xavier [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Thom, Christopher; Tumlinson, Jason [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD (United States); Tripp, Todd M.; Meiring, Joseph D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); O' Meara, John M., E-mail: jwerk@ucolick.org [Department of Chemistry and Physics, Saint Michael' s College, Colchester, VT (United States)

    2012-01-01

    We present high signal-to-noise optical spectra for 67 low-redshift (0.1 < z < 0.4) galaxies that lie within close projected distances (5 kpc < {rho} < 150 kpc) of 38 background UV-bright QSOs. The Keck LRIS and Magellan MagE data presented here are part of a survey that aims to construct a statistically sampled map of the physical state and metallicity of gaseous galaxy halos using the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) on the Hubble Space Telescope. We provide a detailed description of the optical data reduction and subsequent spectral analysis that allow us to derive the physical properties of this uniquely data-rich sample of galaxies. The galaxy sample is divided into 38 pre-selected L {approx} L*, z {approx} 0.2 'target' galaxies and 29 'bonus' galaxies that lie in close proximity to the QSO sightlines. We report galaxy spectroscopic redshifts accurate to {+-}30 km s{sup -1}, impact parameters, rest-frame colors, stellar masses, total star formation rates (SFRs), and gas-phase interstellar medium oxygen abundances. When we compare the distribution of these galaxy characteristics to those of the general low-redshift population, we find good agreement. The L {approx} L* galaxies in this sample span a diverse range of color (1.0 < u - r < 3.0), stellar mass (10{sup 9.5} < M/M{sub Sun} < 10{sup 11.5}), and SFRs (0.01-20 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}). These optical data, along with the COS UV spectroscopy, comprise the backbone of our efforts to understand how halo gas properties may correlate with their host galaxy properties, and ultimately to uncover the processes that drive gas outflow and/or are influenced by gas inflow.

  4. HUBBLE AND KECK TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF ACTIVE ASTEROID 288P/300163 (2006 VW139)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Jessica [Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Jewitt, David [Department Earth, Planetary and Space Sciences, UCLA, 595 Charles Young Drive East, Box 951567 Los Angeles, CA 90095-1567 (United States); Weaver, Harold [The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Mutchler, Max [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Larson, Stephen, E-mail: agarwal@mps.mpg.de [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 E. University Blvd. Tucson AZ 85721-0092 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and Keck 10 m telescope observations of active asteroid 288P/300163 (2006 VW139) taken to examine ejected dust. The nucleus is a C-type object with absolute magnitude H{sub V} = 17.0 ± 0.1 and estimated diameter ∼2.6 km (for assumed visual geometric albedo p{sub V} = 0.04). Variations in the brightness of the nucleus at the 10%–15% level are significant in both 2011 December and 2012 October but we possess too few data to distinguish variations caused by activity from those caused by rotation. The dust scattering cross-section in 2011 December is ∼40 km{sup 2}, corresponding to a dust mass ∼9 × 10{sup 6} kg (88 μm mean particle radius assumed). The FWHM of the debris sheet varies from ∼100 km near the nucleus to ∼1000 km 30″ (40,000 km) east of it. Dust dynamical models indicate ejection speeds between 0.06 and 0.3 m s{sup −1}, particle sizes between 10 and 300 μm and an inverse square-root relation between particle size and velocity. Overall, the data are most simply explained by prolonged, low velocity ejection of dust, starting in or before 2011 July and continuing until at least 2011 October. These properties are consistent with the sublimation of near-surface ice aided by centrifugal forces. The high spatial resolution of our HST images (52 km pixel{sup −1}) reveals details that remained hidden in previous ground-based observations, such as the extraordinarily small vertical extent of the dust sheet, ejection speeds well below the nucleus escape speed, and the possibility of a binary nucleus.

  5. Circumnuclear Star Clusters in the Galaxy Merger NGC 6240, Observed with Keck Adaptive Optics and HST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollack, L K; Max, C E; Schneider, G

    2007-02-12

    We discuss images of the central {approx} 10 kpc (in projection) of the galaxy merger NGC 6240 at H and K{prime} bands, taken with the NIRC2 narrow camera on Keck II using natural guide star adaptive optics. We detect 28 star clusters in the NIRC2 images, of which only 7 can be seen in the similar-spatial-resolution, archival WFPC2 Planetary Camera data at either B or I bands. Combining the NIRC2 narrow camera pointings with wider NICMOS NIC2 images taken with the F110W, F160W, and F222M filters, we identify a total of 32 clusters that are detected in at least one of these 5 infrared ({lambda}{sub c} > 1 {micro}m) bandpasses. By comparing to instantaneous burst, stellar population synthesis models (Bruzual & Charlot 2003), we estimate that most of the clusters are consistent with being {approx} 15 Myr old and have photometric masses ranging from 7 x 10{sup 5} M{sub {circle_dot}} to 4 x 10{sup 7}M{sub {circle_dot}}. The total contribution to the star formation rate (SFR) from these clusters is approximately 10M{sub {circle_dot}} yr{sup -1}, or {approx} 10% of the total SFR in the nuclear region. We use these newly discovered clusters to estimate the extinction toward NGC 6240's double nuclei, and find values of A{sub v} as high as 14 magnitudes along some sightlines, with an average extinction of A{sub v} {approx} 7 mag toward sightlines within {approx} 3-inches of the double nuclei.

  6. MODELS OF THE η CORVI DEBRIS DISK FROM THE KECK INTERFEROMETER, SPITZER, AND HERSCHEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebreton, J.; Beichman, C.; Millan-Gabet, R. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bryden, G.; Mennesson, B. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, CA 91107 (United States); Defrère, D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 993 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ, 85721 (United States); Boccaletti, A., E-mail: lebretoj@gmail.com [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, University Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6 and University Denis Diderot Paris 7, 5 place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon (France)

    2016-02-01

    Debris disks are signposts of analogs to small-body populations of the solar system, often, however, with much higher masses and dust production rates. The disk associated with the nearby star η Crv is especially striking, as it shows strong mid- and far-infrared excesses despite an age of ∼1.4 Gyr. We undertake constructing a consistent model of the system that can explain a diverse collection of spatial and spectral data. We analyze Keck Interferometer Nuller measurements and revisit Spitzer and additional spectrophotometric data, as well as resolved Herschel images, to determine the dust spatial distribution in the inner exozodi and in the outer belt. We model in detail the two-component disk and the dust properties from the sub-AU scale to the outermost regions by fitting simultaneously all measurements against a large parameter space. The properties of the cold belt are consistent with a collisional cascade in a reservoir of ice-free planetesimals at 133 AU. It shows marginal evidence for asymmetries along the major axis. KIN enables us to establish that the warm dust consists of a ring that peaks between 0.2 and 0.8 AU. To reconcile this location with the ∼400 K dust temperature, very high albedo dust must be invoked, and a distribution of forsterite grains starting from micron sizes satisfies this criterion, while providing an excellent fit to the spectrum. We discuss additional constraints from the LBTI and near-infrared spectra, and we present predictions of what James Webb Space Telescope can unveil about this unusual object and whether it can detect unseen planets.

  7. MOBILE 5G TECHNOLOGY ADOPTION INVESTMENT TIMING DECISION MAKERS CLUSTERING AND WILLINGNESS TO INVEST UNDER VOLATILE DEMAND CHANGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulius Adamauskas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Enterprises need to identify the optimal timing for technological change in order to increase competitiveness and increase the value of the company in an uncertain demanding environment. Investment decisions for adopting new technologies are costly and sometimes risky because technological investments are irreversible. To simulate the process, comprehensive technological adoption regarding investment timing was used in a management decision support model. The constructed model is structured as follows: 1 historical demand paths analysis; 2 application of statistical data validity tests; 3 the forecast of market parameters regarding data arrays using the geometric Brownian motion method, based on Monte Carlo simulation; 4 determination of technological life cycle using a Hodrick–Prescott filter; 5 technological adoption time-window determination; and 6 calculation of company net present values (NPV based on change in free cash-flow. The model for mature 5G mobile markets, created and empirical tested, was performed in relation to 18 largest Europe mobile service providers, as potential decision makers operating across 33 countries. Results confirmed that selection of the technological investment time depends on companies’ strategic financial decisions and financial state. The performed simulations revealed the consequence of 5G technology investment for investor roles, clustered according to financial data within a 5-year period (2010–2014. The analyzed companies were assigned to roles of pioneers-innovators, pragmatics, followers, or laggards. Finally, it is assumed and argued that financial parameters indicate the willingness to adopt new technologies in a global technologically changing environment.

  8. New technologies for supporting real-time on-board software development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerridge, D.

    1995-03-01

    The next generation of on-board data management systems will be significantly more complex than current designs, and will be required to perform more complex and demanding tasks in software. Improved hardware technology, in the form of the MA31750 radiation hard processor, is one key component in addressing the needs of future embedded systems. However, to complement these hardware advances, improved support for the design and implementation of real-time data management software is now needed. This will help to control the cost and risk assoicated with developing data management software development as it becomes an increasingly significant element within embedded systems. One particular problem with developing embedded software is managing the non-functional requirements in a systematic way. This paper identifies how Logica has exploited recent developments in hard real-time theory to address this problem through the use of new hard real-time analysis and design methods which can be supported by specialized tools. The first stage in transferring this technology from the research domain to industrial application has already been completed. The MA37150 Hard Real-Time Embedded Software Support Environment (HESSE) is a loosely integrated set of hardware and software tools which directly support the process of hard real-time analysis for software targeting the MA31750 processor. With further development, this HESSE promises to provide embedded system developers with software tools which can reduce the risks associated with developing complex hard real-time software. Supported in this way by more sophisticated software methods and tools, it is foreseen that MA31750 based embedded systems can meet the processing needs for the next generation of on-board data management systems.

  9. Technology strategy for integrated operations and real time reservoir management; Technology Target Areas; TTA5 - Integrated operations and RTRM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    In Norway Integrated Operations (IO) is a concept which in the first phase (G1) has been used to describe how to integrate processes and people onshore and offshore using ICT solutions and facilities that improve onshore's ability to support offshore operationally. The second generation (G2) Integrated Operations aims to help operators utilize vendors' core competencies and services more efficiently. Utilizing digital services and vendor products, operators will be able to update reservoir models, drilling targets and well trajectories as wells are drilled, manage well completions remotely, optimize production from reservoir to export lines, and implement condition-based maintenance concepts. The total impact on production, recovery rates, costs and safety will be profound. When the international petroleum business moves to the Arctic region the setting is very different from what is the case on the Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS) and new challenges will arise. The Norwegian Ministry of Environment has recently issued an Integrated Management Plan for the Barents Sea where one focus is on 'Monitoring of the Marine Environment in the North'. The Government aims to establish a new and more coordinated system for monitoring the marine ecosystems in the north. A representative group consisting of the major Operators, the Service Industry, Academia and the Authorities have developed the enclosed strategy for the OG21 Integrated Operations and Real Time Reservoir Management (IO and RTRM) Technology Target Area (TTA). Major technology and work process research and development gaps have been identified in several areas: Bandwidth down-hole to surface; Sensor development including Nano-technology; Cross discipline use of Visualisation, Simulation and model development particularly in Drilling and Reservoir management areas; Software development in terms of data handling, model updating and calculation speed; Enabling reliable and robust communications

  10. Technology strategy for integrated operations and real time reservoir management; Technology Target Areas; TTA5 - Integrated operations and RTRM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    In Norway Integrated Operations (IO) is a concept which in the first phase (G1) has been used to describe how to integrate processes and people onshore and offshore using ICT solutions and facilities that improve onshore's ability to support offshore operationally. The second generation (G2) Integrated Operations aims to help operators utilize vendors' core competencies and services more efficiently. Utilizing digital services and vendor products, operators will be able to update reservoir models, drilling targets and well trajectories as wells are drilled, manage well completions remotely, optimize production from reservoir to export lines, and implement condition-based maintenance concepts. The total impact on production, recovery rates, costs and safety will be profound. When the international petroleum business moves to the Arctic region the setting is very different from what is the case on the Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS) and new challenges will arise. The Norwegian Ministry of Environment has recently issued an Integrated Management Plan for the Barents Sea where one focus is on 'Monitoring of the Marine Environment in the North'. The Government aims to establish a new and more coordinated system for monitoring the marine ecosystems in the north. A representative group consisting of the major Operators, the Service Industry, Academia and the Authorities have developed the enclosed strategy for the OG21 Integrated Operations and Real Time Reservoir Management (IO and RTRM) Technology Target Area (TTA). Major technology and work process research and development gaps have been identified in several areas: Bandwidth down-hole to surface; Sensor development including Nano-technology; Cross discipline use of Visualisation, Simulation and model development particularly in Drilling and Reservoir management areas; Software development in terms of data handling, model updating and calculation speed; Enabling reliable and robust communications

  11. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Vehicle Technology Deployment Pathways: An Examination of Timing and Investment Constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotkin, S.; Stephens, T.; McManus, W.

    2013-03-01

    Scenarios of new vehicle technology deployment serve various purposes; some will seek to establish plausibility. This report proposes two reality checks for scenarios: (1) implications of manufacturing constraints on timing of vehicle deployment and (2) investment decisions required to bring new vehicle technologies to market. An estimated timeline of 12 to more than 22 years from initial market introduction to saturation is supported by historical examples and based on the product development process. Researchers also consider the series of investment decisions to develop and build the vehicles and their associated fueling infrastructure. A proposed decision tree analysis structure could be used to systematically examine investors' decisions and the potential outcomes, including consideration of cash flow and return on investment. This method requires data or assumptions about capital cost, variable cost, revenue, timing, and probability of success/failure, and would result in a detailed consideration of the value proposition of large investments and long lead times. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency effort to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  12. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Vehicle Technology Deployment Pathways. An Examination of Timing and Investment Constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotkin, Steve [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Stephens, Thomas [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); McManus, Walter [Oakland Univ., Rochester, MI (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Scenarios of new vehicle technology deployment serve various purposes; some will seek to establish plausibility. This report proposes two reality checks for scenarios: (1) implications of manufacturing constraints on timing of vehicle deployment and (2) investment decisions required to bring new vehicle technologies to market. An estimated timeline of 12 to more than 22 years from initial market introduction to saturation is supported by historical examples and based on the product development process. Researchers also consider the series of investment decisions to develop and build the vehicles and their associated fueling infrastructure. A proposed decision tree analysis structure could be used to systematically examine investors' decisions and the potential outcomes, including consideration of cash flow and return on investment. This method requires data or assumptions about capital cost, variable cost, revenue, timing, and probability of success/failure, and would result in a detailed consideration of the value proposition of large investments and long lead times. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency effort to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  13. The impact of new technologies in balancing private and family life with working time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Coelho Moreira

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The work-life balance is a fundamental issue for all the workers and it is linked to many others, such as quality of work, female participation in the labour market, gender equality and active ageing.Among the new challenges of contemporary society, a key role is played by the introduction in the workplaces of new digital and computer technologies, which may change working-time arrangement and, at the same time, guarantee more flexibility in working-time.On the one hand, this phenomenon can lead to a better management of working-time; nevertheless, on the other hand, it can determine an increase in working hours, since digital technologies and working-time flexibility are associate with a different evaluation of workers’ performance no more in reference to the working time, but on the basis of the results. It may result in an increase of the working time. Indeed, working hours’ flexibility does not always ascribe more freedom to the workers, but, as it is often the case, it can lead to an increase in working time, which encroach on private and family life.Technologies offer the possibility to “anytime-anyplace” jobs, but it can not result in a demand of working “always-everywhere”. The working times allowed by new technologies risks to result in new sweating practices: even though digital technologies provide easier way to shape working time patterns, actually it challenges the fundamental right of workers to have a day of rest. The distinction between working and non-working time becomes less and less visible and the border line between personal and professional life is more and more confused.In order to avoid these criticisms, it was theorized the “right to disconnect”, which is the last frontiers of right to privacy in the 21 st century.The “ghost of ubiquity” is appearing, since workers are requested to be connected always and everywhere.At the moment, the tendency is to request a broader participation of workers in the

  14. Analysis of Real-Time Monitoring Technology andDynamic Rating method of Transmission Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐峰; 刘聪

    2015-01-01

    Transmission line dynamic rating method as an important part of the inteligent transmission technical system can effectively solve the problem of insufficient power supply capacity of transmission lines. In this paper,the overal scheme of the dynamic rating method is briefly ilustrated. Next,transmission lines real-time monitoring technology and transmission line dynamic rating method are described respectively. Finaly,the influence of external factors on carrying capacity of transmission lines is analysed. Numerical results show that the proposed dynamic rating method is very effective.

  15. A 3D scanning device for architectural survey based on time-of-flight technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Raffaella; Gambino, Maria Chiara; Gianfrate, Gabriella; Greco, Marinella; Pampaloni, Enrico; Pezzati, Luca

    2004-09-01

    This work is intended to show the results of a few architectural and archaeological surveys realized by means of a 3D scanning device, based on TOF (Time-Of-Flight) technology. The instrument was set up by the Art Diagnostic Group of the National Institute for Applied Optics (INOA) and it is composed by a high precision scanning system equipped with a commercial low-cost distance-meter. This device was projected in order to provide the following characteristics: reliability, good accuracy and compatibility with other systems and it is devoted to applications in Cultural Heritage field.

  16. Enhancement of Online Robotics Learning Using Real-Time 3D Visualization Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Chiou

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a real-time e-Lab Learning system based on the integration of 3D visualization technology with a remote robotic laboratory. With the emergence and development of the Internet field, online learning is proving to play a significant role in the upcoming era. In an effort to enhance Internet-based learning of robotics and keep up with the rapid progression of technology, a 3- Dimensional scheme of viewing the robotic laboratory has been introduced in addition to the remote controlling of the robots. The uniqueness of the project lies in making this process Internet-based, and remote robot operated and visualized in 3D. This 3D system approach provides the students with a more realistic feel of the 3D robotic laboratory even though they are working remotely. As a result, the 3D visualization technology has been tested as part of a laboratory in the MET 205 Robotics and Mechatronics class and has received positive feedback by most of the students. This type of research has introduced a new level of realism and visual communications to online laboratory learning in a remote classroom.

  17. Enhancement of Online Robotics Learning Using Real-Time 3D Visualization Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Chiou

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a real-time e-Lab Learning system based on the integration of 3D visualization technology with a remote robotic laboratory. With the emergence and development of the Internet field, online learning is proving to play a significant role in the upcoming era. In an effort to enhance Internet-based learning of robotics and keep up with the rapid progression of technology, a 3- Dimensional scheme of viewing the robotic laboratory has been introduced in addition to the remote controlling of the robots. The uniqueness of the project lies in making this process Internet-based, and remote robot operated and visualized in 3D. This 3D system approach provides the students with a more realistic feel of the 3D robotic laboratory even though they are working remotely. As a result, the 3D visualization technology has been tested as part of a laboratory in the MET 205 Robotics and Mechatronics class and has received positive feedback by most of the students. This type of research has introduced a new level of realism and visual communications to online laboratory learning in a remote classroom.

  18. Savings times: approaching of two technologies; Racionalizacao do tempo: uma integracao de tecnologias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migueis, Carlos Otavio; Eppinghaus, Guilherme; Ferreira, Ipojucan; Alfano, Pedro Paulo; Campello, Sergio [Vetcogray, Macae, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    As the result of merging both wellhead and production subsea systems technologies, a new concept of flowbases and tubing hangers has been developed. This new generation of equipment will allow a significant reduction in rig time during drilling and completion operations just processing at the same time steps that before were supposed to be done separately. In order to implement this merge of technologies, concepts and techniques already well known in drilling and completion will be used. One of the main modifications is to adopt in the internal upper half profile of the flowbase the same profile used in the wellheads. This will allow the use of existent cam type running tools, wear bushing running tools and BOP test tools. Also the casing hanger pack-off (CVU) sealing and locking technology will be used to lock and seal the tubing hanger. The new method of running the flowbase, using a cam type running tool, became possible due to the adoption of the technology for landing the wellhead with the support of an ROV. In the other hand, the tubing hanger was fully redesigned using as reference the existent casing hangers. The new concept is an evolution for the actual concept and will allow the time reduction in rig operations, enhancing the performance of the unlocking system of the tubing hanger during its retrieval. During the development of this new flowbase and tubing hanger system, it was necessary the development of a set of new tools, such as: one trip pack-off landing, energizing/deenergizing, test and tubing hanger retrieving tool; one trip pack-off unlocking and tubing hanger retrieving tool. In order to confirm the viability of the concepts, a series of design reviews were conducted involving different Vetco Gray SDS and SPS experts from various departments such as product engineering and service. Doing this it became possible to fully evaluate the operation from drilling to completion also checking if the applicability of the current equipment that today

  19. Examining time trends in the Oldowan technology at Beds I and II, Olduvai Gorge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yuki

    2002-09-01

    The lithic analysis of the Bed I and II assemblages from Olduvai Gorge reveals both static and dynamic time trends in early hominids' technology from 1.8 to 1.2 m.y.a. The Bed I Oldowan (1.87-1.75 m.y.a.) is characterized by the least effort strategy in terms of raw material exploitation and tool production. The inclusion of new raw material, chert, for toolmaking in the following Developed Oldowan A (DOA, 1.65-1.53 m.y.a.) facilitated more distinctive and variable flaking strategies depending on the kind of raw materials. The unique characters of DOA are explainable by this raw material factor, rather than technological development of hominids. The disappearance of chert in the subsequent Developed Oldowan B and Acheulian (1.53-1.2 m.y.a.) necessitated a shift in tool production strategy more similar to that of Bed I Oldowan than DOA. However, the evidence suggests that Bed II hominids might have been more skillful toolmakers, intensive tool-users, and engaged in more active transport of stone tools than the Bed I predecessors. Koobi Fora hominids maintained a more static tool-using behavior than their Olduvai counterparts due mainly to a stable supply of raw materials. They differed from Olduvai hominids in terms of less battering of cores, consistent transport behavior, and few productions of side-struck flakes, indicating a regional variation of toolmaking and using practice. However, they shared with Olduvai hominids a temporal trend toward the production of larger flakes from larger cores after 1.6 m.y.a. Increased intake of animal resources and the expansion of ranging area of Homo ergaster would have led to the development of technological organization. Technological changes in the Oldowan industry are attested at Olduvai Gorge, Koobi Fora, and Sterkfontein, suggesting that it was a pan-African synchronous phenomenon, beginning at 1.5 m.y.a.

  20. Time as a Barrier to International Trade and Economic Growth: The Role of Information and Communication Technology in Reducing Time Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nashwa Mostafa Ali Mohamed

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the relationship between reducing time and international trade. Primarily, through the role of information and communication technology, within the trade facilities, in reducing the time required for import and export, and discussing its impact on economic growth. The Two-Stages Least Squares method was used to estimate the econometric model for 16 Arab countries during the period (2005-2011. The study concluded that the information and communication technology leads to time and cost reduction, thereby increasing the value of merchandise exports and imports. In addition, there is a positive relationship between the decline in time and economic growth.

  1. Recent technological developments on LGAD and iLGAD detectors for tracking and timing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellegrini, G.; Baselga, M.; Carulla, M. [Centro Nacional de Microelectrónica, IMB-CNM-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Fadeyev, V. [Santa Cruz Institute of Particle Physics SCIPP, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Fernández-Martínez, P. [Centro Nacional de Microelectrónica, IMB-CNM-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); García, M. Fernández [Instituto de Física de Cantabria IFCA-CSIC-UC, Santander (Spain); Flores, D. [Centro Nacional de Microelectrónica, IMB-CNM-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Galloway, Z. [Santa Cruz Institute of Particle Physics SCIPP, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Gallrapp, C. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Hidalgo, S. [Centro Nacional de Microelectrónica, IMB-CNM-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Liang, Z. [Santa Cruz Institute of Particle Physics SCIPP, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Merlos, A. [Centro Nacional de Microelectrónica, IMB-CNM-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Moll, M. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Quirion, D. [Centro Nacional de Microelectrónica, IMB-CNM-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Sadrozinski, H. [Santa Cruz Institute of Particle Physics SCIPP, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Stricker, M. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Vila, I. [Instituto de Física de Cantabria IFCA-CSIC-UC, Santander (Spain)

    2016-09-21

    This paper reports the latest technological development on the Low Gain Avalanche Detector (LGAD) and introduces a new architecture of these detectors called inverse-LGAD (iLGAD). Both approaches are based on the standard Avalanche Photo Diodes (APD) concept, commonly used in optical and X-ray detection applications, including an internal multiplication of the charge generated by radiation. The multiplication is inherent to the basic n{sup ++}–p{sup +}–p structure, where the doping profile of the p{sup +} layer is optimized to achieve high field and high impact ionization at the junction. The LGAD structures are optimized for applications such as tracking or timing detectors for high energy physics experiments or medical applications where time resolution lower than 30 ps is required. Detailed TCAD device simulations together with the electrical and charge collection measurements are presented through this work.

  2. Recent technological developments on LGAD and iLGAD detectors for tracking and timing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, G.; Baselga, M.; Carulla, M.; Fadeyev, V.; Fernández-Martínez, P.; García, M. Fernández; Flores, D.; Galloway, Z.; Gallrapp, C.; Hidalgo, S.; Liang, Z.; Merlos, A.; Moll, M.; Quirion, D.; Sadrozinski, H.; Stricker, M.; Vila, I.

    2016-09-01

    This paper reports the latest technological development on the Low Gain Avalanche Detector (LGAD) and introduces a new architecture of these detectors called inverse-LGAD (iLGAD). Both approaches are based on the standard Avalanche Photo Diodes (APD) concept, commonly used in optical and X-ray detection applications, including an internal multiplication of the charge generated by radiation. The multiplication is inherent to the basic n++-p+-p structure, where the doping profile of the p+ layer is optimized to achieve high field and high impact ionization at the junction. The LGAD structures are optimized for applications such as tracking or timing detectors for high energy physics experiments or medical applications where time resolution lower than 30 ps is required. Detailed TCAD device simulations together with the electrical and charge collection measurements are presented through this work.

  3. Science and Technology of BOREXINO A Real Time Detector for Low Energy Solar Neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Alimonti, G; Back, H O; Balata, M; Beau, T; Bellini, G; Benziger, J B; Bonetti, S; Brigatti, A; Caccianiga, B; Cadonati, L; Calaprice, F P; Cecchet, G; Chen, M; De Bari, A; De Haas, E; De Kerret, H; Donghi, O; Deutsch, M; Elisei, F; Etenko, A; Von Feilitzsch, F; Fernholz, R C; Ford, R; Freudiger, B; Garagiola, A; Galbiati, C; Gatti, F; Gazzana, S; Giammarchi, M G; Giugni, D; Golubchikov, A; Goretti, A; Grieb, C; Hagner, C; Hagner, T; Hampel, W; Harding, E; Hartmann, F; Von Hentig, R; Hess, H; Heusser, G; Ianni, A; Inzani, P; Kidner, S H; Kiko, J; Kirsten, T; Korga, G; Korschinek, G; Kryn, Didier; Lagomarsino, V; La Marche, P; Laubenstein, M; Löser, F; Lombardi, P; Magni, S; Malvezzi, S; Maneira, J; Manno, I; Manuzio, G; Masetti, F; Mazzucato, U; Meroni, E; Musico, P; Neder, H; Neff, M; Nisi, S; Oberauer, L; Obolensky, M; Pallavicini, M; Papp, L; Perasso, L; Pocar, A; Raghavan, R; Ranucci, G; Rau, W; Razeto, A; Resconi, E; Riedel, T; Sabelnikov, A A; Saggese, P; Salvo, C; Scardaoni, R; Schönert, S; Schuhbeck, K; Seidel, H; Shutt, T A; Simgen, H; Sonnenschein, A H; Smirnov, O Yu; Sotnikov, A; Skorokhvatov, M; Sukhotin, S V; Tartaglia, R; Testera, G; Vitale, S; Vogelaar, R; Wójcik, M; Zaimidoroga, O A; Zakharov, Yu I

    2002-01-01

    BOREXINO, a real-time device for low energy neutrino spectroscopy is nearing completion of construction in the underground laboratories at Gran Sasso, Italy (LNGS). The experiment's goal is the direct measurement of the flux of 7Be solar neutrinos of all flavors via neutrino-electron scattering in an ultra-pure scintillation liquid. Seeded by a series of innovations which were brought to fruition by large scale operation of a 4-ton test detector at LNGS, a new technology has been developed for BOREXINO. It enables sub-MeV solar neutrino spectroscopy for the first time. This paper describes the design of BOREXINO, the various facilities essential to its operation, its spectroscopic and background suppression capabilities and a prognosis of the impact of its results towards resolving the solar neutrino problem. BOREXINO will also address several other frontier questions in particle physics astrophysics and geophysics.

  4. Recent Technological Developments on LGAD and iLGAD Detectors for Tracking and Timing Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pellegrini, G; Carulla, M.; Fadeyev, V.; Fernandez-Martinez, P.; Fernandez-Garcia, M.; Flores, D.; Galloway, Z.; Gallrapp, C.; Hidalgo, S.; Liang, Z.; Merlos, A.; Moll, M.; Quirion, D.; Sadrozinski, H.; Stricker, M.; Vila, I.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the last technological development on the Low Gain Avalanche Detector (LGAD) and introduces a new architecture of these detectors called inverse-LGAD (iLGAD). Both approaches are based on the standard Avalanche Photo Diodes (APD) concept, commonly used in optical and X-ray detection applications, including an internal multiplication of the charge generated by radiation. The multiplication is inherent to the basic n++-p+-p structure, where the doping profile of the p+ layer is optimized to achieve high field and high impact ionization at the junction. The LGAD structures are optimized for applications such as tracking or timing detectors for high energy physics experiments or medical applications where time resolution lower than 30 ps is required. Detailed TCAD device simulations together with the electrical and charge collection measurements are presented through this work.

  5. High spatial resolution shortwave infrared imaging technology based on time delay and digital accumulation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jianxin; Wang, Yueming; Zhuang, Xiaoqiong; Yao, Yi; Wang, Shengwei; Zhao, Ding; Shu, Rong; Wang, Jianyu

    2017-03-01

    Shortwave infrared (SWIR) imaging technology attracts more and more attention by its fascinating ability of penetrating haze and smoke. For application of spaceborne remote sensing, spatial resolution of SWIR is lower compared with that of visible light (VIS) wavelength. It is difficult to balance between the spatial resolution and signal to noise ratio (SNR). Some conventional methods, such as enlarging aperture of telescope, image motion compensation, and analog time delay and integration (TDI) technology are used to gain SNR. These techniques bring in higher cost of satellite, complexity of system or other negative factors. In this paper, time delay and digital accumulation (TDDA) method is proposed to achieve higher spatial resolution. The method can enhance the SNR and non-uniformity of system theoretically. A prototype of SWIR imager consists of opto-mechanical, 1024 × 128 InGaAs detector, and electronics is designed and integrated to prove TDDA method. Both of measurements and experimental results indicate TDDA method can promote SNR of system approximated of the square root of accumulative stage. The results exhibit that non-uniformity of system is also improved by this approach to some extent. The experiment results are corresponded with the theoretical analysis. Based on the experiments results, it is proved firstly that the goal of 1 m ground sample distance (GSD) in orbit of 500 km is feasible with the TDDA stage of 30 for SWIR waveband (0.9-1.7 μm).

  6. Keck Observations of the 2002-2003 Jovian Ring Plane Crossing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Pater, I; Showalter, M R; Macintosh, B A

    2007-11-29

    We present new observations of Jupiter's ring system at a wavelength of 2.2 {micro}m obtained with the 10-m W. M. Keck telescopes on three nights during a ring plane crossing: UT 19 December 2002, and 22 and 26 January 2003. We used conventional imaging, plus adaptive optics on the last night. Here we present detailed radial profiles of the main ring, halo and gossamer rings, and interpret the data together with information extracted from radio observations of Jupiter's synchrotron radiation. The main ring is confined to a 800-km-wide annulus between 128,200 and 129,000 km, with a {approx} 5000 km extension on the inside. The normal optical depth is 8 x 10{sup -6}, 15% of which is provided by bodies with radii a {approx}> 5 cm. These bodies are as red as Metis. Half the optical depth, {tau} {approx} 4 x 10{sup -6}, is attributed to micron-sized dust, and the remaining {tau} {approx} 3 x 10{sup -6} to grains tens to hundreds of {micro}m in size. The inward extension consists of micron-sized (a {approx}< 10 {micro}m) dust, which probably migrates inward under Poynting-Robertson drag. The inner limit of this extension falls near the 3:2 Lorentz resonance (at orbital radius r = 122,400 km), and coincides with the outer limit of the halo. The gossamer rings appear to be radially confined, rather than broad sheets of material. The Amalthea ring is triangularly shaped, with a steep outer dropoff over {approx} 5000 km, extending a few 1000 km beyond the orbit of Amalthea, and a more gradual inner dropoff over 15,000-20,000 km. The inner edge is near the location of the synchronous orbit. The optical depth in the Amalthea ring is {approx} 5 x 10{sup -7}, up to 20% of which is comprised of macroscopic material. The optical depth in the Thebe ring is a factor of 3 smaller.

  7. Characterization of the Gaseous Companion k Andromedae B* New Keck and LBTI High-contrast Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnefoy, M.; Currie, T.; Marleau, G.-D.; Schlieder, J. E.; Wisniewski, J.; Carson, J.; Covey, K. R.; Henning, T.; Biller, B.; Hinz, P.; Klahr, H.; Boyer, A. N. Marsh; Zimmerman, N.; Janson, M.; McElwain, M.; Mordasini, C.; Skemer, A.; Bailey, V.; Defrere, D.; Thalmann, C.; Skrutskie, M.; Allard, F.; Homeier, D.; Tamura, M.; Grady, C.

    2013-01-01

    Context. We previously reported the direct detection of a low mass companion at a projected separation of 55+/-2 astronomical units around the B9 type star kappa Andromedae. The properties of the system (mass ratio, separation) make it a benchmark for the understanding of the formation and evolution of gas giant planets and brown dwarfs on wide-orbits. Aims. We present new angular differential imaging (ADI) images of the system at 2.146 (K(sub s)), 3.776 (L'), 4.052 (NB 4.05) and 4.78 micrometers (M') obtained with Keck/NIRC2 and LBTI/LMIRCam, as well as more accurate near-infrared photometry of the star with the MIMIR instrument. We aim to determine the near-infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) of the companion and use it to characterize the object. Methods. We used analysis methods adapted to ADI to extract the companion flux. We compared the photometry of the object to reference young/old objects and to a set of seven PHOENIX-based atmospheric models of cool objects accounting for the formation of dust. We used evolutionary models to derive mass estimates considering a wide range of plausible initial conditions. Finally, we used dedicated formation models to discuss the possible origin of the companion. Results. We derive a more accurate J = 15.86 +/- 0.21, H = 14.95 +/- 0.13, K(sub s) = 14.32 +/- 0.09 mag for kappa And b. We redetect the companion in all our high contrast observations. We confirm previous contrasts obtained at K(sub s) and L' band. We derive NB 4.05 = 13.0 +/- 0.2 and M' = 13.3 +/- 0.3 mag and estimate Log(base 10)(L/solar luminosity) = -3.76 +/- 0.06. Atmospheric models yield T(sub eff) = 1900(+100/-200) K. They do not set constrains on the surface gravity. "Hot-start" evolutionary models predict masses of 14(+25/-2) Jupiter mass based on the luminosity and temperature estimates, and considering a conservative age range for the system (30(+120/-10) million years). "warm-start" evolutionary tracks constrain the mass to M greater than or

  8. Gemini and Keck Observations of Slowly Rotating, Bilobate Active Asteroid (300163)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waniak, Waclaw; Drahus, Michal

    2016-10-01

    One of the most puzzling questions regarding Active Asteroids is the mechanism of their activation. While some Active Asteroids show protracted and often recurrent mass loss, consistent with seasonal ice sublimation, some other eject dust impulsively as a result of a catastrophic disruption (e.g. Jewitt et al. 2015, Asteroids IV, 221). It has been suggested that ice can be excavated from the cold near-surface interior by an impact (Hsieh & Jewitt 2006, Science 312, 561) or, for small objects susceptible to YORP torques, by near-critical spin rate (Sheppard & Trujillo 2014, AJ 149, 44). But impact and rapid spin can also cause a catastrophic disruption (e.g. Jewitt et al. 2015, Asteroids IV, 221). It therefore becomes apparent that the different types of mass loss observed in Active Asteroids can be best classified and understood based on the nucleus spin rates (Drahus et al. 2015, ApJL 802, L8), but unfortunately the rotation periods have been measured for a very limited number of these objects. With this in mind we have initiated a survey of light curves of small Active Asteroids on the largest ground-based optical telescopes. Here we present the results for (300163), also known as 288P and 2006 VW139, which is a small 2.6-km sized asteroid that exhibited a comet-like activity over 100 days in the second half of 2011 (Hsieh et al. 2012, ApJL 748, L15; Licandro et al. 2013, A&A 550, A17; Agarwal et al. 2016, AJ 151, 12). Using Keck/DEIMOS and Gemini/GMOS-S working in tandem on UT 2015 May 21-22 we have detected an inactive nucleus and measured a complete, dense, high-S/N rotational light curve. The light curve has a double-peaked period of 16 hours, an amplitude of 0.4 mag, and moderately narrow minima suggesting a bilobate or contact-binary shape. The long rotation period clearly demonstrates a non-rotational origin of activity of this object, consistent with an impact. Furthermore, among the five small Active Asteroids with known rotation periods (300163) is only

  9. Spatially resolved emission of a high-redshift DLA galaxy with the Keck/OSIRIS IFU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorgenson, Regina A. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI, 96822 (United States); Wolfe, Arthur M., E-mail: raj@ifa.hawaii.edu [Department of Physics and Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0424 (United States)

    2014-04-10

    We present the first Keck/OSIRIS infrared IFU observations of a high-redshift damped Lyα (DLA) galaxy detected in the line of sight to a background quasar. By utilizing the Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics to reduce the quasar point-spread function to FWHM ∼ 0.''15, we were able to search for and map the foreground DLA emission free from the quasar contamination. We present maps of the Hα and [O III] λλ5007, 4959 emission of DLA 2222–0946 at a redshift of z ∼ 2.35. From the composite spectrum over the Hα emission region, we measure a star formation rate of 9.5 ± 1.0 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} and a dynamical mass of M {sub dyn} = 6.1 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉}. The average star formation rate surface density is (Σ{sub SFR}) = 0.55 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} kpc{sup –2}, with a central peak of 1.7 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} kpc{sup –2}. Using the standard Kennicutt-Schmidt relation, this corresponds to a gas mass surface density of Σ{sub gas} = 243 M {sub ☉} pc{sup –2}. Integrating over the size of the galaxy, we find a total gas mass of M {sub gas} = 4.2 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉}. We estimate the gas fraction of DLA 2222–0946 to be f {sub gas} ∼ 40%. We detect [N II] λ6583 emission at 3σ significance with a flux corresponding to a metallicity of 75% solar. Comparing this metallicity with that derived from the low-ion absorption gas ∼6 kpc away, ∼30% solar, indicates possible evidence for a metallicity gradient or enriched in/outflow of gas. Kinematically, both Hα and [O III] emission show relatively constant velocity fields over the central galactic region. While we detect some red and blueshifted clumps of emission, they do not correspond with rotational signatures that support an edge-on disk interpretation.

  10. Keck/ESI Long-slit Spectroscopy of SBS 1421+511: A Recoiling Quasar Nucleus in An Active Galaxy Pair?

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Luming; Hao, Lei; Jiang, Peng; Ge, Jian; Ji, Tuo; Ma, Jingzhe; Zhang, Shaohua; Shu, Xinwen

    2015-01-01

    We present Keck/ESI long-slit spectroscopy of SBS 1421+511, a system consisting of a quasar at z = 0.276 and an extended source 3" northern to the quasar. The quasar shows a blue-skewed profile of Balmer broad emission lines, which can be well modeled as emissions from a circular disk with a blueshift velocity of ~1400 km/s. The blueshift is better interpreted as resulting from a recoiling active black hole than from a super-massive black hole binary, since the line profile almost kept steady over one decade in the quasar rest-frame. Alternative interpretations are possible as well, such as emissions from a bipolar outflow or a circular disk with spiral emissivity perturbations. The extended source shows Seyfert-like narrow line ratios and a [OIII] luminosity of >1.4\\times10^8L_\\odot, with almost the same redshift as the quasar and a projected distance of 12.5 kpc at the redshift. SBS 1421+511 is thus likely to be an interacting galaxy pair with dual AGN. Alternatively, the quasar companion only appears to be...

  11. Rapid and real-time detection technologies for emerging viruses of biomedical importance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M M Parida

    2008-11-01

    The development of technologies with rapid and sensitive detection capabilities and increased throughput have become crucial for responding to greater number threats posed by emerging and re-emerging viruses in the recent past. The conventional identification methods require time-consuming culturing, and/ or detection of antibodies, which are not very sensitive and specific. The recent advances in molecular biology techniques in the field of genomics and proteomics greatly facilitate the rapid identification with more accuracy. We have developed two real-time assays i.e., SYBR green I based real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and RT-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid detection as well as typing of some of the emerging viruses of biomedical importance viz. dengue, Japanese encephalitis, chikungunya, west Nile, severe acute respiratory syndrome virus (SARS) etc. Both these techniques are capable of detection and differentiation as well as quantifying viral load with higher sensitivity, rapidity, specificity. One of the most important advantages of LAMP is its field applicability, without requirement of any sophisticated equipments. Both these assays have been extensively evaluated and validated with clinical samples of recent epidemics from different parts of India. The establishment of these real time molecular assays will certainly facilitate the rapid detection of viruses with high degree of precision and accuracy in future.

