WorldWideScience

Sample records for technology including silicon

  1. Silicon carbide fibers and articles including same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnier, John E; Griffith, George W

    2015-01-27

    Methods of producing silicon carbide fibers. The method comprises reacting a continuous carbon fiber material and a silicon-containing gas in a reaction chamber at a temperature ranging from approximately 1500.degree. C. to approximately 2000.degree. C. A partial pressure of oxygen in the reaction chamber is maintained at less than approximately 1.01.times.10.sup.2 Pascal to produce continuous alpha silicon carbide fibers. Continuous alpha silicon carbide fibers and articles formed from the continuous alpha silicon carbide fibers are also disclosed.

  2. Porous silicon technology for integrated microsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Jin Zheng

    With the development of micro systems, there is an increasing demand for integrable porous materials. In addition to those conventional applications, such as filtration, wicking, and insulating, many new micro devices, including micro reactors, sensors, actuators, and optical components, can benefit from porous materials. Conventional porous materials, such as ceramics and polymers, however, cannot meet the challenges posed by micro systems, due to their incompatibility with standard micro-fabrication processes. In an effort to produce porous materials that can be used in micro systems, porous silicon (PS) generated by anodization of single crystalline silicon has been investigated. In this work, the PS formation process has been extensively studied and characterized as a function of substrate type, crystal orientation, doping concentration, current density and surfactant concentration and type. Anodization conditions have been optimized for producing very thick porous silicon layers with uniform pore size, and for obtaining ideal pore morphologies. Three different types of porous silicon materials: meso porous silicon, macro porous silicon with straight pores, and macro porous silicon with tortuous pores, have been successfully produced. Regular pore arrays with controllable pore size in the range of 2mum to 6mum have been demonstrated as well. Localized PS formation has been achieved by using oxide/nitride/polysilicon stack as masking materials, which can withstand anodization in hydrofluoric acid up to twenty hours. A special etching cell with electrolytic liquid backside contact along with two process flows has been developed to enable the fabrication of thick macro porous silicon membranes with though wafer pores. For device assembly, Si-Au and In-Au bonding technologies have been developed. Very low bonding temperature (˜200°C) and thick/soft bonding layers (˜6mum) have been achieved by In-Au bonding technology, which is able to compensate the potentially

  3. Silicon LEDs in FinFET technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piccolo, G.; Kuindersma, P.I.; Ragnarsson, L-A.; Hueting, R.J.E.; Collaert, N.; Schmitz, J.

    2014-01-01

    We present what to our best knowledge is the first forward operating silicon light-emitting diode (LED) in fin-FET technology. The results show near-infrared (NIR) emission around 1100 nm caused by band-to-band light emission in the silicon which is uniformly distributed across the lowly doped activ

  4. Automotive Radar Sensors in Silicon Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Vipul

    2013-01-01

    This book presents architectures and design techniques for mm-wave automotive radar transceivers. Several fully-integrated transceivers and receivers operating at 22-29 GHz and 77-81 GHz are demonstrated in both CMOS and SiGe BiCMOS technologies. Excellent performance is achieved indicating the suitability of silicon technologies for automotive radar sensors.  This book bridges an existing gap between information available on dependable system/architecture design and circuit design.  It provides the background of the field and detailed description of recent research and development of silicon-based radar sensors.  System-level requirements and circuit topologies for radar transceivers are described in detail. Holistic approaches towards designing radar sensors are validated with several examples of highly-integrated radar ICs in silicon technologies. Circuit techniques to design millimeter-wave circuits in silicon technologies are discussed in depth.  Describes concepts and fundamentals of automotive rada...

  5. Silicon Carbide Technologies for Lightweighted Aerospace Mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    silicon carbide (SiC) based materials. It is anticipated that SiC can be utilized for most applications from cryogenic to high temperatures. This talk will focus on describing the SOA for these (near term) SiC technology solutions for making mirror structural substrates, figuring and finishing technologies being investigated to reduce cost time

  6. Integrated cooling devices in silicon technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perret, C.; Avenas, Y.; Gillot, Ch.; Boussey, J.; Schaeffer, Ch.

    2002-05-01

    Silicon technology has become a good alternative to copper for the elaboration of efficient cooling devices required in power electronics domain. Owing to its high degree of miniaturization, it is expected to provide suitable microchannels and other inlets holes that were not achievable by copper micromachining. Besides, the use of silicon technology provides a variety of bare materials (silicon dioxide, silicon nitride, silicide, etc.) which may be either insulator or conductive, with a good or bad thermal conductivity. This large choice makes it possible to built up rather complex multilayer devices with mechanical properties good enough in comparison with hybrid copper technology heat sinks. Nevertheless, the use of silicon technology, where the microchannel width may reach few tens of microns, raises fundamental features concerning the fluid displacement within such small sections. More precisely, fundamental fluid mechanics studies have to be conducted out in order to get an accurate description of the fluid boundary layers and to provide basic data on the exchange mechanisms occurring at these surfaces. In this paper, we review the operation principles of both single- and double-phase heat exchange devices elaborated in silicon technology. Forced-convection heat sinks as well as integrated micro heat pipes are analyzed. An analytical approach is adopted to evaluate their total thermal resistances as a function of several geometrical parameters. Numerical simulations are then used in order to assess the accuracy of the analytical approach and to evaluate the impact of the fluidic aspects on the whole performance. The optimum devices are then conceived thanks to an appropriate optimization procedure taken into account the several experimental constraints. Reference values of similar copper devices are reminded and the advantages of the silicon integrated approach are highlighted.

  7. Inkjet technology for crystalline silicon photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stüwe, David; Mager, Dario; Biro, Daniel; Korvink, Jan G

    2015-01-27

    The world's ever increasing demand for energy necessitates technologies that generate electricity from inexhaustible and easily accessible energy sources. Silicon photovoltaics is a technology that can harvest the energy of sunlight. Its great characteristics have fueled research and development activities in this exciting field for many years now. One of the most important activities in the solar cell community is the investigation of alternative fabrication and structuring technologies, ideally serving both of the two main goals: device optimization and reduction of fabrication costs. Inkjet technology is practically evaluated along the whole process chain. Research activities cover many processes, such as surface texturing, emitter formation, or metallization. Furthermore, the inkjet technology itself is manifold as well. It can be used to apply inks that serve as a functional structure, present in the final device, as mask for subsequent structuring steps, or even serve as a reactant source to activate chemical etch reactions. This article reviews investigations of inkjet-printing in the field of silicon photovoltaics. The focus is on the different inkjet processes for individual fabrication steps of a solar cell. A technological overview and suggestions about where future work will be focused on are also provided. The great variety of the investigated processes highlights the ability of the inkjet technology to find its way into many other areas of functional printing and printed electronics.

  8. Silicon Light Emitting Devices in CMOS Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hong-Da; LIU Hai-Jun; LIU Jin-Bin; GU Ming; HUANG Bei-Ju

    2007-01-01

    @@ Two silicon light emitting devices with different structures are realized in standard 0.35 μm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. They operate in reverse breakdown mode and can be turned on at 8.3 V. Output optical powers of 13.6nW and 12.1 nW are measured at 10 V and 100 mA, respectively, and both the calculated light emission intensities are more than 1 mW/cm2. The optical spectra of the two devices are between 600-790 nm with a clear peak near 760 nm.

  9. Silicon sensor technologies for ATLAS IBL upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Grenier, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    New pixel sensors are currently under development for ATLAS Upgrades. The first upgrade stage will consist in the construction of a new pixel layer that will be installed in the detector during the 2013 LHC shutdown. The new layer (Insertable-B-Layer, IBL) will be inserted between the inner most layer of the current pixel detector and the beam pipe at a radius of 3.2cm. The expected high radiation levels require the use of radiation hard technology for both the front-end chip and the sensor. Two different pixel sensor technologies are envisaged for the IBL. The sensor choice will occur in July 2011. One option is developed by the ATLAS Planar Pixel Sensor (PPS) Collaboration and is based on classical n-in-n planar silicon sensors which have been used for the ATLAS Pixel detector. For the IBL, two changes were required: The thickness was reduced from 250 um to 200 um to improve the radiation hardness. In addition, so-called "slim edges" were designed to reduce the inactive edge of the sensors from 1100 um to o...

  10. Silicon Research and Technology Workshop report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulenberg, A., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The materials, structures, processing, modeling and measurements of high efficiency silicon solar cells were surveyed. In the materials area, highlights included: (1) the possibility of improving cell voltages by reducing minority carrier mobilities in critical regions of the solar cells; (2) the need for and possibility of lowering the surface recombination velocity for improvement of open circuit voltage in shallow junction cells; (3) the present need for improved lifetime in high resistivity cells; and (4) the potential for new materials such as polycrystalline or dendritic web material to perform well at end of life in a radiation environment. In the area of structures, distinction was made between those for terrestrial use and those that would survive radiation environments. Areas such as epitaxial growth and laser or elctron beam annealing (and diffusion) were proposed as having certain advantages over more conventional techniques.

  11. Polycrystalline silicon study: Low-cost silicon refining technology prospects and semiconductor-grade polycrystalline silicon availability through 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costogue, E. N.; Ferber, R.; Lutwack, R.; Lorenz, J. H.; Pellin, R.

    1984-01-01

    Photovoltaic arrays that convert solar energy into electrical energy can become a cost effective bulk energy generation alternative, provided that an adequate supply of low cost materials is available. One of the key requirements for economic photovoltaic cells is reasonably priced silicon. At present, the photovoltaic industry is dependent upon polycrystalline silicon refined by the Siemens process primarily for integrated circuits, power devices, and discrete semiconductor devices. This dependency is expected to continue until the DOE sponsored low cost silicon refining technology developments have matured to the point where they are in commercial use. The photovoltaic industry can then develop its own source of supply. Silicon material availability and market pricing projections through 1988 are updated based on data collected early in 1984. The silicon refining industry plans to meet the increasing demands of the semiconductor device and photovoltaic product industries are overviewed. In addition, the DOE sponsored technology research for producing low cost polycrystalline silicon, probabilistic cost analysis for the two most promising production processes for achieving the DOE cost goals, and the impacts of the DOE photovoltaics program silicon refining research upon the commercial polycrystalline silicon refining industry are addressed.

  12. Silicon on insulator (SOI) technology; Technologie silicium sur isolant (SOI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristoloveanu, S.; Balestra, F. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Institut de Microelectronique, Electromagnetisme et Photonique, IMEP, Ecole Nationale Superieure d' Electronique et de Radioelectricite de Grenoble, ENSERG, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2002-05-01

    The silicon on insulator (SOI) technology was invented in the 1960's and 1970's in order to satisfy the demand of hardened integrated circuits with respect to ionizing radiations. This technology uses an embedded oxide for a perfect dielectric insulation between the active circuit (superficial) layer and the massive silicon substrate (responsible of undesirable parasite effects). The SOI technology is a first-class technology for the fabrication of low consumption and high frequency components. This article describes the state-of-the-art of the SOI technology, starting with the methods of synthesis of the main materials. The essential advantages of SOI circuits with respect to conventional massive silicon devices are presented with some typical examples of components (totally or partially depleted MOS transistors, miniaturization of conventional MOS transistors, innovative architectures). Finally the challenges to be taken up by the SOI technology to spread over the market of microelectronics are discussed. (J.S.)

  13. Computer technology: Silicon chips lighten up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivien, Laurent

    2015-12-01

    Microprocessor communications have received a boost from the integration of electronics and photonics in silicon -- a first step towards low power consumption and efficient computing systems. See Letter p.534

  14. Silicon technologies ion implantation and thermal treatment

    CERN Document Server

    Baudrant, Annie

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this book is to remind new engineers in silicon foundry, the fundamental physical and chemical rules in major Front end treatments: oxidation, epitaxy, ion implantation and impurities diffusion.

  15. 75 FR 71464 - Metlife Technology, Operations, and Information Technology Groups Including On-Site Leased...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ... Employment and Training Administration Metlife Technology, Operations, and Information Technology Groups... Moosic, PA, Metlife Technology, Operations, and Information Technology Groups Including On-Site Leased... of MetLife, Technology, Operations, and Information Technology Groups, Moosic, Pennsylvania...

  16. Silicon Film[trademark] photovoltaic manufacturing technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottenberg, W.R.; Hall, R.B.; Jackson, E.L.; Lampo, S.; Mulligan, W.E.; Barnett, A.M. (AstroPower, Inc., Newark, DE (United States))

    1993-04-01

    This report describes work on a project to develop an advanced low-cost manufacturing process for a new utility-scale flatplate module based on thin active layers of polycrystalline silicon on a low-cost substrate. This is called the Silicon-Film[trademark] process. This new power module is based on a new large solar cell that is 675 cm[sup 2] in area. Eighteen of these solar cells form a 170-W module. Twelve ofthese modules form a 2-kW array. The program has three components: (1) development of a Silicon-Film[trademark] wafer machine that can manufacture wafer 675 cm[sup 2] in size with a total product cost reductionof 70%; (2) development of an advanced solar cell manufacturing process that will turn the Silicon-Film[trademark] wafer into a 14%-efficient solar cell; and (3) development of an advanced module design based on these large-area, efficient silicon solar cells with an average power of 170 watts. The completion of these three tasks will lead to a new power module designed for utility and other power applications with asubstantially lower cost.

  17. Technology and applications of micromachined silicon adaptive mirrors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vdovin, G.; Middelhoek, S.; Sarro, P.M.

    1997-01-01

    The technology of low-cost high-quality micromachined adaptive mirrors is reported. Adaptive mirrors are fabricated by combining bulk silicon micromachining with standard electronics technologies. Mirrors with tens of control channels, having RMS initial deviation from plane of the order of λ/20 and

  18. Miniature lamellar grating interferometer based on silicon technology

    OpenAIRE

    Manzardo, Omar; Michaely, Roland; Schädelin, Felix; Noell, Wilfried; Overstolz, Thomas; De Rooij, Nicolaas F; Herzig, Hans-Peter

    2008-01-01

    We present a lamellar grating interferometer realized with microelectromechanical system technology. It is used as a time-scanning Fourier-transform spectrometer. The motion is carried out by an electrostatic comb drive actuator fabricated by silicon micromachining, particularly by silicon-on-insulator technology. For the first time to our knowledge, we measure the spectrum of an extended white-light source with a resolution of 1.6 nm at a wavelength of 400 nm and of 5.5 nm at 800 nm. The wav...

  19. Continuum simulation of solid phase epitaxial regrowth of amorphized silicon including most advanced physical interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delalleau, Julien; Simola, Roberto [STMicroelectronics, ZI de Rousset, BP 2, 13106 Rousset (France); Pakfar, Ardechir; Tavernier, Clement [STMicroelectronics, 850 rue Jean Monnet, 38926 Crolles Cedex (France); Bazizi, El-Medhi [STMicroelectronics, 850 rue Jean Monnet, 38926 Crolles Cedex (France); LAAS/CNRS, University of Toulouse, 7 av. Col. Roche, 31077 Toulouse (France); CEMES/CNRS, 29 rue J. Marvig, 31055 Toulouse (France)

    2011-03-15

    Solid-phase-epitaxial regrowth (SPER) of Si amorphized by ion implantation is considered as a potential solution for the fabrication of highly-activated ultra-shallow junctions for future technology nodes of Si CMOS devices. In the frame of 32 and 22 nm technologies node development, SPER occurs after amorphizing implantations used in source/drain regions. To get an accurate simulation of dopant activation and junction depth position, a suitable continuum SPER model, implemented into a commercial simulator, is now mandatory. This TCAD model must consider the different physical effects associated with SPER: silicon regrowth rate, dopants redistribution snow plough effect, and interaction with silicon point defects. In this work, using a previously established model, we have implemented an improved physically based model for SPER and, several formulations have been developed to enable a robust/accurate modeling of the recrystallization velocity. It takes into account the direct interaction between amorphous/crystalline interface kinetics and point defects, and a regrowth rate dependent on temperature. Simulation results of dopant concentration profiles are in good agreement with experimental data and can provide important insight for optimizing the bulk silicon process as well in one dimension as two dimensions. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Silicon technologies for the CLIC vertex detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spannagel, S.

    2017-06-01

    CLIC is a proposed linear e+e- collider designed to provide particle collisions at center-of-mass energies of up to 3 TeV. Precise measurements of the properties of the top quark and the Higgs boson, as well as searches for Beyond the Standard Model physics require a highly performant CLIC detector. In particular the vertex detector must provide a single point resolution of only a few micrometers while not exceeding the envisaged material budget of around 0.2% X0 per layer. Beam-beam interactions and beamstrahlung processes impose an additional requirement on the timestamping capabilities of the vertex detector of about 10 ns. These goals can only be met by using novel techniques in the sensor and ASIC design as well as in the detector construction. The R&D program for the CLIC vertex detector explores various technologies in order to meet these demands. The feasibility of planar sensors with a thickness of 50-150 μm, including different active edge designs, are evaluated using Timepix3 ASICs. First prototypes of the CLICpix readout ASIC, implemented in 65 nm CMOS technology and with a pixel size of 25×25μm 2, have been produced and tested in particle beams. An updated version of the ASIC with a larger pixel matrix and improved precision of the time-over-threshold and time-of-arrival measurements has been submitted. Different hybridization concepts have been developed for the interconnection between the sensor and readout ASIC, ranging from small-pitch bump bonding of planar sensors to capacitive coupling of active HV-CMOS sensors. Detector simulations based on Geant 4 and TCAD are compared with experimental results to assess and optimize the performance of the various designs. This contribution gives an overview of the R&D program undertaken for the CLIC vertex detector and presents performance measurements of the prototype detectors currently under investigation.

  1. PECVD silicon carbide surface micromachining technology and selected MEMS applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajaraman, V.; Pakula, L.S.; Yang, H.; French, P.J.; Sarro, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Attractive material properties of plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposited (PECVD) silicon carbide (SiC) when combined with CMOS-compatible low thermal budget processing provides an ideal technology platform for developing various microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices and merging them with

  2. Proportional control valves integrated in silicon nitride surface channel technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, Maarten S.; Groenesteijn, Jarno; Meutstege, Esken; Brookhuis, Robert A.; Brouwer, Dannis M.; Lötters, Joost C.; Wiegerink, Remco J.

    2015-01-01

    We have designed and realized two types of proportional microcontrol valves in a silicon nitride surface channel technology process. This enables on-die integration of flow controllers with other surface channel devices, such as pressure sensors or thermal or Coriolis-based (mass) flow sensors, to o

  3. PECVD silicon carbide surface micromachining technology and selected MEMS applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajaraman, V.; Pakula, L.S.; Yang, H.; French, P.J.; Sarro, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Attractive material properties of plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposited (PECVD) silicon carbide (SiC) when combined with CMOS-compatible low thermal budget processing provides an ideal technology platform for developing various microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices and merging them with

  4. Technology Finds Its Place in Silicon Valley Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundley, Paula; Scigliano, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Technology today is poised to usher in the best of times. Exploring what other districts do highlights the common themes as well as the unique challenges. Three very different districts in Silicon Valley--Portola Valley School District, Campbell Union School District and San Jose Unified School District--explain the strategies they use to enhance…

  5. High-efficiency photovoltaic technology including thermoelectric generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisac, Miguel; Villasevil, Francesc X.; López, Antonio M.

    2014-04-01

    Nowadays, photovoltaic solar energy is a clean and reliable source for producing electric power. Most photovoltaic systems have been designed and built up for use in applications with low power requirements. The efficiency of solar cells is quite low, obtaining best results in monocrystalline silicon structures, with an efficiency of about 18%. When temperature rises, photovoltaic cell efficiency decreases, given that the short-circuit current is slightly increased, and the open-circuit voltage, fill factor and power output are reduced. To ensure that this does not affect performance, this paper describes how to interconnect photovoltaic and thermoelectric technology into a single structure. The temperature gradient in the solar panel is used to supply thermoelectric cells, which generate electricity, achieving a positive contribution to the total balance of the complete system.

  6. Silicon Technologies for the CLIC Vertex Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Spannagel, Simon

    2017-01-01

    CLIC is a proposed linear e$^+$e$^−$ collider designed to provide particle collisions at center-of-mass energies of up to 3 TeV. Precise measurements of the properties of the top quark and the Higgs boson, as well as searches for Beyond the Standard Model physics require a highly performant CLIC detector. In particular the vertex detector must provide a single point resolution of only a few micrometers while not exceeding the envisaged material budget of around 0.2%$~X_0$ per layer. Beam-beam interactions and beamstrahlung processes impose an additional requirement on the timestamping capabilities of the vertex detector of about 10 ns. These goals can only be met by using novel techniques in the sensor and ASIC design as well as in the detector construction. The R&D program for the CLIC vertex detector explores various technologies in order to meet these demands. The feasibility of planar sensors with a thickness of 50–150$~\\mu$m, including different active edge designs, are evaluated using Timepix3 A...

  7. Interviewing Objects: Including Educational Technologies as Qualitative Research Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Catherine A.; Thompson, Terrie Lynn

    2011-01-01

    This article argues the importance of including significant technologies-in-use as key qualitative research participants when studying today's digitally enhanced learning environments. We gather a set of eight heuristics to assist qualitative researchers in "interviewing" technologies-in-use (or other relevant objects), drawing on concrete…

  8. Interviewing Objects: Including Educational Technologies as Qualitative Research Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Catherine A.; Thompson, Terrie Lynn

    2011-01-01

    This article argues the importance of including significant technologies-in-use as key qualitative research participants when studying today's digitally enhanced learning environments. We gather a set of eight heuristics to assist qualitative researchers in "interviewing" technologies-in-use (or other relevant objects), drawing on concrete…

  9. Composite materials and bodies including silicon carbide and titanium diboride and methods of forming same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillo, Thomas M.; Chu, Henry S.; Harrison, William M.; Bailey, Derek

    2013-01-22

    Methods of forming composite materials include coating particles of titanium dioxide with a substance including boron (e.g., boron carbide) and a substance including carbon, and reacting the titanium dioxide with the substance including boron and the substance including carbon to form titanium diboride. The methods may be used to form ceramic composite bodies and materials, such as, for example, a ceramic composite body or material including silicon carbide and titanium diboride. Such bodies and materials may be used as armor bodies and armor materials. Such methods may include forming a green body and sintering the green body to a desirable final density. Green bodies formed in accordance with such methods may include particles comprising titanium dioxide and a coating at least partially covering exterior surfaces thereof, the coating comprising a substance including boron (e.g., boron carbide) and a substance including carbon.

  10. Electroabsorption modulator based on inverted-rib-type silicon waveguide including double graphene layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yonghan; Kwon, Min-Suk

    2017-04-01

    We investigate, theoretically, a compact graphene-based electroabsorption modulator (EAM). The compactness of the EAM arises from an inverted-rib-type (IRT) silicon waveguide including a graphene-oxide-graphene stack. The EAM consists of input and output waveguides, which are conventional silicon strip waveguides, and the IRT waveguide efficiently connected to them through tapering regions. The stack is located in the region where the fundamental transverse electric mode of the IRT waveguide is mainly confined. Hence, the IRT waveguide mode strongly interacts with the graphene layers. Moreover, the IRT waveguide can be realized without complex high-precision processes. The calculated modulation depth of the IRT waveguide is 0.41 dB μm-1 when the chemical potential of graphene is tuned between 0.2 and 0.6 eV. It is more than two times larger than those of previous graphene-covered silicon waveguides. The EAM, with a 3 dB extinction ratio, employs an IRT waveguide of length 7-8 μm. This EAM is analyzed and found to have an optical bandwidth of 100 nm, an electrical bandwidth of up to 46.4 GHz, and energy consumption smaller than 630 fJ bit-1. Such EAMs based on IRT waveguides may play an important role in off-chip optical interconnection.

  11. Silicon pixel detector prototyping in SOI CMOS technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Roma; Bugiel, Szymon; Idzik, Marek; Kapusta, Piotr; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Turala, Michal

    2016-12-01

    The Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) CMOS is one of the most advanced and promising technology for monolithic pixel detectors design. The insulator layer that is implemented inside the silicon crystal allows to integrate sensors matrix and readout electronic on a single wafer. Moreover, the separation of electronic and substrate increases also the SOI circuits performance. The parasitic capacitances to substrate are significantly reduced, so the electronic systems are faster and consume much less power. The authors of this presentation are the members of international SOIPIX collaboration, that is developing SOI pixel detectors in 200 nm Lapis Fully-Depleted, Low-Leakage SOI CMOS. This work shows a set of advantages of SOI technology and presents possibilities for pixel detector design SOI CMOS. In particular, the preliminary results of a Cracow chip are presented.

  12. Bonding and Integration Technologies for Silicon Carbide Based Injector Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbig, Michael C.; Singh, Mrityunjay

    2008-01-01

    Advanced ceramic bonding and integration technologies play a critical role in the fabrication and application of silicon carbide based components for a number of aerospace and ground based applications. One such application is a lean direct injector for a turbine engine to achieve low NOx emissions. Ceramic to ceramic diffusion bonding and ceramic to metal brazing technologies are being developed for this injector application. For the diffusion bonding, titanium interlayers (PVD and foils) were used to aid in the joining of silicon carbide (SiC) substrates. The influence of such variables as surface finish, interlayer thickness (10, 20, and 50 microns), processing time and temperature, and cooling rates were investigated. Microprobe analysis was used to identify the phases in the bonded region. For bonds that were not fully reacted an intermediate phase, Ti5Si3Cx, formed that is thermally incompatible in its thermal expansion and caused thermal stresses and cracking during the processing cool-down. Thinner titanium interlayers and/or longer processing times resulted in stable and compatible phases that did not contribute to microcracking and resulted in an optimized microstructure. Tensile tests on the joined materials resulted in strengths of 13-28 MPa depending on the SiC substrate material. Non-destructive evaluation using ultrasonic immersion showed well formed bonds. For the joining technology of brazing Kovar fuel tubes to silicon carbide, preliminary development of the joining approach has begun. Various technical issues and requirements for the injector application are addressed.

  13. From Bell Labs to Silicon Valley: A Saga of Technology Transfer, 1954-1961

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riordan, Michael

    2009-03-01

    Although Bell Telephone Laboratories invented the transistor and developed most of the associated semiconductor technology, the integrated circuit or microchip emerged elsewhere--at Texas Instruments and Fairchild Semiconductor Company. I recount how the silicon technology required to make microchips possible was first developed at Bell Labs in the mid-1950s. Much of it reached the San Francisco Bay Area when transistor pioneer William Shockley left Bell Labs in 1955 to establish the Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory in Mountain View, hiring a team of engineers and scientists to develop and manufacture transistors and related semiconductor devices. But eight of them--including Gordon Moore and Robert Noyce, eventually the co-founders of Intel--resigned en masse in September 1957 to start Fairchild, bringing with them the scientific and technological expertise they had acquired and further developed at Shockley's firm. This event marked the birth of Silicon Valley, both technologically and culturally. By March 1961 the company was marketing its Micrologic integrated circuits, the first commercial silicon microchips, based on the planar processing technique developed at Fairchild by Jean Hoerni.

  14. Model of Vernier devices in silicon-on-insulator technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Guofang; Li, Yuan; Hu, Chunguang; Lei, Lihua; Zhao, Dong; Li, Hongyu; Luo, Yunhan; Zhen, Zhen

    2014-07-01

    In order to increase the number of channels that could be multiplexed or demultiplexed in the dense wavelength division multiplexed (DWDM) system based on the resonators on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology, the Vernier effect in the series-coupled racetrack resonators is presented to extend the free spectral range (FSR) of the DWDM systems. A method is developed based on a matrix approach to simulate Vernier devices. A three-dimensional full vectorial finite difference (FVFD) model, specifically suited for high index contrast and smaller size waveguides, for example, a waveguide in SOI technology, is developed to obtain the properties of a waveguide. Finally, the Vernier effect in the two series-coupled racetrack resonators is experimentally verified with an improved FSR and interstitial resonance suppression.

  15. Technology of silicon charged-particle detectors developed at the Institute of Electron Technology (ITE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegrzecka, Iwona; Panas, Andrzej; Bar, Jan; Budzyński, Tadeusz; Grabiec, Piotr; Kozłowski, Roman; Sarnecki, Jerzy; Słysz, Wojciech; Szmigiel, Dariusz; Wegrzecki, Maciej; Zaborowski, Michał

    2013-07-01

    The paper discusses the technology of silicon charged-particle detectors developed at the Institute of Electron Technology (ITE). The developed technology enables the fabrication of both planar and epiplanar p+-ν-n+ detector structures with an active area of up to 50 cm2. The starting material for epiplanar structures are silicon wafers with a high-resistivity n-type epitaxial layer ( ν layer - ρ < 3 kΩcm) deposited on a highly doped n+-type substrate (ρ< 0,02Ωcm) developed and fabricated at the Institute of Electronic Materials Technology. Active layer thickness of the epiplanar detectors (νlayer) may range from 10 μm to 150 μm. Imported silicon with min. 5 kΩcm resistivity is used to fabricate planar detectors. Active layer thickness of the planar detectors (ν) layer) may range from 200 μm to 1 mm. This technology enables the fabrication of both discrete and multi-junction detectors (monolithic detector arrays), such as single-sided strip detectors (epiplanar and planar) and double-sided strip detectors (planar). Examples of process diagrams for fabrication of the epiplanar and planar detectors are presented in the paper, and selected technological processes are discussed.

  16. External costs of silicon carbide fusion power plants compared to other advanced generation technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lechon, Y. E-mail: yolanda.lechon@ciemat.es; Cabal, H.; Saez, R.M.; Hallberg, B.; Aquilonius, K.; Schneider, T.; Lepicard, S.; Ward, D.; Hamacher, T.; Korhonen, R

    2003-09-01

    This study was performed in the framework of the Socio-Economic Research on Fusion (SERF3), which is jointly conducted by Euratom and the fusion associations. Assessments of monetarized external impacts of the fusion fuel-cycle were previously performed (SERF1 and SERF2). Three different power plant designs were studied, with the main difference being the structural materials and cooling system used. In this third phase of the SERF project the external costs of three additional fusion power plant models using silicon carbide as structural material have been analysed. A comparison with other advanced generation technologies expected to be in use around 2050, when the first fusion power plant would be operative, has also been performed. These technologies include advanced fossil technologies, such as Natural Gas Combined Cycle, Pressurised Fluidised Bed Combustion and Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle with carbon sequestration technologies; fuel cells and renewable technologies including geothermal energy, wind energy and photovoltaic systems with energy storage devices. Fusion power plants using silicon carbide as structural material have higher efficiencies than plants using steel and this fact has a very positive effect on the external costs per kW h. These external costs are in the lowest range of the external costs of advanced generation technologies indicating the outstanding environmental performance of fusion power.

  17. Prototype Active Silicon Sensor in 150 nm HR-CMOS Technology for ATLAS Inner Detector Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Rymaszewski, Piotr; Breugnon, Patrick; Godiot, Stépahnie; Gonella, Laura; Hemperek, Tomasz; Hirono, Toko; Hügging, Fabian; Krüger, Hans; Liu, Jian; Pangaud, Patrick; Peric, Ivan; Rozanov, Alexandre; Wang, Anqing; Wermes, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    The LHC Phase-II upgrade will lead to a significant increase in luminosity, which in turn will bring new challenges for the operation of inner tracking detectors. A possible solution is to use active silicon sensors, taking advantage of commercial CMOS technologies. Currently ATLAS R&D programme is qualifying a few commercial technologies in terms of suitability for this task. In this paper a prototype designed in one of them (LFoundry 150 nm process) will be discussed. The chip architecture will be described, including different pixel types incorporated into the design, followed by simulation and measurement results.

  18. Fabrication-Technology Research of New Type Silicon Magnetic-Sensitive Transistor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaofeng Zhao; Dianzhong Wen

    2006-01-01

    This paper mainly describes a research of fabrication-technology of silicon magnetic-sensitive transistor (SMST) with rectangle-plank-cubic structure fabricated on silicon wafer by MEMS technique. An experiment research on basic characteristic of the silicon magnetic-sensitive transistor was done. Anisotropic etching and reliable technique project were provided and applied in order to fabricate SMST with rectangle-plank-cubic construction. This means that a new kind of fabrication technology for silicon magnetic-sensitive transistor was provided. The result shows that the technique can be not only compatible with IC technology but also integrated easily, and has a wide application field.

  19. Silicon photonic switch technology for optical networks in telecom and datacom areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Shigeru; Yanagimachi, Shigeyuki; Takeshita, Hitoshi; Tajima, Akio

    2017-01-01

    As a promising platform technology for optical switches, silicon photonics is recently attracting much attention. In this paper, we demonstrate compact 8 × 8 silicon photonic switch modules with low loss, low polarization sensitivity, and low cross-talk properties. An optical circuit including 152 thermo-optical switch elements and spot size converters were formed within a silicon chip size of 12 mm × 14 mm. The developed module where a silicon photonic chip was assembled with a fiber array showed about 6-dB average excess optical loss, including optical coupling loss, on all 64 paths of the 8 × 8 optical switch. Measured polarization dependent loss was about 0.6 dB on average over 64 paths and cross-talk was less than -35 dB. These optical switch modules are intended for applying to ROADMs in telecom optical networks, but, the port count extensibility using multiple compact modules and the faster switching capability of the optical switch are also useful for datacenter applications where hybrid network scheme with electronic packet switches and optical circuit switches is intensively investigated.

  20. Silicon carbide against silicon: a comparison in terms of physical properties, technology and electrical performance of power devices

    OpenAIRE

    Locatelli, M.; Gamal, S.,

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to give the state of the art of the silicon carbide technology by “photographing” it beside the unique technology used for power electronics that is the silicon one. The theoretical superiority of SiC physical properties on those of Si, together with the important technological advancements realized during the last decade, are the main reasons of the interest given to SiC nowadays. Concerning electrical performance, the voltage and power handling capabilities d...

  1. Revitalize the US silicon/ferrosilicon industry through energy-efficient technology. Part 1, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, H.R.; Welborn, J.H.

    1995-02-01

    It is concluded that silicon metal and ferrosilicon can be very effectively produced in a DC submerged arc furnace. Specific energy consumption factors measured were favorable to the technology. Significant energy savings over conventional AC practice are likely. Hollow electrode feeding of the furnace does not appear feasible. Electrode consumption was 0.144 lbs/lb so silicon while making metal, much of which occurred above the burden pile. Silicon loss to fume averaged 19.5% of the silicon charge. In this furnace, 50% FeSi was more difficult to produce than silicon metal, and the furnace could not be run with full burden; it was operated successfully about 3/4 full. In the silicon metal portion, the furnace was operated in a fully submerged mode for several 3-day test campaigns. The industry must seriously consider the identified benefits of DC plasma arc technology for retrofit or new added silicon capacity.

  2. Technological study of oxygen aided laser cutting silicon steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Lei; Mi, Chenglong; Wu, Gang

    2008-03-01

    It is easy to produce molten dross by using traditional laser cutting technology in laser cutting silicon steel sheet. The main reason is that oxidizing reaction will take place inevitably by using oxygen as aided gas, so high pressure and high purity N II or inert gases is used as aided cutting gas in laser cutting process. Although the cut quality is improved, the cutting efficiency is dropped because of the lack of energy resulting from an exothermic oxidation reaction. A fire new laser cutting technology by using an additional nozzle put under the workpiece that will form lateral gas flow to control the direction of the flowing dross gas is raised. In this technology oxygen is still used as aided gas, the laser power is reduced and the cut is fine. The experiments prove that by controlling the technical parameter reasonably, glossy and dross-free cutting kerfs are obtained. The gas flow acting under the workpiece is simulated by Finite Element Method (FEM). The varieties of pneumatic fields when the additional nozzle is in different degree and flow velocity are analyzed, which provides academic basis for controlling the flowing direction of the dross gas more reasonably. This laser cutting technology is practical and feasible.

  3. Development of SHS azide technology of silicon carbide nanopowder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titova, Y. V.; Illarionov, A. Yu; Amosov, A. P.; Maidan, D. A.; Smetanin, K. S.

    2017-02-01

    The possibility of increasing the purity and yield of the SiC nanopowder using an intermediate synthesis of silicon nitride (Si3N4) by azide technology of self-propagating high-temperature synthesis based on the use of a powder of sodium azide (NaN3) as a nitriding reagent was investigated. As a result of combustion of the initial mixture of powders ‘19Si + 6NaN3 + (NH4)2SiF6 + 20’, a powdery product was obtained, consisting almost entirely of SiC (about 90%) with an admixture of Si3N4 and Si (about 5% each), and representing nanoparticles (80-150 nm) combined into agglomerates with the size up to 50 µm.

  4. Dry technologies for the production of crystalline silicon solar cells; Trockentechnologien zur Herstellung von kristallinen Siliziumsolarzellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rentsch, J.

    2005-04-15

    Within this work, dynamic plasma etching technologies for the industrial production of crystalline silicon solar cells has been investigated. The research activity can be separated into three major steps: the characterisation of the etching behaviour of a newly developed dynamic plasma etching system, the development and analysis of dry etching processes for solar cell production and the determination of the ecological and economical impacts of such a new technology compared to standard up to date technologies. The characterisation of the etching behaviour has been carried out for two different etching sources, a low frequency (110 kHz) and a microwave (2.45 GHz) plasma source. The parameter of interest was the delivered ion energy of each source mainly determining the reachable etch rate. The etch rate turned out to be the main most critical parameter concerning the reachable wafer throughput per hour. Other points of interest in characterisation of the etching system were the material of the transport carriers, the silicon load as well as the process temperatures. The development of different dry etching processes targets the design of a complete dry production process for crystalline silicon solar cells. Therefore etching processes for saw damage removal, texturing, edge isolation as well as etching of dielectric layers have been developed and optimised. The major benefits of a complete dry production process would be the reduction of handling steps in between process steps and therefore offers a large cost reduction potential. For multicrystalline silicon solar cells a cost reduction potential of 5 % compared to a standard wet chemical based reference process could be realized only including the dry etching of a phosphorus silicate glass layer after diffusion. Further reduction potential offers the implementation of a dry texturing process due to a significant efficiency increase. (orig.)

  5. Application of laser technology in high efficiency silicon solar cell manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, W.X.; Tu, J.L.; Wang, Z.G.; Cui, H.Y.; Deng, J.L.; Liu, Z.M.; Liao, H. [Yunnan Normal Univ., Yunnan (China). Solar Energy Research Inst., Education Ministry Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy Advanced Materials and Manufacturing Technology

    2008-07-01

    This paper examined the use of laser processing applications in solar cell fabrication. Laser processing is used to improve the electrical performance of solar cells as well as to reduce their manufacturing cost. Laser processes included laser scribing and cutting; laser fired contacts; wrap through technology; laser chemical processing; and the application of thin film devices. The study also examined the use of laser-fired contact (LFC) process schemes for the production of silicon (Si) Results of the study indicated that the lasers resulted in decreased wafer thickness and increased wafer sizes. LFC schemes can be applied on almost all advanced solar cell structures, including metal or emitter wrap-through cells and interdigitated back contact cells. Laser doping and via hole drilling techniques are also feasible in industrial applications. The use of laser technologies is expected to reduce costs. It was concluded that laser technologies are an appropriate choice for solar cell manufacturing processes. 12 refs., 8 figs.

  6. Including Assistive Technology in Teacher Preparation: Exploring One Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poel, Elissa Wolfe; Wood, Jackie; Schmidt, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Assistive Technology (AT) is specifically addressed in the most recent reauthorization of IDEA, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (2004). The law insures that assistive devices and services

  7. Silicon-technology based microreactors for high-temperature heterogeneous partial oxidation reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiggelaar, Roald Michel

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis the results of a study into the feasibility of silicon-technology based microreactors for fast oxidation reactions have been discussed. When designed properly, silicon microreactors are suitable for studying heterogeneous gas phase reactions, such as reaction kinetics of direct cataly

  8. Water treatment technologies for CBM water, including cavitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makysmentz, B.; Lyon, F.L. [Newpark Resources Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada). Newpark Environmental Water Solutions

    2006-07-01

    The reasons for treating CBM water, end uses, reverse osmosis, pretreatment for reverse osmosis, and Newpark case studies are described. CBM water can be treated to make it suitable for injection, re-use, irrigation, or surface discharge. Usually the total dissolved solids (TDS) must be reduced by ion exchange or reverse osmosis with pretreatment. The concept of reverse osmosis and three types of applicable membrane processes are described: microfiltration and ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, and electrodialysis. The technologies used for pretreatment depend on the water quality and treatment goals, e.g. coagulation, flocculation and sand media filtration, softening, ion exchange, and nanofiltration. A Newpark case study is described for a water treatment plant at Boulder, Wyoming where evaporation was replaced by cavitation technology. The suitability of various treatment methods for Alberta CBM water is discussed. 21 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Expanding Health Technology Assessments to Include Effects on the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Kevin; Ganz, Michael L; Hsu, John; Strandberg-Larsen, Martin; Gonzalez, Raquel Palomino; Lund, Niels

    2016-01-01

    There is growing awareness of the impact of human activity on the climate and the need to stem this impact. Public health care decision makers from Sweden and the United Kingdom have started examining environmental impacts when assessing new technologies. This article considers the case for incorporating environmental impacts into the health technology assessment (HTA) process and discusses the associated challenges. Two arguments favor incorporating environmental impacts into HTA: 1) environmental changes could directly affect people's health and 2) policy decision makers have broad mandates and objectives extending beyond health care. Two types of challenges hinder this process. First, the nascent evidence base is insufficient to support the accurate comparison of technologies' environmental impacts. Second, cost-utility analysis, which is favored by many HTA agencies, could capture some of the value of environmental impacts, especially those generating health impacts, but might not be suitable for addressing broader concerns. Both cost-benefit and multicriteria decision analyses are potential methods for evaluating health and environmental outcomes, but are less familiar to health care decision makers. Health care is an important and sizable sector of the economy that could warrant closer policy attention to its impact on the environment. Considerable work is needed to track decision makers' demands, augment the environmental evidence base, and develop robust methods for capturing and incorporating environmental data as part of HTA.

  10. 78 FR 1265 - Dana Holding Corporation; Power Technologies Group Division; Including On-Site Leased Workers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... Employment and Training Administration Dana Holding Corporation; Power Technologies Group Division; Including... Technologies Group Division, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (subject firm). The worker group includes on-site leased... Company, Power Technologies Group Division, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, who were engaged in employment...

  11. Results from a beam test of silicon strip sensors manufactured by Infineon Technologies AG

    CERN Document Server

    Dragicevic, M; Bartl, U; Bergauer, T; Gamerith, S; Hacker, J; König, A; Kröner, F; Kucher, E; Moser, J; Neidhart, T; Schulze, H-J; Schustereder, W; Treberspurg, W; Wübben, T

    2014-01-01

    Most modern particle physics experiments use silicon based sensors for their tracking systems. These sensors are able to detect particles generated in high energy collisions with high spatial resolution and therefore allow the precise reconstruction of particle tracks. So far only a few vendors were capable of producing silicon strip sensors with the quality needed in particle physics experiments. Together with the European-based semiconductor manufacturer Infineon Technologies AG (Infineon) the Institute of High Energy Physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences (HEPHY) developed planar silicon strip sensors in p-on-n technology. This work presents the first results from a beam test of strip sensors manufactured by Infineon.

  12. Results from a beam test of silicon strip sensors manufactured by Infineon Technologies AG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dragicevic, M., E-mail: marko.dragicevic@oeaw.ac.at [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Auzinger, G. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria); CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Bartl, U. [Infineon Technologies Austria AG, Villach (Austria); Bergauer, T. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Gamerith, S.; Hacker, J. [Infineon Technologies Austria AG, Villach (Austria); König, A. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Infineon Technologies Austria AG, Villach (Austria); Kröner, F.; Kucher, E.; Moser, J.; Neidhart, T. [Infineon Technologies Austria AG, Villach (Austria); Schulze, H.-J. [Infineon Technologies AG, Munich (Germany); Schustereder, W. [Infineon Technologies Austria AG, Villach (Austria); Treberspurg, W. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Wübben, T. [Infineon Technologies Austria AG, Villach (Austria)

    2014-11-21

    Most modern particle physics experiments use silicon based sensors for their tracking systems. These sensors are able to detect particles generated in high energy collisions with high spatial resolution and therefore allow the precise reconstruction of particle tracks. So far only a few vendors were capable of producing silicon strip sensors with the quality needed in particle physics experiments. Together with the European-based semiconductor manufacturer Infineon Technologies AG (Infineon) the Institute of High Energy Physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences (HEPHY) developed planar silicon strip sensors in p-on-n technology. This work presents the first results from a beam test of strip sensors manufactured by Infineon.

  13. Including information technology project management in the nursing informatics curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockolow, Paulina; Bowles, Kathryn H

    2008-01-01

    Project management is a critical skill for nurse informaticists who are in prominent roles developing and implementing clinical information systems. It should be included in the nursing informatics curriculum, as evidenced by its inclusion in informatics competencies and surveys of important skills for informaticists. The University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing includes project management in two of the four courses in the master's level informatics minor. Course content includes the phases of the project management process; the iterative unified process methodology; and related systems analysis and project management skills. During the introductory course, students learn about the project plan, requirements development, project feasibility, and executive summary documents. In the capstone course, students apply the system development life cycle and project management skills during precepted informatics projects. During this in situ experience, students learn, the preceptors benefit, and the institution better prepares its students for the real world.

  14. Silicon and Plants: Current Knowledge and Technological Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyckx, Marie; Hausman, Jean-Francois; Lutts, Stanley; Guerriero, Gea

    2017-01-01

    Elemental silicon (Si), after oxygen, is the second most abundant element in the earth’s crust, which is mainly composed of silicates. Si is not considered essential for plant growth and development, however, increasing evidence in the literature shows that this metalloid is beneficial to plants, especially under stress conditions. Indeed Si alleviates the toxic effects caused by abiotic stresses, e.g., salt stress, drought, heavy metals, to name a few. Biogenic silica is also a deterrent against herbivores. Additionally, Si ameliorates the vigor of plants and improves their resistance to exogenous stresses. The protective role of Si was initially attributed to a physical barrier fortifying the cell wall (e.g., against fungal hyphae penetration), however, several studies have shown that the action of this element on plants is far more complex, as it involves a cross-talk with the cell interior and an effect on plant metabolism. In this study the beneficial role of Si on plants will be discussed, by reviewing the available data in the literature. Emphasis will be given to the protective role of Si during (a)biotic stresses and in this context both priming and the effects of Si on endogenous phytohormones will be discussed. A whole section will be devoted to the use of silica (SiO2) nanoparticles, in the light of the interest that nanotechnology has for agriculture. The paper also discusses the potential technological aspects linked to the use of Si in agriculture and to modify/improve the physical parameters of plant fibers. The study indeed provides perspectives on the use of Si to increase the yield of fiber crops and to improve the thermal stability and tensile strength of natural fibers.

  15. Silicon bulk growth for solar cells: Science and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakimoto, Koichi; Gao, Bing; Nakano, Satoshi; Harada, Hirofumi; Miyamura, Yoshiji

    2017-02-01

    The photovoltaic industry is in a phase of rapid expansion, growing by more than 30% per annum over the last few decades. Almost all commercial solar cells presently use single-crystalline or multicrystalline silicon wafers similar to those used in microelectronics; meanwhile, thin-film compounds and alloy solar cells are currently under development. The laboratory performance of these cells, at 26% solar energy conversion efficiency, is now approaching thermodynamic limits, with the challenge being to incorporate these improvements into low-cost commercial products. Improvements in the optical design of cells, particularly in their ability to trap weakly absorbed light, have also led to increasing interest in thin-film cells based on polycrystalline silicon; these cells have advantages over other thin-film photovoltaic candidates. This paper provides an overview of silicon-based solar cell research, especially the development of silicon wafers for solar cells, from the viewpoint of growing both single-crystalline and multicrystalline wafers.

  16. Development of deep silicon plasma etching for 3D integration technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golishnikov А. А.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Plasma etch process for thought-silicon via (TSV formation is one of the most important technological operations in the field of metal connections creation between stacked circuits in 3D assemble technology. TSV formation strongly depends on parameters such as Si-wafer thickness, aspect ratio, type of metallization material, etc. The authors investigate deep silicon plasma etch process for formation of TSV with controllable profile. The influence of process parameters on plasma etch rate, silicon etch selectivity to photoresist and the structure profile are researched in this paper. Technology with etch and passivation steps alternation was used as a method of deep silicon plasma etching. Experimental tool «Platrane-100» with high-density plasma reactor based on high-frequency ion source with transformer coupled plasma was used for deep silicon plasma etching. As actuation gases for deep silicon etching were chosen the following gases: SF6 was used for the etch stage and CHF3 was applied on the polymerization stage. As a result of research, the deep plasma etch process has been developed with the following parameters: silicon etch rate 6 µm/min, selectivity to photoresist 60 and structure profile 90±2°. This process provides formation of TSV 370 µm deep and about 120 µm in diameter.

  17. New technologies of silicon position-sensitive detectors for future tracker systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bassignana, Daniela; Lozano, M

    In view of the new generation of high luminosity colliders, HL-LHC and ILC, a farther investigation of silicon radiation detectors design and technology is demanded, in order to satisfy the stringent requirements of the experiments at such sophisticated machines. In this thesis, innovative technologies of silicon radiation detectors for future tracking systems are proposed. Three dierent devices have been studied and designed with the help of dierent tools for computer simulations. They have been manufactured in the IMB-CNM clean room facilities in Barcelona and characterized with proper experimental set-ups in order to test the detectors capabilities and the quality and suitability of the technologies used for their fabrication. The rst technology deals with the upgrade of dedicated sensors for laser alignment systems in future tracker detectors. The design and technology of common single-sided silicon microstrip detectors have been slightly modied in order to improve IR light transmittance of the devices. T...

  18. Silicon PV module customization using laser technology for new BIPV applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ballesteros, Juan José; Lauzurica, Sara; Morales, Miguel; del Caño, Teodosio; Valencia, Daniel; Casado, Leonardo; Balenzategui, José Lorenzo; Molpeceres, Carlos

    2014-10-01

    It is well known that lasers have helped to increase efficiency and to reduce production costs in the photovoltaic (PV) sector in the last two decades, appearing in most cases as the ideal tool to solve some of the critical bottlenecks of production both in thin film (TF) and crystalline silicon (c-Si) technologies. The accumulated experience in these fields has brought as a consequence the possibility of using laser technology to produce new Building Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV) products with a high degree of customization. However, to produce efficiently these personalized products it is necessary the development of optimized laser processes able to transform standard products in customized items oriented to the BIPV market. In particular, the production of semitransparencies and/or freeform geometries in TF a-Si modules and standard c-Si modules is an application of great interest in this market. In this work we present results of customization of both TF a-Si modules and standard monocrystalline (m-Si) and policrystalline silicon (pc-Si) modules using laser ablation and laser cutting processes. A discussion about the laser processes parameterization to guarantee the functionality of the device is included. Finally some examples of final devices are presented with a full discussion of the process approach used in their fabrication.

  19. Silicon Vertex Tracker for PHENIX Upgrade at RICH: Capabilities and Detector Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouicer, R.