  12. A Time To Sow: Report from the Task Force on Learning Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    Information technology and telecommunications advances affect universities in addition to business. Ontario universities need to address the importance of incorporating learning technologies (LTs) into their teaching. The Task Force on Learning Technologies was established to address Ontario universities' need to utilize learning technologies and…

  13. Public acceptance of energy technologies : The effects of labeling, time, and heterogeneity in a discrete choice experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rijnsoever, Frank J.; Van Mossel, Allard; Broecks, Kevin P F

    2015-01-01

    Public acceptance is crucial for successful implementation of energy technologies in society. However, studies that use the concept do so in diverse and often inconsistent ways. They also often limit themselves to specific technologies and do not account for the effects of labeling, time, and the

  14. Public acceptance of energy technologies : The effects of labeling, time, and heterogeneity in a discrete choice experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rijnsoever, Frank J.; Van Mossel, Allard; Broecks, Kevin P F

    2015-01-01

    Public acceptance is crucial for successful implementation of energy technologies in society. However, studies that use the concept do so in diverse and often inconsistent ways. They also often limit themselves to specific technologies and do not account for the effects of labeling, time, and the he

  15. Dynamic Real Time Distributed Sensor Network Based Database Management System Using XML, JAVA and PHP Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sudharsan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Network (WSN is well known for distributed real time systems for various applications. In order to handle the increasing functionality and complexity of high resolution spatio-temporal sensorydatabase, there is a strong need for a system/tool to analyse real time data associated with distributed sensor network systems. There are a few package/systems available to maintain the near real time database system/management, which are expensive and requires expertise. Hence, there is a need for a cost effective and easy to use dynamic real-time data repository system to provide real time data (raw as well as usable units in a structured format. In the present study, a distributed sensor network system, with Agrisens (AS and FieldServer (FS as well as FS-based Flux Tower and FieldTwitter, is used, which consists of network of sensors and field images to observe/collect the real time weather, crop and environmental parameters for precision agriculture. The real time FieldServer-based spatio-temporal high resolution dynamic sensory data was converted into Dynamic Real-Time Database Management System (DRTDBMS in a structured format for both raw and converted (with usable units data. A web interface has been developed to access the DRTDBMS and exclusive domain has been created with the help of open/free Information and Communication Technology (ICT tools in Extendable Markup Language (XML using (Hypertext preprocessor PHP algorithms and with eXtensible Hyper Text Markup Language (XHTML self-scripting. The proposed DRTDBMS prototype, called GeoSense DRTDBMS, which is a part of the ongoing IndoJapan initiative ‘ICT and Sensor Network based Decision Support Systems in Agriculture and EnvironmentAssessment’, will be integrated with GeoSense cloud server to provide database (dynamic real-time weather/soil/crop and environmental parameters and modeling services (crop water requirement and simulated rice yield modeling. GeoSense-cloud server

  16. DESIGN OF ARM BASED REAL TIME PERSONNEL MONITORING SYSTEM USING WI-FI TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekha George

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays we constantly come across the need to transfer remote data to monitor center which will be far away from the place of data acquisition. Traditional data acquisition system using wires cannot satisfy these requirements due to its heavy cost and impracticability. Embedded devices with network communication which makes it more powerful and easier to monitor and control remote data, is one of the major outcomes of the developments in the field of communication and networking technologies. This study presents the design of a real time personnel monitoring system based on wireless technology. ARM embedded processor and Wi-Fi module are used as hardware platform in this project. Data transfer over the wireless network is based on the TCP/IP protocol which is a part of the Wi-Fi module. Using this designed system an officer can monitor the personnel in the organization by opening a web page from a place that is geographically far. This system is based on the conversion of serial to wireless data which could be transferred over the wireless network to the server and also over the internet. At the completion of the design, the result shows that data is transferred between the ARM processor and the host system using the wireless network.

  17. [In situ temperature measurement by absorption spectroscopy based on time division multiplexing technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Nan-zheng; Li, Ning; Weng, Chun-sheng

    2012-05-01

    Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) technology is a kind of high sensitivity, high selectivity of non contacting gas in situ measurement technique. In the present paper, in situ gas temperature measurement of an open environment was achieved by means of direct scanning multiple characteristic lines of H2O and combined with least-squares algorithm. Through the use of HITRAN spectral database, the boundary effect on the gas temperature and concentration measurements was discussed in detail, and results showed that the combination of scanning multiple characteristic lines and least-squares algorithm can effectively reduce the boundary effect on the gas temperature measurements under the open environment. Experiments using time division multiplexing technology to simultaneously scan 7444.36, 7185.60, 7182.95 and 7447.48 cm(-1), the four characteristic H2O lines, the gas temperature of tubular furnace in the range of 573-973 K was measured under different conditions. The maximum temperature difference between absorption spectrum measurement and thermocouple signal was less than 52.4 K, and the maximum relative error of temperature measurement was 6.8%.

  18. Keck Observations of the UV-Bright Star Barnard 29 in the Globular Cluster M13 (NGC 6205)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, William Van Dyke; Chayer, Pierre; Reid, Iain N.

    2016-06-01

    In color-magnitude diagrams of globular clusters, stars brighter than the horizontal branch and bluer than the red-giant branch are known as UV-bright stars. Most are evolving from the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) to the tip of the white-dwarf cooling curve. To better understand this important phase of stellar evolution, we have analyzed a Keck HIRES echelle spectrum of the UV-bright star Barnard 29 in M13. We begin by fitting the star's H I (Hα, Hβ, and Hγ) and He I lines with a grid of synthetic spectra generated from non-LTE H-He models computed using the TLUSTY code. We find that the shape of the star's Hα profile is not well reproduced with these models. Upgrading from version 200 to version 204M of TLUSTY solves this problem: the Hα profile is now well reproduced. TLUSTY version 204 includes improved calculations for the Stark broadening of hydrogen line profiles. Using these models, we derive stellar parameters of Teff = 21,100 K, log g = 3.05, and log (He/H) = -0.87, values consistent with those of previous authors. The star's Keck spectrum shows photospheric absorption from N II, O II, Mg II, Al III, Si II, Si III, S II, Ar II, and Fe III. The abundances of these species are consistent with published values for the red-giant stars in M13, suggesting that the star's chemistry has changed little since it left the AGB.

  19. Direct Detection and Orbit Analysis of the Exoplanets HR 8799 bcd from Archival 2005 Keck/NIRC2 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Thayne; Fukagawa, Misato; Thalmann, Christian; Matsumura, Soko; Plavchan, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We present previously unpublished July 2005 H-band coronagraphic data of the young, planet-hosting star HR 8799 from the newly-released Keck/NIRC2 archive. Despite poor observing conditions, we detect three of the planets (HR 8799 bcd), two of them (HR 8799 bc) without advanced image processing. Comparing these data with previously published 1998-2011 astrometry and that from re-reduced October 2010 Keck data constrains the orbits of the planets. Analyzing the planets' astrometry separately, HR 8799 d's orbit is likely inclined at least 25 deg from face-on and the others may be on in inclined orbits. For semimajor axis ratios consistent with a 4:2:1 mean-motion resonance our analysis yields precise values for HR 8799 bcd's orbital parameters and strictly constrains the planets' eccentricities to be less than 0.18-0.3. However, we find no acceptable orbital solutions with this resonance that place the planets in face-on orbits; HR 8799 d shows the largest deviation from such orbits. Moreover, few orbits make HR 8799 d coplanar with b and c, whereas dynamical stability analyses used to constrain the planets' masses typically assume coplanar and/or fare.on orbits. This paper illustrates the significant science gain enabled with the release of the NIRC2 archive.

  20. Wear-time recording during early Class III facemask treatment using TheraMon chip technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Bruce; Willmann, Jan H; Wilmes, Benedict; Vasudavan, Sivabalan; Drescher, Dieter

    2016-09-01

    Successful intervention in a developing Class III malocclusion with facemask protraction therapy depends on a patient's ability to adhere to the recommendations for duration of appliance wear. In this article, we report the introduction of a novel approach for tracking of the duration of application of a protraction facemask, with the incorporation of a "FaceMon" sensor (TheraMon, microelectronic system; MC Technology GmbH, Hargelsberg, Austria) to track wear time. A 9-year-old boy with a Class III malocclusion was successfully treated with a modified alternate rapid maxillary expansion and constriction protocol and intermittent application of a hybrid hyrax-protraction facemask combination. The average duration of wear of the facemask was measured at 10.8 hours per day. The use of an objective measuring device may have implications for the development of treatment strategies, since patient responses may be able to calibrated in relation to compliance.

  1. Real-Time Imaging of Gene Delivery and Expression with DNA Nanoparticle Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenchao; Ziady, Assem G.

    The construction of safe, efficient, and modifiable synthetic DNA nanoparticles is an emerging technology that has achieved important milestones of success in the past 5 years. Advances in chemical conjugation, purification, and controlled synthesis have allowed researchers to produce uniform and stable particles, whose physical characteristics can be well characterized and monitored. As a result of these improvements, DNA nanoparticles have now been cleared for clinical testing, and show good potential for human gene therapy. A very important recent development in the study of DNA nanoparticles is the use of small-animal imaging. Real-time imaging has become a valuable technique for tracking particle biodistribution and gene transfer efficacy. In this chapter, we discuss how bioluminescent, positron emission tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging can be used separately or in concert to study particle delivery, localization, and magnitude of gene expression in vivo.

  2. Development of RI-based real-time display technology of apoptotic cell death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang Hyun; Jagn, Beom Su; Hayu, Tyas Utami

    2012-01-15

    Apoptosis, or the programmed cell death, is the generally normal death of a cell in living organisms. Inappropriate apoptosis (either too little or too much) is a factor in many human disease including neurodegenerative diseases, autoimmune disorders and many types of cancer. Therefore, it is one of the most challenging and widely studied topics currently. Development of RI-based real-time display technology of apoptosis can be provided invaluable analysis data for diagnosis and treatment of various diseases. In this study, bifunctional chelator (BFC) for Tc-99m tricarbonyl was synthesized for ML-10 derivative radiolabeling. The formation of complexation of apoptotic cells was developed by combining the ML-10 moiety with the BFC for {sup 99m}Tc-tricarbonyl precursor. The results of this project will be utilized for the development of RI-Biomics Center-based Total Analysis System (TAS) through the optimization of equipment in the RI-Biomics Center.

  3. Novel Advancements in Internet-Based Real-Time Data Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Gerry; Welch, Clara L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    AZ Technology has been working with NASA MSFC (Marshall Space Flight Center) to find ways to make it easier for remote experimenters (RPI's) to monitor their International Space Station (ISS) payloads in real-time from anywhere using standard/familiar devices. That effort resulted in a product called 'EZStream' which is in use on several ISS-related projects. Although the initial implementation is geared toward ISS, the architecture and lessons learned are applicable to other space-related programs. This paper begins with a brief history on why Internet-based real-time data is important and where EZStream or products like it fit in the flow of data from orbit to experimenter/researcher. A high-level architecture is then presented along with explanations of the components used. A combination of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS), Open Source, and custom components are discussed. The use of standard protocols is shown along with some details on how data flows between server and client. Some examples are presented to illustrate how a system like EZStream can be used in real world applications and how care was taken to make the end-user experience as painless as possible. A system such as EZStream has potential in the commercial (non-ISS) arena and some possibilities are presented. During the development and fielding of EZStream, a lot was learned. Good and not so good decisions were made. Some of the major lessons learned will be shared. The development of EZStream is continuing and the future of EZStream will be discussed to shed some light over the technological horizon.

  4. Keck Spectroscopy of Lyman-break Galaxies and its Implications for the UV-continuum and Ly_alpha Luminosity Functions at z>6

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Linhua; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Walth, Gregory; Matsuda, Yuichi; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Nagao, Tohru; Ota, Kazuaki; Ouchi, Masami

    2011-01-01

    We present Keck spectroscopic observations of z>6 Lyman-break galaxy (LBG) candidates in the Subaru Deep Field (SDF). The candidates were selected as i'-dropout objects down to z'=27 AB magnitudes from an ultra-deep SDF z'-band image. With the Keck spectroscopy we identified 19 LBGs with prominent Ly_alpha emission lines at 6100 A. This well-defined spectroscopic sample spans a UV-continuum luminosity range of -21.8~6.2 after we correct for sample incompleteness. We find that our measurement of the UV LF is consistent with the results of previous studies based on photometric LBG samples at 56.

  5. NIR Imaging Spectroscopy of the Inner Few Arcseconds of NGC 4151 with OSIRIS at Keck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iserlohe, Christof; Krabbe, Alfred; Larkin, James E.; Barczys, Matthew; McElwain, Michael W.; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Weiss, Jason; Wright, Shelley A.

    2013-01-01

    We present H- and K-band data from the inner arcsecond of the Seyfert 1.5 galaxy NGC 4151 obtained with the adaptive optics assisted near-infrared imaging field spectrograph OSIRIS at the Keck Observatory. The angular resolution is about a few parsecs on-site and thus competes easily with optical images taken previously with the Hubble Space Telescope. We present the morphology and dynamics of most species detected but focus on the morphology and dynamics of the narrow line region (as traced by emission of [FeII]?1.644 µm), the interplay between plasma ejected from the nucleus (as traced by 21 cm continuum radio data) and hot H2 gas and characterize the detected nuclear HeI?2.058 µm absorption feature as a narrow absorption line (NAL) phenomenon. Emission from the narrow line region (NLR) as traced by [FeII] reveals a biconical morphology and we compare the measured dynamics in the [FeII] emission line with models proposing acceleration of gas in the NLR and simple ejection of gas into the NLR. In the inner 2.5 arcseconds the acceleration model reveals a better fit to our data than the ejection model.We also see evidence that the jet very locally enhances emission in [FeII] at certain positions in our field-of-view such that we were able to distinct the kinematics of these clouds from clouds generally accelerated in the NLR. Further, the radio jet is aligned with the bicone surface rather than the bicone axis such that we assume that the jet is not the dominant mechanism responsible for driving the kinematics of clouds in the NLR. The hot H2 gas is thermal with a temperature of about 1700 K. We observe a remarkable correlation between individual H2 clouds at systemic velocity with the 21 cm continuum radio jet. We propose that the radio jet is at least partially embedded in the galactic disk of NGC 4151 such that deviations from a linear radio structure are invoked by interactions of jet plasma with H2 clouds that are moving into the path of the jet because of

  6. Retrieving Neptune's aerosol properties from Keck OSIRIS observations. I. Dark regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luszcz-Cook, S. H.; de Kleer, K.; de Pater, I.; Adamkovics, M.; Hammel, H. B.

    2016-09-01

    We present and analyze three-dimensional data cubes of Neptune from the OSIRIS integral-field spectrograph on the 10-m W.M. Keck II telescope, from 26 July 2009. These data have a spatial resolution of 0.035/pixel and spectral resolution of R ∼3800 in the H (1.47-1.80 μm) and K (1.97-2.38 μm) broad bands. We focus our analysis on regions of Neptune's atmosphere that are near-infrared dark - that is, free of discrete bright cloud features. We use a forward model coupled to a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm to retrieve properties of Neptune's aerosol structure and methane profile above ∼4 bar in these near-infrared dark regions. We construct a set of high signal-to-noise spectra spanning a range of viewing geometries to constrain the vertical structure of Neptune's aerosols in a cloud-free latitude band from 2-12°N. We find that Neptune's cloud opacity at these wavelengths is dominated by a compact, optically thick cloud layer with a base near 3 bar. Using the pyDISORT algorithm for the radiative transfer and assuming a Henyey-Greenstein phase function, we observe this cloud to be composed of low albedo (single scattering albedo = 0.45-0.01+0.01), forward scattering (asymmetry parameter g = 0.50-0.02+0.02) particles, with an assumed characteristic size of ∼1μm. Above this cloud, we require an aerosol layer of smaller (∼0.1μm) particles forming a vertically extended haze, which reaches from the upper troposphere (0.59-0.03+0.04 bar) into the stratosphere. The particles in this haze are brighter (single scattering albedo = 0.91-0.05+0.06) and more isotropically scattering (asymmetry parameter g = 0.24-0.03+0.02) than those in the deep cloud. When we extend our analysis to 18 cloud-free locations from 20°N to 87°S, we observe that the optical depth in aerosols above 0.5 bar decreases by a factor of 2-3 or more at mid- and high-southern latitudes relative to low latitudes. We also consider Neptune's methane (CH4) profile, and find that our retrievals

  7. A high resolution laser ranging system based on time-correlated single-photon counting technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yixin; Wang, Huanqin; Huang, Zhe; Cao, Yangyang; Gui, Huaqiao

    2014-12-01

    Laser ranging has become an important method for both distance measurements and acquisition of threedimensional (3D) images. In this paper, a laser ranging system based on Time-Correlated Single-Photon Counting technology (TCSPC) is developed. A Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode (G-APD), which has the ability of detecting single-photon events, is used to capture the weak light scattered from the long-range target. In order to improve the ranging resolution of TCSPC based measurement system, a high repetition frequency of subnanosecond narrow pulse generator circuit based on the avalanche effect of RF-BJT is designed and applied as the light source. Moreover, some optimized optical light designs have been done to improve the system signal to noise rate (SNR), including using a special aspherical lens as projecting lens, adopting a telephoto camera lens with small view angle and short depth of field before detector. Experimental tests for evaluation of the laser raging system performance are described. As a means of echo signal analysis, three different algorithms have been introduced, in which the cross-correlation algorithm was demonstrated to be the most effective algorithm to determining the round trip time to a target, even based on histograms with a significant amount of background noise photons. It was found that centimeter ranging resolution can be achieved thanks to the use of Time-to-Digital Converter (TDC) with picosecond resolution and the Cross-Correlation algorithm. The proposed laser ranging system has advantages of high range resolution, short response time and simple structure, which was potential applications for 3D object recognition, computer vision, reverse engineering and virtual reality.

  8. Amplified Immunoassay of Human IgG Using Real-time Biomolecular Interaction Analysis (BIA) Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI,Ren-Jun(裴仁军); CUI,Xiao-Qiang(崔小强); YANG,Xiu-Rong(杨秀荣); WANG,Er-Kang(汪尔康)

    2002-01-01

    An automated biomolecular interaction analysis instrument (BIAcore) based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) has been used to determine human immunoglobulin G (IgG) in real time. Polyclonal anti-human IgG antibody was covalently immobilized to a carboxymethyldextran-modified gold film surface. The samples of human IgG prepared in HBS buffer were poured over the immobilized surface. The signal amplification antibody was applied to amplify the response signal. After each measurement, the surface was regenerated with 0.1 mol/L H3PO4. The assay was rapid, requiring only 30 min for antibody immobilization and 20 min for each subsequent process of immune binding, antibody amplification and regeneration. The antibody immobilized surface had good response to human IgG in the range of 0.12-60 nmol/L with a detection limit of 60 pmoL/L. The same antibody immobilized surface could be used for more than 110 cycles of binding, amplificafion and regeneration. The results demonstrate that the sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility of amplified immunoassay using real-time BIA technology are satisfactory.

  9. Real-time nutrient monitoring in rivers: adaptive sampling strategies, technological challenges and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaen, Phillip; Khamis, Kieran; Lloyd, Charlotte; Bradley, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Excessive nutrient concentrations in river waters threaten aquatic ecosystem functioning and can pose substantial risks to human health. Robust monitoring strategies are therefore required to generate reliable estimates of river nutrient loads and to improve understanding of the catchment processes that drive spatiotemporal patterns in nutrient fluxes. Furthermore, these data are vital for prediction of future trends under changing environmental conditions and thus the development of appropriate mitigation measures. In recent years, technological developments have led to an increase in the use of continuous in-situ nutrient analysers, which enable measurements at far higher temporal resolutions than can be achieved with discrete sampling and subsequent laboratory analysis. However, such instruments can be costly to run and difficult to maintain (e.g. due to high power consumption and memory requirements), leading to trade-offs between temporal and spatial monitoring resolutions. Here, we highlight how adaptive monitoring strategies, comprising a mixture of temporal sample frequencies controlled by one or more 'trigger variables' (e.g. river stage, turbidity, or nutrient concentration), can advance our understanding of catchment nutrient dynamics while simultaneously overcoming many of the practical and economic challenges encountered in typical in-situ river nutrient monitoring applications. We present examples of short-term variability in river nutrient dynamics, driven by complex catchment behaviour, which support our case for the development of monitoring systems that can adapt in real-time to rapid environmental changes. In addition, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of current nutrient monitoring techniques, and suggest new research directions based on emerging technologies and highlight how these might improve: 1) monitoring strategies, and 2) understanding of linkages between catchment processes and river nutrient fluxes.

  10. On-sky performance of the QACITS pointing control technique with the Keck/NIRC2 vortex coronagraph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huby, E.; Bottom, M.; Femenia, B.; Ngo, H.; Mawet, D.; Serabyn, E.; Absil, O.

    2017-04-01

    Context. A vortex coronagraph is now available for high contrast observations with the Keck/NIRC2 instrument at L band. The vortex coronagraph uses a vortex phase mask in a focal plane and a Lyot stop in a downstream pupil plane to provide high contrast at small angular separations from the observed host star. Aims: Reaching the optimal performance of the coronagraph requires fine control of the wavefront incident on the phase mask. In particular, centering errors can lead to significant stellar light leakage that degrades the contrast performance and prevents the observation of faint planetary companions around the observed stars. It is thus critical to correct for the possible slow drift of the star image from the phase mask center, generally due to mechanical flexures induced by temperature and/or gravity field variation, or to misalignment between the optics that rotate in pupil tracking mode. Methods: A control loop based on the QACITS algorithm for the vortex coronagraph has been developed and deployed for the Keck/NIRC2 instrument. This algorithm executes the entire observing sequence, including the calibration steps, initial centering of the star on the vortex center, and stabilisation during the acquisition of science frames. Results: On-sky data show that the QACITS control loop stabilizes the position of the star image down to 2.4 mas rms at a frequency of about 0.02 Hz. However, the accuracy of the estimator is probably limited by a systematic error due to a misalignment of the Lyot stop with respect to the entrance pupil, estimated to be on the order of 4.5 mas. A method to reduce the amplitude of this bias down to 1 mas is proposed. Conclusions: The QACITS control loop has been successfully implemented and provides a robust method to center and stabilize the star image on the vortex mask. In addition, QACITS ensures a repeatable pointing quality and significantly improves the observing efficiency compared to manual operations. It is now routinely used

  11. 基于时序路径的FPGA时序分析技术研究%Research of FPGA Timing Sequence Analysis Technology Based on Timing Sequence Path

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周珊; 王金波; 王晓丹

    2016-01-01

    For the significance of high reliable FPGA test timing sequence analysis technology on Spaceflight , depending on the FPGA design and test experience for several years ,timing sequence analysis technology is analyzed deeply ,and a set of feasible solution is extracted ,and the analysis target of timing sequence analysis is clarified . The interface signal timing sequence calculation rules of timing sequence analysis and analysis rules of timing sequence test results are presented by the main method of timing sequence analysis technology ;this set of technology is applied successfully on the tests of several high reliable software on Spaceflight ,many significant functional disabled problems ,caused by timing sequence problems ,can be found ,and the common timing sequence problems are classified and summarized .%针对于航天高可靠FPGA测试时时序分析技术的重要性 ,根据多年FPGA设计测试经验对时序分析技术进行深入剖析 ,提炼出一套切实可行的时序分析技术 ,阐明了时序分析的分析对象 ,时序分析技术的主要方法 ,给出了时序分析时接口信号时序计算法则 ,以及时序测试结果的分析准则 ;并把这套分析技术成功的应用到了多个航天高可靠软件的测试中 ,发现了很多由时序问题引起功能失效的重大问题 ,对其中常见的时序问题给予归类总结 .

  12. OPTIMAL TIME FOR SUBSTITUTION OF Eucalyptus spp POPULATIONS – THE CASE OF CONSTANT TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Nogueira de Souza1;

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The few studies on renewal of Eucalyptus spp populations done in Brazil consider constant technology. This is done this way for facilitating the modeling of how variables affect this activity, such as income, costs, rates of discount and yield. The reason for not considering the gains earned through technological progress is the lack of a specific dynamic model. This study was carried out aiming to get to know the forest rotation with values from the sixties (beginning of tax exemption programme and current values (nineties aiming to obtain wood for cellulose and charcoal production; to determine the moment of substitution of a population which presents the same yield and the same cost structure through time as well as to determine how many cuttings should be done until the final cycle; to determine how many cuttings should be done until substitution (substitution chain; to verify the sensitivity of the substitution time to variations in the discount rates, wood prices, yield, land costs, harvesting costs and coppice yield. The results were tested in a case study, employing the Gompertz Function to determine the population yield. The Current Net Value Method was used as a crieterion of economic decision. It has been concluded that: The forest rotation to produce charcoal in the sixties was at 13 years of age; the current rotation is at 7 years of age; the final cycle allows up to 13 cuttings, but considering the possibility of land leasing, the best alternative is to conduce the sproutings up to the third cutting; an increase in factors such as discount rates, wood prices and yield caused reduction of the cutting age; increase in land costs did not affect the cutting ages; increase in the logging cost increased the cutting ages; the substitution of population now a days happens after 3 cuttings, while in the sixties it happened after 2 cuttings due to the lesser loss; an increase in factors such as discount rates, wood prices, logging costs and

  13. All-Optical Switches in Optical Time-Division Multiplexing Technology: Theory,Experience and Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Optical time division multiplexing (OTDM) is one of thepromisinig ways for the future high-speed optical fiber communication networks. All-optical switch is, being one of the core technologies of OTDM systems and networks, crucial to realize the various signal processes including time-division demultiplexing, packet switching, all-optical regenerating and so on. This thesis mainly studies various all-optical switch technologies and their utilization in the fields of all-optical signal processings in the OTDM systems and networks. The main jobs are listed as follows.(1) A novel all-optical ultrafast demultiplexing scheme using the soliton self-trapping effect in birefringent fiber is proposed.(2) The demultiplexing performance of the Nonlinear Optical Loop Mirror(NOLM) is thoroughly analyzed and its optimization is further discussed.(3) The performance analysis and the configuration optimization of the all-optical switches based on the Semiconductor Optical Amplifier(SOA) are systematically presented. The speed limitation of the all-optical SOA switches induced by the fast gain depletion of SOA is discussed. Besides, a novel SOA switch is proposed, which adopts the asymmetric Mach-Zehnder Interferometer configuration.(4) The 8×2\\^5 Gb/s OTDM experimental transmission system along 105 km standard fiber is realized using the NOLM demultiplexer.(5) The NOLM switch is used to realize the all-optical 3R regeneration of 2\\^5 Gb/s Return-to-Zero signal.(6) The feasibility and limitation of the all-optical SOA packet switch is discussed. And a developed MZI configuration of SOA packet switch is further shown to improve the packet switching performance. Finally, an all-optical packet dropping node suitable in the networks with ring or bus configuration and an all-optical packet switching node in the ShuffleNet networks are proposed to show the feasibility of all-optical packet switching through combining the all-optical switches and the reasonable logic decisions.

  14. Real-time electromagnetic seed drop detection for permanent implants brachytherapy: Technology overview and performance assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, E; Hautvast, G; Binnekamp, D; Beaulieu, L

    2016-12-01

    To describe the principles and report on the performance of a novel real-time electromagnetic (EM) seed drop detection technology for permanent implants brachytherapy procedures. A novel EM hollow needle prototype was recently developed by Philips. It possesses standard 3D tracking capability as well as a seed drop detection mechanism, both performed from a single custom built EM sensor. The detection mechanism is based on the magnetic permeability changes in the sensor as the seeds pass through. Drop position estimates are generated by the tracking information at the dropping instants. Three validation experiments were carried out in this study. First, the robustness of the detection mechanism was tested in free air with four different seed types. Detection waveforms were measured and commented. The accuracy of the seed drop position estimates was then evaluated using both 2D and 3D experiments. The procedures consisted of dropping seeds in phantoms, recording the drop position estimates, and finally registering the resulting spatial distributions on reference ones obtained by accurate modalities. Seeds were dropped on a specially designed plastic support adapted to brachytherapy template dimensions for 2D experiments, and true seed positions (reference distribution) were obtained by optical detection. In 3D experiments, seeds were dropped in edible gelatin and reference distributions were obtained by localizing the implants from CT scans of the phantoms. All four seed types were correctly detected by the needle prototype. In total, 250 seeds were dropped on the plastic support, and 96 were dropped in gelatin phantoms. The detection rate was 100% in both cases. The minimum, maximum, and average drop position errors were, respectively, 0.1(+1.6/ - 0.1), 2.9(+1.4/ - 1.5), and 0.9(+1.4/ - 0.7) mm for 2D, and 0.1(+1.0/ - 0.1), 2.1(+1.1/ - 0.8), and 0.6(+1.2/ - 0.5) mm for 3D experiments. The hollow needle prototype combines both EM tracking and automatic seed drop

  15. Redesigning Schools to Reach Every Student with Excellent Teachers: Financial Planning for Time-Technology Swap--Rotation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Impact, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This brief shows how teachers in a Time-Technology swap school model may earn more, sustainably. In this model, schools use age-appropriate portions of digital learning (as little as about an hour daily per student) to free the time of excellent teachers to teach more students and potentially to collaborate with peers. By teaching more students,…

  16. QuickTime Virtual Reality Technology Applies to Practical Teaching Recording System

    OpenAIRE

    Yongyong Zhu

    2013-01-01

    QTVR is virtual reality technology which is based on static images and we apply it to practical teaching section. Through the practical teaching record system, virtual reality technology is applied to the whole journey of practical teaching. Give full play to the merits of strong sense of reality of the QTVR technology, good interactive performance, impressive immersive experience, convenience of produce and transmission, make seamless integration with the various present online teaching plat...

  17. Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,…

  18. Performance analysis of spatial multiplexing MIMO system with time reversal technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Sanjeeb; Dou, Zheng; Khan, Zayed

    2013-03-01

    This paper deals with the performance analysis of Spatial Multiplexing(SM) multiple input multiple output (MIMO) system with time reversal (TR) technology. Focus is given on the spatial multiplexing gain of MIMO than the diversity gain aspect with the notion that the idea of diversity is inseparably associated with the uncertainty of the channel. If transmitter knows Channel State Information (CSI) before transmission, potential benefits can be harvested. TR is used here, to provide Channel State Information (CSI) at the transmitter before transmission. With the features of temporal and spatial focusing, TR not only can provide immunity against fading for spatially multiplexed data stream but also help boost its Multi Stream Interference (MSI) limited performance by mitigating it. The performance analysis of SM-MIMOTR is carried out with the aim of average minimum error probability for quantity of interest data rate. The interest date rate is 19.07 Mbps, where as the average minimum error probably is set to be that of Single Input Multi Output (SIMO) maximum ratio combining system (MRC). BER of Single Input Single Output (SISO) system is also simulated for making comparison tangible. Simulation study shows that Bit Error Rate (BER) performance of the system with the data rate of interest nearly coincides with that of SIMO system at the range of 10-15db and is better than SISO in all simulated Eb/No points. Additionally, from the standpoint of tread off curve, between diversity gain and spatial multiplexing gain, the non linearity nature still holds.

  19. Scythian trepanations in the Gorny Altai in Hippocratic times: modern expert appraisal of ancient surgical technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivoshapkin, Alexey L; Chikisheva, Tatiana A; Zubova, Alisa V; Kurbatov, Vladislav P; Titov, Anatoli T; Volkov, Pavel V

    2014-11-01

    To report the analysis of 3 cases of ancient trepanation discovered in the craniological collection (153 skulls) of the Pazyryk nomadic culture (500-300 bc) from the Gorny Altai, Russia, and to evaluate the technique, instrumentation, and materials used for cranial surgery as well as the motivation for the trepanations in Scythian times. A multidisciplinary approach was chosen to study the trepanned skulls. Visual inspection and examination under magnification, multislice computed tomography, high-field magnetic resonance imaging, and coupled plasma mass spectrometry and synchrotron radiation-induced x-ray fluorescence analysis of the bone samples from the site of trephination were used. In the Pazyryk culture, trepanation was very likely used to perform the intracranial procedures that were not yet indicated by Hippocrates. No signs of bone infection were detected. Higher copper abundance found at the site of trepanation showed that a bronze knife was the most likely tool used by Scythian surgeons. Our data suggest that the Scythian population of the Altai Mountains had sufficient medical knowledge to perform sophisticated and successful manipulations on the human skulls. Scraping technique with bronze tools was quite effective for prevention of wound infection and resulted in a high survival rate after surgery. In the era of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, it may be useful to consider some ancient surgical technologies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A 3D Scanning Device for Architectural Relieves Based on Time-Of-Flight Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambino, M. C.; Fontana, R.; Gianfrate, G.; Greco, M.; Marras, L.; Materazzi, M.; Pampaloni, E.; Pezzati, L.

    In this work we present the results of some architectural and archaeological relieves realized by means of a Time-Of-Flight (TOF) laser scanner developed by the Art Diagnostic Group of Istituto Nazionale di Ottica Applicata — INOA (the National Institute of Applied Optics). The instrument is composed of a commercial distance meter mounted on a high precision scanning system, and is equipped with a tripod for total-stations. The device was projected in order to have the following characteristics: reliability, good accuracy and compatibility to other systems. For Cultural Heritage applications it is important to integrate the data acquired with different instruments, but a problem met with many commercial systems is the lack of compatibility with classic survey methodologies. Moreover, superimposition of results from different techniques is possible only if the output is metrically correct. Up to now, the realization of accurate 3D models of buildings was a prerogative of the photogrammetric devices, but the recent progress in opto-electronic technology and 3D software of analysis made possible the production of accurate 3D models. Laser scanning has the main advantage of allowing the acquisition of dense data sampling with high accuracy and high speed.

  1. Integrating Smartphone Technology at the Time of Discharge from a Child and Adolescent Inpatient Psychiatry Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Jonathan M; Sukhera, Javeed; Taylor-Gates, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    As smartphone technology becomes an increasingly important part of youth mental health, there has been little to no examination of how to effectively integrate smartphone-based safety planning with inpatient care. Our study sought to examine whether or not we could effectively integrate smartphone-based safety planning into the discharge process on a child and adolescent inpatient psychiatry unit. Staff members completed a survey to determine the extent of smartphone ownership in a population of admitted child and adolescent inpatients. In addition to quantifying smartphone ownership, the survey also tracked whether youth would integrate their previously-established safety plan with a specific safety planning application on their smartphone (Be Safe) at the time of discharge. Sixty-six percent (50/76) of discharged youth owned a smartphone, which is consistent with prior reports of high smartphone ownership in adult psychiatric populations. A minority of youth (18%) downloaded the Be Safe app prior to discharge, with most (68%) suggesting they would download the app after discharge. Notably, all patients who downloaded the app prior to discharge were on their first admission to a psychiatric inpatient unit. Child and adolescent psychiatric inpatients have a clear interest in smartphone-based safety planning. Our results suggest that integrating smartphone-related interventions earlier in an admission might improve access before discharge. This highlights the tension between restricting and incorporating smartphone access for child and adolescent inpatients and may inform future study in this area.

  2. Rest-Frame R-band Lightcurve of a z~1.3 Supernova Obtained with Keck Laser Adaptive Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Melbourne, J; Koo, D C; Max, C; Larkin, J E; Wright, S A; Steinbring, E; Barczys, M; Aldering, G; Barbary, K; Doi, M; Fadeev, V; Goldhaber, G; Hattori, T; Ihara, Y; Kashikawa, N; Konishi, K; Kowalski, M; Kuznetsova, N; Lidman, C; Morokuma, T; Perlmutter, S; Rubin, D; Schlegel, D J; Spadafora, A L; Takanashi, N; Yasuda, N

    2007-01-01

    We present Keck diffraction limited H-band photometry of a z~1.3 Type Ia supernova (SN) candidate, first identified in a Hubble Space Telescope (HST) search for SNe in massive high redshift galaxy clusters. The adaptive optics (AO) data were obtained with the Laser Guide Star facility during four observing runs from September to November 2005. In the analysis of data from the observing run nearest to maximum SN brightness, the SN was found to have a magnitude H=23.9 +/- 0.14 (Vega). We present the H-band (approximately rest-frame R) light curve and provide a detailed analysis of the AO photometric uncertainties. By constraining the aperture correction with a nearby (4" separation) star we achieve 0.14 magnitude photometric precision, despite the spatially varying AO PSF.

  3. NACO-SDI imaging of known companion host stars from the AAPS and Keck planet search surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, J S; Biller, B; O'Toole, S J; Pinfield, D J; Close, L; Tinney, C G; Butler, R P; Wittenmyer, R; Carter, B; Day-Jones, A C

    2010-01-01

    Direct imaging of brown dwarfs as companions to solar-type stars can provide a wealth of well-constrained data to "benchmark" the physics of such objects, since quantities like metallicity and age can be determined from their well-studied primaries. We present results from an adaptive optics imaging program on stars drawn from the Anglo-Australian and Keck Planet Search projects, with the aim of directly imaging known cool companions. Simulations have modeled the expected contrast ratios and separations of known companions using estimates of orbital parameters available from current radial-velocity data and then a selection of the best case objects were followed-up with high contrast imaging to attempt to directly image these companions. These simulations suggest that only a very small number of radial-velocity detected exoplanets with consistent velocity fits and age estimates could potentially be directly imaged using the VLT's Simultaneous Differential Imaging system and only under favorable conditions. We...

  4. Modeling the transmission and thermal emission in a pupil image behind the Keck II adaptive optics system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriaga, Pauline; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Lyke, James E.; Campbell, Randall D.; Wizinowich, Peter L.; Adkins, Sean M.; Matthews, Keith Y.

    2016-08-01

    The design and performance of astronomical instruments depend critically on the total system throughput as well as the background emission from the sky and instrumental sources. In designing a pupil stop for background- limited imaging, one seeks to balance throughput and background rejection to optimize measurement signal-to-noise ratios. Many sources affect transmission and emission in infrared imaging behind the Keck Observatory's adaptive optics systems, such as telescope segments, segment gaps, secondary support structure, and AO bench optics. Here we describe an experiment, using the pupil-viewing mode of NIRC2, to image the pupil plane as a function of wavelength. We are developing an empirical model of throughput and background emission as a function of position in the pupil plane. This model will be used in part to inform the optimal design of cold pupils in future instruments, such as the new imaging camera for OSIRIS.

  5. A case study in adaptable and reusable infrastructure at the Keck Observatory Archive: VO interfaces, moving targets, and more

    CERN Document Server

    Berriman, G Bruce; Colson, Andrew; Gelino, Christopher R; Good, John C; Kong, Mihseh; Laity, Anastasia C; Mader, Jeffrey A; Swain, Melanie A; Tran, Hien D; Wang, Shin-Ywan

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes how the Keck Observatory Archive (KOA) is extending open source software components to develop new services. In August 2015, KOA deployed a program interface to discover public data from all instruments equipped with an imaging mode. The interface complies with version 2 of the Simple Imaging Access Protocol (SIAP), under development by the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA), which defines a standard mechanism for discovering images through spatial queries. The heart of the KOA service is an R-tree-based, database-indexing mechanism prototyped by the Virtual Astronomical Observatory (VAO) and further developed by the Montage Image Mosaic project, designed to provide fast access to large imaging data sets as a first step in creating wide-area image mosaics. The KOA service uses the results of the spatial R-tree search to create an SQLite data database for further relational filtering. The service uses a JSON configuration file to describe the association between instrument p...

  6. Interacting With A Near Real-Time Urban Digital Watershed Using Emerging Geospatial Web Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Fazio, D. J.; Abdelzaher, T.; Minsker, B.

    2007-12-01

    The value of real-time hydrologic data dissemination including river stage, streamflow, and precipitation for operational stormwater management efforts is particularly high for communities where flash flooding is common and costly. Ideally, such data would be presented within a watershed-scale geospatial context to portray a holistic view of the watershed. Local hydrologic sensor networks usually lack comprehensive integration with sensor networks managed by other agencies sharing the same watershed due to administrative, political, but mostly technical barriers. Recent efforts on providing unified access to hydrological data have concentrated on creating new SOAP-based web services and common data format (e.g. WaterML and Observation Data Model) for users to access the data (e.g. HIS and HydroSeek). Geospatial Web technology including OGC sensor web enablement (SWE), GeoRSS, Geo tags, Geospatial browsers such as Google Earth and Microsoft Virtual Earth and other location-based service tools provides possibilities for us to interact with a digital watershed in near-real-time. OGC SWE proposes a revolutionary concept towards a web-connected/controllable sensor networks. However, these efforts have not provided the capability to allow dynamic data integration/fusion among heterogeneous sources, data filtering and support for workflows or domain specific applications where both push and pull mode of retrieving data may be needed. We propose a light weight integration framework by extending SWE with open source Enterprise Service Bus (e.g., mule) as a backbone component to dynamically transform, transport, and integrate both heterogeneous sensor data sources and simulation model outputs. We will report our progress on building such framework where multi-agencies" sensor data and hydro-model outputs (with map layers) will be integrated and disseminated in a geospatial browser (e.g. Microsoft Virtual Earth). This is a collaborative project among NCSA, USGS Illinois Water

  7. Characterization of the Inner Disk around HD 141569 A from Keck/NIRC2 L-Band Vortex Coronagraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawet, Dimitri; Choquet, Élodie; Absil, Olivier; Huby, Elsa; Bottom, Michael; Serabyn, Eugene; Femenia, Bruno; Lebreton, Jérémy; Matthews, Keith; Gomez Gonzalez, Carlos A.; Wertz, Olivier; Carlomagno, Brunella; Christiaens, Valentin; Defrère, Denis; Delacroix, Christian; Forsberg, Pontus; Habraken, Serge; Jolivet, Aissa; Karlsson, Mikael; Milli, Julien; Pinte, Christophe; Piron, Pierre; Reggiani, Maddalena; Surdej, Jean; Vargas Catalan, Ernesto

    2017-01-01

    HD 141569 A is a pre-main sequence B9.5 Ve star surrounded by a prominent and complex circumstellar disk, likely still in a transition stage from protoplanetary to debris disk phase. Here, we present a new image of the third inner disk component of HD 141569 A made in the L‧ band (3.8 μm) during the commissioning of the vector vortex coronagraph that has recently been installed in the near-infrared imager and spectrograph NIRC2 behind the W.M. Keck Observatory Keck II adaptive optics system. We used reference point-spread function subtraction, which reveals the innermost disk component from the inner working distance of ≃23 au and up to ≃70 au. The spatial scale of our detection roughly corresponds to the optical and near-infrared scattered light, thermal Q, N, and 8.6 μm PAH emission reported earlier. We also see an outward progression in dust location from the L‧ band to the H band (Very Large Telescope/SPHERE image) to the visible (Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/STIS image), which is likely indicative of dust blowout. The warm disk component is nested deep inside the two outer belts imaged by HST-NICMOS in 1999 (at 406 and 245 au, respectively). We fit our new L‧-band image and spectral energy distribution of HD 141569 A with the radiative transfer code MCFOST. Our best-fit models favor pure olivine grains and are consistent with the composition of the outer belts. While our image shows a putative very faint point-like clump or source embedded in the inner disk, we did not detect any true companion within the gap between the inner disk and the first outer ring, at a sensitivity of a few Jupiter masses.

  8. Evaluating Assistive Technology in Early Childhood Education: The Use of a Concurrent Time Series Probe Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parette, Howard P.; Blum, Craig; Boeckmann, Nichole M.

    2009-01-01

    As assistive technology applications are increasingly implemented in early childhood settings for children who are at risk or who have disabilities, it is critical that teachers utilize observational approaches to determine whether targeted assistive technology-supported interventions make a difference in children's learning. One structured…

  9. Love in the Time of Facebook: How Technology Now Shapes Romantic Attachments in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    College counseling clinicians need to understand how students use technology to form, sustain, and end romantic attachments. Students now frequently incorporate aspects of these technologically based interactions, or mediated communications, into counseling sessions and often make important attributions based on them. Heavy daily use of a growing…

  10. Evaluating Assistive Technology in Early Childhood Education: The Use of a Concurrent Time Series Probe Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parette, Howard P.; Blum, Craig; Boeckmann, Nichole M.