    From the wealth of data obtained from the first three years of RHIC operation, the four RHIC experiments, BRAHMS, PHENIX, PHOBOS and STAR, have concluded that a high density partonic matter is formed at central Au+Au collisions at sNN = 200 GeV. The research focus now shifts from initial discovery to a detailed exploration of partonic matter. Particles carrying heavy flavor, i.e. charm or beauty quarks, are powerful tool for study the properties of the hot and dense medium created in high-energy nuclear collisions at RHIC. At the relatively low transverse momentum region, the collective motion of the heavy flavor will be a sensitive signal for the thermalization of light flavors. They also allow to probe the spin structure of the proton in a new and precise way. An upgrade of RHIC (RHIC-II) is intended for the second half of the decade, with a luminosity increase to about 20-40 times the design value of 8 × 10^26 cm-2 s-1 for Au+Au, and 2 × 10^32 cm-2 s-1 for polarized proton beams. The PHENIX collaboration plans to upgrade its experiment to exploit with an enhanced detector new physics then in reach. For this purpose, we are constructing the Silicon Vertex Tracker (VTX). The VTX detector will provide us the tool to measure new physics observables that are not accessible at the present RHIC or available only with very limited accuracy. These include a precise determination of the charm production cross section, transverse momentum spectra at high-pT region for particles carrying beauty quarks as well the detection of recoil jets in direct photon production. The VTX detector consists of four layers of barrel detectors located in the region of pseudorapidity |η| < 1.2 and covers almost 2π azimuthal angle. The pseudorapidity, η, is defined as η = -ln[tan(θ/2)], where θ is the emission angle relative to the beam axis. The inner two silicon barrels consists of silicon pixel sensors and their technology is the ALICE1LHCb sensor-readout hybrid, which was developed

  20. 75 FR 60141 - International Business Machines (IBM), Global Technology Services Delivery Division, Including On...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... Employment and Training Administration International Business Machines (IBM), Global Technology Services... of International Business Machines (IBM), Global Technology Services Delivery Division, Greenville... International Business Machines (IBM), Global Technology Services Delivery Division, including on-site...

  1. Silicon detector technology development in India for the participation in international experiments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anita Topkar; S Praveenkumar; Bharti Aggarwal; S K Kataria; M D Ghodgaonkar

    2007-12-01

    A specific research and development program has been carried out by BARC in India to develop the technology for large area silicon strip detectors for application in nuclear and high energy physics experiments. These strip detectors will be used as pre-shower detector in the CMS experiment at LHC, CERN for 0/ rejection. The fabrication technology to produce silicon strip detectors with very good uniformity over a large area of ∼ 40 cm2, low leakage currents of the order of 10 nA/cm2 per strip and high breakdown voltage of >500 V has been developed by BARC. The production of detectors is already under way to deliver 1000 detector modules for the CMS and 90% production is completed. In this paper, research and development work carried out to develop the detector fabrication technology is briefly described. The performance of the silicon strip detectors produced in India is presented. The present status of the detector technology is discussed.

  2. Silicon integrated nanophotonics: from fundamental science to manufacturable technology (Presentation Video)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasov, Yurii A.

    2015-02-01

    The IBM Silicon Nanophotonics technology enables cost-efficient optical links that connect racks, modules, and chips together with ultralow power single-die optical transceivers. I will give an overview of its historical development, technology differentiators, current status and a roadmap.

  3. Silicon microfabrication technologies for nano-satellite applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shul, R.J.; Kravitz, S.H.; Christenson, T.R.; Willison, C.L.; Zipperian, T.E.

    1999-12-09

    Silicon (Si) has a strength to density ratio of 3.0({sigma}{sub y}/{delta}=(6.8GPa/2.3g/cc)), an order-of-magnitude higher than titanium, aluminum, or stainless steel. Silicon also demonstrates favorable thermal, optical, and electrical properties making it ideal for use as a structural foundation for autonomous, mesoscopic systems such as nanosatellites. Using Si substrates, a structure that can simultaneously act as a thermal management system, a radiation shield, an optical material, a package, and a semiconductor substrate can be realized.

  4. Microfluidics in silicon/polymer technology as a cost-efficient alternative to silicon/glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkandjiev, K.; Riegger, L.; Kosse, D.; Welsche, M.; Gutzweiler, L.; Zengerle, R.; Koltay, P.

    2011-02-01

    We investigate TMMF photopolymer as a cost-efficient alternative to glass for the leak-tight sealing of high-density silicon microchannels. TMMF enables low temperature sealing and access to structures underneath via lamination and standard UV-lithography instead of costly glass machining and anodic bonding. TMMF is highly transparent and has a low autofluorescence for wavelengths larger than 400 nm. As the photopolymer is too thin for implementing bulky world-to-chip interfaces, we propose adhesive bonding of cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) modules. All materials were tested according ISO 10993-5 and showed no cytotoxic effects on the proliferation of L929 cells. To quantify the cost efficiency of the proposed techniques, we used an established silicon/Pyrex nanoliter dispenser as a reference and replaced structured Pyrex wafers by TMMF laminates and COC modules. Thus, consumable costs, manpower and machine time related to sealing of the microchannels and implementing the world-to-chip interface could be significantly reduced. Leak tightness was proved by applying a pressure of 0.2 MPa for 5 h without delamination or crosstalk between neighboring microchannels located only 100 µm apart. In contrast to anodic bonding, the proposed techniques are tolerant to surface inhomogeneities. They enable manufacturing of silicon/polymer microfluidics at lower costs and without compromising the performance compared to corresponding silicon/glass devices.

  5. Physics and technology of amorphous-crystalline heterostructure silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sark, Wilfried G.J.H.M. van [Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands). Copernicus Institute, Science Technology and Society; Roca, Francesco [Unita Tecnologie Portici, Napoli (Italy). ENEA - Agenzia Nazionale per le Nuove Tecnologie, l' Energia e lo Sviluppo Economico Sostenibile; Korte, Lars [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie (Germany). Inst. Silizium-Photovoltaik

    2012-07-01

    The challenge of developing photovoltaic (PV) technology to a cost-competitive alternative for established energy sources can be achieved using simple, high-throughput mass-production compatible processes. Issues to be addressed for large scale PV deployment in large power plants or in building integrated applications are enhancing the performance of solar energy systems by increasing solar cell efficiency, using low amounts of materials which are durable, stable, and abundant on earth, and reducing manufacturing and installation cost. Today's solar cell multi-GW market is dominated by crystalline silicon (c-Si) wafer technology, however new cell concepts are entering the market. One very promising solar cell design to answer these needs is the silicon hetero-junction solar cell, of which the emitter and back surface field are basically produced by a low temperature growth of ultra-thin layers of amorphous silicon. In this design, amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) constitutes both ''emitter'' and ''base-contact/back surface field'' on both sides of a thin crystalline silicon wafer-base (c-Si) where the photogenerated electrons and holes are generated; at the same time, a Si:H passivates the c-Si surface. Recently, cell efficiencies above 23% have been demonstrated for such solar cells. In this book, the editors present an overview of the state-of-the-art in physics and technology of amorphous-crystalline heterostructure silicon solar cells. (orig.)

  6. 78 FR 8587 - Thomson Reuters, Finance Operations & Technology Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... Employment and Training Administration Thomson Reuters, Finance Operations & Technology Division, Including... Worker Adjustment Assistance on August 2, 2012, applicable to workers of Thomson Reuters, Finance... that workers of Thomson Reuters, Finance Operations & Technology Division, including on-site...

  7. Characterisation of Fatigue Crack Growth in Silicone for Deap Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Thor

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the fatigue crack growth characteristics of Elastosil R RT 625 are determined by performing fatigue crack experiments based on ISO 27727. Elastosil R RT 625 is a silicone rubber used by Danfoss PolyPower A/S as the dielectric material in their DEAP elements. Cracks were characteris...

  8. Reaching Grid Parity Using BP Solar Crystalline Silicon Technology: A Systems Class Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, Daniel W; Wohlgemuth, John; Carlson, David E; Clark, Roger F; Gleaton, Mark; Posbic, John P; Zahler, James

    2010-12-06

    The primary target market for this program was the residential and commercial PV markets, drawing on BP Solar's premium product and service offerings, brand and marketing strength, and unique routes to market. These two markets were chosen because: (1) in 2005 they represented more than 50% of the overall US PV market; (2) they are the two markets that will likely meet grid parity first; and (3) they are the two market segments in which product development can lead to the added value necessary to generate market growth before reaching grid parity. Federal investment in this program resulted in substantial progress toward the DOE TPP target, providing significant advancements in the following areas: (1) Lower component costs particularly the modules and inverters. (2) Increased availability and lower cost of silicon feedstock. (3) Product specifically developed for residential and commercial applications. (4) Reducing the cost of installation through optimization of the products. (5) Increased value of electricity in mid-term to drive volume increases, via the green grid technology. (6) Large scale manufacture of PV products in the US, generating increased US employment in manufacturing and installation. To achieve these goals BP Solar assembled a team that included suppliers of critical materials, automated equipment developers/manufacturers, inverter and other BOS manufacturers, a utility company, and University research groups. The program addressed all aspects of the crystalline silicon PV business from raw materials (particularly silicon feedstock) through installation of the system on the customers site. By involving the material and equipment vendors, we ensured that supplies of silicon feedstock and other PV specific materials like encapsulation materials (EVA and cover glass) will be available in the quantities required to meet the DOE goals of 5 to 10 GW of installed US PV by 2015 and at the prices necessary for PV systems to reach grid parity in 2015

  9. Silicon-Based Technology for Integrated Waveguides and mm-Wave Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jovanovic, Vladimir; Gentile, Gennaro; Dekker, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    IC processing is used to develop technology for silicon-filled millimeter-wave-integrated waveguides. The front-end process defines critical waveguide sections and enables integration of dedicated components, such as RF capacitors and resistors. Wafer gluing is used to strengthen the mechanical...

  10. If Not Here, Where? Understanding Teachers' Use of Technology in Silicon Valley Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Ramos, Pedro

    2005-01-01

    This article presents results of a survey conducted in the spring of 2004 of practicing teachers in K-12 schools in Santa Clara County, California, also known as "Silicon Valley." Exposure to technology in teaching preparation programs, knowledge of software applications, and constructivist beliefs were found to be positively related to more…

  11. 76 FR 35474 - UAW-Chrysler Technical Training Center, Technology Training Joint Programs Staff, Including On...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ..., Detroit, MI; UAW-Chrysler Technical Training Center, Technology Training Joint Programs Staff, Including... Center, Technology Training Joint Programs Staff, Detroit, Michigan (TA-W-71,047) and Warren, Michigan..., Technology Training Joint Programs Staff. The Department has determined that these workers were...

  12. THz Direct Detector and Heterodyne Receiver Arrays in Silicon Nanoscale Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzyb, Janusz; Pfeiffer, Ullrich

    2015-10-01

    The main scope of this paper is to address various implementation aspects of THz detector arrays in the nanoscale silicon technologies operating at room temperatures. This includes the operation of single detectors, detectors operated in parallel (arrays), and arrays of detectors operated in a video-camera mode with an internal reset to support continuous-wave illumination without the need to synchronize the source with the camera (no lock-in receiver required). A systematic overview of the main advantages and limitations in using silicon technologies for THz applications is given. The on-chip antenna design challenges and co-design aspects with the active circuitry are thoroughly analyzed for broadband detector/receiver operation. A summary of the state-of-the-art arrays of broadband THz direct detectors based on two different operation principles is presented. The first is based on the non-quasistatic resistive mixing process in a MOSFET channel, whereas the other relies on the THz signal rectification by nonlinearity of the base-emitter junction in a high-speed SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT). For the MOSFET detector arrays implemented in a 65 nm bulk CMOS technology, a state-of-the-art optical noise equivalent power (NEP) of 14 pW/ at 720 GHz was measured, whereas for the HBT detector arrays in a 0.25 μm SiGe process technology, an optical NEP of 47 pW/ at 700 GHz was found. Based on the implemented 1k-pixel CMOS camera with an average power consumption of 2.5 μW/pixel, various design aspects specific to video-mode operation are outlined and co-integration issues with the readout circuitry are analyzed. Furthermore, a single-chip 2 × 2 array of heterodyne receivers for multi-color active imaging in a 160-1000 GHz band is presented with a well-balanced NEP across the operation bandwidth ranging from 0.1 to 0.24 fW/Hz (44.1-47.8 dB single-sideband NF) and an instantaneous IF bandwidth of 10 GHz. In its present implementation, the receiver RF

  13. Radiation-tolerant joining technologies for silicon carbide ceramics and composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katoh, Yutai, E-mail: katohy@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Snead, Lance L.; Cheng, Ting; Shih, Chunghao; Lewis, W. Daniel [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Koyanagi, Takaaki; Hinoki, Tatsuya [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Henager, Charles H. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd., Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Ferraris, Monica [Department of Applied Science and Technology, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, I-10129 Torino (Italy)

    2014-05-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) for nuclear structural applications, whether in the monolithic ceramic or composite form, will require a robust joining technology capable of withstanding the harsh nuclear environment. This paper presents significant progress made towards identifying and processing irradiation-tolerant joining methods for nuclear-grade SiC. In doing so, a standardized methodology for carrying out joint testing has been established consistent with the small volume samples mandated by neutron irradiation testing. Candidate joining technologies were limited to those that provide low induced radioactivity and included titanium diffusion bonding, Ti–Si–C MAX-phase joining, calcia–alumina glass–ceramic joining, and transient eutectic-phase SiC joining. Samples of these joints were irradiated in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor at 500 or 800 °C, and their microstructure and mechanical properties were compared to pre-irradiation conditions. Within the limitations of statistics, all joining methodologies presented retained their joint mechanical strength to ∼3 dpa at 500 °C, thus indicating the first results obtained on irradiation-stable SiC joints. Under the more aggressive irradiation conditions (800 °C, ∼5 dpa), some joint materials exhibited significant irradiation-induced microstructural evolution; however, the effect of irradiation on joint strength appeared rather limited.

  14. Radiation-tolerant joining technologies for silicon carbide ceramics and composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katoh, Yutai; Snead, Lance L.; Cheng, Ting; Shih, Chunghao; Lewis, W. Daniel; Koyanagi, Takaaki; Hinoki, Tatsuya; Henager, Charles H.; Ferraris, Monica

    2014-05-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) for nuclear structural applications, whether in the monolithic ceramic or composite form, will require a robust joining technology capable of withstanding the harsh nuclear environment. This paper presents significant progress made towards identifying and processing irradiation-tolerant joining methods for nuclear-grade SiC. In doing so, a standardized methodology for carrying out joint testing has been established consistent with the small volume samples mandated by neutron irradiation testing. Candidate joining technologies were limited to those that provide low induced radioactivity and included titanium diffusion bonding, Ti–Si–C MAX-phase joining, calcia–alumina glass–ceramic joining, and transient eutectic-phase SiC joining. Samples of these joints were irradiated in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor at 500 or 800 °C, and their microstructure and mechanical properties were compared to pre-irradiation conditions. Within the limitations of statistics, all joining methodologies presented retained their joint mechanical strength to ~3 dpa at 500 °C, thus indicating the first results obtained on irradiation-stable SiC joints. Finally, under the more aggressive irradiation conditions (800 °C, ~5 dpa), some joint materials exhibited significant irradiation-induced microstructural evolution; however, the effect of irradiation on joint strength appeared rather limited.

  15. Silicon sensor technologies for the ATLAS IBL upgrade.

    CERN Document Server

    Grenier, P

    2012-01-01

    An overview of radiation hard planar and 3D pixel sensor technologies currently under development for ATLAS upgrades is presented. The first upgrade will be the installation in 2013 of an additional pixel layer inside the current inner detector, the Insertable B Layer (IBL). The two technologies are competing to equip the IBL. The IBL sensor qualification procedure is described. Beam test results of un-irradiated and irradiated planar and 3D sensors are presented.

  16. Chemical vapour deposition of tungsten and tungsten silicide layers for applications in novel silicon technology

    CERN Document Server

    Li, F X

    2002-01-01

    This work was a detailed investigation into the Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) of tungsten and tungsten silicide for potential applications in integrated circuit (IC) and other microelectronic devices. These materials may find novel applications in contact schemes for transistors in advanced ICs, buried high conductivity layers in novel Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) technology and in power electronic devices. The CVD techniques developed may also be used for metal coating of recessed or enclosed features which may occur in novel electronic or electromechanical devices. CVD of tungsten was investigated using the silicon reduction reaction of WF sub 6. W layers with an optimum self-limiting thickness of 100 nm and resistivity 20 mu OMEGA centre dot cm were produced self-aligned to silicon. A hydrogen passivation technique was developed as part of the wafer pre-clean schedule and proved essential in achieving optimum layer thickness. Layers produced by this approach are ideal for intimate contact to shallow junct...

  17. The photophysics of porous silicon: technological and biomedical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotkovskiy, Gennady E; Kuzishchin, Yury A; Martynov, Igor L; Chistyakov, Alexander A; Nabiev, Igor

    2012-10-28

    Although porous silicon (pSi) was first obtained in the mid-20th century, considerable interest in this material arose much later, due to the discovery of its room-temperature photoluminescence (PL). In the 1990s, most studies on pSi were focused on the analysis and explanation of its photoluminescent and electroluminescent characteristics and their potential practical applications. The latest advances in pSi research are related to its biocompatibility and biomedical applications. The discovery of singlet oxygen generation by pSi through nonradiative transfer of photoexcitation energy has opened new prospects for photodynamic therapy in vivo, and the discovery of laser desorption/ionization on pSi has paved the way for advanced approaches in mass-spectrometry. In this study, the main photophysical properties of pSi are reviewed, and a wide range of photo-processes characteristic of pSi and their practical implications are analyzed in terms of the general principles of energy and charge transfer. Special attention is paid to the possible applications of pSi and pSi-based nanocomposites in photonics, biophysics, medicine, and analytical chemistry.

  18. Passive direct methanol fuel cells in silicon technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabate, N.; Esquivel, J.P.; Santander, J.; Torres, N.; Gracia, I.; Ivanov, P.; Fonseca, L.; Figueras, E.; Cane, C. [Inst. de Microelectronica de Barcelona-CNM (CSIC), Barcelona (Spain)

    2008-04-15

    The increased demand for light and efficient power sources in the past decade can be attributed to the increasing presence of sensing and actuating microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) used different application fields such as the automotive and food industry. The integration of these power sources presents an opportunity for the future advancement of MEMS based devices. Much research has been conducted in the field of active methanol fuel cells, in which the liquid fuel and the oxidant are generally pumped externally. However, the application of these types of cells as portable power sources has led to simpler approaches that give up ancillary devices such as pumps or gas compressors and the parasitic power losses associated with them. This passive fuel cell approach offers the advantage of a simpler and compact design. This article presented the main features of a passive silicon direct methanol fuel cell. The microdevice was based on a hybrid approach composed of a commercial membrane electrode assembly (MEA). It was concluded that methanol concentration has little impact on the fuel cell's maximum power density, and is comparable to values reported in the literature for larger passive and stainless-steel fuel cells. Temperature measurements revealed that the fuel cell temperature did not change significantly and is independent of the methanol crossover rate. 12 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  19. Technology for fabrication of sub-20 nm silicon planar nanowires array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miakonkikh, Andrey V.; Tatarintsev, Andrey A.; Rogozhin, Alexander E.; Rudenko, Konstantin V.

    2016-12-01

    The results presented on Silicon one-dimensional structures fabrication which are promising for application in nanoelectronics, sensors, THz-applications. We employ two-stage technology of precise anizotropic plasma etching of silicon over e-beam resist and isotropic removal of thermally oxidised defected surface layer of silicon by wet etch. As first the process for nano-fins fabrication on SOI substrate was developed. HSQ resist was used as a negative-tone electron beam resist with good etch-resistance, high resolution and high mechanical stability. The etching was performed by RIE in mix of SF6 + C4F8. plasma. By changing the ratio SF6:C4F8, the sidewall profile angle can be controlled thoroughly. Next step to minimize lateral size of structures and reduce impact of surface defects on electron mobility in core of nanowires was the application of surface thermal oxidation to defected layer. It was used for selective removal of damaged silicon layer and polymer residues. Oxidation was performed with controlled flow of dry oxygen and water vapour. Oxidation rate was precisely controlled by ex-situ spectral ellipsometry on unpatterned chips As a result the arrays of planar sub-20 nm Silicon nanowires with length in the range 200 nm - 500 um were made.

  20. The planar silicon-based microelectronic technology for electrochemical transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, A. V.; Egorchikov, A. E.; Dolgov, A. N.; Gornev, E. S.; Popov, V. G.; Egorov, I. V.; Krishtop, V. G.

    2016-12-01

    We have developed the new technology for production of sensitive modules for electrochemical sensors of pressure and acceleration. The technology is applicable for mass production and scalable for high-volume production. In this work we demonstrate the new sensing module for electrochemical motion sensors, and its possibility of applying in geophones. We fabricated prototypes of electrochemical planar transducer chips, produced a laboratory prototype of a geophone based on our planar transducer chip, and tested them. This paper presents the preliminary results of the tests.

  1. Pulse quenching induced by multi-collection effects in 45 nm silicon-on-insulator technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artola, L.; Hubert, G.

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents the analysis of pulse quenching effects induced in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology. Simulation results emphasize the need to consider multi-collection effects in the occurrence mechanisms of single event transients (SET) in very large scaling integration (VLSI) components even with SOI technologies, which is known to be initially less sensitive to soft errors (SE). The impacts of gate-to-gate spacing and voltage scaling on the SET occurrence and characteristics have been highlighted. The simulations have been performed with the soft error prediction tool MUSCA SEP3 developed for digital complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technologies (SOI, Bulk).

  2. Investigation of Techno-Stress Levels of Teachers Who Were Included in Technology Integration Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çoklar, Ahmet Naci; Efilti, Erkan; Sahin, Yusef Levent; Akçay, Arif

    2016-01-01

    Techno-stress is defined as a modern adaptation disorder resulting from the failure in coping with new technologies in a healthy way. Techno-stress affects many occupational groups, including teachers. FATIH project and many other previous studies conducted in Turkey in recent years have necessitated the use of technology for teachers. The present…

  3. 77 FR 51064 - Dana Holding Corporation, Power Technologies Group Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ... Employment and Training Administration Dana Holding Corporation, Power Technologies Group Division, Including... Holding Corporation, Power Technologies Group Division, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (subject firm). The negative... competitive articles) in 2011 and 2012, loss of business with a firm that employed a worker group eligible...

  4. An overview of uncooled infrared sensors technology based on amorphous silicon and silicon germanium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosio, Roberto; Mireles, Jose Jr. [Technology and Engineering Institute, Ciudad Juarez University UACJ, Av. Del Charro 450N, 32310 Chihuahua (Mexico); Moreno, Mario; Torres, Alfonso; Kosarev, Andrey [National Institute for Astrophysics Optics and Electronics INAOE, Luis E. Erro 1, PO Box 51 and 216, 7200 Puebla (Mexico); Heredia, Aurelio [Universidad Popular Autonoma del Estado de Puebla, 21 sur 1103 Col. Santiago, 72160 Puebla (Mexico)

    2010-04-15

    At the present time there are commercially available large un-cooled micro-bolometer arrays (as large as 1024 x 768 pixels) for a variety of thermal imaging applications. Different thermo-sensing materials have been employed as thermo sensing elements as Vanadium Oxide (VO{sub x}), metals, and amorphous and polycrystalline semiconductors. Those materials present good characteristics but also have some disadvantages. As a consequence none of the commercially available arrays contain optimum pixels with an optimum thermo-sensing material. This paper reviews the development of the un-cooled bolometer technology and the research achievements on this area, with special attention on the key factors that would lead to improve the pixels performance characteristics. The work considers the R and D of microbolometer arrays and the integration with MEMS and IC technologies. A comparative study with the state of the art and data reported in literature is presented. Finally, further directions of uncooled bolometer based in thin films materials are also discussed in this paper. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. Technology Computer-Aided Design and Study of Prototypes of a Silicon Zener Diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudar, N. L.; Borzdov, V. M.; Turtsevich, A. S.

    2014-07-01

    A technology for manufacture of a silicon Zener diode with a stabilizing voltage of 6.5 V has been proposed. The resistivity of the substrate and the regime of phosphorus diffusion into the substrate have been determined, which ensure required values of the stabilizing voltage under room-temperature conditions and at two boundary temperatures: -55 and 150°C. Modeling data have been compared to experimental results.

  6. Study of the technology of the plasma nanostructuring of silicon to form highly efficient emission structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galperin, V. A.; Kitsyuk, E. P. [“Technological Center” Research-and-Production Company (Russian Federation); Pavlov, A. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Nanotechnologies in Microelectronics (Russian Federation); Shamanaev, A. A., E-mail: artemiy.shamanaev@tcen.ru [“Technological Center” Research-and-Production Company (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    New methods for silicon nanostructuring and the possibility of raising the aspect ratios of the structures being formed are considered. It is shown that the technology developed relates to self-formation methods and is an efficient tool for improving the quality of field-emission cathodes based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by increasing the Si–CNT contact area and raising the efficiency of the heat sink.

  7. Three-Dimensional Integrated Circuit (3D IC) Key Technology: Through-Silicon Via (TSV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wen-Wei; Chen, Kuan-Neng

    2017-01-01

    3D integration with through-silicon via (TSV) is a promising candidate to perform system-level integration with smaller package size, higher interconnection density, and better performance. TSV fabrication is the key technology to permit communications between various strata of the 3D integration system. TSV fabrication steps, such as etching, isolation, metallization processes, and related failure modes, as well as other characterizations are discussed in this invited review paper.

  8. Fundamentals of silicon carbide technology growth, characterization, devices and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kimoto, Tsunenobu

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive introduction and up-to-date reference to SiC power semiconductor devices covering topics from material properties to applicationsBased on a number of breakthroughs in SiC material science and fabrication technology in the 1980s and 1990s, the first SiC Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) were released as commercial products in 2001.  The SiC SBD market has grown significantly since that time, and SBDs are now used in a variety of power systems, particularly switch-mode power supplies and motor controls.  SiC power MOSFETs entered commercial production in 2011, providing rugged, hig

  9. High-performance silicon photonics technology for telecommunications applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Koji; Tsuchizawa, Tai; Nishi, Hidetaka; Kou, Rai; Hiraki, Tatsurou; Takeda, Kotaro; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Yasuhiko; Wada, Kazumi; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi

    2014-04-01

    By way of a brief review of Si photonics technology, we show that significant improvements in device performance are necessary for practical telecommunications applications. In order to improve device performance in Si photonics, we have developed a Si-Ge-silica monolithic integration platform, on which compact Si-Ge-based modulators/detectors and silica-based high-performance wavelength filters are monolithically integrated. The platform features low-temperature silica film deposition, which cannot damage Si-Ge-based active devices. Using this platform, we have developed various integrated photonic devices for broadband telecommunications applications.

  10. 76 FR 23812 - Reliability and Continuity of Communications Networks, Including Broadband Technologies; Effects...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-28

    ... COMMISSION Reliability and Continuity of Communications Networks, Including Broadband Technologies; Effects on Broadband Communications Networks of Damage or Failure of Network Equipment or Severe Overload; Independent Panel Reviewing the Impact of Hurricane Katrina on Communications Networks AGENCY:...

  11. The Role of the Silicon Germanium (SiGe) Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor (HBT) in Mobile Technology Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    The Role of the Silicon Germanium (SiGe) Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor (HBT) in Mobile Technology Platforms by Gregory A. Mitchell...Germanium (SiGe) Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor (HBT) in Mobile Technology Platforms 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...MD 20783-1197 ARL-TN-0459 September 2011 The Role of the Silicon Germanium (SiGe) Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor (HBT) in Mobile

  12. A comparison of degradation in three amorphous silicon PV module technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radue, C.; van Dyk, E.E. [Physics Department, PO Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)

    2010-03-15

    Three commercial amorphous silicon modules manufactured by monolithic integration and consisting of three technology types were analysed in this study. These modules were deployed outdoors for 14 months and underwent degradation. All three modules experienced the typical light-induced degradation (LID) described by the Staebler-Wronski effect, and this was followed by further degradation. A 14 W single junction amorphous silicon module degraded by about 45% of the initial measured maximum power output (P{sub MAX}) at the end of the study. A maximum of 30% of this has been attributed to LID and the further 15% to cell mismatch and cell degradation. The other two modules, a 64 W triple junction amorphous silicon module, and a 68 W flexible triple junction amorphous silicon module, exhibited LID followed by seasonal variation in the degraded P{sub MAX}. The 64 W module showed a maximum degradation in P{sub MAX} of about 22%. This is approximately 4% more than the manufacturer allowed for the initial LID. However, the seasonal variation in P{sub MAX} seems to be centred around the manufacturer's rating ({+-}4%). The 68 W flexible module has shown a maximum decrease in P{sub MAX} of about 27%. This decrease is about 17% greater than the manufacturer allowed for the initial LID. (author)

  13. Complex microstructure fabrication by integrating silicon anisotropic etching and UV-LIGA technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Xiangmeng; Chen Di; Huang Chuang; Chen Xiang; Liu Jingquan; Zhu Jun

    2007-01-01

    A fabrication method which integrates silicon anisotropic etching micromachining with UV-LIGA technology to make complex microstructures is presented.This proposod combined process enables the fabrication of high-aspect-ratio and three-dimensional(3D)microstmctures,which cannot be fabricated by silicon bulk micromachining or UV-LIGA alone.To demonstrate this combined method.the 100μm thick SU-8 micro gears were fabricated on the silicon convex square structure.which is 100μm×100μm×80μm in dimension.In the subsequent micro hot embossing process,a novel type of plastics polyethylene terephtalate glycol(PETG)Was tried for use.Through optimizing process parameters,PETG shows the potential of being used as plastic replica in micro-electro-mechanical system(MEMS).This fabrication technology provides a new option for the increasing need of functionality,quality and economy of MEMS.

  14. Using virtual reality technology to include field operators in simulation and training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nystad, E.; Strand, S. [OECD Halden Reactor Project (Norway)]. E-mail: espen.nystad@hrp.no

    2006-07-01

    By using virtual reality technology, field operators can be included in simulator training. A study has been performed where field operators could perform their activities in a virtual plant and communicate with a control room operator who was placed in a physical control room simulator. This paper describes the use of VR technology in the study and how the operators experienced interacting with the virtual plant. (author)

  15. Multifunctional silicon-based light emitting device in standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wei; Huang Bei-Ju; Dong Zan; Chen Hong-Da

    2011-01-01

    A three-terminal silicon-based light emitting device is proposed and fabricated in standard 0.35μm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology. This device is capable of versatile working modes: it can emit visible to near infra-red (NIR) light (the spectrum ranges from 500 nm to 1000 nm) in reverse bias avalanche breakdown mode with working voltage between 8.35 V-12 V and emit NIR light (the spectrum ranges from 900 nm to 1300 nm) in the forward injection mode with working voltage below 2 V. An apparent modulation effect on the light intensity from the polysilicon gate is observed in the forward injection mode. Furthermore, when the gate oxide is broken down, NIR light is emitted from the polysilicon/oxide/silicon structure. Optoelectronic characteristics of the device working in different modes are measured and compared. The mechanisms behind these different emissions are explored.

  16. Integration of field emitter array and thin-film transistor using polycrystalline silicon process technology

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Y H; Kang, S Y; Park Jeong Man; Cho, K I

    1998-01-01

    We present the monolithic integration of a gated polycrystalline silicon field emitter array (poly-Si FEA) and a thin-film transistor(TFT) on an insulating substrate for active-matrix field emission displays (AMFEDs). The TFT was designed to have low off-state currents even at a high drain voltage. Amorphous silicon has been used as a starting material of the poly-Si FEA for improving surface smoothness and uniformity of the tips, and the gate holes have been formed by using an etch-back process. The integrated poly-Si TFT controlled electron emissions of the poly-Si FEA actively, resulting in great improvement in the emission reliability along with a low-voltage control, below 15 V, of field emission, The developed technology has potential applications in AMFEDs on glass substrates.

  17. The status of lightweight photovoltaic space array technology based on amorphous silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanak, Joseph J.; Kaschmitter, Jim

    1991-01-01

    Ultralight, flexible photovoltaic (PV) array of amorphous silicon (a-Si) was identified as a potential low cost power source for small satellites. A survey was conducted of the status of the a-Si PV array technology with respect to present and future performance, availability, cost, and risks. For existing, experimental array blankets made of commercial cell material, utilizing metal foil substrates, the Beginning of Life (BOL) performance at Air Mass Zero (AM0) and 35 C includes total power up to 200 W, power per area of 64 W/sq m and power per weight of 258 W/kg. Doubling of power per weight occurs when polyimide substrates are used. Estimated End of Life (EOL) power output after 10 years in a nominal low earth orbit would be 80 pct. of BOL, the degradation being due to largely light induced effects (-10 to -15 pct.) and in part (-5 pct.) to space radiation. Predictions for the year 1995 for flexible PV arrays, made on the basis of published results for rigid a-Si modules, indicate EOL power output per area and per weight of 105 W/sq m and 400 W/kg, respectively, while predictions for the late 1990s based on existing U.S. national PV program goals indicate EOL values of 157 W/sq m and 600 W/kg. Cost estimates by vendors for 200 W ultralight arrays in volume of over 1000 units range from $100/watt to $125/watt. Identified risks include the lack of flexible, space compatible encapsulant, the lack of space qualification effort, recent partial or full acquisitions of US manufacturers of a-Si cells by foreign firms, and the absence of a national commitment for a long range development program toward developing of this important power source for space.

  18. Silicon photonics fundamentals and devices

    CERN Document Server

    Deen, M Jamal

    2012-01-01

    The creation of affordable high speed optical communications using standard semiconductor manufacturing technology is a principal aim of silicon photonics research. This would involve replacing copper connections with optical fibres or waveguides, and electrons with photons. With applications such as telecommunications and information processing, light detection, spectroscopy, holography and robotics, silicon photonics has the potential to revolutionise electronic-only systems. Providing an overview of the physics, technology and device operation of photonic devices using exclusively silicon and related alloys, the book includes: * Basic Properties of Silicon * Quantum Wells, Wires, Dots and Superlattices * Absorption Processes in Semiconductors * Light Emitters in Silicon * Photodetectors , Photodiodes and Phototransistors * Raman Lasers including Raman Scattering * Guided Lightwaves * Planar Waveguide Devices * Fabrication Techniques and Material Systems Silicon Photonics: Fundamentals and Devices outlines ...

  19. Annual Technology Baseline (Including Supporting Data); NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blair, Nate; Cory, Karlynn; Hand, Maureen; Parkhill, Linda; Speer, Bethany; Stehly, Tyler; Feldman, David; Lantz, Eric; Augusting, Chad; Turchi, Craig; O' Connor, Patrick

    2015-07-08

    Consistent cost and performance data for various electricity generation technologies can be difficult to find and may change frequently for certain technologies. With the Annual Technology Baseline (ATB), National Renewable Energy Laboratory provides an organized and centralized dataset that was reviewed by internal and external experts. It uses the best information from the Department of Energy laboratory's renewable energy analysts and Energy Information Administration information for conventional technologies. The ATB will be updated annually in order to provide an up-to-date repository of current and future cost and performance data. Going forward, we plan to revise and refine the values using best available information. The ATB includes both a presentation with notes (PDF) and an associated Excel Workbook. The ATB includes the following electricity generation technologies: land-based wind; offshore wind; utility-scale solar PV; concentrating solar power; geothermal power; hydropower plants (upgrades to existing facilities, powering non-powered dams, and new stream-reach development); conventional coal; coal with carbon capture and sequestration; integrated gasification combined cycle coal; natural gas combustion turbines; natural gas combined cycle; conventional biopower. Nuclear laboratory's renewable energy analysts and Energy Information Administration information for conventional technologies. The ATB will be updated annually in order to provide an up-to-date repository of current and future cost and performance data. Going forward, we plan to revise and refine the values using best available information.

  20. Accurate SPICE Modeling of Poly-silicon Resistor in 40nm CMOS Technology Process for Analog Circuit Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Lijie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the SPICE model of poly resistor is accurately developed based on silicon data. To describe the non-linear R-V trend, the new correlation in temperature and voltage is found in non-silicide poly-silicon resistor. A scalable model is developed on the temperature-dependent characteristics (TDC and the temperature-dependent voltage characteristics (TDVC from the R-V data. Besides, the parasitic capacitance between poly and substrate are extracted from real silicon structure in replacing conventional simulation data. The capacitance data are tested through using on-wafer charge-induced-injection error-free charge-based capacitance measurement (CIEF-CBCM technique which is driven by non-overlapping clock generation circuit. All modeling test structures are designed and fabricated through using 40nm CMOS technology process. The new SPICE model of poly-silicon resistor is more accurate to silicon for analog circuit simulation.

  1. An overview of crystalline silicon solar cell technology: Past, present, and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopian, K.; Cheow, S. L.; Zaidi, S. H.

    2017-09-01

    Crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cell, ever since its inception, has been identified as the only economically and environmentally sustainable renewable resource to replace fossil fuels. Performance c-Si based photovoltaic (PV) technology has been equal to the task. Its price has been reduced by a factor of 250 over last twenty years (from ˜ 76 USD to ˜ 0.3 USD); its market growth is expected to reach 100 GWP by 2020. Unfortunately, it is still 3-4 times higher than carbon-based fuels. With the matured PV manufacturing technology as it exists today, continuing price reduction poses stiff challenges. Alternate manufacturing approaches in combination with thin wafers, low (cost-based analysis of advanced solar cell manufacturing technologies aimed at higher (˜ 22 %) efficiency with existing equipment and processes.

  2. Semiconductor technology program: Progress briefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, K. F.; Scace, R. I.; Walters, E. J.

    1981-01-01

    Measurement technology for semiconductor materials, process control, and devices, is discussed. Silicon and silicon based devices are emphasized. Highlighted activities include semiinsulating GaAs characterization, an automatic scanning spectroscopic ellipsometer, linewidth measurement and coherence, bandgap narrowing effects in silicon, the evaluation of electrical linewidth uniformity, and arsenicomplanted profiles in silicon.

  3. Aluminium alloyed iron-silicide/silicon solar cells: A simple approach for low cost environmental-friendly photovoltaic technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Dalapati, Goutam; Masudy-Panah, Saeid; Kumar, Avishek; Cheh Tan, Cheng; Ru Tan, Hui; Chi, Dongzhi

    2015-12-03

    This work demonstrates the fabrication of silicide/silicon based solar cell towards the development of low cost and environmental friendly photovoltaic technology. A heterostructure solar cells using metallic alpha phase (α-phase) aluminum alloyed iron silicide (FeSi(Al)) on n-type silicon is fabricated with an efficiency of 0.8%. The fabricated device has an open circuit voltage and fill-factor of 240 mV and 60%, respectively. Performance of the device was improved by about 7 fold to 5.1% through the interface engineering. The α-phase FeSi(Al)/silicon solar cell devices have promising photovoltaic characteristic with an open circuit voltage, short-circuit current and a fill factor (FF) of 425 mV, 18.5 mA/cm(2), and 64%, respectively. The significant improvement of α-phase FeSi(Al)/n-Si solar cells is due to the formation p(+-)n homojunction through the formation of re-grown crystalline silicon layer (~5-10 nm) at the silicide/silicon interface. Thickness of the regrown silicon layer is crucial for the silicide/silicon based photovoltaic devices. Performance of the α-FeSi(Al)/n-Si solar cells significantly depends on the thickness of α-FeSi(Al) layer and process temperature during the device fabrication. This study will open up new opportunities for the Si based photovoltaic technology using a simple, sustainable, and los cost method.

  4. Aluminium alloyed iron-silicide/silicon solar cells: A simple approach for low cost environmental-friendly photovoltaic technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Dalapati, Goutam; Masudy-Panah, Saeid; Kumar, Avishek; Cheh Tan, Cheng; Ru Tan, Hui; Chi, Dongzhi

    2015-12-01

    This work demonstrates the fabrication of silicide/silicon based solar cell towards the development of low cost and environmental friendly photovoltaic technology. A heterostructure solar cells using metallic alpha phase (α-phase) aluminum alloyed iron silicide (FeSi(Al)) on n-type silicon is fabricated with an efficiency of 0.8%. The fabricated device has an open circuit voltage and fill-factor of 240 mV and 60%, respectively. Performance of the device was improved by about 7 fold to 5.1% through the interface engineering. The α-phase FeSi(Al)/silicon solar cell devices have promising photovoltaic characteristic with an open circuit voltage, short-circuit current and a fill factor (FF) of 425 mV, 18.5 mA/cm2, and 64%, respectively. The significant improvement of α-phase FeSi(Al)/n-Si solar cells is due to the formation p+-n homojunction through the formation of re-grown crystalline silicon layer (~5-10 nm) at the silicide/silicon interface. Thickness of the regrown silicon layer is crucial for the silicide/silicon based photovoltaic devices. Performance of the α-FeSi(Al)/n-Si solar cells significantly depends on the thickness of α-FeSi(Al) layer and process temperature during the device fabrication. This study will open up new opportunities for the Si based photovoltaic technology using a simple, sustainable, and los cost method.

  5. Three-dimensional ZnO nanostructure photodetector prepared with through silicon via technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Hao; Chang, Shoou-Jinn; Hsueh, Ting-Jen

    2015-06-15

    A ZnO-nanowire photodetector was prepared using three-dimensional through silicon via (TSV) technology. The diameter and depth of the Si via were about 80 μm and 170 μm, respectively. Cu uniformly filled in each TSV, whose average resistance was about 0.9  mΩ. For the three-dimensional ZnO-nanowire photodetector, the photocurrent increased rapidly with a time constant of about 1 s when ultraviolet excitation was applied. The on-off current ratio was about 104.

  6. Characterization of the influence of strain on the optical properties of waveguides and microresonators in silicon-on-insulator technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerveld, W.J.; Harmsma, P.J.; Schmits, R.; Tabak, E.; Pozo Torres, J.M.; Urbach, H.P.; Yousefi, M.

    2011-01-01

    Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology has become one of the focus platforms for photonic integrated circuits (PICs). The CMOS technology opens the possibility for reliable mass fabrication of cost-effective photonic circuits. Recently there has been a growing interest in direct optical sensing of, f

  7. DAPHNE silicon photonics technological platform for research and development on WDM applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudot, Charles; Fincato, Antonio; Fowler, Daivid; Perez-Galacho, Diego; Souhaité, Aurélie; Messaoudène, Sonia; Blanc, Romuald; Richard, Claire; Planchot, Jonathan; De-Buttet, Come; Orlando, Bastien; Gays, Fabien; Mezzomo, Cécilia; Bernard, Emilie; Marris-Morini, Delphine; Vivien, Laurent; Kopp, Christophe; Boeuf, Frédéric

    2016-05-01

    A new technological platform aimed at making prototypes and feasibility studies has been setup at STMicroelectronics using 300mm wafer foundry facilities. The technology, called DAPHNE (Datacom Advanced PHotonic Nanoscale Environment), is devoted at developing and evaluating new devices and sub-systems in particular for wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) applications and ring resonator based applications. Developed in the course of PLAT4MFP7 European project, DAPHNE is a flexible platform that fits perfectly R&D needs. The fabrication flow enables the processing of photonic integrated circuits using a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) of 300nm, partial etches of 150nm and 50nm and a total silicon etching. Consequently, two varieties of rib waveguides and one strip waveguide can be fabricated simultaneously with auto-alignment properties. The process variability on the 150nm partially etched silicon and the thin 50nm slab region are both less than 6 nm. Using a variety of different implantation configurations and a back-end of line of 5 metal layers, active devices are fabricated both in germanium and silicon. An available far back-end of line process consists of making 20 μm diameter copper posts on top of the electrical pads so that an electronic integrated circuit can be bonded on top the photonic die by 3D integration. Besides having those fabrication process options, DAPHNE is equipped with a library of standard cells for optical routing and multiplexing. Moreover, typical Mach-Zehnder modulators based on silicon pn junctions are also available for optical signal modulation. To achieve signal detection, germanium photodetectors also exist as standard cells. The measured single-mode propagation losses are 3.5 dB/cm for strip, 3.7 dB/cm for deep-rib (50nm slab) and 1.4 dB/cm for standard rib (150nm slab) waveguides. Transition tapers between different waveguide structures are as low as 0.006 dB.

  8. Launching of multi-project wafer runs in ePIXfab with micron-scale silicon rib waveguide technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalto, Timo; Cherchi, Matteo; Harjanne, Mikko; Ylinen, Sami; Kapulainen, Markku; Vehmas, Tapani

    2014-03-01

    Silicon photonics is a rapidly growing R&D field where universities, institutes and companies are all involved and the business expectations for the next few years are high. One of the key enabling elements that led to the present success of silicon photonics is ePIXfab. It is a consortium of institutes that has together offered multi-project wafer (MPW) runs, packaging services, training, and feasibility studies. These services have significantly lowered the barrier of various research groups and companies to start developing silicon photonics. Until now the MPW services have been offered by the ePIXfab partners IMEC, CEA-Leti and IHP, which all use CMOS-type silicon photonics technology with a typical silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguide thickness of 220 nm. In November 2013 this MPW offering was expanded by the ePIXfab partner VTT that opened the access to its 3 μm SOI waveguide platform via ePIXfab MPW runs. This technology platform is complementary to the mainstream silicon photonics technology (220 nm) and it offers such benefits as very low losses, small polarization dependency, ultrabroadband operation and low starting costs

  9. Integrated silicon optoelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, Horst

    2000-01-01

    'Integrated Silicon Optoelectronics'assembles optoelectronics and microelectronics The book concentrates on silicon as the major basis of modern semiconductor devices and circuits Starting from the basics of optical emission and absorption and from the device physics of photodetectors, the aspects of the integration of photodetectors in modern bipolar, CMOS, and BiCMOS technologies are discussed Detailed descriptions of fabrication technologies and applications of optoelectronic integrated circuits are included The book, furthermore, contains a review of the state of research on eagerly expected silicon light emitters In order to cover the topic of the book comprehensively, integrated waveguides, gratings, and optoelectronic power devices are included in addition Numerous elaborate illustrations promote an easy comprehension 'Integrated Silicon Optoelectronics'will be of value to engineers, physicists, and scientists in industry and at universities The book is also recommendable for graduate students speciali...

  10. Performance of almost edgeless silicon detectors in CTS and 3D-planar technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagoz, E.; Anelli, G.; Antchev, G.; Avati, V.; Bassetti, V.; Berardi, V.; Boccone, V.; Bozzo, M.; Brücken, E.; Buzzo, A.; Catanesi, M. G.; Cuneo, S.; Da Vià, C.; Deile, M.; Dinapoli, R.; Eggert, K.; Eremin, V.; Ferro, F.; Hasi, J.; Haug, F.; Heino, J.; Jarron, P.; Kalliopuska, J.; Kašpar, J.; Kenney, C.; Kok, A.; Kundrát, V.; Kurvinen, K.; Lauhakangas, R.; Lippmaa, E.; Lokajíček, M.; Luntama, T.; Macina, D.; Macrí, M.; Minutoli, S.; Mirabito, L.; Niewiadomski, H.; Noschis, E.; Oljemark, F.; Orava, R.; Oriunno, M.; Österberg, K.; Parker, S.; Perrot, A.-L.; Radermacher, E.; Radicioni, E.; Ruggiero, G.; Saarikko, H.; Santroni, A.; Sette, G.; Siegrist, P.; Smotlacha, J.; Snoeys, W.; Taylor, C.; Watts, S.; Whitmore, J.

    2013-06-01

    The physics programme of the TOTEM experiment requires the detection of very forward protons scattered by only a few microradians out of the LHC beams. For this purpose, stacks of planar Silicon detectors have been mounted in moveable near-beam telescopes (Roman Pots) located along the beamline on both sides of the interaction point. In order to maximise the proton acceptance close to the beams, the dead space at the detector edge had to be minimised. During the detector prototyping phase, different sensor technologies and designs have been explored. A reduction of the dead space to less than 50 μm has been accomplished with two novel silicon detector technologies: one with the Current Terminating Structure (CTS) design and one based on the 3D edge manufacturing. This paper describes performance studies on prototypes of these detectors, carried out in 2004 in a fixed-target muon beam at CERN's SPS accelerator. In particular, the efficiency and accuracy in the vicinity of the beam-facing edges are discussed.

  11. Enabling technologies for silicon microstrip tracking detectors at the HL-LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feld, L.; Karpinski, W.; Klein, K. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). 1. Physikalisches Institut B; Collaboration: The PETTL Collaboration; and others

    2016-04-15

    While the tracking detectors of the ATLAS and CMS experiments have shown excellent performance in Run 1 of LHC data taking, and are expected to continue to do so during LHC operation at design luminosity, both experiments will have to exchange their tracking systems when the LHC is upgraded to the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) around the year 2024. The new tracking systems need to operate in an environment in which both the hit densities and the radiation damage will be about an order of magnitude higher than today. In addition, the new trackers need to contribute to the first level trigger in order to maintain a high data-taking efficiency for the interesting processes. Novel detector technologies have to be developed to meet these very challenging goals. The German groups active in the upgrades of the ATLAS and CMS tracking systems have formed a collaborative ''Project on Enabling Technologies for Silicon Microstrip Tracking Detectors at the HL-LHC'' (PETTL), which was supported by the Helmholtz Alliance ''Physics at the Terascale'' during the years 2013 and 2014. The aim of the project was to share experience and to work together on key areas of mutual interest during the R and D phase of these upgrades. The project concentrated on five areas, namely exchange of experience, radiation hardness of silicon sensors, low mass system design, automated precision assembly procedures, and irradiations. This report summarizes the main achievements.

  12. Reactive Ion Etching (RIE) of silicon for the technology of nanoelectronic devices and structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiśniewski, Piotr; Mroczyński, Robert; Majkusiak, Bogdan

    2016-12-01

    In this work we present the investigations aimed at the optimization of the technology of Reactive Ion Etching in sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) plasma of silicon, which is necessary during fabrication of TFET according to the original concept of the device designed at Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics (IMiO) of Warsaw University of Technology (WUT) laboratory. We have performed a two-stage optimization of RIE process' parameters in order to obtain a controllable process characterized by good selectivity and anisotropy. Presented in this study findings have shown that the SF6 flow most significantly influence onto the RIE process' results. Selected and optimized processing step will be used in the course of the fabrication of TFET devices, in future.

  13. Development of the Pixelated Photon Detector Using Silicon on Insulator Technology for TOF-PET

    CERN Document Server

    Koyama, Akihiro; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Orita, Tadashi; Arai, Yasuo; Kurachi, Ikuo; Miyoshi, Toshinobu; Nio, Daisuke; Hamasaki, Ryutaro

    2015-01-01

    To measure light emission pattern in scintillator, higher sensitivity and faster response are required to photo detector. Such as single photon avalanche diode (SPAD), conventional pixelated photo detector is operated at Geiger avalanche multiplication. However higher gain of SPAD seems very attractive, photon detection efficiency per unit area is low. This weak point is mainly caused by Geiger avalanche mechanism. To overcome these difficulties, we designed Pixelated Linear Avalanche Integration Detector using Silicon on Insulator technology (SOI-Plaid). To avoid dark count noise and dead time comes from quench circuit, we are planning to use APD in linear multiplication mode. SOI technology enables laminating readout circuit and APD layer, and high-speed and low-noise signal reading regardless smaller gain of linear APD. This study shows design of linear APD by using SOI fabrication process. We designed test element group (TEG) of linear APD and inspected optimal structure of linear APD.

  14. Standalone ethanol micro-reformer integrated on silicon technology for onboard production of hydrogen-rich gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pla, D; Salleras, M; Morata, A; Garbayo, I; Gerbolés, M; Sabaté, N; Divins, N J; Casanovas, A; Llorca, J; Tarancón, A

    2016-08-07

    A novel design of a silicon-based micro-reformer for onboard hydrogen generation from ethanol is presented in this work. The micro-reactor is fully fabricated with mainstream MEMS technology and consists of an active low-thermal-mass structure suspended by an insulating membrane. The suspended structure includes an embedded resistive metal heater and an array of ca. 20k vertically aligned through-silicon micro-channels per square centimetre. Each micro-channel is 500 μm in length and 50 μm in diameter allowing a unique micro-reformer configuration that presents a total surface per projected area of 16 cm(2) cm(-2) and per volume of 320 cm(2) cm(-3). The walls of the micro-channels become the active surface of the micro-reformer when coated with a homogenous thin film of Rh-Pd/CeO2 catalyst. The steam reforming of ethanol under controlled temperature conditions (using the embedded heater) and using the micro-reformer as a standalone device are evaluated. Fuel conversion rates above 94% and hydrogen selectivity values of ca. 70% were obtained when using operation conditions suitable for application in micro-solid oxide fuel cells (micro-SOFCs), i.e. 750 °C and fuel flows of 0.02 mlL min(-1) (enough to feed a one watt power source).

  15. Short p-type silicon microstrip detectors in 3D-stc technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckert, S. [Physikalisches Institut, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder Strasse 3b, D-79104 Freiburg i. Br. (Germany)], E-mail: simon.eckert@physik.uni-freiburg.de; Jakobs, K.; Kuehn, S.; Parzefall, U. [Physikalisches Institut, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder Strasse 3b, D-79104 Freiburg i. Br. (Germany); Dalla-Betta, G.-F.; Zoboli, A. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienza dell' Informazione, Universita degli Studi di Trento, via Sommarive 14, I-38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Pozza, A.; Zorzi, N. [FBK-irst Trento, Microsystems Division, via Sommarive 18, I-38050 Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2008-10-21

    The luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the sLHC, will constitute an extremely challenging radiation environment for tracking detectors. Significant improvements in radiation hardness are needed to cope with the increased radiation dose, requiring new tracking detectors. In the upgraded ATLAS detector the region from 20 to 50 cm distance to the beam will be covered by silicon strip detectors (SSD) with short strips. These will have to withstand a 1 MeV neutron equivalent fluence of about 1x10{sup 15}n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}, hence extreme radiation resistance is necessary. For the short strips, we propose to use SSD realised in the radiation tolerant 3D technology, where rows of columns-etched into the silicon bulk-are joined together to form strips. To demonstrate the feasibility of 3D SSD for the sLHC, we have built prototype modules using 3D-single-type-column (stc) SSD with short strips and front-end electronics from the present ATLAS SCT. The modules were read out with the SCT Data Acquisition system and tested with an IR-laser. We report on the performance of these 3D modules, in particular the noise at 40 MHz which constitutes a measurement of the effective detector capacitance. Conclusions about options for using 3D SSD detectors for tracking at the sLHC are drawn.

  16. Script of Healthcare Technology: Do Designs of Robotic Beds Exclude or Include Users?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Søsser Grith Kragh; Hansen, Meiken; Lindegaard, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    of assistive technologies as design of socio-material assemblies , which include an analysis of the products already used in relation to multiple users, their practices and wishes. In the article we focus on the challenges in the implementation of two types of robotic beds used for disability care...... in a municipality in Denmark. We follow both the caregivers and disabled people’s daily practices. By using Actor Network Theory we explore the socio-material settings and the design challenges. The theoretical concept of ‘script’ is used to investigate how the artifacts (beds) and the multiple users go through...

  17. Nonlinear silicon photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, M.; Castellan, C.; Signorini, S.; Trenti, A.; Pavesi, L.

    2017-09-01

    Silicon photonics is a technology based on fabricating integrated optical circuits by using the same paradigms as the dominant electronics industry. After twenty years of fervid development, silicon photonics is entering the market with low cost, high performance and mass-manufacturable optical devices. Until now, most silicon photonic devices have been based on linear optical effects, despite the many phenomenologies associated with nonlinear optics in both bulk materials and integrated waveguides. Silicon and silicon-based materials have strong optical nonlinearities which are enhanced in integrated devices by the small cross-section of the high-index contrast silicon waveguides or photonic crystals. Here the photons are made to strongly interact with the medium where they propagate. This is the central argument of nonlinear silicon photonics. It is the aim of this review to describe the state-of-the-art in the field. Starting from the basic nonlinearities in a silicon waveguide or in optical resonator geometries, many phenomena and applications are described—including frequency generation, frequency conversion, frequency-comb generation, supercontinuum generation, soliton formation, temporal imaging and time lensing, Raman lasing, and comb spectroscopy. Emerging quantum photonics applications, such as entangled photon sources, heralded single-photon sources and integrated quantum photonic circuits are also addressed at the end of this review.

  18. Low cost monocrystalline silicon sheet fabrication for solar cells by advanced ingot technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiegl, G. F.; Bonora, A. C.

    1980-01-01

    The continuous liquid feed (CLF) Czochralski furnace and the enhanced I.D. slicing technology for the low-cost production of monocrystalline silicon sheets for solar cells are discussed. The incorporation of the CLF system is shown to improve ingot production rate significantly. As demonstrated in actual runs, higher than average solidification rates (75 to 100 mm/hr for 150 mm 1-0-0 crystals) can be achieved, when the system approaches steady-state conditions. The design characteristics of the CLF furnace are detailed, noting that it is capable of precise control of dopant impurity incorporation in the axial direction of the crystal. The crystal add-on cost is computed to be $11.88/sq m, considering a projected 1986 25-slice per cm conversion factor with an 86% crystal growth yield.

  19. Development of a 2D silicon strip detector system for mammographic imaging using particle physics technology

    CERN Document Server

    Royle, G J; Speller, R D; Hall, G; Iles, G; Raymond, M; Corrin, E; Stelt, P F; Manthos, N; Triantis, F A

    2002-01-01

    2D silicon strip sensors using particle physics readout technology have been evaluated as mammographic detectors. Two different versions of the APV series of front-end electronics were used that provided different noise levels. The sensors were evaluated using a typical mammography X-ray spectrum. The spatial resolution was evaluated using line pair test patterns and the modulation transfer function (MTF) was measured using the Edge Response Function. Low contrast performance was measured using the TOR(MAX) test object. Limiting spatial resolution of 52 mu m was obtained and an MTF value of 0.1 at 16 lp/mm. The low contrast performance was estimated from 250, 500 mu m and 6 mm diameter objects and was found to be 11.5%, 7% and better than 3.8%, respectively.

  20. Low cost monocrystalline silicon sheet fabrication for solar cells by advanced ingot technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiegl, G. F.; Bonora, A. C.

    1980-01-01

    The continuous liquid feed (CLF) Czochralski furnace and the enhanced I.D. slicing technology for the low-cost production of monocrystalline silicon sheets for solar cells are discussed. The incorporation of the CLF system is shown to improve ingot production rate significantly. As demonstrated in actual runs, higher than average solidification rates (75 to 100 mm/hr for 150 mm 1-0-0 crystals) can be achieved, when the system approaches steady-state conditions. The design characteristics of the CLF furnace are detailed, noting that it is capable of precise control of dopant impurity incorporation in the axial direction of the crystal. The crystal add-on cost is computed to be $11.88/sq m, considering a projected 1986 25-slice per cm conversion factor with an 86% crystal growth yield.

  1. Technological and Physical Compatibilities in Hybrid Integration of Laser and Monolithic Integration of Waveguide, Photodetector and CMOS Circuits on Silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, M.J.; Ikkink, T.; Chalmers, J.; Kranenburg, H. van; Albers, H.; Holleman, J.; Lambeck, P.V.; Joppe, J.L.; Bekman, H.H.P.T.; Krijger, A.J.T. de

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, technological and physical compatibilities in hybrid integration of AlInGaP laser and monolithic integration of ZnO monomode waveguide, pin-photodetector, CMOS circuits for laser power control and signal amplification on silicon substrate are studied. Prospective problems and their po

  2. Technological and physical compatibilities in hybrid integration of laser and monolithic integration of waveguide, photodetector and CMOS circuits on silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Ming-Jiang; Ikkink, Ton; Chalmers, John; Kranenburg, van Herma; Albers, Hans; Holleman, Jisk; Lambeck, Paul; Joppe, Jan Leendert; Bekman, Herman; Krijger, de Ton; Lambeck, P.V.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, technological and physical compatibilities in hybrid integration of AlInGaP laser and monolithic integration of ZnO monomode waveguide, pin-photodetector, CMOS circuits for laser power control and signal amplification on silicon substrate are studied. Prospective problems and their po

  3. 76 FR 32227 - DST Systems, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Comsys Information Technology Services...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ... information processing, computer software services, and business solutions, to the financial services... Employment and Training Administration DST Systems, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Comsys Information Technology Services, Megaforce, and Kelly Services Kansas City, MO; DST Technologies, a...

  4. Technological study of laser cutting silicon steel controlled by rotating gas flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Hong; Yi, Zhang; chenglong, Mi

    2009-04-01

    Using traditional laser cutting technology, it is easy to produce molten slag in laser cutting silicon steel sheet. The main reason is the inevitable oxidizing reaction in the process caused by the use of oxygen as the aided gas. As a common solution, high pressure and high purity N 2 or an inert gas is therefore used instead of oxygen. Although the cut quality is improved, the cutting efficiency is reduced because of the lack of energy generated from an exothermic oxidation reaction. The technology used in this paper is to employ a newly developed cyclone slag separator. The slag separator is located under the workpiece to form rotating gas flow for controlling the direction of the flowing slag gas. Adopting the new technology reported here, oxygen is still used as the aided gas. The experiments prove that, by controlling the technical parameters reasonably tightly, glossy and dross-free cutting kerfs are obtained for reduced laser power. The gas flow acting under the workpiece is simulated using the finite element method (FEM). The operating law of the rotating gas flow is verified by ANSYS, which provides an academic basis for controlling the flowing direction of the slag gas.

  5. Design and fabrication process of silicon micro-calorimeters on simple SOI technology for X-ray spectral imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliane, A. [CEA/LETI, MINATEC, 17, Avenue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France)], E-mail: abdelkader.aliane@cea.fr; Agnese, P. [CEA/LETI, MINATEC, 17, Avenue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France); Pigot, C.; Sauvageot, J.-L. [Laboratoire AIM, CNRS, Universite Paris Diderot, CEA/DSM/IRFU/Service d' Astrophysique, Bat. 709, CEA-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Moro, F. de; Ribot, H.; Gasse, A. [CEA/LETI, MINATEC, 17, Avenue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France); Szeflinski, V. [Laboratoire AIM, CNRS, Universite Paris Diderot, CEA/DSM/IRFU/Service d' Astrophysique, Bat. 709, CEA-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Gobil, Y. [CEA/LETI, MINATEC, 17, Avenue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France)

    2008-09-01

    Several successful development programs have been conducted on infra-red bolometer arrays at the 'Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique' (CEA-LETI Grenoble) in collaboration with the CEA-SAp (Saclay); taking advantage of this background, we are now developing an X-ray spectro-imaging camera for next generation space astronomy missions, using silicon only technology. We have developed monolithic silicon micro-calorimeters based on implanted thermistors in an improved array that could be used for future space missions. The 8x8 array consists of a grid of 64 suspended pixels fabricated on a silicon on insulator (SOI) wafer. Each pixel of this detector array is made of a tantalum (Ta) absorber, which is bound by means of indium bump hybridization, to a silicon thermistor. The absorber array is bound to the thermistor array in a collective process. The fabrication process of our detector involves a combination of standard technologies and silicon bulk micro-machining techniques, based on deposition, photolithography and plasma etching steps. Finally, we present the results of measurements performed on these four primary building blocks that are required to create a detector array up to 32x32 pixels in size.

  6. Development of open air silicon deposition technology by silane-free atmospheric pressure plasma enhanced chemical transport under local ambient gas control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Teruki; Konno, Nobuaki; Yoshida, Yukihisa

    2016-07-01

    Open air silicon deposition was performed by combining silane-free atmospheric pressure plasma-enhanced chemical transport and a newly developed local ambient gas control technology. The effect of air contamination on silicon deposition was investigated using a vacuum chamber, and the allowable air contamination level was confirmed to be 3 ppm. The capability of the local ambient gas control head was investigated numerically and experimentally. A safe and clean process environment with air contamination less than 1 ppm was achieved. Combining these technologies, a microcrystalline silicon film was deposited in open air, the properties of which were comparable to those of silicon films deposited in a vacuum chamber.

  7. A comparative analysis of Photovoltaic Technological Innovation Systems including international dimensions: the cases of Japan and The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasseur, V.; Kamp, L.M.; Negro, S.O.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the development and diffusion of photovoltaic (PV) technology in Japan and The Netherlands. Both cases are analysed with the Technological Innovation Systems (TIS) framework, which focuses on a particular technology and includes all those factors that influence the developmen

  8. A comparative analysis of Photovoltaic Technological Innovation Systems including international dimensions: the cases of Japan and The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasseur, V.; Kamp, L.M.; Negro, S.O.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the development and diffusion of photovoltaic (PV) technology in Japan and The Netherlands. Both cases are analysed with the Technological Innovation Systems (TIS) framework, which focuses on a particular technology and includes all those factors that influence the developmen

  9. Multiple EFG silicon ribbon technology as the basis for manufacturing low-cost terrestrial solar cells. [Epitaxial Film Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackintosh, B.; Kalejs, J. P.; Ho, C. T.; Wald, F. V.

    1981-01-01

    Mackintosh et al. (1978) have reported on the development of a multiple ribbon furnace based on the 'edge defined film fed growth' (EFG) process for the fabrication of silicon ribbon. It has been demonstrated that this technology can meet the requirements for a silicon substrate material to be used in the manufacture of solar panels which can meet requirements regarding a selling price of $0.70/Wp when certain goals in terms of throughput and quality are achieved. These goals for the multiple ribbon technology using 10 cm wide ribbon require simultaneous growth of 12 ribbons by one operator at average speeds of 4 to 4.5 cm/min, and 13% efficient solar cells. A description is presented of the progress made toward achieving these goals. It is concluded that the required performance levels have now been achieved. The separate aspects of technology must now be integrated into a single prototype furnace.

  10. Low-loss and low-crosstalk 8 × 8 silicon nanowire AWG routers fabricated with CMOS technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Sheng, Zhen; Li, Le; Pang, Albert; Wu, Aimin; Li, Wei; Wang, Xi; Zou, Shichang; Qi, Minghao; Gan, Fuwan

    2014-04-21

    Low-loss and low-crosstalk 8 × 8 arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) routers based on silicon nanowire waveguides are reported. A comparative study of the measurement results of the 3.2 nm-channel-spacing AWGs with three different designs is performed to evaluate the effect of each optimal technique, showing that a comprehensive optimization technique is more effective to improve the device performance than a single optimization. Based on the comprehensive optimal design, we further design and experimentally demonstrate a new 8-channel 0.8 nm-channel-spacing silicon AWG router for dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) application with 130 nm CMOS technology. The AWG router with a channel spacing of 3.2 nm (resp. 0.8 nm) exhibits low insertion loss of 2.32 dB (resp. 2.92 dB) and low crosstalk of -20.5~-24.5 dB (resp. -16.9~-17.8 dB). In addition, sophisticated measurements are presented including all-input transmission testing and high-speed WDM system demonstrations for these routers. The functionality of the Si nanowire AWG as a router is characterized and a good cyclic rotation property is demonstrated. Moreover, we test the optical eye diagrams and bit-error-rates (BER) of the de-multiplexed signal when the multi-wavelength high-speed signals are launched into the AWG routers in a system experiment. Clear optical eye diagrams and low power penalty from the system point of view are achieved thanks to the low crosstalk of the AWG devices.

  11. Enabling Technologies for Silicon Microstrip Tracking Detectors at the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Barth, C; Bloch, I.; Bögelspacher, F.; de Boer, W.; Daniels, M.; Dierlamm, A.; Eber, R.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Eichhorn, T.; Erfle, J.; Feld, L.; Garutti, E.; Gregor, I. -M.; Guthoff, M.; Hartmann, F.; Hauser, M.; Husemann, U.; Jakobs, K.; Junkes, A.; Karpinski, W.; Klein, K.; Kuehn, S.; Lacker, H.; Mahboubi, K.; Müller, Th.; Mussgiller, A.; Nürnberg, A.; Parzefall, U.; Poehlsen, T.; Poley, L.; Preuten, M.; Rehnisch, L.; Sammet, J.; Schleper, P.; Schuwalow, S.; Sperlich, D.; Stanitzki, M.; Steinbrück, G.; Wlochal, M.

    2016-01-01

    While the tracking detectors of the ATLAS and CMS experiments have shown excellent performance in Run 1 of LHC data taking, and are expected to continue to do so during LHC operation at design luminosity, both experiments will have to exchange their tracking systems when the LHC is upgraded to the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) around the year 2024. The new tracking systems need to operate in an environment in which both the hit densities and the radiation damage will be about an order of magnitude higher than today. In addition, the new trackers need to contribute to the first level trigger in order to maintain a high data-taking efficiency for the interesting processes. Novel detector technologies have to be developed to meet these very challenging goals. The German groups active in the upgrades of the ATLAS and CMS tracking systems have formed a collaborative "Project on Enabling Technologies for Silicon Microstrip Tracking Detectors at the HL-LHC" (PETTL), which was supported by the Helmholtz Alliance "Phys...

  12. Silicon microstrip detectors in 3D technology for the sLHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parzefall, Ulrich [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany)], E-mail: ulrich.parzefall@physik.uni-freiburg.de; Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco [INFN and Universita' di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Eckert, Simon [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Eklund, Lars; Fleta, Celeste [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Jakobs, Karl; Kuehn, Susanne; Pahn, Gregor [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Parkes, Chris; Pennicard, David [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Ronchin, Sabina [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Zoboli, Andrea [INFN and Universita' di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Zorzi, Nicola [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2009-08-01

    The projected luminosity upgrade of the large hadron collider (LHC), the sLHC, will constitute a challenging radiation environment for tracking detectors. Massive improvements in radiation hardness are required with respect to the LHC. In the layout for the new ATLAS tracker, silicon strip detectors (SSDs) with short strips cover the region from 28 to 60 cm distance to the beam. These SSDs will be exposed to fluences up to 10{sup 15}N{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}, hence radiation resistance is the major concern. It is advantageous to fuse the superior radiation hardness of the 3D design originally conceived for pixel-style applications with the benefits of the well-known planar technology for strip detectors. This is achieved by ganging rows of 3D columns together to form strips. Several prototype sLHC detector modules using 3D SSD with short strips, processed on p-type silicon, and LHC-speed front-end electronics from the present ATLAS semi-conductor tracker (SCT) were built. The modules were tested before and after irradiation to fluences of 10{sup 15}N{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}. The tests were performed with three systems: a highly focused IR-laser with 5{mu}m spot size to make position-resolved scans of the charge collection efficiency (CCE), a Sr{sup 90}{beta}-source set-up to measure the signal levels for a minimum ionizing particles (MIPs), and a beam test with 180 GeV pions at CERN. This article gives a brief overview of the performance of these 3D modules, and draws conclusions about options for using 3D strip sensors as tracking detectors at the sLHC.

  13. Highly efficient shrinkage of inverted-pyramid silicon nanopores by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifan; Deng, Tao; Chen, Qi; Liang, Feng; Liu, Zewen

    2016-06-01

    Solid-state nanopore-based analysis systems are currently one of the most attractive and promising platforms in sensing fields. This work presents a highly efficient method to shrink inverted-pyramid silicon nanopores using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) technology by the deposition of SiN x onto the surface of the nanopore. The contraction of the inverted-pyramid silicon nanopores when subjected to the PECVD process has been modeled and carefully analyzed, and the modeling data are in good agreement with the experimental results within a specific PECVD shrinkage period (˜0-600 s). Silicon nanopores within a 50-400 nm size range contract to sub-10 nm dimensions. Additionally, the inner structure of the nanopores after the PECVD process has been analyzed by focused ion beam cutting process. The results show an inner structure morphology change from inverted-pyramid to hourglass, which may enhance the spatial resolution of sensing devices.

  14. Highly efficient shrinkage of inverted-pyramid silicon nanopores by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifan; Deng, Tao; Chen, Qi; Liang, Feng; Liu, Zewen

    2016-06-24

    Solid-state nanopore-based analysis systems are currently one of the most attractive and promising platforms in sensing fields. This work presents a highly efficient method to shrink inverted-pyramid silicon nanopores using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) technology by the deposition of SiN x onto the surface of the nanopore. The contraction of the inverted-pyramid silicon nanopores when subjected to the PECVD process has been modeled and carefully analyzed, and the modeling data are in good agreement with the experimental results within a specific PECVD shrinkage period (∼0-600 s). Silicon nanopores within a 50-400 nm size range contract to sub-10 nm dimensions. Additionally, the inner structure of the nanopores after the PECVD process has been analyzed by focused ion beam cutting process. The results show an inner structure morphology change from inverted-pyramid to hourglass, which may enhance the spatial resolution of sensing devices.

  15. Integrated Silicon Optoelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, Horst K

    2010-01-01

    Integrated Silicon Optoelectronics synthesizes topics from optoelectronics and microelectronics. The book concentrates on silicon as the major base of modern semiconductor devices and circuits. Starting from the basics of optical emission and absorption, as well as from the device physics of photodetectors, the aspects of the integration of photodetectors in modern bipolar, CMOS, and BiCMOS technologies are discussed. Detailed descriptions of fabrication technologies and applications of optoelectronic integrated circuits are included. The book, furthermore, contains a review of the newest state of research on eagerly anticipated silicon light emitters. In order to cover the topics comprehensively, also included are integrated waveguides, gratings, and optoelectronic power devices. Numerous elaborate illustrations facilitate and enhance comprehension. This extended edition will be of value to engineers, physicists, and scientists in industry and at universities. The book is also recommended to graduate student...

  16. Passive technologies for future large-scale photonic integrated circuits on silicon: polarization handling, light non-reciprocity and loss reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daoxin Dai

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Silicon-based large-scale photonic integrated circuits are becoming important, due to the need for higher complexity and lower cost for optical transmitters, receivers and optical buffers. In this paper, passive technologies for large-scale photonic integrated circuits are described, including polarization handling, light non-reciprocity and loss reduction. The design rule for polarization beam splitters based on asymmetrical directional couplers is summarized and several novel designs for ultra-short polarization beam splitters are reviewed. A novel concept for realizing a polarization splitter–rotator is presented with a very simple fabrication process. Realization of silicon-based light non-reciprocity devices (e.g., optical isolator, which is very important for transmitters to avoid sensitivity to reflections, is also demonstrated with the help of magneto-optical material by the bonding technology. Low-loss waveguides are another important technology for large-scale photonic integrated circuits. Ultra-low loss optical waveguides are achieved by designing a Si3N4 core with a very high aspect ratio. The loss is reduced further to <0.1 dB m−1 with an improved fabrication process incorporating a high-quality thermal oxide upper cladding by means of wafer bonding. With the developed ultra-low loss Si3N4 optical waveguides, some devices are also demonstrated, including ultra-high-Q ring resonators, low-loss arrayed-waveguide grating (demultiplexers, and high-extinction-ratio polarizers.

  17. Edge pixel response studies of edgeless silicon sensor technology for pixellated imaging detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneuski, D.; Bates, R.; Blue, A.; Buttar, C.; Doonan, K.; Eklund, L.; Gimenez, E. N.; Hynds, D.; Kachkanov, S.; Kalliopuska, J.; McMullen, T.; O'Shea, V.; Tartoni, N.; Plackett, R.; Vahanen, S.; Wraight, K.

    2015-03-01

    Silicon sensor technologies with reduced dead area at the sensor's perimeter are under development at a number of institutes. Several fabrication methods for sensors which are sensitive close to the physical edge of the device are under investigation utilising techniques such as active-edges, passivated edges and current-terminating rings. Such technologies offer the goal of a seamlessly tiled detection surface with minimum dead space between the individual modules. In order to quantify the performance of different geometries and different bulk and implant types, characterisation of several sensors fabricated using active-edge technology were performed at the B16 beam line of the Diamond Light Source. The sensors were fabricated by VTT and bump-bonded to Timepix ROICs. They were 100 and 200 μ m thick sensors, with the last pixel-to-edge distance of either 50 or 100 μ m. The sensors were fabricated as either n-on-n or n-on-p type devices. Using 15 keV monochromatic X-rays with a beam spot of 2.5 μ m, the performance at the outer edge and corners pixels of the sensors was evaluated at three bias voltages. The results indicate a significant change in the charge collection properties between the edge and 5th (up to 275 μ m) from edge pixel for the 200 μ m thick n-on-n sensor. The edge pixel performance of the 100 μ m thick n-on-p sensors is affected only for the last two pixels (up to 110 μ m) subject to biasing conditions. Imaging characteristics of all sensor types investigated are stable over time and the non-uniformities can be minimised by flat-field corrections. The results from the synchrotron tests combined with lab measurements are presented along with an explanation of the observed effects.

  18. Silicon spintronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Ron

    2012-04-23

    Worldwide efforts are underway to integrate semiconductors and magnetic materials, aiming to create a revolutionary and energy-efficient information technology in which digital data are encoded in the spin of electrons. Implementing spin functionality in silicon, the mainstream semiconductor, is vital to establish a spin-based electronics with potential to change information technology beyond imagination. Can silicon spintronics live up to the expectation? Remarkable advances in the creation and control of spin polarization in silicon suggest so. Here, I review the key developments and achievements, and describe the building blocks of silicon spintronics. Unexpected and puzzling results are discussed, and open issues and challenges identified. More surprises lie ahead as silicon spintronics comes of age.

  19. Development and Characterization of the Bonding and Integration Technologies Needed for Fabricating Silicon Carbide Based Injector Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbig,Michael C.; Singh, Mrityunjay

    2008-01-01

    Advanced ceramic bonding and integration technologies play a critical role in the fabrication and application of silicon carbide based components for a number of aerospace and ground based applications. One such application is a lean direct injector for a turbine engine to achieve low NOx emissions. Ceramic to ceramic diffusion bonding and ceramic to metal brazing technologies are being developed for this injector application. For the diffusion bonding technology, titanium interlayers (coatings and foils) were used to aid in the joining of silicon carbide (SiC) substrates. The influence of such variables as surface finish, interlayer thickness, and processing time were investigated. Electron microprobe analysis was used to identify the reaction formed phases. In the diffusion bonds, an intermediate phase, Ti5Si3Cx, formed that is thermally incompatible in its thermal expansion and caused thermal stresses and cracking during the processing cool-down. Thinner interlayers of pure titanium and/or longer processing times resulted in an optimized microstructure. Tensile tests on the joined materials resulted in strengths of 13-28 MPa depending on the SiC substrate material. Nondestructive evaluation using ultrasonic immersion showed well formed bonds. For the joining technology of brazing Kovar fuel tubes to silicon carbide, preliminary development of the joining approach has begun. Various technical issues and requirements for the injector application are addressed.

  20. Technological development for super-high efficiency solar cells. Technological development of solar-high efficiency singlecrystalline silicon solar cells (high quality singlecrystalline silicon substrates); Chokokoritsu taiyo denchi no gijutsu kaihatsu. Chokokoritsu tankessho silicon taiyo denchi no gijutsu kaihatsu (kohinshitsu tankessho silicon kiban no gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuta, M. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the study results on technological development for high quality efficiency singlecrystalline silicon substrates in fiscal 1994. (1) On electromagnetic casting/once FZ bath method, a Si single crystal of 600mm long was successfully obtained by improvement of power source frequency and furnace parts. High carbon content resulted in no single crystal including solids. In undoped electromagnetic casting ingots, resistivities over 1500ohm-cm were obtained because of effective preventive measures from contaminants. (2) On electromagnetic melting CZ method, since vibration and temperature control of melt surface by magnetic shield was insufficient for stable pulling of single crystals, its practical use was hopeless. (3) On electron beam melting CZ method, a Si single crystal of 25mm in diameter was obtained by preventive measures from evaporation of Si and influence of deposits, and improved uniform deposition distribution in a furnace. The oscillation circuit constant of power source, and water-cooling copper crucible structure were also analyzed for the optimum design of electromagnetic melting furnaces. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Extending Moore’s Law for Silicon CMOS using More-Moore and More-than-Moore Technologies

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Aftab M.

    2016-12-01

    With the advancement of silicon electronics under threat from physical limits to dimensional scaling, the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) released a white paper in 2008, detailing the ways in which the semiconductor industry can keep itself continually growing in the twenty-first century. Two distinct paths were proposed: More-Moore and More-than-Moore. While More-Moore approach focuses on the continued use of state-of-the-art, complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology for next generation electronics, More-than-Moore approach calls for a disruptive change in the system architecture and integration strategies. In this doctoral thesis, we investigate both the approaches to obtain performance improvement in the state-of-the-art, CMOS electronics. We present a novel channel material, SiSn, for fabrication of CMOS circuits. This investigation is in line with the More-Moore approach because we are relying on the established CMOS industry infrastructure to obtain an incremental change in the integrated circuit (IC) performance by replacing silicon channel with SiSn. We report a simple, low-cost and CMOS compatible process for obtaining single crystal SiSn wafers. Tin (Sn) is deposited on silicon wafers in the form of a metallic thin film and annealed to facilitate diffusion into the silicon lattice. This diffusion provides for sufficient SiSn layer at the top surface for fabrication of CMOS devices. We report a lowering of band gap and enhanced mobility for SiSn channel MOSFETs compared to silicon control devices. We also present a process for fabrication of vertically integrated flexible silicon to form 3D integrated circuits. This disruptive change in the state-of-the-art, in line with the More-than-Moore approach, promises to increase the performance per area of a silicon chip. We report a process for stacking and bonding these pieces with polymeric bonding and interconnecting them using copper through silicon vias (TSVs). We

  2. Integration Science and Technology of Silicon-Based Ceramics and Composites:Technical Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M.

    2013-01-01

    Ceramic integration technologies enable hierarchical design and manufacturing of intricate ceramic and composite parts starting with geometrically simpler units that are subsequently joined to themselves and/or to metals to create components with progressively higher levels of complexity and functionality. However, for the development of robust and reliable integrated systems with optimum performance for high temperature applications, detailed understanding of various thermochemical and thermomechanical factors is critical. Different technical approaches are required for the integration of ceramic to ceramic and ceramic to metal systems. Active metal brazing, in particular, is a simple and cost-effective method to integrate ceramic to metallic components. Active braze alloys usually contain a reactive filler metal (e.g., Ti, Cr, V, Hf etc) that promotes wettability and spreading by inducing chemical reactions with the ceramics and composites. In this presentation, various examples of brazing of silicon nitride to themselves and to metallic systems are presented. Other examples of joining of ceramic composites (C/SiC and SiC/SiC) using ceramic interlayers and the resulting microstructures are also presented. Thermomechanical characterization of joints is presented for both types of systems. In addition, various challenges and opportunities in design, fabrication, and testing of integrated similar (ceramic-ceramic) and dissimilar (ceramic-metal) material systems will be discussed. Potential opportunities and need for the development of innovative design philosophies, approaches, and integrated system testing under simulated application conditions will also be presented.

  3. Integrated Active Magnetic Probe in Silicon-on-Insulator Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Satoshi; Kawahito, Shoji; Yamaguchi, Masahiro

    2006-09-01

    A novel magnetic probe has been designed and fabricated by 0.15 μm five-metal (4M + thick metal) silicon-on-insulator (SOI) complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology to achieve both a high sensitivity and a high spatial resolution. A detecting coil having metal multilayers, a two-stage differential amplifier, a differential-to-single-ended converter, and an output buffer are integrated on a single chip. The probe is referred to as an active probe, and it has a feature to distinguish magnetic field from detected electromagnetic emissions by means of a two-turn differential coil structure and a circuit technique using a wideband differential-to-single-ended converter with a high common-mode rejection. Measurement results show the effectiveness of the active magnetic probe with the function of on-chip amplification and electric field suppression, as well as electrical switching with common-mode voltage (Vcom). Moreover, for the first time, a magnetic field distribution is visualized with an active probe.

  4. Study of dc micro-discharge arrays made in silicon using CMOS compatible technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulsreshath, M. K.; Schwaederle, L.; Overzet, L. J.; Lefaucheux, P.; Ladroue, J.; Tillocher, T.; Aubry, O.; Woytasik, M.; Schelcher, G.; Dussart, R.

    2012-07-01

    In this paper we present the fabrication technology used to make micro-discharge ‘reactors’ on a silicon (Si) substrate. For the fabrication of these reactors we have used Si wafers with 4 inch diameter and standard cleanroom facilities. The fabrication technology used is compatible with standard CMOS device fabrication and the fabricated micro-discharge reactors can be used to produce dc discharges. These micro-discharges operate at near atmospheric pressure. They were given ring-shaped anodes separated from the cathode by a SiO2 dielectric with a thickness of approximately 5-6 µm rather than the much more common ˜100 µm. The micro-discharge reactors can consist of either a single hole or multiple holes and we have built devices with holes from 25 to 150 µm in diameter. The micro-discharge measurements were obtained for helium and argon dc plasmas between 100 and 1000 Torr. We used a single ballast resistor to produce micro-discharges in multi-hole array. This resistor also acted to limit the discharge power. An average current density of 0.8 A cm-2 was calculated for the 1024 holes array with 100 µm diameter holes. In addition, we will report on stability of micro-discharges depending on the cavity configuration of the micro-reactors and the ignition trends for the micro-discharge arrays. Finally, we discuss the life time of micro-discharge arrays as well as the factors affecting them (cathode sputtering, thermally affected zones, etc).

  5. 76 FR 2144 - Quest Diagnostics, Inc. Information Technology Help Desk Services Including On-Site Leased...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... Employment and Training Administration Quest Diagnostics, Inc. Information Technology Help Desk Services... for Worker Adjustment Assistance on December 6, 2010, applicable to workers of Quest Diagnostics, Inc... on-site at the West Norriton, Pennsylvania location of Quest Diagnostics, Inc.,...

  6. Integrated optical frequency shifter in silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauermann, M; Weimann, C; Knopf, A; Heni, W; Palmer, R; Koeber, S; Elder, D L; Bogaerts, W; Leuthold, J; Dalton, L R; Rembe, C; Freude, W; Koos, C

    2016-05-30

    We demonstrate for the first time a waveguide-based frequency shifter on the silicon photonic platform using single-sideband modulation. The device is based on silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) electro-optic modulators, which combine conventional silicon-on-insulator waveguides with highly efficient electro-optic cladding materials. Using small-signal modulation, we demonstrate frequency shifts of up to 10 GHz. We further show large-signal modulation with optimized waveforms, enabling a conversion efficiency of -5.8 dB while suppressing spurious side-modes by more than 23 dB. In contrast to conventional acousto-optic frequency shifters, our devices lend themselves to large-scale integration on silicon substrates, while enabling frequency shifts that are several orders of magnitude larger than those demonstrated with all-silicon serrodyne devices.

  7. Scribe–cleave–passivate (SCP) slim edge technology for silicon sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadeyev, V., E-mail: vf@scipp.ucsc.edu [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Sadrozinski, H.F.-W.; Ely, S.; Wright, J.G. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Christophersen, M.; Phlips, B.F. [U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Code 7654, 4555 Overlook Ave, SW Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Pellegrini, G. [Instituto de Microelectrónica de Barcelona, IMB-CNM-CSIC, Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Grinstein, S. [Institut de Fisica d’Altes Energies (IFAE) and ICREA, 08193 Bellaterra, (Barcelona) (Spain); Dalla Betta, G.-F. [INFN and University of Trento, Via Sommarive, 14, 38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); Boscardin, M. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK-CMM), Via Sommarive, 18, 38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); Klingenberg, R.; Wittig, T. [Technische Universitaet Dortmund, Fakultaet Physik, Experimentelle Physik IV, D-44221 Dortmund (Germany); Macchiolo, A.; Weigell, P. [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 München (Germany); Creanza, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica, INFN Sezione di Bari, 70126 Bari (Italy); Bates, R.; Blue, A.; Eklund, L.; Maneuski, D.; Stewart, G. [SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Kelvin Building, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); and others

    2013-12-11

    We are pursuing scribe–cleave–passivate (SCP) technology of making “slim edge” sensors. Such sensors have only a minimal amount of inactive peripheral region, which benefits construction of large-area tracker and imaging systems. Key application steps of this method are surface scribing, cleaving, and passivation of the resulting sidewall. We are working on developing both the technology and physical understanding of the processed devices performance. In this paper we begin by reviewing the manufacturing options of SCP technology. Then we show new results regarding the technology automation and device physics performance. The latter includes charge collection efficiency near the edge and radiation hardness study. We also report on the status of devices processed at the request of the RD50 collaborators.

  8. Advanced Non-Destructive Assessment Technology to Determine the Aging of Silicon Containing Materials for Generation IV Nuclear Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, T. W.; Olson, D. L.; Mishra, B.; King, J. C.; Fletcher, J.; Gerstenberger, L.; Lawrence, S.; Martin, A.; Mejia, C.; Meyer, M. K.; Kennedy, R.; Hu, L.; Kohse, G.; Terry, J.

    2011-06-01

    To create an in-situ, real-time method of monitoring neutron damage within a nuclear reactor core, irradiated silicon carbide samples are examined to correlate measurable variations in the material properties with neutron fluence levels experienced by the silicon carbide (SiC) during the irradiation process. The reaction by which phosphorus doping via thermal neutrons occurs in the silicon carbide samples is known to increase electron carrier density. A number of techniques are used to probe the properties of the SiC, including ultrasonic and Hall coefficient measurements, as well as high frequency impedance analysis. Gamma spectroscopy is also used to examine residual radioactivity resulting from irradiation activation of elements in the samples. Hall coefficient measurements produce the expected trend of increasing carrier concentration with higher fluence levels, while high frequency impedance analysis shows an increase in sample impedance with increasing fluence.

  9. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Status of Silicon Carbide Joining Technology Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shannon M. Bragg-Sitton

    2013-09-01

    Advanced, accident tolerant nuclear fuel systems are currently being investigated for potential application in currently operating light water reactors (LWR) or in reactors that have attained design certification. Evaluation of potential options for accident tolerant nuclear fuel systems point to the potential benefits of silicon carbide (SiC) relative to Zr-based alloys, including increased corrosion resistance, reduced oxidation and heat of oxidation, and reduced hydrogen generation under steam attack (off-normal conditions). If demonstrated to be applicable in the intended LWR environment, SiC could be used in nuclear fuel cladding or other in-core structural components. Achieving a SiC-SiC joint that resists corrosion with hot, flowing water, is stable under irradiation and retains hermeticity is a significant challenge. This report summarizes the current status of SiC-SiC joint development work supported by the Department of Energy Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program. Significant progress has been made toward SiC-SiC joint development for nuclear service, but additional development and testing work (including irradiation testing) is still required to present a candidate joint for use in nuclear fuel cladding.

  10. Fiscal 1997 project on the R and D of industrial scientific technology under consignment from NEDO. Report on the results of the R and D of silicon-based polymeric materials (development of liquid methane fueled aircraft engine); 1997 nendo sangyo kagaku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo / Shin energy Sangyo gijutsu Sogo Kaihatsu Kiko itaku. Keisokei kobunshi zairyo no kenkyu kaihatsu (methane nenryo kokukiyo engine kaihatsu) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This R and D aims at establishing the basic technology on the molecular design, synthesis, use as materials, and evaluation of silicon-based polymers, of which excellent electronic/optical functions, high heat-resistance/combustion-resistance/dynamic characteristic are expected. The paper introduced the results of the fiscal 1997 R and D of them. The themes are as follows: technology of synthesis of silicon-based polymeric materials with sea-island microstructures, interstitial type structure forming technology, composite materials with organometallic complexes and silicon-based polymers, silicon-based polymer structural materials with ring structures, optimization of the Wurtz`s synthesis method of silicon-based polymers, unsaturated and hypercoordinate organosilicic compounds, function of silicon-based polymers, synthesis and polymerization of new silicon-based monomers, development of a new synthesis method of polysilane and the function, development of new application of silicon-based polymers in imaging devices for recording/memory/display of information, molecular design of {pi}-conjugate and {sigma}-conjugate compounds including silicon, and conformation and electronic state of silicon-based polymeric materials. 186 refs., 141 figs., 68 tabs.

  11. Silicon photonics for telecommunications and biomedicine

    CERN Document Server

    Fathpour, Sasan

    2011-01-01

    Given silicon's versatile material properties, use of low-cost silicon photonics continues to move beyond light-speed data transmission through fiber-optic cables and computer chips. Its application has also evolved from the device to the integrated-system level. A timely overview of this impressive growth, Silicon Photonics for Telecommunications and Biomedicine summarizes state-of-the-art developments in a wide range of areas, including optical communications, wireless technologies, and biomedical applications of silicon photonics. With contributions from world experts, this reference guides

  12. [Michigan Technological University Pre-Service Teacher Enhancement Program]. [Includes a copy of the Student Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, C.S.; Yarroch, W.L.

    1993-04-27

    The Michigan Technological University Teacher Education Program received funding from the US Department of Energy for the purpose of providing capable and suitably inclined, MTU Engineering and Science students a chance to explore high school level science and mathematics teaching as a career option. Ten undergraduate students were selected from nominations and were paired with mentor teachers for the study. This report covers the experience of the first ten nominees and their participation in the program.

  13. Isolated Islands by Selective Local Oxidation (islo): a Silicon-On (soi) Technology for Nanoelectronic and Nanoelectromechanical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arney, Susanne Christine

    The development of an advanced fully-integrated nanometer-scale isolation technology called the Isolated Islands of Substrate-Silicon by Selective Lateral Oxidation (ISLO) technology is reported. The versatility and applicability of the ISLO technology for diverse nanoelectronic and nanoelectromechanical devices and systems are described relative to the challenging issues of isolation and contacts. The basic ISLO structure is fabricated using electron beam lithography and standard VLSI reactive ion etching and oxidation processes. Single crystal silicon (SCS) islands 100-300-nm-wide, and 500 -2000-nm-tall are electrically and thermally isolated from the underlying substrate by selective lateral thermal oxidation at the base of the islands. Dislocation-free fully-isolated islands are obtained. Full-isolation of the basic ISLO structure depends on island linewidth, oxidation-masking film thicknesses, recess etch profile, and oxidation time and temperature. The extended ISLO technology provides 100-nm-wide, movable, suspended, high stiffness, low mass, SCS or SCS-dielectric-composite beam segments with integrated electrical contacts and metallization for high frequency (5-10 MHz) nanodynamic applications. Fixed or cantilevered beam segments are isolated from the underlying substrate -silicon by thermally grown oxide or an air-bridge. Wedge -pairs or tip-pairs vertically opposed across the isolation oxide or air-bridge have application to electron tunneling or field emission devices. A selectively-sharpened tip -above-a-tip structure is formed at the intersection of cantilevered beam segments. Vertical triple-tip and quadruple -tip structures are demonstrated. A new deep-submicron self-aligned sidewall source/drain, top-surface gate Thin -Film-Silicon-On-Insulator (TFSOI) MOSFET (ISLO FET) based on the inherently three-dimensional, non-planar ISLO structure is presented. Stress-related defect generation and dopant segregation during the oxidation, erosion of the high

  14. Light prototype support using micro-channel technology as high efficiency system for silicon pixel detector cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosi, F., E-mail: filippo.bosi@pi.infn.it [INFN Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Balestri, G.; Ceccanti, M.; Mammini, P.; Massa, M.; Petragnani, G.; Ragonesi, A.; Soldani, A. [INFN Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2011-09-11

    The development of micro-scale mechanical systems has been moving rapidly, allowing an opportunity to the semiconductor detectors to have ever more power located on the active region. Miniaturization associated with micro-channel technologies allows the design of micro-system structures that are able to cool silicon pixel detectors with power of the order of some W/cm{sup 2} with thickness less than 0.3% of radiation length. We present the design and thermo-hydraulic test results for low material budget support and cooling obtained through forced liquid convection in micro-channels, developed for the innermost layer (Layer 0) of SuperB silicon vertex tracker.

  15. Photovoltaic manufacturing technology monolithic amorphous silicon modules on continuous polymer substrates: Final technical report, July 5, 1995--December 31, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey, F.

    2000-03-28

    Iowa Thin Film Technologies is completing a three-phase program that has increased throughput and decreased costs in nearly all aspects of its thin-film photovoltaic manufacturing process. The overall manufacturing costs have been reduced by 61 percent through implementation of the improvements developed under this program. Development of the ability to use a 1-mil substrate, rather than the standard 2-mil substrate, results in a 50 percent cost-saving for this material. Process development on a single-pass amorphous silicon deposition system has resulted in a 37 percent throughput improvement. A wide range of process and machine improvements have been implemented on the transparent conducting oxide deposition system. These include detailed parameter optimization of deposition temperatures, process gas flows, carrier gas flows, and web speeds. An overall process throughput improvement of 275 percent was achieved based on this work. The new alignment technique was developed for the laser scriber and printer systems, which improved registration accuracy from 100 microns to 10 microns. The new technique also reduced alignment time for these registration systems significantly. This resulted in a throughput increase of 75 percent on the scriber and 600 percent on the printer. Automated techniques were designed and implemented for the module assembly processes. These include automated busbar attachment, roll-based lamination, and automated die cutting of finished modules. These processes were previously done by hand labor. Throughput improvements ranged from 200 percent to 1200 percent, relative to hand labor rates. A wide range of potential encapsulation materials were evaluated for suitability in a roll lamination process and for cost-effectiveness. A combination material was found that has a cost that is only 10 percent of the standard EVA/Tefzel cost and is suitable for medium-lifetime applications. The 20-year lifetime applications still require the more expensive

  16. Silicon Based Photovoltaic Cells For Concentration-Research And Development Progress In Laser Grooved Buried Contact Cell Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, A.; Baistow, I.; Brown, L.; Devenport, S.; Drew, K.; Heasman, K. C.; Morrison, D.; Bruton, T. M.; Serenelli, L.; De Iuliis, S.; Izzi, M.; Tucci, M.; Salza, E.; Pirozzi, L.

    2011-12-01

    The Laser grooved buried contact silicon solar cell (LGBC) process employed by Narec currently produces LGBC cells designed to operate at concentrations ranging from 1-100 suns and has demonstrated efficiencies at 50X of over 19% and at 100X of over 18.2% using 300 μm CZ silicon[1] wafers. As part of the LAB2LINE[1], APOLLON[2] and ASPIS[3] projects funded under the European Commission Framework Programs (FP6 and FP7) we have made improvements to the LGBC process to improve efficiency or make the cell technology more suitable for industrial CPV receiver manufacturing processes. We describe a process which hybridizes LGBC and more standard screen printing technologies which yields at least a 6% relative improvement at concentration when using more readily available 200 μm thick CZ wafers. We describe a pioneering front dicing technique (FDT). The FDT process is important in small cells where edge recombination effects are detrimental to the performance. We show that by using this new technique we can produce cells that perform better at concentration and improve the positioning of the front contact of the cell. We also describe a busbar technology that uses laser processing and electroless chemical plating to allow not only soldering to the front contact of the cell but also wire bonding. The advances in research and development of LGBC cells leading to improved cell performance may provide significant reductions in levilised cost of energy (LCOE) for low to medium CPV systems.

  17. Characterisation of edgeless technologies for pixellated and strip silicon detectors with a micro-focused X-ray beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, R.; Blue, A.; Christophersen, M.; Eklund, L.; Ely, S.; Fadeyev, V.; Gimenez, E.; Kachkanov, V.; Kalliopuska, J.; Macchiolo, A.; Maneuski, D.; Phlips, B. F.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Stewart, G.; Tartoni, N.; Zain, R. M.

    2013-01-01

    Reduced edge or ``edgeless'' detector design offers seamless tileability of sensors for a wide range of applications from particle physics to synchrotron and free election laser (FEL) facilities and medical imaging. Combined with through-silicon-via (TSV) technology, this would allow reduced material trackers for particle physics and an increase in the active area for synchrotron and FEL pixel detector systems. In order to quantify the performance of different edgeless fabrication methods, 2 edgeless detectors were characterized at the Diamond Light Source using an 11 μm FWHM 15 keV micro-focused X-ray beam. The devices under test were: a 150 μm thick silicon active edge pixel sensor fabricated at VTT and bump-bonded to a Medipix2 ROIC; and a 300 μm thick silicon strip sensor fabricated at CIS with edge reduction performed by SCIPP and the NRL and wire bonded to an ALiBaVa readout system. Sub-pixel resolution of the 55 μm active edge pixels was achieved. Further scans showed no drop in charge collection recorded between the centre and edge pixels, with a maximum deviation of 5% in charge collection between scanned edge pixels. Scans across the cleaved and standard guard ring edges of the strip detector also show no reduction in charge collection. These results indicate techniques such as the scribe, cleave and passivate (SCP) and active edge processes offer real potential for reduced edge, tiled sensors for imaging detection applications.

  18. Towards optimal education including self-regulated learning in technology-enhanced preschools and primary schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ton; Dijkstra, Elma; Walraven, Amber; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    At the start of preschool, four-year-old pupils differ in their development, including the capacity to self-regulate their playing and learning. In preschool and primary school, educational processes are generally adapted to the mean age of the pupils in class. The same may apply to ICT-based

  19. Towards optimal education including self-regulated learning in technology-enhanced preschools and primary schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ton; Dijkstra, Elma; Walraven, Amber; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    At the start of preschool, four-year-old pupils differ in their development, including the capacity to self-regulate their playing and learning. In preschool and primary school, educational processes are generally adapted to the mean age of the pupils in class. The same may apply to ICT-based pupil-

  20. Performance analysis of communication links based on VCSEL and silicon photonics technology for high-capacity data-intensive scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boletti, A; Boffi, P; Martelli, P; Ferrario, M; Martinelli, M

    2015-01-26

    To face the increased demand for bandwidth, cost-effectiveness and simplicity of future Ethernet data communications, a comparison between two different solutions based on directly-modulated VCSEL sources and Silicon Photonics technologies is carried out. Also by exploiting 4-PAM modulation, the transmission of 50-Gb/s and beyond capacity per channel is analyzed by means of BER performance. Applications for optical backplane, very short reach and in case of client-optics networks and intra and inter massive data centers communications (up to 10 km) are taken into account. A comparative analysis based on the power consumption is also proposed.

  1. Research in space science and technology. [including X-ray astronomy and interplanetary plasma physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckley, L. E.

    1977-01-01

    Progress in various space flight research programs is reported. Emphasis is placed on X-ray astronomy and interplanetary plasma physics. Topics covered include: infrared astronomy, long base line interferometry, geological spectroscopy, space life science experiments, atmospheric physics, and space based materials and structures research. Analysis of galactic and extra-galactic X-ray data from the Small Astronomy Satellite (SAS-3) and HEAO-A and interplanetary plasma data for Mariner 10, Explorers 47 and 50, and Solrad is discussed.

  2. Stable configurations of graphene on silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javvaji, Brahmanandam; Shenoy, Bhamy Maithry; Mahapatra, D. Roy; Ravikumar, Abhilash; Hegde, G. M.; Rizwan, M. R.

    2017-08-01

    Integration of graphene on silicon-based nanostructures is crucial in advancing graphene based nanoelectronic device technologies. The present paper provides a new insight on the combined effect of graphene structure and silicon (001) substrate on their two-dimensional anisotropic interface. Molecular dynamics simulations involving the sub-nanoscale interface reveal a most favourable set of temperature independent orientations of the monolayer graphene sheet with an angle of ∽15° between its armchair direction and [010] axis of the silicon substrate. While computing the favorable stable orientations, both the translation and the rotational vibrations of graphene are included. The possible interactions between the graphene atoms and the silicon atoms are identified from their coordination. Graphene sheet shows maximum bonding density with bond length 0.195 nm and minimum bond energy when interfaced with silicon substrate at 15° orientation. Local deformation analysis reveals probability distribution with maximum strain levels of 0.134, 0.047 and 0.029 for 900 K, 300 K and 100 K, respectively in silicon surface for 15° oriented graphene whereas the maximum probable strain in graphene is about 0.041 irrespective of temperature. Silicon-silicon dimer formation is changed due to silicon-carbon bonding. These results may help further in band structure engineering of silicon-graphene lattice.