    2009-01-01

    As assistive technology applications are increasingly implemented in early childhood settings for children who are at risk or who have disabilities, it is critical that teachers utilize observational approaches to determine whether targeted assistive technology-supported interventions make a difference in children's learning. One structured…

  11. Real-time Imaging Technology for the Return to the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epp, Chirold

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews realtime Autonomous Landing Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) technology for the return to the Moon. The topics inclde: 1) ALHAT Background; 2) Safe and Precise Landing; 3) ALHAT Mission Phases; 4) Terminal Descent Phase; 5) Lighting; 6) Lander Tolerance; 7) HDA Sensor Performance; and 8) HDA Terrain Sensors.

  12. Selection of the optimal hard facing (HF technology of damaged forging dies based on cooling time t8/5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Arsić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In exploitation, the forging dies are exposed to heating up to very high temperatures, variable loads: compressive, impact and shear. In this paper, the reparatory hard facing of the damaged forging dies is considered. The objective was to establish the optimal reparatory technology based on cooling time t8/5 . The verification of the adopted technology was done by investigation of the hard faced layers microstructure and measurements of hardness within the welded layers’ characteristic zones. Cooling time was determined theoretically, numerically and experimentally.

  13. Modeling the Internal Kinematics (Rotation and Dispersion) of Distant Galaxies (z ~ 1.0) Using Multi-PA Keck DEIMOS Slit Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Connie; Chen, Jerry; Torres Hernandez, Jose; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Jang, Hyerin

    2017-01-01

    The stark difference between the chaotic internal motion of distant galaxies and the ordered rotation of typical local spiral galaxies suggests that disordered galaxies at high redshifts (i.e., early times in the Universe's history) gradually settle into well ordered disk morphologies with ordered rotation. We have used slit spectra obtained with Keck DEIMOS at four different position angles for 133 distant objects (z ~ 1.0) in the GOODS-N field. The emission lines in the 2D spectra of the galaxies were used to calculate the redshift/velocity at each spatial location. For each slit row, the distribution of flux over velocity was modeled as a Gaussian curve from which we obtained the radial velocity and spread of radial velocity. Rotation curves and velocity dispersions for each galaxy at each slit angle were plotted at these values. We qualitatively classified galaxies as regularly rotating, merging, face-on, or unable to be determined by examining overlays of the rotation curves from the four slit angles. We found that regular rotating galaxies tended to have peak velocity dispersion at the center while mergers had fairly constant velocity dispersions. Face-on galaxies had chaotic and inconsistent velocity dispersions between different slit angles. Regularly rotation galaxies represented 45% of our sample and mergers represented 27%. The relative percentage of galaxies that were either regularly rotating or mergers roughly matched those of the literature. This research was supported by NASA and the National Science Foundation. Most of this work was carried out by high school students working under the auspices of the Science Internship Program at UC Santa Cruz.

  14. Measuring real-time streamflow using emerging technologies: Radar, hydroacoustics, and the probability concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, J.; Ostrowski, J.

    2008-01-01

    Forecasting streamflow during extreme hydrologic events such as floods can be problematic. This is particularly true when flow is unsteady, and river forecasts rely on models that require uniform-flow rating curves to route water from one forecast point to another. As a result, alternative methods for measuring streamflow are needed to properly route flood waves and account for inertial and pressure forces in natural channels dominated by nonuniform-flow conditions such as mild water surface slopes, backwater, tributary inflows, and reservoir operations. The objective of the demonstration was to use emerging technologies to measure instantaneous streamflow in open channels at two existing US Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations in Pennsylvania. Surface-water and instream-point velocities were measured using hand-held radar and hydroacoustics. Streamflow was computed using the probability concept, which requires velocity data from a single vertical containing the maximum instream velocity. The percent difference in streamflow at the Susquehanna River at Bloomsburg, PA ranged from 0% to 8% with an average difference of 4% and standard deviation of 8.81 m3/s. The percent difference in streamflow at Chartiers Creek at Carnegie, PA ranged from 0% to 11% with an average difference of 5% and standard deviation of 0.28 m3/s. New generation equipment is being tested and developed to advance the use of radar-derived surface-water velocity and instantaneous streamflow to facilitate the collection and transmission of real-time streamflow that can be used to parameterize hydraulic routing models.

  15. Emerging technologies for assessing physical activity behaviors in space and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurvitz, Philip M; Moudon, Anne Vernez; Kang, Bumjoon; Saelens, Brian E; Duncan, Glen E

    2014-01-01

    Precise measurement of physical activity is important for health research, providing a better understanding of activity location, type, duration, and intensity. This article describes a novel suite of tools to measure and analyze physical activity behaviors in spatial epidemiology research. We use individual-level, high-resolution, objective data collected in a space-time framework to investigate built and social environment influences on activity. First, we collect data with accelerometers, global positioning system units, and smartphone-based digital travel and photo diaries to overcome many limitations inherent in self-reported data. Behaviors are measured continuously over the full spectrum of environmental exposures in daily life, instead of focusing exclusively on the home neighborhood. Second, data streams are integrated using common timestamps into a single data structure, the "LifeLog." A graphic interface tool, "LifeLog View," enables simultaneous visualization of all LifeLog data streams. Finally, we use geographic information system SmartMap rasters to measure spatially continuous environmental variables to capture exposures at the same spatial and temporal scale as in the LifeLog. These technologies enable precise measurement of behaviors in their spatial and temporal settings but also generate very large datasets; we discuss current limitations and promising methods for processing and analyzing such large datasets. Finally, we provide applications of these methods in spatially oriented research, including a natural experiment to evaluate the effects of new transportation infrastructure on activity levels, and a study of neighborhood environmental effects on activity using twins as quasi-causal controls to overcome self-selection and reverse causation problems. In summary, the integrative characteristics of large datasets contained in LifeLogs and SmartMaps hold great promise for advancing spatial epidemiologic research to promote healthy behaviors.

  16. Emerging technologies for assessing physical activity behaviors in space and time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip M Hurvitz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Precise measurement of physical activity is important for health research, providing a better understanding of activity location, type, duration, and intensity. This article describes a novel suite of tools to measure and analyze physical activity behaviors in spatial epidemiology research. We use individual-level, high-resolution, objective data collected in a space-time framework to investigate built and social environment influences on activity. First, we collect data with accelerometers, global positioning system units, and smartphone-based digital travel and photo diaries to overcome many limitations inherent in self-reported data. Behaviors are measured continuously over the full spectrum of environmental exposures in daily life, instead of focusing exclusively on the home neighborhood. Next, data streams are integrated using common timestamps into a single data structure, the LifeLog. A graphic interface tool, LifeLog View, enables simultaneous visualization of all LifeLog data streams. Finally, we use geographic information system SmartMap rasters to measure spatially continuous environmental variables to capture exposures at the same spatial and temporal scale as in the LifeLog. These technologies enable precise measurement of behaviors in their spatial and temporal settings but also generate very large datasets; we discuss current limitations and promising methods for processing and analyzing such large datasets. Finally, we provide applications of these methods in spatially-oriented research, including a natural experiment to evaluate the effects of new transportation infrastructure on activity levels, and a study of neighborhood environmental effects on activity using twins as quasi-causal controls to overcome self-selection and reverse causation problems. In summary, the integrative characteristics of large datasets contained in LifeLogs and SmartMaps hold great promise for advancing spatial epidemiologic research to promote healthy

  17. Defining a National Web Sphere over time from the Perspectives of Collection, Technology and Scholarship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld; Brügger, Niels; Moesgaard, Jakob

    the framework aims at a definition that can be reused independent of changed behaviours on the net, changes in jurisdiction and changes in technology. A crucial point in this framework is that the perspectives of collection, technology and Scholarship are present in decision making. The framework origins from...... etc., and changes in jurisdiction influencing the way that the web can be collected technology, thus regularly adjustments of what is national web pages may likely be needed. Therefore the presented framework consists of a list of general criteria as basis for adjustment of web collection strategies...

  18. QuickTime Virtual Reality Technology Applies to Practical Teaching Recording System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongyong Zhu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available QTVR is virtual reality technology which is based on static images and we apply it to practical teaching section. Through the practical teaching record system, virtual reality technology is applied to the whole journey of practical teaching. Give full play to the merits of strong sense of reality of the QTVR technology, good interactive performance, impressive immersive experience, convenience of produce and transmission, make seamless integration with the various present online teaching platforms, constitute comprehensive teaching material accumulation and resource utilization, uplift the quality of practical teaching, and promote students’ practical skills.

  19. On-line Detection of Gas Pipeline Based on the Real-Time Algorithm and Network Technology with Robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Bo; YAN Guo-zheng; DING Guo-qing; ZHOU Bing; FU Xi-guang; ZUO Jian-yong

    2004-01-01

    The detection system integrates control technology, network technology, video encoding and decoding, video transmiss-ion, multi-single chip microcomputer communication, dat-abase technology, computer software and robot technology. The robot can adaptively adjust its status according to diameter (from 400 mm to 650 mm) of pipeline. The maximum detection distance is up to 1 000 m. The method of video coding in the system is based on fractal transformation. The experiments show that the coding scheme is fast and good PSNR. The precision of on-line detection is up to 3% thickness of pipeline wall. The robot can also have a high precision of location up to 0.03 m. The control method is based on network and characterized by on-line and real-time. The experiment in real gas pipeline shows that the performance of the detection system is good.

  20. Application of xCELLigence RTCA Biosensor Technology for Revealing the Profile and Window of Drug Responsiveness in Real Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Kho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The xCELLigence technology is a real-time cellular biosensor, which measures the net adhesion of cells to high-density gold electrode arrays printed on custom-designed E-plates. The strength of cellular adhesion is influenced by a myriad of factors that include cell type, cell viability, growth, migration, spreading and proliferation. We therefore hypothesised that xCELLigence biosensor technology would provide a valuable platform for the measurement of drug responses in a multitude of different experimental, clinical or pharmacological contexts. In this manuscript, we demonstrate how xCELLigence technology has been invaluable in the identification of (1 not only if cells respond to a particular drug, but (2 the window of drug responsiveness. The latter aspect is often left to educated guess work in classical end-point assays, whereas biosensor technology reveals the temporal profile of the response in real time, which enables both acute responses and longer term responses to be profiled within the same assay. In our experience, the xCELLigence biosensor technology is suitable for highly targeted drug assessment and also low to medium throughput drug screening, which produces high content temporal data in real time.

  1. Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional answer card reading method using OMR (Optical Mark Reader, most commonly, OMR special card special use, less versatile, high cost, aiming at the existing problems proposed a method based on pattern recognition of the answer card identification method. Using the method based on Line Segment Detector to detect the tilt of the image, the existence of tilt image rotation correction, and eventually achieve positioning and detection of answers to the answer sheet .Pattern recognition technology for automatic reading, high accuracy, detect faster

  2. Software for Application of HHT Technologies to Time Series Analysis Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is a robust and user-friendly software environment where NASA researchers can customize the latest HHT technologies for the LISA (and LIGO)...

  3. Software for Application of HHT Technologies to Time Series Analysis Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NLNS software developed in phase I is a robust and user-friendly environment that NASA researchers can use to customize the latest HHT technologies for their...

  4. The Social Construction of Time in Contemporary Education: Implications for Technology, Equality and Bernstein's "Conditions for Democracy"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaton Gray, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses how the introduction of technology has led to a fundamental shift in the relationship between education and time. As a means of analysing the extent of such changes on pupils from different backgrounds, I use Bernstein's "conditions for democracy" as a framework for evaluating the impact new understandings of time…

  5. An Exploratory Study of the Effects of Time Compressed Animated Delivery Multimedia Technology on Student Learning in Reproductive Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Michael S.; Oki, Angela C.; Senger, P. L.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments examined the effects of a multimedia technology referred to as "Time Compressed Animated Delivery" (TCAD), on student learning in a junior-level reproductive physiology course. In experiment 1, participating students received one of two presentations of the same instructional material: TCAD and a lecture captured on video. At the…

  6. An Exploratory Study of the Effects of Time Compressed Animated Delivery Multimedia Technology on Student Learning in Reproductive Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Michael S.; Oki, Angela C.; Senger, P. L.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments examined the effects of a multimedia technology referred to as "Time Compressed Animated Delivery" (TCAD), on student learning in a junior-level reproductive physiology course. In experiment 1, participating students received one of two presentations of the same instructional material: TCAD and a lecture captured on video. At the…

  7. Examining the Impact of Off-Task Multi-Tasking with Technology on Real-Time Classroom Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Eileen; Zivcakova, Lucia; Gentile, Petrice; Archer, Karin; De Pasquale, Domenica; Nosko, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of multi-tasking with digital technologies while attempting to learn from real-time classroom lectures in a university setting. Four digitally-based multi-tasking activities (texting using a cell-phone, emailing, MSN messaging and Facebook[TM]) were compared to 3 control groups…

  8. The Social Construction of Time in Contemporary Education: Implications for Technology, Equality and Bernstein's "Conditions for Democracy"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaton Gray, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses how the introduction of technology has led to a fundamental shift in the relationship between education and time. As a means of analysing the extent of such changes on pupils from different backgrounds, I use Bernstein's "conditions for democracy" as a framework for evaluating the impact new understandings of time…

  9. Preschool Children's Exposure to Media, Technology, and Screen Time: Perspectives of Caregivers from Three Early Childcare Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkins, Kimberly A.; Newton, Allison B.; Albaiz, Najla Essa A.; Ernest, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Young children are being increasingly exposed to media, technology, and screen time (MeTS) at home and in instructional settings. Little is known about the long-term effects of MeTS and there is a lack of research concerning caregivers' opinions regarding young children's exposure to and utilization of MeTS. Therefore, this study explored the…

  10. Preschool Children's Exposure to Media, Technology, and Screen Time: Perspectives of Caregivers from Three Early Childcare Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkins, Kimberly A.; Newton, Allison B.; Albaiz, Najla Essa A.; Ernest, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Young children are being increasingly exposed to media, technology, and screen time (MeTS) at home and in instructional settings. Little is known about the long-term effects of MeTS and there is a lack of research concerning caregivers' opinions regarding young children's exposure to and utilization of MeTS. Therefore, this study explored the…

  11. Using Technology to Expand the Classroom in Time, Space, and Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Joshua

    2015-11-01

    Diverse classrooms offer distinct advantages over homogeneous classrooms, for example by providing a greater diversity of perspectives and opportunities. However, there is substantial underrepresentation of numerous groups throughout science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education, from secondary schools through professional ranks and academia. In this piece I offer a critical analysis of three worked examples of how technology can be used to expand traditional definitions of the classroom environment. In doing so I show how technology can be used to help make STEM classrooms more expansive, equitable, and effective learning environments. First I highlight how peer-to-peer learning was used to foster knowledge of marine conservation with high school youth across Fiji and Chicago. Second I show how social media can be used to facilitate conversations in New York City after a natural disaster. Finally, I show how integrating digital and real-world learning can help a diverse group of students from the Pacific islands gain field-based STEM techniques in an extended workshop format. Taken together these examples show how digital technology could expand the fixed walls of the academy and that technology can help show students the vivid splendor of life outside the classroom. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Pathology resident and fellow education in a time of disruptive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziai, James M; Smith, Brian R

    2012-12-01

    The development of disruptive technologies is changing the practice of pathology. Their implementation challenges traditional educational paradigms. Training programs must adapt to these heuristic needs. The dual explosion of new medical knowledge and innovative methodologies adds new practice aspects to the pathologist's areas of expertise. This transformation potentially challenges the traditional core model of training. It raises questions as to how pathology should incorporate future expanding subspecialty needs into educational and practice models. This article examines the impact of these disruptive technologies on resident and fellow education and explores alternative educational and practice models that may better accommodate pathology's future. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A perfect time to harness advanced molecular technologies to explore the fundamental biology of Toxocara species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, Robin B

    2013-04-15

    Toxocarosis is of major canine health and socioeconomic importance worldwide. Although many studies have given insights into toxocarosis, to date, there has been limited exploration of the molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, epidemiology and ecology of Toxocara species as well as parasite-host interactions using '-omic' technologies. The present article gives a background on Toxocara species and toxocarosis, describes molecular tools for specific identification and genetic analysis, and provides a prospective view of the benefits that advanced molecular technologies will have towards better understanding the parasites and disease. Tackling key biological questions employing a 'systems biology' approach should lead to new and improved strategies for the treatment, diagnosis and control of toxocarosis.

  14. The power of single molecule real-time sequencing technology in the de novo assembly of a eukaryotic genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Hiroaki; Naito, Ken; Ogiso-Tanaka, Eri; Takahashi, Yu; Iseki, Kohtaro; Muto, Chiaki; Satou, Kazuhito; Teruya, Kuniko; Shiroma, Akino; Shimoji, Makiko; Hirano, Takashi; Itoh, Takeshi; Kaga, Akito; Tomooka, Norihiko

    2015-11-30

    Second-generation sequencers (SGS) have been game-changing, achieving cost-effective whole genome sequencing in many non-model organisms. However, a large portion of the genomes still remains unassembled. We reconstructed azuki bean (Vigna angularis) genome using single molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing technology and achieved the best contiguity and coverage among currently assembled legume crops. The SMRT-based assembly produced 100 times longer contigs with 100 times smaller amount of gaps compared to the SGS-based assemblies. A detailed comparison between the assemblies revealed that the SMRT-based assembly enabled a more comprehensive gene annotation than the SGS-based assemblies where thousands of genes were missing or fragmented. A chromosome-scale assembly was generated based on the high-density genetic map, covering 86% of the azuki bean genome. We demonstrated that SMRT technology, though still needed support of SGS data, achieved a near-complete assembly of a eukaryotic genome.

  15. 4onse: four times open & non-conventional technology for sensing the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannata, Massimiliano; Ratnayake, Rangageewa; Antonovic, Milan; Strigaro, Daniele; Cardoso, Mirko; Hoffmann, Marcus

    2017-04-01

    The availability of complete, quality and dense monitoring hydro-meteorological data is essential to address a number of practical issues including, but not limited to, flood-water and urban drainage management, climate change impact assessment, early warning and risk management, now-casting and weather predictions. Thanks to the recent technological advances such as Internet Of Things, Big Data and Ubiquitous Internet, non-conventional monitoring systems based on open technologies and low cost sensors may represent a great opportunity either as a complement of authoritative monitoring network or as a vital source of information wherever existing monitoring networks are in decline or completely missing. Nevertheless, scientific literature on such a kind of open and non-conventional monitoring systems is still limited and often relates to prototype engineering and testing in rather limited case studies. For this reason the 4onse project aims at integrating existing open technologies in the field of Free & Open Source Software, Open Hardware, Open Data, and Open Standards and evaluate this kind of system in a real case (about 30 stations) for a medium period of 2 years to better scientifically understand strengths, criticalities and applicabilities in terms of data quality; system durability; management costs; performances; sustainability. The ultimate objective is to contribute in non-conventional monitoring systems adoption based on four open technologies.

  16. The Lived Experiences of Federal Agency Information-Technology Employees in Times of Outsourcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudi, Linda

    2010-01-01

    United States (U.S.) federal agencies and other organizations are turning to Information Technology (IT) as a strategy for improving business productivity. Despite the rapid growth of outsourcing, few studies have been conducted on the effect of outsourcing on employees who remain with the company. In the current qualitative study, the effect of…

  17. The Lived Experiences of Federal Agency Information-Technology Employees in Times of Outsourcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudi, Linda

    2010-01-01

    United States (U.S.) federal agencies and other organizations are turning to Information Technology (IT) as a strategy for improving business productivity. Despite the rapid growth of outsourcing, few studies have been conducted on the effect of outsourcing on employees who remain with the company. In the current qualitative study, the effect of…

  18. CMB B-mode Polarization Measurements and constraints on Primordial Gravitational Waves from the BICEP/Keck Program at South Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovac, John; Bicep/Keck Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The BICEP/Keck Array cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization experiments located at the South Pole are a series of small-aperture refracting telescopes designed to probe the degree-scale B-mode signature of primordial gravitational waves. These highly-targeted experiments have produced the world's deepest maps of CMB polarization, leading to the most stringent constraints on the tensor-to-scalar ratio to date: r r r < 0 . 01 and below within the next several years.

  19. Introducing RFID technology in dynamic and time-critical medical settings: requirements and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlak, Siddika; Sarcevic, Aleksandra; Marsic, Ivan; Burd, Randall S

    2012-10-01

    We describe the process of introducing RFID technology in the trauma bay of a trauma center to support fast-paced and complex teamwork during resuscitation. We analyzed trauma resuscitation tasks, photographs of medical tools, and videos of simulated resuscitations to gain insight into resuscitation tasks, work practices and procedures. Based on these data, we discuss strategies for placing RFID tags on medical tools and for placing antennas in the environment for optimal tracking and activity recognition. Results from our preliminary RFID deployment in the trauma bay show the feasibility of our approach for tracking tools and for recognizing trauma team activities. We conclude by discussing implications for and challenges to introducing RFID technology in other similar settings characterized by dynamic and collocated collaboration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. When Shall I Tell? Relational Promotion and Timing of Information Technology Diffusion

    OpenAIRE

    Gibbons, Deborah; Butler, Brian; Boss, Scott

    2004-01-01

    This study adds to existing knowledge about information technology diffusion within organizations by examining the effects of social embeddedness on behavior of individual diffusers. Building on a social capital perspective of relationships, the authors theorize that individuals make intentional decisions to promote or suppress an innovation contingent on the nature of their relationship(s) with the potential adopters. Hypotheses regarding the likelihood of diffusion of an IT i...

  1. A Spectroscopic Redshift Measurement for a Luminous Lyman Break Galaxy at z=7.730 using Keck/MOSFIRE

    CERN Document Server

    Oesch, P A; Illingworth, G D; Bouwens, R J; Momcheva, I; Holden, B; Roberts-Borsani, G W; Smit, R; Franx, M; Labbe, I; Gonzalez, V; Magee, D

    2015-01-01

    We present a spectroscopic redshift measurement of a very bright Lyman break galaxy at z=7.7302+-0.0006 using Keck/MOSFIRE. The source was pre-selected photometrically in the EGS field as a robust z~8 candidate with H=25.0 mag based on optical non-detections and a very red Spitzer/IRAC [3.6]-[4.5] broad-band color driven by high equivalent width [OIII]+Hbeta line emission. The Lyalpha line is reliably detected at >6 sigma and shows an asymmetric profile as expected for a galaxy embedded in a relatively neutral inter-galactic medium near the Planck peak of cosmic reionization. The line has a rest-frame equivalent width of EW0=21+-4 A and is extended with V_FWHM=376+89-70 km/s. The source is perhaps the brightest and most massive z~8 Lyman break galaxy in the full CANDELS and BoRG/HIPPIES surveys, having assembled already 10^(9.9+-0.2) M_sol of stars at only 650 Myr after the Big Bang. The spectroscopic redshift measurement sets a new redshift record for galaxies. This enables reliable constraints on the stella...

  2. Milliarcsecond N-Band Observations of the Nova RS Ophiuchi: First Science with the Keck Interferometer Nuller

    CERN Document Server

    Barry, R K; Traub, W A; Sokoloski, J L; Wisniewski, J P; Serabyn, E; Kuchner, M J; Akeson, R; Appleby, E; Bell, J; Booth, A; Brandenburg, H; Colavita, M; Crawford, S; Creech-Eakman, M; Dahl, W; Felizardo, C; García, J; Gathright, J; Greenhouse, M A; Herstein, J; Hovland, E; Hrynevych, M; Koresko, C; Ligon, R; Mennesson, B; Millan-Gabet, R; Morrison, D; Palmer, D; Panteleeva, T; Ragland, S; Shao, M; Smythe, R; Summers, K; Swain, M; Tsubota, K; Tyau, C; Vasisht, G; Wetherell, E; Wizinowich, P; Woillez, J

    2008-01-01

    We report observations of the nova RS Ophiuchi (RS Oph) using the Keck Interferometer Nuller (KIN), approximately 3.8 days following the most recent outburst that occurred on 2006 February 12. These observations represent the first scientific results from the KIN, which operates in N-band from 8 to 12.5 microns in a nulling mode. By fitting the unique KIN data, we have obtained an angular size of the mid-infrared continuum of 6.2, 4.0, or 5.4 mas for a disk profile, gaussian profile (FWHM), and shell profile respectively. The data show evidence of enhanced neutral atomic hydrogen emission and atomic metals including silicon located in the inner spatial regime near the white dwarf (WD) relative to the outer regime. There are also nebular emission lines and evidence of hot silicate dust in the outer spatial region, centered at ! 17 AU from the WD, that are not found in the inner regime. Our evidence suggests that these features have been excited by the nova flash in the outer spatial regime before the blast wav...

  3. A Deep Hubble and Keck Search for Definitive Identification of Lyman Continuum Emitters at z~3.1

    CERN Document Server

    Siana, Brian; Kulas, Kristin R; Nestor, Daniel B; Steidel, Charles C; Teplitz, Harry I; Alavi, Anahita; Brown, Thomas M; Conselice, Christopher J; Ferguson, Henry C; Dickinson, Mark; Giavalisco, Mauro; Colbert, James W; Bridge, Carrie R; GSFC), Jonathan P Gardner; University), Duilia F de Mello (Catholic

    2015-01-01

    Narrow-band imaging of the rest-frame Lyman continuum (LyC) of galaxies at z~3.1 has produced a large number of candidate LyC-emitting galaxies. These samples are contaminated by galaxies at lower redshift. To better understand LyC escape, we need an uncontaminated sample of galaxies that emit strongly in the LyC. Here we present deep Hubble imaging of five bright galaxies at z~3.1 that had previously been identified as candidate LyC-emitters with ground-based images. The WFC3 F336W images probe the LyC of galaxies at z>3.06 and provide an order-of-magnitude increase in spatial resolution over ground-based imaging. The non-ionizing UV images often show multiple galaxies (or components) within ~1'' of the candidate LyC emission seen from the ground. In each case, only one of the components is emitting light in the F336W filter, which would indicate LyC escape if that component is at z>3.06. We use Keck/NIRSPEC near-IR spectroscopy to measure redshifts of these components to distinguish LyC-emitters from foregr...

  4. BICEP2 / Keck Array VIII: Measurement of gravitational lensing from large-scale B-mode polarization

    CERN Document Server

    Array, The Keck; Ade, P A R; Ahmed, Z; Aikin, R W; Alexander, K D; Barkats, D; Benton, S J; Bischoff, C A; Bock, J J; Bowens-Rubin, R; Brevik, J A; Buder, I; Bullock, E; Buza, V; Connors, J; Crill, B P; Duband, L; Dvorkin, C; Filippin, J P; Fliescher, S; Grayson, J; Halpern, M; Harrison, S; Hildebrandt, S R; Hilton, G C; Hui, H; Irwin, K D; Kang, J; Karkare, K S; Karpel, E; Kaufman, J P; Keating, B G; Kefeli, S; Kernasovskiy, S A; Kovac, J M; Kuo, C L; Leitch, E M; Lueker, M; Megerian, K G; Namikawa, T; Netterfield, C B; Nguyen, H T; O'Brient, R; Ogburn, R W; Orlando, A; Pryke, C; Richter, S; Schwarz, R; Sheehy, C D; Staniszewski, Z K; Steinbach, B; Sudiwala, R V; Teply, G P; Thompson, K L; Tolan, J E; Tucker, C; Turner, A D; Vieregg, A G; Weber, A C; Wiebe, D V; Willmert, J; Wong, C L; Wu, W L K; Yoon, K W

    2016-01-01

    We present measurements of polarization lensing using the 150 GHz maps which include all data taken by the BICEP2 & Keck Array CMB polarization experiments up to and including the 2014 observing season (BK14). Despite their modest angular resolution ($\\sim 0.5^\\circ$), the excellent sensitivity ($\\sim 3\\mu$K-arcmin) of these maps makes it possible to directly reconstruct the lensing potential using only information at larger angular scales ($\\ell\\leq 700$). From the auto-spectrum of the reconstructed potential we measure an amplitude of the spectrum to be $A^{\\phi\\phi}_{\\rm L}=1.15\\pm 0.36$ (Planck $\\Lambda$CDM prediction corresponds to $A^{\\phi\\phi}_{\\rm L}=1$), and reject the no-lensing hypothesis at 5.8$\\sigma$, which is the highest significance achieved to date using EB lensing estimator. Taking the cross-spectrum of the reconstructed potential with the Planck 2015 lensing map yields $A^{\\phi\\phi}_{\\rm L}=1.13\\pm 0.20$. These direct measurements of $A^{\\phi\\phi}_L$ are consistent with the $\\Lambda$CDM...

  5. MOA-2016-BLG-227Lb: A Massive Planet Characterized by Combining Light-curve Analysis and Keck AO Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshimoto, N.; Shvartzvald, Y.; Bennett, D. P.; Penny, M. T.; Hundertmark, M.; Bond, I. A.; Zang, W. C.; Henderson, C. B.; Suzuki, D.; Rattenbury, N. J.; Sumi, T.; and; Abe, F.; Asakura, Y.; Bhattacharya, A.; Donachie, M.; Evans, P.; Fukui, A.; Hirao, Y.; Itow, Y.; Li, M. C. A.; Ling, C. H.; Masuda, K.; Matsubara, Y.; Matsuo, T.; Muraki, Y.; Nagakane, M.; Ohnishi, K.; Ranc, C.; Saito, To.; Sharan, A.; Shibai, H.; Sullivan, D. J.; Tristram, P. J.; Yamada, T.; Yamada, T.; Yonehara, A.; MOA Collaboration; Gelino, C. R.; Beichman, C.; Beaulieu, J.-P.; Marquette, J.-B.; Batista, V.; Keck Team; Friedmann, M.; Hallakoun, N.; Kaspi, S.; Maoz, D.; Wise Group; Bryden, G.; Calchi Novati, S.; Howell, S. B.; UKIRT Team; Wang, T. S.; Mao, S.; Fouqué, P.; Microlensing Survey, CFHT-K2C9; Korhonen, H.; Jørgensen, U. G.; Street, R.; Tsapras, Y.; Dominik, M.; Kerins, E.; Cassan, A.; Snodgrass, C.; Bachelet, E.; Bozza, V.; Bramich, D. M.; VST-K2C9 Team

    2017-07-01

    We report the discovery of a microlensing planet—MOA-2016-BLG-227Lb—with a large planet/host mass ratio of q ≃ 9 × 10-3. This event was located near the K2 Campaign 9 field that was observed by a large number of telescopes. As a result, the event was in the microlensing survey area of a number of these telescopes, and this enabled good coverage of the planetary light-curve signal. High angular resolution adaptive optics images from the Keck telescope reveal excess flux at the position of the source above the flux of the source star, as indicated by the light-curve model. This excess flux could be due to the lens star, but it could also be due to a companion to the source or lens star, or even an unrelated star. We consider all these possibilities in a Bayesian analysis in the context of a standard Galactic model. Our analysis indicates that it is unlikely that a large fraction of the excess flux comes from the lens, unless solar-type stars are much more likely to host planets of this mass ratio than lower mass stars. We recommend that a method similar to the one developed in this paper be used for other events with high angular resolution follow-up observations when the follow-up observations are insufficient to measure the lens-source relative proper motion.

  6. Observational constraints on the formation and evolution of the Milky Way nuclear star cluster with Keck and Gemini

    CERN Document Server

    Do, Tuan; Morris, Mark; Lu, Jessica; Chappell, Samantha; Feldmeier-Krause, Anja; Kerzendorf, Wolfgang; Martinez, Gregory David; Murray, Norm; Winsor, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    Due to its proximity, the Milky Way nuclear star cluster provides us with a wealth of data not available in other galactic nuclei. In particular, with adaptive optics, we can observe the detailed properties of individual stars, which can offer insight into the origin and evolution of the cluster. We summarize work on the central parsec of the Galactic center based on imaging and spectroscopic observations at the Keck and Gemini telescopes. These observations include stellar positions in two dimension and the velocity in three dimensions. Spectroscopic observations also enable measurements of the physical properties of individual stars, such as the spectral type and in some cases the effective temperature, metallicity, and surface gravity. We present a review of our latest measurements of the density profiles and luminosity functions of the young and old stars in this region. These observations show a complex stellar population with a young (4-6 Myr) compact star cluster in the central 0.5 pc embedded in an ol...

  7. A Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopic survey of the faint M31 satellites And XV and And XVI

    CERN Document Server

    Letarte, B; Collins, M; Ibata, R A; Irwin, M J; Ferguson, A M N; Lewis, G F; Martin, N; McConnachie, A; Tanvir, N

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of a spectroscopic survey of the recently discovered M31 satellites And XV and And XVI, lying at projected distances from the centre of M31 of 93 and 130 kpc respectively. These satellites lie to the South of M31, in regions of the stellar halo which wide field imaging has revealed as relative voids (compared to the ~degree-scale coherent stream-like structures). Using the DEep Imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph mounted on the Keck II telescope, we have defined probable members of these satellites, for which we derive radial velocities as precise as ~6 km/s down to i~21.5. While the distance to And XVI remains the same as previously reported (525pm50 kpc), we have demonstrated that the brightest three stars previously used to define the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) in And XV are in fact Galactic, and And XV is actually likely to be much more distant at 770pm70 kpc (compared to the previous 630 kpc), increasing the luminosity from MV~-9.4 to MV~-9.8. The And XV velocity dispersion i...

  8. Deep VLT/HAWKI and Keck/MOSFIRE K-band imaging of the Hubble Frontier Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brammer, Gabriel; Marchesini, Danilo

    2015-08-01

    We will present recently-obtained deep K-band imaging of the first four Frontier Fields, Abell 2744 and MACS 0416 with the VLT/HAWK-I instrument and MACS-0717 and MACS-1149 with Keck/MOSFIRE. The final HAWK-I mosaics reach a depth of K~26 AB (5-sigma) with superb ground-based image quality ~0.4" FWHM across the field; shorter integrations with MOSFIRE reach K~25 AB and with FWHM~0.5". The 7'x7' HAWKI field of view provides ideal simultaneous coverage of both the HST cluster and parallel fields (with additional area also covered by Subaru optical and IRAC imaging), and the K band at 2.2 µm crucially fills the gap between the deep space-based imaging bandpasses observed with HST and Spitzer. The addition of the 2.2 µm imaging and photometry greatly improves the constraints on both the photometric redshifts and the stellar-population properties of galaxies extending well below the characteristic stellar mass across most of the age of the universe, down to, and including, the redshifts of the targeted galaxy clusters. The reduced, aligned mosaics of all the K-band fields are made freely available to the Frontier Fields community; identical deep HAWK-I observations of the final two Frontier Fields (Abell 370 and Abell S1063) have been awarded and will be obtained in the upcoming ESO observing periods.

  9. Chemical Composition in the Globular Cluster M71 from Keck/HIRES Spectra of Turn-Off Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Boesgaard, A M; Cody, A M; Stephens, A; Deliyannis, C P; Boesgaard, Ann Merchant; King, Jeremy R.; Cody, Ann Marie; Stephens, Alex; Deliyannis, Constantine P.

    2005-01-01

    We have made observations with the Keck I telescope and HIRES at a resolution of $\\sim$45,000 of five nearly identical stars at the turn-off of the metal-rich globular cluster M 71. Our mean Fe abundance, [Fe/H]=-0.80 +-0.02, is in excellent agreement with previous cluster determinations from both giants and near-turnoff stars. There is no clear evidence for any star-to-star abundance differences or correlations in our sample. Abundance ratios of the Fe-peak elements (Cr, Ni) are similar to Fe. The turn-off stars in M71 have remarkably consistent enhancements of 0.2 - 0.3 dex in [Si/Fe], [Ca/Fe] and [Ti/Fe] -- like the red giants. Our [Mg/Fe] ratio is somewhat lower than that suggested by other studies. We compare our mean abundances for the five M 71 stars with field stars of similar [Fe/H] -- 8 with halo kinematics and 17 with disk kinematics. The abundances of the alpha-fusion products (Mg, Si, Ca, Ti) agree with both samples, but seem a closer match to the disk stars. The Mg abundance in M71 is at the low...

  10. Methane depletion in both polar regions of Uranus inferred from HST/STIS and Keck/NIRC2 observations

    CERN Document Server

    Sromovsky, Lawrence; Fry, Patrick; Hammel, Heidi; de Pater, Imke; Rages, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    From STIS observations of Uranus in 2012, we found that the methane volume mixing ratio declined from about 4% at low latitudes to about 2% at 60 deg N and beyond. This is similar to that found in the south polar regions in 2002, in spite of what appears to be strikingly different convective activity in the two regions. Keck and HST imaging observations close to equinox imply that the depletions were simultaneously present in 2007, suggesting they are persistent features. The depletions appear to be mainly restricted to the upper troposphere, with depth increasing poleward from about 30 deg N, reaching ~4 bars at 45 deg N and perhaps much deeper at 70 deg N. The latitudinal variations in degree and depth of the depletions are important constraints on models of meridional circulation. Our observations are qualitatively consistent with previously suggested circulation cells in which rising methane-rich gas at low latitudes is dried out by condensation and sedimentation of methane ice particles as the gas ascend...

  11. A Keck/LRIS Spatially-Resolved Spectroscopic Study of a LINER Galaxy SDSS J091628.05+420818.7

    CERN Document Server

    Bae, Hyun-Jin; Yagi, Masafumi; Yoon, Suk-Jin; Yoshida, Michitoshi

    2012-01-01

    Using spatially-resolved spectra obtained with the Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer at the Keck I telescope, we investigate the nature of ionizing sources and kinematic properties of emission-line gas in a LINER galaxy SDSS J091628.05+420818.7, which is a nearby (z = 0.0241) and bright (M_r = -20.2) early-type galaxy. After subtracting stellar absorption features using a combination of simple stellar population models, we measure the flux, line-of-sight velocity, and velocity dispersion of four emission lines, i.e., H{\\alpha}, H{\\beta}, [O III] {\\lambda}5007, and [N II] {\\lambda}6584, to study radial change of emission-line fluxes and velocities. Compared to the point-spread-function of the observation, the emission-line region is slightly extended but comparable to the seeing size. The central concentration of emission-line gas suggests that ionization is triggered by a nuclear source, excluding old stellar population as ionizing sources. We find that emission-line gas is counter-rotating with respect to ...

  12. The infrared K-band identification of the DSO/G2 source from VLT and Keck data

    CERN Document Server

    Eckart, Andreas; Britzen, S; Zamaninasab, M; Muzic, K; Sabha, N; Shahzamanian, B; Yazici, S; Moser, L; Garcia-Mari, M; Valencia-S., M; Borkar, A; Bursa, M; Karssen, G; Karas, V; Zajacek, M; Bronfman, L; Finger, R; Jalali, B; Vitale, M; Rauch, C; Kunneriath, D; Moultaka, J; Straubmeier, C; Rashed, Y E; Markakis, K; Zensus, A

    2013-01-01

    A fast moving infrared excess source (G2) which is widely interpreted as a core-less gas and dust cloud approaches Sagittarius A* (SgrA*) on a presumably elliptical orbit. VLT K_s-band and Keck K'-band data result in clear continuum identifications and proper motions of this about 19m Dusty S-cluster Object (DSO). In 2002-2007 it is confused with the star S63, but free of confusion again since 2007. Its near-infrared (NIR) colors and a comparison to other sources in the field speak in favor of the DSO being an IR excess star with photospheric continuum emission at 2 microns than a core-less gas and dust cloud. We also find very compact L'-band emission ($<$0.1'') contrasted by the reported extended (0.03'' up to about 0.2'' for the tail) Brgamma emission. The presence of a star will change the expected accretion phenomena, since a stellar Roche lobe may retain a fraction of the material during and after the peri-bothron passage.

  13. Mapping Large-Scale Gaseous Outflows in Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies with Keck II ESI Spectra: Spatial Extent of the Outflow

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, C L

    2006-01-01

    The kinematics of neutral gas and warm ionized gas have been mapped in one-dimension across ultraluminous starburst galaxies using interstellar absorption and emission lines, in Keck II ESI spectra. Blue-shifted absorption is found along more of the slit than anticipated, exceeding scales of 15 kpc across several systems. The large velocity gradient measured across some of these outflows is inconsistent with a flow diverging from the central starburst -- angular momentum conservation reduces the rotational velocity of an outflow as it expands. More widespread star formation, likely triggered by the merger, probably drives these outflows, although some models suggest the collision itself could generate a wind by shock heating interstellar gas throughout the disk. Young mergers with separated nuclei present the highest outflow masses, due mainly to the larger area over which the cool gas can be detected. In a typical ULIG, the mass carried by the cool phase of the outflow is around 10^8Msun, or a few percent of...

  14. The Triaxial Ellipsoid Diameters and Rotational Pole of Asteroid (9) Metis from AO at Gemini and Keck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Jack D.; Merline, W. J.; Conrad, A.; Dumas, C.; Tamblyn, P.; Christou, J.; Carry, B.; Chapman, C.

    2012-10-01

    From Adaptive Optics (AO) images of (9) Metis at 14 epochs over 2008 December 8 and 9 at Gemini North, triaxial ellipsoid diameters of 218x175x112 km are derived with fitting uncertainties of 3x3x47 km. However, by including just two more AO images from Keck-II in June and August of 2003 in a global fit, the fitting uncertainty of the small axis drops by more than a third because of the lower sub-Earth latitude afforded in 2003 (-28°) compared to 2008 (+47°), and the triaxial ellipsoid diameters become 218x175x129 km with fitting uncertainties of 3x3x14 km. We have estimated the systematic uncertainty of our method to be 4.1, 2.7, and 3.8%, respectively, for the three diameters. These values were recently derived (Drummond et al., in prep) from a comparison of KOALA (Carry et al, Planetary and Space Science 66, 200-212) and our triaxial ellipsoid analysis of four asteroids. Quadratically adding this systematic error with the fitting error, the total uncertainty for Metis becomes 9x5x15 km. Concurrently, we find an EQJ2000 rotational pole at [RA; Dec]=[185° +19°] or in ecliptic coordinates, [λ ; β ]=[176° +20°] (ECJ2000).

  15. Origins of Sinuous and Braided Channels on Ascraeus Mons, Mars - A Keck Geology Consortium Undergraduate Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wet, A. P.; Bleacher, J. E.; Garry, W. B.

    2012-01-01

    Water has clearly played an important part in the geological evolution of Mars. There are many features on Mars that were almost certainly formed by fluvial processes -- for example, the channels Kasei Valles and Ares Vallis in the Chryse Planitia area of Mars are almost certainly fluvial features. On the other hand, there are many channel features that are much more difficult to interpret -- and have been variously attributed to volcanic and fluvial processes. Clearly unraveling the details of the role of water on Mars is extremely important, especially in the context of the search of extinct or extant life. In this project we built on our recent work in determining the origin of one channel on the southwest rift apron of Ascraeus Mons. This project, funded by the Keck Geology Consortium and involving 4 undergraduate geology majors took advantage of the recently available datasets to map and analyze similar features on Ascraeus Mons and some other areas of Mars. A clearer understanding of how these particular channel features formed might lead to the development of better criteria to distinguish how other Martian channel features formed. Ultimately this might provide us with a better understanding of the role of volcanic and fluvial processes in the geological evolution of Mars.

  16. Pilot Results - The use of Real-time Preference Measurement Technology to Support the Retention of Enlisted Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    based on a decomposition approach that estimates individual preferences in a real-time iterative, econometric process.   1  Marketers  sometimes have...organizations in marketing and sales as well as human resources applications. The marketing application focuses on three use cases – personalized...technology (laptops, cameras, LCD TVs, digital services), telecommunications (service plans, handsets) and business-to-business ( B2B ) and supply

  17. NASA's first in-space optical gyroscope: A technology experiment on the X ray Timing Explorer spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Glenn; Kaufman, David M.; Krainak, Michael; Sanders, Glenn; Taylor, Bill; Schulze, Norman R.

    1993-01-01

    A technology experiment on the X-ray Timing Explorer spacecraft to determine the feasibility of Interferometric Fiber Optic Gyroscopes for space flight navigation is described. The experiment consists of placing a medium grade fiber optic gyroscope in parallel with the spacecraft's inertial reference unit. The performance of the fiber optic gyroscope will be monitored and compared to the primary mechanical gyroscope's performance throughout the two-year mission life.

  18. Two metallothionein gene family members in buckwheat: Expression analysis in flooding stress using Real Time RT-PCR technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majić Dragana B.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Metallothioneins (MTs are an extensive and diverse family of small cysteine-rich proteins with metal-binding ability that are involved in metal homeostasis and detoxification. Two cDNA clones of the MT3 type, differing in 3’ UTRs, were isolated from the developing buckwheat seed cDNA library. Following sequence analyses, expression profiles during flooding stress were monitored by Real Time RT PCR technology.

  19. Submicrosecond comparisons of time standards via the Navigation Technology Satellites (NTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buisson, J. A.; Mccaskill, T.; Oaks, J.; Lynch, D.; Wardrip, S. C.; Whitworth, G.

    1978-01-01

    An interim demonstration was performed of the time transfer capability of the NAVSTAR GPS system using a single NTS satellite. Measurements of time difference (pseudo-range) are made from the NTS tracking network and at the participating observatories. The NTS network measurements are used to compute the NTS orbit trajectory. The central NTS tracking station has a time link to the Naval Observatory UTC (USNO,MC1) master clock. Measurements are used with the NTS receiver at the remote observatory, the time transfer value UTC (USNO,MC1)-UTC (REMOTE, VIA NTS) is calculated. Intercomparisons were computed using predicted values of satellite clock offset and ephemeus.

  20. Ensuring green growth in a time of economic crisis: the role of energy technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Despite the severity of the current financial and economic crisis, it cannot be allowed to distract us from addressing critical and strategic climate change and energy challenges. The energy sector produces 60% of global greenhouse gas emissions and so it must also be a key part of any strategy to reduce them. This paper describes the most promising low-carbon technologies, their current status and the policy framework that will be necessary to achieve their widespread deployment. It also highlights what immediate steps can be taken as part of a Clean Energy New Deal. 4 figs., 2 tabs., 1 app.

  1. Residential Customer Enrollment in Time-based Rate and Enabling Technology Programs: Smart Grid Investment Grant Consumer Behavior Study Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, Annika [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cappers, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, Charles [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Smart Grid Investment Grant (SGIG) program is working with a subset of the 99 SGIG projects undertaking Consumer Behavior Studies (CBS), which examine the response of mass market consumers (i.e., residential and small commercial customers) to time-varying electricity prices (referred to herein as time-based rate programs) in conjunction with the deployment of advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) and associated technologies. The effort presents an opportunity to advance the electric industry’s understanding of consumer behavior.

  2. New Technology for Remote Testing of Response Time of Installed Thermocouples. Volume 2 - Research Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    specific need for a thermocouple with known rapid response time. Glawe and Holanda ~ have reported an extensive study to determine thermocouple time...Continuous Flow Crvo.qenic Tunnel," NASA Technical Memorandum 81825, May 1980. Glawe, G. E., Holanda , R., Krause, L. N., "Recovery and Radiation Corrections

  3. Application of real-time single camera SLAM technology for image-guided targeting in neurosurgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yau-Zen; Hou, Jung-Fu; Tsao, Yi Hsiang; Lee, Shih-Tseng

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we propose an application of augmented reality technology for targeting tumors or anatomical structures inside the skull. The application is a combination of the technologies of MonoSLAM (Single Camera Simultaneous Localization and Mapping) and computer graphics. A stereo vision system is developed to construct geometric data of human face for registration with CT images. Reliability and accuracy of the application is enhanced by the use of fiduciary markers fixed to the skull. The MonoSLAM keeps track of the current location of the camera with respect to an augmented reality (AR) marker using the extended Kalman filter. The fiduciary markers provide reference when the AR marker is invisible to the camera. Relationship between the markers on the face and the augmented reality marker is obtained by a registration procedure by the stereo vision system and is updated on-line. A commercially available Android based tablet PC equipped with a 320×240 front-facing camera was used for implementation. The system is able to provide a live view of the patient overlaid by the solid models of tumors or anatomical structures, as well as the missing part of the tool inside the skull.

  4. Comparison of real-time polymerase chain reaction and DNA-strip technology in microbiological evaluation of periodontitis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eick, Sigrun; Straube, Anna; Guentsch, Arndt; Pfister, Wolfgang; Jentsch, Holger

    2011-01-01

    The impact of a semiquantitative commercially available test based on DNA-strip technology (microIDent®, Hain Lifescience, Nehren, Germany) on diagnosis and treatment of severe chronic periodontitis of 25 periodontitis patients was evaluated in comparison with a quantitative in-house real-time PCR. Subgingival plaque samples were collected at baseline as well as at 3, 6, and 12 months later. After extracting DNA, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola, and several other periodontopathogens were determined by both methods. The results obtained by DNA-strip technology were analyzed semiquantitatively and additionally quantitatively by densitometry. The results for the 4 major periodontopathogenic bacterial species correlated significantly between the 2 methods. Samples detecting a high bacterial load by one method and negative by the other were always found in less than 2% of the total samples. Both technologies showed the impact of treatment on microflora. Especially the semiquantitative DNA-strip technology clearly analyzed the different loads of periodontopathogens after therapy and is useful in microbial diagnostics for patients in dental practices.

  5. Analysis on Real time Perception Technology of Wireless Sensor Network in CPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Benhai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyber Physical Systems (CPS combines physical and computing systems tightly. Node operating systems (OS are fundamental units in CPS. There are still many problems unsolved when designing CPS especially CPS node OS in aspects of predictability, reliability, robustness, etc. Aiming at the problem, this paper proposes the effective shortest time priority algorithm and the adaptive shortest time priority algorithm. Experimental results show that, compared with the traditional FIFO (advanced first in first out and LSF (least slack first algorithm, the algorithm proposed in this paper effectively reduce the deadline miss ratio, as a result, the real-time performance of the CPS are effectively improved.

  6. Highlighting High Performance: Four Times Square. Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS) Brochure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-11-01

    4 Times Square is a 48-story environmentally responsible building in New York City and is the first project of its size to adopt standards for energy efficiency, indoor ecology, sustainable materials.

  7. A PSO-SVM Model for Short-Term Travel Time Prediction Based on Bluetooth Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qun Wang; Zhuyun Liu; Zhongren Peng

    2015-01-01

    The accurate prediction of travel time along roadway provides valuable traffic information for travelers and traffic managers. Aiming at short⁃term travel time forecasting on urban arterials, a prediction model ( PSO⁃SVM) combining support vector machine ( SVM) and particle swarm optimization ( PSO) is developed. Travel time data collected with Bluetooth devices are used to calibrate the proposed model. Field experiments show that the PSO⁃SVM model ’ s error indicators are lower than the single SVM model and the BP neural network (BPNN)model. Particularly, the mean⁃absolute percentage error (MAPE) of PSO⁃SVM is only 9�453 4 %which is less than that of the single SVM model ( 12�230 2 %) and the BPNN model ( 15�314 7 %) . The results indicate that the proposed PSO⁃SVM model is feasible and more effective than other models for short⁃term travel time prediction on urban arterials.

  8. Particulate emissions from modern and old technology wood combustion induce distinct time-dependent patterns of toxicological responses in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happo, Mikko S; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta; Uski, Oskari; Kasurinen, Stefanie; Kelz, Joachim; Brunner, Thomas; Obernberger, Ingwald; Jalava, Pasi I

    2017-10-01

    Toxicological characterisation of combustion emissions in vitro are often conducted with macrophage cell lines, and the majority of these experiments are based on responses measured at 24h after the exposure. The aim of this study was to investigate how significant role time course plays on toxicological endpoints that are commonly measured in vitro. The RAW264.7 macrophage cell line was exposed to PM1 samples (150μg/ml) from biomass combustion devices representing old and modern combustion technologies for 2, 4, 8, 12, 24 and 32h. After the exposure, cellular metabolic activity, cell membrane integrity, cellular DNA content, DNA damage and production of inflammatory markers were assessed. The present study revealed major differences in the time courses of the responses, statistical differences between the studied samples mostly limiting to differences between modern and old technology samples. Early stage responses consisted of disturbances in metabolic activity and cell membrane integrity. Middle time points revealed increases in chemokine production, whereas late-phase responses exhibited mostly increased DNA-damage, decreased membrane integrity and apoptotic activity. Altogether, these results implicate that the time point of measurement has to be considered carefully, when the toxicity of emission particles is characterised in in vitro study set-ups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A low cost real-time motion tracking approach using webcam technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Chandramouli; Washabaugh, Edward P; Seetharaman, Yogesh

    2015-02-01

    Physical therapy is an important component of gait recovery for individuals with locomotor dysfunction. There is a growing body of evidence that suggests that incorporating a motor learning task through visual feedback of movement trajectory is a useful approach to facilitate therapeutic outcomes. Visual feedback is typically provided by recording the subject's limb movement patterns using a three-dimensional motion capture system and displaying it in real-time using customized software. However, this approach can seldom be used in the clinic because of the technical expertise required to operate this device and the cost involved in procuring a three-dimensional motion capture system. In this paper, we describe a low cost two-dimensional real-time motion tracking approach using a simple webcam and an image processing algorithm in LabVIEW Vision Assistant. We also evaluated the accuracy of this approach using a high precision robotic device (Lokomat) across various walking speeds. Further, the reliability and feasibility of real-time motion-tracking were evaluated in healthy human participants. The results indicated that the measurements from the webcam tracking approach were reliable and accurate. Experiments on human subjects also showed that participants could utilize the real-time kinematic feedback generated from this device to successfully perform a motor learning task while walking on a treadmill. These findings suggest that the webcam motion tracking approach is a feasible low cost solution to perform real-time movement analysis and training.

  10. Accuracy of patient's turnover time prediction using RFID technology in an academic ambulatory surgery center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand-Maillet, Florence; Debes, Claire; Garnier, Fanny; Dufeu, Nicolas; Sciard, Didier; Beaussier, Marc

    2015-02-01

    Patients flow in outpatient surgical unit is a major issue with regards to resource utilization, overall case load and patient satisfaction. An electronic Radio Frequency Identification Device (RFID) was used to document the overall time spent by the patients between their admission and discharge from the unit. The objective of this study was to evaluate how a RFID-based data collection system could provide an accurate prediction of the actual time for the patient to be discharged from the ambulatory surgical unit after surgery. This is an observational prospective evaluation carried out in an academic ambulatory surgery center (ASC). Data on length of stay at each step of the patient care, from admission to discharge, were recorded by a RFID device and analyzed according to the type of surgical procedure, the surgeon and the anesthetic technique. Based on these initial data (n = 1520), patients were scheduled in a sequential manner according to the expected duration of the previous case. The primary endpoint was the difference between actual and predicted time of discharge from the unit. A total of 414 consecutive patients were prospectively evaluated. One hundred seventy four patients (42%) were discharged at the predicted time ± 30 min. Only 24% were discharged behind predicted schedule. Using an automatic record of patient's length of stay would allow an accurate prediction of the discharge time according to the type of surgery, the surgeon and the anesthetic procedure.

  11. Integration of multidisciplinary technologies for real time target visualization and verification for radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen-Chung; Chen, Chin-Sheng; Tai, Hung-Chi; Liu, Chia-Yuan; Chen, Yu-Jen

    2014-01-01

    The current practice of radiotherapy examines target coverage solely from digitally reconstructed beam's eye view (BEV) in a way that is indirectly accessible and that is not in real time. We aimed to visualize treatment targets in real time from each BEV. The image data of phantom or patients from ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) scans were captured to perform image registration. We integrated US, CT, US/CT image registration, robotic manipulation of US, a radiation treatment planning system, and a linear accelerator to constitute an innovative target visualization system. The performance of this algorithm segmented the target organ in CT images, transformed and reconstructed US images to match each orientation, and generated image registration in real time mode with acceptable accuracy. This image transformation allowed physicians to visualize the CT image-reconstructed target via a US probe outside the BEV that was non-coplanar to the beam's plane. It allowed the physicians to remotely control the US probe that was equipped on a robotic arm to dynamically trace and real time monitor the coverage of the target within the BEV during a simulated beam-on situation. This target visualization system may provide a direct remotely accessible and real time way to visualize, verify, and ensure tumor targeting during radiotherapy.

  12. Near Real-Time Nondestructive Active Inspection Technologies Utilizing Delayed γ-Rays and Neutrons for Advanced Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, Alan [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States). Idaho Accelerator Center, Dept. of Physics; Reedy, E. T.E. [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States). Dept. of Phyics, Idaho Accelerator Center; Mozin, V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Tobin, S. J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Nuclear Nonproliferation

    2015-02-12

    In this two year project, the research team investigated how delayed γ-rays from short-lived fission fragments detected in the short interval between irradiating pulses can be exploited for advanced safeguards technologies. This program contained experimental and modeling efforts. The experimental effort measured the emitted spectra, time histories and correlations of the delayed γ-rays from aqueous solutions and solid targets containing fissionable isotopes. The modeling effort first developed and benchmarked a hybrid Monte Carlo simulation technique based on these experiments. The benchmarked simulations were then extended to other safeguards scenarios, allowing comparisons to other advanced safeguards technologies and to investigate combined techniques. Ultimately, the experiments demonstrated the possible utility of actively induced delayed γ-ray spectroscopy for fissionable material assay.

  13. Optimal Cycle Time and Preservation Technology Investment for Deteriorating Items with Price-sensitive Stock-dependent Demand Under Inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nita H.; Shah, Arpan D.

    2014-04-01

    The article analyzes economic order quantity for the retailer who has to handle imperfect quality of the product and the units are subject to deteriorate at a constant rate. To control deterioration of the units in inventory, the retailer has to deploy advanced preservation technology. Another challenge for the retailer is to have perfect quality product. This requires mandatory inspection during the production process. This model is developed with the condition of random fraction of defective items. It is assumed that after inspection, the screened defective items are sold at a discounted rate instantly. Demand is considered to be price-sensitive stock-dependent. The model is incorporating effect of inflation which is critical factor globally. The objective is to maximize profit of the retailer with respect to preservation technology investment, order quantity and cycle time. The numerical example is given to validate the proposed model. Sensitivity analysis is carried out to work out managerial issues.

  14. KECK/MOSFIRE SPECTROSCOPIC CONFIRMATION OF A VIRGO-LIKE CLUSTER ANCESTOR AT z = 2.095

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Tiantian; Kewley, Lisa J. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Nanayakkara, Themiya; Kacprzak, Glenn G.; Glazebrook, Karl [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Tran, Kim-Vy H.; Tomczak, Adam R. [George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States); Spitler, Lee R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Poole, Gregory B. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parksville, VIC 3010 (Australia); Labbé, Ivo; Straatman, Caroline M. S. [Sterrewacht Leiden, Leiden University, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2014-11-01

    We present spectroscopic confirmation of a galaxy cluster at z = 2.095 in the COSMOS field. This galaxy cluster was first reported in the ZFOURGE survey as harboring evolved massive galaxies using photometric redshifts derived with deep near-infrared (NIR) medium-band filters. We obtain medium-resolution (R ∼ 3600) NIR spectroscopy with MOSFIRE on the Keck 1 telescope and secure 180 redshifts in a 12' × 12' region. We find a prominent spike of 57 galaxies at z = 2.095 corresponding to the galaxy cluster. The cluster velocity dispersion is measured to be σ{sub v1D}  =  552 ± 52 km s{sup –1}. This is the first study of a galaxy cluster in this redshift range (z ≳ 2.0) with the combination of spectral resolution (∼26 km s{sup –1}) and the number of confirmed members (>50) needed to impose a meaningful constraint on the cluster velocity dispersion and map its members over a large field of view. Our ΛCDM cosmological simulation suggests that this cluster will most likely evolve into a Virgo-like cluster with M {sub vir} = 10{sup 14.4} {sup ±} {sup 0.3} M {sub ☉} (68% confidence) at z ∼ 0. The theoretical probability of finding such a cluster is ∼4%. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of studying galaxy clusters at z > 2 in the same detailed manner using multi-object NIR spectrographs as has been done in the optical in lower-redshift clusters.

  15. TECHNOLOGY OF QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS ON VIBRATORY STRESS RELIEF BASED ON ULTRASONIC TIME-OF-ARRIVAL METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Wen; Ma Zhenyu; Wang Xingli

    2005-01-01

    The effect of vibratory stress relief (VSR) is usually evaluated with the indirect method of observing the change of amplitude frequency response characteristics of structures. A new kind of evaluating method of VSR based on the ultrasonic time-of-arrival method (UTM), which can obtain the residual stress directly through measuring the propagation time of ultrasonic wave in the material, is presented. At first, the principle of the measuring method of residual stress based on UTM is analyzed. Then the measuring system of the method is described, which is in virtue of ultrasonic flaw detector and high-sampling-rate digital oscillograph. And a set of calibration system that contains a piece of standard specimen is also introduced. Experimental results prove the relation between the residual stress and the propagation time of ultrasonic in workpieces. Finally, the measuring and calibration systems are applied in evaluating the effect of VSR. The final test results show that the method is effective.

  16. HR Technology Tools: Less Time on Paper and More on People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Many human resource managers face a dilemma. They would like to spend more time improving the overall work environment for employees. They want to help their executives save on workforce-related expenses, find and hire better talent, and improve existing talent through training and development. Unfortunately, most days, HR managers are stuck doing…

  17. Using Technology-Based Strategies to Change Drug-Related Attitudes and First-Time Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Ben; Roblyer, M. D.

    2006-01-01

    Recognizing that a solid pre-trial drug intervention program is a vital first step in educating first-time offenders about the seriousness of drug abuse and criminal behavior, staff at the Intervention Program for Substance Abusers in Montgomery County, Maryland's Department of Correction and Rehabilitation decided that better strategies were…

  18. 77 FR 1708 - Cooperative Research and Development Agreement: Technology To Provide Wireless Precise Time...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... one alternative to Global Positioning Systems (GPS) as a means of providing precise time. The... and would like to know that they reached the Facility, please enclose a stamped, self-addressed... participants would research, evaluate, and document at least one alternative to Global Positioning Systems...

  19. Far-infrared in vivo signature of human skin by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy using waveform rebuilding technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangjun; Liu, Jianjun; Hong, Zhi

    2010-11-01

    We present terahertz time-domain spectroscopy characterization of human thumb skin in reflection measurement mode with waveform rebuilding technology. The thumb skin contacts one side of a high resistive silicon wafer with 3 mm thick, and here is an orthogonal incidence of the THz pulse putting on the other side of the wafer. We rebuild the time domain signal from silicon-skin interface as a sample signal by the signal from the air-silicon interface as a reference and a Fresnel transform function between them. Material parameters were calculated by minimizing the difference between the measured sample waveform and a rebuilt one in time domain. The double Debye model parameters for the thumb skin were fitted. The method has potential to research complex layer-structures in skin if a precise model is built.

  20. R and D on a New Technology of Micro-pattern Gaseous Detectors Fast Timing Micro-pattern Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Salva Diblen, Sinem

    2016-01-01

    After the upgrades of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) planned for the second and the third Long Shutdown (LS), the LHC luminosity will approach very high values. Such conditions will affect the performance of the CMS muon system, especially in the very forward region, due to the harsh expected background environment and high pile-up conditions. The CMS collaboration considers upgrading the muon forward region to take advantage of the pixel tracking coverage extension a new detector, ME0 station, possibly behind the new forward calorimeter. New resistive micro-pattern gaseous detectors that are able to handle the very demanding spatial, time resolution and rate capability, are being considered. In this contribution we introduce a new type of MPGD technology the Fast Timing Micro-pattern (FTM) detector, utilizing a fully resistive WELL structure. It consists of a stack of several coupled layers where drift and WELL multiplication stages alternate in the structure, yielding a significant improvement in timing p...

  1. Development of a pixel sensor with fine space-time resolution based on SOI technology for the ILC vertex detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Shun; Togawa, Manabu; Tsuji, Ryoji; Mori, Teppei; Yamada, Miho; Arai, Yasuo; Tsuboyama, Toru; Hanagaki, Kazunori

    2017-02-01

    We have been developing a new monolithic pixel sensor with silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology for the International Linear Collider (ILC) vertex detector system. The SOI monolithic pixel detector is realized using standard CMOS circuits fabricated on a fully depleted sensor layer. The new SOI sensor SOFIST can store both the position and timing information of charged particles in each 20×20 μm2 pixel. The position resolution is further improved by the position weighted with the charges spread to multiple pixels. The pixel also records the hit timing with an embedded time-stamp circuit. The sensor chip has column-parallel analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) circuits and zero-suppression logic for high-speed data readout. We are designing and evaluating some prototype sensor chips for optimizing and minimizing the pixel circuit.

  2. Assisted reproductive technology, epigenetics, and long-term health: a developmental time bomb still ticking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Kristen S; Sinclair, Kevin D

    2009-09-01

    Live birthrates following assisted reproduction account for 1 to 3% of pregnancies in developed countries, and these figures seem set to rise. Concerns regarding the safe use of assisted reproductive technology (ART) for the treatment of infertility have been voiced for several years, yet, to date, the vast majority of children conceived using these techniques are apparently normal. Controversy surrounding reports of epigenetic alterations to genomic imprinting following human ART in recent years has fueled the ongoing debate. In contrast, both the incidence and severity of such anomalies are more apparent following ART in comparative animal species. The reasons for this are not known. By and large, the confounding effects of infertility and advanced maternal age do not apply to animal studies, which report better pregnancy rates following embryo transfer. Perhaps the incidence of imprinting disorders is increased when procedures such as ovarian stimulation, in vitro maturation, or both are used in conjunction with extended periods of embryo culture; this frequently occurs in animal but rarely in human ART. The focus of attention on imprinting, however, may have served to distract the scientific community from more subtle epigenetic modifications to nonimprinted loci in gametes and the preimplantation embryo, with health-related consequences that do not manifest until adulthood. Accumulating evidence from animal studies indicates that such effects, not yet apparent in human subjects, exist; and this may ultimately transpire to be the true developmental legacy of human ART. This article discusses these issues in the context of epigenetic and developmental abnormalities following ART in animals.

  3. Real-Time Technology of Web Based on WebSocket%基于WebSocket的实时技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖在昌; 杨文晖; 刘兵

    2012-01-01

    Many Web applications, such as stock systems, web games and online booking system, should send the changes of the server to the client in real time, so the client don't need to send requests and refresh to achieve real-time data. This acticle focuses on the analysis of server push technology, and builds the new real-time technology based on event-driven NodeJS and WebSocket, which is the new feature of HTML5.%很多Web应用如股票系统、网页游戏、在线订票系统,都需要将服务器端的变化实时发送到客户端,无需客户端不断发送请求和刷新来实现数据的实时性。本文对目前实时技术进行分析,结合HTML5新特性WebSocket与基于事件驱动的NodeJS构建了一种新的Web实时技术。

  4. Sensorless Control Technology for PMSG base on the Dead-time Compensation voltage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Li-yong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the speed sensorless-control system of PMSG in low speed performance, this paper introduces a novel Dead-time compensation control method .Mathematical model is established according to the Dead-zone of the influence of the voltage source type inverter output voltage. At the same time, the given value of current regulator output voltage has been fixed based on the established model. Then the stator voltage after compensationed is applied to the flux estimation, which improves the performance of flux estimation. Finally, the position and speed of the rotor is estimated based on Back-Electromotive Force, which has Simple algorithm and good robustness. In order to verify the correctness of theoretical analysis, the experiment was done according to the new control method. The results proved the correctness and feasibility of this control method.

  5. Emerging technology in surgical education: combining real-time augmented reality and wearable computing devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Brent A; Menendez, Mariano E; Oladeji, Lasun O; Fryberger, Charles T; Dantuluri, Phani K

    2014-11-01

    The authors describe the first surgical case adopting the combination of real-time augmented reality and wearable computing devices such as Google Glass (Google Inc, Mountain View, California). A 66-year-old man presented to their institution for a total shoulder replacement after 5 years of progressive right shoulder pain and decreased range of motion. Throughout the surgical procedure, Google Glass was integrated with the Virtual Interactive Presence and Augmented Reality system (University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama), enabling the local surgeon to interact with the remote surgeon within the local surgical field. Surgery was well tolerated by the patient and early surgical results were encouraging, with an improvement of shoulder pain and greater range of motion. The combination of real-time augmented reality and wearable computing devices such as Google Glass holds much promise in the field of surgery.

  6. Bridging FPGA and GPU technologies for AO real-time control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perret, Denis; Lainé, Maxime; Bernard, Julien; Gratadour, Damien; Sevin, Arnaud

    2016-07-01

    Our team has developed a common environment for high performance simulations and real-time control of AO systems based on the use of Graphics Processors Units in the context of the COMPASS project. Such a solution, based on the ability of the real time core in the simulation to provide adequate computing performance, limits the cost of developing AO RTC systems and makes them more scalable. A code developed and validated in the context of the simulation may be injected directly into the system and tested on sky. Furthermore, the use of relatively low cost components also offers significant advantages for the system hardware platform. However, the use of GPUs in an AO loop comes with drawbacks: the traditional way of offloading computation from CPU to GPUs - involving multiple copies and unacceptable overhead in kernel launching - is not well suited in a real time context. This last application requires the implementation of a solution enabling direct memory access (DMA) to the GPU memory from a third party device, bypassing the operating system. This allows this device to communicate directly with the real-time core of the simulation feeding it with the WFS camera pixel stream. We show that DMA between a custom FPGA-based frame-grabber and a computation unit (GPU, FPGA, or Coprocessor such as Xeon-phi) across PCIe allows us to get latencies compatible with what will be needed on ELTs. As a fine-grained synchronization mechanism is not yet made available by GPU vendors, we propose the use of memory polling to avoid interrupts handling and involvement of a CPU. Network and Vision protocols are handled by the FPGA-based Network Interface Card (NIC). We present the results we obtained on a complete AO loop using camera and deformable mirror simulators.

  7. Impedance technology reduces the enumeration time of Brettanomyces yeast during beer fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wyk, Sanelle; Silva, Filipa V M

    2016-12-01

    Brettanomyces yeasts are increasingly being used to produce lambic style beers and craft beers with unique flavors. Currently, the industry monitors Brettanomyces bruxellensis using time consuming plate counting. B. bruxellensis is a fastidious slow growing organism, requiring five days of incubation at 30°C for visible growth on agar plates. Thus, a need exists to develop a quicker, feasible method to enumerate this yeast. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the feasibility of using the 'direct' and 'indirect' impedance methods for the enumeration of B. bruxellensis in beer and to monitor the growth of the yeast during fermentation. The impedance methods were able to decrease the incubation time of beer samples containing Brettanomyces from 120 h down to 2 and 84 h for samples containing 10(7) and 10(3) cfu/mL, respectively. The 'indirect' method was more successful than the 'direct' method, presenting a smaller error and wider detection range. Overall, the 'indirect' impedance method is a viable alternative to plate counting for the enumeration of yeasts in the brewing industry because it decreases preparation and incubation times, thereby increasing throughput and decreasing the chance of contamination. Copyright © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. 3D time-of-flight distance measurement with custom solid-state image sensors in CMOS/CCD-technology

    OpenAIRE

    Lange, Robert de

    2006-01-01

    Three-D time-of-flight distance measurement with custom solid-state image sensors in CMOS/CCD-technology Da wir in einer dreidimensionalen Welt leben, erfordert eine geeignete Beschreibung unserer Umwelt für viele Anwendungen Kenntnis über die relative Position und Bewegung der verschiedenen Objekte innerhalb einer Szene. Die daraus resultierende Anforderung räumlicher Wahrnehmung ist in der Natur dadurch gelöst, daß die meisten Tiere mindestens zwei Augen haben. Diese Fähigkeit des Stere...

  9. A new synchronization scheme based on time division multiplexing and wavelength division multiplexing technology for practical quantum key distribution system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong Ping-Ping; Zhang Hua-Ni; Wang Jin-Dong; Qin Xiao-Juan; Wei zheng-Jun; Chen Shuai; Liu Song-Hao

    2011-01-01

    Three clock synchronization schemes for a quantum key distribution system are compared experimentally through the outdoor fibre and the interaction physical model of the the clock signal and the the quantum signal in the quantum key distribution system is analysed to propose a new synchronization scheme based on time division multiplexing and wavelength division multiplexing technology to reduce quantum bits error rates under some transmission rate conditions.The proposed synchronization scheme can not only completely eliminate noise photons from the bright background light of the the clock signal, but also suppress the fibre nonlinear crosstalk.

  10. G Protein-Coupled Receptor Signaling Analysis Using Homogenous Time-Resolved Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (HTRF® Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenea Nørskov-Lauritsen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Studying multidimensional signaling of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs in search of new and better treatments requires flexible, reliable and sensitive assays in high throughput screening (HTS formats. Today, more than half of the detection techniques used in HTS are based on fluorescence, because of the high sensitivity and rich signal, but quenching, optical interferences and light scattering are serious drawbacks. In the 1990s the HTRF® (Cisbio Bioassays, Codolet, France technology based on Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET in a time-resolved homogeneous format was developed. This improved technology diminished the traditional drawbacks. The optimized protocol described here based on HTRF® technology was used to study the activation and signaling pathways of the calcium-sensing receptor, CaSR, a GPCR responsible for maintaining calcium homeostasis. Stimulation of the CaSR by agonists activated several pathways, which were detected by measuring accumulation of the second messengers D-myo-inositol 1-phosphate (IP1 and cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP, and by measuring the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2. Here we show how an optimized HTRF® platform with numerous advantages compared to previous assays provides a substantial and robust mode of investigating GPCR signaling. It is furthermore discussed how these assays can be optimized and miniaturized to meet HTS requirements and for screening compound libraries.

  11. G protein-coupled receptor signaling analysis using homogenous time-resolved Förster resonance energy transfer (HTRF®) technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nørskov-Lauritsen, Lenea; Thomsen, Alex Rojas Bie; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    2014-02-13

    Studying multidimensional signaling of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in search of new and better treatments requires flexible, reliable and sensitive assays in high throughput screening (HTS) formats. Today, more than half of the detection techniques used in HTS are based on fluorescence, because of the high sensitivity and rich signal, but quenching, optical interferences and light scattering are serious drawbacks. In the 1990s the HTRF® (Cisbio Bioassays, Codolet, France) technology based on Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) in a time-resolved homogeneous format was developed. This improved technology diminished the traditional drawbacks. The optimized protocol described here based on HTRF® technology was used to study the activation and signaling pathways of the calcium-sensing receptor, CaSR, a GPCR responsible for maintaining calcium homeostasis. Stimulation of the CaSR by agonists activated several pathways, which were detected by measuring accumulation of the second messengers D-myo-inositol 1-phosphate (IP1) and cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP), and by measuring the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2). Here we show how an optimized HTRF® platform with numerous advantages compared to previous assays provides a substantial and robust mode of investigating GPCR signaling. It is furthermore discussed how these assays can be optimized and miniaturized to meet HTS requirements and for screening compound libraries.

  12. Getting it right the first time: The value of transmission and high technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilic, M.; Hyman, L.

    1996-11-01

    The transition to a competitive electricity market will require a more careful approach to intersystem coordination - planning, operations and pricing - than policy makers have yet recognized. But there`s still time to get it right. States have scheduled the starting date for retail wheeling. The government has opened the grid. Politically correct regulatory agencies declare that nobody will escape stranded costs. Engineers still warn about the need to maintain system reliability. But free marketeers have a ready answer: {open_quotes}Don`t worry. The market will furnish the solutions.{close_quotes} The authors would argue otherwise. Not because a market could not provide solutions, but because whole sectors of the electricity supply market have-so far-been omitted from the market. Hurried deregulation on a piecemeal basis may create some local successes, but also lead to unanticipated failures in other parts of the system. A workably competitive market must value all the important aspects in the system, otherwise piecemeal incentives may invite failure. The savings and loan debacle, the privatization of an oligopolistic generating sector in the United Kingdom, and the liberalization of long-distance communications in Canada followed by the financial collapse of most new entrants within a year are notable examples of misguided public policies that neglected a systems overview and did not get it right the first time.

  13. A real-time wavelet-based video decoder using SIMD technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepko, Robert; Wang, Demin

    2008-02-01

    This paper presents a fast implementation of a wavelet-based video codec. The codec consists of motion-compensated temporal filtering (MCTF), 2-D spatial wavelet transform, and SPIHT for wavelet coefficient coding. It offers compression efficiency that is competitive to H.264. The codec is implemented in software running on a general purpose PC, using C programming language and streaming SIMD extensions intrinsics, without assembly language. This high-level software implementation allows the codec to be portable to other general-purpose computing platforms. Testing with a Pentium 4 HT at 3.6GHz (running under Linux and using the GCC compiler, version 4), shows that the software decoder is able to decode 4CIF video in real-time, over 2 times faster than software written only in C language. This paper describes the structure of the codec, the fast algorithms chosen for the most computationally intensive elements in the codec, and the use of SIMD to implement these algorithms.

  14. Promoting Real-Time Science in the Classroom using Wireless PDA Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matusow, David; Sparmo, Joe; Weidow, Dave; Obenschain, Arthur F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The year is 2004, NASA has landed and deployed a fleet of rovers on the surface of Mars to continue the exploration of that planet and prepare the way for human visitors. Middle school students at Milton Elementary have been following the mission through the media and Internet as part of Mr. Johnson's Earth and space sciences class. The kids have been working in teams to track the rovers as they move across the surface of Mars on a scale model of the landing site they built from sand and rocks using pictures and video downloaded from the Internet. They also built their own version of a rover that can be driven around the model. The time is 3:36pm. Jim and a couple of his fellow students from class are sitting in the cafeteria waiting for a student council meeting to begin. Mary and several others are on the bus riding home. Kathy is in her father's car waiting to leave the parking lot. On Mars, Rover-3 has just stopped and issued an alert to ground control at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Back at Milton Elementary chimes can be heard going off in the cafeteria, on the school bus, and in Kathy's car. The students are familiar with the drill and each brings up the Mars mission status display on their hand-held PDA device. They've been using their PDAs (those Palm devices that seem to be everywhere today) to obtain real-time position information for each of the rovers throughout the mission. The mission status display tells them that Rover-3 has stopped on the edge of a small gully and isn't quite sure what to do. The students begin considering the options amongst themselves. Should the rover just drive through the gully? If it does, what happens if it gets stuck? Maybe it should turnaround and look for away around the gully? Trough questions. Real questions. Real problems. The students know they will need to be prepared to discuss the options and conduct their own simulations using the models they built in Mr. Johnson's class tomorrow. Much the same way

  15. Software Development Technologies for Reactive, Real-Time, and Hybrid Systems: Summary of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Zohar

    1998-01-01

    This research is directed towards the implementation of a comprehensive deductive-algorithmic environment (toolkit) for the development and verification of high assurance reactive systems, especially concurrent, real-time, and hybrid systems. For this, we have designed and implemented the STCP (Stanford Temporal Prover) verification system. Reactive systems have an ongoing interaction with their environment, and their computations are infinite sequences of states. A large number of systems can be seen as reactive systems, including hardware, concurrent programs, network protocols, and embedded systems. Temporal logic provides a convenient language for expressing properties of reactive systems. A temporal verification methodology provides procedures for proving that a given system satisfies a given temporal property. The research covered necessary theoretical foundations as well as implementation and application issues.

  16. Research of an Optimized Mobile IPv6 Real-time Seamless Handover Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhuang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Mobile IPv6 provides mobility support for hosts connecting to the Internet, it solves addressable problems of the mobile terminal, and the mobile terminals can obtain network services without changing IP addresses. But MIPv6 can introduce substantial network expenses and lengthy handoff delay during the mobile handover process, meanwhile, more and more delay sensitive real-time applications require a packet lossless QoS guarantee during a handoff. It proposes an optimized seamless handover mechanism on the basis of existing handoff methods in this paper, it builds on top of the hierarchical method and the fast handoff mechanism and adopts a decision engine-based dynamic distributed architecture, at last it verifies that using this new handoff scheme can reduce packet loss and handoff delay efficiently and improve handoff efficiency by doing simulation experiments.

  17. Rapid process development of chromatographic process using direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry as a process analytical technology tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Binjun; Chen, Teng; Xu, Zhilin; Qu, Haibin

    2014-06-01

    The concept of quality by design (QbD) is widely applied in the process development of pharmaceuticals. However, the additional cost and time have caused some resistance about QbD implementation. To show a possible solution, this work proposed a rapid process development method, which used direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS) as a process analytical technology (PAT) tool for studying the chromatographic process of Ginkgo biloba L., as an example. The breakthrough curves were fast determined by DART-MS at-line. A high correlation coefficient of 0.9520 was found between the concentrations of ginkgolide A determined by DART-MS and HPLC. Based on the PAT tool, the impacts of process parameters on the adsorption capacity were discovered rapidly, which showed a decreased adsorption capacity with the increase of the flow rate. This work has shown the feasibility and advantages of integrating PAT into QbD implementation for rapid process development.

  18. Development of a real-time aeroperformance analysis technique for the X-29A advanced technology demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, R. J.; Hicks, J. W.; Alexander, R. I.

    1988-01-01

    The X-29A advanced technology demonstrator has shown the practicality and advantages of the capability to compute and display, in real time, aeroperformance flight results. This capability includes the calculation of the in-flight measured drag polar, lift curve, and aircraft specific excess power. From these elements many other types of aeroperformance measurements can be computed and analyzed. The technique can be used to give an immediate postmaneuver assessment of data quality and maneuver technique, thus increasing the productivity of a flight program. A key element of this new method was the concurrent development of a real-time in-flight net thrust algorithm, based on the simplified gross thrust method. This net thrust algorithm allows for the direct calculation of total aircraft drag.

  19. A zero-footprint 3D visualization system utilizing mobile display technology for timely evaluation of stroke patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Woo; Guo, Bing; Mogensen, Monique; Wang, Kevin; Law, Meng; Liu, Brent

    2010-03-01

    When a patient is accepted in the emergency room suspected of stroke, time is of the utmost importance. The infarct brain area suffers irreparable damage as soon as three hours after the onset of stroke symptoms. A CT scan is one of standard first line of investigations with imaging and is crucial to identify and properly triage stroke cases. The availability of an expert Radiologist in the emergency environment to diagnose the stroke patient in a timely manner only increases the challenges within the clinical workflow. Therefore, a truly zero-footprint web-based system with powerful advanced visualization tools for volumetric imaging including 2D. MIP/MPR, 3D display can greatly facilitate this dynamic clinical workflow for stroke patients. Together with mobile technology, the proper visualization tools can be delivered at the point of decision anywhere and anytime. We will present a small pilot project to evaluate the use of mobile technologies using devices such as iPhones in evaluating stroke patients. The results of the evaluation as well as any challenges in setting up the system will also be discussed.

  20. Detection of hepatitis B virus DNA by real-time PCR using TaqMan-MGB probe technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Rong Zhao; Yu-Jie Bai; Qing-Hua Zhang; Yan Wan; Ding Li; Xiao-Jun Yan

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To develop a real-time PCR for detecting hepatitis B virus-(HBV) DNA based on TaqMan technology using a new MGB probe.METHODS: Plasmid containing the sequence of X gene (1414-1744 nt) was constructed as HBV-DNA standard for quantitative analysis. A TaqMan-MGB probe between primers for amplification was designed to detect PCR products. The interested sequence contained in the plasmid and in clinical specimens was quantitatively measured.RESULTS: The detection limit of the assay for HBV DNA was 1 genome equivalent per reaction. A linear standard curve was obtained between 100 and 109 DNA copies/reaction (r>0.990). None of the negative control samples showed false-positive reactions in duplicate. HBV DNA was detected in 100% (50/50) of HBV patients with HbeAg, and in 72.0% (36/50) with HBsAg, HBeAb and HBcAb. The coefficient of variation for both intra- and inter-experimental variability demonstrated high reproducibility and accuracy.CONCLUSION: Real-time PCR based on TaqMan-MGB probe technology is an excellent method for detection of HBV DNA.

  1. First Science with the Keck Interferometer Nuller High Spatial Resolution N-Band Observations of the Recurrent Nova RS Ophiuchi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Richard K.; Danchi, W. C.; Traub, W.; Kuchner, M.; Wisniewski, J. P.; Akeson, R.; Colavita, M.; Greenhouse, M, A.; Koresko, C.; Serabyn, E.; Sokoloski, J. L.