  3. Manufacturing Methods and Technology Measure for Fabrication of Silicon Transcalent Rectifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-10-01

    Reduced Baro - metric Pressure test for half wave voltaue iu ] cation to the DUT in the vacuum chamber. F. Thermal Resistance Test Set The thermal...Mr. Kenneth Lipman Newport Beach, CA 92663 Box 109 South Windsor, CT 06074 Silicon Transistor Corp. ATTN: Mr. P. Fitzgerald Martin Marietta Katrina

  4. Research and development of photovoltaic power system. Development of novel technologies for fabrication of high quality silicon thin films for solar cells; Taiyoko hatsuden system no kenkyu kaihatsu. Kohinshitsu silicon usumaku sakusei gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, T. [Kanazawa University, Ishikawa (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1994-12-01

    Described herein are the results of the FY1994 research program for development of novel technologies for fabrication of high quality thin films of silicon for solar cells. The study on the mechanisms and effects of chemical annealing reveals that the film structure greatly varies depending on substrate temperature during the hydrotreatment process, based on the tests with substrate temperature, deposition of superthin film (T1) and hydrotreatment (T2) as the variable parameters. Chemical annealing at low temperature produces a high-quality a-Si:H film of low defect content. The study on fabrication of thin polycrystalline silicon films at low temperature observes on real time the process of deposition of the thin films on polycrystalline silicon substrates, where a natural oxide film is removed beforehand from the substrate. The results indicate that a thin polycrystalline silicon film of 100% crystallinity can be formed even on a polycrystalline silicon substrate by controlling starting gas composition and substrate temperature. The layer-by-layer method is used as the means for forming the seed crystals on a glass substrate, where deposition and hydrotreatment are repeated alternately, to produce the thin crystalline silicon films of high crystallinity. 3 figs.

  5. Robotic technologies of the Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) including fault tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chladek, John T.; Craver, William M.

    1994-01-01

    The original FTS concept for Space Station Freedom (SSF) was to provide telerobotic assistance to enhance crew activity and safety and to reduce crew EVA (Extra Vehicular Activity) activity. The first flight of the FTS manipulator systems would demonstrate several candidate tasks and would verify manipulator performance parameters. These first flight tasks included unlocking a SSF Truss Joint, mating/demating a fluid coupling, contact following of a contour board, demonstrating peg-in-hole assembly, and grasping and moving a mass. Future tasks foreseen for the FTS system included ORU (Orbit Replaceable Unit) change-out, Hubble Space Telescope Servicing, Gamma Ray Observatory refueling, and several in-situ SSF servicing and maintenance tasks. Operation of the FTS was planned to evolve from teleoperation to fully autonomous execution of many tasks. This wide range of mission tasks combined with the desire to evolve toward fully autonomy forced several requirements which may seen extremely demanding to the telerobotics community. The FTS requirements appear to have been created to accommodate the open-ended evolution plan such that operational evolution would not be impeded by function limitations. A recommendation arising from the FTS program to remedy the possible impacts from such ambitious requirements is to analyze candidate robotic tasks. Based on these task analyses, operational impacts against development impacts were weighed prior to requirements definition. Many of the FTS requirements discussed in the following sections greatly influenced the development cost and schedule of the FTS manipulator. The FTS manipulator has been assembled at Martin Marietta and is currently in testing. Successful component tests indicate a manipulator which achieves unprecedented performance specifications.

  6. Sensing with Advanced Computing Technology: Fin Field-Effect Transistors with High-k Gate Stack on Bulk Silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigante, Sara; Scarbolo, Paolo; Wipf, Mathias; Stoop, Ralph L; Bedner, Kristine; Buitrago, Elizabeth; Bazigos, Antonios; Bouvet, Didier; Calame, Michel; Schönenberger, Christian; Ionescu, Adrian M

    2015-05-26

    Field-effect transistors (FETs) form an established technology for sensing applications. However, recent advancements and use of high-performance multigate metal-oxide semiconductor FETs (double-gate, FinFET, trigate, gate-all-around) in computing technology, instead of bulk MOSFETs, raise new opportunities and questions about the most suitable device architectures for sensing integrated circuits. In this work, we propose pH and ion sensors exploiting FinFETs fabricated on bulk silicon by a fully CMOS compatible approach, as an alternative to the widely investigated silicon nanowires on silicon-on-insulator substrates. We also provide an analytical insight of the concept of sensitivity for the electronic integration of sensors. N-channel fully depleted FinFETs with critical dimensions on the order of 20 nm and HfO2 as a high-k gate insulator have been developed and characterized, showing excellent electrical properties, subthreshold swing, SS ∼ 70 mV/dec, and on-to-off current ratio, Ion/Ioff ∼ 10(6), at room temperature. The same FinFET architecture is validated as a highly sensitive, stable, and reproducible pH sensor. An intrinsic sensitivity close to the Nernst limit, S = 57 mV/pH, is achieved. The pH response in terms of output current reaches Sout = 60%. Long-term measurements have been performed over 4.5 days with a resulting drift in time δVth/δt = 0.10 mV/h. Finally, we show the capability to reproduce experimental data with an extended three-dimensional commercial finite element analysis simulator, in both dry and wet environments, which is useful for future advanced sensor design and optimization.

  7. Manufacturing technologies for photovoltaics and possible means of their development in Russia (Review). Part 1: General approach to the development of photoelectric converters and basic silicon technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasenko, A. B.; Popel', O. S.

    2015-11-01

    The state and key tendencies of the development of basic technologies for manufacture of photoelectric converters (PECs) in the world are considered, and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. The first part of the review gives short information on the development of photovoltaics in the world and planes of the development of solar power plants in Russia. Total power of photoelectric plants operating in various countries in 2015 exceeded 150 GW and increased in the last ten years with a rate of approximately 50% per year. Russia made important state decisions on the support of the development of renewable power engineering and developed mechanisms, which were attractive for business, on the stimulation of building of the network of solar power plants with a total power to 1.5 GW in the country to 2020. At the same time, the rigid demands are made with respect to the localization of the production of components of these plants that opens new abilities for the development of the domestic production of photovoltaics manufacture. Data on the efficiency of PECs of various types that are attained in the leading laboratories of the world are given. Particular emphasis has been placed on the consideration of basic silicon technologies of PEC manufacture, which had the widest commercial application. The basic methods for production of polycrystalline silicon and making single-crystal and multicrystal silicon are described. Fundamentals of making techniques for plates, PECs, and photoelectric modules based on single-crystal and polycrystalline silicon are considered. The second part will be devoted to modifications of manufacturing techniques for photoelectric converters, enhancement methods for contact structures, and recommendations of authors with respect to the choice of prospective technologies for the expansion of PEC production in Russia. It will involve formulations and substantiations of the most promising lines of the development of photoelectric

  8. Studies of silicon carbide and silicon carbide nitride thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Zhila

    Silicon carbide semiconductor technology is continuing to advance rapidly. The excellent physical and electronic properties of silicon carbide recently take itself to be the main focused power device material for high temperature, high power, and high frequency electronic devices because of its large band gap, high thermal conductivity, and high electron saturation drift velocity. SiC is more stable than Si because of its high melting point and mechanical strength. Also the understanding of the structure and properties of semiconducting thin film alloys is one of the fundamental steps toward their successful application in technologies requiring materials with tunable energy gaps, such as solar cells, flat panel displays, optical memories and anti-reflecting coatings. Silicon carbide and silicon nitrides are promising materials for novel semiconductor applications because of their band gaps. In addition, they are "hard" materials in the sense of having high elastic constants and large cohesive energies and are generally resistant to harsh environment, including radiation. In this research, thin films of silicon carbide and silicon carbide nitride were deposited in a r.f magnetron sputtering system using a SiC target. A detailed analysis of the surface chemistry of the deposited films was performed using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy whereas structure and morphology was studied atomic force microscopy (AFM), and nonoindentation.

  9. Prototype of the front-end circuit for the GOSSIP (Gas On Slimmed Silicon Pixel) chip in the 0.13 μm CMOS technology

    CERN Document Server

    Gromov, V; van der Graaf, H

    2007-01-01

    The new GOSSIP detector, capable to detect single electrons in gas, has certain advantages with respect silicon (pixel) detectors. It does not require a Si sensor; it has a very low detector parasitic capacitance and a zero bias current at the pixel input. These are attractive features to design a compact, low-noise and low-power integrated input circuit. A prototype of the integrated circuit has been developed in 0.13 μm CMOS technology. It includes a few channels equipped with preamplifier, discriminator and the digital circuit to study the feasibility of the TDC-perpixel concept. The design demonstrates very low input referred noise (60e- RMS) in combination with a fast peaking time (40 ns) and an analog power dissipation as low as 2 μW per channel. Switching activity on the clock bus (up to 100 MHz) in the close vicinity of the pixel input pads does not cause noticeable extra noise.

  10. Unraveling the mysteries of microwave chemistry using silicon carbide reactor technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappe, C Oliver

    2013-07-16

    In the past few years, the use of microwave energy to heat chemical reactions has become an increasingly popular theme in the scientific community. This nonclassical heating technique has slowly progressed from a laboratory curiosity to an established method commonly used both in academia and in industry. Because of its efficiency, microwave heating dramatically reduces reaction times (from days and hours to minutes and seconds) and improves product purities or material properties among other advantages. Since the early days of microwave chemistry, researchers have observed rate-accelerations and, in some cases, altered product distributions as compared with reactions carried out using classical oil-bath heating. As a result, researchers have speculated that so-called specific or nonthermal microwave effects could be responsible for these differences. Much of the debate has centered on the question of whether the electromagnetic field can exert a direct influence on a chemical transformation outside of the simple macroscopic change in bulk reaction temperature. In 2009, our group developed a relatively simple "trick" that allows us to rapidly evaluate whether an observed effect seen in a microwave-assisted reaction results from a purely thermal phenomenon, or involves specific or nonthermal microwave effects. We use a microwave reaction vessel made from silicon carbide (SiC) ceramic. Because of its high microwave absorptivity, the vessel shields its contents from the electromagnetic field. As a result, we can easily mimic a conventionally heated autoclave experiment inside a microwave reactor under carefully controlled reaction conditions. The switch from an almost microwave transparent glass (Pyrex) to a strongly microwave absorbing SiC reaction vial under otherwise identical reaction conditions (temperature profiles, pressure, stirring speed) then allows us to carefully evaluate the influence of the electromagnetic field on the particular chemical transformation

  11. Protein-mesoporous silicon matrix obtained by S-layer technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleps, Irina; Ignat, Teodora; Miu, Mihaela; Simion, Monica [National Institute for Research and Development in Microtechnologies (IMT-Bucharest), Bucharest (Romania); Teodosiu Popescu, Gabriela; Enache, Madalin; Dumitru, Lucia [Institute of Biology, Bucharest (Romania)

    2009-07-15

    Protein layers on porous silicon (PS) substrates were prepared using haloarchaea strain Haloferax sp. as S-layer subunits. The attaching of S-layer at PS samples was performed by immersing the PS samples in S-layer solution in sterile conditions, followed by 24 hours incubation at two temperatures, 4 and 24 C. Spectrophotometric determination of the S-layer attachment on the porous silicon substrate was performed at 280 nm wavelength by measuring the protein concentration in solution before and after the incubation of PS samples. The protein layer morphology on the PS substrate was investigated by electron microscopy. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. High Efficient Technology of Steelmaking With Low Silicon Hot Metal on Large Converter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To resolve the difficulty in slag formation during steelmaking with low silicon hot metal and to increase productivity, a new 5-hole lance was developed by increasing oxygen flow from 50 000 m3/h to 60 000 m3/h. Synthetic slag was added to adjust the slag composition. The problems such as difficulty in dephosphorization and slag adhesion to oxygen lance and hood were settled. Steel production and metal yield were increased and the nozzle life was prolonged through these techniques.

  13. Development of betavoltaic cell technology production based on microchannel silicon and its electrical parameters evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnov, A A; Starkov, V V; Legotin, S A; Rabinovich, O I; Didenko, S I; Murashev, V N; Cheverikin, V V; Yakimov, E B; Fedulova, N A; Rogozev, B I; Laryushkin, A S

    2017-03-01

    In the paper a manufacturing process of three-dimensional (3D) microchannel structure by silicon (Si) anodic etching was discussed. The possibility of microchannels formation allows to increase the active area more than 100 times. In this structure the p-n junction on the whole Si surface was formed. The obtained data allowed to evaluate the characteristics of the betavoltaic converter with a 3D structure by using isotope 63Ni with a specific activity of 10Ci/g.

  14. Evaluation of Solar Grade Silicon Produced by the Institute of Physics and Technology: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-07-211

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, M.

    2013-02-01

    NREL and Solar Power Industries will cooperate to evaluate technology for producing solar grade silicon from industrial waste of the phosphorus industry, as developed by the Institute of Physics and Technology (IPT), Kazakhstan. Evaluation will have a technical component to assess the material quality and a business component to assess the economics of the IPT process. The total amount of silicon produced by IPT is expected to be quite limited (50 kg), so evaluations will need to be done on relatively small quantities (≈ 5 kg/sample).

  15. Silicon-Film{trademark} photovoltaic manufacturing technology. Semiannual subcontract report, 15 November 1992--15 May 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottenberg, W.R. [AstroPower, Inc., Newark, DE (United States)

    1994-01-01

    AstroPower is in the second phase of a 3-year, phased effort to upgrade its facility to produce 1.22-m{sup 2} Silicon-Film{trademark} PV modules with an output of 170 W{sub p}. Productivity improvements of the Silicon-Film{trademark} machine were accomplished during the second phase. Improvements were made in solar cell performance while decreasing materials consumption, integrating and mechanizing the fabrication process for solar cells, and scaling-up solar cell and module equipment for fabricating larger cells. AstroPower is continuing work on separating out effects due to impurities and effects due to defects. Analytical tools were developed for measuring area-based response based on EBIC and LBIC methods. The Kauffman source for hydrogen ion implantation was used to map out the process space for Silicon-Film{trademark} solar cell improvement. Progress was made on improving short-circuit current. Areas of focus include developing tools to quickly assess material quality; developing a hydrogen implantation process; increasing material quality on large-area, high-throughput wafers; and studying potential processes for improving solar cell power output during cell fabrication. A method to improve current collection in a solar cell after contact formation is under development.

  16. Silicon Spintronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, R.

    2008-01-01

    Integration of magnetism and mainstream semiconductor electronics could impact information technology in ways beyond imagination. A pivotal step is implementation of spin-based electronic functionality in silicon devices. Remarkable progress made during the last two years gives confidence that this

  17. Progress and Outlook for Silicon Solar Cell Process Technology (Environmental Problem)

    OpenAIRE

    永吉, 浩

    2000-01-01

    An over view of recent solar cell development program and Si solar cell process technology are presented. In the past 5 years, the PV production has drastically increased. To cover the large amount of PV demand in future, novel Si material production technology and development of the thin film Si cell technology are needed. To improve the efficiency of thin film Si cells, surface passivation technology will be more important. To improve the stability of a-Si : H solar cells, microcrystalline ...

  18. The dark side of silicon energy efficient computing in the dark silicon era

    CERN Document Server

    Liljeberg, Pasi; Hemani, Ahmed; Jantsch, Axel; Tenhunen, Hannu

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the state-of-the art of one of the main concerns with microprocessors today, a phenomenon known as "dark silicon". Readers will learn how power constraints (both leakage and dynamic power) limit the extent to which large portions of a chip can be powered up at a given time, i.e. how much actual performance and functionality the microprocessor can provide. The authors describe their research toward the future of microprocessor development in the dark silicon era, covering a variety of important aspects of dark silicon-aware architectures including design, management, reliability, and test. Readers will benefit from specific recommendations for mitigating the dark silicon phenomenon, including energy-efficient, dedicated solutions and technologies to maximize the utilization and reliability of microprocessors. Enables readers to understand the dark silicon phenomenon and why it has emerged, including detailed analysis of its impacts; Presents state-of-the-art research, as well as tools for mi...

  19. Manufacturing Methods and Technology Measure for Fabrication of Silicon Transcalent Rectifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    auxx-ma Reverse Current "Post" Baro . Reverse Current "Post" BVLT 5 5 4 4, 3 2 3 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.5 0.6 0.7I r (mA) I r (mA) Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Reverse...not shown) for the high tem- perature and reduced baro - metric pressure tests. Reverse blocking currents are measured with this equipmnent. -88- J 4I...Avenue ATTN: Mr. Kenneth Lipman Newport Beach, CA 92663 Box 109 South Windsor, CT 06074 Silicon Transistor Corp. ATTN: Mr. P. Fitzgerald Martin Marietta

  20. DNA Optical Detection Based on Porous Silicon Technology: from Biosensors to Biochips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Rendina

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available A photochemical functionalization process which passivates the porous silicon surface of optical biosensors has been optimized as a function of the thickness and the porosity of the devices. The surface modification has been characterized by contact angle measurements. Fluorescence measurements have been used to investigate the stability of the DNA single strands bound to the nanostructured material. A dose-response curve for an optical label-free biosensor in the 6-80 μM range has been realized.

  1. Analysis of the surface technology of silicon detectors for imaging of low-energy beta tracers in biological material

    CERN Document Server

    Tykva, R

    2000-01-01

    Using silicon surface barrier detectors, the counting sensitivity of low-energy beta tracers is considerably influenced by surface technology applied in detector manufacturing. Original diagnostic procedure, using a mixture of uranium fission products, is described to trace the behaviors of different admixtures as in the etching bath as in the water used during development of the detector surface. In combination with some other described analyses, the detectors produced with the developed surface control are used in a PC - controlled scanning equipment reaching at room temperature an FWHM of 3.4 keV for sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am. Such detectors make it possible to image distribution, of e.g., sup 3 H, sup 1 sup 2 sup 5 I, sup 3 H+ sup 1 sup 4 C and other beta tracer combinations applied in life and environmental sciences.

  2. PVD Silicon Carbide as a Thin Film Packaging Technology for Antennas on LCP Substrates for Harsh Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scardelletti, Maximilian C.; Stanton, John W.; Ponchak, George E.; Jordan, Jennifer L.; Zorman, Christian A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes an effort to develop a thin film packaging technology for microfabricated planar antennas on polymeric substrates based on silicon carbide (SiC) films deposited by physical vapor deposition (PVD). The antennas are coplanar waveguide fed dual frequency folded slot antennas fabricated on liquid crystal polymer (LCP) substrates. The PVD SiC thin films were deposited directly onto the antennas by RF sputtering at room temperature at a chamber pressure of 30 mTorr and a power level of 300 W. The SiC film thickness is 450 nm. The return loss and radiation patterns were measured before and after the SiC-coated antennas were submerged into perchloric acid for 1 hour. No degradation in RF performance or physical integrity of the antenna was observed.

  3. Liquid phase crystallized silicon on glass: Technology, material quality and back contacted heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haschke, Jan; Amkreutz, Daniel; Rech, Bernd

    2016-04-01

    Liquid phase crystallization has emerged as a novel approach to grow large grained polycrystalline silicon films on glass with high electronic quality. In recent years a lot of effort was conducted by different groups to determine and optimize suitable interlayer materials, enhance the crystallographic quality or to improve post crystallization treatments. In this paper, we give an overview on liquid phase crystallization and describe the necessary process steps and discuss their influence on the absorber properties. Available line sources are compared and different interlayer configurations are presented. Furthermore, we present one-dimensional numerical simulations of a rear junction device, considering silicon absorber thicknesses between 1 and 500 µm. We vary the front surface recombination velocity as well as doping density and minority carrier lifetime in the absorber. The simulations suggest that a higher absorber doping density is beneficial for layer thicknesses below 20 µm or when the minority carrier lifetime is short. Finally, we discuss possible routes for device optimization and propose a hybride cell structure to circumvent current limitations in device design.

  4. Development and operation of tracking detectors in silicon technology for the LHCb upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Adeva, Bernardo

    The LHCb experiment is one of the four main experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. It uses the energy density provided by the LHC to attempt to probe asymmetries between particles and antiparticles that can not be explained by the Standard Model, and thus provide evidence that would allow us to build a new model of fundamental physics. This thesis covers the author's work in the Silicon Tracker $(\\textit{ST})$ and VErtex LOcator $(\\textit{VELO})$ detectors of the LHCb experiment. The thesis explains the installation and commissioning of the $ST$, as well as the development of the slow control for the detector. The $ST$ is a silicon micro-strip detector which provides precise momentum measurements of ionizing particles coming from the collisions. The $ST$consists of two sub-detectors: the Tracker Turicensis $ (TT)$, located upstream of the 4 Tm dipole magnet covering the full acceptance of the experiment, and the Inner Tracker $(IT)$, which covers the region of highest particle density closest...

  5. The ability to create NTD silicon technology in the IRT-T reactor in a horizontal experimental channel with one-side access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlachev, V. A.; Golovatsky, A. V.; Emets, E. G.; Butko, Ya A.

    2016-06-01

    The article shows the ability of creation of neutron transmutation doping (NTD) of monocrystalline silicon technology in the reactor's channel, which has a one-side access. In the article a distribution of thermal neutron flux through the length of channel and it's radius, neutron spectrum were obtained which confirmed that horizontal experimental channel HEC-1 is suitable for NTD.

  6. Hands-on workshops as an effective means of learning advanced technologies including genomics, proteomics and bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisdorph, Nichole; Stearman, Robert; Kechris, Katerina; Phang, Tzu Lip; Reisdorph, Richard; Prenni, Jessica; Erle, David J; Coldren, Christopher; Schey, Kevin; Nesvizhskii, Alexey; Geraci, Mark

    2013-12-01

    Genomics and proteomics have emerged as key technologies in biomedical research, resulting in a surge of interest in training by investigators keen to incorporate these technologies into their research. At least two types of training can be envisioned in order to produce meaningful results, quality publications and successful grant applications: (1) immediate short-term training workshops and (2) long-term graduate education or visiting scientist programs. We aimed to fill the former need by providing a comprehensive hands-on training course in genomics, proteomics and informatics in a coherent, experimentally-based framework. This was accomplished through a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)-sponsored 10-day Genomics and Proteomics Hands-on Workshop held at National Jewish Health (NJH) and the University of Colorado School of Medicine (UCD). The course content included comprehensive lectures and laboratories in mass spectrometry and genomics technologies, extensive hands-on experience with instrumentation and software, video demonstrations, optional workshops, online sessions, invited keynote speakers, and local and national guest faculty. Here we describe the detailed curriculum and present the results of short- and long-term evaluations from course attendees. Our educational program consistently received positive reviews from participants and had a substantial impact on grant writing and review, manuscript submissions and publications.

  7. Application of scintillating properties of liquid xenon and silicon photomultiplier technology to medical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Cadenas, J. J.; Benlloch-Rodriguez, J. M.; Ferrario, Paola

    2016-04-01

    We describe a new positron emission time-of-flight apparatus using liquid xenon. The detector is based in a liquid xenon scintillating cell. The cell shape and dimensions can be optimized depending on the intended application. In its simplest form, the liquid xenon scintillating cell is a box in which two faces are covered by silicon photomultipliers and the others by a reflecting material such as Teflon. It is a compact, homogenous and highly efficient detector which shares many of the desirable properties of monolithic crystals, with the added advantage of high yield and fast scintillation offered by liquid xenon. Our initial studies suggest that good energy and spatial resolution comparable with that achieved by lutetium oxyorthosilicate crystals can be obtained with a detector based in liquid xenon scintillating cells. In addition, the system can potentially achieve an excellent coincidence resolving time of better than 100 ps.

  8. Aluminum and aluminum/silicon coatings on ferritic steels by CVD-FBR technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, F.J. [Grupo de Investigacion de Ingenieria de Superficies, Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: fjperez@quim.ucm.es; Hierro, M.P. [Grupo de Investigacion de Ingenieria de Superficies, Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Trilleros, J.A. [Grupo de Investigacion de Ingenieria de Superficies, Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Carpintero, M.C. [Grupo de Investigacion de Ingenieria de Superficies, Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Sanchez, L. [Grupo de Investigacion de Ingenieria de Superficies, Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Bolivar, F.J. [Grupo de Investigacion de Ingenieria de Superficies, Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2006-05-10

    The use of chemical vapor deposition by fluidized bed reactors (CVD-FBR) offers some advantages in comparison to other coating techniques such as pack cementation, because it allows coating deposition at lower temperatures than pack cementation and at atmospheric pressure without affecting the mechanical properties of material due to heat treatments of the bulk during coating process. Aluminum and aluminum/silicon coatings have been obtained on two different ferritics steels (P-91 and P-92). The coatings were analyzed using several techniques like SEM/EDX and XRD. The results indicated that both coatings were form by Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5} intermetallic compound, and in the co-deposition the Si was incorporated to the Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5} structure in small amounts.

  9. A study of the silicon Bulk-Barrier Diodes designed in planar technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Georgopoulos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, it is studied for the first time, the possibility of manufacturing a Bulk Barrier diode in planar technology usingsimulation. This study is based on simulation results obtained with a 2-D device simulator (S-PISCES. More precisely, theelectrical and switching behavior of the proposed devices in planar technology were investigated. The results of this studyshow that the technological parameters (doping concentrations, as well as the geometrical sizes (middle region widthand the bias conditions (applied voltage, have significant effects on the electrical and switching behavior of the proposeddevices. The appropriate choice of these parameters can reduce the switching time in the range of few picoseconds andalso dramatically modify the current through the device. The simulation results of devices in planar technology have beencompared with those designed in non planar technology. Finally, good agreement among theory and simulations results ofthe proposed devices observed.

  10. Development of advanced Czochralski Growth Process to produce low cost 150 KG silicon ingots from a single crucible for technology readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The goals in this program for advanced czochralski growth process to produce low cost 150 kg silicon ingots from a single crucible for technology readiness are outlined. To provide a modified CG2000 crystal power capable of pulling a minimum of five crystals, each of approximately 30 kg in weight, 150 mm diameter from a single crucible with periodic melt replenishment. Crystals to have: resistivity of 1 to 3 ohm cm, p-type; dislocation density below 1- to the 6th power per cm; orientation (100); after growth yield of greater than 90%. Growth throughput of greater than 2.5 kg per hour of machine operation using a radiation shield. Prototype equipment suitable for use as a production facility. The overall cost goal is $.70 per peak watt by 1986. To accomplish these goals, the modified CG2000 grower and development program includes: (1) increased automation with a microprocessor based control system; (2) sensors development which will increase the capability of the automatic controls system, and provide technology transfer of the developed systems.

  11. Silicon Valley versus Silicon Glen: The Impact of Computers upon Teaching and Learning: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, Tom; Simpson, Mary

    2003-01-01

    Compares the impact of information technology initiatives in Scottish schools with a study of schools in the Silicon Valley (California). Highlights include computer use by subject; frequency of computer use in schools; student attitudes; questionnaire responses; obstacles to use of technology; and implications for policymaking. (LRW)

  12. Advanced Silicon Technology Foundry Access Strategy for DoD Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    TAPO access to 90 nm CMOS and 130 nm BiCMOS • Trust Program – MOSIS access(90nm CMOS) Approved For Public Release, Distribution Unlimited DARPA TEAM...options – TAPO • DOD sponsored IBM access with cost • Limited runs & limited SOA technology – MOSIS • Large MPW schedule • Costs & limited SOA technology...Distribution Unlimited IC Design Flow With MOSIS Product Definition Modeling RTL/Analog Design Synthesis/Simulation Layout Aggregation Mask Making

  13. Silicon Vertex Tracker for PHENIX Upgrade at RHIC: Capabilities and Detector Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Nouicer, Rachid

    2008-01-01

    From the wealth of data obtained from the first three years of RHIC operation, the four RHIC experiments, BRAHMS, PHENIX, PHOBOS and STAR, have concluded that a high density partonic matter is formed at central Au+Au collisions at \\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 200 GeV. The research focus now shifts from initial discovery to a detailed exploration of partonic matter. Particles carrying heavy flavor, i.e. charm or beauty quarks, are powerful tool for study the properties of the hot and dense medium created in high-energy nuclear collisions at RHIC. They also allow to probe the spin structure of the proton in a new and precise way. An upgrade of RHIC (RHIC-II) is intended for the second half of the decade, with a luminosity increase to about 20-40 times the design value of 8 x 10^26 cm^-2 s^-1 for Au+Au, and 2 x 10^32 cm^-2 s^-1 for polarized proton beams. The PHENIX collaboration plans to upgrade its experiment to exploit with an enhanced detector new physics then in reach. For this purpose, we are constructing the Silicon V...

  14. 78 FR 18585 - Energy Technology Savings LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Energy Technology Savings LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial... notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Energy Technology Savings LLC's application for...

  15. Silicon integrated circuits part A : supplement 2

    CERN Document Server

    Kahng, Dawon

    1981-01-01

    Applied Solid State Science, Supplement 2: Silicon Integrated Circuits, Part A focuses on MOS device physics. This book is divided into three chapters-physics of the MOS transistor; nonvolatile memories; and properties of silicon-on-sapphire substrates devices, and integrated circuits. The topics covered include the short channel effects, MOSFET structures, floating gate devices, technology for nonvolatile semiconductor memories, sapphire substrates, and SOS integrated circuits and systems. The MOS capacitor, MIOS devices, and SOS process and device technology are also deliberated. This public

  16. Silicon production process evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Chemical engineering analyses involving the preliminary process design of a plant (1,000 metric tons/year capacity) to produce silicon via the technology under consideration were accomplished. Major activities in the chemical engineering analyses included base case conditions, reaction chemistry, process flowsheet, material balance, energy balance, property data, equipment design, major equipment list, production labor and forward for economic analysis. The process design package provided detailed data for raw materials, utilities, major process equipment and production labor requirements necessary for polysilicon production in each process.

  17. Silicon Valley Ecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joseph Leu

    2005-01-01

    @@ It is unlikely that any industrial region of the world has received as much scrutiny and study as Silicon Valley. Despite the recent crash of Internet and telecommunications stocks,Silicon Valley remains the world's engine of growth for numerous high-technology sectors.

  18. Development of Lab-to-Fab Production Equipment Across Several Length Scales for Printed Energy Technologies, Including Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hösel, Markus; Dam, Henrik Friis; Krebs, Frederik C

    2015-01-01

    We describe and review how the scaling of printed energy technologies not only requires scaling of the input materials but also the machinery used in the processes. The general consensus that ultrafast processing of technologies with large energy capacity can only be realized using roll-to-roll m......We describe and review how the scaling of printed energy technologies not only requires scaling of the input materials but also the machinery used in the processes. The general consensus that ultrafast processing of technologies with large energy capacity can only be realized using roll...

  19. CROSS-DISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Silicon Purification by a New Type of Solar Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Tian; Lim, Chern-Sing; Ho, Tso-Hsiu; Lim, Boon-Han; Wang, Yi-Nan

    2009-07-01

    We propose a new method to reveal a direct transformation from solar energy to solar electricity. Instead of using electricity in the process, we use concentrated solar rays with a crucibleless process to upgrade metallurgical silicon into solar-grade silicon feedstock.

  20. Glass-silicon column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Conrad M.

    2003-12-30

    A glass-silicon column that can operate in temperature variations between room temperature and about 450.degree. C. The glass-silicon column includes large area glass, such as a thin Corning 7740 boron-silicate glass bonded to a silicon wafer, with an electrode embedded in or mounted on glass of the column, and with a self alignment silicon post/glass hole structure. The glass/silicon components are bonded, for example be anodic bonding. In one embodiment, the column includes two outer layers of silicon each bonded to an inner layer of glass, with an electrode imbedded between the layers of glass, and with at least one self alignment hole and post arrangement. The electrode functions as a column heater, and one glass/silicon component is provided with a number of flow channels adjacent the bonded surfaces.

  1. Recent results in silicon photonics at the University of Southampton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, G. T.; Mashanovich, G. Z.; Gardes, F. Y.; Thomson, D. J.; Hu, Y.; Soler-Penades, J.; Nedeljkovic, M.; Khokhar, A. Z.; Thomas, P.; Littlejohns, C.; Ahmad, A.; Reynolds, S.; Topley, R.; Mitchell, C.; Stankovic, S.; Owens, N.; Chen, X.; Wilson, P. R.; Ke, L.; Ben Masaud, T. M.; Tarazona, A.; Chong, H.

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we will discuss recent results in our work on Silicon Photonics. This will include active and passive devices for a range of applications. Specifically we will include work on modulators and drivers, deposited waveguides, multiplexers, device integration and Mid IR silicon photonics. These devices and technologies are important both for established applications such as integrated transceivers for short reach interconnect, as well as emerging applications such as disposable sensors and mass market photonics.

  2. Analytical and experimental evaluation of joining silicon carbide to silicon carbide and silicon nitride to silicon nitride for advanced heat engine applications Phase 2. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, G.J.; Vartabedian, A.M.; Wade, J.A.; White, C.S. [Norton Co., Northboro, MA (United States). Advanced Ceramics Div.

    1994-10-01

    The purpose of joining, Phase 2 was to develop joining technologies for HIP`ed Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} with 4wt% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} (NCX-5101) and for a siliconized SiC (NT230) for various geometries including: butt joins, curved joins and shaft to disk joins. In addition, more extensive mechanical characterization of silicon nitride joins to enhance the predictive capabilities of the analytical/numerical models for structural components in advanced heat engines was provided. Mechanical evaluation were performed by: flexure strength at 22 C and 1,370 C, stress rupture at 1,370 C, high temperature creep, 22 C tensile testing and spin tests. While the silicon nitride joins were produced with sufficient integrity for many applications, the lower join strength would limit its use in the more severe structural applications. Thus, the silicon carbide join quality was deemed unsatisfactory to advance to more complex, curved geometries. The silicon carbide joining methods covered within this contract, although not entirely successful, have emphasized the need to focus future efforts upon ways to obtain a homogeneous, well sintered parent/join interface prior to siliconization. In conclusion, the improved definition of the silicon carbide joining problem obtained by efforts during this contract have provided avenues for future work that could successfully obtain heat engine quality joins.

  3. Silicon nanomaterials platform for bioimaging, biosensing, and cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Fei; Su, Yuanyuan; Zhong, Yiling; Fan, Chunhai; Lee, Shuit-Tong; He, Yao

    2014-02-18

    Silicon nanomaterials are an important class of nanomaterials with great potential for technologies including energy, catalysis, and biotechnology, because of their many unique properties, including biocompatibility, abundance, and unique electronic, optical, and mechanical properties, among others. Silicon nanomaterials are known to have little or no toxicity due to favorable biocompatibility of silicon, which is an important precondition for biological and biomedical applications. In addition, huge surface-to-volume ratios of silicon nanomaterials are responsible for their unique optical, mechanical, or electronic properties, which offer exciting opportunities for design of high-performance silicon-based functional nanoprobes, nanosensors, and nanoagents for biological analysis and detection and disease treatment. Moreover, silicon is the second most abundant element (after oxygen) on earth, providing plentiful and inexpensive resources for large-scale and low-cost preparation of silicon nanomaterials for practical applications. Because of these attractive traits, and in parallel with a growing interest in their design and synthesis, silicon nanomaterials are extensively investigated for wide-ranging applications, including energy, catalysis, optoelectronics, and biology. Among them, bioapplications of silicon nanomaterials are of particular interest. In the past decade, scientists have made an extensive effort to construct a silicon nanomaterials platform for various biological and biomedical applications, such as biosensors, bioimaging, and cancer treatment, as new and powerful tools for disease diagnosis and therapy. Nonetheless, there are few review articles covering these important and promising achievements to promote the awareness of development of silicon nanobiotechnology. In this Account, we summarize recent representative works to highlight the recent developments of silicon functional nanomaterials for a new, powerful platform for biological and

  4. Mid-infrared nonlinear silicon photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoping; Kuyken, Bart; Green, William M. J.; Osgood, Richard M.; Baets, Roel; Roelkens, Gunther

    2014-03-01

    Recently there has been a growing interest in mid-infrared (mid-IR) photonic technology with a wavelength of operation approximately from 2-14 μm. Among several established mid-IR photonic platforms, silicon nanophotonic platform could potentially offer ultra-compact, and monolithically integrated mid-IR photonic devices and device arrays, which could have board impact in the mid-IR technology, such as molecular spectroscopy, and imaging. At room temperature, silicon has a bandgap ~ 1.12 eV resulting in vanishing two-photon absorption (TPA) for mid-IR wavelengths beyond 2.2 μm, which, coupled with silicon's large nonlinear index of refraction and its strong waveguide optical confinement, enables efficient nonlinear processes in the mid-IR. By taking advantage of these nonlinear processes and judicious dispersion engineering in silicon waveguides, we have recently demonstrated a handful of silicon mid-IR nonlinear components, including optical parametric amplifiers (OPA), broadband sources, and a wavelength translator. Silicon nanophotonic waveguide's anomalous dispersion design, providing four-wave-mixing (FWM) phase-matching, has enabled the first demonstration of silicon mid-IR optical parametric amplifier (OPA) with a net off-chip gain exceeding 13 dB. In addition, reduction of propagation losses and balanced second and fourth order waveguide dispersion design led to an OPA with an extremely broadband gain spectrum from 1.9-2.5 μm and >50 dB parametric gain, upon which several novel silicon mid-IR light sources were built, including a mid-IR optical parametric oscillator, and a supercontinuum source. Finally, a mid-IR wavelength translation device, capable of translating signals near 2.4 μm to the telecom-band near 1.6 μm with simultaneous 19 dB gain, was demonstrated.

  5. EDITORIAL: Special issue on silicon photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Graham; Paniccia, Mario; Wada, Kazumi; Mashanovich, Goran

    2008-06-01

    mechanisms for modulation in silicon that have yielded increasingly impressive results (see, for example, Liao L et al 2007 Electron. Lett. 43 issue 22). The convergence of computing and communications and the resultant demand for increased bandwidth has been one of the factors influencing the upsurge of interest in silicon, together with the requirement for photonic and electronic integration, all to be realized at low cost. Thus emerging applications such as short-reach communications links for optical interconnect and fibre to the home (FTTH) (as well as a multitude of other applications) are frequently offered as examples of where silicon photonics will have a significant, perhaps a revolutionary, impact. One of the major conclusions of the joint MIT-industry Communication Technology Roadmap (http://mph-roadmap.mit.edu/index.php), was that 'Photonics technology will be driven by electronic-photonic synergy and short (<1 km) reach interconnection. This direction will ignite a major shift in leadership of the optical component industry from information transmission (telecom) to information processing (computing imaging).' Thus the case is made for low-cost implementation, making silicon a prime candidate, particularly if true electronic/photonic integration is to be realized. Despite the limitations of silicon as an optical material, the intrinsic advantages of the most popular silicon optical platform, silicon-on-insulator (SOI), should not be overlooked. The very high confinement nature of this technology platform brings a host of advantages, including the possibility to miniaturize devices and circuits, to reduce power consumption, optical loss and cost, to increase yield, and to be compatible with CMOS-based intelligence. Thus the limitations of silicon as an optical material can be offset against the very significant advantages, to both commercial as well as technological success. Of course, there is still much to do, hence the increasing global investment in silicon

  6. 有机硅材料辐射加工技术进展%Progress on Radiation Processing Technology of Silicone Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周成飞

    2014-01-01

    The research progress of radiation modification on the silicone materials was summarized .The radiation crosslinking and radiation grafting technique in application of silicone materials were discussed .The current research trend on preparation of POSS-polymer composites was also introduced .Finally, the develop-ment of preparation of SiC materials by radiation technology was introduced .%综述了有机硅材料辐射改性的研究进展。主要评述了辐射交联和辐射接枝技术在有机硅材料改性中的应用情况;介绍了辐射法制备POSS-聚合物复合材料的研究及SiC材料辐射制备技术的发展现状。

  7. Program Review - Geothermal Exploration and Assessment Technology Program; Including a Report of the Reservoir Engineering Technical Advisory Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielson, Dennis L., ed.

    1979-12-01

    In 1978, The Division of Geothermal Energy of the Department of Energy established the Geothermal Exploration and Assessment Technology Program. The purpose of this program is to ''provide assistance to the Nation's industrial community by helping to remove technical and associated economic barriers which presently inhibit efforts to bring geothermal electric power production and direct heat application on line''. In the near term this involves the adaptation of exploration and assessment techniques from the mineral and petroleum industry to geothermal applications. In the near to far term it involves the development of new technology which will improve the cost effectiveness of geothermal exploration.

  8. Full-color OLED on silicon microdisplay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Amalkumar P.

    2002-02-01

    eMagin has developed numerous enhancements to organic light emitting diode (OLED) technology, including a unique, up- emitting structure for OLED-on-silicon microdisplay devices. Recently, eMagin has fabricated full color SVGA+ resolution OLED microdisplays on silicon, with over 1.5 million color elements. The display is based on white light emission from OLED followed by LCD-type red, green and blue color filters. The color filters are patterned directly on OLED devices following suitable thin film encapsulation and the drive circuits are built directly on single crystal silicon. The resultant color OLED technology, with hits high efficiency, high brightness, and low power consumption, is ideally suited for near to the eye applications such as wearable PCS, wireless Internet applications and mobile phone, portable DVD viewers, digital cameras and other emerging applications.

  9. 75 FR 11920 - Agilent Technologies, Eesof Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Volt and Managed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... From Volt and Managed Business Solutions (MBS), Westlake Village, CA, Santa Rosa, CA, Santa Clara, CA..., Santa Clara, California, and the Everett, Washington locations of Agilent Technologies, EEsof Division... workers from Volt and Managed Business Solutions (MBS), Santa Clara, California (TA-W-71,168B),...

  10. Compton imager using room temperature silicon detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurfess, James D.; Novikova, Elena I.; Phlips, Bernard F.; Wulf, Eric A.

    2007-08-01

    We have been developing a multi-layer Compton Gamma Ray Imager using position-sensitive, intrinsic silicon detectors. Advantages of this approach include room temperature operation, reduced Doppler broadening, and use of conventional silicon fabrication technologies. We have obtained results on the imaging performance of a multi-layer instrument where each layer consists of a 2×2 array of double-sided strip detectors. Each detector is 63 mm×63 mm×2 mm thick and has 64 strips providing a strip pitch of approximately 0.9 mm. The detectors were fabricated by SINTEF ICT (Oslo Norway) from 100 mm diameter wafers. The use of large arrays of silicon detectors appears especially advantageous for applications that require excellent sensitivity, spectral resolution and imaging such as gamma ray astrophysics, detection of special nuclear materials, and medical imaging. The multiple Compton interactions (three or more) in the low-Z silicon enable the energy and direction of the incident gamma ray to be determined without full deposition of the incident gamma-ray energy in the detector. The performance of large volume instruments for various applications are presented, including an instrument under consideration for NASA's Advanced Compton Telescope (ACT) mission and applications to Homeland Security. Technology developments that could further extend the sensitivity and performance of silicon Compton Imagers are presented, including the use of low-energy (few hundred keV) electron tracking within novel silicon detectors and the potential for a wafer-bonding approach to produce thicker, position-sensitive silicon detectors with an associated reduction of required electronics and instrument cost.

  11. Electrical Characterization of Silicon Cores from Glass-Cladded Fibres

    OpenAIRE

    Lapointe, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    Semiconductor core fibres represent an emerging technology with potential applications in many areas, including photovoltaics and optical transmission. Recent advances in fibre manufacturing techniques has allowed long, continuous silicon core fibres to be produced in commercial draw towers. The effect of the molten core fibre fabrication method on the electrical properties of silicon cores from glass-clad fibres have been studied. Fibres with core diameters ranging from 60 to 300 µm wer...

  12. Development of the preparation technology of macroporous sorbent for industrial off-gas treatment including {sup 14}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Il Hoon; Cho, Young Hyun; Park, Guen Il; Kim, In Tae; Kim, June Hyung; Ahn, Byung Kil

    2001-01-01

    For environmental and health effects due to increasing levels of pollution in the atmosphere, it is necessary to develop environmentally sound technologies for the treatment of greenhouse gases (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CFC, etc.) and acid gases (SOx, NOx, etc.). Specifically, advanced technology for CO{sub 2} capturing is currently one of the most important environmental issues in worldwide. {sup 14}CO{sub 2}, specially which has been gradually emerging issue in the nuclear facilities, is generated about 330 ppm from the CANDU (Canadian Deuterium Uranium Reactor) nuclear power plant and the DUPIC (Direct Use of spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors) process which is the process of spent fuel treatment. For this purpose, it is necessary to develop the most efficient treatment technology of CO{sub 2} capture by various lime materials in semi- or dry process, it should be also considering a removal performance, waste recycling and safety of disposal. In order to develop a highly active slaked lime as a sorbent for CO{sub 2} and high temperature desulfurization, macroporous slaked lime is necessarily prepared by modified swelling process and equipment, which was developed under carrying out this project. And also for the optimal removal process of off-gases the removal performance tests of various sorbents and the effects of relative humidity and bed depth on the removal capacity must be considered.

  13. SILICON CARBIDE FOR SEMICONDUCTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This state-of-the-art survey on silicon carbide for semiconductors includes a bibliography of the most important references published as of the end...of 1964. The various methods used for growing silicon carbide single crystals are reviewed, as well as their properties and devices fabricated from...them. The fact that the state of-the-art of silicon carbide semiconductors is not further advanced may be attributed to the difficulties of growing

  14. Silicon Film{trademark} photovoltaic manufacturing technology. Semiannual technical progress report, 15 January 1992--15 July 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottenberg, W.R.; Hall, R.B.; Jackson, E.L.; Lampo, S.; Mulligan, W.E.; Barnett, A.M. [AstroPower, Inc., Newark, DE (United States)

    1993-04-01

    This report describes work on a project to develop an advanced low-cost manufacturing process for a new utility-scale flatplate module based on thin active layers of polycrystalline silicon on a low-cost substrate. This is called the Silicon-Film{trademark} process. This new power module is based on a new large solar cell that is 675 cm{sup 2} in area. Eighteen of these solar cells form a 170-W module. Twelve ofthese modules form a 2-kW array. The program has three components: (1) development of a Silicon-Film{trademark} wafer machine that can manufacture wafer 675 cm{sup 2} in size with a total product cost reductionof 70%; (2) development of an advanced solar cell manufacturing process that will turn the Silicon-Film{trademark} wafer into a 14%-efficient solar cell; and (3) development of an advanced module design based on these large-area, efficient silicon solar cells with an average power of 170 watts. The completion of these three tasks will lead to a new power module designed for utility and other power applications with asubstantially lower cost.

  15. Roadmap on silicon photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, David; Zilkie, Aaron; Bowers, John E.; Komljenovic, Tin; Reed, Graham T.; Vivien, Laurent; Marris-Morini, Delphine; Cassan, Eric; Virot, Léopold; Fédéli, Jean-Marc; Hartmann, Jean-Michel; Schmid, Jens H.; Xu, Dan-Xia; Boeuf, Frédéric; O'Brien, Peter; Mashanovich, Goran Z.; Nedeljkovic, M.

    2016-07-01

    Silicon photonics research can be dated back to the 1980s. However, the previous decade has witnessed an explosive growth in the field. Silicon photonics is a disruptive technology that is poised to revolutionize a number of application areas, for example, data centers, high-performance computing and sensing. The key driving force behind silicon photonics is the ability to use CMOS-like fabrication resulting in high-volume production at low cost. This is a key enabling factor for bringing photonics to a range of technology areas where the costs of implementation using traditional photonic elements such as those used for the telecommunications industry would be prohibitive. Silicon does however have a number of shortcomings as a photonic material. In its basic form it is not an ideal material in which to produce light sources, optical modulators or photodetectors for example. A wealth of research effort from both academia and industry in recent years has fueled the demonstration of multiple solutions to these and other problems, and as time progresses new approaches are increasingly being conceived. It is clear that silicon photonics has a bright future. However, with a growing number of approaches available, what will the silicon photonic integrated circuit of the future look like? This roadmap on silicon photonics delves into the different technology and application areas of the field giving an insight into the state-of-the-art as well as current and future challenges faced by researchers worldwide. Contributions authored by experts from both industry and academia provide an overview and outlook for the silicon waveguide platform, optical sources, optical modulators, photodetectors, integration approaches, packaging, applications of silicon photonics and approaches required to satisfy applications at mid-infrared wavelengths. Advances in science and technology required to meet challenges faced by the field in each of these areas are also addressed together with

  16. High precision optical finishing of lightweight silicon carbide aspheric mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, John; Young, Kevin

    2010-10-01

    Critical to the deployment of large surveillance optics into the space environment is the generation of high quality optics. Traditionally, aluminum, glass and beryllium have been used; however, silicon carbide becomes of increasing interest and availability due to its high strength. With the hardness of silicon carbide being similar to diamond, traditional polishing methods suffer from slow material removal rates, difficulty in achieving the desired figure and inherent risk of causing catastrophic damage to the lightweight structure. Rather than increasing structural capacity and mass of the substrate, our proprietary sub-aperture aspheric surface forming technology offers higher material removal rates (comparable to that of Zerodur or Fused Silica), a deterministic approach to achieving the desired figure while minimizing contact area and the resulting load on the optical structure. The technology performed on computer-controlled machines with motion control software providing precise and quick convergence of surface figure, as demonstrated by optically finishing lightweight silicon carbide aspheres. At the same time, it also offers the advantage of ideal pitch finish of low surface micro-roughness and low mid-spatial frequency error. This method provides a solution applicable to all common silicon carbide substrate materials, including substrates with CVD silicon carbide cladding, offered by major silicon carbide material suppliers. This paper discusses a demonstration mirror we polished using this novel technology. The mirror is a lightweight silicon carbide substrate with CVD silicon carbide cladding. It is a convex hyperbolic secondary mirror with 104mm diameter and approximately 20 microns aspheric departure from best-fit sphere. The mirror has been finished with surface irregularity of better than 1/50 wave RMS @632.8 nm and surface micro-roughness of under 2 angstroms RMS. The technology has the potential to be scaled up for manufacturing capabilities of

  17. Advanced Front-Side Technology in Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells (Geavanceerde Frontend-Side Technolgy in kristallijn silicium zonnecellen)

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to improve the efficiency of silicon solar cells such that the cost/watt could be reduced to a competitive level. In this thesis, three aspects of the front-side of crystalline silicon solar cells have been investigated. Advanced texturing, emitter formation and passivation are detailed in chapters 2, 3 and 4 respectively. Below, each chapter is summarized. In chapter 2, a new technique has been developed that textures the frontside while polishing the rear-side. Th...

  18. 78 FR 48468 - M/A-Com Technology Solutions, Including On-Site Leased Workers of Kelly Temps and Aerotek CE...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... Kelly Temps and Aerotek CE, Torrance, California; M/A-Com Technology Solutions, Including On-Site Leased Workers of Kelly Temps and Aerotek CE, Long Beach, California; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility... Solutions, including on-site leased workers of Kelly Temps and Aerotek CE, Torrance, California. The...

  19. Steps towards silicon optoelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Starovoytov, A

    1999-01-01

    nanostructure fabrication. Thus, this thesis makes a dual contribution to the chosen field: it summarises the present knowledge on the possibility of utilising optical properties of nanocrystalline silicon in silicon-based electronics, and it reports new results within the framework of the subject. The main conclusion is that due to its promising optoelectronic properties nanocrystalline silicon remains a prospective competitor for the cheapest and fastest microelectronics of the next century. This thesis addresses the issue of a potential future microelectronics technology, namely the possibility of utilising the optical properties of nanocrystalline silicon for optoelectronic circuits. The subject is subdivided into three chapters. Chapter 1 is an introduction. It formulates the oncoming problem for microelectronic development, explains the basics of Integrated Optoelectronics, introduces porous silicon as a new light-emitting material and gives a brief review of other competing light-emitting material syst...

  20. Silicon carbide, an emerging high temperature semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matus, Lawrence G.; Powell, J. Anthony

    1991-01-01

    In recent years, the aerospace propulsion and space power communities have expressed a growing need for electronic devices that are capable of sustained high temperature operation. Applications for high temperature electronic devices include development instrumentation within engines, engine control, and condition monitoring systems, and power conditioning and control systems for space platforms and satellites. Other earth-based applications include deep-well drilling instrumentation, nuclear reactor instrumentation and control, and automotive sensors. To meet the needs of these applications, the High Temperature Electronics Program at the Lewis Research Center is developing silicon carbide (SiC) as a high temperature semiconductor material. Research is focussed on developing the crystal growth, characterization, and device fabrication technologies necessary to produce a family of silicon carbide electronic devices and integrated sensors. The progress made in developing silicon carbide is presented, and the challenges that lie ahead are discussed.

  1. Technological development for super-high efficiency solar cells. Technological development for super-high efficiency singlecrystalline silicon solar cells (super-high efficiency singlecrystalline Si solar cells); Chokokoritsu taiyo denchi no gijutsu kaihatsu. Chokokoritsu tankessho silicon taiyo denchi no gijutsu kaihatsu (chokokoritsu tankessho silicon taiyo denchi cell no gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuta, M. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the study results on technological development of super-high efficiency singlecrystalline silicon solar cells in fiscal 1994. (1) On development of high-performance light receiving layer, the fine electrode for receiving surfaces was designed to reduce serial resistance, and the high-quality oxide passivation film was studied to reduce surface recombination velocity. (2) On development of forming technology of back heterojunction, the high-quality cell with B-doped fine crystalline Si film on its back was studied by heat treatment of the fine crystalline Si film, and the cell structure with high back reflectance of light was also studied. (3) On analysis for high-efficiency cells, the relation between the back recombination velocity at the interface between p-type substrate and back passivation film, and the internal collection efficiency as probe light was injected from the back, was calculated by numerical simulation. As a result, the cell back recombination velocity could be evaluated by measuring the spectral internal collection efficiency to back injection. 15 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Silicon applications in photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelenski, A. M.; Gawlik, G.; Wesolowski, M.

    2005-09-01

    Silicon technology enabled the miniaturization of computers and other electronic system for information storage, transmission and transformation allowing the development of the Knowledge Based Information Society. Despite the fact that silicon roadmap indicates possibilities for further improvement, already now the speed of electrons and the bandwidth of electronic circuits are not sufficient and photons are commonly utilized for signal transmission through optical fibers and purely photonic circuits promise further improvements. However materials used for these purposes II/V semiconductor compounds, glasses make integration of optoelectronic circuits with silicon complex an expensive. Therefore research on light generation, transformation and transmission in silicon is very active and recently, due to nanotechnology some spectacular results were achieved despite the fact that mechanisms of light generation are still discussed. Three topics will be discussed. Porous silicon was actively investigated due to its relatively efficient electroluminescence enabling its use in light sources. Its index of refraction, differs considerably from the index of silicon, and this allows its utilization for Bragg mirrors, wave guides and photonic crystals. The enormous surface enables several applications on medicine and biotechnology and in particular due to the effective chemo-modulation of its refracting index the design of optical chemosensors. An effective luminescence of doped and undoped nanocrystalline silicon opened another way for the construction of silicon light sources. Optical amplification was already discovered opening perspectives for the construction of nanosilicon lasers. Luminescences was observed at red, green and blue wavelengths. The used technology of silica and ion implantation are compatible with commonly used CMOS technology. Finally the recently developed and proved idea of optically pumped silicon Raman lasers, using nonlinearity and vibrations in the

  3. Survey of the situation of technology succession. Databases of articles including in industrial technology museums; Gijutsu keisho jokyo chosa. Sangyo gijutsu hakubutsukan shuzohin D.B. hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    To promote the succession of history of and the creative use of industrial science technologies, the paper made lists and databases of the articles of industrial technology museums and material halls in Japan. Record/preservation and collection/systematization of history of the industrial technology is useful for forming bases necessary for promotion of future research/development and international contribution. Museums and material halls are the fields for making comprehensive and practical activities. The data were made as one of the basic databases as the first step for promoting activities for examining the technical succession situation in a long term range continuously and systematically. In the classification of the data, the energy relation was divided into electric power, nuclear power, oil, coal, gas and energy in general. Others were classified into metal/mine, electricity/electronics/communication, chemistry/food, ship building/heavy machinery, printing/precision instrument, and textile/spinning. Moreover, the traffic relation was classified into railroad, automobiles/two-wheeled vehicles, airline/space, and ships. Items were also set of life relation, civil engineering/architecture, and general. The total number of the museums for the survey reached 208.

  4. Canadian entrepreneur looks to Utah oil sands : possible hurdles include gaining acceptance for a new technology, funding and regulatory approval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diekmeyer, P.

    2010-09-15

    Alberta-based Earth Energy Resources has chosen Utah for its first major oilsand development project. Utah has excellent oil sands resources, but most cannot be economically extracted using conventional methods. The president of Earth Energy Resources has proposed to use new technologies, processes and workflow methods to make resource extraction economically viable. The company currently holds a 100 percent interest in 3,170 hectares under lease from the State of Utah School and Institutional Trust Lands Administration (SITLA) in the PR Spring deposit. The recoverable high-quality bitumen is estimated at 250 million barrels. The oil sands in Utah are disaggregated and spread out over a relatively wide area. The bitumen quality is very similar to that found in the Athabasca deposit, but it has a much lower sulphur content. Earth Energy Resources plans on using the Ophus Process which involves a series of small 2,000 barrel per day production facilities that can be easily set up, and moved as the resources in one particular area are recovered. Production could be expanded as needed by the addition of more facilities. An environmentally sound citrus-based extraction chemical will replace much of the mechanical energy and caustic soda mixture used in the Clark Process. The new energy and water efficient process will significantly reduce the quantity of middlings produced in the process, thereby eliminating the need for tailings ponds and reducing environmental impacts. 1 fig.

  5. SILICON CARBIDE DATA SHEETS

    Science.gov (United States)

    These data sheets present a compilation of a wide range of electrical, optical and energy values for alpha and beta- silicon carbide in bulk and film...spectrum. Energy data include energy bands, energy gap and energy levels for variously-doped silicon carbide , as well as effective mass tables, work

  6. Ceramic Technology Project database: March 1990 summary report. DOE/ORNL Ceramic Technology Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyes, B.L.P.

    1992-07-01

    This report is the fifth in a series of semiannual data summary reports on information being stored in the Ceramic Technology Project (CTP) database. The overall system status as of March 31, 1990, is summarized, and the latest additions of ceramic mechanical properties data are given for zirconia, silicon carbide, and silicon nitride ceramic mechanical properties data, including some properties on brazed specimens.

  7. 单晶硅太阳电池制备工艺探讨%Discussion on Preparation Technology of Crystal Silicon Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何京鸿; 赵恒利; 李雷

    2012-01-01

    The article describes the fabrication techniques of crystalline silicon solar cells, and the adjustment range of technological parameters are given by experiments. The contributions and attentions of each progress are explained, and kinds of methods are presented to improve the efficiency of the solar cells by optimizing technological process.%本文介绍目前晶体硅太阳电池制造工艺,通过实验给出各个工艺流程的工艺参数及可调节范围,说明各环节对太阳电池的贡献及注意问题。提出了通过优化各工艺流程来提高晶体硅太阳电池效率的一些方法。

  8. Metamaterial-inspired silicon nanophotonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staude, Isabelle; Schilling, Jörg

    2017-04-01

    The prospect of creating metamaterials with optical properties greatly exceeding the parameter space accessible with natural materials has been inspiring intense research efforts in nanophotonics for more than a decade. Following an era of plasmonic metamaterials, low-loss dielectric nanostructures have recently moved into the focus of metamaterial-related research. This development was mainly triggered by the experimental observation of electric and magnetic multipolar Mie-type resonances in high-refractive-index dielectric nanoparticles. Silicon in particular has emerged as a popular material choice, due to not only its high refractive index and very low absorption losses in the telecom spectral range, but also its paramount technological relevance. This Review overviews recent progress on metamaterial-inspired silicon nanostructures, including Mie-resonant and off-resonant regimes.

  9. Achievement report for fiscal 1997. Technological development for practical application of a solar energy power generation system /development of technology to manufacture solar cells/development of technology to manufacture thin film solar cells (development of technology to manufacture materials and substrates (development of technology to manufacture silicon crystal based high-quality materials and substrates)); 1997 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Taiyo denchi seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, usumaku taiyo denchi seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, zairyo kiban seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (silicon kesshokei kohinshitsu zairyo kiban no seizo gujutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    It is intended to develop thin film solar cells capable of mass production with high photo-stability and at low cost. Thus, the objective of the present research is to analyze the growth process of micro crystal silicon based thin films, the crystal being a high quality silicon crystal based material, and develop technology to manufacture high-quality micro crystal silicon thin films based on the findings therefrom. It was found that, when silicon source is available in cathode, pure hydrogen plasma forms micro crystal silicon films by using the plasma as a result of the chemical transportation effect from the silicon source. It was revealed that the crystal formation due to hydrogen plasma exposure is performed substantially by the crystals forming the films due to the chemical transportation effect, rather than crystallization in the vicinity of the surface. The crystal formation under this experiment was concluded that the formation takes place during film growth accompanied by diffusion of film forming precursors on the surface on which the film grows. According to the result obtained so far, the most important issue in the future is particularly the control of crystal growing azimuth by reducing the initially formed amorphous layer by controlling the stress in the initial phase for film formation, and by controlling the film forming precursors. (NEDO)

  10. Environmental assessment of bioenergy technologies application in Russia, including their impact on the balance of greenhouse gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Irina; Vasenev, Ivan

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, Russia adopted a policy towards increasing of the share of renewable energy in total amount of used energy, albeit with some delay comparing to the EU countries and the USA. It was expected that the use of biofuels over time will reduce significantly the dependency of Russian economy on fossil fuels, increase its competitiveness, and increase Russian contribution to the prevention of global climate changes. Russia has significant bio-energy potential and resources which are characterized by great diversity due to the large extent of the territory, which require systematic studies and environmental assessment of used bio-energy technologies. Results of research carried at the Laboratory of agroecological monitoring, modeling and prediction of ecosystems RSAU-MTAA demonstrated significant differences in the assessment of the environmental, economic and social effects of biofuel production and use, depending on the species of bio-energy crops, regional soil-ecological and agro-climatic characteristics, applied farming systems and production processes. The total area of temporarily unused and fallow land, which could be allocated to the active agricultural use in Russia, according to various estimates, ranges from 20 to 33 million hectares, which removes the problem, typical of most European countries, of adverse agro-ecological changes in land use connected with the expansion of bio-energy crops cultivation. However, the expansion of biofuel production through the use of fallow land and conversion of natural lands has as a consequence the problem of greenhouse gas emissions due to land use changes, which, according to FAO, could be even higher than CO2 emission from fossil fuels for some of bio-energy raw materials and production systems. Assessment of the total impacts of biofuels on greenhouse gas emissions in the Russian conditions should be based on regionally adapted calculations of flows throughout the entire life cycle of production, taking

  11. Low Loss Electro-Optic Polymer Based Fast Adaptive Phase Shifters Realized in Silicon Nitride and Oxynitride Waveguide Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Baudzus

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a comprehensive study on how to design and fabricate low loss electro-optic phase shifters based on an electro-optic polymer and the silicon nitride and silicon oxynitride waveguide material systems. The loss mechanisms of phase shifters with an electro-optic (EO polymer cladding are analyzed in detail and design solutions to achieve lowest losses are presented. In order to verify the low loss design a proof of concept prototype phase shifter was fabricated, which exhibits an attenuation of 0.8 dB/cm at 1550 nm and an electro-optic efficiency factor of 27%. Furthermore, the potential of this class of phase shifters is evaluated in numerical simulations, from which the optimal design parameters and achievable figures of merit were derived. The presented phase shifter design has its potential for application in fast adaptive multi stage devices for optical signal processing.

  12. SEMICONDUCTOR TECHNOLOGY Texturization of mono-crystalline silicon solar cells in TMAH without the addition of surfactant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiying, Ou; Yao, Zhang; Hailing, Li; Lei, Zhao; Chunlan, Zhou; Hongwei, Diao; Min, Liu; Weiming, Lu; Jun, Zhang; Wenjing, Wang

    2010-10-01

    Etching was performed on (100) silicon wafers using silicon-dissolved tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) solutions without the addition of surfactant. Experiments were carried out in different TMAH concentrations at different temperatures for different etching times. The surface phenomena, etching rates, surface morphology and surface reflectance were analyzed. Experimental results show that the resulting surface covered with uniform pyramids can be realized with a small change in etching rates during the etching process. The etching mechanism is explained based on the experimental results and the theoretical considerations. It is suggested that all the components in the TMAH solutions play important roles in the etching process. Moreover, TMA+ ions may increase the wettability of the textured surface. A good textured surface can be obtained in conditions where the absorption of OH-/H2O is in equilibrium with that of TMA+/SiO2 (OH)22-.

  13. Crystal growth and evaluation of silicon for VLSI and ULSI

    CERN Document Server

    Eranna, Golla

    2014-01-01

    PrefaceAbout the AuthorIntroductionSilicon: The SemiconductorWhy Single CrystalsRevolution in Integrated Circuit Fabrication Technology and the Art of Device MiniaturizationUse of Silicon as a SemiconductorSilicon Devices for Boolean ApplicationsIntegration of Silicon Devices and the Art of Circuit MiniaturizationMOS and CMOS Devices for Digital ApplicationsLSI, VLSI, and ULSI Circuits and ApplicationsSilicon for MEMS ApplicationsSummaryReferencesSilicon: The Key Material for Integrated Circuit Fabrication TechnologyIntroductionPreparation of Raw Silicon MaterialMetallurgical-Grade SiliconPuri

  14. Modifying the Sleep Treatment Education Program for Students to include technology use (STEPS-TECH): Intervention effects on objective and subjective sleep outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Larissa K; Cucalon, Maria S

    2017-02-03

    University students often have sleep issues that arise from poor sleep hygiene practices and technology use patterns. Yet, technology-related behaviors are often neglected in sleep hygiene education. This study examined whether the Sleep Treatment Education Program for Students-modified to include information regarding managing technology use (STEPS-TECH)-helps improve both subjective and objective sleep outcomes among university students. Results of an experimental study among 78 university students showed improvements in objective indicators of sleep quantity (total sleep time) and sleep quality (less awakenings) during the subsequent week for students in the STEPS-TECH intervention group compared to a control group. Exploratory analyses indicated that effects were driven by improvements in weekend days immediately following the intervention. There were also no intervention effects on subjective sleep quality or quantity outcomes. In terms of self-reported behavioral responses to educational content in the intervention, there were no group differences in sleep hygiene practices or technology use before bedtime. However, the intervention group reported less technology use during sleep periods than the control group. These preliminary findings suggest that STEPS-TECH may be a useful educational tool to help improve objective sleep and reduce technology use during sleep periods among university students. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Amorphous silicon photovoltaic maufacturing technology, Phase 2A. Annual subcontract report, 1 May 1992--30 April 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, G.; Mackamul, K.; Metcalf, D. [Utility Power Group, Chatsworth, CA (United States); Koniares, A.; Skinner, D.; Volltrauer, H. [Advanced Photovoltaic Systems, Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1994-02-01

    This report describes teamed research by Utility Power Group (UPG) and Advanced Photovoltaic Systems, Inc., (APS) to advance photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing technologies, reduce module production costs, increase average module performance, and increase the existing production capacity. UPG and APS conducted parallel efforts to develop their manufacturing lines. Areas of focus included encapsulation and termination, product design, process and quality control, and automation. UPG improved the existing encapsulation system by developing advanced encapsulation materials and processes, resulting in a module that does not require backing glass. UPG also developed advanced termination materials and processes. APS performed development activities centered on the EUREKA manufacturing line. Developments in the APS EUREKA encapsulation system were in addition to the UPG activity on encapsulation, and they offer an alternative approach to the problems of encapsulating large-area, thin-film modules.

  16. 以技术创新推动晶体硅太阳能电池智慧生产线建设%Intelligent Production Line Construction of Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell through Technological innovation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢建国; 赵加宝

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the status of the technology of crystalline silicon solar cell production line was reviewed, the future trends of crystal silicon solar cell technology is analyzed, and the technical characteristic of modern crystalline silicon cell production line was summarized, proposing that the combination of innovative technology and equipment, efficient process automation, intelligent monitoring and decision-making are the three main features of modern intelligent crystalline silicon cell production line. On this basis, an intelligent crystalline silicon cell manufacturing system frame with modern technical features was proposed, and its structure, design and implementation were briefly introduced.%综述了晶体硅太阳能电池生产线的技术现状,并结合晶体硅电池技术的未来发展方向,分析了晶体硅太阳能电池生产线技术的发展趋势,认为创新工艺及设备、高产能及高效自动化、监控与决策智能化是未来晶体硅太阳能电池生产线的三大主要特征,在此基础上,提出了一种晶体硅太阳能电池智慧生产线,简要介绍了其结构组成,特点及实现。1

  17. 双面单晶硅光伏电池技术及工艺探索%Exploration of Crystalline Silicon Bifacial Photovoltaic Cell Technology and Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张中伟; 张小宾; 侯泽荣; 黄仑

    2014-01-01

    对双面晶体硅电池技术和工艺做了初步的阐述,并以双面P型单晶硅电池为研究对象,对双面电池制程中的硼扩散、边缘刻蚀、硼扩散面钝化几个关键技术和工艺展开研究和探索,得出其中工艺参数与电池性能之间的相互联系,实验制作得到的P型双面电池片最高综合效率达20.04%。这些技术和制备工艺流程对于未来高效晶硅电池的研发和生产具有重要的参考价值。%This paper introduces the bifacial crystalline silicon photovoltaic cell technology and production process, using P type monocrystalline silicon bifacial solar cell as research object, the introduction is follwed by investigations on such key technical aspects and processes such as boron diffusion, edge isolation etching and boron diffused surface passivation as well as study on the relationship between process parameters and cell performance. The results reveal that the best bifacial cell fabricated in experiments had a combined efficiency of 20. 04%, Which are valuable for further high efficient crystalline silicon solar cell research and production.

  18. Clinical trials and E-health: impact of new information technology applied to clinical trials (including source data-medical records) and to human and drug research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béhier, Jehan-Michel; Reynier, Jean-Charles; Bertoye, Pierre-Henri; Vray, Muriel

    2010-01-01

    Within the last few years, new technology has come to play an important part in our professional and private daily environment. Healthcare has not escaped this progressive mutation with computers reaching the bedside. Clinical research has also shown growing interest in these new tools available to the clinical investigator, the patient, as well as to specialist departments for diagnosis and follow-up of patients, and to the different professions in clinical research. If the use of new technology seems to make life easier, by centralizing data or by simplifying data-sharing between different teams, it is still a matter of private data which must remain reliable, confidential and secure, whether it is being used in ordinary healthcare or in academic or industrial research. The aim of the round table was to estimate the impact of new information technology applied to clinical trials (including source data-medical records) and to human and drug research. First, an inventory was made of the development of these new technologies in the healthcare system. The second point developed was identification of expected benefits in order to issue guidelines for their good use and hazard warnings in clinical trials. Finally, the impact of these new technologies on the investigator as well as the project manager was analysed.

  19. Silicon microfabricated beam expander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, A.; Ibrahim, M. N.; Hamzah, I. H.; Sulaiman, A. A.; Ain, M. F.

    2015-03-01

    The feasibility design and development methods of silicon microfabricated beam expander are described. Silicon bulk micromachining fabrication technology is used in producing features of the structure. A high-precision complex 3-D shape of the expander can be formed by exploiting the predictable anisotropic wet etching characteristics of single-crystal silicon in aqueous Potassium-Hydroxide (KOH) solution. The beam-expander consist of two elements, a micromachined silicon reflector chamber and micro-Fresnel zone plate. The micro-Fresnel element is patterned using lithographic methods. The reflector chamber element has a depth of 40 µm, a diameter of 15 mm and gold-coated surfaces. The impact on the depth, diameter of the chamber and absorption for improved performance are discussed.

  20. Silicon microfabricated beam expander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, A., E-mail: aliman@ppinang.uitm.edu.my; Ibrahim, M. N.; Hamzah, I. H.; Sulaiman, A. A. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia, 40450, Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Ain, M. F. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seri Ampangan, 14300,Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2015-03-30

    The feasibility design and development methods of silicon microfabricated beam expander are described. Silicon bulk micromachining fabrication technology is used in producing features of the structure. A high-precision complex 3-D shape of the expander can be formed by exploiting the predictable anisotropic wet etching characteristics of single-crystal silicon in aqueous Potassium-Hydroxide (KOH) solution. The beam-expander consist of two elements, a micromachined silicon reflector chamber and micro-Fresnel zone plate. The micro-Fresnel element is patterned using lithographic methods. The reflector chamber element has a depth of 40 µm, a diameter of 15 mm and gold-coated surfaces. The impact on the depth, diameter of the chamber and absorption for improved performance are discussed.

  1. Design and Performance Evaluation of Optical Ethernet Switching Architecture with Liquid Crystal on Silicon-Based Beam-Steering Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuh-Jiuh; Chou, H.-H.; Shiau, Yhi; Cheng, Shu-Ying

    2016-07-01

    A non-blocking optical Ethernet switching architecture with liquid crystal on a silicon-based beam-steering switch and optical output buffer strategies are proposed. For preserving service packet sequencing and fairness of routing sequence, priority and round-robin algorithms are adopted at the optical output buffer in this research. Four methods were used to implement tunable fiber delay modules for the optical output buffers to handle Ethernet packets with variable bit-rates. The results reported are based on the simulations performed to evaluate the proposed switching architecture with traffic analysis under a traffic model captured from a real-core network.

  2. Pathways to exotic metastable silicon allotropes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberl, Bianca; Strobel, Timothy A.; Bradby, Jodie E.

    2016-12-01

    The Group 14 element silicon possesses a complex free-energy landscape with many (local) minima, allowing for the formation of a variety of unusual structures, some of which may be stabilized at ambient conditions. Such exotic silicon allotropes represent a significant opportunity to address the ever-increasing demand for novel materials with tailored functionality since these exotic forms are expected to exhibit superlative properties including optimized band gaps for solar power conversion. The application of pressure is a well-recognized and uniquely powerful method to access exotic states of silicon since it promotes large changes to atomic bonding. Conventional high-pressure syntheses, however, lack the capability to access many of these local minima and only four forms of exotic silicon allotropes have been recovered over the last 50 years. However, more recently, significant advances in high pressure methodologies and the use of novel precursor materials have yielded at least three more recoverable exotic Si structures. This review aims to give an overview of these innovative methods of high-pressure application and precursor selection and the recent discoveries of new Si allotropes. The background context of the conventional pressure methods and multitude of predicted new phases are also provided. This review also offers a perspective for possible access to many further exotic functional allotropes not only of silicon but also of other materials, in a technologically feasible manner.

  3. Stresses in silicon substrates near isolation trenches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidambarrao, D.; Peng, J. P.; Srinivasan, G. R.

    1991-11-01

    We describe a methodology for obtaining stresses near isolation trenches in silicon considering the entire trench forming process. A two-dimensional plane strain finite element stress analysis is performed for a trench with a thermal SiO2 sidewall and polysilicon ``fill'' which includes the cumulative stresses from the superposition of (i) residual stresses from the thermal oxidation step, (ii) the intrinsic stress from the polysilicon deposition, and (iii) stresses due to the coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch between SiO2 and silicon during the temperature cycles involved in the process. The thermal oxidation step is simulated using a two-dimensional nonlinear viscoelastic program novel [in Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Process Physics and Modeling in Semiconductor Technology, edited by G. R. Srinivasan, J. D. Plummer, and S. T. Pantelides (Electrochemical Society, Pennington, NJ, 1991), p. 772], that produces the oxide shape and stress at the oxide-silicon interface which is converted into equivalent nodal forces on the finite element grid. We have also made a three-dimensional finite element analysis of the thermal mismatch stresses between a parallelopipedic oxide inclusion in silicon with anisotropic properties and have compared these results with the analytical results [J. Appl. Phys. 66, 2741 (1989); 67, 1092 (1990)] in which the oxide and silicon are assumed to have identical isotropic elastic properties.

  4. Development of scientific and technological bases for application of brown coal semi coke in the technology of non- milled silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anikin, A. E.; Galevsky, G. V.; Rudneva, V. V.; Nozdrin, E. V.; Galevsky, S. G.

    2016-09-01

    Thermodynamics is investigated, and the optimum temperature and time modes of carbonization of a briquetted silica fume batch- brown coal semi coke are defined. The complete carbonization of the batch in the conditions of heat treatment is achieved at a temperature of 1923 - 1973 K within 15 - 20 minutes. The conditions and indicators of the chemical enrichment of carbonization products are established. After enrichment, the carbide content is more than 90%. Silicon carbide micro-powder is obtained with a specific surface area 8000 - 9000 m2/kg.

  5. The application of silicon sol-gel technology to forensic blood substitute development: Mimicking aspects of whole human blood rheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotesbury, Theresa; Illes, Mike; Wilson, Paul; Vreugdenhil, Andrew J

    2017-01-01

    Solution-gelation chemistry has promising applications in forensic synthetic blood substitute development. This research offers a silicon-based sol-gel approach to creating stable materials that share similar rheological properties to that of whole human blood samples. Room temperature, high water content, silicon sol-gels were created using the organosilane precursors 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane and tetraethylorthosilicate along with various concentrations of filler and pigment. Shear-thinning non-Newtonian properties were observed within most formulations of the presented materials. The effects of colloidal concentration, temperature, age and filler addition on the viscosity of the sol-gels were investigated. SEM-EDS analysis was used to identify the behavior of the fillers within the film and support their inclusion for basic bloodstain pattern simulation. A final proposed candidate sol-gel was assessed using a previously reported passive drip simulation test on a hard, dry surface and passed. This works represents encouraging development in providing safe material alternatives to using whole human blood for forensic training and research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Silicon processing for photovoltaics II

    CERN Document Server

    Khattak, CP

    2012-01-01

    The processing of semiconductor silicon for manufacturing low cost photovoltaic products has been a field of increasing activity over the past decade and a number of papers have been published in the technical literature. This volume presents comprehensive, in-depth reviews on some of the key technologies developed for processing silicon for photovoltaic applications. It is complementary to Volume 5 in this series and together they provide the only collection of reviews in silicon photovoltaics available.The volume contains papers on: the effect of introducing grain boundaries in silicon; the

  7. Solar breeder: Energy payback time for silicon photovoltaic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindmayer, J.

    1977-01-01

    The energy expenditures of the prevailing manufacturing technology of terrestrial photovoltaic cells and panels were evaluated, including silicon reduction, silicon refinement, crystal growth, cell processing and panel building. Energy expenditures include direct energy, indirect energy, and energy in the form of equipment and overhead expenses. Payback times were development using a conventional solar cell as a test vehicle which allows for the comparison of its energy generating capability with the energies expended during the production process. It was found that the energy payback time for a typical solar panel produced by the prevailing technology is 6.4 years. Furthermore, this value drops to 3.8 years under more favorable conditions. Moreover, since the major energy use reductions in terrestrial manufacturing have occurred in cell processing, this payback time directly illustrates the areas where major future energy reductions can be made -- silicon refinement, crystal growth, and panel building.

  8. Ceramic Technology Project database: March 1990 summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyes, B.L.P.

    1992-07-01

    This report is the fifth in a series of semiannual data summary reports on information being stored in the Ceramic Technology Project (CTP) database. The overall system status as of March 31, 1990, is summarized, and the latest additions of ceramic mechanical properties data are given for zirconia, silicon carbide, and silicon nitride ceramic mechanical properties data, including some properties on brazed specimens.

  9. Current status of silicon materials research for photovoltaic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciszek, T F

    1985-04-01

    The desire for high solar cell efficiencies has been a strong factor in determining the course of recent silicon crystal growth research efforts for photovoltaics. This review, therefore, focuses on single-crystal, dislocation-free ingot growth methods (Czochralski growth, float zoning, and cold crucible growth) and on sheet growth technologies, generally multicrystalline, that have achieved moderately high (>13.5%) laboratory-scale efficiencies. These include dendritic web growth, growth from capillary dies, edge-supported pulling, ribbon-against-drop growth, and a recent technique termed crucible-free horizontal growth. Silicon ribbon crystals provide a favorable geometry and require no wafering, but they contain defects that limit solar cell performance. Growth processes, their current status, and cell efficiencies are discussed. Silicon material process steps before and after crystal growth are described, and the advantages of silicon are presented.

  10. Silicon micro-optics for smart light control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vdovin, Gleb; de Lima Monteiro, Davies W.; Akhzar-Mehr, Ourang; Loktev, Mikhail Y.; Sakarya, Serhat; Soloviev, Oleg; Sarro, Pasqualina M.

    2004-01-01

    We present an overview of the results of our recent research in the field of adaptive optical components based on silicon microtechnologies, including membrane deformable mirrors, spatial light modulators, liquid-crystal correctors, wavefront sensors, and both spherical and aspherical micro-optical components. We aim at the realization of adaptive optical systems using standard-technology solutions.

  11. Investigation of Spectral Response Measurement Technology for Silicon Solar Cells%硅太阳电池光谱响应测试技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗玉峰; 杨祚宝; 廖卫兵; 张发云; 刘波; 李玲

    2012-01-01

    对太阳电池光谱响应理论及测试技术的进行了研究,通过绝对光谱响应与量子效率的依赖关系,由绝对光谱响应测数据推导出了太阳电池的外量子效率.采用LabVIEW虚拟仪器技术,系统地将计算机与单色仪、锁相放大器等仪器硬件结合起来,设计了一套集成化及自动化程度较高的太阳电池光谱响应测量系统.系统扫描光谱范围为400~1 200 nm,步进波长最小可达1 nm,可满足硅太阳电池光谱响应测试的需要.该测试系统对硅太阳电池光谱响应及偏置光源下的量子效率进行多次测试,结果表明:测量系统稳定性高,重复性能较好.%The principle of Spectral response and the measurement technology for solar cells were investigated. Base on quantum efficiency dependence on absolute spectral response, external quantum efficiency was deduced by the measuring data of the absolute spectral response. A highly automatic spectral response measurement system was developed for silicon solar cells using virtual instrument technology base on Lab VIEW which integrated software of computer with monochrometer, lock-in amplifier and other instrument hardware systematically. The range of the scanning wavelength was 400 nm to 1 200 nm and the minimum step wavelength was 1 nm which could meet the requirement of spectral response measurement for silicon solar cells. Several measurement results showed that the measurement system has highly repeatability and accuracy through measuring the spectral response and quantum efficiency under the bias light of silicon solar cells with this measurement system.

  12. The electrophotonic silicon biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan-Colás, José; Parkin, Alison; Dunn, Katherine E.; Scullion, Mark G.; Krauss, Thomas F.; Johnson, Steven D.

    2016-09-01

    The emergence of personalized and stratified medicine requires label-free, low-cost diagnostic technology capable of monitoring multiple disease biomarkers in parallel. Silicon photonic biosensors combine high-sensitivity analysis with scalable, low-cost manufacturing, but they tend to measure only a single biomarker and provide no information about their (bio)chemical activity. Here we introduce an electrochemical silicon photonic sensor capable of highly sensitive and multiparameter profiling of biomarkers. Our electrophotonic technology consists of microring resonators optimally n-doped to support high Q resonances alongside electrochemical processes in situ. The inclusion of electrochemical control enables site-selective immobilization of different biomolecules on individual microrings within a sensor array. The combination of photonic and electrochemical characterization also provides additional quantitative information and unique insight into chemical reactivity that is unavailable with photonic detection alone. By exploiting both the photonic and the electrical properties of silicon, the sensor opens new modalities for sensing on the microscale.

  13. Silicon photonics: optical modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, G. T.; Gardes, F. Y.; Hu, Youfang; Thomson, D.; Lever, L.; Kelsall, R.; Ikonic, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Silicon Photonics has the potential to revolutionise a whole raft of application areas. Currently, the main focus is on various forms of optical interconnects as this is a near term bottleneck for the computing industry, and hence a number of companies have also released products onto the market place. The adoption of silicon photonics for mass production will significantly benefit a range of other application areas. One of the key components that will enable silicon photonics to flourish in all of the potential application areas is a high performance optical modulator. An overview is given of the major Si photonics modulator research that has been pursued at the University of Surrey to date as well as a worldwide state of the art showing the trend and technology available. We will show the trend taken toward integration of optical and electronic components with the difficulties that are inherent in such a technology.

  14. The electrophotonic silicon biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan-Colás, José; Parkin, Alison; Dunn, Katherine E.; Scullion, Mark G.; Krauss, Thomas F.; Johnson, Steven D.

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of personalized and stratified medicine requires label-free, low-cost diagnostic technology capable of monitoring multiple disease biomarkers in parallel. Silicon photonic biosensors combine high-sensitivity analysis with scalable, low-cost manufacturing, but they tend to measure only a single biomarker and provide no information about their (bio)chemical activity. Here we introduce an electrochemical silicon photonic sensor capable of highly sensitive and multiparameter profiling of biomarkers. Our electrophotonic technology consists of microring resonators optimally n-doped to support high Q resonances alongside electrochemical processes in situ. The inclusion of electrochemical control enables site-selective immobilization of different biomolecules on individual microrings within a sensor array. The combination of photonic and electrochemical characterization also provides additional quantitative information and unique insight into chemical reactivity that is unavailable with photonic detection alone. By exploiting both the photonic and the electrical properties of silicon, the sensor opens new modalities for sensing on the microscale. PMID:27624590

  15. Translating silicon nanowire BioFET sensor-technology to embedded point-of-care medical diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfreundt, Andrea; Zulfiqar, Azeem; Patou, François;

    2013-01-01

    Silicon nanowire and nanoribbon biosensors have shown great promise in the detection of biomarkers at very low concentrations. Their high sensitivity makes them ideal candidates for use in early-stage medical diagnostics and further disease monitoring where low amounts of biomarkers need......, should be addressed in an automated way. Here, we are presenting the concept of a polysilicon nanoribbon sensor array integrated with multiplexed microfluidic functionalization, automated calibration and sample handling for flexible diagnostics from finger prick blood samples. Functionalization...... of the sensor surface is performed in a controlled microfluidic environment and can be monitored in real-time to ensure reproducible results. In a simple temporary PDMS device, multiple parallel pathways enable straight-forward selective functionalization for different biomarkers. Common diagnostic essays...

  16. A compact T-shaped nanodevice for charge sensing of a tunable double quantum dot in scalable silicon technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagliaferri, M.L.V., E-mail: marco.tagliaferri@mdm.imm.cnr.it [Laboratorio MDM, CNR-IMM, Via C. Olivetti 2, 20864 Agrate Brianza (MB) (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Università di Milano Bicocca, Via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Crippa, A. [Laboratorio MDM, CNR-IMM, Via C. Olivetti 2, 20864 Agrate Brianza (MB) (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Università di Milano Bicocca, Via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); De Michielis, M. [Laboratorio MDM, CNR-IMM, Via C. Olivetti 2, 20864 Agrate Brianza (MB) (Italy); Mazzeo, G.; Fanciulli, M. [Laboratorio MDM, CNR-IMM, Via C. Olivetti 2, 20864 Agrate Brianza (MB) (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Università di Milano Bicocca, Via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Prati, E. [Laboratorio MDM, CNR-IMM, Via C. Olivetti 2, 20864 Agrate Brianza (MB) (Italy); Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie, CNR, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2016-03-11

    We report on the fabrication and the characterization of a tunable complementary-metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) system consisting of two quantum dots and a MOS single electron transistor (MOSSET) charge sensor. By exploiting a compact T-shaped design and few gates fabricated by electron beam lithography, the MOSSET senses the charge state of either a single or double quantum dot at 4.2 K. The CMOS compatible fabrication process, the simplified control over the number of quantum dots and the scalable geometry make such architecture exploitable for large scale fabrication of multiple spin-based qubits in circuital quantum information processing. - Highlights: • Charge sensing of tunable, by position and number, quantum dots is demonstrated. • A compact T-shaped design with five gates at a single metalization level is proposed. • The electrometer is a silicon-etched nanowire acting as a disorder tolerant MOSSET.

  17. Dry etch method for texturing silicon and device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gershon, Talia S.; Haight, Richard A.; Kim, Jeehwan; Lee, Yun Seog

    2017-07-25

    A method for texturing silicon includes loading a silicon wafer into a vacuum chamber, heating the silicon wafer and thermal cracking a gas to generate cracked sulfur species. The silicon wafer is exposed to the cracked sulfur species for a time duration in accordance with a texture characteristic needed for a surface of the silicon wafer.

  18. Silicon Valley's Turnaround

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joseph Leu

    2006-01-01

    @@ During Silicon Valley's dramatic economic growth fueled by the Internet boom and business investment in information technology, employment in the region's high-tech sec tor tripled between 1995 and 2000. The economic boom gave rise to many new firms,drawing em ployees into high-tech jobs from other regions and other industries.

  19. MEMS技术的智能化硅压阻汽车压力传感器%MEMS Technology of Intelligent Silicon Automotive Pressure Transducer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛超民; 王政平; 王冰; 任峰

    2009-01-01

    This paper presented the miniaturization general automotive pressure transducer which designed by combination of MEMS silicon piezoresistive pressure sensors and intelligent signal calibration technology, that's suitable for mass production. It realizes precise measurement while sensors working over all temperature by using intelligent signal calibration technology to calibrate temperature-coefficients of zero and span tolerance.%文中介绍通过采用MEMS(micro electro mechanical systems)技术制造的硅压阻力敏元件结合智能集成化信号调理技术设计了适合批量制造的小型化坚固封装的通用汽车压力传感器.通过智能调理技术将传感器的零位和满度进行温度校准实现了宽温度工作范围内的高精度测量,并且适合于批量制造.

  20. TOT01, a time-over-threshold based readout chip in 180nm CMOS technology for silicon strip detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasinski, K.; Szczygiel, R.; Gryboś, P.

    2011-01-01

    This work is focused on the development of the TOT01 prototype front-end ASIC for the readout of long silicon strip detectors in the STS (Silicon Tracking System) of the CBM experiment at FAIR - GSI. The deposited charge measurement is based on the Time-over-Threshold method which allows integration of a low-power ADC into each channel. The TOT01 chip comprises 30 identical channels and 1 test channel which is supplied with additional test pads. The major blocks of each channel are the CSA (charge sensitive amplifier) with two switchable constant-current discharge circuits and additional test features. The architecture of the CSA core is based on the folded cascode. The input p-channel MOSFET device, biased at a drain current 500 μA, was optimized for 30 pF detector capacitance while keeping in mind the area constraints — W/L = 1800 μm / 0.180 μm. The main advantage of this solution is high gain (GBW = 1.2 GHz) and low power consumption at the same time. The amplifier is followed by the discriminator circuit. The discriminator allows for a global (multi-channel) differential threshold setting and independent compensation for the CSA output DC-level deviations in each channel by means of a 6-bit digital to analog converter (DAC). The output pulse of this processing chain is fed through a 31:1 multiplexer structure to the output of the chip for further processing. The TOT01 chip has been fabricated in the UMC 0.18 μm CMOS process (Europractice mini@sic). It has 78 pads, measures approximately 1.5x3.2 mm2 and dissipates 33 mW. The channels have 50 μm pitch and each consumes 1.05 mW of power. The chip has been successfully tested. Charge sensitivity parameters, noise performance and first X-ray acquisitions are presented.

  1. Use of 3-dimensional printing technology and silicone modeling in surgical simulation: development and face validation in pediatric laparoscopic pyeloplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Carling L; Looi, Thomas; Lendvay, Thomas S; Drake, James M; Farhat, Walid A

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric laparoscopy poses unique training challenges owing to smaller workspaces, finer sutures used, and potentially more delicate tissues that require increased surgical dexterity when compared with adult analogs. We describe the development and face validation of a pediatric pyeloplasty simulator using a low-cost laparoscopic dry-laboratory model developed with 3-dimensional (3D) printing and silicone modeling. The organs (the kidney, renal pelvis, and ureter) were created in a 3-step process where molds were created with 3D modeling software, printed with a Spectrum Z510 3D printer, and cast with Dragon Skin 30 silicone rubber. The model was secured in a laparoscopy box trainer. A pilot study was conducted at a Canadian Urological Association meeting. A total of 24 pediatric urology fellows and 3 experienced faculty members then assessed our skills module during a minimally invasive surgery training course. Participants had 60 minutes to perform a right-side pyeloplasty using laparoscopic tools and 5-0 VICRYL suture. Face validity was demonstrated on a 5-point Likert scale. The dry-laboratory model consists of a kidney, a replaceable dilated renal pelvis and ureter with an obstructed ureteropelvic junction, and an overlying peritoneum with an inscribed fundamentals of laparoscopic surgery pattern-cutting exercise. During initial validation at the Canadian Urological Association, participants rated (out of 5) 4.75 ± 0.29 for overall impression, 4.50 ± 0.41 for realism, and 4.38 ± 0.48 for handling. During the minimally invasive surgery course, 22 of 24 fellows and all the faculty members completed the scoring. Usability was rated 4 or 5 by 14 participants (overall, 3.6 ± 1.22 by novices and 3.7 ± 0.58 by experts), indicating that they would use the model in their own training and teaching. Esthetically, the model was rated 3.5 ± 0.74 (novices) and 3.3 ± 0.58 (experts). We developed a pediatric pyeloplasty simulator by applying a low-cost reusable model

  2. Quasi-3D modeling, design, and analysis of symmetric on-chip inductors in silicon-on-sapphire technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Wan-Chul; Al-Sarawi, Said F.; Lim, Cheng-Chew; Wong, Louis

    2004-03-01

    A design and analysis of symmetric on-chip planar inductors are presented based in 0.5 μm silicon-on-sapphire CMOS process of Peregrine Semiconductor. Compared to conventional CMOS processes, an insulating thick sapphire (Al2O3) substrate enables higher quality factor inductors due to low energy loss in the substrate. In addition, symmetric cross-coupled configuration of identical asymmetric inductors of thick top metalization minimizes the insertion loss. Such differentially connected inductors are simulated on 2.5D electromagnetic field environment and a modeling method of quasi-3D structures is introduced for the metal strips. Maximum quality factor of 53.6 with 2.34 nH at 8.9 GHz is achieved by optimizing the symmetric circular inductors. This inductor is used in the design of a low power (0.42 mW) LC VCO operating at 5.8 GHz and exhibits a phase noise of -120.6 dBc/Hz at 3 MHz offset frequency.

  3. Product technology and market assessment for silicon carbide whisker reinforced alumina heat-exchanger tubes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loutfy, R.O.; Withers, J.C. [Materials and Electrochemical Research Corp., Tucson, AZ (United States); Chakravarti, D. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1993-10-01

    This report describes a study designed to develop an assessment of key performance features, desirable technical specifications and market potential for silicon carbide whisker-reinforced alumina (henceforth SCWRA) tubes for heat exchanger applications in a number of industries. The results of the first stage of a Delphi study conducted in the US market are presented. The second phase of the study is in progress. The first stage results suggest that there is a small market for SCWRA tubes in heat exchanger applications. The market is expected to grow steadily during the 1990`s. With appropriate performance specifications and competitive pricing, growth should come from (a) new applications that permit recovery in cases that were previously infeasible and (b) selective, partial substitution and replacement of current ceramics and metal/ceramic composites in existing applications. We identify key performance factors and detailed specifications needed in six designated industries (primary metals, fabricated metals, chemicals, glass, utility and incinerators). Reliability, durability and low maintenance costs emerge as critical performance factors across these industries. The data show that although ceramics are recognized as having better properties, enhancing reliability and durability and thus improving maintenance cost performance is a key priority. Such improvements, reflected in the objectives for SCWRA tubes, should facilitate adoption in both new and existing applications. At this time, we are unable to assess market size directly. However, expert judgment provided indices tracking the projected market for heat exchanger tubes from 1990 to 2005.

  4. Measurement of bonding energy in an anhydrous nitrogen atmosphere and its application to silicon direct bonding technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournel, F.; Continni, L.; Morales, C.; Da Fonseca, J.; Moriceau, H.; Rieutord, F.; Barthelemy, A.; Radu, I.

    2012-05-01

    Bonding energy represents an important parameter for direct bonding applications as well as for the elaboration of physical mechanisms at bonding interfaces. Measurement of bonding energy using double cantilever beam (DCB) under prescribed displacement is the most used technique thanks to its simplicity. The measurements are typically done in standard atmosphere with relative humidity above 30%. Therefore, the obtained bonding energies are strongly impacted by the water stress corrosion at the bonding interfaces. This paper presents measurements of bonding energies of directly bonded silicon wafers under anhydrous nitrogen conditions in order to prevent the water stress corrosion effect. It is shown that the measurements under anhydrous nitrogen conditions (less than 0.2 ppm of water in nitrogen) lead to high stable debonding lengths under static load and to higher bonding energies compared to the values measured under standard ambient conditions. Moreover, the bonding energies of Si/SiO2 or SiO2/SiO2 bonding interfaces are measured overall the classical post bond annealing temperature range. These new results allow to revisit the reported bonding mechanisms and to highlight physical and chemical phenomena in the absence of stress corrosion effect.

  5. Monolithic integration of erbium-doped amplifiers with silicon-on-insulator waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agazzi, Laura; Bradley, Jonathan D B; Dijkstra, Meindert; Ay, Feridun; Roelkens, Gunther; Baets, Roel; Wörhoff, Kerstin; Pollnau, Markus

    2010-12-20

    Monolithic integration of Al2O3:Er3+ amplifier technology with passive silicon-on-insulator waveguides is demonstrated. A signal enhancement of >7 dB at 1533 nm wavelength is obtained. The straightforward wafer-scale fabrication process, which includes reactive co-sputtering and subsequent reactive ion etching, allows for parallel integration of multiple amplifier and laser sections with silicon or other photonic circuits on a chip.

  6. Characterization of Silicon Carbide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The various electrical and structural measurement techniques for silicon carbide are described. The electrical measurements include conductivity, resistivity, carrier concentration, mobility, doping energy levels, and lifetime. The structural measurements include polytype determination and crystalline perfection. Both bulk and epitaxial films are included.

  7. Comparison of a 'freeze-all' strategy including GnRH agonist trigger versus a 'fresh transfer' strategy including hCG trigger in assisted reproductive technology (ART): a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormlund, Sacha; Løssl, Kristine; Zedeler, Anne; Bogstad, Jeanette; Prætorius, Lisbeth; Nielsen, Henriette Svarre; Bungum, Mona; Skouby, Sven O; Mikkelsen, Anne Lis; Andersen, Anders Nyboe; Bergh, Christina; Humaidan, Peter; Pinborg, Anja

    2017-07-31

    Pregnancy rates after frozen embryo transfer (FET) have improved in recent years and are now approaching or even exceeding those obtained after fresh embryo transfer. This is partly due to improved laboratory techniques, but may also be caused by a more physiological hormonal and endometrial environment in FET cycles. Furthermore, the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome is practically eliminated in segmentation cycles followed by FET and the use of natural cycles in FETs may be beneficial for the postimplantational conditions of fetal development. However, a freeze-all strategy is not yet implemented as standard care due to limitations of large randomised trials showing a benefit of such a strategy. Thus, there is a need to test the concept against standard care in a randomised controlled design. This study aims to compare ongoing pregnancy and live birth rates between a freeze-all strategy with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist triggering versus human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) trigger and fresh embryo transfer in a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Multicentre randomised, controlled, double-blinded trial of women undergoing assisted reproductive technology treatment including 424 normo-ovulatory women aged 18-39 years from Denmark and Sweden. Participants will be randomised (1:1) to either (1) GnRH agonist trigger and single vitrified-warmed blastocyst transfer in a subsequent hCG triggered natural menstrual cycle or (2) hCG trigger and single blastocyst transfer in the fresh (stimulated) cycle. The primary endpoint is to compare ongoing pregnancy rates per randomised patient in the two treatment groups after the first single blastocyst transfer. The study will be performed in accordance with the ethical principles in the Helsinki Declaration. The study is approved by the Scientific Ethical Committees in Denmark and Sweden. The results of the study will be publically disseminated. NCT02746562; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their

  8. Silicon for prevention, cure and care: A technology toolbox of wearables at the dawn of a new health system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoof, C. van; Brand, J. van den; Smet, J. de; Grieten, L.; De Francisco, R.

    2016-01-01

    Our increasing life expectancy also implies that many of us will be suffering from one or more chronic illnesses during a larger part of our lives. Medical-grade wearables have the grand promise and the largely untapped potential to become a cornerstone technology in the care cycle. For chronic pati

  9. Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,…

  10. Silicon Photonics Cloud (SiCloud)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DeVore, P. T. S.; Jiang, Y.; Lynch, M.;

    2015-01-01

    Silicon Photonics Cloud (SiCloud.org) is the first silicon photonics interactive web tool. Here we report new features of this tool including mode propagation parameters and mode distribution galleries for user specified waveguide dimensions and wavelengths.......Silicon Photonics Cloud (SiCloud.org) is the first silicon photonics interactive web tool. Here we report new features of this tool including mode propagation parameters and mode distribution galleries for user specified waveguide dimensions and wavelengths....

  11. Deposited low temperature silicon GHz modulator

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Yoon Ho Daniel; Lipson, Michal

    2013-01-01

    The majority of silicon photonics is built on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers while the majority of electronics, including CPUs and memory, are built on bulk silicon wafers, limiting broader acceptance of silicon photonics. This discrepancy is a result of silicon photonics's requirement for a single-crystalline silicon (c-Si) layer and a thick undercladding for optical guiding that bulk silicon wafers to not provide. While the undercladding problem can be partially addressed by substrate removal techniques, the complexity of co-integrating photonics with state-of-the-art transistors and real estate competition between electronics and photonics remain problematic. We show here a platform for deposited GHz silicon photonics based on polycrystalline silicon with high optical quality suitable for high performance electro-optic devices. We demonstrate 3 Gbps polysilicon electro-optic modulator fabricated on a deposited polysilicon layer fully compatible with CMOS backend integration. These results open up an arr...

  12. Hybrid Integrated Platforms for Silicon Photonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Bowers

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A review of recent progress in hybrid integrated platforms for silicon photonics is presented. Integration of III-V semiconductors onto silicon-on-insulator substrates based on two different bonding techniques is compared, one comprising only inorganic materials, the other technique using an organic bonding agent. Issues such as bonding process and mechanism, bonding strength, uniformity, wafer surface requirement, and stress distribution are studied in detail. The application in silicon photonics to realize high-performance active and passive photonic devices on low-cost silicon wafers is discussed. Hybrid integration is believed to be a promising technology in a variety of applications of silicon photonics.

  13. Method For Producing Mechanically Flexible Silicon Substrate

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2014-08-28

    A method for making a mechanically flexible silicon substrate is disclosed. In one embodiment, the method includes providing a silicon substrate. The method further includes forming a first etch stop layer in the silicon substrate and forming a second etch stop layer in the silicon substrate. The method also includes forming one or more trenches over the first etch stop layer and the second etch stop layer. The method further includes removing the silicon substrate between the first etch stop layer and the second etch stop layer.