    2008-01-01

    We report observations of the nova RS 0phiuchi using the Keck Interferometer Nuller (KIN) taken approximately 3.8 days following the most recent outburst that occurred on 2006 February 12. The KIN operates in N-band from approx. 8 to 12.5 microns in a nulling mode - the sparse aperture equivalent of the conventional coronagraphic technique used in filled aperture te1escopes. In this mode the stellar light is suppressed by a destructive fringe, effectively enhancing the contrast of the circumstellar material located near the star. In a second, constructive-fringe mode, the instrument detects primarily the light from the central, bright source. These are the outer and inner spatial regimes, resprectively. We will describe the capabilities of the KIN, including these unique modes, and outline how they were key in our discovery that dust does not appear to be created in the outburst as in previous models, but instead was created between nova events. We also show how these first results from the KIN are consistent with Spitzer data. The KIN data show evidence of enhanced neutral atomic hydrogen emission and atomic metals including silicon located in the inner spatial regime near the white dwarf (WD) relative to the outer regime. There are also nebular emission lines and evidence of hot silicate dust in the outer spatial region, centered at approximately 17 AU from the WD, that are not found in the inner regime. The KIN and Spitzer data suggest that these emissions were excited by the nova flash in the outer spatial regime before the blast wave reached these regions. We describe the present results in terms of a new model for dust creation in recurrent novae that includes an increase in density in the plane of the orbit of the two stars created by a spiral shock wave caused by the motion of the stars through the cool wind of the red giant star. These data show the power and potential of the nulling technique which has been developed for the detection of Earth

  2. CONSTRAINING THE EXOZODIACAL LUMINOSITY FUNCTION OF MAIN-SEQUENCE STARS: COMPLETE RESULTS FROM THE KECK NULLER MID-INFRARED SURVEYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mennesson, B.; Serabyn, E.; Colavita, M. M.; Bryden, G.; Doré, O.; Traub, W. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109-8099 (United States); Millan-Gabet, R. [NASA Exoplanet Science Center, California Institute of Technology, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Absil, O. [Département d' Astrophysique, Géophysique et Océanographie, Université de Liège, 17 Allée du Six Août, 4000 Liège (Belgium); Wyatt, M. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Danchi, W.; Kuchner, M.; Stapelfeldt, K. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Exoplanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory, Code 667, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Defrère, D.; Hinz, P. [Steward Observatory, Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Ragland, S. [Keck Observatory, 65-1120 Mamalahoa Highway, Kamuela, HI 96743 (United States); Scott, N. [Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy, Georgia State University, Mount Wilson, CA 91023 (United States); Woillez, J., E-mail: Bertrand.Mennesson@jpl.nasa.gov [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei Munchen (Germany)

    2014-12-20

    Forty-seven nearby main-sequence stars were surveyed with the Keck Interferometer mid-infrared Nulling instrument (KIN) between 2008 and 2011, searching for faint resolved emission from exozodiacal dust. Observations of a subset of the sample have already been reported, focusing essentially on stars with no previously known dust. Here we extend this previous analysis to the whole KIN sample, including 22 more stars with known near- and/or far-infrared excesses. In addition to an analysis similar to that of the first paper of this series, which was restricted to the 8-9 μm spectral region, we present measurements obtained in all 10 spectral channels covering the 8-13 μm instrumental bandwidth. Based on the 8-9 μm data alone, which provide the highest signal-to-noise measurements, only one star shows a large excess imputable to dust emission (η Crv), while four more show a significant (>3σ) excess: β Leo, β UMa, ζ Lep, and γ Oph. Overall, excesses detected by KIN are more frequent around A-type stars than later spectral types. A statistical analysis of the measurements further indicates that stars with known far-infrared (λ ≥ 70 μm) excesses have higher exozodiacal emission levels than stars with no previous indication of a cold outer disk. This statistical trend is observed regardless of spectral type and points to a dynamical connection between the inner (zodi-like) and outer (Kuiper-Belt-like) dust populations. The measured levels for such stars are clustering close to the KIN detection limit of a few hundred zodis and are indeed consistent with those expected from a population of dust that migrated in from the outer belt by Poynting-Robertson drag. Conversely, no significant mid-infrared excess is found around sources with previously reported near-infrared resolved excesses, which typically have levels of the order of 1% over the photospheric flux. If dust emission is really at play in these near-infrared detections, the absence of a strong mid

  3. Firing technology in practice - temperature, residence time, corrosion; Feuerungstechnik in der Praxis - Temperatur, Verweilzeit, Korrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freimann, P.; Holl, D. [Muellheizkraftwerk Betriebsgesellschaft mbH, Burgkirchen/Alz (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    In a circular dated 1st Sept. 1994, i.e., after the issue of the pertinent planning decision, the Federal Environmental Ministry, BMU, laid down uniform standards on measurements and the parameterisation of the evaluation system for different operation states and loads. Subsequently, TUeV, the German Technical Control Board, prepared the parameterisation curves on the basis of these specifications. The implementation of the BMU paper of 1st Sept. 1994 did not result in any advantage, nor did it lead to a reduction of plant emissions, nor to advantages in the operation of the waste-fuelled cogeneration plant. On the contrary, elevated gas consumption and operating trouble due to frequent feed stops worsened the operating state of the plant. Elevated crude gas temperature in the boiler reduced the lifetime of the two boilers to a critical degree. An operating temperature of 850 C and a residence time of approx. 1 sec. in Burgkirchen waste-fuelled cogeneration plant have not worsened emission values while rendering the plant operable again. [Deutsch] Durch Rundschreiben d. BMU vom 01.09.1994 - also nach Erlass des Planfeststellungsbeschlusses - wurden einheitliche Vorgaben ueber Messungen und Parametrierung des Auswertesystems fuer die verschiedenen Betriebs- bzw. Lastzustaende erlassen. Unter Beruecksichtigung dieser Vorgaben wurden vom TUeV die Parametrierungskurven erstellt. Die Umsetzung des BMU-Papieres vom 01.09.1994 ergab keinerlei Vorteile, weder gab es eine Verringerung der anlagenbedingten Emissionen noch Vorteile fuer den Betrieb des MHKW`s. Im Gegenteil, erhoehte Gasverbraeuche und Betriebsstoerungen durch oftmalige Beschickungsstops verschlechterten den Betriebszustand. Erhoehte Rohgastemperatur im Kessel reduzierten die Lebensdauer der beiden Kessel kritisch. Der Betrieb mit 850 C und mit einer Verweilzeit von ca. 1 sec. fuehrt im MHKW Burgkirchen zu keiner Verschlechterung der Emissionswerte, macht aber die Anlagen wieder betreibbar. (orig./SR)

  4. Report for CS 698-95 ?Directed Research ? Performance Modeling:? Using Queueing Network Modeling to Analyze the University of San Francisco Keck Cluster Supercomputer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, M L

    2005-09-28

    -dependent). Other examples include relationships between different classes of customers in QNM and different types of messages passed on clustered systems, and the obvious relationship between the QNM model queues and message queueing in switches and network cards. Even the parameterization of QNM components lends itself well to cluster modeling. Numbers of service centers (computational nodes and switches) is generally well known for existing systems, and can be estimated for potential systems. Number of customers in the system can be estimated based on application call traces or profiles. Timing rates and service demands, too, can be estimated based on device specifications, or through application tracing or profiling. Typical results reported include throughputs, queue lengths, and response times, all of which are important to determining how well a system is utilized. In this research, QNM is applied to the Keck Cluster as a strong scaling problem. Strong scaling is where the size of the problem to be solved remains constant even as the number of processors allocated to the solution increases. QNM could also be applied in a weak scaling manner, meaning the problem size increases as the number of allocated processors increases, but this application is not investigated here.

  5. Development of Virtual Airspace Simulation Technology - Real-Time (VAST-RT) Capability 2 and Experimental Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmer, R.; Ingram, C.; Jovic, S.; Alderete, J.; Brown, D.; Carpenter, D.; LaForce, S.; Panda, R.; Walker, J.; Chaplin, P.; hide

    2006-01-01

    The Virtual Airspace Simulation Technology - Real-Time (VAST-RT) Project, an element cf NASA's Virtual Airspace Modeling and Simulation (VAMS) Project, has been developing a distributed simulation capability that supports an extensible and expandable real-time, human-in-the-loop airspace simulation environment. The VAST-RT system architecture is based on DoD High Level Architecture (HLA) and the VAST-RT HLA Toolbox, a common interface implementation that incorporates a number of novel design features. The scope of the initial VAST-RT integration activity (Capability 1) included the high-fidelity human-in-the-loop simulation facilities located at NASA/Ames Research Center and medium fidelity pseudo-piloted target generators, such as the Airspace Traffic Generator (ATG) being developed as part of VAST-RT, as well as other real-time tools. This capability has been demonstrated in a gate-to-gate simulation. VAST-RT's (Capability 2A) has been recently completed, and this paper will discuss the improved integration of the real-time assets into VAST-RT, including the development of tools to integrate data collected across the simulation environment into a single data set for the researcher. Current plans for the completion of the VAST-RT distributed simulation environment (Capability 2B) and its use to evaluate future airspace capacity enhancing concepts being developed by VAMS will be discussed. Additionally, the simulation environment's application to other airspace and airport research projects is addressed.

  6. Time-lapse geophysical technology-based study on overburden strata changes induced by modern coal mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenfeng Du; Suping Peng; Guowei Zhu; Feng Yang

    2014-01-01

    To study the impact of modern coal mining on overlying strata and its water bearing conditions, integrated time-lapse geophysical prospecting integrating 3D seismic, electrical and ground penetrating radar method were used. Through observing and analyzing the geophysical data variations of all stages of pre-mining, mining and post-mining as well as post-mining deposition stable period, impacts of coal mining on stratigraphic structure and its water bearing were studied and modern coal mining induced stratigraphic change pattern was summarized. The research result shows that the stratigraphic structure and the water bearing of surface layer during modern coal mining have self-healing pattern with mining time;the self-healing capability of near-surface strata is relatively strong while the roof weak;water bearing self-healing of near-surface strata is relatively high while the roof strata adjacent to mined coal beds low. Due to integrated time-lapse geophysical prospecting technology has extra time dimension which makes up the deficiency of static analysis of conventional geophysical methods, it can better highlight the dynamic changes of modern coal mining induced over-burden strata and its water bearing conditions.

  7. The effect of time gaining on chemical composition and technological characteristics of mechanically separated turkey meat (MSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Cegiełka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mechanically separated meat (MSM of poultry is a raw material widely used in the meat industry in Poland and most European Union countries. The manner and conditions for the production of this raw material cause, however, that it has limited technological usefulness. In this study the effect of time of obtaining turkey MSM produced by pressure separation on selected quality characteristics of this raw material: basic chemical composition, pH, thermal loss, water binding capacity and colour was determined. The experimental material consisted of MSM, which was collected directly from the machine after 1, 2 and 3 h of operation. The content of water, protein and fat in MSM was determined using a near infrared spectrometer. The instrumental measurement of colour parameters was performed in the CIE L*a*b* (1976 system. Determination of ash content in MSM and pH measurement were performed according to the requirements of Polish standards, and to determine other technological quality characteristics the methods described in the literature were used. It was found that the extension of working time of the pressure separator from 1 to 3 h resulted in a significant increase in the water content in turkey MSM. Furthermore, the MSM sample obtained after 3 h of operation of the device was characterized by a significantly lower thermal loss and higher water binding capacity than a similar material, but obtained after 1 and 2 h of operation of the device. Time of obtaining of turkey MOM had no significant effect on the content of protein, fat and ash, pH value and colour parameters (L*, a*, b* of the raw material.

  8. Optimal technology choice and investment timing: A stochastic model of industrial cogeneration vs. heat-only production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickart, Marcel [Centre for Energy Policy and Economics (CEPE), Department of Management, Technology, and Economics, ETH Zurich, Zurichbergstrasse 18 (ZUE E), 8032 Zurich (Switzerland); Madlener, Reinhard [Centre for Energy Policy and Economics (CEPE), Department of Management, Technology, and Economics, ETH Zurich, Zurichbergstrasse 18 (ZUE E), 8032 Zurich (Switzerland) and DIW Berlin, Department of Information Society and Competition, Koenigin-Luise-Strasse 5, 14195 Berlin (Germany)]. E-mail: rmadlener@ethz.ch

    2007-07-15

    In this paper we develop an economic model that explains the decision-making problem under uncertainty of an industrial firm that wants to invest in a process technology. More specifically, the decision is between making an irreversible investment in a combined heat-and-power production (cogeneration) system, or to invest in a conventional heat-only generation system (steam boiler) and to purchase all electricity from the grid. In our model we include the main economic and technical variables of the investment decision process. We also account for the risk and uncertainty inherent in volatile energy prices that can greatly affect the valuation of the investment project. The dynamic stochastic model presented allows us to simultaneously determine the optimal technology choice and investment timing. We apply the theoretical model and illustrate our main findings with a numerical example that is based on realistic cost values for industrial oil- or gas-fired cogeneration and heat-only generation in Switzerland. We also briefly discuss expected effects of a CO{sub 2} tax on the investment decision.

  9. A Detailed Gravitational Lens Model Based on Submillimeter Array and Keck Adaptive Optics Imaging of a Herschel-ATLAS Sub-millimeter Galaxy at z=4.243

    CERN Document Server

    Bussmann, R S; Fu, Hai; Smith, D J B; Dye, S; Auld, R; Baes, M; Baker, A J; Bonfield, D; Cava, A; Clements, D L; Cooray, A; Coppin, K; Dannerbauer, H; Dariush, A; De Zotti, G; Dunne, L; Eales, S; Fritz, J; Hopwood, R; Ibar, E; Ivison, R J; Jarvis, M J; Kim, S; Leeuw, L L; Maddox, S; Michalowski, M J; Negrello, M; Pascale, E; Pohlen, M; Riechers, D A; Rigby, E; Scott, Douglas; Temi, P; Van der Werf, P P; Verma, A; Wardlow, J; Wilner, D

    2012-01-01

    We present high-spatial resolution imaging obtained with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) at 880um and the Keck Adaptive Optics (AO) system at Ks-band of a gravitationally lensed sub-millimeter galaxy (SMG) at z=4.243 discovered in the Herschel-Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey. The SMA data (angular resolution ~0.6") resolve the dust emission into multiple lensed images, while the Keck AO Ks-band data (angular resolution ~0.1") resolve the lens into a pair of galaxies separated by 0.3". We present an optical spectrum of the foreground lens obtained with the Gemini-South telescope that provides a lens redshift of z_lens = 0.595 +/- 0.005. We develop and apply a new lens modeling technique in the visibility plane that shows that the SMG is magnified by a factor of mu = 4.1 +/- 0.2 and has an intrinsic infrared (IR) luminosity of L_IR = (2.1 +/- 0.2) x 10^13 Lsun. We measure a half-light radius of the background source of r_s = 4.4 +/- 0.5 kpc which implies an IR luminosity surface density of Sigma_IR = (3...

  10. The Old, Super-Metal-Rich Open Cluster, NGC 6791 - Elemental Abundances in Turn-off Stars from Keck/HIRES Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Boesgaard, Ann Merchant; Deliyannis, Constantine P

    2014-01-01

    The study of star clusters has advanced our understanding of stellar evolution, Galactic chemical evolution and nucleosynthesis. Here we investigate the composition of turn-off stars in the intriguing open cluster, NGC 6791, which is old, but super-metal-rich with high-resolution (46,000) Keck/HIRES spectra. We find [Fe/H] = +0.30 +/-0.02 from measurements of some 40 unblended, unsaturated lines of both Fe I and Fe II in eight turn-off stars. Our O abundances come from the O I triplet near 7774 A and we do a differential analysis relative to the Sun from our Lunar spectrum also obtained with Keck/HIRES. The O results are corrected for small nLTE effects. We find consistent ratios of [O/Fe]n with a mean of $-$0.06 +/-0.02. This continues the trend of decreasing [O/Fe] with increasing [Fe/H] found in field stars that are also both old and metal-rich. The small range in our oxygen abundances is consistent with a single population of stars. Our results for the alpha elements [Mg/Fe], [Si/Fe], [Ca/Fe], and [Ti/Fe]...

  11. C3R2 - Complete Calibration of the Color-Redshift Relation: Keck spectroscopy to train photometric redshifts for Euclid and WFIRST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Daniel; C3R2 Team

    2017-01-01

    A primary objective of both WFIRST and Euclid is to provide a 3D map of the distribution of matter across a significant fraction of the universe from the weak lensing shear field, but to do so requires robust distances to billions of galaxies. I will report on a multi-semester program, expected to total approximately 40 nights with Keck over the next two years. This program, supporting both the NASA PCOS and COR science goals, will obtain the necessary galaxy spectroscopy to calibrate the color-redshift relation for the Euclid mission, and make significant progress towards the WFIRST requirements. The program, called C3R2 or Complete Calibration of the Color-Redshift Relation, already encompasses 10 allocated nights of NASA Keck Key Strategic Mission Support (PI D. Stern), 12 allocated nights from Caltech (PI J. Cohen), 3 allocated nights from the University of Hawaii (PI D. Sanders), and 1.5 allocated nights from UC-Riverside (PI B. Mobasher). We are also pursuing opportunities at additional 8- to 10-meter class telescopes, including Magellan, VLT and GCT. I will present the motivation for this program, the plans, and current results.

  12. Shape model of asteroid (130) Elektra from optical photometry and disk-resolved images from VLT/SPHERE and Nirc2/Keck

    CERN Document Server

    Hanus, Josef; Viikinkoski, Matti; Yang, Bin; Kaasalainen, Mikko

    2016-01-01

    Asteroid (130) Elektra belongs to one of the six known triple asteroids in the main belt, so its mass has been reliably determined. We aim to use all available disk-resolved images of (130) Elektra obtained by the SPHERE instrument at VLT and by the Nirc2 of the Keck telescope together with the disk-integrated photometry to determine its shape model and its size. The volume can be then used in combination with the known mass to derive the bulk density of the primary. We apply the All-Data Asteroid Modeling (ADAM) algorithm to the optical disk-integrated data, 2 disk-resolved images obtained by the SPHERE instrument and 13 disk-resolved images from the Nirc2 of the Keck telescope, and derive the shape model and size of Elektra. We present the shape model, volume-equivalent diameter (199$\\pm$7 km) and bulk density (1.60$\\pm$0.13 g cm$^{-3}$) of the C-type asteroid Elektra.

  13. Advances in real-time magnetic resonance imaging of the vocal tract for speech science and technology research

    Science.gov (United States)

    TOUTIOS, ASTERIOS; NARAYANAN, SHRIKANTH S.

    2016-01-01

    Real-time magnetic resonance imaging (rtMRI) of the moving vocal tract during running speech production is an important emerging tool for speech production research providing dynamic information of a speaker's upper airway from the entire mid-sagittal plane or any other scan plane of interest. There have been several advances in the development of speech rtMRI and corresponding analysis tools, and their application to domains such as phonetics and phonological theory, articulatory modeling, and speaker characterization. An important recent development has been the open release of a database that includes speech rtMRI data from five male and five female speakers of American English each producing 460 phonetically balanced sentences. The purpose of the present paper is to give an overview and outlook of the advances in rtMRI as a tool for speech research and technology development. PMID:27833745

  14. Time, space and technology in radiotherapy departments: how do these factors impact on patients' experiences of radiotherapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, S; O'Connor, M; Halkett, G

    2017-03-01

    Radiation therapists (RTs) plan and deliver radiotherapy treatment for patients diagnosed with cancer. They need to communicate regularly with their patients and may have a role to play in reducing patient anxiety and distress. The objectives were to explore how the environment of radiotherapy departments supports or inhibits communication generally and information giving and supportive care provision in particular. An ethnographic approach was used to gather rich descriptive data through observations and interviews conducted in two Australian radiotherapy centres. Time, space and a technology driven culture was found to negatively affect the quality of interaction that occurred between RTs and their patients. This research has shown design/modification of spaces is needed in the radiotherapy environment to reflect a patient care centred culture and to enhance opportunities for RTs to provide supportive care for their patients.

  15. High sensitivity measurement of NO, NO2 and NH3 using MIR-QCL and time division multiplexing WMS technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiang; Yang, Chenguang; Hu, Mai; Xu, Zhenyu; Fan, Xueli; Wei, Min; Yao, Lu; He, Yabai; Kan, Ruifeng

    2016-10-01

    A compact system based on mid-infrared quantum cascade laser (QCL) operated in room temperature was developed for the simultaneous monitoring of NO, NO2 and NH3 in the air. Laser beams of three QCLs with central wavelength located at 1900 cm-1, 1600 cm-1, 1103.4 cm-1 were coupled to pass through the 60m long gas cell together. With the technology of time division multiplexing, wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) signals of three lasers can be detected at adjacent scan process. The real-time second harmonic analysis was implemented to achieve simultaneous detection of NO, NO2 and NH3. A minimum detection limit (MDL) of 0.2ppb for NO, 0.12ppb for NO2 and 0.1ppb for NH3 with an optimum integration time around 100 seconds can be achieved for this setup. An ambient monitoring of three gasses during 5 hours was performed to inspect the local air quality.

  16. Application of the advanced communications technology satellite to teleradiology and real-time compressed ultrasound video telemedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, B K; Carter, S J; Cook, J N; Abbe, B S; Pinck, D; Rowberg, A H

    1999-05-01

    The authors have investigated the application of the NASA Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) to teleradiology and telemedicine using the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL)-developed ACTS Mobile Terminal (AMT) uplink. In this experiment, bidirectional 128, 256, and 384 kbps satellite links were established between the ACTS/AMT, the ACTS in geosynchronous orbit, and the downlink terrestrial terminal at JPL. A terrestrial Integrated Digital Services Network (ISDN) link was established from JPL to the University of Washington Department of Radiology to complete the bidirectional connection. Ultrasound video imagery was compressed in real-time using video codecs adhering to the International Telecommunication Union-Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) Recommendation H.261. A 16 kbps in-band audio channel was used throughout. A five-point Likert scale was used to evaluate the quality of the compressed ultrasound imagery at the three transmission bandwidths (128, 256, and 384 kbps). The central question involved determination of the bandwidth requirements to provide sufficient spatial and contrast resolution for the remote visualization of fine- and low-contrast objects. The 384 kbps bandwidth resulted in only slight tiling artifact and fuzziness owing to the quantizer step size; however, these motion artifacts were rapidly resolved in time at this bandwidth. These experiments have demonstrated that real-time compressed ultrasound video imagery can be transmitted over multiple ISDN line bandwidth links with sufficient temporal, contrast, and spatial resolution for clinical diagnosis of multiple disease and pathology states to provide subspecialty consultation and educational at a distance.

  17. Direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry, a process analytical technology tool for real-time process monitoring in botanical drug manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Zeng, Shanshan; Chen, Teng; Qu, Haibin

    2014-03-01

    A promising process analytical technology (PAT) tool has been introduced for batch processes monitoring. Direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS), a means of rapid fingerprint analysis, was applied to a percolation process with multi-constituent substances for an anti-cancer botanical preparation. Fifteen batches were carried out, including ten normal operations and five abnormal batches with artificial variations. The obtained multivariate data were analyzed by a multi-way partial least squares (MPLS) model. Control trajectories were derived from eight normal batches, and the qualification was tested by R(2) and Q(2). Accuracy and diagnosis capability of the batch model were then validated by the remaining batches. Assisted with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) determination, process faults were explained by corresponding variable contributions. Furthermore, a batch level model was developed to compare and assess the model performance. The present study has demonstrated that DART-MS is very promising in process monitoring in botanical manufacturing. Compared with general PAT tools, DART-MS offers a particular account on effective compositions and can be potentially used to improve batch quality and process consistency of samples in complex matrices.

  18. Does exposure type impact differentially over time on the development of mental health disturbances after a technological disaster?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Soir, Erik; Versporten, Ann; Zech, Emmanuelle; Van Oyen, Herman; Mylle, Jacques; Kleber, Rolf; van der Hart, Onno

    2015-01-01

    A longitudinal study was conducted in order to assess the impact of the Ghislenghien disaster (July 30th, 2004) on physical, mental and social health in the affected population. The present study explored the risk for the development of four types of mental health disturbances (MHD) due to exposure to different aspects of this technological disaster in comparison with data obtained from previous health surveys among the population of the same province. Surveys were conducted 5 months (T1) and 14 months (T2) after the disaster. Potential adult victims (≥15 years) were included (n = 1027 and 579 at T1 and T2 respectively). The "Symptom Checklist-90-Revised" (SCL-90-R) has been used in order to compute actual prevalence rates of somatization-, depression-, anxiety- and sleeping disturbances for three defined exposure categories: direct witnesses who have seen human damage (SHD), direct witnesses who have not seen human damage (NSHD) and indirect witnesses (IW). Those prevalence rates were compared with overall rates using the inhabitants of the province of Hainaut (n = 2308) as reference population. A mental health co-morbidity index was computed. Relative risks were estimated using logistic regression models. Prevalence rates of the four MHD were much higher for the SHD than for the other exposure groups, at T1 and T2. Moreover, NSHD and IW had no increased risk to develop one of the 4 types of MHD compared to the reference population. The SHD had at T1 and T2 good 5-times a higher risk for somatization, about 4-times for depression and sleeping disorders, and 5- to 6-times for anxiety disorders respectively. Further, they suffered 13 times, respectively 17 times more from all mental disorders together. The present study calls attention to the fact that mental health problems disturbances are significantly more prevalent and long-lasting among survivors who have directly been exposed to human damage.

  19. Time-Cost Scheduler for Technological and Economic Challenges Related to Customized Cores and General Purpose Processors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munesh Singh Chauhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the renewed interest in the customization of embedded processors for applications specific needs, it becomes imperative to understand its viability both economically and technologically thus avoiding pitfalls. Customization and scalability are two terms which are often used synonymously to denote add/ subtract of additional functional units or increase/ decrease of ports in memory register banks in processors. The advantage that comes out of customization is in the improved performance, reduced silicon area and power efficiency. With the option of parameterizing the inclusion/ exclusion of functional units the hardware can be made leaner and thus more energy efficient. Removal of redundant units results in shortening of critical path in circuits. Though the above advantages look significant but customization carries its own pitfalls which often are intractable. Firstly, it carries an immense overhead if performed in General Purpose Processors (GPUs. Changes in the hardware architecture results in code mismatch and thus necessitates ISA (Instruction Set Architecture extensions or at times complete overhaul. Besides, users are often reluctant to adapt to the changes in ISA as it involves additional training. The final death knell may come from the limited commercial use of customized processor thus resulting in economic losses due to under-utilization of production units. Hence a new insight is needed that caters to the utilization of present technological advancements in processor customization but at the same time avoiding adverse economic fallout that comes from blindly forcing customization everywhere. A graded and selective use of customization in consonance with market and user needs is suggested. Therefore, predicting the development course of micro processors in general and embedded processors in particular will benefit businesses to correctly focus on the performance and efficiency of systems that use these processors

  20. A paperless course on structural engineering programming: investing in educational technology in the times of the Greek financial recession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sextos, Anastasios G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the structure of an undergraduate course entitled 'programming techniques and the use of specialised software in structural engineering' which is offered to the fifth (final) year students of the Civil Engineering Department of Aristotle University Thessaloniki in Greece. The aim of this course is to demonstrate the use of new information technologies in the field of structural engineering and to teach modern programming and finite element simulation techniques that the students can in turn apply in both research and everyday design of structures. The course also focuses on the physical interpretation of structural engineering problems, in a way that the students become familiar with the concept of computational tools without losing perspective from the engineering problem studied. For this purpose, a wide variety of structural engineering problems are studied in class, involving structural statics, dynamics, earthquake engineering, design of reinforced concrete and steel structures as well as data and information management. The main novelty of the course is that it is taught and examined solely in the computer laboratory ensuring that each student can accomplish the prescribed 'hands-on' training on a dedicated computer, strictly on a 1:1 student over hardware ratio. Significant effort has also been put so that modern educational techniques and tools are utilised to offer the course in an essentially paperless mode. This involves electronic educational material, video tutorials, student information in real time and exams given and assessed electronically through an ad hoc developed, personalised, electronic system. The positive feedback received from the students reveals that the concept of a paperless course is not only applicable in real academic conditions but is also a promising approach that significantly increases student productivity and engagement. The question, however, is whether such an investment in educational technology is indeed

  1. Comparative analysis of dynamic cell viability, migration and invasion assessments by novel real-time technology and classic endpoint assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridha Limame

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cell viability and motility comprise ubiquitous mechanisms involved in a variety of (pathobiological processes including cancer. We report a technical comparative analysis of the novel impedance-based xCELLigence Real-Time Cell Analysis detection platform, with conventional label-based endpoint methods, hereby indicating performance characteristics and correlating dynamic observations of cell proliferation, cytotoxicity, migration and invasion on cancer cells in highly standardized experimental conditions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Dynamic high-resolution assessments of proliferation, cytotoxicity and migration were performed using xCELLigence technology on the MDA-MB-231 (breast cancer and A549 (lung cancer cell lines. Proliferation kinetics were compared with the Sulforhodamine B (SRB assay in a series of four cell concentrations, yielding fair to good correlations (Spearman's Rho 0.688 to 0.964. Cytotoxic action by paclitaxel (0-100 nM correlated well with SRB (Rho>0.95 with similar IC(50 values. Reference cell migration experiments were performed using Transwell plates and correlated by pixel area calculation of crystal violet-stained membranes (Rho 0.90 and optical density (OD measurement of extracted dye (Rho>0.95. Invasion was observed on MDA-MB-231 cells alone using Matrigel-coated Transwells as standard reference method and correlated by OD reading for two Matrigel densities (Rho>0.95. Variance component analysis revealed increased variances associated with impedance-based detection of migration and invasion, potentially caused by the sensitive nature of this method. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The xCELLigence RTCA technology provides an accurate platform for non-invasive detection of cell viability and motility. The strong correlations with conventional methods imply a similar observation of cell behavior and interchangeability with other systems, illustrated by the highly correlating kinetic invasion profiles on

  2. Monitoring in Real Time the Formation and Removal of Biofilms from Clinical Related Pathogens Using an Impedance-Based Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Diana; Hidalgo-Cantabrana, Claudio; Rodríguez, Ana; García, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria found in diverse ecosystems grow in a community of aggregated cells that favors their survival and colonization. Different extracellular polymeric substances are used to entrap this multispecies community forming a biofilm, which can be associated to biotic and abiotic surfaces. This widespread and successful way of bacterial life, however, can lead to negative effects for human activity since many pathogen and spoiling bacteria form biofilms which are not easy to eradicate. Therefore, the search for novel anti-biofilm bio-active molecules is a very active research area for which simple, reliable, and fast screening methods are demanded. In this work we have successfully validated an impedance-based method, initially developed for the study of adherent eukaryotic cells, to monitor the formation of single-species biofilms of three model bacteria in real time. The xCelligence real time cell analyzer (RTCA) equipment uses specific microtiter E-plates coated with gold-microelectrodes that detect the attachment of adherent cells, thus modifying the impedance signal. In the current study, this technology allowed the distinction between biofilm-producers and non-producers of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, as well as the formation of Streptococcus mutans biofilms only when sucrose was present in the culture medium. Besides, different impedance values permitted discrimination among the biofilm-producing strains tested regardless of the nature of the polymeric biofilm matrix. Finally, we have continuously monitored the inhibition of staphylococcal biofilm formation by the bacteriophage phi-IPLA7 and the bacteriophage-encoded endolysin LysH5, as well as the removal of a preformed biofilm by this last antimicrobial treatment. Results observed with the impedance-based method showed high correlation with those obtained with standard approaches, such as crystal violet staining and bacteria enumeration, as well as with those obtained upon other

  3. Near minimum-time maneuvers of the advanced space structures technology research experiment (ASTREX) test article: Theory and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadali, Srinivas R.; Carter, Michael T.

    1994-01-01

    The Phillips Laboratory at the Edwards Air Force Base has developed the Advanced Space Structures Technology Research Experiment (ASTREX) facility to serve as a testbed for demonstrating the applicability of proven theories to the challenges of spacecraft maneuvers and structural control. This report describes the work performed on the ASTREX test article by Texas A&M University under contract NAS119373 as a part of the Control-Structure Interaction (CSI) Guest Investigator Program. The focus of this work is on maneuvering the ASTREX test article with compressed air thrusters that can be throttled, while attenuating structural excitation. The theoretical foundation for designing the near minimum-time thrust commands is based on the generation of smooth, parameterized optimal open-loop control profiles, and the determination of control laws for final position regulation and tracking using Lyapunov stability theory. Details of the theory, mathematical modeling, model updating, and compensation for the presence of 'real world' effects are described and the experimental results are presented. The results show an excellent match between theory and experiments.

  4. Modern technologies and methodologies concerning permanent monitoring of position changes and entity state in space and time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Sušić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The topic of the paper is the description of the modern sensor solutions used in the permanent-monitoring projects for deformations of entities in space and time, as well as of many other parameters necessary to a detailed analysis of spatial processes at the sites of large civil-engineering objects. The possibility of applying the monitoring with an alarm system, with a special comment concerning the LeicaGeoMos software, is also mentioned. Using an example of integrated multisensor system (GPS, inclinometers, accelerometers, robotised TS concerning the general solution for observing deformations of the Žeželj bridge (test examination and permanent observation during exploitation in Novi Sad the possibilities of new technologies will be presented and the place, role and importance of a specialist in geodesy in such projects will be indicated. The topic of the paper is an automated system of integrated sensors for measuring meteorological parameters and those of dynamical motions of water at the location of the future marina in the Kotor Bay at Kumbor. On the basis of the presented results of sensor application to the registration of quantities and their spatial and temporal variations new possibilities of geodesy in extension and participation in new services in multidisciplinary projects of other sciences are indicated.

  5. Implementation and Operational Research: Expedited Results Delivery Systems Using GPRS Technology Significantly Reduce Early Infant Diagnosis Test Turnaround Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deo, Sarang; Crea, Lindy; Quevedo, Jorge; Lehe, Jonathan; Vojnov, Lara; Peter, Trevor; Jani, Ilesh

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the impact of a new technology to communicate the results of an infant HIV diagnostic test on test turnaround time and to quantify the association between late delivery of test results and patient loss to follow-up. We used data collected during a pilot implementation of Global Package Radio Service (GPRS) printers for communicating results in the early infant diagnosis program in Mozambique from 2008 through 2010. Our dataset comprised 1757 patient records, of which 767 were from before implementation and 990 from after implementation of expedited results delivery system. We used multivariate logistic regression model to determine the association between late result delivery (more than 30 days between sample collection and result delivery to the health facility) and the probability of result collection by the infant's caregiver. We used a sample selection model to determine the association between late result delivery to the facility and further delay in collection of results by the caregiver. The mean test turnaround time reduced from 68.13 to 41.05 days post-expedited results delivery system. Caregivers collected only 665 (37.8%) of the 1757 results. After controlling for confounders, the late delivery of results was associated with a reduction of approximately 18% (0.44 vs. 0.36; P < 0.01) in the probability of results collected by the caregivers (odds ratio = 0.67, P < 0.05). Late delivery of results was also associated with a further average increase in 20.91 days of delay in collection of results (P < 0.01). Early infant diagnosis program managers should further evaluate the cost-effectiveness of operational interventions (eg, GPRS printers) that reduce delays.

  6. Spatially resolved Spectroscopy of Europa’s Large-scale Compositional Units at 3-4 μm with Keck NIRSPEC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, P. D.; Brown, M. E.; Trumbo, S. K.; Hand, K. P.

    2017-01-01

    We present spatially resolved spectroscopic observations of Europa’s surface at 3-4 μm obtained with the near-infrared spectrograph and adaptive optics system on the Keck II telescope. These are the highest quality spatially resolved reflectance spectra of Europa’s surface at 3-4 μm. The observations spatially resolve Europa’s large-scale compositional units at a resolution of several hundred kilometers. The spectra show distinct features and geographic variations associated with known compositional units; in particular, large-scale leading hemisphere chaos shows a characteristic longward shift in peak reflectance near 3.7 μm compared to icy regions. These observations complement previous spectra of large-scale chaos, and can aid efforts to identify the endogenous non-ice species.

  7. A Keck Adaptive Optics Survey of a Representative Sample of Gravitationally-Lensed Star-Forming Galaxies: High Spatial Resolution Studies of Kinematics and Metallicity Gradients

    CERN Document Server

    Leethochawalit, Nicha; Ellis, Richard S; Stark, Daniel P; Richard, Johan; Zitrin, Adi; Auger, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    We discuss spatially resolved emission line spectroscopy secured for a total sample of 15 gravitationally lensed star-forming galaxies at a mean redshift of $z\\simeq2$ based on Keck laser-assisted adaptive optics observations undertaken with the recently-improved OSIRIS integral field unit (IFU) spectrograph. By exploiting gravitationally lensed sources drawn primarily from the CASSOWARY survey, we sample these sub-L$^{\\ast}$ galaxies with source-plane resolutions of a few hundred parsecs ensuring well-sampled 2-D velocity data and resolved variations in the gas-phase metallicity. Such high spatial resolution data offers a critical check on the structural properties of larger samples derived with coarser sampling using multiple-IFU instruments. We demonstrate how serious errors of interpretation can only be revealed through better sampling. Although we include four sources from our earlier work, the present study provides a more representative sample unbiased with respect to emission line strength. Contrary t...

  8. A Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopic survey of the faint M31 satellites AndIX, AndXI, AndXII and AndXIII†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, M. L. M.; Chapman, S. C.; Irwin, M. J.; Martin, N. F.; Ibata, R. A.; Zucker, D. B.; Blain, A.; Ferguson, A. M. N.; Lewis, G. F.; McConnachie, A. W.; Peñarrubia, J.

    2010-10-01

    We present the first spectroscopic analysis of the faint M31 satellite galaxies, AndXI and AndXIII, as well as a re-analysis of existing spectroscopic data for two further faint companions, AndIX (correcting for an error in earlier geometric modelling that caused a misclassification of member stars in previous work) and AndXII. By combining data obtained using the Deep Imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph (DEIMOS) mounted on the Keck II telescope with deep photometry from the Suprime-Cam instrument on Subaru, we have identified the most probable members for each of the satellites based on their radial velocities (precise to several down to i ~ 22), distance from the centre of the dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) and their photometric [Fe/H]. Using both the photometric and spectroscopic data, we have also calculated global properties for the dwarfs, such as systemic velocities, metallicities and half-light radii. We find each dwarf to be very metal poor ([Fe/H] ~ -2 both photometrically and spectroscopically, from their stacked spectrum), and as such, they continue to follow the luminosity-metallicity relationship established with brighter dwarfs. We are unable to resolve dispersion for AndXI due to small sample size and low signal-to-noise ratio, but we set a 1σ upper limit of σv financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation. Based in part on data collected at Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. ‡ E-mail: mlmc2@ast.cam.ac.uk

  9. FLITECAM/SOFIA Commissioning and Early Science and A Study of Late-T Dwarf Color Outliers with NIRSPEC/Keck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logsdon, Sarah E.

    2017-01-01

    My thesis combines the development of infrared instrumentation with the application of infrared imaging and spectroscopy to the characterization of the highest and lowest mass products of the star formation process. I supported the development and commissioning of FLITECAM, a 1-5 μm imager and spectrograph for SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy), as the UCLA FLITECAM Instrument Scientist, and used FLITECAM to probe high-mass star formation. In parallel, I used the NIRSPEC spectrograph at Keck Observatory to study the lowest mass products of star formation, brown dwarfs. Here, I present an overview of FLITECAM’s in-flight performance in both imaging and spectroscopy modes. I also describe the results of an imaging survey of the NGC 2024 and W3 star-forming regions using FLITECAM’s Paschen-α (1.87 μm) and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH; 3.3 μm) filters. These filters provide an effective way to trace the ionized gas emission and the emission from small grains. Additionally, I present the results of a NIRSPEC/Keck spectroscopic follow-up survey of 13 late-type T dwarfs (T6-T9) with unusually red or blue J-H colors. Previous work suggests that J-H color outliers may represent the high-gravity, low-metallicity (old) and low-gravity, high-metallicity (young) extremes of the late-T dwarf population. I find that the T dwarf color outliers in this sample are more homogenous than expected. Nevertheless, comparisons to spectral standards and publicly available atmospheric models do reveal subtle physical differences in their spectral morphologies.

  10. Performance evaluation of UHF RFID technologies for real-time bus recognition in the Taipei Bus Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Own, Chung-Ming; Lee, Da-Sheng; Wang, Ti-Ho; Wang, De-Jun; Ting, Yu-Lun

    2013-06-18

    Transport stations such as airports, ports, and railways have adopted blocked-type pathway management to process and control travel systems in a one-directional manner. However, this excludes highway transportation where large buses have great variability and mobility; thus, an instant influx of numerous buses increases risks and complicates station management. Focusing on Taipei Bus Station, this study employed RFID technology to develop a system platform integrated with modern information technology that has numerous characteristics. This modern information technology comprised the following systems: ultra-high frequency (UHF) radio-frequency identification (RFID), ultrasound and license number identification, and backstage graphic controls. In conclusion, the system enabled management, bus companies, and passengers to experience the national bus station's new generation technology, which provides diverse information and synchronization functions. Furthermore, this technology reached a new milestone in the energy-saving and efficiency-increasing performance of Taiwan's buses.

  11. Science and Technology in Communication in Digital Time:Research for Digital Science and Technology Popularization%数字时代的科技传播--数字科普发展研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张浩达

    2014-01-01

    从传统的科普概念到数字传播时代的科技传播行为,是数字技术在期间造就了数字传播的概念。通过对数字科普概念的再定义,我们认识到:社会的体制文化层决定数字科普的发展;观念文化层影响数字科普的内容;而物质文化层则是数字科普的需求动力。担当数字科普工作的机构与个人在将科学艺术引入数字科普的同时,也为数字科普的发展描绘了广阔前景。文章对基于数字技术的科技传播即数字科普文化观念进行了比对、研究,希望在抛砖引玉的同时与大家共同推动数字科普事业的健康发展。%From the traditional concepts of science and technology popularization to the science and technology communication in digital communication time. By redefining for concepts of digital science and technology popularization, we recognized that, the development of digital science and technology popularization is decided by cultural layer of society and institutional structure;the substance of digital science and technology popularization is influenced by cultural level. This article based on digital technology of science and technology popularization,at the same time some advices for development of digital science and technology popularization.

  12. Point of care technology or standard laboratory service in an emergency department: is there a difference in time to action? A randomised trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backer Mogensen, Christian; Borch, Anders; Brandslund, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Emergency Departments (ED) have a high flow of patients and time is often crucial. New technologies for laboratory analysis have been developed, including Point of Care Technologies (POCT), which can reduce the transport time and time of analysis significantly compared with central laboratory...... services. However, the question is if the time to clinical action is also reduced if a decisive laboratory answer is available during the first contact between the patient and doctor. The present study addresses this question: Does a laboratory answer, provided by POCT to the doctor who first attends...... the patient on admission, change the time to clinical decision in commonly occurring diseases in an ED compared with the traditional service from a central laboratory?...

  13. Towards a Low-Cost Real-Time Photogrammetric Landslide Monitoring System Utilising Mobile and Cloud Computing Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidburee, P.; Mills, J. P.; Miller, P. E.; Fieber, K. D.

    2016-06-01

    Close-range photogrammetric techniques offer a potentially low-cost approach in terms of implementation and operation for initial assessment and monitoring of landslide processes over small areas. In particular, the Structure-from-Motion (SfM) pipeline is now extensively used to help overcome many constraints of traditional digital photogrammetry, offering increased user-friendliness to nonexperts, as well as lower costs. However, a landslide monitoring approach based on the SfM technique also presents some potential drawbacks due to the difficulty in managing and processing a large volume of data in real-time. This research addresses the aforementioned issues by attempting to combine a mobile device with cloud computing technology to develop a photogrammetric measurement solution as part of a monitoring system for landslide hazard analysis. The research presented here focusses on (i) the development of an Android mobile application; (ii) the implementation of SfM-based open-source software in the Amazon cloud computing web service, and (iii) performance assessment through a simulated environment using data collected at a recognized landslide test site in North Yorkshire, UK. Whilst the landslide monitoring mobile application is under development, this paper describes experiments carried out to ensure effective performance of the system in the future. Investigations presented here describe the initial assessment of a cloud-implemented approach, which is developed around the well-known VisualSFM algorithm. Results are compared to point clouds obtained from alternative SfM 3D reconstruction approaches considering a commercial software solution (Agisoft PhotoScan) and a web-based system (Autodesk 123D Catch). Investigations demonstrate that the cloud-based photogrammetric measurement system is capable of providing results of centimeter-level accuracy, evidencing its potential to provide an effective approach for quantifying and analyzing landslide hazard at a local-scale.

  14. Redesigning Schools: To Reach Every Student with Excellent Teachers. Financial Planning for Secondary-Level Time-Technology Swap + Multi-Classroom Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Impact, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This brief shows how middle and high school teachers in a Time-Technology Swap school model, with or without Multi-Classroom Leaders, may earn more while reaching more students, sustainably. In this model, students alternate between learning with teachers and working in a digital learning lab, where they learn online and engage in offline skill…

  15. Real-time virtual reference service based on applicable artificial intelligence technologies:The début of the robot Xiaotu at Tsinghua University Library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei; YAO; Lei; JI; Chengyu; ZHANG; Wu; CHEN

    2011-01-01

    The adoption of applicable artificial intelligence technologies to library real-time virtual reference services is an innovative experimentation in one of the key areas of library services.Based on the open source software Artificial Linguistic Internet Computer Entity(A.L.I.C.E.)and a combined application of several other relevant supporting technologies for facilitating the use of the current existing library resources,Tsinghua University Library has recently developed a real-time smart talking robot,named Xiaotu,for the enhancement of its various service functions,such as reference services,book searching,Baidu Baike searching,self-directed learning,etc.The operation of Xiaotu is programmed into Renren website(a social networking website),which adds significantly an innovative feature to the modus operandi of the real-time virtual reference service at Tsinghua University Library.

  16. Real-Time Coaching with Bug-in-Ear Technology: A Practical Approach to Support Families in Their Child's Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottley, Jennifer Riggie

    2015-01-01

    Variability in the quality of adult-child interactions among caregivers of young children can be problematic for children's development. However, professional development has been successful in improving caregivers' positive interactions with children. Blending principles of adult learning theory with technology-based coaching can provide a…

  17. Just-in-Time Research: A Call to Arms for Research into Mobile Technologies in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne-Davis, Lucie; Dexter, Hilary; Hart, Jo; Cappelli, Tim; Byrne, Ged; Sampson, Ian; Mooney, Jane; Lumsden, Colin

    2015-01-01

    Mobile technologies are becoming commonplace in society and in education. In higher education, it is crucial to understand the impact of constant access to information on the development of the knowledge and competence of the learner. This study reports on a series of four surveys completed by UK-based medical students (n = 443) who received…

  18. A DETAILED GRAVITATIONAL LENS MODEL BASED ON SUBMILLIMETER ARRAY AND KECK ADAPTIVE OPTICS IMAGING OF A HERSCHEL-ATLAS SUBMILLIMETER GALAXY AT z = 4.243 {sup ,} {sup ,}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bussmann, R. S.; Gurwell, M. A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Fu Hai; Cooray, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Smith, D. J. B.; Bonfield, D.; Dunne, L. [Centre for Astrophysics, Science and Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, Herts AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Dye, S.; Eales, S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Auld, R. [Cardiff University, School of Physics and Astronomy, Queens Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Baes, M.; Fritz, J. [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281 S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Baker, A. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8019 (United States); Cava, A. [Departamento de Astrofisica, Facultad de CC. Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Clements, D. L.; Dariush, A. [Imperial College London, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Coppin, K. [Department of Physics, McGill University, Ernest Rutherford Building, 3600 Rue University, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2T8 (Canada); Dannerbauer, H. [Universitaet Wien, Institut fuer Astronomie, Tuerkenschanzstrasse 17, 1180 Wien, Oesterreich (Austria); De Zotti, G. [Universita di Padova, Dipto di Astronomia, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 2, IT 35122, Padova (Italy); Hopwood, R., E-mail: rbussmann@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); and others

    2012-09-10

    We present high-spatial resolution imaging obtained with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) at 880 {mu}m and the Keck adaptive optics (AO) system at the K{sub S}-band of a gravitationally lensed submillimeter galaxy (SMG) at z = 4.243 discovered in the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey. The SMA data (angular resolution Almost-Equal-To 0.''6) resolve the dust emission into multiple lensed images, while the Keck AO K{sub S}-band data (angular resolution Almost-Equal-To 0.''1) resolve the lens into a pair of galaxies separated by 0.''3. We present an optical spectrum of the foreground lens obtained with the Gemini-South telescope that provides a lens redshift of z{sub lens} = 0.595 {+-} 0.005. We develop and apply a new lens modeling technique in the visibility plane that shows that the SMG is magnified by a factor of {mu} = 4.1 {+-} 0.2 and has an intrinsic infrared (IR) luminosity of L{sub IR} = (2.1 {+-} 0.2) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} L{sub Sun }. We measure a half-light radius of the background source of r{sub s} = 4.4 {+-} 0.5 kpc which implies an IR luminosity surface density of {Sigma}{sub IR} (3.4 {+-} 0.9) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} L{sub Sun} kpc{sup -2}, a value that is typical of z > 2 SMGs but significantly lower than IR luminous galaxies at z {approx} 0. The two lens galaxies are compact (r{sub lens} Almost-Equal-To 0.9 kpc) early-types with Einstein radii of {theta}{sub E1} 0.57 {+-} 0.01 and {theta}{sub E2} = 0.40 {+-} 0.01 that imply masses of M{sub lens1} = (7.4 {+-} 0.5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun} and M{sub lens2} = (3.7 {+-} 0.3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun }. The two lensing galaxies are likely about to undergo a dissipationless merger, and the mass and size of the resultant system should be similar to other early-type galaxies at z {approx} 0.6. This work highlights the importance of high spatial resolution imaging in developing models of strongly lensed galaxies

  19. In times of geopolitical and economic instability how can innovative technologies drive new revenue opportunities for institutions and research funding in the UK?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Roberts

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how the emergence of innovative technology platforms, recently introduced by new players in the university services space and public arena, has the potential to open up additional revenue generation opportunities for the university research funding toolkit. How aware are universities of these new technology platforms and their revenue potential? Given anticipated EU funding upheaval (and potential removal/reduction of funding sources, uncertainty surrounding Brexit, and the lack of clarity in the lead-up to Brexit (creating what looks to be a prolonged period of instability and cross-messaging in funding circles, the time is now ripe for university management, financial stewards and library managers to embrace new technology platforms as part of their strategic finance planning in order to take advantage of new emerging revenue models in combination with existing operations.

  20. Delivery of Dietary and Lifestyle Interventions in Pregnancy: is it Time to Promote the Use of Electronic and Mobile Health Technologies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Cecelia M; Cramp, Courtney; Dodd, Jodie M

    2016-03-01

    Fifty percent of women who enter pregnancy are overweight or obese, increasing complications for both the mother and the infant, along with significant burden on individuals and the health care system. Pregnancy represents a "teachable moment" in a woman's life, however, antenatal interventions focusing on improving dietary and physical activity patterns have been associated with modest behavior change. There are many barriers that need to be overcome, including lack of knowledge, access and time pressures. Advancing mobile and electronic health technologies may represent an adjunct tool to support traditional face-to-face consultations and facilitate behavior change, but further rigorous evaluation of the technologies and their impact on health outcomes is required. Well-designed antenatal intervention trials with particular attention to the structure and method of information provision are required to further assess the feasibility of such technology.

  1. An ultra high-speed 8-bit timing interleave folding & interpolating analog-to-digital converter with digital foreground calibration technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zhengping; Wang Yonglu; Huang Xingfa; Shen Xiaofeng; Zhu Can; Zhang Lei; Yu Jinshan; Zhang Ruitao

    2011-01-01

    A 2-Gsample/s 8-b analog-to-digital converter in 0.35μm BiCMOS process technology is presented.The ADC uses the unique folding and interpolating algorithm and dual-channel timing interleave multiplexing technology to achieve a sampling rate of 2 GSPS.Digital calibration technology is used for the offset and gain corrections of the S/H circuit,the offset correction of preamplifier,and the gain and clock phase corrections between channels.As a result of testing,the ADC achieves 7.32 ENOB at an analog input of 484 MHz and 7.1 ENOB at Nyquist input after the chip is self-corrected.

  2. Typical Toddlers' Participation in "Just-in-Time" Programming of Vocabulary for Visual Scene Display Augmentative and Alternative Communication Apps on Mobile Technology: A Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holyfield, Christine; Drager, Kathryn; Light, Janice; Caron, Jessica Gosnell

    2017-08-15

    Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) promotes communicative participation and language development for young children with complex communication needs. However, the motor, linguistic, and cognitive demands of many AAC technologies restrict young children's operational use of and influence over these technologies. The purpose of the current study is to better understand young children's participation in programming vocabulary "just in time" on an AAC application with minimized demands. A descriptive study was implemented to highlight the participation of 10 typically developing toddlers (M age: 16 months, range: 10-22 months) in just-in-time vocabulary programming in an AAC app with visual scene displays. All 10 toddlers participated in some capacity in adding new visual scene displays and vocabulary to the app just in time. Differences in participation across steps were observed, suggesting variation in the developmental demands of controls involved in vocabulary programming. Results from the current study provide clinical insights toward involving young children in AAC programming just in time and steps that may allow for more independent participation or require more scaffolding. Technology designed to minimize motor, cognitive, and linguistic demands may allow children to participate in programming devices at a younger age.

  3. Evaluation of artifact reduction in optical coherence tomography angiography with real-time tracking and motion correction technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camino, Acner; Zhang, Miao; Gao, Simon S; Hwang, Thomas S; Sharma, Utkarsh; Wilson, David J; Huang, David; Jia, Yali

    2016-10-01

    Artifacts introduced by eye motion in optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) affect the interpretation of images and the quantification of parameters with clinical value. Eradication of such artifacts in OCTA remains a technical challenge. We developed an algorithm that recognizes five different types of motion artifacts and used it to evaluate the performance of three motion removal technologies. On en face maximum projection of flow images, the summed flow signal in each row and column and the correlation between neighboring rows and columns were calculated. Bright line artifacts were recognized by large summed flow signal. Drifts, distorted lines, and stretch artifacts exhibited abnormal correlation values. Residual lines were simultaneously a local maximum of summed flow and a local minimum of correlation. Tracking-assisted scanning integrated with motion correction technology (MCT) demonstrated higher performance than tracking or MCT alone in healthy and diabetic eyes.

  4. Screen Time, How Much Is Too Much? The Social and Emotional Costs of Technology on the Adolescent Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWeese, Katherine Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Screen time no longer means just the amount of time one spends in front of the television. Now it is an aggregate amount of time spent on smartphones, computers as well as multitasking with different devices. How much are the glowing rectangles taking away from adolescent social and emotional health? How is it changing how students learn and how…

  5. G Protein-Coupled Receptor Signaling Analysis Using Homogenous Time-Resolved Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (HTRF®) Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Lenea Nørskov-Lauritsen; Alex Rojas Bie Thomsen; Hans Bräuner-Osborne

    2014-01-01

    Studying multidimensional signaling of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in search of new and better treatments requires flexible, reliable and sensitive assays in high throughput screening (HTS) formats. Today, more than half of the detection techniques used in HTS are based on fluorescence, because of the high sensitivity and rich signal, but quenching, optical interferences and light scattering are serious drawbacks. In the 1990s the HTRF® (Cisbio Bioassays, Codolet, France) technology b...

  6. CATS: Optical to Near-Infrared Colors of the Bulge and Disk of Two z=0.7 Galaxies Using HST and Keck Laser Adaptive Optics Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Steinbring, E; Metevier, A J; Koo, D C; Chun, M R; Simard, L; Larkin, J E; Max, C E

    2008-01-01

    We have employed laser guide star (LGS) adaptive optics (AO) on the Keck II telescope to obtain near-infrared (NIR) images in the Extended Groth Strip (EGS) deep galaxy survey field. This is a continuation of our Center for Adaptive Optics Treasury Survey (CATS) program of targeting 0.5

  7. Episodic mass loss in binary evolution to the Wolf-Rayet phase: Keck and HST proper motions of RY Scuti's nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Nathan; Campbell, Randy; Kassis, Marc; Mignant, David Le; Kuluhiwa, Kawailehua; Filippenko, Alexei V

    2011-01-01

    Binary mass transfer via Roche-lobe overflow (RLOF) is a key channel for producing stripped-envelope Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars and may be critical to account for SN Ib/c progenitors. RY Scuti is an extremely rare example of a massive binary star caught in this brief but important phase. Its toroidal nebula indicates equatorial mass loss during RLOF, while the mass-gaining star is apparently embedded in an opaque accretion disk. RY Scuti's toroidal nebula has two components: an inner ionised double-ring system, and an outer dust torus that is twice the size of the ionised rings. We present two epochs of Lband Keck NGS-AO images of the dust torus, plus three epochs of HST images of the ionised gas rings. Proper motions show that the inner ionised rings and the outer dust torus came from two separate ejection events roughly 130 and 250 yr ago. This suggests that RLOF in massive contact binaries can be accompanied by eruptive and episodic burst of mass loss, reminiscent of LBVs. We speculate that the repeating outbur...

  8. High Resolution STIS/HST and HIRES/Keck Spectra of Three Weak MgII Absorbers Toward PG 1634+706

    CERN Document Server

    Charlton, J C; Zonak, S G; Churchill, C W; Bond, N A; Rigby, J R

    2003-01-01

    High resolution optical (HIRES/Keck) and UV (STIS/HST) spectra, covering a large range of chemical transitions, are analyzed for three single-cloud weak MgII absorption systems along the line of sight toward the quasar PG 1634+706. Weak MgII absorption lines in quasar spectra trace metal-enriched environments that are rarely closely associated with the most luminous galaxies (>0.05L^*). The two weak MgII systems at z=0.81 and z=0.90 are constrained to have >=solar metallicity, while the metallicity of the z=0.65 system is not as well-constrained, but is consistent with >1/10th solar. These weak MgII clouds are likely to be local pockets of high metallicity in a lower metallicity environment. All three systems have two phases of gas, a higher density region that produces narrower absorption lines for low ionization transitions, such as MgII, and a lower density region that produces broader absorption lines for high ionization transitions, such as CIV. The CIV profile for one system (at z=0.81) can be fit with ...

  9. Contamination of Broad-Band Photometry by Nebular Emission in High Redshift Galaxies: Investigations with Keck's MOSFIRE Near-Infrared Spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Schenker, Matthew A; Konidaris, Nick P; Stark, Daniel P

    2013-01-01

    Earlier work has raised the potential importance of nebular emission in the derivation of the physical characteristics of high redshift Lyman break galaxies. Within certain redshift ranges, and especially at z ~ 6-7, such lines may be strong enough to reduce estimates of the stellar masses and ages of galaxies compared those derived assuming broad-band photometry represents stellar light alone. To test this hypothesis at the highest redshifts where such lines can be probed with ground-based facilities, we examine the near-infrared spectra of a representative sample of 20 3.0 < z < 3.8 Lyman break galaxies using the newly-commissioned MOSFIRE near-infrared spectrograph at the Keck I telescope. We use this data to derive the rest-frame equivalent widths (EW) of [O III] emission and show that these are comparable to estimates derived using the SED fitting technique introduced for sources of known redshift by Stark et al (2013). Although our current sample is modest, its [O III] EW distribution is consisten...

  10. The Matryoshka Disk: Keck/NIRC2 Discovery of a Solar System-Scale, Radially Segregated Residual Protoplanetary Disk Around HD 141569A

    CERN Document Server

    Currie, Thayne; Cloutier, Ryan; Konishi, Mihoko; Stassun, Keivan; Debes, John; van der Marel, Nienke; Muto, Takayuki; Jayawardhana, Ray; Ratzka, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    Using Keck/NIRC2 $L^\\prime$ (3.78 $\\mu m$) data, we report the direct imaging discovery of a scattered light-resolved, solar system-scale residual protoplanetary disk around the young A-type star HD 141569A, interior to and concentric with the two ring-like structures at wider separations. The disk is resolved down to $\\sim$ 0\\farcs{}25 and appears as an arc-like rim with attached hook-like features. It is located at an angular separation intermediate between that of warm CO gas identified from spatially-resolved mid-infrared spectroscopy and diffuse dust emission recently discovered with the \\textit{Hubble Space Telescope}. The inner disk has a radius of $\\sim$ 39 AU, a position angle consistent with north-up, an inclination of $i$ $\\sim$ 56$^{o}$, and has a center offset from the star. Forward-modeling of the disk favors a thick torus-like emission sharply truncated at separations beyond the torus' photocenter and heavily depleted at smaller separations. In particular, the best-fit density power law for the...

  11. THE CIRCUMNUCLEAR STAR FORMATION ENVIRONMENT OF NGC 6946: Br γ AND H{sub 2} RESULTS FROM KECK INTEGRAL FIELD SPECTROSCOPY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Chao-Wei [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Turner, Jean L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Beck, Sara C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv (Israel); Meier, David S. [Department of Physics, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Wright, Shelley A., E-mail: Chao-Wei.Tsai@jpl.nasa.gov [Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-10-20

    We present a three-dimensional data cube of the K-band continuum and the Br γ, H{sub 2} S(0), and S(1) lines within the central 18.''5 × 13.''8 (520 pc × 390 pc) region of NGC 6946. Data were obtained using OSIRIS, a near-infrared Integral Field Spectrograph at Keck Observatory, with Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics. The 0.''3 resolution allows us to investigate the stellar bulge and the forming star clusters in the nuclear region on 10 pc scales. We detect giant H II regions associated with massive young star clusters in the nuclear spiral/ring (R ∼ 30 pc) and in the principal shocks along the nuclear bar. Comparisons of the Br γ fluxes with Pa α line emission and radio continuum indicate A{sub K} ∼ 3, A{sub V} ∼ 25 for the nuclear star-forming regions. The most luminous H II regions are restricted to within 70 pc of the center, despite the presence of high gas columns at larger radii (R ∼ 200 pc). H{sub 2} emission is restricted to clouds within R ∼ 60 pc of the center, resembling the distribution of HCN line emission. We propose that gas-assisted migration of the young star clusters is contributing to the buildup of the nuclear bar and nuclear star cluster (R < 30 pc) in this galaxy.

  12. The Extended Chandra Deep Field-South Survey: Optical spectroscopy of faint X-ray sources with the VLT and Keck

    CERN Document Server

    Silverman, J D; Salvato, M; Hasinger, G; Bergeron, J; Capak, P; Szokoly, G; Finoguenov, A; Gilli, R; Rosati, P; Tozzi, P; Vignali, C; Alexander, D M; Brandt, W N; Lehmer, B D; Luo, B; Rafferty, D; Xue, Y Q; Balestra, I; Bauer, F E; Brusa, M; Comastri, A; Kartaltepe, J; Koekemoer, A M; Miyaji, T; Schneider, D P; Treister, E; Wisotski, L; Schramm, M

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of a program to acquire high-quality optical spectra of X-ray sources detected in the E-CDF-S and its central area. New spectroscopic redshifts are measured for 283 counterparts to Chandra sources with deep exposures (t~2-9 hr per pointing) using multi-slit facilities on both the VLT and Keck thus bringing the total number of spectroscopically-identified X-ray sources to over 500 in this survey field. We provide a comprehensive catalog of X-ray sources detected in the E-CDF-S including the optical and near-infrared counterparts, and redshifts (both spectroscopic and photometric) that incorporate published spectroscopic catalogs thus resulting in a final sample with a high fraction (80%) of X-ray sources having secure identifications. We demonstrate the remarkable coverage of the Lx-z plane now accessible from our data while emphasizing the detection of AGNs that contribute to the faint end of the luminosity function at 1.5

  13. Keck and VLT Observations of Super-damped Lyman-alpha Absorbers at z=2=2.5: Constraints on Chemical Compositions and Physical Conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Kulkarni, Varsha P; Morrison, Sean; Peroux, Celine; Quiret, Samuel; York, Donald G

    2015-01-01

    We report Keck/ESI and VLT/UVES observations of three super-damped Lyman-alpha quasar absorbers with H I column densities log N(HI) >= 21.7 at redshifts z=2-2.5. All three absorbers show similar metallicities (-1.3 to -1.5 dex), and dust depletion of Fe, Ni, and Mn. Two of the absorbers show supersolar [S/Zn] and [Si/Zn]. We combine our results with those for other DLAs to examine trends between N(HI), metallicity, dust depletion. A larger fraction of the super-DLAs lie close to or above the line [X/H]=20.59-log N(HI) in the metallicity vs. N(HI) plot, compared to the less gas-rich DLAs, suggesting that super-DLAs are more likely to be rich in molecules. Unfortunately, our data for Q0230-0334 and Q0743+1421 do not cover H2 absorption lines. For Q1418+0718, some H2 lines are covered, but not detected. CO is not detected in any of our absorbers. For DLAs with log N(HI) 21.7 may have somewhat narrower velocity dispersions delta v_90 than the less gas-rich DLAs, and may arise in cooler and/or less turbulent gas.

  14. Detection of hot, metal-enriched outflowing gas around $z\\approx\\,$2.3 star-forming galaxies in the Keck Baryonic Structure Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, Monica L; Steidel, Charles C; Rudie, Gwen C; Strom, Allison L

    2014-01-01

    We use quasar absorption lines to study the physical conditions in the circumgalactic medium of redshift $z\\approx 2.3$ star-forming galaxies taken from the Keck Baryonic Structure Survey (KBSS). In Turner et al. 2014 we used the pixel optical depth technique to show that absorption by HI and the metal ions OVI, NV, CIV, CIII and SiIV is strongly enhanced within $|\\Delta v|\\lesssim170$ km/s and projected distances $|d|\\lesssim180$ proper kpc from sightlines to the background quasars. Here we demonstrate that the OVI absorption is also strongly enhanced at fixed HI, CIV, and SiIV optical depths, and that this enhancement extends out to $\\sim350$ km/s. At fixed HI the increase in the median OVI optical depth near galaxies is 0.3-0.7 dex and is detected at 2--3-$\\sigma$ confidence for all seven HI bins that have $\\log_{10}\\tau_{\\rm HI}\\ge-1.5$. We use ionisation models to show that the observed strength of OVI as a function of HI is consistent with enriched, photoionised gas for pixels with $\\tau_{\\rm HI}\\gtrsim...

  15. Keck Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics Monitoring of 2MASS J1534-2952AB: First Dynamical Mass Determination of a Binary T Dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Michael C; Ireland, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    (Abridged) We present multi-epoch imaging of the T5.0+T5.5 binary 2MASS J1534-2952AB obtained with the Keck laser guide star adaptive optics system. Combined with an extensive (re-)analysis of archival HST imaging, we find a total mass of 0.056+/-0.003 Msun (59+/-3 Mjup). This is the first field binary for which both components are directly confirmed to be substellar. This is also the coolest and lowest mass binary with a dynamical mass determination to date. Using evolutionary models, we derive an age of 0.78+/-0.09 Gyr for the system, and we find Teff = 1028+/-17 K and 978+/-17 K and masses of 0.0287+/-0.0016 Msun (30.1+/-1.7 Mjup) and 0.0269+/-0.0016 Msun (28.2+/-1.7 Mjup) for the individual components. These precise measurements generally agree with previous studies of T dwarfs and affirm the current theoretical models. However, (1) the temperatures are about 100 K cooler than derived for similar objects and suggest that the ages of field brown dwarfs may be overestimated. Also, (2) the H-R diagram positi...

  16. Keck Observations of the Young Metal-Poor Host Galaxy of the Super-Chandrasekhar-Mass Type Ia Supernova SN 2007if

    CERN Document Server

    Childress, M; Aragon, C; Antilogus, P; Bailey, S; Baltay, C; Bongard, S; Buton, C; Canto, A; Chotard, N; Copin, Y; Fakhouri, H K; Gangler, E; Kerschhaggl, M; Kowalski, M; Hsiao, E Y; Loken, S; Nugent, P; Paech, K; Pain, R; Pecontal, E; Pereira, R; Perlmutter, S; Rabinowitz, D; Runge, K; Scalzo, R; Thomas, R C; Smadja, G; Tao, C; Weaver, B A; Wu, C

    2011-01-01

    We present Keck LRIS spectroscopy and $g$-band photometry of the metal-poor, low-luminosity host galaxy of the super-Chandrasekhar mass Type Ia supernova SN 2007if. Deep imaging of the host reveals its apparent magnitude to be $m_g=23.15\\pm0.06$, which at the spectroscopically-measured redshift of $z_{helio}=0.07450\\pm0.00015$ corresponds to an absolute magnitude of $M_g=-14.45\\pm0.06$. Galaxy $g-r$ color constrains the mass-to-light ratio, giving a host stellar mass estimate of $\\log(M_*/M_\\odot)=7.32\\pm0.17$. Balmer absorption in the stellar continuum, along with the strength of the 4000\\AA\\ break, constrain the age of the dominant starburst in the galaxy to be $t_\\mathrm{burst}=123^{+165}_{-77}$ Myr, corresponding to a main-sequence turn-off mass of $M/M_\\odot=4.6^{+2.6}_{-1.4}$. Using the R$_{23}$ method of calculating metallicity from the fluxes of strong emission lines, we determine the host oxygen abundance to be $12+\\log(O/H)_\\mathrm{KK04}=8.01\\pm0.09$, significantly lower than any previously reported...

  17. Keck-I MOSFIRE spectroscopy of compact star-forming galaxies at z$\\gtrsim$2: High velocity dispersions in progenitors of compact quiescent galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Barro, G; Koo, D C; Dekel, A; Kassin, S A; Kocevski, D D; Faber, S M; van der Wel, A; Guo, Y; Perez-Gonzalez, P G; Toloba, E; Fang, J J; Pacifici, C; Simons, R; Campbell, R D; Ceverino, D; Finkelstein, S L; Goodrich, B; Kassis, M; Koekemoer, A M; Konidaris, N P; Livermore, R C; Lyke, J E; Mobasher, B; Nayyeri, H; Peth, M; Primack, J R; Rizzi, L; Somerville, R S; Wirth, G D; Zolotov, A

    2014-01-01

    We present Keck-I MOSFIRE near-infrared spectroscopy for a sample of 13 compact star-forming galaxies (SFGs) at redshift $2\\leq z \\leq2.5$ with star formation rates of SFR$\\sim$100M$_{\\odot}$ y$^{-1}$ and masses of log(M/M$_{\\odot}$)$\\sim10.8$. Their high integrated gas velocity dispersions of $\\sigma_{\\rm{int}}$=230$^{+40}_{-30}$ km s$^{-1}$, as measured from emission lines of H$_{\\alpha}$ and [OIII], and the resultant M$_{\\star}-\\sigma_{\\rm{int}}$ relation and M$_{\\star}$$-$M$_{\\rm{dyn}}$ all match well to those of compact quiescent galaxies at $z\\sim2$, as measured from stellar absorption lines. Since log(M$_{\\star}$/M$_{\\rm{dyn}}$)$=-0.06\\pm0.2$ dex, these compact SFGs appear to be dynamically relaxed and more evolved, i.e., more depleted in gas and dark matter ($<$13$^{+17}_{-13}$\\%) than their non-compact SFG counterparts at the same epoch. Without infusion of external gas, depletion timescales are short, less than $\\sim$300 Myr. This discovery adds another link to our new dynamical chain of evidence...

  18. High S/N Keck and Gemini AO imaging of Uranus during 2012-2014: New cloud patterns, increasing activity, and improved wind measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Sromovsky, L A; Fry, P M; Hammel, H B; Marcus, P

    2015-01-01

    We imaged Uranus in the near infrared from 2012 into 2014, using the Keck/NIRC2 camera and Gemini/NIRI camera, both with adaptive optics. We obtained exceptional signal to noise ratios by averaging 8-16 individual exposures in a planet-fixed coordinate system. noise-reduced images revealed many low-contrast discrete features and large scale cloud patterns not seen before, including scalloped waveforms just south of the equator. In all three years numerous small (600-700 km wide) and mainly bright discrete features were seen within the north polar region (north of about 55\\deg N). Over 850 wind measurements were made, the vast majority of which were in the northern hemisphere. These revealed an extended region of solid body rotation between 62\\deg N and at least 83\\deg N, at a rate of 4.08$\\pm0.015$\\deg/h westward relative to the planet's interior (radio) rotation of 20.88\\deg/h westward. Near-equatorial speeds measured with high accuracy give different results for waves and small discrete features, with eastw...

  19. Keck/MOSFIRE Spectroscopy of z=7-8 Galaxies: Lyman-alpha Emission from a Galaxy at z=7.66

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Mimi; Livermore, Rachael C; Capak, Peter L; Dickinson, Mark; Fontana, Adriano

    2016-01-01

    We report the results from some of the deepest Keck/MOSFIRE data yet obtained for candidate $z \\gtrsim 7$ galaxies. Our data show one significant line detection with 6.5$\\sigma$ significance in our combined 10 hours of integration which is independently detected on more than one night, ruling out the possibility that the detection is spurious. The asymmetric line profile and non-detection in the optical bands strongly imply that the detected line is Ly$\\alpha$ emission from a galaxy at $z$(Ly$\\alpha)=7.6637 \\pm 0.0011$, making it the fourth spectroscopically confirmed galaxy at $z>7.5$. This galaxy is bright in the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV; $M_{\\rm UV} \\sim -21.2$) with a moderately blue UV slope ($\\beta=-2.2^{+0.3}_{-0.2}$), and exhibits a rest-frame Ly$\\alpha$ equivalent width of EW(Ly$\\alpha$) $\\sim 15.6^{+5.6}_{-3.6}$ \\AA. The non-detection of the 11 other $z \\sim$ 7--8 galaxies in our long 10 hr integration, reaching a median 5$\\sigma$ sensitivity of 28 \\AA\\ in the rest-frame EW(Ly$\\alpha$), implies a ...

  20. Configurable slit-mask unit of the Multi-Object Spectrometer for Infra-Red Exploration for the Keck telescope: integration and tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanoudakis, Peter; Giriens, Laurent; Henein, Simon; Lisowski, Leszek; O'Hare, Aidan; Onillon, Emmanuel; Schwab, Philippe; Theurillat, Patrick

    2008-07-01

    A Configurable Slit Unit (CSU) has been developed for the Multi-Object Spectrometer for Infra-Red Exploration (MOSFIRE) instrument to be installed on the Keck 1 Telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. MOSFIRE will provide NIR multi-object spectroscopy over a field of view of 6.1' x 6.1'. The reconfigurable mask allows the formation of 46 optical slits in a 267 x 267 mm2 field of view. The mechanism is an evolution of a former prototype designed by CSEM and qualified for the European Space Agency (ESA) as a candidate for the slit mask on NIRSpec for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The CSU is designed to simultaneously displace masking bars across the field-of-view (FOV) to mask unwanted light. A set of 46 bar pairs are used to form the MOSFIRE focal plane mask. The sides of the bars are convoluted so that light is prevented from passing between adjacent bars. The slit length is fixed (5.1 mm) but the width is variable down to 200 μm with a slit positioning accuracy of +/- 18 μm. A two-bar prototype mechanism was designed, manufactured and cryogenically tested to validate the modifications from the JWST prototype. The working principle of the mechanism is based on an improved "inch-worm" stepping motion of 92 masking bars forming the optical mask. Original voice coil actuators are used to drive the various clutches. The design makes significant use of flexure structures.

  1. Keck-I MOSFIRE spectroscopy of compact star-forming galaxies at z ≳ 2: high velocity dispersions in progenitors of compact quiescent galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barro, Guillermo; Koo, David C.; Faber, Sandra M.; Guo, Yicheng; Toloba, Elisa; Fang, Jerome J. [University of California, Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Trump, Jonathan R. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, State College, PA 16802 (United States); Dekel, Avishai [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Kassin, Susan A.; Koekemoer, Anton M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Kocevski, Dale D. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Van der Wel, Arjen [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Pérez-González, Pablo G. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. de Sneca, 2 Ciudad Universitaria, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Pacifici, Camilla [Yonsei University Observatory, Yonsei University 50, Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Simons, Raymond [Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218-2683 (United States); Campbell, Randy D.; Goodrich, Bob; Kassis, Marc [W. M. Keck Observatory, California Association for Research in Astronomy, 65-1120 Mamalahoa Highway, Kamuela, HI 96743 (United States); Ceverino, Daniel [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Finkelstein, Steven L. [The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); and others

    2014-11-10

    We present Keck-I MOSFIRE near-infrared spectroscopy for a sample of 13 compact star-forming galaxies (SFGs) at redshift 2 ≤ z ≤ 2.5 with star formation rates of SFR ∼ 100 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} and masses of log(M/M {sub ☉}) ∼10.8. Their high integrated gas velocity dispersions of σ{sub int} =230{sub −30}{sup +40} km s{sup –1}, as measured from emission lines of Hα and [O III], and the resultant M {sub *}-σ{sub int} relation and M {sub *}-M {sub dyn} all match well to those of compact quiescent galaxies at z ∼ 2, as measured from stellar absorption lines. Since log(M {sub *}/M {sub dyn}) =–0.06 ± 0.2 dex, these compact SFGs appear to be dynamically relaxed and evolved, i.e., depleted in gas and dark matter (<13{sub −13}{sup +17}%), and present larger σ{sub int} than their non-compact SFG counterparts at the same epoch. Without infusion of external gas, depletion timescales are short, less than ∼300 Myr. This discovery adds another link to our new dynamical chain of evidence that compact SFGs at z ≳ 2 are already losing gas to become the immediate progenitors of compact quiescent galaxies by z ∼ 2.

  2. The Effect of Student Learning Styles on the Learning Gains Achieved When Interactive Simulations Are Coupled with Real-Time Formative Assessment via Pen-Enabled Mobile Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalski, F V

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes results from a project in an undergraduate engineering physics course that coupled classroom use of interactive computer simulations with the collection of real-time formative assessment using pen-enabled mobile technology. Interactive simulations (free or textbook-based) are widely used across the undergraduate science and engineering curriculia to help actively engaged students increase their understanding of abstract concepts or phenomena which are not directly or easily observable. However, there are indications in the literature that we do not yet know the pedagogical best practices associated with their use to maximize learning. This project couples student use of interactive simulations with the gathering of real-time formative assessment via pen-enabled mobile technology (in this case, Tablet PCs). The research question addressed in this paper is: are learning gains achieved with this coupled model greater for certain types of learners in undergraduate STEM classrooms? To answer t...

  3. Can mobile technologies improve on-time vaccination? A study piloting maternal use of ImmunizeCA, a Pan-Canadian immunization app.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Katherine M; Westeinde, Jacqueline; Ducharme, Robin; Wilson, Sarah E; Deeks, Shelley L; Crowcroft, Natasha; Hawken, Steven; Wilson, Kumanan

    2016-10-02

    Mobile applications have the potential to influence vaccination behavior, including on-time vaccination. We sought to determine whether the use of a mobile immunization app was associated with the likelihood of reporting on-time vaccination in a cohort of 50 childbearing women. In this pilot study, we describe participant reported app use, knowledge, attitudes or beliefs regarding pediatric vaccination and technology readiness index (TRI) scores. To explore if app use is associated with change in attitudes, beliefs or behavior, participants were instructed complete a baseline survey at recruitment then download the app. A follow up survey followed 6-months later, reexamining concepts from the first survey as well as collecting participant TRI scores. Changes in Likert scores between pre and post survey questions were compared and multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between TRI score and select survey responses. Thirty-two percent of participants perceived that the app made them more likely to vaccinate on time. We found some individuals' attitudes toward vaccines improved, some became less supportive and in others there was no change. The mean participant TRI score was 3.25(IQR 0.78) out of a maximum score of 5, indicating a moderate level of technological adoption among the study cohort population. While the app was well received, these preliminary results showed participant attitudes toward vaccination moved dichotomously. Barriers to adoption remain in both usability and accessibility of mobile solutions, which are in part dependent on the user's innate characteristics such as technology readiness.

  4. Wearable Devices for Sports: New Integrated Technologies Allow Coaches, Physicians, and Trainers to Better Understand the Physical Demands of Athletes in Real time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshadri, Dhruv R; Drummond, Colin; Craker, John; Rowbottom, James R; Voos, James E

    2017-01-01

    Elite-level athletes and professional sports teams are continually searching for opportunities to improve athletic performance and gain a competitive advantage on the field. Advances in technology have provided new avenues to maximize player health and safety. Over the last decade, time?motion analysis systems, such as video recording and computer digitization, have been used to measure human locomotion and improve sports performance. While these techniques were state of the art at the time, their usefulness is inhibited by the questionable validity of the acquired data, the labor-intensive nature of collecting data with manual hand-notation techniques, and their inability to track athlete position, movement, displacement, and velocity.

  5. Wait watchers. Smart organizations are demonstrating that while they can't erase ED wait times, they can leverage technology to keep patients better informed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Kate Huvane

    2010-04-01

    Increases in ED visits are significantly affecting patient access, quality, cost and care management--a trend that is expected to continue. A number of organizations are dealing with the increased demand for services by implementing technologies to keep patients better informed of wait times. Publishing ED wait times online offers hospitals a way to communicate information to patients quickly without requiring a significant investment from the IT staff. Hospitals are also utilizing visibility boards to keep both patients and staff updated on patient conditions and room status.

  6. Exploiting Real-Time FPGA Based Adaptive Systems Technology for Real-Time Sensor Fusion in Next Generation Automotive Safety Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chappell, Steve; Preston, Dan; Olmstead, Dave; Flint, Bob; Sullivan, Chris

    2011-01-01

    We present a system for the boresighting of sensors using inertial measurement devices as the basis for developing a range of dynamic real-time sensor fusion applications. The proof of concept utilizes a COTS FPGA platform for sensor fusion and real-time correction of a misaligned video sensor. We exploit a custom-designed 32-bit soft processor core and C-based design & synthesis for rapid, platform-neutral development. Kalman filter and sensor fusion techniques established in advanced aviation systems are applied to automotive vehicles with results exceeding typical industry requirements for sensor alignment. Results of the static and the dynamic tests demonstrate that using inexpensive accelerometers mounted on (or during assembly of) a sensor and an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) fixed to a vehicle can be used to compute the misalignment of the sensor to the IMU and thus vehicle. In some cases the model predications and test results exceeded the requirements by an order of magnitude with a 3-sigma or ...

  7. The Use of Assistive Technology to Improve Time Management Skills of a Young Adult with an Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Julie M.; Hughes, Elizabeth M.; Ryan, Joseph B.

    2011-01-01

    A growing literature base suggests the need for positive interventions to help individuals with intellectual disabilities improve their time management skills. Time management is a crucial area that must be addressed in the effort to equip adults with the skills necessary to achieve independence, success in employment, and improved quality of…

  8. The Use of Assistive Technology to Improve Time Management Skills of a Young Adult with an Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Julie M.; Hughes, Elizabeth M.; Ryan, Joseph B.

    2011-01-01

    A growing literature base suggests the need for positive interventions to help individuals with intellectual disabilities improve their time management skills. Time management is a crucial area that must be addressed in the effort to equip adults with the skills necessary to achieve independence, success in employment, and improved quality of…

  9. Getting a technology-based diabetes intervention ready for prime time: a review of usability testing studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyles, Courtney R; Sarkar, Urmimala; Osborn, Chandra Y

    2014-10-01

    Consumer health technologies can educate patients about diabetes and support their self-management, yet usability evidence is rarely published even though it determines patient engagement, optimal benefit of any intervention, and an understanding of generalizability. Therefore, we conducted a narrative review of peer-reviewed articles published from 2009 to 2013 that tested the usability of a web- or mobile-delivered system/application designed to educate and support patients with diabetes. Overall, the 23 papers included in our review used mixed (n = 11), descriptive quantitative (n = 9), and qualitative methods (n = 3) to assess usability, such as documenting which features performed as intended and how patients rated their experiences. More sophisticated usability evaluations combined several complementary approaches to elucidate more aspects of functionality. Future work pertaining to the design and evaluation of technology-delivered diabetes education/support interventions should aim to standardize the usability testing processes and publish usability findings to inform interpretation of why an intervention succeeded or failed and for whom.

  10. Development of advanced pump impeller fabrication technology using direct nano- ceramic dispersion casting for long time erosion durability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, Chang Kyu; Lee, Min Ku; Park, Jin Ju [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2008-09-15

    Many components of pump impeller of nuclear power plants is generally made of stainless steel and Al-bronze with superior corrosion resistance to sea water. However, they should be replaced by one- to five-year period because of material damage by a very big cavitation impact load, even though their designed durability is twenty years. Especially, in case of Young-Gwang nuclear power plant located at the west sea, damage of components of pump impeller is so critical due to the additional damage by solid particle erosion and hence their replacement period is very short as several months compared to other nuclear power plants. In addition, it is very difficult to maintain and repair the components of pump impeller since there is no database on the exact durability and damage mechanism. Therefore, in this study, fabrication technology of new advanced materials modified by dispersion of nano-carbide and -oxide ceramics into the matrix is developed first. Secondly, technology to estimate the dynamic damage by solid particle erosion is established and hence applied to the prediction of the service life of the components of pump impeller.

  11. Just-in-time research: a call to arms for research into mobile technologies in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Byrne-Davis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mobile technologies are becoming commonplace in society and in education. In higher education, it is crucial to understand the impact of constant access to information on the development of the knowledge and competence of the learner. This study reports on a series of four surveys completed by UK-based medical students (n=443 who received tablet computers (iPads from their medical school during their 4th year of study. Students were surveyed prior to receiving the iPads and again regarding their usage and experiences at 2, 6 and 12 months post receipt of tablets. Findings indicate that students differed in their use of iPads but that the majority felt that tablets had impacted on their learning and the majority were using them frequently (at least once a day during learning. Almost half of the students reported that clinical supervisors had raised the possibility of tablets changing patient care. These results, although only descriptive, raise important questions about the impact of mobile technologies on learning.