  14. Technology computer aided design of 29.5% efficient perovskite/interdigitated back contact silicon heterojunction mechanically stacked tandem solar cell for energy-efficient applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Rahul; Chaujar, Rishu

    2017-04-01

    A 29.5% efficient perovskite/SiC passivated interdigitated back contact silicon heterojunction (IBC-SiHJ) mechanically stacked tandem solar cell device has been designed and simulated. This is a substantial improvement of 40% and 15%, respectively, compared to the transparent perovskite solar cell (21.1%) and Si solar cell (25.6%) operated individually. The perovskite solar cell has been used as a top subcell, whereas 250- and 25-μm-thick IBC-SiHJ solar cells have been used as bottom subcells. The realistic technology computer aided design analysis has been performed to understand the physical processes in the device and to make reliable predictions of the behavior. The performance of the top subcell has been obtained for different acceptor densities and hole mobility in Spiro-MeOTAD along with the impact of counter electrode work function. To incorporate the effect of material quality, the influence of carrier lifetimes has also been studied for perovskite top and IBC-SiHJ bottom subcells. The optical and electrical behavior of the devices has been obtained for both standalone as well as tandem configuration. Results reported in this study reveal that the proposed four-terminal tandem device may open a new door for cost-effective and energy-efficient applications.

  15. Update on scribe–cleave–passivate (SCP) slim edge technology for silicon sensors: Automated processing and radiation resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadeyev, V., E-mail: fadeyev@ucsc.edu [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Ely, S.; Galloway, Z.; Ngo, J.; Parker, C.; Sadrozinski, H.F.-W. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Christophersen, M.; Phlips, B.F. [U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Code 7654, 4555 Overlook Avenue, Southwest Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Pellegrini, G.; Rafi, J.M.; Quirion, D. [Instituto de Microelectrónica de Barcelona, IMB-CNM-CSIC, Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Dalla Betta, G.-F. [INFN and University of Trento, Via Sommarive, 14, 38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); Boscardin, M. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Via Sommarive, 18, 38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); Casse, G. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, O. Lodge Laboratory, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Gorelov, I.; Hoeferkamp, M.; Metcalfe, J.; Seidel, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, MSC 07 4220, 1919 Lomas Boulevard NE, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Gaubas, E.; Ceponis, T. [Institute of Applied Research, Vilnius University, Sauletekio 9, LT-10222 Vilnius (Lithuania); and others

    2014-11-21

    We pursue scribe–cleave–passivate (SCP) technology for making “slim edge” sensors. The goal is to reduce the inactive region at the periphery of the devices while maintaining their performance. In this paper we report on two aspects of the current efforts. The first one involves fabrication options for mass production. We describe the automated cleaving tests and a simplified version of SCP post-processing of n-type devices. Another aspect is the radiation resistance of the passivation. We report on the radiation tests of n- and p-type devices with protons and neutrons.

  16. Photovoltaic technology assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    After a brief review of the history of photovoltaic devices and a discussion of the cost goals set for photovoltaic modules, the status of photovoltaic technology is assessed. Included are discussions of: current applications, present industrial production, low-cost silicon production techniques, energy payback periods for solar cells, advanced materials research and development, concentrator systems, balance-of-system components. Also discussed are some nontechnical aspects, including foreign markets, US government program approach, and industry attitudes and approaches. (LEW)

  17. Silicon space solar cells: progression and radiation-resistance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Atteq ur; Lee, Sang Hee; Lee, Soo Hong

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, an overview of the solar cell technology based on silicon for applications in space is presented. First, the space environment and its effects on the basis of satellite orbits, such as geostationary earth orbit (GEO) and low earth orbit (LEO), are described. The space solar cell technology based on silicon-based materials, including thin-film silicon solar cells, for use in space was appraised. The evolution of the design for silicon solar cell for use in space, such as a backsurface field (BSF), selective doping, and both-side passivation, etc., is illustrated. This paper also describes the nature of radiation-induced defects and the models proposed for understanding the output power degradation in silicon space solar cells. The phenomenon of an anomalous increase in the short-circuit current ( I sc) in the fluence irradiation range from 2 × 1016 cm-2 to 5 × 1016 cm-2 is also described explicitly from the view point of the various presented models.

  18. Polycrystalline Silicon Sheets for Solar Cells by the Improved Spinning Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Y.; Yokoyama, T.; Hide, I.

    1984-01-01

    Cost reduction of silicon materials in the photovoltaic program of materials was examined. The current process of producing silicon sheets is based entirely on the conventional Czochralski ingot growth and wafering used in the semiconductor industry. The current technology cannot meet the cost reduction demands for producing low cost silicon sheets. Alternative sheet production processes such as unconventional crystallization are needed. The production of polycrystalline silicon sheets by unconventional ingot technology is the casting technique. Though large grain sheets were obtained by this technique, silicon ribbon growth overcomes deficiencies of the casting process by obtaining the sheet directly from the melt. The need to solve difficulties of growth stability and impurity effects are examined. The direct formation process of polycrystalline silicon sheets with large grain size, smooth surface, and sharp edges from the melt with a high growth rate which will yield low cost silicon sheets for solar cells and the photovoltaic characteristics associated with this type of sheet to include an EBIC study of the grain boundaries are described.

  19. Process feasibility study in support of silicon material Task I. Final report, October 1, 1975-February 6, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaws, C.L.; Li, K.Y.; Hopper, J.R.; Fang, C.S.; Hansen, K.C.

    1981-02-06

    The Low-Cost Solar Array (LSA) Project is directed toward effective cost reduction in the production of silicon for solar cells. Results are presented for process system properties, chemical engineering and economic analyses of the new technologies and processes being developed for the production of lower cost silicon for solar cells. Major physical, thermodynamic and transport property data are reported for the following silicon source and processing chemical materials: silane, silicon tetrachloride, trichlorosilane, dichlorosilane, silicon tetrafluoride, and silicon. The property data are reported for critical temperature, critical pressure, critical volume, vapor pressure, heat of vaporization, heat capacity, density, surface tension, viscosity, thermal conductivity, heat of formation and Gibb's free energy of formation. Chemical engineering analyses involving the preliminary process design of a plant (1000 MT/yr capacity) to produce silicon via the technology under consideration were accomplished for the following processes: UCC silane process for silicon, BCL process for silicon, conventional polysilicon process (Siemens technology), SiI/sub 4/ decomposition process, and DCS process (dichlorosilane).Major activities in chemical engineering analyses include base case conditions, reaction chemistry, process flowsheet, material balance, energy balance, property data, equipment design, major equipment list, production labor and forward for economic analysis. The process design package provides detailed data for raw materials, utilities, major process equipment and production labor requirements necessary for polysilicon production in each process. Using detailed data from the process design package, economic analyses for a 1000 MT/yr silicon plant were accomplished. Primary results from the economic analyses included plant capital investment and product cost. Results are presented and discussed. (WHK)

  20. Silicon nanocrystal inks, films, and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, Lance Michael; Kortshagen, Uwe Richard

    2015-09-01

    Silicon nanocrystal inks and films, and methods of making and using silicon nanocrystal inks and films, are disclosed herein. In certain embodiments the nanocrystal inks and films include halide-terminated (e.g., chloride-terminated) and/or halide and hydrogen-terminated nanocrystals of silicon or alloys thereof. Silicon nanocrystal inks and films can be used, for example, to prepare semiconductor devices.

  1. Semiconducting silicon nanowires for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Coffer, JL

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical applications have benefited greatly from the increasing interest and research into semiconducting silicon nanowires. Semiconducting Silicon Nanowires for Biomedical Applications reviews the fabrication, properties, and applications of this emerging material. The book begins by reviewing the basics, as well as the growth, characterization, biocompatibility, and surface modification, of semiconducting silicon nanowires. It goes on to focus on silicon nanowires for tissue engineering and delivery applications, including cellular binding and internalization, orthopedic tissue scaffol

  2. Silicon photonics: Design, fabrication, and characterization of on-chip optical interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, I.-Wei

    devices are quite different from those of electronic devices. Minimizing propagation losses by reducing sidewall roughness to nanometer scale over a device length of several millimeters or even centimeters has prompted researchers in academia and industry to refine the fabrication process. Chapter 3 of this thesis summarizes our efforts in fabricating silicon photonic devices using standard CMOS technology. Chapter 4 describes the characterization of nonlinear effects, including self-phase modulation (SPM), cross-phase modulation (XPM), and supercontinuum generation in silicon-wire waveguides. Silicon-wire waveguides are strip waveguides with submicron transverse dimensions, which allow strong light confinement inside the silicon core. This strong optical confinement, in addition to the large third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility of crystalline silicon, leads to a net nonlinearity which is several orders of magnitude higher than the nonlinearity of silica fiber. Significant nonlinear effects can be observed and characterized over a device length of only several millimeters in silicon wires with very small input power. These effects provide opportunities for engineers to design active silicon photonic devices which are compact and energy-efficient. Chapter 5 presents a realization of an integrated SOI optical isolator, which is a critical yet often overlooked component in photonic integrated circuits. This study shows the feasibility to make a hybrid garnet/SOI active device with very promising results. Finally, Chapter 6 summarizes our demonstration of transmitting terabit-scale data streams in silicon-wire waveguides, which is an important first-step towards enabling intra-chip interconnection networks with ultra-high bandwidths. Although the scope of this thesis is limited to providing only fractional views of the whole silicon photonics area, it provides enough references for interested readers to conduct further literature research in other aspects of silicon

  3. Design and properties of silicon charged-particle detectors developed at the Institute of Electron Technology (ITE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegrzecki, Maciej; Bar, Jan; Budzyński, Tadeusz; CieŻ, Michal; Grabiec, Piotr; Kozłowski, Roman; Kulawik, Jan; Panas, Andrzej; Sarnecki, Jerzy; Słysz, Wojciech; Szmigiel, Dariusz; Wegrzecka, Iwona; Wielunski, Marek; Witek, Krzysztof; Yakushev, Alexander; Zaborowski, Michał

    2013-07-01

    The paper discusses the design of charged-particle detectors commissioned and developed at the Institute of Electron Technology (ITE) in collaboration with foreign partners, used in international research on transactinide elements and to build personal radiation protection devices in Germany. Properties of these detectors and the results obtained using the devices are also presented. The design of the following epiplanar detector structures is discussed: ♢ 64-element chromatographic arrays for the COMPACT (Cryo On-line Multidetector for Physics And Chemistry of Transactinides) detection system used at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt (GSI) for research on Hassium, Copernicium and Flerovium, as well as elements 119 and 120, ♢ 2-element flow detectors for the COLD (Cryo On-Line Detector) system used for research on Copernicium and Flerovium at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, ♢ detectors for a radon exposimeter and sensors for a neutron dosimeter developed at the Institut für Strahlenschutz, Helmholtz Zentrum München. The design of planar detectors - single-sided and double-sided strip detectors for the Focal Plane Detector Box used at GSI for research on Flerovium and elements 119 and 120 is also discussed.

  4. Cast polycrystalline silicon photovoltaic module manufacturing technology improvements. Annual subcontract report, 1 January 1996--31 December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlgemuth, J. [Solarex Corp., Frederick, MD (United States)

    1997-10-01

    This report describes Solarex`s accomplishments during this phase of the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) program. During this reporting period, Solarex researchers converted 79% of production casting stations to increase ingot size and operated them at equivalent yields and cell efficiencies; doubled the casting capacity at 20% the cost of buying new equipment to achieve the same capacity increase; operated the wire saws in a production mode with higher yields and lower costs than achieved on the ID saws; purchased additional wire saws; developed and qualified a new wire-guide coating material that doubles the wire-guide lifetime and produces significantly less scatter in wafer thickness; ran an Al paste back-surface-field process on 25% of all cells in manufacturing; completed environmental qualification of modules using cells produced by an all-print metallization process; qualified a vendor-supplied Tedlar/ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) laminate to replace the combination of separate sheets of EVA and Tedlar backsheet; substituted RTV adhesive for the 3M Very High Bond tape after several field problems with the tape; demonstrated the operation of a prototype unit to trim/lead attach/test modules; demonstrated the use of light soldering for solar cells; demonstrated the operation of a wafer pull-down system for cassetting wet wafers; and presented three PVMaT-related papers at the 25th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference.

  5. Exploration of an Optimal Policy for Water Resources Management Including the Introduction of Advanced Sewage Treatment Technologies in Zaozhuang City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gengyu He

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Water shortage and water pollution are important factors restricting sustainable social and economic development. As a typical coal resource-exhausted city and a node city of the South-to-North Water Transfer East Route Project in China, Zaozhuang City’s water resources management faces multiple constraints such as transformation of economic development, restriction of groundwater exploitation, and improvement of water environment. In this paper, we develop a linear optimization model by input–output analysis to study water resources management with the introduction of three advanced sewage treatment technologies for pollutant treatment and reclaimed water production. The simulation results showed that from 2014 to 2020, Zaozhuang City will realize an annual GDP growth rate of 7.1% with an annual chemical oxygen demand (COD emissions reduction rate of 5.5%. The proportion of primary industry, secondary industry, and tertiary industry would be adjusted to 5.6%, 40.8%, and 53.6%, respectively. The amount of reclaimed water supply could be increased by 91% and groundwater supply could be decreased by 6%. Based on the simulation, this model proposes a scientific reference on water resources management policies, including water environment control, water supply plan, and financial subsidy, to realize the sustainable development of economy and water resources usage.

  6. Plasma deposition of amorphous silicon-based materials

    CERN Document Server

    Bruno, Giovanni; Madan, Arun

    1995-01-01

    Semiconductors made from amorphous silicon have recently become important for their commercial applications in optical and electronic devices including FAX machines, solar cells, and liquid crystal displays. Plasma Deposition of Amorphous Silicon-Based Materials is a timely, comprehensive reference book written by leading authorities in the field. This volume links the fundamental growth kinetics involving complex plasma chemistry with the resulting semiconductor film properties and the subsequent effect on the performance of the electronic devices produced. Key Features * Focuses on the plasma chemistry of amorphous silicon-based materials * Links fundamental growth kinetics with the resulting semiconductor film properties and performance of electronic devices produced * Features an international group of contributors * Provides the first comprehensive coverage of the subject, from deposition technology to materials characterization to applications and implementation in state-of-the-art devices.

  7. LHCb: Installation and operation of the LHCb Silicon Tracker detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Esperante Pereira, D

    2009-01-01

    The LHCb experiment has been designed to perform high-precision measurements of CP violation and rare decays of B hadrons. The construction and installation phases of the Silicon Tracker (ST) of the experiment were completed by early summer 2008. The LHCb Silicon Tracker sums up to a total sensitive area of about 12 m^2 using silicon micro-strip technology and withstands charged particle fluxes of up to 5 x 10^5cm^−2s^−1. We will report on the preparation of the detectors for the first LHC beams. Selected results from the commissioning in LHCb are shown, including the first beam-related events accumulated during LHC injection tests in September 2008. Lessons are drawn from the experience gathered during the installation and commissioning.

  8. A Case for Adapting and Applying Continuance Theory to Education: Understanding the Role of Student Feedback in Motivating Teachers to Persist with Including Digital Technologies in Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Noeline

    2015-01-01

    In New Zealand schools, the adoption and persistent use of digital tools to aid learning is a growing but uneven, trend, often linked to the practices of early adopters and/or robust wifi infrastructure. The Technology Adoption Model is used internationally to gauge levels of uptake of technological tools, particularly in commerce and also in…

  9. CMOS-compatible fabrication, micromachining, and bonding strategies for silicon photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, John; Jones, Richard; Paniccia, Mario J.

    2011-02-01

    The adoption of optical technologies by high-volume consumer markets is severely limited by the cost and complexity of manufacturing complete optical transceiver systems. This is in large part because "boutique" semiconductor fabrication processes are required for III-V lasers, modulators, and photodetectors; furthermore, precision bonding and painstaking assembly are needed to integrate or assemble such dissimilar devices and materials together. On the other hand, 200mm and 300mm silicon process technology has been bringing ever-increasing computing power to the masses by relentless cost reduction for several decades. Intel's silicon photonics program aims to marry this CMOS infrastructure and recent developments in MEMS manufacturing with the burgeoning field of microphotonics to make low cost, high-speed optical links ubiquitous. In this paper, we will provide an overview of several aspects of silicon photonics technology development in a CMOS fabrication line. First, we will describe fabrication strategies from the MEMS industry for micromachining silicon to create passive optical devices such as mirrors, waveguides, and facets, as well as alignment features. Second, we will discuss some of the challenges of fabricating hybrid III-V lasers on silicon, including such aspects as hybrid integration of InP-based materials with silicon using various bonding methods, etching of InP films, and contact formation using CMOS-compatible metals.

  10. The STAR silicon vertex tracker: a large area silicon drift detector

    CERN Document Server

    Lynn, D; Beuttenmüller, Rolf H; Caines, H; Chen, W; Dimassimo, D; Dyke, H; Elliot, D; Eremin, V; Grau, M; Hoffmann, G W; Humanic, T; Ilyashenko, Yu S; Kotov, I; Kraner, H W; Kuczewski, P; Leonhardt, B; Li, Z; Liaw, C J; Lo Curto, G; Middelkamp, P; Minor, R; Munhoz, M; Ott, G; Pandey, S U; Pruneau, C A; Rykov, V L; Schambach, J; Sedlmeir, J; Soja, B; Sugarbaker, E R; Takahashi, J; Wilson, K; Wilson, R

    2000-01-01

    The Solenoidal Tracker At RHIC-Silicon Vertex Tracker (STAR-SVT) is a three barrel microvertex detector based upon silicon drift detector technology. As designed for the STAR-SVT, silicon drift detectors (SDDs) are capable of providing unambiguous two-dimensional hit position measurements with resolutions on the order of 20 mu m in each coordinate. Achievement of such resolutions, particularly in the drift direction coordinate, depends upon certain characteristics of silicon and drift detector geometry that are uniquely critical for silicon drift detectors hit measurements. Here we describe features of the design of the STAR-SVT SDDs and the front-end electronics that are motivated by such characteristics.

  11. Silicon Valley Lifestyle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joseph Leu

    2005-01-01

    @@ As we embrace the rapid developments of the new media age,competitiveness in the field of internet and computer technology is an increasingly crucial factor in stimulating new business,jobs and new industry in the region.Accelerating advancements in new media,internet,software and computer technologies offer new commercial opportunities and sources of economic revenue. Silicon Valley has been a model of the new age since its existence.While the dream place not only has a unique business model,but also has a very special lifestyle.

  12. Silicon containing copolymers

    CERN Document Server

    Amiri, Sahar; Amiri, Sanam

    2014-01-01

    Silicones have unique properties including thermal oxidative stability, low temperature flow, high compressibility, low surface tension, hydrophobicity and electric properties. These special properties have encouraged the exploration of alternative synthetic routes of well defined controlled microstructures of silicone copolymers, the subject of this Springer Brief. The authors explore the synthesis and characterization of notable block copolymers. Recent advances in controlled radical polymerization techniques leading to the facile synthesis of well-defined silicon based thermo reversible block copolymers?are described along with atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), a technique utilized to develop well-defined functional thermo reversible block copolymers. The brief also focuses on Polyrotaxanes and their great potential as stimulus-responsive materials which produce poly (dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) based thermo reversible block copolymers.

  13. Flexible Thermoelectric Generators on Silicon Fabric

    KAUST Repository

    Sevilla, Galo T.

    2012-11-01

    In this work, the development of a Thermoelectric Generator on Flexible Silicon Fabric is explored to extend silicon electronics for flexible platforms. Low cost, easily deployable plastic based flexible electronics are of great interest for smart textile, wearable electronics and many other exciting applications. However, low thermal budget processing and fundamentally limited electron mobility hinders its potential to be competitive with well established and highly developed silicon technology. The use of silicon in flexible electronics involve expensive and abrasive materials and processes. In this work, high performance flexible thermoelectric energy harvesters are demonstrated from low cost bulk silicon (100) wafers. The fabrication of the micro- harvesters was done using existing silicon processes on silicon (100) and then peeled them off from the original substrate leaving it for reuse. Peeled off silicon has 3.6% thickness of bulk silicon reducing the thermal loss significantly and generating nearly 30% more output power than unpeeled harvesters. The demonstrated generic batch processing shows a pragmatic way of peeling off a whole silicon circuitry after conventional fabrication on bulk silicon wafers for extremely deformable high performance integrated electronics. In summary, by using a novel, low cost process, this work has successfully integrated existing and highly developed fabrication techniques to introduce a flexible energy harvester for sustainable applications.

  14. Silicon spintronics with ferromagnetic tunnel devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, R.; Dash, S. P.; Sharma, S.; Min, B. C.

    In silicon spintronics, the unique qualities of ferromagnetic materials are combined with those of silicon, aiming at creating an alternative, energy-efficient information technology in which digital data are represented by the orientation of the electron spin. Here we review the cornerstones of

  15. Silicon spintronics with ferromagnetic tunnel devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, R.; Dash, S. P.; Sharma, S.; Min, B. C.

    2012-01-01

    In silicon spintronics, the unique qualities of ferromagnetic materials are combined with those of silicon, aiming at creating an alternative, energy-efficient information technology in which digital data are represented by the orientation of the electron spin. Here we review the cornerstones of sil

  16. Synthesis of Silicon Nanocrystals in Microplasma Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Tomohiro; Sasaki, Kenji; Ogino, Tomohisa; Asahi, Daisuke; Okazaki, Ken

    Nanocrystalline silicon particles with a grain size of at least less than 10 nm are widely recognized as one of the key materials in optoelectronic devices, electrodes of lithium battery, bio-medical labels. There is also important character that silicon is safe material to the environment and easily gets involved in existing silicon technologies. To date, several synthesis methods such as sputtering, laser ablation, and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) based on low-pressure silane chemistry (SiH4) have been developed for precise control of size and density distributions of silicon nanocrystals. We explore the possibility of microplasma technologies for the efficient production of mono-dispersed nanocrystalline silicon particles in a micrometer-scale, continuous-flow plasma reactor operated at atmospheric pressure. Mixtures of argon, hydrogen, and silicon tetrachloride were activated using very high frequency (VHF = 144 MHz) power source in a capillary glass tube with a volume of less than 1 μ-liter. Fundamental plasma parameters of VHF capacitively coupled microplasma were characterized by optical emission spectroscopy, showing electron density of approximately 1015 cm-3 and rotational temperature of 1500 K, respectively. Such high-density non-thermal reactive plasma has a capability of decomposing silicon tetrachloride into atomic silicon to produce supersaturated atomic silicon vapor, followed by gas phase nucleation via three-body collision. The particle synthesis in high-density plasma media is beneficial for promoting nucleation process. In addition, further growth of silicon nuclei was able to be favorably terminated in a short-residence time reactor. Micro Raman scattering spectrum showed that as-deposited particles were mostly amorphous silicon with small fraction of silicon nanocrystals. Transmission electron micrograph confirmed individual silicon nanocrystals of 3-15 nm size. Although those particles were not mono-dispersed, they were

  17. Silicon Nanocrystal Synthesis in Microplasma Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Tomohiro; Sasaki, Kenji; Ogino, Tomohisa; Asahi, Daisuke; Okazaki, Ken

    Nanocrystalline silicon particles with grains smaller than 5 nm are widely recognized as a key material in optoelectronic devices, lithium battery electrodes, and bio-medical labels. Another important characteristic is that silicon is an environmentally safe material that is used in numerous silicon technologies. To date, several synthesis methods such as sputtering, laser ablation, and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) based on low-pressure silane chemistry (SiH4) have been developed for precise control of size and density distributions of silicon nanocrystals. In this study, we explore the possibility of microplasma technologies for efficient production of mono-dispersed nanocrystalline silicon particles on a micrometer-scale, continuous-flow plasma reactor operated at atmospheric pressure. Mixtures of argon, hydrogen, and silicon tetrachloride were activated using a very-high-frequency (144 MHz) power source in a capillary glass tube with volume of less than 1 μl. Fundamental plasma parameters of the microplasma were characterized using optical emission spectroscopy, which respectively indicated electron density of 1015 cm-3, argon excitation temperature of 5000 K, and rotational temperature of 1500 K. Such high-density non-thermal reactive plasma can decompose silicon tetrachloride into atomic silicon to produce supersaturated silicon vapor, followed by gas-phase nucleation via three-body collision: particle synthesis in high-density plasma media is beneficial for promoting nucleation processes. In addition, further growth of silicon nuclei can be terminated in a short-residence-time reactor. Micro-Raman scattering spectra showed that as-deposited particles are mostly amorphous silicon with a small fraction of silicon nanocrystals. Transmission electron micrography confirmed individual 3-15 nm silicon nanocrystals. Although particles were not mono-dispersed, they were well separated and not coagulated.

  18. Silicon photonics manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zortman, William A; Trotter, Douglas C; Watts, Michael R

    2010-11-08

    Most demonstrations in silicon photonics are done with single devices that are targeted for use in future systems. One of the costs of operating multiple devices concurrently on a chip in a system application is the power needed to properly space resonant device frequencies on a system's frequency grid. We asses this power requirement by quantifying the source and impact of process induced resonant frequency variation for microdisk resonators across individual die, entire wafers and wafer lots for separate process runs. Additionally we introduce a new technique, utilizing the Transverse Electric (TE) and Transverse Magnetic (TM) modes in microdisks, to extract thickness and width variations across wafers and dice. Through our analysis we find that a standard six inch Silicon on Insulator (SOI) 0.35 μm process controls microdisk resonant frequencies for the TE fundamental resonances to within 1 THz across a wafer and 105 GHz within a single die. Based on demonstrated thermal tuner technology, a stable manufacturing process exhibiting this level of variation can limit the resonance trimming power per resonant device to 231 μW. Taken in conjunction with the power to compensate for thermal environmental variations, the expected power requirement to compensate for fabrication-induced non-uniformities is 17% of that total. This leads to the prediction that thermal tuning efficiency is likely to have the most dominant impact on the overall power budget of silicon photonics resonator technology.

  19. Mid-IR heterogeneous silicon photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelkens, Gunther; Dave, Utsav; Gassenq, Alban; Hattasan, Nannicha; Hu, Chen; Kuyken, Bart; Leo, Francois; Malik, Aditya; Muneeb, Muhammad; Ryckeboer, Eva; Uvin, Sarah; Hens, Zeger; Baets, Roel G.; Shimura, Yosuke; Gencarelli, Federica; Vincent, Benjamin; Loo, Roger; Van Campenhout, Joris; Cerutti, Laurent; Rodriguez, Jean-Baptiste; Tournié, Eric; Chen, Xia; Nedeljkovic, Milos; Mashanovich, Goran Z.; Shen, Li; Healy, Noel; Peacock, Anna C.; Liu, Xiaoping; Osgood, Richard M.; Green, William

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we discuss silicon-based photonic integrated circuit technology for applications beyond the telecommunication wavelength range. Silicon-on-insulator and germanium-on-silicon passive waveguide circuits are described, as well as the integration of III-V semiconductors, IV-VI colloidal nanoparticle films and GeSn alloys on these circuits for increasing the functionality. The strong nonlinearity of silicon combined with the low nonlinear absorption in the mid-infrared is exploited to generate picosecond pulse based supercontinuum sources and optical parametric oscillators that can be used as spectroscopic sensor sources.

  20. Superhydrophobic Porous Silicon Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo NENZI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an inexpensive technique to produce superhydrophobic surfaces from porous silicon. Superhydrophobic surfaces are a key technology for their ability to reduce friction losses in microchannels and their self cleaning properties. The morphology of a p-type silicon wafer is modified by a electrochemical wet etch to produce pores with controlled size and distribution and coated with a silane hydrophobic layer. Surface morphology is characterized by means of scanning electron microscope images. Large contact angles are observed on such surfaces and the results are compared with classical wetting models (Cassie and Wenzel suggesting a mixed Wenzel-Cassie behavior. The presented technique represents a cost-effective means for friction reduction in microfluidic applications, such as lab-on-a-chip.

  1. Silicon Carbide Corrugated Mirrors for Space Telescopes Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Trex Enterprises Corporation (Trex) proposes technology development to manufacture monolithic, lightweight silicon carbide corrugated mirrors (SCCM) suitable for...

  2. Monocrystalline silicon used for integrated circuits: still on the way

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-he CHEN; De-ren YANG; Duan-lin QUE

    2008-01-01

    With the rapid development of semiconductor technology, highly integrated circuits (ICs) and future nano-scale devices require large diameter and defect-free monocrystalline silicon wafers. The ongoing innovation from silicon materials is one of the driving forces in future micro and nano-technologies. In this work, the recent developments in the controlling of large diameter silicon crystal growth processes, the improvement of material features by co-doping with the intend-introduced impur-ities, and the progress of defect engineered silicon wafers (epitaxial silicon wafer, strained silicon, silicon on insu-lator) are reviewed. It is proposed that the silicon man-ufacturing infrastructure could still meet the increasingly stringent requirements arising from ULSI circuits and will expand Moore's law into a couple of decades.

  3. Low power silicon-based thermal sensors and actuators for chemical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vereshchagina, Elizaveta

    2011-01-01

    In the Hot Silicon project low and ultra-low-power Si-based hot surface devices have been developed, i.e. thermal sensors and actuators, for application in catalytic gas micro sensors, micro- and nano- calorimeters. This work include several scientific and technological aspects: • Design and fabrica

  4. Lithographically patterned silicon nanostructures on silicon substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Megouda, Nacera [Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire (IRI, USR 3078), Universite Lille1, Parc de la Haute Borne, 50 Avenue de Halley-BP 70478, 59658 Villeneuve d' Ascq and Institut d' Electronique, de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN, CNRS-8520), Cite Scientifique, Avenue Poincare-B.P. 60069, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Faculte des Sciences, Universite Mouloud Mammeri, Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria); Unite de Developpement de la Technologie du Silicium (UDTS), 2 Bd. Frantz Fanon, B.P. 140 Alger-7 merveilles, Alger (Algeria); Piret, Gaeelle; Galopin, Elisabeth; Coffinier, Yannick [Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire (IRI, USR 3078), Universite Lille1, Parc de la Haute Borne, 50 Avenue de Halley-BP 70478, 59658 Villeneuve d' Ascq and Institut d' Electronique, de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN, CNRS-8520), Cite Scientifique, Avenue Poincare-B.P. 60069, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Hadjersi, Toufik, E-mail: hadjersi@yahoo.com [Unite de Developpement de la Technologie du Silicium (UDTS), 2 Bd. Frantz Fanon, B.P. 140 Alger-7 merveilles, Alger (Algeria); Elkechai, Omar [Faculte des Sciences, Universite Mouloud Mammeri, Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria); and others

    2012-06-01

    The paper reports on controlled formation of silicon nanostructures patterns by the combination of optical lithography and metal-assisted chemical dissolution of crystalline silicon. First, a 20 nm-thick gold film was deposited onto hydrogen-terminated silicon substrate by thermal evaporation. Gold patterns (50 {mu}m Multiplication-Sign 50 {mu}m spaced by 20 {mu}m) were transferred onto the silicon wafer by means of photolithography. The etching process of crystalline silicon in HF/AgNO{sub 3} aqueous solution was studied as a function of the silicon resistivity, etching time and temperature. Controlled formation of silicon nanowire arrays in the unprotected areas was demonstrated for highly resistive silicon substrate, while silicon etching was observed on both gold protected and unprotected areas for moderately doped silicon. The resulting layers were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  5. A Brief Review of Heavy-Ion Radiation Degradation and Failure of Silicon UMOS Power Transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth F. Galloway

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Silicon VDMOS power MOSFET technology is being supplanted by UMOS (or trench power MOSFET technology. Designers of spaceborne power electronics systems incorporating this newer power MOSFET technology need to be aware of several unique threats that this technology may encounter in space. Space radiation threats to UMOS power devices include vulnerabilities to SEB, SEGR, and microdose. There have been relatively few studies presented or published on the effects of radiation on this device technology. The S-O-A knowledge of UMOS power device degradation and failure under heavy-ion exposure is reviewed.

  6. Technology development of the nano-crystalline silicon thin film materials%纳米晶硅薄膜材料的技术发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴大维; 吴越侠; 唐志斌

    2012-01-01

    The recent development of the nano - crystalline silicon thin film material is reviewed in this paper. Some ideas is proposed to promote advances of the silicon thin film solar cells. In this paper, we make come discussions on the development of silicon thin film solar cells and predict the prospect of latest ones.%本文综述了硅基薄膜材料的发展历程;提出了一些促进硅基薄膜电池技术进步的思路;并对硅 基薄膜电池的发展进行了有益的探讨,对最新的硅基薄膜太阳能电池作了展望.

  7. A Study on the Beta Voltaic Micro -nuclear Battery Based on the Planar Technology Silicon Detector%基于平面工艺硅探测器的β伏打微核能电池

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凯; 何高魁; 黄小健; 刘洋; 孟欣; 郝晓勇

    2011-01-01

    It describes briefly the beta voltaic micro - nuclear battery based on the planar technology silicon detector and radioisotope. Different sensitive area of silicon detectors are used to cooperate with Ni source to buildup of beta voltaic micro - nuclear batteries. The experimental data show that the larger sensitive area the silicon detector has, the higher open circuit voltage it produces, and the open circuit voltage of single cell has reached an excellent result from 0. 15 V to 0. 30V. It is possible to get high output power by series or parallel connecting the beta voltaic micro - nuclear batteries.%简要叙述了利用平面工艺硅探测器和放射性同位素构成的β伏打微核能电池的原理,比较了不同灵敏面积硅探测器对β伏打微核能电池开路电压的影响.实验证明,单个β伏打微核能电池的开路电压可达到0.15V~0.3V,采用串、并联方式可以获得较大的输出功率.

  8. New Perspective of High-Pure Silicon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@The discovery in the middle of 1950s of the semi-con ducting properties of crystalline silicon has led to the impetu ous development of electric power facilities, the sun-power industry, and particularly, the microelectronic industry. The increasing demand for the high-pure silicon requires the production of synthetic crystals. The raw material for the syn thetic crystals, the so-called technical, or metallurgical silicon, is obtained from quartzite and quartz of superior quality by means of carbon-thermal reduction of silicon using an electric arc discharge. The complexity of the technological process, high cost of the related facilities, worsening environmental pollution, and narrow-mindedness of a raw material company are attributed to the rise in price of the final product-silicon plates, resulting in the fall in the production of high-pure silicon, normally used in sun storage batteries.

  9. Silicone:Worries behind Rapid Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Rapid consumption growth Silicone's extensive application scope, sustained production growth and constant technology improvements have benefited from the rapid development of China's economy overall, and particularly the boom in the manufacturing sector.

  10. Technology development for crystalline silicon thin-film solar cells (TEKSI). Final report; Technologieentwicklung fuer kristalline Silizium-Duennschicht-Solarzellen (TEKSI). Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wettling, W.; Hurrle, A.; Bau, S.; Eyer, A.; Haas, F.; Huljic, D.; Kieliba, T.; Lautenschlager, H.; Luedemann, R.; Lutz, F.; Preu, R.; Reber, S.; Rentsch, J.; Schaefer, S.; Schetter, C.; Schillinger, N.; Warta, W.; Zimmermann, W.

    2002-10-01

    The results of a project aimed at the development of crystalline solar wafers are presented. All process stages were reviewed in detail with a view to industrial fabrication. This included also the further development of machinery, e.g. for selective zone melting recrystallisation, CVD silicon deposition, and characterisation of deposited films and solar cells. Not all the envisaged goals were achieved. For example, efficiencies up to 17.6 percent were possible on direct epitactic, highly doped CZ-Si substrates and with a high-efficiency process, but the normal efficiencies of solar cells on SSP or on ceramic substrates were in the range of 8-11 percent. This underlines the need for further research on the development of appropriate substrates with reproducible properties. [German] Im vorliegenden Bericht werden die Ergebnisse eines mehrjaehrigen Projekts zur Entwicklung der kristallinen Silizium-Duennschichtsolarzelle (KSD-Solarzelle) vorgestellt. Die Arbeiten waren eine konsequente Fortsetzung der bereits in einem Vorgaengerprojekt (FKZ 0328986B) bearbeiteten Themen. Alle zur Herstellung solcher Solarzellen noetigen Prozessschritte im Rahmen des am Fraunhofer ISE verfolgten Hochtemperaturpfads wurden detailliert untersucht, insbesondere im Hinblick auf eine industrielle Fertigung. Ein wesentlicher Teil der Arbeiten befasste sich deshalb auch mit der Weiterentwicklung von Geraeten, so z. B. fuer die Zonenschmelzrekristallisation, fuer die Silizumabscheidung mittels CVD-Verfahren und fuer die Charakterisierung abgeschiedener Schichten und Solarzellen. Nicht alle der ehrgeizigen Projektziele konnten erreicht werden. Auf direkt epitaxierten, hochdotierten CZ-Si-Substraten konnten zwar mit einem High-Efficiency-Prozess Wirkungsgrade bis zu 17.6%, mit fertigungsrelevanter Siebdrucktechnologie bis 13% erzielt werden. Die Wirkungsgrade von Solarzellen auf SSP oder auf Keramiksubstraten lagen aber alle im Bereich von 8-11%. Dies zeigt deutlich, dass die Entwicklung

  11. Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we discuss silicon-based photonic integrated circuit technology for applications beyond the telecommunication wavelength range. Silicon-on-insulator and germanium-on-silicon passive waveguide circuits are described, as well as the integration of III-V semiconductors, IV-VI colloidal nanoparticles and GeSn alloys on these circuits for increasing the functionality. The strong nonlinearity of silicon combined with the low nonlinear absorption in the mid-infrared is exploited to gen...

  12. Scaling silicon photonic switch fabrics for data center interconnection networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolova, Dessislava; Rumley, Sébastien; Calhoun, David; Li, Qi; Hendry, Robert; Samadi, Payman; Bergman, Keren

    2015-01-26

    With the rapidly increasing aggregate bandwidth requirements of data centers there is a growing interest in the insertion of optically interconnected networks with high-radix transparent optical switch fabrics. Silicon photonics is a particularly promising and applicable technology due to its small footprint, CMOS compatibility, high bandwidth density, and the potential for nanosecond scale dynamic connectivity. In this paper we analyze the feasibility of building silicon photonic microring based switch fabrics for data center scale optical interconnection networks. We evaluate the scalability of a microring based switch fabric for WDM signals. Critical parameters including crosstalk, insertion loss and switching speed are analyzed, and their sensitivity with respect to device parameters is examined. We show that optimization of physical layer parameters can reduce crosstalk and increase switch fabric scalability. Our analysis indicates that with current state-of-the-art devices, a high radix 128 × 128 silicon photonic single chip switch fabric with tolerable power penalty is feasible. The applicability of silicon photonic microrings for data center switching is further supported via review of microring operations and control demonstrations. The challenges and opportunities for this technology platform are discussed.

  13. Laser wafering for silicon solar.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedmann, Thomas Aquinas; Sweatt, William C.; Jared, Bradley Howell

    2011-03-01

    Current technology cuts solar Si wafers by a wire saw process, resulting in 50% 'kerf' loss when machining silicon from a boule or brick into a wafer. We want to develop a kerf-free laser wafering technology that promises to eliminate such wasteful wire saw processes and achieve up to a ten-fold decrease in the g/W{sub p} (grams/peak watt) polysilicon usage from the starting polysilicon material. Compared to today's technology, this will also reduce costs ({approx}20%), embodied energy, and green-house gas GHG emissions ({approx}50%). We will use short pulse laser illumination sharply focused by a solid immersion lens to produce subsurface damage in silicon such that wafers can be mechanically cleaved from a boule or brick. For this concept to succeed, we will need to develop optics, lasers, cleaving, and high throughput processing technologies capable of producing wafers with thicknesses < 50 {micro}m with high throughput (< 10 sec./wafer). Wafer thickness scaling is the 'Moore's Law' of silicon solar. Our concept will allow solar manufacturers to skip entire generations of scaling and achieve grid parity with commercial electricity rates. Yet, this idea is largely untested and a simple demonstration is needed to provide credibility for a larger scale research and development program. The purpose of this project is to lay the groundwork to demonstrate the feasibility of laser wafering. First, to design and procure on optic train suitable for producing subsurface damage in silicon with the required damage and stress profile to promote lateral cleavage of silicon. Second, to use an existing laser to produce subsurface damage in silicon, and third, to characterize the damage using scanning electron microscopy and confocal Raman spectroscopy mapping.

  14. Building a Successful Technology Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silicon Valley is the iconic cluster—a dense regional network of companies, universities, research institutions, and other stakeholders involved in a single industry. Many regions have sought to replicate the success of Silicon Valley, which has produced technological innov...

  15. Integrated silicon and silicon nitride photonic circuits on flexible substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Li, Mo

    2014-06-15

    Flexible integrated photonic devices based on crystalline materials on plastic substrates have a promising potential in many unconventional applications. In this Letter, we demonstrate a fully integrated photonic system including ring resonators and grating couplers, based on both crystalline silicon and silicon nitride, on flexible plastic substrate by using the stamping-transfer method. A high yield has been achieved by a simple, yet reliable transfer method without significant performance degradation.

  16. Develop silicone encapsulation systems for terrestrial silicon solar arrays. First quarterly progress report, February 15, 1978--June 30, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-07-10

    This study is directed toward the development of a cost effective encapsulation system for photovoltaic modules using silicone based materials. This is a cooperative effort between Dow Corning, the major supplier of silicones and silicone intermediates, and Spectrolab a leading photovoltaic array manufacturer. The total contract effort has been divided into four tasks: technology review, generation of screening concepts, assessment of encapsulation concepts, and evaluation of encapsulation concepts. A review of technology pertinent to the use and weatherability of silicone based materials and a plan for screening encapsulation concepts are presented. The technology review covered: the performance of clear silicones in weathering and stress environments, photovoltaic industry experience with silicone materials used in photovoltaic systems, and silicones used in the protection of electronic devices.

  17. Technology Development for High-Efficiency Solar Cells and Modules Using Thin (<80 um) Single-Crystal Silicon Wafers Produced by Epitaxy: June 11, 2011 - April 30, 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravi, T. S.

    2013-05-01

    Final technical progress report of Crystal Solar subcontract NEU-31-40054-01. The objective of this 18-month program was to demonstrate the viability of high-efficiency thin (less than 80 um) monocrystalline silicon (Si) solar cells and modules with a low-cost epitaxial growth process.

  18. Technology Development for High-Efficiency Solar Cells and Modules Using Thin (<80 um) Single-Crystal Silicon Wafers Produced by Epitaxy: June 11, 2011 - April 30, 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravi, T. S.

    2013-05-01

    Final technical progress report of Crystal Solar subcontract NEU-31-40054-01. The objective of this 18-month program was to demonstrate the viability of high-efficiency thin (less than 80 um) monocrystalline silicon (Si) solar cells and modules with a low-cost epitaxial growth process.

  19. Package Technology of Silicon-based High-power LEDs with TSV%带有TSV的硅基大功率LED封装技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师帅; 吕植成; 汪学方; 王飞; 袁娇娇; 方靖

    2013-01-01

    Introduced is the fabrication of silicon base with groove and TSV (through silicon via) for wafer level packaging of white LED.Based on the structure of silicon-based high-power LEDs,the heat transfer model is established and finite element software is employed to simulate and analyze the heat dissipation of this package.Simulation results show that the silicon base packaging meets the temperature requirement of LED chip p-n junction.Combined with semiconductor manufacturing process,the fabrication of the groove and TSV was carried out on the silicon substrate,realizing effective packaging of LED chips.The thermal resistance of silicon substrate measured by T3Ster is 1.068 K/W.Experimental results show that this method is effective for realizing LED chip packaging with low cost,low thermal resistance and high density.%介绍了一种带有凹槽和硅通孔(through silicon via,TSV)的硅基制备以及晶圆级白光LED的封装方法.针对硅基大功率LED的封装结构建立了热传导模型,并通过有限元软件模拟分析了这种封装形式的散热效果.模拟结果显示,硅基封装满足LED芯片p-n结的温度要求.实验结合半导体制造工艺,在硅基板上完成了凹槽和通孔的制造,实现了LED芯片的有效封装.热阻测试仪测得硅基的热阻为1.068 K/W.实验结果证明,这种方法有效实现了低热阻、低成本、高密度的LED芯片封装,是大功率LED封装发展的重要方向.

  20. Silicone-Rubber Stitching Seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D. S.

    1985-01-01

    Fabric products protected from raveling by coating threads and filling stitching holes with silicone rubber. Uncored silicone rubber applied to stitching lines with air-pressurized sealant gun. Next, plastic release film placed on coated side, and blanket flipped over so release film lies underneath. Blanket then bagged and adhesive cured under partial vacuum of about 3.5 psi or under pressure. Applications include balloons, parachutes, ultralight aircraft, sails, rescue harnesses, tents, or other fabric products highly stressed in use.

  1. 1366 Project Silicon: Reclaiming US Silicon PV Leadership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, Adam [1366 Technologies, Bedford, MA (United States)

    2016-02-16

    1366 Technologies’ Project Silicon addresses two of the major goals of the DOE’s PV Manufacturing Initiative Part 2 program: 1) How to reclaim a strong silicon PV manufacturing presence and; 2) How to lower the levelized cost of electricity (“LCOE”) for solar to $0.05-$0.07/kWh, enabling wide-scale U.S. market adoption. To achieve these two goals, US companies must commercialize disruptive, high-value technologies that are capable of rapid scaling, defensible from foreign competition, and suited for US manufacturing. These are the aims of 1366 Technologies Direct Wafer ™ process. The research conducted during Project Silicon led to the first industrial scaling of 1366’s Direct Wafer™ process – an innovative, US-friendly (efficient, low-labor content) manufacturing process that destroys the main cost barrier limiting silicon PV cost-reductions: the 35-year-old grand challenge of making quality wafers (40% of the cost of modules) without the cost and waste of sawing. The SunPath program made it possible for 1366 Technologies to build its demonstration factory, a key and critical step in the Company’s evolution. The demonstration factory allowed 1366 to build every step of the process flow at production size, eliminating potential risk and ensuring the success of the Company’s subsequent scaling for a 1 GW factory to be constructed in Western New York in 2016 and 2017. Moreover, the commercial viability of the Direct Wafer process and its resulting wafers were established as 1366 formed key strategic partnerships, gained entry into the $8B/year multi-Si wafer market, and installed modules featuring Direct Wafer products – the veritable proving grounds for the technology. The program also contributed to the development of three Generation 3 Direct Wafer furnaces. These furnaces are the platform for copying intelligently and preparing our supply chain – large-scale expansion will not require a bigger machine but more machines. SunPath filled the

  2. [Assessment of the technology of care relations in the health services: perception of the elderly included in the family health strategy in Bambuí, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Wagner Jorge dos; Giacomin, Karla Cristina; Firmo, Josélia Oliveira Araújo

    2014-08-01

    In the health field, technologies of care relations are in the scope of the worker-user encounter, implying intersubjectivity with the development of relationships between subjects, resulting in action. Evaluation studies synthesize knowledge produced on the consequences of using these technologies for society. This anthropological study aims to understand the perception of the elderly regarding the resolution capability and effectiveness of the acts produced in health care relationships in the context of the Family Health Strategy (ESF). The group studied consisted of 57 elderly residents in Bambui, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The model of signs, meanings and actions was used for collecting and analyzing data and the semi-structured interview was applied as a research technique. Elderly individuals assess resolution capability and effectiveness of the acts of care in the ESF as negative, with relation to the quality of user and professional interaction. The ESF is not effective and the desired change in the health care model has not occurred in practice. It repeats the centrality of the medical-drug-procedure model that treats the disease rather than the patient, perceiving old age as a disease and illness as being related to aging.

  3. Large-Scale PV Module Manufacturing Using Ultra-Thin Polycrystalline Silicon Solar Cells: Final Subcontract Report, 1 April 2002--28 February 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlgemuth, J.; Narayanan, M.

    2006-07-01

    The major objectives of this program were to continue advances of BP Solar polycrystalline silicon manufacturing technology. The Program included work in the following areas. (1) Efforts in the casting area to increase ingot size, improve ingot material quality, and improve handling of silicon feedstock as it is loaded into the casting stations. (2) Developing wire saws to slice 100-..mu..m-thick silicon wafers on 290-..mu..m-centers. (3) Developing equipment for demounting and subsequent handling of very thin silicon wafers. (4) Developing cell processes using 100-..mu..m-thick silicon wafers that produce encapsulated cells with efficiencies of at least 15.4% at an overall yield exceeding 95%. (5) Expanding existing in-line manufacturing data reporting systems to provide active process control. (6) Establishing a 50-MW (annual nominal capacity) green-field Mega-plant factory model template based on this new thin polycrystalline silicon technology. (7) Facilitating an increase in the silicon feedstock industry's production capacity for lower-cost solar-grade silicon feedstock..

  4. Substrate and Passivation Techniques for Flexible Amorphous Silicon-Based X-ray Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Marrs

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Flexible active matrix display technology has been adapted to create new flexible photo-sensing electronic devices, including flexible X-ray detectors. Monolithic integration of amorphous silicon (a-Si PIN photodiodes on a flexible substrate poses significant challenges associated with the intrinsic film stress of amorphous silicon. This paper examines how altering device structuring and diode passivation layers can greatly improve the electrical performance and the mechanical reliability of the device, thereby eliminating one of the major weaknesses of a-Si PIN diodes in comparison to alternative photodetector technology, such as organic bulk heterojunction photodiodes and amorphous selenium. A dark current of 0.5 pA/mm2 and photodiode quantum efficiency of 74% are possible with a pixelated diode structure with a silicon nitride/SU-8 bilayer passivation structure on a 20 µm-thick polyimide substrate.

  5. Substrate and Passivation Techniques for Flexible Amorphous Silicon-Based X-ray Detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrs, Michael A; Raupp, Gregory B

    2016-07-26

    Flexible active matrix display technology has been adapted to create new flexible photo-sensing electronic devices, including flexible X-ray detectors. Monolithic integration of amorphous silicon (a-Si) PIN photodiodes on a flexible substrate poses significant challenges associated with the intrinsic film stress of amorphous silicon. This paper examines how altering device structuring and diode passivation layers can greatly improve the electrical performance and the mechanical reliability of the device, thereby eliminating one of the major weaknesses of a-Si PIN diodes in comparison to alternative photodetector technology, such as organic bulk heterojunction photodiodes and amorphous selenium. A dark current of 0.5 pA/mm² and photodiode quantum efficiency of 74% are possible with a pixelated diode structure with a silicon nitride/SU-8 bilayer passivation structure on a 20 µm-thick polyimide substrate.

  6. High Temperature Joining and Characterization of Joint Properties in Silicon Carbide-Based Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbig, Michael C.; Singh, Mrityunjay

    2015-01-01

    Advanced silicon carbide-based ceramics and composites are being developed for a wide variety of high temperature extreme environment applications. Robust high temperature joining and integration technologies are enabling for the fabrication and manufacturing of large and complex shaped components. The development of a new joining approach called SET (Single-step Elevated Temperature) joining will be described along with the overview of previously developed joining approaches including high temperature brazing, ARCJoinT (Affordable, Robust Ceramic Joining Technology), diffusion bonding, and REABOND (Refractory Eutectic Assisted Bonding). Unlike other approaches, SET joining does not have any lower temperature phases and will therefore have a use temperature above 1315C. Optimization of the composition for full conversion to silicon carbide will be discussed. The goal is to find a composition with no remaining carbon or free silicon. Green tape interlayers were developed for joining. Microstructural analysis and preliminary mechanical tests of the joints will be presented.

  7. Substrate and Passivation Techniques for Flexible Amorphous Silicon-Based X-ray Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrs, Michael A.; Raupp, Gregory B.