  12. A Review of Wearable Technologies for Elderly Care that Can Accurately Track Indoor Position, Recognize Physical Activities and Monitor Vital Signs in Real Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhihua; Yang, Zhaochu; Dong, Tao

    2017-01-01

    Rapid growth of the aged population has caused an immense increase in the demand for healthcare services. Generally, the elderly are more prone to health problems compared to other age groups. With effective monitoring and alarm systems, the adverse effects of unpredictable events such as sudden illnesses, falls, and so on can be ameliorated to some extent. Recently, advances in wearable and sensor technologies have improved the prospects of these service systems for assisting elderly people. In this article, we review state-of-the-art wearable technologies that can be used for elderly care. These technologies are categorized into three types: indoor positioning, activity recognition and real time vital sign monitoring. Positioning is the process of accurate localization and is particularly important for elderly people so that they can be found in a timely manner. Activity recognition not only helps ensure that sudden events (e.g., falls) will raise alarms but also functions as a feasible way to guide people’s activities so that they avoid dangerous behaviors. Since most elderly people suffer from age-related problems, some vital signs that can be monitored comfortably and continuously via existing techniques are also summarized. Finally, we discussed a series of considerations and future trends with regard to the construction of “smart clothing” system. PMID:28208620

  13. A Review of Wearable Technologies for Elderly Care that Can Accurately Track Indoor Position, Recognize Physical Activities and Monitor Vital Signs in Real Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihua Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Rapid growth of the aged population has caused an immense increase in the demand for healthcare services. Generally, the elderly are more prone to health problems compared to other age groups. With effective monitoring and alarm systems, the adverse effects of unpredictable events such as sudden illnesses, falls, and so on can be ameliorated to some extent. Recently, advances in wearable and sensor technologies have improved the prospects of these service systems for assisting elderly people. In this article, we review state-of-the-art wearable technologies that can be used for elderly care. These technologies are categorized into three types: indoor positioning, activity recognition and real time vital sign monitoring. Positioning is the process of accurate localization and is particularly important for elderly people so that they can be found in a timely manner. Activity recognition not only helps ensure that sudden events (e.g., falls will raise alarms but also functions as a feasible way to guide people’s activities so that they avoid dangerous behaviors. Since most elderly people suffer from age-related problems, some vital signs that can be monitored comfortably and continuously via existing techniques are also summarized. Finally, we discussed a series of considerations and future trends with regard to the construction of “smart clothing” system.

  14. From Ship-To-Shore In Real Time: Data Transmission, Distribution, Management, Processing, And Archiving Using Telepresence Technologies And The Inner Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, D. F.

    2012-12-01

    Most research vessels are equipped with satellite Internet services with bandwidths capable of being upgraded to support telepresence technologies and live shore-based participation. This capability can be used for real-time data transmission to shore, where it can be distributed, managed, processed, and archived. The University of Rhode Island Inner Space Center utilizes telepresence technologies and a growing network of command centers on Internet2 to participate live with a variety of research vessels and their ocean observing and sampling systems. High-bandwidth video streaming, voice-over-IP telecommunications, and real-time data feeds and file transfers enable users on shore to take part in the oceanographic expeditions as if they were present on the ship, working in the lab. Telepresence-enabled systematic ocean exploration and similar programs represent a significant and growing paradigm shift that can change the future of seagoing ocean observations using research vessels. The required platform is the ship itself, and users of the technology rely on the ship-based technical teams, but remote and distributed shore-based science users, students, educators, and the general public can now take part by being aboard virtually.

  15. Why the time is right for a radical paradigm shift in early powered mobility: the role of powered mobility technology devices, policy and stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldner, Heather A; Logan, Samuel W; Galloway, James C

    2015-09-04

    This article explores the changing landscape of early pediatric powered mobility. We specifically focus on key indicators that suggest pediatric powered mobility technology (PMT) practice for very young children is poised for a radical paradigm shift. This shift will challenge the current purview of PMT design and function, how it is obtained, and its introduction to children and their families. We propose that this positive, yet radical shift is essential in achieving a standard of practice in which PMT provides for early exploration and participation for children with disabilities at an age concomitant with their non-disabled peers, and within socially inclusive environments. To sustain this new standard, we must acknowledge the significant disconnect that currently exists between clinical research supporting the use of PMT with very young children, and barriers to widespread device access, effective user-driven design and positive social perception of PMT. In this article, we discuss three areas that are particularly important for both shift and sustained change: the history and current availability of novel and conventional PMT devices, pediatric PMT policies and the role of children and families as primary stakeholders in PMT practices. Within each area, we suggest barriers, facilitators and future directions. Implications for Rehabilitation The time is right for reframing how powered mobility technology for very young children is conceived, designed, and implemented. In order for multiple innovative devices to survive in the powered mobility industry, it is important to continue to show the benefits of early powered mobility use for both traditional and non-traditional users, and also enact and enforce policy that promotes sustainable access and financial support for powered mobility technology. The experiences of children and families and the realities of everyday use of powered mobility technology must be brought to the forefront of a movement toward user

  16. Ecospirituality in the Age of Technological Overkill: Body-Time Reclamation in the Fiction of Alan Lightman and Don DeLillo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Butler

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In exploring the link between ecospirituality and the hard sciences, I argue that theformer provides a much-needed complement to the latter. The fragmentation ofdisciplinary pursuits fostered by the Enlightenment and by the continued progress ofunquestioned technological advance as an end in itself finds its ultimate expression inour current disconnection from the natural world, from each other, and even fromourselves. As a corrective to such disconnection, ecospiritual impulses emerge in anattempt to unify a discombobulated subject, a self so fragmented by the multiplenarratival requirements of a communication-obsessed age (where we can be reached bycell phone, regular phone, multiple email addresses, Facebook, and other social mediathat the "contemplative" facet of being human within the rhythms of the natural worldis all but obscured-indeed, is hardly given the requisite environment in which tofunction. Against this over-reliance on technology, on where the hard sciences have ledus, ecospirituality emerges as a balm for the terrorized human spirit. Don DeLillo'srecent novel Point Omega documents this poignantly. His narrator speaks of the "usualterror" of cities with their "endless counting down," with people constantly checkingtheir watches and other time-keeping devices. DeLillo's protagonist moves to the desertwhere "geological time" becomes the paradigm through which a restorative calm isgenerated. Alan Lightman's fiction proves even more relentless in its depiction of thedissociation engendered by an over-reliance on technology. Lightman's protagonist inThe Diagnosis is an information trader who suffers a breakdown and is only restored towell-being through a re-acquaintance with his own natural body rhythms along withthose of the natural world. Many of the characters in the short-story collectionEinstein's Dreams also find that a connection to nature counteracts the senselesscompetition of a consumer-driven, technologically

  17. Keck/MOSFIRE Spectroscopy of z = 7-8 Galaxies: Lyα Emission from a Galaxy at z = 7.66

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mimi; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Livermore, Rachael C.; Capak, Peter L.; Dickinson, Mark; Fontana, Adriano

    2016-08-01

    We report the results from some of the deepest Keck/Multi-Object Spectrometer For Infra-Red Exploration data yet obtained for candidate z ≳ 7 galaxies. Our data show one significant line detection with 6.5σ significance in our combined 10 hr of integration which is independently detected on more than one night, thus ruling out the possibility that the detection is spurious. The asymmetric line profile and non-detection in the optical bands strongly imply that the detected line is Lyα emission from a galaxy at z(Lyα) = 7.6637 ± 0.0011, making it the fourth spectroscopically confirmed galaxy via Lyα at z > 7.5. This galaxy is bright in the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV; M UV ˜ -21.2) with a moderately blue UV slope (β =-{2.2}-0.2+0.3), and exhibits a rest-frame Lyα equivalent width of EW(Lyα) ˜ {15.6}-3.6+5.9 Å. The non-detection of the 11 other z ˜ 7-8 galaxies in our long 10 hr integration, reaching a median 5σ sensitivity of 28 Å in the rest-frame EW(Lyα), implies a 1.3σ deviation from the null hypothesis of a non-evolving distribution in the rest-frame EW(Lyα) between 3 6.5, which may signal the evolving neutral fraction in the intergalactic medium at the end of the reionization epoch, although our weak evidence suggests the need for a larger statistical sample to allow for a more robust conclusion.

  18. Art-Science-Technology collaboration through immersive, interactive 3D visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, L. H.

    2014-12-01

    At the W. M. Keck Center for Active Visualization in Earth Sciences (KeckCAVES), a group of geoscientists and computer scientists collaborate to develop and use of interactive, immersive, 3D visualization technology to view, manipulate, and interpret data for scientific research. The visual impact of immersion in a CAVE environment can be extremely compelling, and from the outset KeckCAVES scientists have collaborated with artists to bring this technology to creative works, including theater and dance performance, installations, and gamification. The first full-fledged collaboration designed and produced a performance called "Collapse: Suddenly falling down", choreographed by Della Davidson, which investigated the human and cultural response to natural and man-made disasters. Scientific data (lidar scans of disaster sites, such as landslides and mine collapses) were fully integrated into the performance by the Sideshow Physical Theatre. This presentation will discuss both the technological and creative characteristics of, and lessons learned from the collaboration. Many parallels between the artistic and scientific process emerged. We observed that both artists and scientists set out to investigate a topic, solve a problem, or answer a question. Refining that question or problem is an essential part of both the creative and scientific workflow. Both artists and scientists seek understanding (in this case understanding of natural disasters). Differences also emerged; the group noted that the scientists sought clarity (including but not limited to quantitative measurements) as a means to understanding, while the artists embraced ambiguity, also as a means to understanding. Subsequent art-science-technology collaborations have responded to evolving technology for visualization and include gamification as a means to explore data, and use of augmented reality for informal learning in museum settings.

  19. Real-time target detection technology of large view-field infrared image based on multicore DSP parallel processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Gang; Liu, Songlin; Wang, Weihua; Chen, Zengping

    2013-10-01

    In order to implement real-time detection of hedgehopping target in large view-field infrared (LVIR) image, the paper proposes a fast algorithm flow to extract the target region of interest (ROI). The ground building region was rejected quickly and target ROI was segmented roughly through the background classification. Then the background image containing target ROI was matched with previous frame based on a mean removal normalized product correlation (MRNPC) similarity measure function. Finally, the target motion area was extracted by inter-frame difference in time domain. According to the proposed algorithm flow, this paper designs the high-speed real-time signal processing hardware platform based on FPGA + DSP, and also presents a new parallel processing strategy that called function-level and task-level, which could parallel process LVIR image by multi-core and multi-task. Experimental results show that the algorithm can extract low altitude aero target with complex background in large view effectively, and the new design hardware platform could implement real time processing of the IR image with 50000x288 pixels per second in large view-field infrared search system (LVIRSS).

  20. Engaging Middle School Students with Technology: Using Real-Time Data to Test Predictions in Aquatic Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Lisa G.

    2011-01-01

    Take advantage of teen internet savvy and redirect students' online travels toward exploration of our environment through streaming real-time data (RTD). Studies have shown that using RTD adds relevancy to students' learning experiences and engages them in scientific investigations. (Contains 14 online resources and 5 figures.)

  1. Time for final disposal of nuclear waste - society, technology and nature; Tid foer slutfoervaring. Samhaelle, teknik och natur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsling, Willis; Andersson-Skog, Lena; Haenninen, Hannu; Knutsson, Gert; Ma ttsson, Soeren; Stigh, Jimmy; Soederberg, Olof; Bolin, Bert; Nordlund, Erling

    2007-05-15

    This report consists of a number of independent contribution that treat different aspects of the nuclear waste complex, with the time perspective as a common starting point. The review does not pretend to cover the entire area, but the selected issues addressed are those of large general interest. First a general overview is given of how the nuclear waste issue has been treated in Sweden since the plans to use nuclear power begun be planned in the middle of the 1940s. The complex of problem around the nuclear waste issue is linked to our natural aversion against the development of nuclear weapons during they last 60-70 years, but also to the controversies around the peaceful use of the nuclear power that has happened during the latest 30-40 years. In chapters 3 the time perspective is considerably shorter, approximately 20 years. Here, construction and operation of an underground repository for nuclear waste is discussed. Such an undertaking has many resemblances with establishing an underground mine and there is much experience to learn from. In chapters 4 questions about the technical barriers are treated, the copper container, bentonite buffer and the backfilling. The copper container and bentonite buffer both have key roles to prevent ground water to come in contact with the spent fuel and that radioactivity is transported out into the environment. They must both fulfil their functions during the period when the fuel is dangerous, i.e. over 100,000 years. Different processes affects the repository, some during short periods, some during several 10,000 years. Specific intervals (from 10 years and up to 100,000 years) are indicated for the different processes, almost all with the starting point at the deposition of the waste. The possibility to gain experiences from natural analogies is treated in chapters 5. They can be seen as a prolonged experiment in natural systems where one reactor zone has been active for more than 100,000 years. The time perspective

  2. Clouda实时编程应用开发技术%Real-Time Programming Application Development Technology Clouda

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴慧; 卞艺杰; 马瑞敏

    2014-01-01

    When developing native applications on mobile terminal, developers are faced the data fragmentation, terminal fragmentation and user surge problems. A new open source technology framework--Clouda is emerged. This paper briefly describes Node.js, highlights Clouda, and analyzes its five major technical advantages. This work compares Clouda with similar frameworks, and sets up a development environment, develops RSS reader by Clouda. At last, the future direction of Clouda is analyzed.%针对开发者在移动端开发原生应用时,面临数据碎片化、终端分裂化、用户量剧增三方面的问题,一种新的开源技术框架Clouda应运而生.简单介绍了Node.js,重点介绍了Clouda,分析了它的5大技术优势,与同类框架进行对比;搭建Clouda框架环境,在该环境下面实现了RSS阅读器,最后探索Clouda存在的不足,以及其未来发展前景.

  3. Improving the safety of health information technology requires shared responsibility: It is time we all step up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittig, Dean F; Belmont, Elisabeth; Singh, Hardeep

    2017-07-14

    In 2011, an Institute of Medicine report on health information technology (IT) and patient safety highlighted that building health-IT for safer use is a shared responsibility between key stakeholders including: "vendors, care providers, healthcare organizations, health-IT departments, and public and private agencies". Use of electronic health records (EHRs) involves all these stakeholders, but they often have conflicting priorities and requirements. Since 2011, the concept of shared responsibility has gained little traction and EHR developers and users continue to attribute the substantial, long list of problems to each other. In this article, we discuss how these key stakeholders have complementary roles in improving EHR safety and must share responsibility to improve the current state of EHR use. We use real-world safety examples and outline a comprehensive shared responsibility approach to help guide development of future rules, regulations, and standards for EHR usability, interoperability and security as outlined in the 21st Century Cures Act. This approach clearly defines the responsibilities of each party and helps create appropriate measures for success. National and international policymakers must facilitate the local organizational and socio-political climate to stimulate the adoption of shared responsibility principles. When all major stakeholders are sharing responsibility, we will be more likely to usher in a new age of progress and innovation related to health IT. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Real time Intelligent Control Laboratory (RT-ICL) of PowerLabDK for smart grid technology development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Jacob; Wu, Qiuwei; Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the Intelligent Control Laboratory (ICL) of the PowerLabDK and describes examples of ongoing research work utilizing the ICL. The ICL is comprised of a real time digital simulator (RTDS) with 5 racks, a full scale SCADA system and experimental control room with a link to the B......This paper presents the Intelligent Control Laboratory (ICL) of the PowerLabDK and describes examples of ongoing research work utilizing the ICL. The ICL is comprised of a real time digital simulator (RTDS) with 5 racks, a full scale SCADA system and experimental control room with a link...... to the Bornholm power system data, an IBM blade server for optimization and control implementation, and a Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) Lab. It is possible to interface PMUs and other hardware with the RTDS for hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) and power-hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) tests. The ICL can interface...

  5. Estimating the Effects of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Tagging Technologies on the Army’s War-Time Logistics Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-01

    with customers, and over 6 million people have used SpeedPass since its introduction (Booth-Thomas, 2003). Fast - food retailers, to include the Carl’s...operating costs (Brandel, 2003). Mark and Spencer, a gourmet take-out food retailer in England, uses RFID tags to track approximately 3.5 million... food trays and dollies (many are reusable), which are supplied to over 200 stores by 300 providers. Employee hands-on time has been reduced by 80

  6. Low-loss High-dispersion Technology; Enabling Component for Ultrafast Real-time Imaging using Amplified Dispersive Fourier Transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    modify its dispersive properties . To measure the dispersion of the CMD, we utilize the modulation phase shift method [19]. Using a radio-frequency...compensation using optical components such as integrated gratings and planar multimode waveguides. The CMD’s physical compactness, combined with the...measurements were performed by connecting an unamplified InGaAs photodiode with a 25-ps impulse response time to the output of the CMD. Electrical signals

  7. Continuous monitoring of absolute cerebral blood flow by combining diffuse correlation spectroscopy and time-resolved near-infrared technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diop, Mamadou; Lee, Ting-Yim; St. Lawrence, Keith

    2011-02-01

    Continuous bedside monitoring of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in patients recovering from brain injury could improve the detection of impaired substrate delivery, which can exacerbate injury and worsen outcome. Diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) provides the ability to monitor perfusion changes continuously, but it is difficult to quantify absolute blood flow - leading to uncertainties as to whether or not CBF has fallen to ischemic levels. To continuously measure CBF, we propose to calibrate DCS data using a single time-point, time-resolved near-infrared (TR-NIR) technique for measuring absolute CBF. Experiments were conducted on newborn piglets in which CBF was increased by raising the arterial tension of CO2 (40-62 mmHg) and decreased by carotid occlusion. For validation, values of CBF measured by TR-NIR were converted into blood flow changes and compared to CBF changes measured by DCS. A strong correlation between perfusion changes from the two techniques was revealed (slope = 0.98 and R2 = 0.96), suggesting that a single time-point CBF measurement by TR-NIR can be used to convert continuous DCS data into units of CBF (ml/100g/min).

  8. Methods of using real-time social media technologies for detection and remote monitoring of HIV outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Sean D.; Rivers, Caitlin; Lewis, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    Objective Recent availability of “big data” might be used to study whether and how sexual risk behaviors are communicated on real-time social networking sites and how data might inform HIV prevention and detection. This study seeks to establish methods of using real-time social networking data for HIV prevention by assessing 1) whether geolocated conversations about HIV risk behaviors can be extracted from social networking data, 2) the prevalence and content of these conversations, and 3) the feasibility of using HIV risk-related real-time social media conversations as a method to detect HIV outcomes. Methods In 2012, tweets (N = 553,186,061) were collected online and filtered to include those with HIV risk-related keywords (e.g., sexual behaviors and drug use). Data were merged with AIDSVU data on HIV cases. Negative binomial regressions assessed the relationship between HIV risk tweeting and prevalence by county, controlling for socioeconomic status measures. Results Over 9,800 geolocated tweets were extracted and used to create a map displaying the geographical location of HIV-related tweets. There was a significant positive relationship (p < .01) between HIV-related tweets and HIV cases. Conclusion Results suggest the feasibility of using social networking data as a method for evaluating and detecting HIV risk behaviors and outcomes. PMID:24513169

  9. New signal processing methods and information technologies for the real time control of JET reactor relevant plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murari, A., E-mail: andrea.murari@igi.cnr.it [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA per la Fusione, Consorzio RFX, 4-35127 Padova (Italy); Vega, J. [Asociacion EURATOM-CIEMAT para Fusion, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Mazon, D. [Association EURATOM-CEA, CEA Cadarache, 13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Ratta, G.A. [Asociacion EURATOM-CIEMAT para Fusion, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Gelfusa, M. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA - University of Rome ' Tor Vergata' , Roma (Italy); Debrie, A. [Arts et Metiers ParisTech Engineering College (ENSAM), 75013 Paris (France); Boulbe, C.; Faugeras, B. [Laboratoire J-A Dieudonne (UMR 66 21), Universite de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, CNRS Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice Cedex 02 (France)

    2011-10-15

    A general trend in the experimental programmes of present day Tokamaks, and of JET in particular, is the constant increase in the number of parameters to be controlled in real time, to satisfy the machine protection requirements on the one hand and to improve performance on the other. Since the amount of data collected is also increasing at least at a rate compatible with the Moore law, significant developments are required in the field of real time algorithms particularly for magnetic reconstructions, disruption prediction and image processing. A new real time equilibrium code called EQUINOX, using internal and external measurements of the magnetic fields, has been qualified on JET. It can provide reconstructed accurate equilibria about every 50 ms on a 2 GHz PC. An advanced disruption predictor, based on machine learning tools, has been deployed using inputs selected with a genetic algorithm. Its success rate remains of the order of 94% for up to 170 ms before the occurrence of the disruption. Nonextensive entropies, which are more sensitive to long range correlations, seem to be useful in detecting vibrations in the videos of JET cameras, both visible and infrared.

  10. A 2x2 W-Band Reference Time-Shifted Phase-Locked Transmitter Array in 65nm CMOS Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Adrian; Virbila, Gabriel; Hsiao, Frank; Wu, Hao; Murphy, David; Mehdi, Imran; Siegel, P. H.; Chang, M-C. Frank

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a complete 2x2 phased array transmitter system operating at W-band (90-95 GHz) which employs a PLL reference time-shifting approach instead of using traditional mm-wave phase shifters. PLL reference shifting enables a phased array to be distributed over multiple chips without the need for coherent mm-wave signal distribution between chips. The proposed phased array transmitter system consumes 248 mW per array element when implemented in a 65 nm CMOS technology.

  11. The Integration of Group Technology and Simulation Optimization to Solve the Flow Shop with Highly Variable Cycle Time Process: A Surgery Scheduling Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgery scheduling must balance capacity utilization and demand so that the arrival rate does not exceed the effective production rate. However, authorized overtime increases because of random patient arrivals and cycle times. This paper proposes an algorithm that allows the estimation of the mean effective process time and the coefficient of variation. The algorithm quantifies patient flow variability. When the parameters are identified, takt time approach gives a solution that minimizes the variability in production rates and workload, as mentioned in the literature. However, this approach has limitations for the problem of a flow shop with an unbalanced, highly variable cycle time process. The main contribution of the paper is to develop a method called takt time, which is based on group technology. A simulation model is combined with the case study, and the capacity buffers are optimized against the remaining variability for each group. The proposed methodology results in a decrease in the waiting time for each operating room from 46 minutes to 5 minutes and a decrease in overtime from 139 minutes to 75 minutes, which represents an improvement of 89% and 46%, respectively.

  12. Qos Real-Time Control Technology on Internet of Things%基于物联网的QoS实时控制技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑志凌; 杜飞明; 杨幸

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing development of Internet of Things(IOT) technology and related business needs, the terminations of IOT not only required anytime and anywhere to access the network, but also need to safeguard the necessary normal operation of relevant QoS on daily business, this article analyzes the case studies of the QoS application of IOT in control technology and packet scheduling algorithm, and propose based on QoS service model of IOT and real-time control technology.%随着物联网技术的发展和相关业务需求的增加,物联网终端不仅要求能随时、随地接入网络,而且需要保障相关业务正常运行所必须的QoS,该文在分析了物联网的应用情况,研究了QoS的控制技术和分组调度算法,提出了基于物联网的QoS服务模型以及实时控制技术。

  13. Time value of emission and technology discounting rate for off-grid electricity generation in India using intermediate pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Amit, E-mail: amitrp@iitrpr.ac.in [Indian Institute of Technology Ropar, Nangal Road, Rupnagar 140001, Punjab (India); Faculty of Technology and Engineering, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara 390001, Gujarat (India); Sarkar, Prabir; Tyagi, Himanshu; Singh, Harpreet [Indian Institute of Technology Ropar, Nangal Road, Rupnagar 140001, Punjab (India)

    2016-07-15

    The environmental impact assessment of a process over its entire operational lifespan is an important issue. Estimation of life cycle emission helps in predicting the contribution of a given process to abate (or to pollute) the environmental emission scenario. Considering diminishing and time-dependent effect of emission, assessment of the overall effect of emissions is very complex. The paper presents a generalized methodology for arriving at a single emission discounting number for a process option, using the concept of time value of carbon emission flow. This number incorporates the effect of the emission resulting from the process over the entire operational lifespan. The advantage of this method is its quantitative aspect as well as its flexible nature. It can be applied to any process. The method is demonstrated with the help of an Intermediate Pyrolysis process when used to generate off-grid electricity and opting biochar route for disposing straw residue. The scenarios of very high net emission to very high net carbon sequestration is generated using process by careful selection of process parameters for different scenarios. For these different scenarios, the process discounting rate was determined and its outcome is discussed. The paper also proposes a process specific eco-label that mentions the discounting rates. - Highlight: • Methodology to obtain emission discounting rate for a process is proposed. • The method includes all components of life cycle emission converts into a time dependent discounting number. • A case study of Intermediate Pyrolysis is used to obtain such number for a range of processes. • The method is useful to determine if the effect from the operation of a process will lead to a net absorption of emission or net accumulation of emission in the environment.

  14. Complex Deformation Monitoring over the Linfen–Yuncheng Basin (China with Time Series InSAR Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-sheng Yang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Linfen–Yuncheng basin is an area prone to geological disasters, such as surface subsidence, ground fissuring, fault activity, and earthquakes. For the purpose of disaster prevention and mitigation, Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR was used to map ground deformation in this area. After the ground deformation characteristics over the Linfen–Yuncheng basin were obtained, the cross-correlations among regional ground subsidence, fault activity, and underground water level were analyzed in detail. Additionally, an area of abnormal deformation was found and examined. Through time series deformation monitoring and mechanism inversion, we found that the abnormal deformation was related mainly to excessive groundwater exploitation.

  15. Dose- and time-dependent benefits of iPad technology in an undergraduate human anatomy course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raney, Marcella A

    2016-07-08

    This study examined the impact of iPad integration on performance in an undergraduate gross anatomy course. Two out of six course sections were assigned to one of the following conditions: control (no iPad, n = 61); limited access (laboratory iPads, n = 58); and unlimited access (personal iPads, n = 47). Student knowledge was assessed over time during the semester with two practical examinations in laboratory and four multiple choice/essay examinations in lecture. The same PowerPoint presentations and examinations were utilized for all conditions. Mixed ANOVA analysis identified an interaction effect between time and condition for both laboratory (F2,153  = 16.12; P higher by 3.0% in control and unlimited access conditions, respectively. Unlimited access students scored higher than control and limited access (82.8 ± 2.2 vs 71.5 ± 2.6 and 74.3 ± 1.7%; P higher than control students (78.7 ± 2.1 vs 70.6 ± 2.0%; P tablet devices and relevant applications can be useful tools in human anatomy courses. Anat Sci Educ 9: 367-377. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  16. Real-Time 3-Dimensional Ultrasound-Assisted Infraclavicular Brachial Plexus Catheter Placement: Implications of a New Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven R. Clendenen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There are a variety of techniques for targeting placement of an infraclavicular blockade; these include eliciting paresthesias, nerve stimulation, and 2-dimensional (2D ultrasound (US guidance. Current 2D US allows direct visualization of a “flat” image of the advancing needle and neurovascular structures but without the ability to extensively analyze multidimensional data and allow for real-time manipulation. Three-dimensional (3D ultrasonography has gained popularity and usefulness in many clinical specialties such as obstetrics and cardiology. We describe some of the potential clinical applications of 3D US in regional anesthesia. Methods. This case represents an infraclavicular catheter placement facilitated by 3D US, which demonstrates 360-degree spatial relationships of the entire anatomic region. Results. The block needle, peripheral nerve catheter, and local anesthetic diffusion were observed in multiple planes of view without manipulation of the US probe. Conclusion. Advantages of 3D US may include the ability to confirm correct needle and catheter placement prior to the injection of local anesthetic. The spread of local anesthetic along the length of the nerve can be easily observed while manipulating the 3D images in real-time by simply rotating the trackball on the US machine to provide additional information that cannot be identified with 2D US alone.

  17. NTRIP: Networked Transport of RTCM via Internet Protocol - Internet Radio Technology for Real-Time GNSS Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhard, H.; Weber, G.

    2003-12-01

    The massive worldwide growing of Internet capacity enables the introduction of new services such as Internet Radio or Internet Video-on-Demand, which transfer continuous data-streams by IP-packages. These services include the data transport via mobile IP-Networks like GSM, GPRS, EDGE, and UMTS where costs are nowadays rapidly decreasing. As a consequence, the global Internet can be used for the real-time collection and exchange of GNSS data, as well as for broadcasting derived differential products. Compared to Multimedia applications, the bandwidth required for streaming GNSS data is relatively small. The introduction of a real time streaming of GNSS data via Internet as a professional service is demanding with respect to network transparency, network security, program stability, access control, remote administration, scalability and client simplicity. This paper will discuss several possible technical/protocol solutions for streaming GNSS date over the Internet: Unicast vs. IP-Multicast, TCP vs. UDP, Client/Server vs. Client/Server/Splitter architecture. Based on this discussion, a novel HTTP-based technique for streaming GNSS data to mobile clients over the Internet is introduced. It allows simultaneous access of a large number of PDAs, Laptops, or GNSS receivers to a broadcasting host via Mobile IP-Networks. The technique establishes a format called "Networked Transport of RTCM via Internet Protocol" (NTRIP). NTRIP is designed for disseminating differential correction data (e.g. in the RTCM-104 format) or other kinds of GNSS streaming data.

  18. Real-Time Prediction of Gamers Behavior Using Variable Order Markov and Big Data Technology: A Case of Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Baldominos Gómez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results and conclusions found when predicting the behavior of gamers in commercial videogames datasets. In particular, it uses Variable-Order Markov (VOM to build a probabilistic model that is able to use the historic behavior of gamers and to infer what will be their next actions. Being able to predict with accuracy the next user’s actions can be of special interest to learn from the behavior of gamers, to make them more engaged and to reduce churn rate. In order to support a big volume and velocity of data, the system is built on top of the Hadoop ecosystem, using HBase for real-time processing; and the prediction tool is provided as a service (SaaS and accessible through a RESTful API. The prediction system is evaluated using a case of study with two commercial videogames, attaining promising results with high prediction accuracies.

  19. Real-Time Measurements and Modelling on Dynamic Behaviour of SonoVue Bubbles Based on Light Scattering Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TU Juan; GUAN J.F.; MATULA T.J.; Crum L.A.; WEI Rong-jue

    2008-01-01

    The dynamic behaviour of SonoVue microbubbles a new generation ultrasound contrast agent is investigated in real time with light scattering method.Highly diluted SonoVue microbubbles are injected into a diluted gel made of xanthan gum and water.The responses of individual SonoVue bubbles to driven ultrasound pulses are measured.Both linear and nonlinear bubble oscillations are observed and the results suggest that SonoVue microbubbles can generate strong nonlinear responses.By fitting the experimental data of individual bubble responses with Sarkar's model,the shell coating parameter of the bubbles and dilatational viscosity is estimated to be 7.0 nm·s·Pa.

  20. 实时定量PCR技术的介绍%Introduction of real-time quantitative PCR technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立国; 张琚

    2003-01-01

    @@ 实时定量PCR(real-time PCR)技术是近几年发展起来的新技术,既保持了PCR技术灵敏、快速的特点,又克服了以往PCR技术中存在的假阳性污染和不能进行准确定量的缺点.另外,还有重复性好、省力、低费用等优点.实时定量PCR技术是从传统PCR技术发展而来,其基本原理是相同的,主要不同之处是其定量的体系.下面简单介绍一下该技术定量的原理.

  1. ASGE Technology Committee systematic review and meta-analysis assessing the ASGE PIVI thresholds for adopting real-time endoscopic assessment of the histology of diminutive colorectal polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Dayyeh, Barham K; Thosani, Nirav; Konda, Vani; Wallace, Michael B; Rex, Douglas K; Chauhan, Shailendra S; Hwang, Joo Ha; Komanduri, Sri; Manfredi, Michael; Maple, John T; Murad, Faris M; Siddiqui, Uzma D; Banerjee, Subhas

    2015-03-01

    In vivo real-time assessment of the histology of diminutive (≤5 mm) colorectal polyps detected at colonoscopy can be achieved by means of an "optical biopsy" by using currently available endoscopic technologies. This systematic review and meta-analysis was performed by the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE) Technology Committee to specifically assess whether acceptable performance thresholds outlined by an ASGE Preservation and Incorporation of Valuable endoscopic Innovations (PIVI) document for clinical adoption of these technologies have been met. We conducted direct meta-analyses calculating the pooled negative predictive value (NPV) for narrow-band imaging (NBI), i-SCAN, and Fujinon Intelligent Color Enhancement (FICE)-assisted optical biopsy for predicting adenomatous polyp histology of small/diminutive colorectal polyps. We also calculated the pooled percentage agreement with histopathology when assigning postpolypectomy surveillance intervals based on combining real-time optical biopsy of colorectal polyps 5 mm or smaller with histopathologic assessment of polyps larger than 5 mm. Random-effects meta-analysis models were used. Statistical heterogeneity was evaluated by means of I(2) statistics. Our meta-analyses indicate that optical biopsy with NBI, exceeds the NPV threshold for adenomatous polyp histology, supporting a "diagnose-and-leave" strategy for diminutive predicted nonneoplastic polyps in the rectosigmoid colon. The pooled NPV of NBI for adenomatous polyp histology by using the random-effects model was 91% (95% confidence interval [CI], 88-94). This finding was associated with a high degree of heterogeneity (I(2) = 89%). Subgroup analysis indicated that the pooled NPV was greater than 90% for academic medical centers (91.8%; 95% CI, 89-94), for experts (93%; 95% CI, 91-96), and when the optical biopsy assessment was made with high confidence (93%; 95% CI, 90-96). Our meta-analyses also indicate that the agreement in

  2. Star formation history and chemical enrichment in the early Universe: clues from the rest-optical and rest-UV spectra of z~2-3 star-forming galaxies in the Keck Baryonic Structure Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Allison L.

    2017-01-01

    Galaxies at the peak of cosmic star formation (z~2-3) exhibit significantly higher star formation rates and gas fractions at fixed stellar mass than nearby galaxies. These z~2-3 galaxies are also distinct in terms of their nebular spectra, reflecting important differences not only in the physical conditions of their interstellar medium (e.g., electron density and gas-phase metallicity), but also in the details of their massive stellar populations, especially their ionizing radiation fields. Jointly observing galaxies' HII regions, at rest-UV and rest-optical wavelengths, and massive stars, at rest-UV wavelengths, is central to constructing a framework for understanding the differences between z~2-3 and z~0 star-forming galaxies and for self-consistently explaining the trends observed in the high-redshift population. My thesis is based on data from the Keck Baryonic Structure Survey (KBSS), which uniquely combines observations of individual galaxies in these two bandpasses. In total, the near-infrared component of the KBSS includes spectra of >700 z~2-3 galaxies obtained with Keck/MOSFIRE. I will present these results along with a detailed analysis of the full rest-optical (3600-7000 Ang) nebular spectra of ~400 galaxies, showing that high-redshift galaxies exhibit uniformly high degrees of ionization and excitation with respect to most z~0 galaxies. Combined with observations of the same galaxies' rest-UV spectra (obtained with Keck/LRIS) and photoionization model predictions, these results suggest that the disparity arises from differences in the shape of the ionizing radiation field at fixed gas-phase oxygen abundance, most likely due to the effects of Fe-poor massive binary stars. My comprehensive spectroscopic study of an unprecedentedly large sample of z~2-3 galaxies offers compelling evidence that the distinct chemical abundance patterns observed in these galaxies are the result of systematic differences in their star formation histories.

  3. TOT01, a time-over-threshold based readout chip in 180nm CMOS technology for silicon strip detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasinski, K.; Szczygiel, R.; Gryboś, P.

    2011-01-01

    This work is focused on the development of the TOT01 prototype front-end ASIC for the readout of long silicon strip detectors in the STS (Silicon Tracking System) of the CBM experiment at FAIR - GSI. The deposited charge measurement is based on the Time-over-Threshold method which allows integration of a low-power ADC into each channel. The TOT01 chip comprises 30 identical channels and 1 test channel which is supplied with additional test pads. The major blocks of each channel are the CSA (charge sensitive amplifier) with two switchable constant-current discharge circuits and additional test features. The architecture of the CSA core is based on the folded cascode. The input p-channel MOSFET device, biased at a drain current 500 μA, was optimized for 30 pF detector capacitance while keeping in mind the area constraints — W/L = 1800 μm / 0.180 μm. The main advantage of this solution is high gain (GBW = 1.2 GHz) and low power consumption at the same time. The amplifier is followed by the discriminator circuit. The discriminator allows for a global (multi-channel) differential threshold setting and independent compensation for the CSA output DC-level deviations in each channel by means of a 6-bit digital to analog converter (DAC). The output pulse of this processing chain is fed through a 31:1 multiplexer structure to the output of the chip for further processing. The TOT01 chip has been fabricated in the UMC 0.18 μm CMOS process (Europractice mini@sic). It has 78 pads, measures approximately 1.5x3.2 mm2 and dissipates 33 mW. The channels have 50 μm pitch and each consumes 1.05 mW of power. The chip has been successfully tested. Charge sensitivity parameters, noise performance and first X-ray acquisitions are presented.

  4. Time Resolved Measurements of Speciated Tailpipe Emissions from Motor Vehicles: Trends with Emission Control Technology, Cold Start Effects, and Speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozd, Greg T; Zhao, Yunliang; Saliba, Georges; Frodin, Bruce; Maddox, Christine; Weber, Robert J; Chang, M-C Oliver; Maldonado, Hector; Sardar, Satya; Robinson, Allen L; Goldstein, Allen H

    2016-12-20

    Experiments were conducted at the California Air Resources Board Haagen-Smit Laboratory to understand changes in vehicle emissions in response to stricter emissions standards over the past 25 years. Measurements included a wide range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for a wide range of spark ignition gasoline vehicles meeting varying levels of emissions standards, including all certifications from Tier 0 up to Partial Zero Emission Vehicle. Standard gas chromatography (GC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HLPC) analyses were employed for drive-cycle phase emissions. A proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer measured time-resolved emissions for a wide range of VOCs. Cold-start emissions occur almost entirely in the first 30-60 s for newer vehicles. Cold-start emissions have compositions that are not significantly different across all vehicles tested and are markedly different from neat fuel. Hot-stabilized emissions have varying importance depending on species and may require a driving distance of 200 miles to equal the emissions from a single cold start. Average commute distances in the U.S. suggest the majority of in-use vehicles have emissions dominated by cold starts. The distribution of vehicle ages in the U.S. suggests that within several years only a few percent of vehicles will have significant driving emissions compared to cold-start emissions.

  5. UniScan technology for innovative laboratory at a university for acquisition data from space in real-time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershenzon, V.; Gershenzon, O.; Sergeeva, M.; Ippolitov, V.; Targulyan, O.

    2012-04-01

    Keywords: Remote Sensing, UniScan ground station, Education, Monitoring. Remote Sensing Centers allowing real-time imagery acquisition from Earth observing satellites within the structure of Universities provides proper environment for innovative education. It delivers the efficient training for scientific and academic and teaching personnel, secure the role of the young professionals in science, education and hi-tech, and maintain the continuity of generations in science and education. Article is based on experience for creation such centers in more than 20 higher education institutions in Russia, Kazakhstan, and Spain on the base of UniScan ground station by R&D Center ScanEx. These stations serve as the basis for Earth monitoring from space providing the training and advanced training to produce the specialists having the state-of-the-art knowledge in Earth Remote Sensing and GIS, as well as the land-use monitoring and geo-data service for the economic operators in such diverse areas as the nature resource management, agriculture, land property management, disasters monitoring, etc. Currently our proposal of UniScan for universities all over the world allows to receive low resolution free of charge MODIS data from Terra and Aqua satellites, VIIRS from the NPP mission, and also high resolution optical images from EROS A and radar images from Radarsat-1 satellites, including the telemetry for the first year of operation, within the footprint of up to 2,500 kilometers in radius. Creation remote sensing centers at universities will lead to a new quality level for education and scientific studies and will enable to make education system in such innovation institutions open to modern research work and economy.

  6. KECK SPECTROSCOPY OF FAINT 3 < z < 8 LYMAN BREAK GALAXIES: EVIDENCE FOR A DECLINING FRACTION OF EMISSION LINE SOURCES IN THE REDSHIFT RANGE 6 < z < 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenker, Matthew A.; Ellis, Richard S.; Robertson, Brant E. [Department of Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MS 105-24, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stark, Daniel P. [Kavli Institute of Cosmology and Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Dunlop, James S.; McLure, Ross J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Kneib, Jean-Paul [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille, F-13388 Marseille cedex 13 (France); Richard, Johan [Observatoire de Lyon, F-69561 Saint-Genis-Laval (France)

    2012-01-10

    Using deep Keck spectroscopy of Lyman break galaxies selected from infrared imaging data taken with the Wide Field Camera 3 on board the Hubble Space Telescope, we present new evidence for a reversal in the redshift-dependent fraction of star-forming galaxies with detectable Lyman alpha (Ly{alpha}) emission in the redshift range 6.3 < z < 8.8. Our earlier surveys with the DEIMOS spectrograph demonstrated a significant increase with redshift in the fraction of line emitting galaxies over the interval 4 < z < 6, particularly for intrinsically faint systems which dominate the luminosity density. Using the longer wavelength sensitivities of Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer and NIRSPEC, we have targeted 19 Lyman break galaxies selected using recent WFC3/IR data whose photometric redshifts are in the range 6.3 < z < 8.8 and which span a wide range of intrinsic luminosities. Our spectroscopic exposures typically reach a 5{sigma} sensitivity of <50 A for the rest-frame equivalent width (EW) of Ly{alpha} emission. Despite the high fraction of emitters seen only a few hundred million years later, we find only two convincing and one possible line emitter in our more distant sample. Combining with published data on a further seven sources obtained using FORS2 on the ESO Very Large Telescope, and assuming continuity in the trends found at lower redshift, we discuss the significance of this apparent reversal in the redshift-dependent Ly{alpha} fraction in the context of our range in continuum luminosity. Assuming all the targeted sources are at their photometric redshift and our assumptions about the Ly{alpha} EW distribution are correct, we would expect to find so few emitters in less than 1% of the realizations drawn from our lower redshift samples. Our new results provide further support for the suggestion that, at the redshifts now being probed spectroscopically, we are entering the era where the intergalactic medium is partially neutral. With the arrival of more

  7. KECK AND VLT OBSERVATIONS OF SUPER-DAMPED Lyα ABSORBERS AT z ∼ 2–2.5: CONSTRAINTS ON CHEMICAL COMPOSITIONS AND PHYSICAL CONDITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulkarni, Varsha P.; Som, Debopam; Morrison, Sean [University of South Carolina, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Péroux, Celine; Quiret, Samuel [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille, UMR 7326, F-13388, Marseille (France); York, Donald G., E-mail: kulkarni@sc.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2015-12-10

    We report Keck/Echellette Spectrograph and Imager and Very Large Telescope/Ultraviolet-Visual Echelle Spectrograph observations of three super-damped Lyα quasar absorbers with H i column densities log N{sub H} {sub i} ≥ 21.7 at redshifts 2 ≲ z ≲ 2.5. All three absorbers show similar metallicities (∼−1.3 to −1.5 dex), and dust depletion of Fe, Ni, and Mn. Two of the absorbers show supersolar [S/Zn] and [Si/Zn]. We combine our results with those for other damped Lyα a absorbers (DLAs) to examine trends between N{sub H} {sub i}, metallicity, and dust depletion. A larger fraction of the super-DLAs lie close to or above the line [X/H] = 20.59 − log N{sub H} {sub i} in the metallicity versus N{sub H} {sub i} plot, compared to the less gas-rich DLAs, suggesting that super-DLAs are more likely to be rich in molecules. Unfortunately, our data for Q0230−0334 and Q0743+1421 do not cover H{sub 2} absorption lines. For Q1418+0718, some H{sub 2} lines are covered, but not detected. CO is not detected in any of our absorbers. For DLAs with log N{sub H} {sub i} < 21.7, we confirm strong correlation between metallicity and Fe depletion, and find a correlation between metallicity and Si depletion. For super-DLAs, these correlations are weaker or absent. The absorbers toward Q0230−0334 and Q1418+0718 show potential detections of weak Lyα emission, implying star formation rates of ∼1.6 and ∼0.7 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}, respectively (ignoring dust extinction). Upper limits on the electron densities from C ii*/C ii or Si ii*/Si ii are low, but are higher than the median values in less gas-rich DLAs. Finally, systems with log N{sub H} {sub i} > 21.7 may have somewhat narrower velocity dispersions Δv{sub 90} than the less gas-rich DLAs, and may arise in cooler and/or less turbulent gas.

  8. Incorporating Technology into Out-of-School Time Programs: Benefits, Challenges, and Strategies. Research-to-Results Brief. Publication # 2010-06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Ashleigh; Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta

    2010-01-01

    Children and youth are growing up in an increasingly technology-saturated world. Digital devices, the Internet, and interactive media have become ubiquitous. As a result, young people are not only becoming expert users of technological devices, but technology and technologically-based learning environments are extending student learning beyond the…

  9. Propulsion Technology Assessment: Science & Enabling Technologies to Explore the Interstellar Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Randall C.; Thomas, Herbert D.; Wiegmann, Bruce M.; Heaton, Andrew F.; Johnson, Les; Baysinger, Michael F.; Beers, Benjamin R.

    2015-01-01

    As part of a larger effort led by the Keck Institute for Space Studies at the California Institute of Technology, the Advanced Concepts Office at NASA's George C. Marshall Space Flight Center conducted a study to assess what low-thrust advanced propulsion system candidates, existing and near term, could deliver a small, Voyager-like satellite to our solar system's heliopause, approximately 100 AU from the center of the sun, within 10 years and within a 2025 to 2035 launch window. The advanced propulsion system trade study consisted of three candidates, including a Magnetically Shielded Miniature (MaSMi) Hall thruster, a solar sail and an electric sail. Two aerial densities, and thus characteristic accelerations, 0.426 mm/s2 and 0.664 mm/s2, were analyzed for the solar sail option in order understand the impact of near and long term development of this technology. Similarly, two characteristic accelerations, 1 mm/s2 and 2 mm/s2, were also analyzed for the electric sail option in addition to tether quantities of 10 and 20, respectively, and individual tether length of 20 km. A second analysis was conducted to determine what existing solid rocket motor kick stage(s) would be required to provide additional thrust at various points in the trajectory, assuming an earth departure characteristic energy capability provided by a Space Launch System (SLS) Block 1B vehicle architecture carrying an 8.4 meter payload fairing. Two trajectory profiles were considered, including an escape trajectory using a Jupiter gravity assist (E-Ju), and an escape trajectory first performing a Jupiter gravity assist followed by an Oberth maneuver around the sun and an optional Saturn gravity assist (E-Ju-Su-Sa). The Oberth maneuver would need to be performed very close to the sun, wherein this study assumed a perihelion distance of approximately 11 solar radii, or 0.05 AU, away from the surface. The heat shield technology required to perform this type of ambitious maneuver was assumed to be

  10. Propulsion Technology Assessment: Science and Enabling Technologies to Explore the Interstellar Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Randall C.; Thomas, Herbert D.; Wiegmann, Bruce M.; Heaton, Andrew F.; Johnson, Les; Baysinger, Michael F.; Beers, Benjamin R.

    2016-01-01

    Led by the Keck Institute for Space Studies at the California Institute of Technology, the Advanced Concepts Office at NASA's George C. Marshall Space Flight Center conducted a study to assess what low-thrust advanced propulsion system candidates, existing and near term, could deliver a small, Voyager-like satellite to our solar system's heliopause, approximately 100 AU from the center of the sun, within 10 years and within a 2025-2035 launch window. The advanced propulsion system trade study consisted of three candidates, including a Magnetically Shielded Miniature (MaSMi) Hall thruster, a solar sail and an electric sail. Two aerial densities, and thus characteristic accelerations, 0.426 mm/sq s and 0.664 mm/sq s were analyzed for the solar sail option in order understand the impact of near and long term development of this technology. Similarly, two characteristic accelerations, 1 mm/s2 and 2 mm/sq s, were also analyzed for the electric sail option in addition to tether quantities of 10 and 20, respectively, and individual tether length of 20 km. A second analysis was conducted to determine what existing solid rocket motor kick stage(s) would be required to provide additional thrust at various points in the trajectory, assuming an earth departure characteristic energy capability provided by a Space Launch System (SLS) Block 1B vehicle architecture carrying an 8.4 meter payload fairing. Two trajectory profiles were considered, including an escape trajectory using a Jupiter gravity assist (E-Ju), and an escape trajectory first performing a Jupiter gravity assist followed by an Oberth maneuver around the sun and an optional Saturn gravity assist (E-Ju-Su-Sa). The Oberth maneuver would need to be performed very close to the sun, wherein this study assumed a perihelion distance of approximately 11 solar radii, or 0.05 AU, away from the surface. The heat shield technology required to perform this type of ambitious maneuver was assumed to be similar to that of NASA

  11. Propulsion Technology Assessment: Science and Enabling Technologies to Explore the Interstellar Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Randall C.; Thomas, Herbert D.; Wiegmann, Bruce M.; Heaton, Andrew F.; Johnson, Les; Baysinger, Michael F.; Beers, Benjamin R.

    2016-01-01

    As part of a larger effort led by the Keck Institute for Space Studies at the California Institute of Technology, the Advanced Concepts Office at NASA’s George C. Marshall Space Flight Center conducted a study to assess what low-thrust advanced propulsion system candidates, existing and near term, could deliver a small, Voyager-like satellite to our solar system’s heliopause, approximately 100 AU from the center of the sun, within 10 years and within a 2025 to 2035 launch window. The advanced propulsion system trade study consisted of three candidates, including a Magnetically Shielded Miniature (MaSMi) Hall thruster, a solar sail and an electric sail. Two aerial densities, and thus characteristic accelerations, 0.426 mm/s(exp 2) and 0.664 mm/s(exp 2), were analyzed for the solar sail option in order understand the impact of near and long term development of this technology. Similarly, two characteristic accelerations, 1 mm/s(exp 2) and 2 mm/s(exp 2), were also analyzed for the electric sail option in addition to tether quantities of 10 and 20, respectively, and individual tether length of 20 km. A second analysis was conducted to determine what existing solid rocket motor kick stage(s) would be required to provide additional thrust at various points in the trajectory, assuming an earth departure characteristic energy capability provided by a Space Launch System (SLS) Block 1B vehicle architecture carrying an 8.4 meter payload fairing. Two trajectory profiles were considered, including an escape trajectory using a Jupiter gravity assist (E-Ju), and an escape trajectory first performing a Jupiter gravity assist followed by an Oberth maneuver around the sun and an optional Saturn gravity assist (E-Ju-Su-Sa). The Oberth maneuver would need to be performed very close to the sun, wherein this study assumed a perihelion distance of approximately 11 solar radii, or 0.05 AU, away from the surface. The heat shield technology required to perform this type of ambitious

  12. Time-Series Analysis Technologies Applied to the Study of Carbon Element Distribution Along Casting Direction in Continuous-Casting Billet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Zibing; Cheng, Guoguang; Wu, Chengchuan; Chen, Chao

    2012-12-01

    The carbon element distributions along casting direction at centerline position, V-shaped segregation band, and columnar to equiaxed transformation (CET) position in continuous-casting billet have been first obtained by the original position statistic distribution analysis (OPA). Different location points at a certain position were formed along the opposite direction of casting direction with the lapse of the time, so the carbon mass fractions of different location points at a certain position can be considered as a time series. Based on the actual result, some typical time-series analysis technologies, such as the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model, were used to analyze the characteristics of the three time series. It is found that there is some periodicity in the carbon element distribution at centerline position, and the correlation relationship between centerline position and CET position is closer than that between the centerline position and V-shaped segregation band at the same location point along the casting direction. Moreover, the element distribution along the casting direction is one of the solidifying results with the lapse of the time, so it is possible to investigate the characteristics of the system about the solidification process of continuous-casting billet by using these time series. Then it shows that there is a chaos feature in the system about the solidification process of studied continuous-casting billet on the basis of Hurst exponents and saturated correlative dimensions. Meanwhile, the formation process of carbon element distribution along casting direction can be described as fractional Brownian motion, and the upper and lower limits of the number of internal independent variables were determined in order to describe the formation process of carbon element distributions at different positions of the studied billet. Finally, the stochastic extent at V-shaped segregation band is found to be the largest, and it needs

  13. Higher specificity of nucleic acid sequence-based amplification isothermal technology than of real-time PCR for quantification of HIV-1 RNA on dried blood spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier-Delarue, Severine; Vray, Muriel; Plantier, Jean Christophe; Maillard, Theodora; Adjout, Zidan; de Olivera, Fabienne; Schnepf, Nathalie; Maylin, Sarah; Simon, Francois; Delaugerre, Constance

    2014-01-01

    Dried blood spots (DBS) are widely proposed as a plasma surrogate for monitoring antiretroviral treatment efficacy based on the HIV-1 RNA level (viral load [VL]) in resource-limited settings. Interfering coamplification of cell-associated HIV-1 DNA during reverse transcription (RT)-PCR can be avoided by using nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) technology, which is based on an RNA template and isothermic conditions. We analyzed VL values obtained with DBS and plasma samples by comparing isothermic NASBA (NucliSENS EasyQ HIV-1 V2.0; bioMérieux) with real-time RT-PCR (Cobas TaqMan HIV-1 V2.0; Roche). Samples from 197 HIV-1-infected patients were tested (non-B subtypes in 51% of the cases). Nucleic acid extractions were performed by use of NucliSENS EasyMAG (bioMérieux) and Cobas AmpliPrep (Roche) before the NASBA and RT-PCR quantifications, respectively. Both quantification assays have lower limits of detection of 20 (1.3) and 800 (2.9) log10 copies/ml (log) in plasma and DBS, respectively. The mean (DBS minus plasma) differences were -0.39 and -0.46 log, respectively, for RT-PCR and NASBA. RT-PCR on DBS identified virological failure in 122 of 126 patients (sensitivity, 97%) and viral suppression in 58 of 70 patients (specificity, 83%), yielding 12 false-positive results (median, 3.2 log). NASBA on DBS identified virological failure in 85 of 96 patients (sensitivity, 89%) and viral suppression in 95 of 97 patients (specificity, 98%) and yielded 2 false-positive results (3.0 log for both). Both technologies detected HIV-1 RNA in DBS at a threshold of 800 copies/ml. This higher specificity of NASBA technology could avoid overestimation of poor compliance or the emergence of resistance when monitoring antiretroviral efficacy with the DBS method.

  14. 开放系统中实时中间件关键技术研究%Research on the Key Technology of Real-Time Middleware in Open System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭舰; 俞岭; 董鹏; 刘锦德

    2003-01-01

    The Real-Time Middleware is the best way to deal with open and real-time in the same time in open system. In this paper, the characteristic of open system, the policy of real-time implement in open system and the real-time CORBA specification and development are introduced, then the key technology of real-time CORBA in open system is discussed in detail according to the model of real-time CORBA including the technology of the real-time POA, real-time ORB, thread pool, pluggable network protocol, multiplexing and demultiplexing and presentation layer optimizations etc, which provides a viable method and research for open system real-time extension.

  15. Technology collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Jacob [Halliburton (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to present Halliburton's Brazilian technology center. Halliburton has technology centers in the United States, Saudi Arabia, India, Singapore and Brazil, all of which aim at delivering accelerated innovation in the oil sector. The technology centers engage in research and development activities with the help of various universities and in collaboration with the customer or supplier. The Halliburton Brazil technology center provides its customers with timely research and development solutions for enhancing recovery and mitigating reservoir uncertainty; they are specialized in finding solutions for pre- and post-salt carbonate drilling and in the enhancement of production from mature fields. This presentation showcased the work carried out by the Halliburton Brazil technology center to help customers develop their deepwater field activities.

  16. Comparative research and its significance of deformation measurements by technologies of laser real-time holographic interferometry and radar differential interferometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Xian-jin; XU Zhao-yong; QIAN Jia-dong; HU Yi-li; YANG Run-hai; WANG Bin

    2006-01-01

    The principles and applications of laser real-time holographic interferometry (LRTHI) and radar differential interferometry (RDI) technologies are described in this paper, respectively. By using LRTHI, we can observe the deformation of samples under pressure in the lab and study the anomaly characteristics relating to different strain fields in different fracture-developing areas; while by using RDI, we can observe the landform and surface deformation. The results of deformation observed before and after the Ms=7.9 Mani earthquake (Tibet) and Ms=6.2Shangyi-Zhangbei earthquake in China are obtained. It is pointed out that LRTHI and RDI are similar, which study the characteristics of anomalous deformation field by fringe variations for both of them. Therefore, the observation of deformation field in the seismogenic process, especially in the period impending an earthquake by RDI, and the comparative study in the lab by LRTHI are of great significance.

  17. Comparative research and its significance of deformation measurements by technologies of laser real-time holographic interferometry and radar differential interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xian-Jin; Xu, Zhao-Young; Qian, Jia-Dong; Hu, Yi-Li; Yang, Run-Hai; Wang, Bin

    2006-05-01

    The principles and applications of laser real-time holographic interferometry (LRTHI) and radar differential interferometry (RDI) technologies are described in this paper, respectively. By using LRTHI, we can observe the deformation of samples under pressure in the lab and study the anomaly characteristics relating to different strain fields in different fracture-developing areas; while by using RDI, we can observe the landform and surface deformation. The results of deformation observed before and after the M S=7.9 Mani earthquake (Tibet) and M S=6.2 Shangyi-Zhangbei earthquake in China are obtained. It is pointed out that LRTHI and RDI are similar, which study the characteristics of anomalous deformation field by fringe variations for both of them. Therefore, the observation of deformation field in the seismogenic process, especially in the period impending an earthquake by RDI, and the comparative study in the lab by LRTHI are of great significance.

  18. Keck Spectroscopy of Faint 3

    CERN Document Server

    Stark, Daniel P; Chiu, Kuenley; Ouchi, Masami; Bunker, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    We present results from a new Keck spectroscopic survey of UV-faint LBGs in the redshift range 3Keck and published ESO VLT data, our sample contains more than 600 dropouts, offering new insight into the nature of sub-L* sources typical of those likely to dominate the cosmic reionisation process. Here we use this sample to characterise the fraction of strong Lya emitters within the continuum-selected dropouts. By quantifying how the "Lya fraction" varies with redshift, we seek to constrain changes in Lya transmission associated with reionisation. In order to distinguish the effects of reionisation from other factors which affect the Lya fraction (e.g. dust, ISM kinematics), we study the luminosity and redshift-dependence of the Lya fraction over 3

  19. 非接触动态实时视线跟踪技术%Non-Contact Dynamic Real-Time Eye Tracking Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王向军; 蔡方方; 刘峰; 李洋

    2015-01-01

    The eye tracking is the key technology of intelligent eye movement operating system, which is also the basis that enables eye movement operating system to be the advanced human-machine interactive applications. This paper gives a more comprehensive vision of the development of non-contact eye tracking technology, and introduces the non-contact eye gaze tracking technology that enables to achieve real-time dynamic eye tracking or gaze point estimation, including 2D eye tracking methods, 3D eye tracking methods and model-based 3D methods. Comparing and analyzing new development of the existing methods mentioned above, this paper illustrates the scientific prob-lems that eye tracking technology currently faces, and presents a novel head-mounted free space eye tracking method based on binocular stereo vision. The conclusion is that eye tracking technology should meet intelligent human-machine interactive approach based on eye movement operating system expands to free space. The eye tracking technology develops towards high-precision, easy to configure and wider range of sight in free space measurement.%视线跟踪技术是智能眼动操作系统的关键技术,是实现先进眼动操作系统作为高级人机交互应用的基础和前提。较为完整地阐述了非接触式视线跟踪技术的发展历程,并详细介绍了现有的实现视线或注视点实时动态跟踪测量的非接触视线跟踪技术,包括2D视线跟踪方法、3D视线跟踪方法和基于3D模型的视线跟踪方法。通过分析和比较现有的三类方法的最新进展,介绍了视线跟踪技术目前面临的科学问题,提出了基于双目立体视觉的头戴式自由空间视线跟踪测量方法,指出了视线跟踪技术应满足基于眼动操作系统的智能人机交互方法向自由空间操作发展的需求,朝着高精度、易配置、更大视线活动范围的自由空间视线测量方向发展。

  20. Mid-infrared Laser-Induced Fluorescence with Nanosecond Time Resolution Using a Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detector: New Technology for Molecular Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Schwarzer, Dirk; Verma, Varun B; Stevens, Martin J; Marsili, Francesco; Mirin, Richard P; Nam, Sae Woo; Wodtke, Alec M

    2017-06-20

    In contrast to UV photomultiplier tubes that are widely used in physical chemistry, mid-infrared detectors are notorious for poor sensitivity and slow time response. This helps explain why, despite the importance of infrared spectroscopy in molecular science, mid-infrared fluorescence is not more widely used. In recent years, several new technologies have been developed that open new experimental possibilities for research in the mid-infrared. In this Account, we present one of the more promising technologies, superconducting nanowire single photon detectors (SNSPDs) by sharing our experience with its use in a typical experiment carried out by physical chemists (laser-induced fluorescence) and comparing the SNSPD to a detector commonly used by physical chemists (InSb at LN Temperature). SNSPDs are fabricated from a thin film of superconducting metal, patterned into a meandering nanowire. The nanowire is cooled below its superconducting temperature, Tc, and held in a constant current circuit below the critical current necessary to destroy superconductivity, Ic. Upon absorption of a photon, the resulting heat is sufficient to destroy superconductivity across the entire width of the nanowire, an event that can be detected as a voltage pulse. In contrast to semiconductor-based detectors, which have a long wavelength cutoff determined by the band gap, the SNSPD exhibits single-photon sensitivity across the entire mid-IR spectrum. As these devices have not been used extensively outside the field of light detection technology research, one important goal of this Account is to provide practical details for the implementation of these devices in a physical chemistry laboratory. We provide extensive Supporting Information describing what is needed. This includes information on a liquid nitrogen cooled monochromator, the optical collection system including mid-infrared fibers, as well as a closed-cycle cryogenic cooler that reaches 0.3 K. We demonstrate the advantages of

  1. 航天产品准时装配管理技术研究%Research on the Management Technologies of Just - in - Time Assembly for Aerospace Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    端存真; 薛善良; 李建平; 马继红; 杨年宝

    2012-01-01

    An aerospace assembly plant is still employing the traditional productive management. In order to a-chieve informatization of assembling productive management, it introduces just - in - time assembly management technology for aerospace products, presents a just - in - time assembling system for aerospace products and Kan-ban management, describes the standardizing operation, equalization of production, rational arrangement of e-quipment, multi - skill operator and full - scale quality management. According to Java EE standards, it analyzes just - in - time assembly management requirements such as function modules, implementation of assembly dispatching, assembly process Kanban, material distribution Kanban, and assembly quality Kanban, etc. , develops the just - in - time assembly management system.%某航天装配车间生产管理仍是传统的生产管理方式,为了实现装配生产管理的信息化,研究了航天产品准时装配管理技术.引入丰田生产方式中“准时生产”技术,建立以一个流生产和看板管理为实施基础,以标准化作业、生产均衡化、设备合理布置、多技能作业员和全面质量管理为实施手段的航天产品准时装配体系.分析准时装配管理系统需求,并按照Java EE标准设计包括装配派工执行、装配进度看板、物料配送看板和装配质量看板等功能模块,最后开发了航天产品准时装配管理系统原型.

  2. Development of a highly sensitive real-time one step RT-PCR combined complementary locked primer technology and conjugated minor groove binder probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Sunhwa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enterovirus (EV infections are commonly associated with encephalitis and meningitis. Detection of enteroviral RNA in clinical specimens has been demonstrated to improve the management of patients, by ruling out other causes of disease. Method To develop a sensitive and reliable assay for routine laboratory diagnosis, we developed a real-time one step reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay with minor groove binder probes and primers modified with complementary locked primer technology (TMC-PCR. We checked the sensitivity of the developed assay by comparing it to a previously published TaqMan probe real-time one-step RT-PCR (TTN-PCR procedure using enteroviral isolates, Enterovirus Proficiency panels from Quality Control on Molecular Diagnostics (QCMD-2007, and clinical specimens from patients with suspected EV infections. Results One hundred clinical specimens from 158 suspected viral meningitis cases were determined to be positive by the TMC-PCR assay (63.29%, whereas only 60 were found to be positive by the TTN-PCR assay (37.97%. The positive and negative agreements between the TMC-PCR and TTN-PCR assays were 100% and 59.2%, respectively. Conclusion This data suggest that the TMC-PCR assay may be suitable for routine diagnostic screening from patient suspected EV infection.

  3. Real-time monitoring for detection of retained surgical sponges and team motion in the surgical operation room using radio-frequency-identification (RFID) technology: a preclinical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranzfelder, Michael; Zywitza, Dorit; Jell, Thomas; Schneider, Armin; Gillen, Sonja; Friess, Helmut; Feussner, Hubertus

    2012-06-15

    Technical progress in the surgical operating room (OR) increases constantly, facilitating the development of intelligent OR systems functioning as "safety backup" in the background of surgery. Precondition is comprehensive data retrieval to identify imminent risky situations and inaugurate adequate security mechanisms. Radio-frequency-identification (RFID) technology may have the potential to meet these demands. We set up a pilot study investigating feasibility and appliance reliability of a stationary RFID system for real-time surgical sponge monitoring (passive tagged sponges, position monitoring: mayo-stand/abdominal situs/waste bucket) and OR team tracking (active transponders, position monitoring: right/left side of OR table). In vitro: 20/20 sponges (100%) were detected on the mayo-stand and within the OR-phantom, however, real-time detection accuracy declined to 7/20 (33%) when the tags were moved simultaneously. All retained sponges were detected correctly. In vivo (animal): 7-10/10 sterilized sponges (70%-100%) were detected correctly within the abdominal cavity. OR-team: detection accuracy within the OR (surveillance antenna) and on both sides of the OR table (sector antenna) was 100%. Mean detection time for position change (left to right side and contrariwise) was 30-60 s. No transponder failure was noted. This is the first combined RFID system that has been developed for stationary use in the surgical OR. Preclinical evaluation revealed a reliable sponge tracking and correct detection of retained textiles (passive RFID) but also demonstrated feasibility of comprehensive data acquisition of team motion (active RFID). However, detection accuracy needs to be further improved before implementation into the surgical OR. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. 深孔爆破一次成井技术与应用实例分析%ONE TIME DEEP HOLE RAISE BLASTING TECHNOLOGY AND CASE STUDY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李启月; 李夕兵; 范作鹏; 张瑞华

    2013-01-01

    深孔爆破一次成井是解决天井掘进困难、加快天井施工和降低掘进成本的有效方法.介绍多孔球状药包爆破一次成井和直孔掏槽爆破一次成井2种模式,说明选择一次成井模式应考虑的因素,分析深孔爆破一次成井的技术难题,并提出相应的解决措施.研究认为,岩性、孔偏大小、成井断面大小和成井高度是影响模式选择的主要因素.通过圆形布孔、不等高分层、设置中间分层、分层同响、多分层上下依序起爆和分层间合理延时爆破等技术措施解决多孔球状药包一次爆破成井的夹制性难题:通过4空孔桶形掏槽,计算确定空孔参数和分段高度,试验确定槽孔装药结构和分段间炮孔堵塞长度等技术措施解决直孔掏槽方式与相关参数确定难题.最后,以某露天矿为工程背景,介绍了23m和32 m天井一次爆破成井的工程实例.%One time deep hole raise blasting technology is an effective way to solve raising difficulties,to speed up raise construction and reduce drivage cost.Two modes,including one time raise driving by using porous spherical charge blasting and cylinder cut blasting were introduced.In the process to select raising mode,the influencing factors which should be considered were illustrated.The technical problems about one time long hole raise blasting technology were analyzed in detail; and the corresponding technical solutions were put forward.Studies suggest that the main factors which influence the selection of mode are lithology,hole deflection,raising section and raising height.The confinement problem in one time raise driving by using porous spherical charge blasting were solved through circular arrangement of holes,unequal height stratification,setting interlayer,single layer holes' simultaneous blasting,multilayer blasting in up or down order,rational delay interval between layers and other technical measures.Four empty holes doliform cut

  5. Educational Technology in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meifeng, Liu; Jinjiao, Lv; Cui, Kang

    2010-01-01

    This paper elaborates the two different academic views of the identity of educational technology in China at the current time--advanced-technology-oriented cognition, known as Electrifying Education, and problem-solving-oriented cognition, known as Educational Technology. It addresses five main modes of educational technology in China: as a…

  6. Green technology effect of injection pressure, timing and compression ratio in constant pressure heat addition cycle by an eco-friendly material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikayan, S; Sankaranarayanan, G; Karthikeyan, R

    2015-11-01

    Present energy strategies focus on environmental issues, especially environmental pollution prevention and control by eco-friendly green technologies. This includes, increase in the energy supplies, encouraging cleaner and more efficient energy management, addressing air pollution, greenhouse effect, global warming, and climate change. Biofuels provide the panorama of new fiscal opportunities for people in rural area for meeting their need and also the demand of the local market. Biofuels concern protection of the environment and job creation. Renewable energy sources are self-reliance resources, have the potential in energy management with less emissions of air pollutants. Biofuels are expected to reduce dependability on imported crude oil with connected economic susceptibility, reduce greenhouse gases, other pollutants and invigorate the economy by increasing demand and prices for agricultural products. The use of neat paradise tree oil and induction of eco-friendly material Hydrogen through inlet manifold in a constant pressure heat addition cycle engine (diesel engine) with optimized engine operating parameters such as injection timing, injection pressure and compression ratio. The results shows the heat utilization efficiency for neat vegetable oil is 29% and neat oil with 15% Hydrogen as 33%. The exhaust gas temperature (EGT) for 15% of H2 share as 450°C at full load and the heat release of 80J/deg. crank angle for 15% Hydrogen energy share. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessing quality of Medicago sativa silage by monitoring bacterial composition with single molecule, real-time sequencing technology and various physiological parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Weichen; Mi, Zhihui; Xu, Haiyan; Zheng, Yi; Kwok, Lai Yu; Zhang, Heping; Zhang, Wenyi

    2016-01-01

    The present study applied the PacBio single molecule, real-time sequencing technology (SMRT) in evaluating the quality of silage production. Specifically, we produced four types of Medicago sativa silages by using four different lactic acid bacteria-based additives (AD-I, AD-II, AD-III and AD-IV). We monitored the changes in pH, organic acids (including butyric acid, the ratio of acetic acid/lactic acid, γ-aminobutyric acid, 4-hyroxy benzoic acid and phenyl lactic acid), mycotoxins, and bacterial microbiota during silage fermentation. Our results showed that the use of the additives was beneficial to the silage fermentation by enhancing a general pH and mycotoxin reduction, while increasing the organic acids content. By SMRT analysis of the microbial composition in eight silage samples, we found that the bacterial species number and relative abundances shifted apparently after fermentation. Such changes were specific to the LAB species in the additives. Particularly, Bacillus megaterium was the initial dominant species in the raw materials; and after the fermentation process, Pediococcus acidilactici and Lactobacillus plantarum became the most prevalent species, both of which were intrinsically present in the LAB additives. Our data have demonstrated that the SMRT sequencing platform is applicable in assessing the quality of silage. PMID:27340760

  8. The impact of Sleep Time-Related Information and Communication Technology (STRICT) on sleep patterns and daytime functioning in American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polos, Peter G; Bhat, Sushanth; Gupta, Divya; O'Malley, Richard J; DeBari, Vincent A; Upadhyay, Hinesh; Chaudhry, Saqib; Nimma, Anitha; Pinto-Zipp, Genevieve; Chokroverty, Sudhansu

    2015-10-01

    This cross-sectional study explored the extent and impact of mobile device-based Sleep Time-Related Information and Communication Technology (STRICT) use among American adolescents (N = 3139, 49.3% female, mean age = 13.3 years). Nearly 62% used STRICT after bedtime, 56.7% texted/tweeted/messaged in bed, and 20.8% awoke to texts. STRICT use was associated with insomnia, daytime sleepiness, eveningness, academic underperformance, later bedtimes and shorter sleep duration. Moderation analysis demonstrated that the association between STRICT use and insomnia increased with age, the association between STRICT use and daytime sleepiness decreased with age, and the association between STRICT use and shorter sleep duration decreased with age and was stronger in girls. Insomnia and daytime sleepiness partially mediated the relationship between STRICT use and academic underperformance. Our results illustrate the adverse interactions between adolescent STRICT use and sleep, with deleterious effects on daytime functioning. These worrisome findings suggest that placing reasonable limitations on adolescent STRICT use may be appropriate.

  9. Assessing quality of Medicago sativa silage by monitoring bacterial composition with single molecule, real-time sequencing technology and various physiological parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Weichen; Mi, Zhihui; Xu, Haiyan; Zheng, Yi; Kwok, Lai Yu; Zhang, Heping; Zhang, Wenyi

    2016-06-24

    The present study applied the PacBio single molecule, real-time sequencing technology (SMRT) in evaluating the quality of silage production. Specifically, we produced four types of Medicago sativa silages by using four different lactic acid bacteria-based additives (AD-I, AD-II, AD-III and AD-IV). We monitored the changes in pH, organic acids (including butyric acid, the ratio of acetic acid/lactic acid, γ-aminobutyric acid, 4-hyroxy benzoic acid and phenyl lactic acid), mycotoxins, and bacterial microbiota during silage fermentation. Our results showed that the use of the additives was beneficial to the silage fermentation by enhancing a general pH and mycotoxin reduction, while increasing the organic acids content. By SMRT analysis of the microbial composition in eight silage samples, we found that the bacterial species number and relative abundances shifted apparently after fermentation. Such changes were specific to the LAB species in the additives. Particularly, Bacillus megaterium was the initial dominant species in the raw materials; and after the fermentation process, Pediococcus acidilactici and Lactobacillus plantarum became the most prevalent species, both of which were intrinsically present in the LAB additives. Our data have demonstrated that the SMRT sequencing platform is applicable in assessing the quality of silage.

  10. WE-A-17A-09: Exploiting Electromagnetic Technologies for Real-Time Seed Drop Position Validation in Permanent Implant Brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racine, E [Departement de Radio-Oncologie et Centre de Recherche du CHU de Quebec, Quebec, QC (Canada); Hautvast, G [Biomedical Systems, Philips Group Innovation, Eindhoven, North Brabant (Netherlands); Binnekamp, D [Integrated Clinical Solutions and Marketing, Philips Healthcare, Best, DA (Netherlands); Beaulieu, L [Centre Hospitalier University de Quebec, Quebec, QC (Canada)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To report on preliminary results validating the performance of a specially designed LDR brachytherapy needle prototype possessing both electromagnetic (EM) tracking and seed drop detection abilities. Methods: An EM hollow needle prototype has been designed and constructed in collaboration with research partner Philips Healthcare. The needle possesses conventional 3D tracking capabilities, along with a novel seed drop detection mechanism exploiting local changes of electromagnetic properties generated by the passage of seeds in the needle's embedded sensor coils. These two capabilities are exploited by proprietary engineering and signal processing techniques to generate seed drop position estimates in real-time treatment delivery. The electromagnetic tracking system (EMTS) used for the experiment is the NDI Aurora Planar Field Generator. The experiment consisted of dropping a total of 35 seeds in a prismatic agarose phantom, and comparing the 3D seed drop positions of the EMTS to those obtained by an image analysis of subsequent micro-CT scans. Drop position error computations and statistical analysis were performed after a 3D registration of the two seed distributions. Results: Of the 35 seeds dropped in the phantom, 32 were properly detected by the needle prototype. Absolute drop position errors among the detected seeds ranged from 0.5 to 4.8 mm with mean and standard deviation values of 1.6 and 0.9 mm, respectively. Error measurements also include undesirable and uncontrollable effects such as seed motion upon deposition. The true accuracy performance of the needle prototype is therefore underestimated. Conclusion: This preliminary study demonstrates the potential benefits of EM technologies in detecting the passage of seeds in a hollow needle as a means of generating drop position estimates in real-time treatment delivery. Such tools could therefore represent a potentially interesting addition to existing brachytherapy protocols for rapid dosimetry

  11. Keck spectroscopy and NGVS photometry in the direction of the Virgo cluster: Globular cluster satellites of dwarf ellipticals, Milky Way halo substructure, and large-scale structure in the background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Meredith; Toloba, E.; Guhathakurta, P.; Yagati, S.; Chen, J.; Cote, P.; Dorman, C.; Ferrarese, L.; Peng, E. W.; Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Virgo cluster, the nearest large galaxy cluster, is a rich repository of dwarf elliptical (dE) galaxies. The formation mechanism of dE galaxies remains the subject of much debate. Dwarf galaxies in general are believed to be building blocks in the hierarchical growth of galaxies as per the “cold dark matter” model of structure formation. Globular cluster (GC) satellites serve as important tracers of dark matter in the outer regions of dEs (beyond 1 half-light radius). This project presents new spectroscopic data from Keck's DEIMOS, which specifically targeted low-luminosity (-17 cannibalism events, and identify two new superclusters of galaxies in the background using redshift distribution. This research was carried out under the auspices of UCSC's Science Internship Program. We thank the National Science Foundation for funding support. ET was supported by a Fulbright fellowship.

  12. Wearable Technology Lead New Time of Human Machine Interaction%可穿戴技术引领人机互动新时代

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨婧; 姚宇鹯

    2014-01-01

    可穿戴技术是一种将智能终端整合于日常可穿戴配件上的新技术,近几年来越来越受到人们关注。文章对可穿戴技术发展现状进行介绍,并指出可穿戴技术在应用中面临的挑战和将来的发展方向。%Wearable technology is a new technology which integrates intel igent terminal with daily wear parts. More and more people show great interest in the technology in recent years. This article introduces the development status of wearable technology, analyzes the chal enges in its application and puts forward a blueprint of future of wearable technology.

  13. NREL’s Controllable Grid Interface Saves Time and Resources, Improves Reliability of Renewable Energy Technologies; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-07-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) controllable grid interface (CGI) test system at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) is one of two user facilities at NREL capable of testing and analyzing the integration of megawatt-scale renewable energy systems. The CGI specializes in testing of multimegawatt-scale wind and photovoltaic (PV) technologies as well as energy storage devices, transformers, control and protection equipment at medium-voltage levels, allowing the determination of the grid impacts of the tested technology.

  14. Payload software technology: Software technology development plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Programmatic requirements for the advancement of software technology are identified for meeting the space flight requirements in the 1980 to 1990 time period. The development items are described, and software technology item derivation worksheets are presented along with the cost/time/priority assessments.

  15. OVERVIEW ON TECHNOLOGY OF AUTOMOTIVE TIME-SENSITIVE NETWORK%车载时间敏感网络技术综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨浩; 秦贵和; 于赫; 王愚

    2015-01-01

    Automotive time-sensitive network ( TSN ) is a network between the time-triggered network and asynchronous transmission Ethernet, its core is the technology of audio/video bridge network ( AVB) .TSN has a wide range of applications in various emerging driving assistance systems and vehicular multimedia, etc., and has the advantages of high bandwidth, strong expansibility and low cost.The paper illustrates the main content of the Ethernet AVB protocol stack and summarises the technical features and performance of the network during its operations.Through making comparisons with the specifications of automotive networks, we analyse its applicability situation and the focuses of developments.In view of the increasingly opening automotive networks environment, we expatiated on the information security problem of the automotive networks.In end of the paper, we discuss the problems and challenges the Ethernet AVB encounters and make the prospect of its research direction.%车载时间敏感网络是介于时间触发的实时网络和异步传输的以太网之间的网络,核心是音视频桥接网络技术( Ethernet AVB),在各种新兴的驾驶辅助系统和车载多媒体等方面有广泛的应用,具有带宽高,扩展性强,成本低等优点。说明分析了Ethernet AVB技术协议栈的主要内容,并对网络运行过程中的技术特点和性能进行归纳总结。横向比对车载网络的各项技术规范,分析其适用情况和研发热点。鉴于越来越开放的车载网络环境,阐述了车载网络的信息安全问题。最后讨论了Ethernet AVB技术面临的问题和挑战,并展望了下一步研究方向。

  16. Technological Style is History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blond, Lasse

    The effort to comprehend innovation across cultures and time highlights the importance of the explicating factors external to technology. It becomes relevant to nuance or differentiate the understanding of social and cultural responses to adopted technologies by recognizing that technology shapes...

  17. Research on Windows Based Network Real-Time Application Development Technology%Windows平台上网络实时应用开发技术的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘生建; 李俊琴

    2014-01-01

    Modern life cannot do without the Internet, network communication technology and computer originated in the first UNIX system and Windows platform, although it started late, but the support of Internet technology has made great progress. Now a lot of network game client is based on Windows platform. Using the underlying communication technology after years of development, also appeared all kinds of technical solutions, this paper summed up the Windows platform in the computer net-work communication technology of the main technical method.%现代生活离不开互联网,计算机的网络通信技术最先发源于UNIX系统,而Windows平台虽然起步稍晚,但是目前对互联网技术的支持也有长足的进步。现在很多的网络游戏客户端都是基于Windows平台的。使用的底层通信技术经过多年的发展,也出现了各种技术解决方案,该文研究概括总结了在Windows平台上计算机网络通信技术的主要技术方法。

  18. Using Real-Time Social Media Technologies to Monitor Levels of Perceived Stress and Emotional State in College Students: A Web-Based Questionnaire Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sam; Zhu, Miaoqi; Yu, Dong Jin; Rasin, Alexander; Young, Sean D

    2017-01-10

    College can be stressful for many freshmen as they cope with a variety of stressors. Excess stress can negatively affect both psychological and physical health. Thus, there is a need to find innovative and cost-effective strategies to help identify students experiencing high levels of stress to receive appropriate treatment. Social media use has been rapidly growing, and recent studies have reported that data from these technologies can be used for public health surveillance. Currently, no studies have examined whether Twitter data can be used to monitor stress level and emotional state among college students. The primary objective of our study was to investigate whether students' perceived levels of stress were associated with the sentiment and emotions of their tweets. The secondary objective was to explore whether students' emotional state was associated with the sentiment and emotions of their tweets. We recruited 181 first-year freshman students aged 18-20 years at University of California, Los Angeles. All participants were asked to complete a questionnaire that assessed their demographic characteristics, levels of stress, and emotional state for the last 7 days. All questionnaires were completed within a 48-hour period. All tweets posted by the participants from that week (November 2 to 8, 2015) were mined and manually categorized based on their sentiment (positive, negative, neutral) and emotion (anger, fear, love, happiness) expressed. Ordinal regressions were used to assess whether weekly levels of stress and emotional states were associated with the percentage of positive, neutral, negative, anger, fear, love, or happiness tweets. A total of 121 participants completed the survey and were included in our analysis. A total of 1879 tweets were analyzed. A higher level of weekly stress was significantly associated with a greater percentage of negative sentiment tweets (beta=1.7, SE 0.7; P=.02) and tweets containing emotions of fear (beta=2.4, SE 0.9; P=.01

  19. Vacuum Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biltoft, P J

    2004-10-15

    The environmental condition called vacuum is created any time the pressure of a gas is reduced compared to atmospheric pressure. On earth we typically create a vacuum by connecting a pump capable of moving gas to a relatively leak free vessel. Through operation of the gas pump the number of gas molecules per unit volume is decreased within the vessel. As soon as one creates a vacuum natural forces (in this case entropy) work to restore equilibrium pressure; the practical effect of this is that gas molecules attempt to enter the evacuated space by any means possible. It is useful to think of vacuum in terms of a gas at a pressure below atmospheric pressure. In even the best vacuum vessels ever created there are approximately 3,500,000 molecules of gas per cubic meter of volume remaining inside the vessel. The lowest pressure environment known is in interstellar space where there are approximately four molecules of gas per cubic meter. Researchers are currently developing vacuum technology components (pumps, gauges, valves, etc.) using micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) technology. Miniature vacuum components and systems will open the possibility for significant savings in energy cost and will open the doors to advances in electronics, manufacturing and semiconductor fabrication. In conclusion, an understanding of the basic principles of vacuum technology as presented in this summary is essential for the successful execution of all projects that involve vacuum technology. Using the principles described above, a practitioner of vacuum technology can design a vacuum system that will achieve the project requirements.

  20. Cell-surface protein-protein interaction analysis with time-resolved FRET and snap-tag technologies: application to G protein-coupled receptor oligomerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comps-Agrar, Laëtitia; Maurel, Damien; Rondard, Philippe; Pin, Jean-Philippe; Trinquet, Eric; Prézeau, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are key players in cell-cell communication, the dysregulation of which has often deleterious effects leading to pathologies such as psychiatric and neurological diseases. Consequently, GPCRs represent excellent drug targets, and as such are the object of intense research in drug discovery for therapeutic application. Recently, the GPCR field has been revolutionized by the demonstration that GPCRs are part of large protein complexes that control their pharmacology, activity, and signaling. Moreover, in these complexes, one GPCR can either associate with itself, forming homodimers or homooligomers, or with other receptor types, forming heterodimeric or heterooligomeric receptor entities that display new receptor features. These features include alterations in ligand cooperativity and selectivity, the activation of novel signaling pathways, and novel processes of desensitization. Thus, it has become necessary to identify GPCR-associated protein complexes of interest at the cell surface, and to determine the state of oligomerization of these receptors and their interactions with their partner proteins. This is essential to understand the function of GPCRs in their native environment, as well as ways to either modulate or control receptor activity with appropriate pharmacological tools, and to develop new therapeutic strategies. This requires the development of technologies to precisely address protein-protein interactions between oligomers at the cell surface. In collaboration with Cisbio Bioassay, we have developed such a technology, which combines TR-FRET detection with a new labeling method called SnapTag. This technology has allowed us to address the oligomeric state of many GPCRs.