    2016-01-01

    Flexible active matrix display technology has been adapted to create new flexible photo-sensing electronic devices, including flexible X-ray detectors. Monolithic integration of amorphous silicon (a-Si) PIN photodiodes on a flexible substrate poses significant challenges associated with the intrinsic film stress of amorphous silicon. This paper examines how altering device structuring and diode passivation layers can greatly improve the electrical performance and the mechanical reliability of the device, thereby eliminating one of the major weaknesses of a-Si PIN diodes in comparison to alternative photodetector technology, such as organic bulk heterojunction photodiodes and amorphous selenium. A dark current of 0.5 pA/mm2 and photodiode quantum efficiency of 74% are possible with a pixelated diode structure with a silicon nitride/SU-8 bilayer passivation structure on a 20 µm-thick polyimide substrate. PMID:27472329

  8. Surface etching, chemical modification and characterization of silicon nitride and silicon oxide - Selective functionalization of Si

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Li Hong; Michalak, David J.; Chopra, Tatiana P.; Pujari, Sidharam P.; Zuilhof, Han

    2016-01-01

    The ability to selectively chemically functionalize silicon nitride (Si3N4) or silicon dioxide (SiO2) surfaces after cleaning would open interesting technological applications. In order to achieve this goal, the chemical composition of surfaces needs to be careful

  9. Spectroscopy-on-chip applications of silicon photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baets, Roel; Subramanian, Ananth Z.; Dhakal, Ashim; Selvaraja, Shankar K.; Komorowska, Katarzyna; Peyskens, Frédéric; Ryckeboer, Eva; Yebo, Nebiyu; Roelkens, Gunther; Le Thomas, Nicolas

    2013-03-01

    In recent years silicon photonics has become a mature technology enabling the integration of a variety of optical and optoelectronic functions by means of advanced CMOS technology. While most efforts in this field have gone to telecom and datacom/interconnect applications, there is a rapidly growing interest in using the same technology for sensing applications, ranging from refractive index sensing to spectroscopic sensing. In this paper the prospect of silicon photonics for absorption, fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy on-a-chip will be discussed. To allow spectroscopy in the visible and near infrared the silicon photonics platform is extended with silicon nitride waveguides.

  10. Technology trends in high temperature pressure transducers: The impact of micromachining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, Joseph R., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the implications of micromachining technology on the development of high temperature pressure transducers. The introduction puts forth the thesis that micromachining will be the technology of choice for the next generation of extended temperature range pressure transducers. The term micromachining is defined, the technology is discussed and examples are presented. Several technologies for high temperature pressure transducers are discussed, including silicon on insulator, capacitive, optical, and vibrating element. Specific conclusions are presented along with recommendations for development of the technology.

  11. Silicon solid state devices and radiation detection

    CERN Document Server

    Leroy, Claude

    2012-01-01

    This book addresses the fundamental principles of interaction between radiation and matter, the principles of working and the operation of particle detectors based on silicon solid state devices. It covers a broad scope with respect to the fields of application of radiation detectors based on silicon solid state devices from low to high energy physics experiments including in outer space and in the medical environment. This book covers stateof- the-art detection techniques in the use of radiation detectors based on silicon solid state devices and their readout electronics, including the latest developments on pixelated silicon radiation detector and their application.

  12. 硅基光源的研究进展%Research progress of silicon light source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈浩; 李东升; 杨德仁

    2015-01-01

    To meet the requirements for high speed, low cost, and more information capacity, silicon photonics has been boom-ing in recent years. Silicon photonics covers a very wide field. For the silicon photonics, researchers have successfully achieved silicon-based optical waveguides, switches, modulators, and detectors. But the problem of silicon based light source has not been really resolved, which has become a primary bottleneck for further developing the silicon photonics. The momentum of a phonon is required to allow an electron to transit from the minimum of the conduction band to the maximum of the valence band in Si because of the indirect bandgap. This two-particle process with a low probability makes it difficult to achieve high-efficiency silicon-based light source by itself. However, much effort has been made to characterize and understand the light-emission phenomena of silicon-based devices. Also, more attempts were made to enhance the emission efficiency of silicon. Practical silicon lasers are very important for silicon photonics and have been a long goal for semiconductor scientists. A number of important break-throughs in the past decade have focused on silicon as a photonic platform thanks to the efforts of scientists. In this review, we introduce the recent progress of silicon-based luminescence materials, silicon light emitting diodes and silicon lasers. In the first part of this paper, common types of silicon-based light emitting materials, including porous silicon, silicon nanocrystals, rare earth-doped silicon, silicon defect emission, germanium on silicon and semiconducting silicides are comprehensively reviewed. Among them, the quantum effects and surface effects of low-dimensional silicon can greatly enhance the light emission efficiency. The erbium atoms in silicon-based rare earth materials can produce the light emission at communication wavelength band independently of the host. The transition from the lowest excited state to the 4f ground

  13. Silicon Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Mazzillo; S. Billotta; G. Bonanno; A. Campisi; L. Cosentino; P. Finocchiaro; F. Musumeci; S.Privitera; S. Tudisco; G. Condorelli; D. Sanfilippo; G. Fallica; E. Sciacca; S. Aurite; S. Lombardo; E. Rlmini; M. Belluso

    2007-01-01

    In this letter we present the results regarding the electrical and optical characterization of Geiger mode silicon avalanche photodiodes (GMAP) fabricated by silicon standard planar technology. Low dark count rates, negligible afterpulsing effects,good timing resolution and high quantum detection efficiency in all the visible range have been measured. The very good electro-optical performances of our photodiodes make them attractive for the fabrication of arrays with a large number of GMAP to be used both in the commercial and the scientific fields, as telecommunications and nuclear medical imaging.

  14. Silicon carbide microsystems for harsh environments

    CERN Document Server

    Wijesundara, Muthu B J

    2011-01-01

    Silicon Carbide Microsystems for Harsh Environments reviews state-of-the-art Silicon Carbide (SiC) technologies that, when combined, create microsystems capable of surviving in harsh environments, technological readiness of the system components, key issues when integrating these components into systems, and other hurdles in harsh environment operation. The authors use the SiC technology platform suite the model platform for developing harsh environment microsystems and then detail the current status of the specific individual technologies (electronics, MEMS, packaging). Additionally, methods

  15. Scattering characteristics from porous silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sabet-Dariani

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available   Porous silicon (PS layers come into existance as a result of electrochemical anodization on silicon. Although a great deal of research has been done on the formation and optical properties of this material, the exact mechanism involved is not well-understood yet.   In this article, first, the optical properties of silicon and porous silicon are described. Then, previous research and the proposed models about reflection from PS and the origin of its photoluminescence are reveiwed. The reflecting and scattering, absorption and transmission of light from this material, are then investigated. These experiments include,different methods of PS sample preparation their photoluminescence, reflecting and scattering of light determining different characteristics with respect to Si bulk.

  16. High-Index Contrast Silicon Rich Silicon Nitride Optical Waveguides and Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipp, Hugh Taylor

    2004-01-01

    This research focused on the realization of high-density integrated optical devices made with high-index contrast waveguides. The material platform used for to develop these devices was modeled after standard silicon on silicon technology. The high-index waveguide core material was silicon rich...... silicon nitride. This provided a sharp contrast with silica and made low-loss waveguide bending radii less than 25mm possible. An immediate consequence of such small bending radii is the ability to make practical ring resonator based devices with a large free spectral range. Several ring resonator based...

  17. 镍-磷-碳化硅镀层制备工艺的研究%Study on Technology of Nickel-Phosphorus-Silicon Carbide Particle Coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宿辉

    2014-01-01

    为了提高化学复合镀层的性能,采用纳米碳化硅颗粒为增强体制备了镍-磷-碳化硅化学复合镀层,研究了温度、pH、搅拌速率对镍-磷-碳化硅镀层沉积速率的影响,确定了最佳施镀工艺:温度为84益、pH值为4.6、搅拌速度为200r·min-1。%In order to improve the properties of electroless composite coating, the Nickel- Phosphorus-Silicon carbide particle coating electroless composite coating added Silicon carbide particle was prepared and various parameters on the Nickel- Phosphorus-Silicon carbide particle coating were studied systematically. The experimental results show that:temperature, pH stirring speed deposition rate had a greater influence. It was confirmd that the temperature was 84℃, the pH was 4.6, the best stirring rate was 200r/mim-1.

  18. Article Including Environmental Barrier Coating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang N. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An enhanced environmental barrier coating for a silicon containing substrate. The enhanced barrier coating may include a bond coat doped with at least one of an alkali metal oxide and an alkali earth metal oxide. The enhanced barrier coating may include a composite mullite bond coat including BSAS and another distinct second phase oxide applied over said surface.

  19. Catastrophic degradation of the interface of epitaxial silicon carbide on silicon at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeepkumar, Aiswarya; Mishra, Neeraj; Kermany, Atieh Ranjbar; Boeckl, John J.; Hellerstedt, Jack; Fuhrer, Michael S.; Iacopi, Francesca

    2016-07-01

    Epitaxial cubic silicon carbide on silicon is of high potential technological relevance for the integration of a wide range of applications and materials with silicon technologies, such as micro electro mechanical systems, wide-bandgap electronics, and graphene. The hetero-epitaxial system engenders mechanical stresses at least up to a GPa, pressures making it extremely challenging to maintain the integrity of the silicon carbide/silicon interface. In this work, we investigate the stability of said interface and we find that high temperature annealing leads to a loss of integrity. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis shows a morphologically degraded SiC/Si interface, while mechanical stress measurements indicate considerable relaxation of the interfacial stress. From an electrical point of view, the diode behaviour of the initial p-Si/n-SiC junction is catastrophically lost due to considerable inter-diffusion of atoms and charges across the interface upon annealing. Temperature dependent transport measurements confirm a severe electrical shorting of the epitaxial silicon carbide to the underlying substrate, indicating vast predominance of the silicon carriers in lateral transport above 25 K. This finding has crucial consequences on the integration of epitaxial silicon carbide on silicon and its potential applications.

  20. Haematic silicon in drowning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierucci, Giovanni; Merlano, Federica; Chen, Yao; Sturini, Michela; Maraschi, Federica; Profumo, Antonella

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate silicon (Si) concentration in human whole ventricular blood as a further potential chemical marker in the diagnosis of drowning. We employed an acidic digestion for the extraction of soluble Si, and an alkaline digestion for the determination of total Si, including particulate matter, both arising from drowning medium. 29 suspected drowning situations, 24 in fresh water (Fw) and 5 in seawater (Sw), were examined. The difference in Si concentration between the left and right ventricular blood (Si ΔL-R) was measured and alkaline Si ΔL-R seems, indeed, a potentially significant complementary tool in the diagnosis of Fw drowning, because insoluble silicon fraction does not undergo hemo-dilution or hemo-concentration, and the ΔL-R is not affected by exogenous factors. In spite of the limited number of cases investigated, a good correlation was observed between the analytical results and the macro-microscopic autoptic findings.

  1. Silicon nanowire transistors

    CERN Document Server

    Bindal, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    This book describes the n and p-channel Silicon Nanowire Transistor (SNT) designs with single and dual-work functions, emphasizing low static and dynamic power consumption. The authors describe a process flow for fabrication and generate SPICE models for building various digital and analog circuits. These include an SRAM, a baseband spread spectrum transmitter, a neuron cell and a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) platform in the digital domain, as well as high bandwidth single-stage and operational amplifiers, RF communication circuits in the analog domain, in order to show this technology’s true potential for the next generation VLSI. Describes Silicon Nanowire (SNW) Transistors, as vertically constructed MOS n and p-channel transistors, with low static and dynamic power consumption and small layout footprint; Targets System-on-Chip (SoC) design, supporting very high transistor count (ULSI), minimal power consumption requiring inexpensive substrates for packaging; Enables fabrication of different types...

  2. Adapting MCM-D technology to a piezoresistive accelerometer packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, A.; Plaza, J. A.; Cabruja, E.; Esteve, J.

    2003-07-01

    A silicon-on-silicon multichip module for a piezoresistive accelerometer is presented in this paper. This packaging technology, a type of wafer level packaging, offers fully complementary metal-oxide semiconductor compatible silicon substrates, so a pre-amplification stage can be included at substrate level. The electrical contacts and a partial sealing of the sensor mobile structures are performed at the same step using flip-chip technology, so the cost is reduced. As accelerometers are stress-sensitive devices, great care must be taken in the fabrication process and materials. Thus, test structures have been included to study the packaging effects. In this paper we report on the compatibility of accelerometer and wafer level packaging technologies.

  3. Epitaxial silicon and germanium on buried insulator heterostructures and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojarczuk, N. A.; Copel, M.; Guha, S.; Narayanan, V.; Preisler, E. J.; Ross, F. M.; Shang, H.

    2003-12-01

    Future microelectronics will be based upon silicon or germanium-on-insulator technologies and will require an ultrathin (<10 nm), flat silicon or germanium device layer to reside upon an insulating oxide grown on a silicon wafer. The most convenient means of accomplishing this is by epitaxially growing the entire structure on a silicon substrate. This requires a high quality crystalline oxide and the ability to epitaxially grow two dimensional, single crystal films of silicon or germanium on top of this oxide. We describe a method based upon molecular beam epitaxy and solid-phase epitaxy to make such structures and demonstrate working field-effect transistors on germanium-on-insulator layers.

  4. A general classification of silicon utilizing organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, P.; Das, S.

    2010-12-01

    Silicon utilizing organisms may be defined as organisms with high silicon content (≥ 1% dry weight) and they can metabolize silicon with or without demonstrable silicon transporter genes (SIT) in them(Das,2010). Silicon is the second most abundant element in the lithosphere (27.70%) and it is as important as phosphorus and magnesium (0.03%) in the biota. Hydrated silica represents the second most abundant biogenic mineral after carbonate minerals. Silicon is accumulated and metabolized by some prokaryotes, and Si compounds can stimulate the growth of a range of fungi. It is well known that Si is essential for diatoms. In mammals, Si is considered an essential trace element, required in bone, cartilage and connective tissue formation, enzymatic activities and other metabolic processes. Silicon was suggested to act as a phosphoprotein effector in bone. In mammals, Si is also reported to positively influence the immune system and to be required for lymphocyte proliferation. The aqueous chemistry of Si is dominated by silicic acid at biological pH ranges. Monosilicic acid can form stable complexes with organic hydroxy-containing molecules . Biosilica also has been identified associated with various biomolecules including proteins and carbohydrates. There are main seven groups of silicon utilizing organisms belonging to Gram positive bacteria, algae, protozoa, sponges, fungi, lichens, and monocotyledon plants. In each group again all the members are not silicon utilizing organisms, thus selective members in each group are further classified depending their degree of silicon utilization. Important silicon utilizing bacteria are Mycobacteria, Nocardia, Streptomyces, Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Lactobacillus spp. etc., Important silicon utilizing algae are Centrobacillariophyceae, Pennatibacillariophyceae and Chrysophyceae. Many protozoa belonging to Heterokonta, Choanoflagellida, Actinopoda are well known silicon utilizing microorganisms. Hexactinellida ( glass sponges

  5. Linearization and efficiency enhancement techniques for silicon power amplifiers from RF to mmW

    CERN Document Server

    Kerhervé, Eric

    2015-01-01

    This book provides an overview of current efficiency enhancement and linearization techniques for silicon power amplifier designs. It examines the latest state of the art technologies and design techniques to address challenges for RF cellular mobile, base stations, and RF and mmW WLAN applications. Coverage includes material on current silicon (CMOS, SiGe) RF and mmW power amplifier designs, focusing on advantages and disadvantages compared with traditional GaAs implementations. With this book you will learn: The principles of linearization and efficiency improvement techniquesThe arch

  6. High performance high-κ/metal gate complementary metal oxide semiconductor circuit element on flexible silicon

    KAUST Repository

    Sevilla, Galo T.

    2016-02-29

    Thinned silicon based complementary metal oxide semiconductor(CMOS)electronics can be physically flexible. To overcome challenges of limited thinning and damaging of devices originated from back grinding process, we show sequential reactive ion etching of silicon with the assistance from soft polymeric materials to efficiently achieve thinned (40 μm) and flexible (1.5 cm bending radius) silicon based functional CMOSinverters with high-κ/metal gate transistors. Notable advances through this study shows large area of silicon thinning with pre-fabricated high performance elements with ultra-large-scale-integration density (using 90 nm node technology) and then dicing of such large and thinned (seemingly fragile) pieces into smaller pieces using excimer laser. The impact of various mechanical bending and bending cycles show undeterred high performance of flexible siliconCMOSinverters. Future work will include transfer of diced silicon chips to destination site, interconnects, and packaging to obtain fully flexible electronic systems in CMOS compatible way.

  7. Applications of Silicon Carbide for High Temperature Electronics and Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Virgil B.

    1995-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) is a wide bandgap material that shows great promise in high-power and high temperature electronics applications because of its high thermal conductivity and high breakdown electrical field. The excellent physical and electronic properties of SiC allows the fabrication of devices that can operate at higher temperatures and power levels than devices produced from either silicon or GaAs. Although modern electronics depends primarily upon silicon based devices, this material is not capable of handling may special requirements. Devices which operate at high speeds, at high power levels and are to be used in extreme environments at high temperatures and high radiation levels need other materials with wider bandgaps than that of silicon. Many space and terrestrial applications also have a requirement for wide bandgap materials. SiC also has great potential for high power and frequency operation due to a high saturated drift velocity. The wide bandgap allows for unique optoelectronic applications, that include blue light emitting diodes and ultraviolet photodetectors. New areas involving gas sensing and telecommunications offer significant promise. Overall, the properties of SiC make it one of the best prospects for extending the capabilities and operational regimes of the current semiconductor device technology.

  8. Cryo-Etched Black Silicon for Use as Optical Black

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Karl Y.; White, Victor E.; Mouroulis, Pantazis; Eastwood, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    Stray light reflected from the surface of imaging spectrometer components in particular, the spectrometer slit degrade the image quality. A technique has been developed for rapid, uniform, and cost-effective black silicon formation based on inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching at cryogenic temperatures. Recent measurements show less than 1-percent total reflectance from 350 2,500 nm of doped black silicon formed in this way, making it an excellent option for texturing of component surfaces for reduction of stray light. Oxygen combines with SF6 + Si etch byproducts to form a passivation layer atop the Si when the etch is performed at cryogenic temperatures. Excess flow of oxygen results in micromasking and the formation of black silicon. The process is repeatable and reliable, and provides control over etch depth and sidewall profile. Density of the needles can be controlled to some extent. Regions to be textured can be patterned lithographically. Adhesion is not an issue as the nanotips are part of the underlying substrate. This is in contrast to surface growth/deposition techniques such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The black Si surface is compatible with wet processing, including processing with solvents, the textured surface is completely inorganic, and it does not outgas. In radiometry applications, optical absorbers are often constructed using gold black or CNTs. This black silicon technology is an improvement for these types of applications.

  9. Silicon-germanium (Sige) nanostructures production, properties and applications in electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Usami, N

    2011-01-01

    Nanostructured silicon-germanium (SiGe) provides the prospect of novel and enhanced electronic device performance. This book reviews the materials science and technology of SiGe nanostructures, including crystal growth, fabrication of nanostructures, material properties and applications in electronics.$bNanostructured silicon-germanium (SiGe) opens up the prospects of novel and enhanced electronic device performance, especially for semiconductor devices. Silicon-germanium (SiGe) nanostructures reviews the materials science of nanostructures and their properties and applications in different electronic devices. The introductory part one covers the structural properties of SiGe nanostructures, with a further chapter discussing electronic band structures of SiGe alloys. Part two concentrates on the formation of SiGe nanostructures, with chapters on different methods of crystal growth such as molecular beam epitaxy and chemical vapour deposition. This part also includes chapters covering strain engineering and mo...

  10. A study on manufacturing and quality control technology of DUPIC fuel - The characteristics and the behavior of fission products in nuclear fuels including DUPIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kwang Hun [Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-08-01

    The scope of this research can be divided into 2 parts; the problems related to f.p.`s up to the stage of producing DUPIC fuels and the effects of f.p.`s on the performance of nuclear fuels including DUPIC. The dose rate study of fresh and spent DUPIC fuels is done. Ba-137 m is major gamma-ray source in spent nuclear fuels after five year cooling time. Cs-137 makes a secular equilibrium with Ba-137 m, and elimination of Cs induces the disappearance of Ba-137 m, in an hour. Hence, care should be taken in collecting Cs during OREOX process. A defect model of irradiated nuclear fuels for the oxygen potential based on the defect structure of pure urania is devised. This model can give the oxygen pressure of ambient gas during the sintering of DUPIC fuels. The thermal conductivity decreases with the content of f.p.`s. The temperature distribution of DUPIC fuels is calculated from the thermal conductivity. The higher operating temperature of DUPIC fuels urges us to study the fuel performance difference. O/M shift due to steep temperature gradient is expected. However, the shift is negligible if the non-stoichiometry is small. 55 refs., 22 tabs., 52 figs. (author)

  11. Emerging heterogeneous integrated photonic platforms on silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathpour Sasan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Silicon photonics has been established as a mature and promising technology for optoelectronic integrated circuits, mostly based on the silicon-on-insulator (SOI waveguide platform. However, not all optical functionalities can be satisfactorily achieved merely based on silicon, in general, and on the SOI platform, in particular. Long-known shortcomings of silicon-based integrated photonics are optical absorption (in the telecommunication wavelengths and feasibility of electrically-injected lasers (at least at room temperature. More recently, high two-photon and free-carrier absorptions required at high optical intensities for third-order optical nonlinear effects, inherent lack of second-order optical nonlinearity, low extinction ratio of modulators based on the free-carrier plasma effect, and the loss of the buried oxide layer of the SOI waveguides at mid-infrared wavelengths have been recognized as other shortcomings. Accordingly, several novel waveguide platforms have been developing to address these shortcomings of the SOI platform. Most of these emerging platforms are based on heterogeneous integration of other material systems on silicon substrates, and in some cases silicon is integrated on other substrates. Germanium and its binary alloys with silicon, III–V compound semiconductors, silicon nitride, tantalum pentoxide and other high-index dielectric or glass materials, as well as lithium niobate are some of the materials heterogeneously integrated on silicon substrates. The materials are typically integrated by a variety of epitaxial growth, bonding, ion implantation and slicing, etch back, spin-on-glass or other techniques. These wide range of efforts are reviewed here holistically to stress that there is no pure silicon or even group IV photonics per se. Rather, the future of the field of integrated photonics appears to be one of heterogenization, where a variety of different materials and waveguide platforms will be used for

  12. Silicon photonics for multicore fiber communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yunhong; Kamchevska, Valerija; Dalgaard, Kjeld

    2016-01-01

    We review our recent work on silicon photonics for multicore fiber communication, including multicore fiber fan-in/fan-out, multicore fiber switches towards reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexers. We also present multicore fiber based quantum communication using silicon devices....

  13. University Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaics Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajeet Rohatgi; Vijay Yelundur; Abasifreke Ebong; Dong Seop Kim

    2008-08-18

    The overall goal of the program is to advance the current state of crystalline silicon solar cell technology to make photovoltaics more competitive with conventional energy sources. This program emphasizes fundamental and applied research that results in low-cost, high-efficiency cells on commercial silicon substrates with strong involvement of the PV industry, and support a very strong photovoltaics education program in the US based on classroom education and hands-on training in the laboratory.

  14. Gradient-porous structure of silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starkov, V.; Gavrilin, E. [Institute of Microelectronics Technology and High Purite Materials RAS, Institutskya str. 6, Chernogolovka 142432 (Russian Federation)

    2007-07-01

    Silicon membranes with through pores have been manufactured based on silicon plates with a gradient-porous structure (GPSi), in which the pore cross section and structure varies with depth. The obtained structure can serve a basis for the development of electrodes for solid polymer fuel cells. The developed technology allows to change porosity and porous morphology on all thickness of a porous membrane. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. Integrated double-sided silicon microstrip detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perevertailo V. L.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The problems of design, technology and manufacturing double-sided silicon microstrip detectors using standard equipment production line in mass production of silicon integrated circuits are considered. The design of prototype high-energy particles detector for experiment ALICE (CERN is presented. The parameters of fabricated detectors are comparable with those of similar foreign detectors, but they are distinguished by lesser cost.

  16. Thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Brendel, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    This introduction to the physics of silicon solar cells focuses on thin cells, while reviewing and discussing the current status of the important technology. An analysis of the spectral quantum efficiency of thin solar cells is given as well as a full set of analytical models. This is the first comprehensive treatment of light trapping techniques for the enhancement of the optical absorption in thin silicon films.

  17. Research on Silicon Nitride Films Deposited by PECVD Technology%PECVD法氮化硅薄膜制备工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪文君; 孙建洁; 朱赛宁; 张世权

    2013-01-01

    Silicon nitride thin films were deposited successfully on Si substrates by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition(PECVD). The thickness and refractive index of the thin iflms were tested by ellipsometer and proiflometry, respectively. The inlfuences of silane-ammonia lfow ratio(SAR)and spacing on the performance of silicon nitride thin iflms were studied. Results showed that the thickness and refractive index of thin iflms increased with SAR, and the etching rate in HF decreased rapidly after annealing.%采用等离子体增强化学气相沉积法(PECVD)在单晶硅衬底上制备了氮化硅薄膜,分别使用膜厚仪、椭圆偏振仪等手段对薄膜的厚度、折射率等参数进行了表征。研究了硅烷氨气流量比、极板间距等工艺参数对氮化硅薄膜性能的影响,发现当硅烷氨气流量比增加时,薄膜厚度和折射率均随之增加,并发现退火工艺可以有效降低氮化硅薄膜的氢氟酸腐蚀速率。

  18. Ceramic technology for advanced heat engines project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    The Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines Project was developed by the Department of Energy's Office of Transportation Systems in Conservation and Renewable Energy. This project was developed to meet the ceramic technology requirements of the OTT's automotive technology programs. This project is managed by ORNL and is closely coordinated with complementary ceramics tasks funded by other DOE offices, NASA, DoD, and industry. Research is discussed under the following topics; Turbomilling of SiC Whiskers; microwave sintering of silicon nitride; and milling characterization; processing of monolithics; silicon nitride matrix; oxide matrix; silicate matrix; thermal and wear coatings; joining; design; contact interfaces; time-dependent behavior; environmental effects; fracture mechanics; nondestructive evaluation; and technology transfer. References, figures, and tables are included with each topic.

  19. High quality silicon-based substrates for microwave and millimeter wave passive circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belaroussi, Y.; Rack, M.; Saadi, A. A.; Scheen, G.; Belaroussi, M. T.; Trabelsi, M.; Raskin, J.-P.

    2017-09-01

    Porous silicon substrate is very promising for next generation wireless communication requiring the avoidance of high-frequency losses originating from the bulk silicon. In this work, new variants of porous silicon (PSi) substrates have been introduced. Through an experimental RF performance, the proposed PSi substrates have been compared with different silicon-based substrates, namely, standard silicon (Std), trap-rich (TR) and high resistivity (HR). All of the mentioned substrates have been fabricated where identical samples of CPW lines have been integrated on. The new PSi substrates have shown successful reduction in the substrate's effective relative permittivity to values as low as 3.7 and great increase in the substrate's effective resistivity to values higher than 7 kΩ cm. As a concept proof, a mm-wave bandpass filter (MBPF) centred at 27 GHz has been integrated on the investigated substrates. Compared with the conventional MBPF implemented on standard silicon-based substrates, the measured S-parameters of the PSi-based MBPF have shown high filtering performance, such as a reduction in insertion loss and an enhancement of the filter selectivity, with the joy of having the same filter performance by varying the temperature. Therefore, the efficiency of the proposed PSi substrates has been well highlighted. From 1994 to 1995, she was assistant of physics at (USTHB), Algiers . From 1998 to 2011, she was a Researcher at characterization laboratory in ionized media and laser division at the Advanced Technologies Development Center. She has integrated the Analog Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits team as Researcher since 2011 until now in Microelectronic and Nanotechnology Division at Advanced Technologies Development Center (CDTA), Algiers. She has been working towards her Ph.D. degree jointly at CDTA and Ecole Nationale Polytechnique, Algiers, since 2012. Her research interest includes fabrication and characterization of microwave passive devices on porous

  20. Ultrafast laser functionalized rare phased gold-silicon/silicon oxide nanostructured hybrid biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premnath, P; Tan, B; Venkatakrishnan, K

    2015-12-01

    We introduce a hybrid nanostructured biomaterial that is a combination of rare phases of immiscible gold and silicon oxide, functionalized via ultrafast laser synthesis. For the first time, we show cancer controlling properties of rare phases of gold silicides, which include Au7Si, Au5Si, Au0.7Si2.3 and Au8Si2. Conventionally, pure forms of gold and silicon/silicon oxide are extensively employed in targeted therapy and drug delivery systems due to their unique properties. While silicon and silicon oxide nanoparticles have shown biocompatibility, gold nanoparticles show conflicting results based on their size and material properties. Several studies have shown that gold and silicon combinations produce cell controlling properties, however, these studies were not able to produce a homogenous combination of gold and silicon, owing to its immiscibility. A homogenous combination of gold and silicon may potentially enable properties that have not previously been reported. We describe rare phased gold-silicon oxide nanostructured hybrid biomaterials and its unique cancer controlling properties, owing to material properties, concentration, size and density. The gold-silicon oxide nanostructured hybrid is composed of individual gold-silicon oxide nanoparticles in various concentrations of gold and silicon, some nanoparticles possess a gold-core and silicon-shell like structure. The individual nanoparticles are bonded together forming a three dimensional nanostructured hybrid. The interaction of the nanostructured hybrids with cervical cancer cells showed a 96% reduction in 24h. This engineered nanostructured hybrid biomaterial presents significant potential due to the combination of immiscible gold and silicon oxide in varying phases and can potentially satiate the current vacuum in cancer therapy.

  1. A tracer aided study on silicon chemistry in biological systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brasser, H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Silicon (Si) is omnipresent in nature, and it is involved in important but diverse roles in a broad range of organisms, including diatoms, higher plants and humans. Some organisms, like the diatoms, need high amounts of silicon, and master silicon chemistry to a high extend using several enzymes. Ot

  2. Battery, especially for portable devices, has an anode containing silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kan, S.Y.

    2002-01-01

    The anode (2) contains silicon. A battery with a silicon-containing anode is claimed. An Independent claim is also included for a method used to make the battery, comprising the doping of a silicon substrate (1) with charge capacity-increasing material (preferably boron, phosphorous or arsenic),

  3. Cerebral migration of intraocular silicone oil: an MRI study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Milea, Dan; Løgager, Vibeke;

    2011-01-01

    for retinal detachment. Methods: Nineteen patients included in this study were referred for silicone oil removal after uncomplicated retinal detachment surgery using internal silicone oil tamponade. Patients with a previous history of intraocular silicone oil, glaucoma or optic pit were excluded. After...

  4. Silicon nitride equation of state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert C.; Swaminathan, Pazhayannur K.

    2017-01-01

    This report presents the development of a global, multi-phase equation of state (EOS) for the ceramic silicon nitride (Si3N4).1 Structural forms include amorphous silicon nitride normally used as a thin film and three crystalline polymorphs. Crystalline phases include hexagonal α-Si3N4, hexagonal β-Si3N4, and the cubic spinel c-Si3N4. Decomposition at about 1900 °C results in a liquid silicon phase and gas phase products such as molecular nitrogen, atomic nitrogen, and atomic silicon. The silicon nitride EOS was developed using EOSPro which is a new and extended version of the PANDA II code. Both codes are valuable tools and have been used successfully for a variety of material classes. Both PANDA II and EOSPro can generate a tabular EOS that can be used in conjunction with hydrocodes. The paper describes the development efforts for the component solid phases and presents results obtained using the EOSPro phase transition model to investigate the solid-solid phase transitions in relation to the available shock data that have indicated a complex and slow time dependent phase change to the c-Si3N4 phase. Furthermore, the EOSPro mixture model is used to develop a model for the decomposition products; however, the need for a kinetic approach is suggested to combine with the single component solid models to simulate and further investigate the global phase coexistences.

  5. Solar photovoltaics - An aerospace technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, J. V.

    1977-01-01

    Specific problems affecting the development of low-cost silicon solar array power sources are discussed, taking into account the potential of realizing less than $0.50/per peak watt of silicon solar array technology. A utilization of less expensive processes for the manufacture of pure silicon and more economical procedures of silicon crystal and wafer production appear desirable. Attention is given to a sheet growth process example and a concept of pulsed processing for automated cell production.

  6. Innovative technologies for emitter formation of crystalline silicon solar cells using in-line diffusion; Innovative Technologien zur Emittererzeugung fuer kristalline Silizium-Solarzellen mittels Durchlaufdiffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyer, Catherine

    2009-04-20

    An in-line emitter formation process for crystalline silicon solar cells was developed. The wafers were coated at room temperature with dilute phosphoric acid (2.5 w/w% in water) using ultrasonic spraying and then heated up to temperatures around 900 C in a metal-contamination-free in-line furnace. In the first zones of the furnace, a phosphosilicate glass (PSG) is formed on the silicon surface and serves as the doping source. The PSG thickness was adjusted by varying the flow rate of dilute phosphoric acid to the spray nozzle and took on values appropriate for emitter formation, in the range of {proportional_to}40-120 nm. A surfactant mixture was added to the dilute phosphoric acid in order to obtain complete wetting of the silicon surface. The mixture, which was composed of a hydrocarbon surfactant and of a fluorosurfactant, achieved better wetting properties than would be possible when using only one of the two surfactants. The spray solution containing only the hydrocarbon surfactant achieved a faster drop flattening, while the spray solution containing only the fluorosurfactant achieved a lower static surface tension. The mixture allowed for a combination of these desired properties: The drops coalesced together sufficiently rapidly (before drying) on the silicon surface to form a complete dopant source liquid layer and this layer remains sufficiently homogeneous during the layer drying. The sprayed-on layer is thicker ({proportional_to}15 microns) than the height of the surface texture ({proportional_to}5-10 microns). The liquid strives for a state of equilibrium, a convex meniscus. The topography of the liquid surface at the time at which the increase in viscosity puts an end to the liquid flow is reflected in the topography of the PSG thickness. The corresponding variations in sheet resistance across a wafer are sufficiently small for solar cells. Furthermore, the liquid layer conforms itself, during the drying, to the surface texture on a microscopic scale

  7. Innovative technologies for emitter formation of crystalline silicon solar cells using in-line diffusion; Innovative Technologien zur Emittererzeugung fuer kristalline Silizium-Solarzellen mittels Durchlaufdiffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyer, Catherine

    2009-04-20

    An in-line emitter formation process for crystalline silicon solar cells was developed. The wafers were coated at room temperature with dilute phosphoric acid (2.5 w/w% in water) using ultrasonic spraying and then heated up to temperatures around 900 C in a metal-contamination-free in-line furnace. In the first zones of the furnace, a phosphosilicate glass (PSG) is formed on the silicon surface and serves as the doping source. The PSG thickness was adjusted by varying the flow rate of dilute phosphoric acid to the spray nozzle and took on values appropriate for emitter formation, in the range of {proportional_to}40-120 nm. A surfactant mixture was added to the dilute phosphoric acid in order to obtain complete wetting of the silicon surface. The mixture, which was composed of a hydrocarbon surfactant and of a fluorosurfactant, achieved better wetting properties than would be possible when using only one of the two surfactants. The spray solution containing only the hydrocarbon surfactant achieved a faster drop flattening, while the spray solution containing only the fluorosurfactant achieved a lower static surface tension. The mixture allowed for a combination of these desired properties: The drops coalesced together sufficiently rapidly (before drying) on the silicon surface to form a complete dopant source liquid layer and this layer remains sufficiently homogeneous during the layer drying. The sprayed-on layer is thicker ({proportional_to}15 microns) than the height of the surface texture ({proportional_to}5-10 microns). The liquid strives for a state of equilibrium, a convex meniscus. The topography of the liquid surface at the time at which the increase in viscosity puts an end to the liquid flow is reflected in the topography of the PSG thickness. The corresponding variations in sheet resistance across a wafer are sufficiently small for solar cells. Furthermore, the liquid layer conforms itself, during the drying, to the surface texture on a microscopic scale

  8. Zhongguan Village, China's Silicon Valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xinwen

    2008-01-01

    @@ In 1999,driven by the dream of using technology to change people's lives,Li Yanhong,returned to Zhongguancun(Zhongguan Village in Chinese),Beijing from Silicon Valley in the U.S.to create Baidu.com.Over the years,Baidu has become the most frequently hitted website in China as well as the largest Chinesc search engine and Chinese language website in the world.

  9. 喷射成形硅铝合金镀覆工艺研究%Study of deposition technology on spray formed silicon-aluminum alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李忠宝; 付银辉; 李元朴

    2012-01-01

    The electroless nickel plating and gold electroplating processes on the surface of spray formed silicon-aluminum alloy (CE11) were studied. The variation of surface morphology and chemical composition on CE11 silicon-aluminum alloy during deposition were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The quality of deposit was tested by thermal shock, high-temperature baking, and welding tests. It was found that an electroless plated coating with good adhesion can be obtained on the surface of CE11 silicon-aluminum alloy when electroless nickel plating was carried out after roughening with a mixed solution of ammonium hydrogen fluoride and nitric acid, ultrasonic film removing, zinc immersion, and nickel pre-plating. The deposit after gold electroplating retains good adhesion after baking at 400 ℃, which meets the eutectic welding requirement of gold-germanium, gold-tin alloy, etc.%研究了喷射成形硅铝合金(CE11)材料表面化学镀镍和镀金工艺,使用电子显微镜(SEM)及能谱分析仪(EDS)分析了沉积过程中CE11硅铝合金表面形貌和沉积层化学成分,采用热震、高温烘烤、焊接试验等方法检测了硅铝合金样件的镀层质量.结果发现,CE11硅铝合金经氟化氢铵和硝酸混合溶液粗化、超声波去膜、浸锌、预镀镍后化学镀镍,可以获得结合力良好的化学镀层,镀金后能耐400℃烘烤而仍然保持很好的结合力,能够满足金锗、金锡等合金的共晶焊接使用要求.

  10. JOULE HEATING INDUCED INTERCONNECT FAILURE IN 3D IC TECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Menglu

    2016-01-01

    With the slow-down of Moore’s law of scaling transistors, the industry is looking for 3D IC technology to extend the Moore’s law by stacking chips vertically. In the 3D IC technology, Joule heating is the most serious reliability concern because of increased power density. Moreover, there are new interconnects in the package to support vertical stacking, including the Through Silicon Via (TSV) inside silicon die, μ-bumps between different dies, and redistribution layer (RDL) to fan out the cu...

  11. Silicon photonics: some remaining challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, G. T.; Topley, R.; Khokhar, A. Z.; Thompson, D. J.; Stanković, S.; Reynolds, S.; Chen, X.; Soper, N.; Mitchell, C. J.; Hu, Y.; Shen, L.; Martinez-Jimenez, G.; Healy, N.; Mailis, S.; Peacock, A. C.; Nedeljkovic, M.; Gardes, F. Y.; Soler Penades, J.; Alonso-Ramos, C.; Ortega-Monux, A.; Wanguemert-Perez, G.; Molina-Fernandez, I.; Cheben, P.; Mashanovich, G. Z.

    2016-03-01

    This paper discusses some of the remaining challenges for silicon photonics, and how we at Southampton University have approached some of them. Despite phenomenal advances in the field of Silicon Photonics, there are a number of areas that still require development. For short to medium reach applications, there is a need to improve the power consumption of photonic circuits such that inter-chip, and perhaps intra-chip applications are viable. This means that yet smaller devices are required as well as thermally stable devices, and multiple wavelength channels. In turn this demands smaller, more efficient modulators, athermal circuits, and improved wavelength division multiplexers. The debate continues as to whether on-chip lasers are necessary for all applications, but an efficient low cost laser would benefit many applications. Multi-layer photonics offers the possibility of increasing the complexity and effectiveness of a given area of chip real estate, but it is a demanding challenge. Low cost packaging (in particular, passive alignment of fibre to waveguide), and effective wafer scale testing strategies, are also essential for mass market applications. Whilst solutions to these challenges would enhance most applications, a derivative technology is emerging, that of Mid Infra-Red (MIR) silicon photonics. This field will build on existing developments, but will require key enhancements to facilitate functionality at longer wavelengths. In common with mainstream silicon photonics, significant developments have been made, but there is still much left to do. Here we summarise some of our recent work towards wafer scale testing, passive alignment, multiplexing, and MIR silicon photonics technology.

  12. Modular fabrication and characterization of complex silicon carbide composite structures Advanced Reactor Technologies (ART) Research Final Report (Feb 2015 – May 2017)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalifa, Hesham [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2017-08-03

    Advanced ceramic materials exhibit properties that enable safety and fuel cycle efficiency improvements in advanced nuclear reactors. In order to fully exploit these desirable properties, new processing techniques are required to produce the complex geometries inherent to nuclear fuel assemblies and support structures. Through this project, the state of complex SiC-SiC composite fabrication for nuclear components has advanced significantly. New methods to produce complex SiC-SiC composite structures have been demonstrated in the form factors needed for in-core structural components in advanced high temperature nuclear reactors. Advanced characterization techniques have been employed to demonstrate that these complex SiC-SiC composite structures provide the strength, toughness and hermeticity required for service in harsh reactor conditions. The complex structures produced in this project represent a significant step forward in leveraging the excellent high temperature strength, resistance to neutron induced damage, and low neutron cross section of silicon carbide in nuclear applications.

  13. Cryogenic silicon surface ion trap

    CERN Document Server

    Niedermayr, Michael; Kumph, Muir; Partel, Stefan; Edlinger, Johannes; Brownnutt, Michael; Blatt, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Trapped ions are pre-eminent candidates for building quantum information processors and quantum simulators. They have been used to demonstrate quantum gates and algorithms, quantum error correction, and basic quantum simulations. However, to realise the full potential of such systems and make scalable trapped-ion quantum computing a reality, there exist a number of practical problems which must be solved. These include tackling the observed high ion-heating rates and creating scalable trap structures which can be simply and reliably produced. Here, we report on cryogenically operated silicon ion traps which can be rapidly and easily fabricated using standard semiconductor technologies. Single $^{40}$Ca$^+$ ions have been trapped and used to characterize the trap operation. Long ion lifetimes were observed with the traps exhibiting heating rates as low as $\\dot{\\bar{n}}=$ 0.33 phonons/s at an ion-electrode distance of 230 $\\mu$m. These results open many new avenues to arrays of micro-fabricated ion traps.

  14. Preparation of special silicon steel grade MgO from hydromagnesite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangyang Zhou; Shanni Li; Jie Li; Hongzhuan Liu; Shangyuan Wu

    2007-01-01

    A preparation technology of MgO powder used in special silicon steel from hydromagnesite mineral has been developed.The preparation technology includes the following steps: (1) calcining the hydromagnesite at 700-750 ℃ for 1.5-2 h; (2) hydrating the the slurry, the carbonation temperature, CO2 pressure, and end point PH value of carbonation are less than 40℃, 0.4-0.6 MPa, and 7 respectively during the carbonation process; (4) preparing precipitated basic magnesium carbonate by thermally decomposing the Mg(HCO3)2 solution at 90-100 ℃; (5) obtaining the MgO product by calcining the precipitated basic magnesium carbonate at 850-950 ℃ for 30-60 min, and adopting flowing nitrogen during the cooling process. By using this technology, more than 80wt% magnesium in hydromagnesite mineral can be extracted, and high-performance MgO products used in special silicon steel can be obtained.

  15. Key Success Factors and Future Perspective of Silicon-Based Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Binetti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, after more than 70 years of continued progress on silicon technology, about 85% of cumulative installed photovolatic (PV modules are based on crystalline silicon (c-Si. PV devices based on silicon are the most common solar cells currently being produced, and it is mainly due to silicon technology that the PV has grown by 40% per year over the last decade. An additional step in the silicon solar cell development is ongoing, and it is related to a further efficiency improvement through defect control, device optimization, surface modification, and nanotechnology approaches. This paper attempts to briefly review the most important advances and current technologies used to produce crystalline silicon solar devices and in the meantime the most challenging and promising strategies acting to increase the efficiency to cost/ratio of silicon solar cells. Eventually, the impact and the potentiality of using a nanotechnology approach in a silicon-based solar cell are also described.

  16. Implementation Challenges for Sintered Silicon Carbide Fiber Bonded Ceramic Materials for High Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M.

    2011-01-01

    During the last decades, a number of fiber reinforced ceramic composites have been developed and tested for various aerospace and ground based applications. However, a number of challenges still remain slowing the wide scale implementation of these materials. In addition to continuous fiber reinforced composites, other innovative materials have been developed including the fibrous monoliths and sintered fiber bonded ceramics. The sintered silicon carbide fiber bonded ceramics have been fabricated by the hot pressing and sintering of silicon carbide fibers. However, in this system reliable property database as well as various issues related to thermomechanical performance, integration, and fabrication of large and complex shape components has yet to be addressed. In this presentation, thermomechanical properties of sintered silicon carbide fiber bonded ceramics (as fabricated and joined) will be presented. In addition, critical need for manufacturing and integration technologies in successful implementation of these materials will be discussed.

  17. Thin Silicon Solar Cells: A Path to 35% Shockley-Queisser Limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Laura; Boccard, Mathieu; Williams, Joshua; Jeffries, April; Gangam, Srikanth; Ghosh, Kunal; Honsberg, Christiana; Bowden, Stuart; Holman, Zachary; Atwater, Harry; Buonassisi, Tonio; Bremner, Stephen; Green, Martin; Balif, Christoph; Bertoni, Mariana

    2014-06-08

    Crystalline silicon technology is expected to remain the leading photovoltaic industry workhorse for decades. We present here the objectives and workplan of a recently launched project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy through the Foundational Program to Advance Cell Efficiency II (FPACE II), which aims at leading crystalline silicon to an efficiency breakthrough. The project will tackle fundamental approach of materials design, defect engineering, device simulations and materials growth and characterization. Among the main novelties, the implementation of carrier selective contacts made of wide bandgap material or stack of materials is investigated for improved passivation, carrier extraction and carrier transport. Based on an initial selection of candidate materials, preliminary experiments are conducted to verify the suitability of their critical parameters as well as preservation of the silicon substrate surface and bulk properties. The target materials include III-V and metal-oxide materials.

  18. Silicon force sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galambos, Paul C.; Crenshaw, Thomas B.; Nishida, Erik E.; Burnett, Damon J.; Lantz, Jeffrey W.

    2016-07-05

    The various technologies presented herein relate to a sensor for measurement of high forces and/or high load shock rate(s), whereby the sensor utilizes silicon as the sensing element. A plate of Si can have a thinned region formed therein on which can be formed a number of traces operating as a Wheatstone bridge. The brittle Si can be incorporated into a layered structure comprising ductile and/or compliant materials. The sensor can have a washer-like configuration which can be incorporated into a nut and bolt configuration, whereby tightening of the nut and bolt can facilitate application of a compressive preload upon the sensor. Upon application of an impact load on the bolt, the compressive load on the sensor can be reduced (e.g., moves towards zero-load), however the magnitude of the preload can be such that the load on the sensor does not translate to tensile stress being applied to the sensor.

  19. Integrated Circuit Readout for the Silicon Sensor Test Station

    CERN Document Server

    Atkin, E; Silaev, A; Fedenko, A; Karmanov, D; Merkin, M; Voronin, A

    2009-01-01

    Various chips for the silicon sensors measurements are described. These chips are based on 0.35 um and 0.18um CMOS technology. Several analog chips together with self-trigger /derandomizer one allow to measure silicon sensors designed for different purposes. Tracking systems, calorimeters, particle charge measurement system and other application sensors can be investigated by the integrated circuit readout with laser or radioactive sources. Also electrical parameters of silicon sensors can be studied by such test setup.

  20. Laser Integration on Silicon Photonic Circuits Through Transfer Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-10

    AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2017-0019 Laser integration on silicon photonic circuits through transfer printing Gunther Roelkens UNIVERSITEIT GENT VZW Final...TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 15 Sep 2015 to 14 Sep 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Laser integration on silicon photonic circuits through...parallel integration of III-V lasers on silicon photonic integrated circuits. The report discusses the technological process that has been developed as

  1. Design of 340 GHz 2× and 4× Sub-Harmonic Mixers Using Schottky Barrier Diodes in Silicon-Based Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Liu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of terahertz 2× and 4× sub-harmonic down-mixers using Schottky Barrier Diodes fabricated in standard 0.13 μm SiGe BiCMOS technology. The 340 GHz sub-harmonic mixers (SHMs are designed based on anti-parallel-diode-pairs (APDPs. With the 2nd and 4th harmonic, local oscillator (LO frequencies of 170 GHz and 85 GHz are used to pump the two 340 GHz SHMs. With LO power of 7 dBm, the 2× SHM exhibits a conversion loss of 34.5–37 dB in the lower band (320–340 GHz and 35.5–41 dB in the upper band (340–360 GHz; with LO power of 9 dBm, the 4× SHM exhibits a conversion loss of 39–43 dB in the lower band (320–340 GHz and 40–48 dB in the upper band (340–360 GHz. The measured input 1-dB conversion gain compression point for the 2× and 4× SHMs are −8 dBm and −10 dBm at 325 GHz, respectively. The simulated LO-IF (intermediate frequency isolation of the 2× SHM is 21.5 dB, and the measured LO-IF isolation of the 4× SHM is 32 dB. The chip areas of the 2× and 4× SHMs are 330 μm × 580 μm and 550 μm × 610 μm, respectively, including the testing pads.

  2. Luminescence decay of porous silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X.; Uttamchandani, D.; Sander, D.; O'Donnell, K. P.

    1993-04-01

    The luminescence decay pattern of porous silicon samples prepared by electrochemical etching is characterised experimentally by a non-exponential profile, a strong dependence on temperature and an absence of spectral diffusion. We describe this luminescence as carrier-dopping-assisted recombination. Following the correlation function approach to non-dispersive transport developed by Scher and co-workers [Physics Today 41 (1991) 26], we suggest a simple derivation of analytical functions which accurately describes the anomalous luminescence decay of porous silicon, and show that this model includes exponential and Kohlrausch [Pogg. Ann. Phys. 119 (1863) 352] (stretched-exponential) relaxations as special cases.

  3. Graphitized silicon carbide microbeams: wafer-level, self-aligned graphene on silicon wafers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunning, Benjamin V; Ahmed, Mohsin; Mishra, Neeraj; Kermany, Atieh Ranjbar; Wood, Barry; Iacopi, Francesca

    2014-08-15

    Currently proven methods that are used to obtain devices with high-quality graphene on silicon wafers involve the transfer of graphene flakes from a growth substrate, resulting in fundamental limitations for large-scale device fabrication. Moreover, the complex three-dimensional structures of interest for microelectromechanical and nanoelectromechanical systems are hardly compatible with such transfer processes. Here, we introduce a methodology for obtaining thousands of microbeams, made of graphitized silicon carbide on silicon, through a site-selective and wafer-scale approach. A Ni-Cu alloy catalyst mediates a self-aligned graphitization on prepatterned SiC microstructures at a temperature that is compatible with silicon technologies. The graphene nanocoating leads to a dramatically enhanced electrical conductivity, which elevates this approach to an ideal method for the replacement of conductive metal films in silicon carbide-based MEMS and NEMS devices.

  4. Stable field emission from nanoporous silicon carbide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Myung-Gyu; Lezec, Henri J; Sharifi, Fred

    2013-02-15

    We report on a new type of stable field emitter capable of electron emission at levels comparable to thermal sources. Such an emitter potentially enables significant advances in several important technologies which currently use thermal electron sources. These include communications through microwave electronics, and more notably imaging for medicine and security where new modalities of detection may arise due to variable-geometry x-ray sources. Stable emission of 6 A cm(-2) is demonstrated in a macroscopic array, and lifetime measurements indicate these new emitters are sufficiently robust to be considered for realistic implementation. The emitter is a monolithic structure, and is made in a room-temperature process. It is fabricated from a silicon carbide wafer, which is formed into a highly porous structure resembling an aerogel, and further patterned into an array. The emission properties may be tuned both through control of the nanoscale morphology and the macroscopic shape of the emitter array.

  5. Silicon pore optics development for ATHENA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collon, Maximilien J.; Vacanti, Giuseppe; Günther, Ramses; Yanson, Alex; Barrière, Nicolas; Landgraf, Boris; Vervest, Mark; Chatbi, Abdelhakim; Beijersbergen, Marco W.; Bavdaz, Marcos; Wille, Eric; Haneveld, Jeroen; Koelewijn, Arenda; Leenstra, Anne; Wijnperle, Maurice; van Baren, Coen; Müller, Peter; Krumrey, Michael; Burwitz, Vadim; Pareschi, Giovanni; Conconi, Paolo; Christensen, Finn E.

    2015-09-01

    The ATHENA mission, a European large (L) class X-ray observatory to be launched in 2028, will essentially consist of an X-ray lens and two focal plane instruments. The lens, based on a Wolter-I type double reflection grazing incidence angle design, will be very large (~ 3 m in diameter) to meet the science requirements of large effective area (1-2 m2 at a few keV) at a focal length of 12 m. To meet the high angular resolution (5 arc seconds) requirement the X-ray lens will also need to be very accurate. Silicon Pore Optics (SPO) technology has been invented to enable building such a lens and thus enabling the ATHENA mission. We will report in this paper on the latest status of the development, including details of X-ray test campaigns.

  6. Optical continuum generation on a silicon chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Bahram; Boyraz, Ozdal; Koonath, Prakash; Raghunathan, Varun; Indukuri, Tejaswi; Dimitropoulos, Dimitri

    2005-08-01

    Although the Raman effect is nearly two orders of magnitude stronger than the electronic Kerr nonlinearity in silicon, under pulsed operation regime where the pulse width is shorter than the phonon response time, Raman effect is suppressed and Kerr nonlinearity dominates. Continuum generation, made possible by the non-resonant Kerr nonlinearity, offers a technologically and economically appealing path to WDM communication at the inter-chip or intra-chip levels. We have studied this phenomenon experimentally and theoretically. Experimentally, a 2 fold spectral broadening is obtained by launching ~4ps optical pulses with 2.2GW/cm2 peak power into a conventional silicon waveguide. Theoretical calculations, that include the effect of two-photon-absorption, free carrier absorption and refractive index change indicate that up to >30 times spectral broadening is achievable in an optimized device. The broadening is due to self phase modulation and saturates due to two photon absorption. Additionally, we find that free carrier dynamics also contributes to the spectral broadening and cause the overall spectrum to be asymmetric with respect to the pump wavelength.

  7. Let’s talk silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    While silicon (Si) has been a known plant nutrient for centuries, how plants use this element is still poorly understood. Researchers have identified how plants acquire Si from the environment and transport the element to all plant tissues, including roots, stems, petioles, leaves and flowers. We ...

  8. Epitaxial and bulk growth of cubic silicon carbide on off-oriented 4H-silicon carbide substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Norén, Olof

    2015-01-01

    The growth of bulk cubic silicon carbide has for a long time seemed to be something for the future. However, in this thesis the initial steps towards bulk cubic silicon carbide have been taken. The achievement of producing bulk cubic silicon carbide will have a great impact in various fields of science and industry such as for example the fields of semiconductor technology within electronic- and optoelectronic devices and bio-medical applications. The process that has been used to grow the bu...

  9. Method for one-to-one polishing of silicon nitride and silicon oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Suryadevara V. (Inventor); Natarajan, Anita (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of removing silicon nitride at about the same removal rate as silicon dioxide by CMP. The method utilizes a polishing slurry that includes colloidal silica abrasive particles dispersed in water and additives that modulate the silicon dioxide and silicon nitride removal rates such that they are about the same. In one embodiment of the invention, the additive is lysine or lysine mono hydrochloride in combination with picolinic acid, which is effective at a pH of about 8. In another embodiment of the invention, the additive is arginine in combination with picolinic acid, which is effective at a pH of about 10.

  10. Integrated Nanophotonic Silicon Devices for Next Generation Computing Chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, Stevan

    Development of the computing platform of the future depends largely on high bandwidth interconnects at intra-die level. Silicon photonics, as an innately CMOS compatible technology, is a promising candidate for delivering terabit per second bandwidths through the use of wavelength division multiplex (WDM) signaling. Silicon photonic interconnects offer unmatched bandwidth, density, energy efficiency, latency and reach, compared with the electrical interconnects. WDM silicon photonic links are viewed today as a promising solution for resolving the inter/intra-chip communication bottlenecks for high performance computing systems. Towards its maturity, silicon photonic technology has to resolve the issues of waveguide propagation loss, density of device integration, thermal stability of resonant devices, heterogeneous integration of various materials and many other problems. This dissertation describes the development of integrated photonic technology on silicon and silicon nitride platforms in the increased order of device complexity, from the fabrication process of low loss waveguides and efficient off-chip coupling devices, to the die-size reconfigurable lattice filters for optical signal processing. Particular emphasis of the dissertation is on the demonstration of CMOS-compatible, athermal silicon ring modulators that potentially hold the key to solving the thermal problem of silicon photonic devices. The development of high quality amorphous titanium dioxide films with negative thermo-optic coefficient enabled the fabrication of gigahertz-bandwidth silicon ring modulators that can be made insensitive to ambient temperature changes.

  11. Biological and medical sensor technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Iniewski, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    Biological and Medical Sensor Technologies presents contributions from top experts who explore the development and implementation of sensors for various applications used in medicine and biology. Edited by a pioneer in the area of advanced semiconductor materials, the book is divided into two sections. The first part covers sensors for biological applications. Topics include: Advanced sensing and communication in the biological world DNA-derivative architectures for long-wavelength bio-sensing Label-free silicon photonics Quartz crystal microbalance-based biosensors Lab-on-chip technologies fo

  12. Silicon nanocrystals as handy biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, Kouki; Hoshino, Akiyoshi; Manabe, Noriyoshi; Futamura, Yasuhiro; Tilley, Richard; Yamamoto, Kenji

    2007-02-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) have brighter and longer fluorescence than organic dyes. Therefore, QDs can be applied to biotechnology, and have capability to be applied to medical technology. Currently, among the several types of QDs, CdSe with a ZnS shell is one of the most popular QDs to be used in biological experiments. However, when the CdSe QDs were applied to clinical technology, potential toxicological problems due to CdSe core should be considered. To eliminate the problem, silicon nanocrystals, which have the potential of biocompatibility, could be a candidate of alternate probes. Silicon nanocrystals have been synthesized using several techniques such as aerosol, electrochemical etching, laser pyrolysis, plasma deposition, and colloids. Recently, the silicon nanocrystals were reported to be synthesized in inverse micelles and also stabilized with 1-heptene or allylamine capping. Blue fluorescence of the nanocrystals was observed when excited with a UV light. The nanocrystals covered with 1-heptene are hydrophobic, whereas the ones covered with allylamine are hydrophilic. To test the stability in cytosol, the water-soluble nanocrystals covered with allylamine were examined with a Hela cell incorporation experiment. Bright blue fluorescence of the nanocrystals was detected in the cytosol when excited with a UV light, implying that the nanocrystals were able to be applied to biological imaging. In order to expand the application range, we synthesized and compared a series of silicon nanocrystals, which have variable surface modification, such as alkyl group, alcohol group, and odorant molecules. This study will provide a wider range of optoelectronic applications and bioimaging technology.

  13. Doping Silicon Wafers with Boron by Use of Silicon Paste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Gao; Shu Zhou; Yunfan Zhang; Chen Dong; Xiaodong Pi; Deren Yang

    2013-01-01

    In this work we introduce recently developed silicon-paste-enabled p-type doping for silicon.Boron-doped silicon nanoparticles are synthesized by a plasma approach.They are then dispersed in solvents to form silicon paste.Silicon paste is screen-printed at the surface of silicon wafers.By annealing,boron atoms in silicon paste diffuse into silicon wafers.Chemical analysis is employed to obtain the concentrations of boron in silicon nanoparticles.The successful doping of silicon wafers with boron is evidenced by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) and sheet resistance measurements.

  14. Assessing Advanced Technology in CENATE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tallent, Nathan R.; Barker, Kevin J.; Gioiosa, Roberto; Marquez, Andres; Kestor, Gokcen; Song, Shuaiwen; Tumeo, Antonino; Kerbyson, Darren J.; Hoisie, Adolfy

    2016-08-08

    PNNL's Center for Advanced Technology Evaluation (CENATE) is a new U.S. Department of Energy center whose mission is to assess and facilitate access to emerging computing technology. CENATE is assessing a range of advanced technologies, from evolutionary to disruptive. Technologies of interest include the processor socket (homogeneous and accelerated systems), memories (dynamic, static, memory cubes), motherboards, networks (network interface cards and switches), and input/output and storage devices. CENATE is developing a multi-perspective evaluation process based on integrating advanced system instrumentation, performance measurements, and modeling and simulation. We show evaluations of two emerging network technologies: silicon photonics interconnects and the Data Vortex network. CENATE's evaluation also addresses the question of which machine is best for a given workload under certain constraints. We show a performance-power tradeoff analysis of a well-known machine learning application on two systems.

  15. Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional answer card reading method using OMR (Optical Mark Reader, most commonly, OMR special card special use, less versatile, high cost, aiming at the existing problems proposed a method based on pattern recognition of the answer card identification method. Using the method based on Line Segment Detector to detect the tilt of the image, the existence of tilt image rotation correction, and eventually achieve positioning and detection of answers to the answer sheet .Pattern recognition technology for automatic reading, high accuracy, detect faster

  16. Silicon: electrochemistry and luminescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, Ernst Stefan

    1997-01-01

    The electrochemistry of crystalline and porous silicon and the luminescence from porous silicon has been studied. One chapter deals with a model for the anodic dissolution of silicon in HF solution. In following chapters both the electrochemistry and various ways of generating visible luminescenc

  17. Silicon: electrochemistry and luminescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, Ernst Stefan

    1997-01-01

    The electrochemistry of crystalline and porous silicon and the luminescence from porous silicon has been studied. One chapter deals with a model for the anodic dissolution of silicon in HF solution. In following chapters both the electrochemistry and various ways of generating visible

  18. Silicon: electrochemistry and luminescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, Ernst Stefan

    2001-01-01

    The electrochemistry of crystalline and porous silicon and the luminescence from porous silicon has been studied. One chapter deals with a model for the anodic dissolution of silicon in HF solution. In following chapters both the electrochemistry and various ways of generating visible luminescenc

  19. New developments of the R & D silicon tracking for linear collider on silicon trackers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Savoy-Navarro; on behalf of the SiLC R&D Collaboration

    2007-12-01

    The status of the R & D activity achieved so far within the SiLC (silicon tracking for the linear collider) collaboration is reported here. It includes the following items: present status of the collaboration, new developments on sensors, on mechanics (new directions for module construction, large support structure, cooling, and alignment and integration issues), new lab test bench results on electronics and sensors. The perspectives over a period of four years are presented with a detailed test beam schedule and the roadmap including the construction of new mechanical prototypes equipped with front end and readout chips in deep sub-micron CMOS technology are discussed. Combined tests with other sub-detectors are finally addressed. This test beam program is inserted in the framework of the EUDET European project.

  20. Silicon sensors for trackers at high-luminosity environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltola, Timo

    2015-10-01

    The planned upgrade of the LHC accelerator at CERN, namely the high luminosity (HL) phase of the LHC (HL-LHC foreseen for 2023), will result in a more intense radiation environment than the present tracking system that was designed for. The required upgrade of the all-silicon central trackers at the ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb experiments will include higher granularity and radiation hard sensors. The radiation hardness of the new sensors must be roughly an order of magnitude higher than in the current LHC detectors. To address this, a massive R&D program is underway within the CERN RD50 Collaboration "Development of Radiation Hard Semiconductor Devices for Very High Luminosity Colliders" to develop silicon sensors with sufficient radiation tolerance. Research topics include the improvement of the intrinsic radiation tolerance of the sensor material and novel detector designs with benefits like reduced trapping probability (thinned and 3D sensors), maximized sensitive area (active edge sensors) and enhanced charge carrier generation (sensors with intrinsic gain). A review of the recent results from both measurements and TCAD simulations of several detector technologies and silicon materials at radiation levels expected for HL-LHC will be presented.

  1. Nanoscale plasmonic stamp lithography on silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fenglin; Luber, Erik J; Huck, Lawrence A; Olsen, Brian C; Buriak, Jillian M

    2015-02-24

    Nanoscale lithography on silicon is of interest for applications ranging from computer chip design to tissue interfacing. Block copolymer-based self-assembly, also called directed self-assembly (DSA) within the semiconductor industry, can produce a variety of complex nanopatterns on silicon, but these polymeric films typically require transformation into functional materials. Here we demonstrate how gold nanopatterns, produced via block copolymer self-assembly, can be incorporated into an optically transparent flexible PDMS stamp, termed a plasmonic stamp, and used to directly functionalize silicon surfaces on a sub-100 nm scale. We propose that the high intensity electric fields that result from the localized surface plasmons of the gold nanoparticles in the plasmonic stamps upon illumination with low intensity green light, lead to generation of electron-hole pairs in the silicon that drive spatially localized hydrosilylation. This approach demonstrates how localized surface plasmons can be used to enable functionalization of technologically relevant surfaces with nanoscale control.

  2. Silicone breast implants and connective tissue disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipworth, Loren; Holmich, Lisbet R; McLaughlin, Joseph K

    2011-01-01

    The association of silicone breast implants with connective tissue diseases (CTDs), including systemic sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and fibromyalgia, as well as a hypothesized new "atypical" disease, which does not meet established diagnostic criteria for any known...

  3. A Cost Roadmap for Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwen, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/375268456; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074628526; Schropp, Ruud; Faaij, A.

    Research and development of silicon heterojunction (SHJ) solar cells has seen a marked increase since the recent expiry of core patents describing SHJ technology. SHJ solar cells are expected to offer various cost benefits compared to conventional crystalline silicon solar cells. This paper analyses

  4. Performance of the all-silicon CMS tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Caner, A

    2001-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Tracker Collaboration has recently revised the tracking-detector layout. While the previous design relied on Micro Strip Gas Chamber (MSGC) and silicon detectors, the new layout implements solid state sensors as the sole technological choice. The new all-silicon layout is presented and the projected performance is discussed in terms of several benchmark topologies. (5 refs).

  5. Performance of the all-silicon CMS tracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caner, Alessandra E-mail: alessandra.caner@cern.ch

    2001-04-11

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Tracker Collaboration has recently revised the tracking-detector layout. While the previous design relied on Micro Strip Gas Chamber (MSGC) and silicon detectors, the new layout implements solid state sensors as the sole technological choice. The new all-silicon layout is presented and the projected performance is discussed in terms of several benchmark topologies.

  6. A Cost Roadmap for Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwen, A.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074628526; Schropp, Ruud; Faaij, A.

    2016-01-01

    Research and development of silicon heterojunction (SHJ) solar cells has seen a marked increase since the recent expiry of core patents describing SHJ technology. SHJ solar cells are expected to offer various cost benefits compared to conventional crystalline silicon solar cells. This paper analyses

  7. Impurities in silicon and their impact on solar cell performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coletti, Gianluca

    2011-01-01

    Photovoltaic conversion of solar energy is a rapidly growing technology. More than 80% of global solar cell production is currently based on silicon. The aim of this thesis is to understand the complex relation between impurity content of silicon starting material (“feedstock”) and the resulting sol

  8. A Cost Roadmap for Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwen, A.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Schropp, Ruud; Faaij, A.

    2016-01-01

    Research and development of silicon heterojunction (SHJ) solar cells has seen a marked increase since the recent expiry of core patents describing SHJ technology. SHJ solar cells are expected to offer various cost benefits compared to conventional crystalline silicon solar cells. This paper analyses

  9. The economic payoff for a state-of-the-art high-efficiency flat-plate crystalline silicon solar cell technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickler, Donald B.; Callaghan, W. T.

    In 1986 during the flat-plate solar array project, silicon solar cells 4.0 sq cm in area were fabricated at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) with a conversion efficiency of 20.1 percent (AM1.5-global). Sixteen cells were processed with efficiencies measuring 19.5 percent (AM1.5 global) or better. These cells were produced using refined versions of conventional processing methods, aside from certain advanced techniques that bring about a significant reduction in a major mechanism (surface recombination) that limits cell efficiency. Wacker Siltronic p-type float-zone 0.18-ohm-cm wafers were used. Conversion efficiencies in this range have previously been reported by other researchers, but generally on much smaller (0.5 vs. 4.0 cm) devices which have undergone sophisticated and costly processing steps. An economic analysis is presented of the potential payoffs for this approach, using the Solar Array Manufacturing Industry Costing Standards (SAMICS) methodology. The process sequence used and the assumptions made for capturing the economies of scale are presented.

  10. Production technology of low silicon iron copper tailings autoclaved brick%低硅铜铁尾矿生产蒸压砖的技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓景明; 唐怀志

    2013-01-01

      以低硅铜铁尾矿为主要原料,掺入适量矿渣、铜渣、硅铝酸盐、硫酸盐、碳酸盐组成的固化剂经过加压成型后,在183℃温度的蒸压养护下制成标准砖,该砖平均抗压强度达到13.6 MPa,抗冻性能指标合格,固体废弃物利用率达到90%以上.%The paper introduces a kind of autoclaved brick, which is made of low silicon copper iron tailings as a main raw material, and appropriate mixture of amount of slag, copper slag, aluminosilicate, sulfates, carbonates as curing agent. The mixture is pressed into brick and cured at 183 ℃, which can reach 13.6 MPa of average compressive strength and qualified frost resistance index.

  11. Porous Silicon & Titanium Dioxide Coatings Prepared by Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet Chemical Vapour Deposition Technique-A Novel Coating Technology for Photovoltaic Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bhatt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet (APPJ is an alternative for wet processes used to make anti reflection coatings and smooth substrate surface for the PV module. It is also an attractive technique because of it’s high growth rate, low power consumption, lower cost and absence of high cost vacuum systems. This work deals with the deposition of silicon oxide from hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO thin films and titanium dioxide from tetraisopropyl ortho titanate using an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ system in open air conditions. A sinusoidal high voltage with a frequency between 19-23 kHz at power up to 1000 W was applied between two tubular electrodes separated by a dielectric material. The jet, characterized by Tg ~ 600-800 K, was mostly laminar (Re ~ 1200 at the nozzle exit and became partially turbulent along the jet axis (Re ~ 3300. The spatially resolved emission spectra showed OH, N2, N2+ and CN molecular bands and O, H, N, Cu and Cr lines as well as the NO2 chemiluminescence continuum (450-800 nm. Thin films with good uniformity on the substrate were obtained at high deposition rate, between 800 -1000 nm.s-1, and AFM results revealed that coatings are relatively smooth (Ra ~ 2 nm. The FTIR and SEM analyses were better used to monitor the chemical composition and the morphology of the films in function of the different experimental conditions.

  12. A review of oxide, silicon nitride, and silicon carbide brazing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santella, M.L.; Moorhead, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    There is growing interest in using ceramics for structural applications, many of which require the fabrication of components with complicated shapes. Normal ceramic processing methods restrict the shapes into which these materials can be produced, but ceramic joining technology can be used to overcome many of these limitations, and also offers the possibility for improving the reliability of ceramic components. One method of joining ceramics is by brazing. The metallic alloys used for bonding must wet and adhere to the ceramic surfaces without excessive reaction. Alumina, partially stabilized zirconia, and silicon nitride have high ionic character to their chemical bonds and are difficult to wet. Alloys for brazing these materials must be formulated to overcome this problem. Silicon carbide, which has some metallic characteristics, reacts excessively with many alloys, and forms joints of low mechanical strength. The brazing characteristics of these three types of ceramics, and residual stresses in ceramic-to-metal joints are briefly discussed.

  13. Modulation Doping of Silicon using Aluminium-induced Acceptor States in Silicon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Dirk; Hiller, Daniel; Gutsch, Sebastian; Zacharias, Margit; Smith, Sean

    2017-04-01

    All electronic, optoelectronic or photovoltaic applications of silicon depend on controlling majority charge carriers via doping with impurity atoms. Nanoscale silicon is omnipresent in fundamental research (quantum dots, nanowires) but also approached in future technology nodes of the microelectronics industry. In general, silicon nanovolumes, irrespective of their intended purpose, suffer from effects that impede conventional doping due to fundamental physical principles such as out-diffusion, statistics of small numbers, quantum- or dielectric confinement. In analogy to the concept of modulation doping, originally invented for III-V semiconductors, we demonstrate a heterostructure modulation doping method for silicon. Our approach utilizes a specific acceptor state of aluminium atoms in silicon dioxide to generate holes as majority carriers in adjacent silicon. By relocating the dopants from silicon to silicon dioxide, Si nanoscale doping problems are circumvented. In addition, the concept of aluminium-induced acceptor states for passivating hole selective tunnelling contacts as required for high-efficiency photovoltaics is presented and corroborated by first carrier lifetime and tunnelling current measurements.

  14. Metallic coatings on silicon substrates, and methods of forming metallic coatings on silicon substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branagan, Daniel J.; Hyde, Timothy A.; Fincke, James R.

    2008-03-11

    The invention includes methods of forming a metallic coating on a substrate which contains silicon. A metallic glass layer is formed over a silicon surface of the substrate. The invention includes methods of protecting a silicon substrate. The substrate is provided within a deposition chamber along with a deposition target. Material from the deposition target is deposited over at least a portion of the silicon substrate to form a protective layer or structure which contains metallic glass. The metallic glass comprises iron and one or more of B, Si, P and C. The invention includes structures which have a substrate containing silicon and a metallic layer over the substrate. The metallic layer contains less than or equal to about 2 weight % carbon and has a hardness of at least 9.2 GPa. The metallic layer can have an amorphous microstructure or can be devitrified to have a nanocrystalline microstructure.

  15. The chemistry of silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Rochow, E G; Emeléus, H J; Nyholm, Ronald

    1975-01-01

    Pergamon Texts in Organic Chemistry, Volume 9: The Chemistry of Silicon presents information essential in understanding the chemical properties of silicon. The book first covers the fundamental aspects of silicon, such as its nuclear, physical, and chemical properties. The text also details the history of silicon, its occurrence and distribution, and applications. Next, the selection enumerates the compounds and complexes of silicon, along with organosilicon compounds. The text will be of great interest to chemists and chemical engineers. Other researchers working on research study involving s

  16. 40 Gbit/s silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) phase modulator

    OpenAIRE

    Alloatti L.; Korn D.; Hillerkuss D.; Vallaitis T.; Li J; Bonk R.; Palmer R.; Schellinger T.; Barklund A.; Dinu R.

    2010-01-01

    A 40 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator is demonstrated. The modulator is based on a slotted silicon waveguide filled with an organic material. The silicon organic hybrid (SOH) approach allows combining highly nonlinear electro-optic organic materials with CMOS-compatible silicon photonics technology.

  17. Lead sulphide nanocrystal photodetector technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saran, Rinku; Curry, Richard J.

    2016-02-01

    Light detection is the underlying principle of many optoelectronic systems. For decades, semiconductors including silicon carbide, silicon, indium gallium arsenide and germanium have dominated the photodetector industry. They can show excellent photosensitivity but are limited by one or more aspects, such as high production cost, high-temperature processing, flexible substrate incompatibility, limited spectral range or a requirement for cryogenic cooling for efficient operation. Recently lead sulphide (PbS) nanocrystals have emerged as one of the most promising new materials for photodetector fabrication. They offer several advantages including low-cost manufacturing, solution processability, size-tunable spectral sensitivity and flexible substrate compatibility, and they have achieved figures of merit outperforming conventional photodetectors. We review the underlying concepts, breakthroughs and remaining challenges in photodetector technologies based on PbS nanocrystals.

  18. Chemical Analysis Methods for Silicon Carbide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Keyin

    2006-01-01

    @@ 1 General and Scope This Standard specifies the determination method of silicon dioxide, free silicon, free carbon, total carbon, silicon carbide, ferric sesquioxide in silicon carbide abrasive material.

  19. Porous silicon gettering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuo, Y.S.; Menna, P.; Al-Jassim, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-01

    We have studied a novel extrinsic gettering method that utilizes the very large surface areas, produced by porous silicon etch on both front and back surfaces of the silicon wafer, as gettering sites. In this method, a simple and low-cost chemical etching is used to generate the porous silicon layers. Then, a high-flux solar furnace (HFSF) is used to provide high-temperature annealing and the required injection of silicon interstitials. The gettering sites, along with the gettered impurities, can be easily removed at the end the process. The porous silicon removal process consists of oxidizing the porous silicon near the end the gettering process followed by sample immersion in HF acid. Each porous silicon gettering process removes up to about 10 {mu}m of wafer thickness. This gettering process can be repeated so that the desired purity level is obtained.

  20. Exceptional plasticity of silicon nanobridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, Tadashi; Sato, Takaaki; Toshiyoshi, Hiroshi; Collard, Dominique; Fujita, Hiroyuki [University of Tokyo, Institute of Industrial Science, 4-6-1 Komaba Meguro, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Cleri, Fabrizio [Institut d' Electronique Microelectronique et Nanotechnologie (CNRS UMR 8520), Universite de Lille I, Avenue Poincare BP60069 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Kakushima, Kuniyuki [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259, Nagatsuda, Midori, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8502 (Japan); Mita, Makoto [Department of Spacecraft Engineering, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1, Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8510 (Japan); Miyata, Masaki; Itamura, Noriaki; Sasaki, Naruo [Department of Materials and Life Sciences, Seikei University, 3-3-1, Kitamachi, Kichijoji, Musashino, Tokyo 180-8633 (Japan); Endo, Junji, E-mail: tadashii@iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp [FK Optical laboratory, 1-13-4 Nakano Niiza Saitama, 352-0005 (Japan)

    2011-09-02

    The plasticity of covalently bonded materials is a subject at the forefront of materials science, bearing on a wide range of technological and fundamental aspects. However, covalent materials fracture in a brittle manner when the deformation exceeds just a few per cent. It is predicted that a macroscopically brittle material like silicon can show nanoscale plasticity. Here we report the exceptional plasticity observed in silicon nanocontacts ('nanobridges') at room temperature using a special experimental setup combining a transmission electron microscope and a microelectromechanical system. When accounting for surface diffusion, we succeeded in elongating the nanocontact into a wire-like structure, with a fivefold increase in volume, up to more than twenty times the original length. Such a large plasticity was caused by the stress-assisted diffusion and the sliding of the intergranular, amorphous-like material among the nanocrystals.

  1. III-V semiconductor devices integrated with silicon III-V semiconductor devices integrated with silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkinson, Mark; Martin, Trevor; Smowton, Peter

    2013-09-01

    The integration of III-V semiconductor devices with silicon is one of the most topical challenges in current electronic materials research. The combination has the potential to exploit the unique optical and electronic functionality of III-V technology with the signal processing capabilities and advanced low-cost volume production techniques associated with silicon. Key industrial drivers include the use of high mobility III-V channel materials (InGaAs, InAs, InSb) to extend the performance of Si CMOS, the unification of electronics and photonics by combining photonic components (GaAs, InP) with a silicon platform for next-generation optical interconnects and the exploitation of large-area silicon substrates and high-volume Si processing capabilities to meet the challenges of low-cost production, a challenge which is particularly important for GaN-based devices in both power management and lighting applications. The diverse nature of the III-V and Si device approaches, materials technologies and the distinct differences between industrial Si and III-V processing have provided a major barrier to integration in the past. However, advances over the last decade in areas such as die transfer, wafer fusion and epitaxial growth have promoted widespread renewed interest. It is now timely to bring some of these topics together in a special issue covering a range of approaches and materials providing a snapshot of recent progress across the field. The issue opens a paper describing a strategy for the epitaxial integration of photonic devices where Kataria et al describe progress in the lateral overgrowth of InP/Si. As an alternative, Benjoucef and Reithmaier report on the potential of InAs quantum dots grown direct onto Si surfaces whilst Sandall et al describe the properties of similar InAs quantum dots as an optical modulator device. As an alternative to epitaxial integration approaches, Yokoyama et al describe a wafer bonding approach using a buried oxide concept, Corbett

  2. Large-Area, UV-Optimized, Back-Illuminated Silicon Photomultiplier Arrays Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Existing photocathode-based technologies for visible and UV instruments lack sensitivity, are bulky, and have limited reliability. Solid-state silicon...

  3. Amorphous silicon photosensors integrated in microfluidic structures as a technological demonstrator of a “true” Lab-on-Chip system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Caputo

    2015-03-01

    As a proof of the successful integration of the different technological steps we demonstrated the ability of the a-Si:H photosensors to detect the presence of a droplet over an EWOD electrode and the effective coupling between the digital and the continuous microfluidics, that can allow for functionalization, immobilization and recognition of biomolecules without external optical devices or microfluidic interconnections.

  4. Advanced Silicone-based Coatings for Flexible Fabric Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Silicone coatings are the system of choice for inflatable fabrics used in several space, military, and consumer applications, including airbags, parachutes, rafts,...

  5. Symposium Gyro Technology 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorg, H. [ed.] [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. A fuer Mechanik

    1997-10-01

    This volume includes the twenty papers which were presented at the Symposium Gyro Technology 1997. The subjects that have been treated during the symposium were as follows: Performance and design of silicon micromachined gyro; improved rate gyroscope designs designated for fabrication by modern deep silicon etching; micromechanical vibratory rate gyroscopes fabricated in conventional CMOS; error modelling of silicon angular rate sensor; a capacitive accelerometer as an example for surface micromachined inertial sensors; initial production results of a new family of fiber optic gyroscopes; dual-axis multiplexed open loop fiber optic gyroscope; flattely supported vibratory gyro-sensor using a Trident-type tuning fork resonator; innovative mechanizations to optimize inertial sensors for high or low rate operations; design of a planar vibratory gyroscope using electrostatic actuation and electromanetic detection; fiber optic gyro based land navigation system; FOG AHRS and AHRS/GPS navigation system: the low cost solution; GPS/GLONASS/INS-navigation (GLOGINAV); small-sized integrated system of the sea mobile objects attitude and navigation; concepts for hybrid positioning; preliminary results from a large ring laser gyroscope for fundamental physics and geophysics; a `sense of balance` - AHRS with low-cost vibrating-gyroscopes for medical diagnostics; application of strapdown inertial systems of orientation and navigation in intrapipe moving diagnostic apparatus; investigation of a digital readout system for laser gyro; the use of angular rate multiple integrals as input signals for strapdown attitude algorithms. (AKF)

  6. Fusion bonding of silicon nitride surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reck, Kasper; Østergaard, Christian; Thomsen, Erik Vilain

    2011-01-01

    While silicon nitride surfaces are widely used in many micro electrical mechanical system devices, e.g. for chemical passivation, electrical isolation or environmental protection, studies on fusion bonding of two silicon nitride surfaces (Si3N4–Si3N4 bonding) are very few and highly application...... specific. Often fusion bonding of silicon nitride surfaces to silicon or silicon dioxide to silicon surfaces is preferred, though Si3N4–Si3N4 bonding is indeed possible and practical for many devices as will be shown in this paper. We present an overview of existing knowledge on Si3N4–Si3N4 bonding and new...... results on bonding of thin and thick Si3N4 layers. The new results include high temperature bonding without any pretreatment, along with improved bonding ability achieved by thermal oxidation and chemical pretreatment. The bonded wafers include both unprocessed and processed wafers with a total silicon...

  7. Characterization of solar-grade silicon produced by the SiF4-Na process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjurjo, A.; Sancier, K. M.; Emerson, R. M.; Leach, S. C.; Minahan, J.

    1986-01-01

    A process was developed for producing low cost solar grade silicon by the reaction between SiF4 gas and sodium metal. The results of the characterization of the silicon are presented. These results include impurity levels, electronic properties of the silicon after crystal growth, and the performance of solar photovoltaic cells fabricated from wafers of the single crystals. The efficiency of the solar cells fabricated from semiconductor silicon and SiF4-Na silicon was the same.

  8. Delta-Doping at Wafer Level for High Throughput, High Yield Fabrication of Silicon Imaging Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenk, Michael E. (Inventor); Nikzad, Shoulch (Inventor); Jones, Todd J. (Inventor); Greer, Frank (Inventor); Carver, Alexander G. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Systems and methods for producing high quantum efficiency silicon devices. A silicon MBE has a preparation chamber that provides for cleaning silicon surfaces using an oxygen plasma to remove impurities and a gaseous (dry) NH3 + NF3 room temperature oxide removal process that leaves the silicon surface hydrogen terminated. Silicon wafers up to 8 inches in diameter have devices that can be fabricated using the cleaning procedures and MBE processing, including delta doping.

  9. Positron annihilation spectroscopy applied to silicon-based materials

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, J W

    2000-01-01

    deposition on silicon substrates has been examined. The systematic correlations observed between the nitrogen content of the films and both the fitted Doppler parameters and the positron diffusion lengths are discussed in detail. Profiling measurements of silicon nitride films deposited on silicon substrates and subsequently implanted with silicon ions at a range of fluences were also performed. For higher implantation doses, damage was seen to extend beyond the film layers and into the silicon substrates. Subsequent annealing of two of the samples was seen to have a significant influence on the nature of the films. Positron annihilation spectroscopy, in conjunction with a variable-energy positron beam, has been employed to probe non-destructively the surface and near-surface regions of a selection of technologically important silicon-based samples. By measuring the Doppler broadening of the 511 keV annihilation lineshape, information on the positrons' microenvironment prior to annihilation may be obtained. T...

  10. A Novel Nanofabrication Technique of Silicon-Based Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lingkuan; He, Xiaobin; Gao, Jianfeng; Li, Junjie; Wei, Yayi; Yan, Jiang

    2016-11-01

    A novel nanofabrication technique which can produce highly controlled silicon-based nanostructures in wafer scale has been proposed using a simple amorphous silicon (α-Si) material as an etch mask. SiO2 nanostructures directly fabricated can serve as nanotemplates to transfer into the underlying substrates such as silicon, germanium, transistor gate, or other dielectric materials to form electrically functional nanostructures and devices. In this paper, two typical silicon-based nanostructures such as nanoline and nanofin have been successfully fabricated by this technique, demonstrating excellent etch performance. In addition, silicon nanostructures fabricated above can be further trimmed to less than 10 nm by combing with assisted post-treatment methods. The novel nanofabrication technique will be expected a new emerging technology with low process complexity and good compatibility with existing silicon integrated circuit and is an important step towards the easy fabrication of a wide variety of nanoelectronics, biosensors, and optoelectronic devices.

  11. Laser-Writing in Silicon for 3D Information Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Tokel, O; Pavlov, I; Tozburun, S; Akca, I; Ilday, F O

    2014-01-01

    Micromachining of silicon with lasers is being investigated since the 1970s. So far generating subsurface modifications buried inside the bulk of the silicon without damaging the surface has not resulted in success. Here, we report a method for photo-inducing buried structures in doped silicon wafers with pulsed infrared lasers without modifying the wafer surface. We demonstrate large aspect-ratio, continuous multilevel subsurface structures, with lengths on the millimetre scale, while having sub-micron widths. We further demonstrate spatial information encoding capabilities embedded in subsurface silicon barcodes based on an optical coherence tomography (OCT) readout. The demonstrated silicon processing technology can be used for the realization of multilayered silicon chips, optofluidics and on-chip quantum optics experiments.

  12. OCULAR COMPLICATIONS OF SILICONE OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Kamran Khalid

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Silicone oil (SO is an invaluable tool in the management of complex retinal detachments (RDs. Injection of silicone oil is associated with a variety of ocular complications specially when it is kept for a long time and its removal is endangering retinal re-detachment. The objective of this study was to determine the frequencies of different ocular complications associated with silicone oil injection in our setup. Study Design: Case series. Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at Vitreo-retina division of Al-Shifa Trust Eye Hospital, Rawalpindi from January 2014 to June 2014. Material and Methods: A total of 30 patients were included in the study who underwent pars-planavitrectomy (PPV with silicone oil injection for complex retinal detachments. The patients who had reached between 3 months & 6 months of their postoperative period and were presenting with some complications related to silicone oil injection were included in the study. Their records were reviewed and pre-operative data were collected regarding state of the eye preoperatively. Then the post-operative complications were noted. The descriptive and analytical statistics of different variables were measured using SPSS-17.0 software. Results: Out of thirty patients included in our study 23 (76.7% were male and 7 (23.3% were female. The mean age was 21.53 ± 16.004 years and range was 66 years. The mean pre-operative intra-ocular pressure ( IOP was 14.0 ± 2.150 mmHg and range 8 mmHg and the mean post-operative IOP was 24.93 ± 13.889 mmHg and range 45 mmHg (p=0.001. The pre-operative PVR grade-C was absent in 12 (40% patients and was present in 18 (60% patients and post-operative PVR grade-C was absent in 24 (80% patients and was present in 6 (20% patients (p=0.004; McNemar test. Band keratopathy was seen in 8 (26.7% and corneal decompensation in 2 (6.7% patients. Emulsification of silicone oil was seen in 14 (46.7% patients. Rubeosisiridis was present in 2

  13. Copper-assisted, anti-reflection etching of silicon surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toor, Fatima; Branz, Howard

    2014-08-26

    A method (300) for etching a silicon surface (116) to reduce reflectivity. The method (300) includes electroless deposition of copper nanoparticles about 20 nanometers in size on the silicon surface (116), with a particle-to-particle spacing of 3 to 8 nanometers. The method (300) includes positioning (310) the substrate (112) with a silicon surface (116) into a vessel (122). The vessel (122) is filled (340) with a volume of an etching solution (124) so as to cover the silicon surface (116). The etching solution (124) includes an oxidant-etchant solution (146), e.g., an aqueous solution of hydrofluoric acid and hydrogen peroxide. The silicon surface (116) is etched (350) by agitating the etching solution (124) with, for example, ultrasonic agitation, and the etching may include heating (360) the etching solution (124) and directing light (365) onto the silicon surface (116). During the etching, copper nanoparticles enhance or drive the etching process.

  14. Miniature optical coherence tomography system based on silicon photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margallo-Balbás, Eduardo; Pandraud, Gregory; French, Patrick J.

    2008-02-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a promising medical imaging technique. It has found applications in many fields of medicine and has a large potential for the optical biopsy of tumours. One of the technological challenges impairing faster adoption of OCT is the relative complexity of the optical instrumentation required, which translates into expensive and bulky setups. In this paper we report an implementation of Time Domain OCT (TD-OCT) based on a silicon photonic platform. The devices are fabricated using Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) wafers, on which rib waveguides are defined. While most of the components needed are well-known in this technology, a fast delay line with sufficient scanning range is a specific requirement of TD-OCT. In the system reported, this was obtained making use of the thermo-optical effect of silicon. By modulating the thermal resistance of the waveguide to the substrate, it is possible to establish a trade-off between maximum working frequency and power dissipation. Within this trade-off, the systems obtained can be operated in the kHz range, and they achieve temperature shifts corresponding to scanning ranges of over 2mm. Though the current implementation still requires external sources and detectors to be coupled to the Planar Lightwave Circuit (PLC), future work will include three-dimensional integration of these components onto the substrate. With the potential to include the read-out and driving electronics on the same die, the reported approach can yield extremely compact and low-cost TD-OCT systems, enabling a wealth of new applications, including gastrointestinal pills with optical biopsy capabilities.

  15. Mechanically flexible optically transparent silicon fabric with high thermal budget devices from bulk silicon (100)

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2013-05-30

    Today’s information age is driven by silicon based electronics. For nearly four decades semiconductor industry has perfected the fabrication process of continuingly scaled transistor – heart of modern day electronics. In future, silicon industry will be more pervasive, whose application will range from ultra-mobile computation to bio-integrated medical electronics. Emergence of flexible electronics opens up interesting opportunities to expand the horizon of electronics industry. However, silicon – industry’s darling material is rigid and brittle. Therefore, we report a generic batch fabrication process to convert nearly any silicon electronics into a flexible one without compromising its (i) performance; (ii) ultra-large-scale-integration complexity to integrate billions of transistors within small areas; (iii) state-of-the-art process compatibility, (iv) advanced materials used in modern semiconductor technology; (v) the most widely used and well-studied low-cost substrate mono-crystalline bulk silicon (100). In our process, we make trenches using anisotropic reactive ion etching (RIE) in the inactive areas (in between the devices) of a silicon substrate (after the devices have been fabricated following the regular CMOS process), followed by a dielectric based spacer formation to protect the sidewall of the trench and then performing an isotropic etch to create caves in silicon. When these caves meet with each other the top portion of the silicon with the devices is ready to be peeled off from the bottom silicon substrate. Release process does not need to use any external support. Released silicon fabric (25 μm thick) is mechanically flexible (5 mm bending radius) and the trenches make it semi-transparent (transparency of 7%). © (2013) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  16. Study on Preparation Technology of TEOS from Silicon Tetrachloride%SiCl4制备正硅酸乙酯的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵云; 师琳霞; 但建明; 齐誉; 洪成林

    2014-01-01

    In this article,tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) was prepared using silicon tetrachloride and alcohol as the raw materials. Effects of the ratio of SiCl4 and alcohol,reaction temperature,reaction time on yield and purity of TEOS were studied based on semi-continuous process.The results of orthogonal experiment indicated:At 15 ℃,14.21 g alcohol at a constant rate was dropped into 15 g SiCl4.After reaction 35 min,8.12 g alcohol was supplemented,then at 55 ℃ constant temperature 40 min.The yield of TEOS was up to 86.61% after removing low boiling point alcohol and hydrogen chloride through vacuum distillation. IR and GC demonstrated that the structure of TEOS was correct and its purity was over 99.0% and reach analytical reagent.%为寻找一条工序简单、耗价低、易于工业放大路线,实现多晶硅副产物四氯化硅(SiCl4)废物资源化制备正硅酸乙酯(TEOS),本文以多晶硅副产物SiCl4和无水乙醇为原料制备TEOS,在半连续化生产工艺的基础上研究了SiCl4与乙醇的摩尔比、反应温度、反应时间等因素对TEOS产率及纯度的影响。正交实验优化结果表明:15℃下,以恒定速率滴加14.21 g无水乙醇于15 g四氯化硅中,反应35 min,补加8.12 g无水乙醇;55℃下恒温40 min,经减压蒸馏,除去低沸点的乙醇和氯化氢,TEOS产率达到86.61%。对正交实验优水平下制得的产物进行红外光谱(IR)和气相色谱(GC)分析,结果表明:产物中TEOS结构正确,其纯度大于99.0%,达到市售分析纯纯度。

  17. Method of forming crystalline silicon devices on glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, A.M.

    1995-03-21

    A method is disclosed for fabricating single-crystal silicon microelectronic components on a silicon substrate and transferring same to a glass substrate. This is achieved by utilizing conventional silicon processing techniques for fabricating components of electronic circuits and devices on bulk silicon, wherein a bulk silicon surface is prepared with epitaxial layers prior to the conventional processing. The silicon substrate is bonded to a glass substrate and the bulk silicon is removed leaving the components intact on the glass substrate surface. Subsequent standard processing completes the device and circuit manufacturing. This invention is useful in applications requiring a transparent or insulating substrate, particularly for display manufacturing. Other applications include sensors, actuators, optoelectronics, radiation hard electronics, and high temperature electronics. 7 figures.

  18. Silicon Brains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefflinger, Bernd

    Beyond the digital neural networks of Chap. 16, the more radical mapping of brain-like structures and processes into VLSI substrates has been pioneered by Carver Mead more than 30 years ago [1]. The basic idea was to exploit the massive parallelism of such circuits and to create low-power and fault-tolerant information-processing systems. Neuromorphic engineering has recently seen a revival with the availability of deep-submicron CMOS technology, which allows for the construction of very-large-scale mixed-signal systems combining local analog processing in neuronal cells with binary signalling via action potentials. Modern implementations are able to reach the complexity-scale of large functional units of the human brain, and they feature the ability to learn by plasticity mechanisms found in neuroscience. Combined with high-performance programmable logic and elaborate software tools, such systems are currently evolving into user-configurable non-von-Neumann computing systems, which can be used to implement and test novel computational paradigms. The chapter introduces basic properties of biological brains with up to 200 Billion neurons and their 1014 synapses, where action on a synapse takes ˜10 ms and involves an energy of ˜10 fJ. We outline 10x programs on neuromorphic electronic systems in Europe and the USA, which are intended to integrate 108 neurons and 1012 synapses, the level of a cat's brain, in a volume of 1 L and with a power dissipation design an intelligent technical response.

  19. Silicon carbide-free graphene growth on silicon for lithium-ion battery with high volumetric energy density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, In Hyuk; Hwan Park, Jong; Kwon, Soonchul; Park, Seongyong; Rümmeli, Mark H.; Bachmatiuk, Alicja; Song, Hyun Jae; Ku, Junhwan; Choi, Jang Wook; Choi, Jae-man; Doo, Seok-Gwang; Chang, Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    Silicon is receiving discernable attention as an active material for next generation lithium-ion battery anodes because of its unparalleled gravimetric capacity. However, the large volume change of silicon over charge–discharge cycles weakens its competitiveness in the volumetric energy density and cycle life. Here we report direct graphene growth over silicon nanoparticles without silicon carbide formation. The graphene layers anchored onto the silicon surface accommodate the volume expansion of silicon via a sliding process between adjacent graphene layers. When paired with a commercial lithium cobalt oxide cathode, the silicon carbide-free graphene coating allows the full cell to reach volumetric energy densities of 972 and 700 Wh l−1 at first and 200th cycle, respectively, 1.8 and 1.5 times higher than those of current commercial lithium-ion batteries. This observation suggests that two-dimensional layered structure of graphene and its silicon carbide-free integration with silicon can serve as a prototype in advancing silicon anodes to commercially viable technology. PMID:26109057

  20. Silicon carbide-free graphene growth on silicon for lithium-ion battery with high volumetric energy density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, In Hyuk; Hwan Park, Jong; Kwon, Soonchul; Park, Seongyong; Rümmeli, Mark H; Bachmatiuk, Alicja; Song, Hyun Jae; Ku, Junhwan; Choi, Jang Wook; Choi, Jae-Man; Doo, Seok-Gwang; Chang, Hyuk

    2015-06-25

    Silicon is receiving discernable attention as an active material for next generation lithium-ion battery anodes because of its unparalleled gravimetric capacity. However, the large volume change of silicon over charge-discharge cycles weakens its competitiveness in the volumetric energy density and cycle life. Here we report direct graphene growth over silicon nanoparticles without silicon carbide formation. The graphene layers anchored onto the silicon surface accommodate the volume expansion of silicon via a sliding process between adjacent graphene layers. When paired with a commercial lithium cobalt oxide cathode, the silicon carbide-free graphene coating allows the full cell to reach volumetric energy densities of 972 and 700 Wh l(-1) at first and 200th cycle, respectively, 1.8 and 1.5 times higher than those of current commercial lithium-ion batteries. This observation suggests that two-dimensional layered structure of graphene and its silicon carbide-free integration with silicon can serve as a prototype in advancing silicon anodes to commercially viable technology.

  1. Plasmonic and silicon spherical nanoparticle antireflective coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baryshnikova, K. V.; Petrov, M. I.; Babicheva, V. E.; Belov, P. A.

    2016-03-01

    Over the last decade, plasmonic antireflecting nanostructures have been extensively studied to be utilized in various optical and optoelectronic systems such as lenses, solar cells, photodetectors, and others. The growing interest to all-dielectric photonics as an alternative optical technology along with plasmonics motivates us to compare antireflective properties of plasmonic and all-dielectric nanoparticle coatings based on silver and crystalline silicon respectively. Our simulation results for spherical nanoparticles array on top of amorphous silicon show that both silicon and silver coatings demonstrate strong antireflective properties in the visible spectral range. For the first time, we show that zero reflectance from the structure with silicon coatings originates from the destructive interference of electric- and magnetic-dipole responses of nanoparticle array with the wave reflected from the substrate, and we refer to this reflection suppression as substrate-mediated Kerker effect. We theoretically compare the silicon and silver coating effectiveness for the thin-film photovoltaic applications. Silver nanoparticles can be more efficient, enabling up to 30% increase of the overall absorbance in semiconductor layer. Nevertheless, silicon coatings allow up to 64% absorbance increase in the narrow band spectral range because of the substrate-mediated Kerker effect, and band position can be effectively tuned by varying the nanoparticles sizes.

  2. Applications of passivated silicon detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyung, Richard; Park, Chan Ho

    2012-03-01

    We can postulate that dark matter are WIMPS, more specifically, Majorana particles called neutralinos floating through space. Upon neutralino-neutralino annihilation, they create a greater burst of other particles into space: these being all kinds of particles including anti-deuterons which are the indications of the existence of dark matter. For the study of the applications of passivated silicon detectors, this paper shows following procedures in two categories. Painting on little pieces of silicon (Polyimid and Boxcar Red) :Took clean paint brush and painted on Polyimid and Boxcar red samples onto little pieces of sample silicon and dried for a certain number of hours in different conditions. Cooling test : usually done in 7 cycles, cool until usually -35 degrees or -40 degrees Celsius with thermoelectric cooler, dry out, evapate the moisture in the fume hood, take pictures with the microscope and check for irregularities every 1, 4 and 7 times. The results show us how the passivated silicon will act in the real experiment--the vacuum chamber and x-rays (from the radioactive source), and different atmospheric pressures simulate what it will be like in space.

  3. Silicon Pore Optics development for ATHENA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collon, Maximilien J.; Vacanti, Giuseppe; Guenther, Ramses

    2015-01-01

    ) to meet the science requirements of large effective area (1-2 m(2) at a few keV) at a focal length of 12 m. To meet the high angular resolution (5 arc seconds) requirement the X-ray lens will also need to be very accurate. Silicon Pore Optics (SPO) technology has been invented to enable building...

  4. Silicon waveguides produced by wafer bonding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette; Jensen, Flemming; Bunk, Oliver

    2005-01-01

    X-ray waveguides are successfully produced employing standard silicon technology of UV photolithography and wafer bonding. Contrary to theoretical expectations for similar systems even 100 mu m broad guides of less than 80 nm height do not collapse and can be used as one dimensional waveguides...

  5. Silicon Pore Optics development for ATHENA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collon, Maximilien J.; Vacanti, Giuseppe; Guenther, Ramses;

    2015-01-01

    ) to meet the science requirements of large effective area (1-2 m(2) at a few keV) at a focal length of 12 m. To meet the high angular resolution (5 arc seconds) requirement the X-ray lens will also need to be very accurate. Silicon Pore Optics (SPO) technology has been invented to enable building...

  6. Microchannel Structures of Betavoltaic Silicon Convertors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Starkov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the first results of experimental research on the microchannel structures of betavoltaic silicon converters based on the 63Ni isotope. The areas for further optimization of constructive and technological performance with high conversion efficiency were detected experimentally.

  7. Wafer bonding applications and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Gösele, Ulrich

    2004-01-01

    During the past decade direct wafer bonding has developed into a mature materials integration technology. This book presents state-of-the-art reviews of the most important applications of wafer bonding written by experts from industry and academia. The topics include bonding-based fabrication methods of silicon-on-insulator, photonic crystals, VCSELs, SiGe-based FETs, MEMS together with hybrid integration and laser lift-off. The non-specialist will learn about the basics of wafer bonding and its various application areas, while the researcher in the field will find up-to-date information about this fast-moving area, including relevant patent information.

  8. Nonclassical light sources for silicon photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajoni, Daniele; Galli, Matteo

    2017-09-01

    Quantum photonics has recently attracted a lot of attention for its disruptive potential in emerging technologies like quantum cryptography, quantum communication and quantum computing. Driven by the impressive development in nanofabrication technologies and nanoscale engineering, silicon photonics has rapidly become the platform of choice for on-chip integration of high performing photonic devices, now extending their functionalities towards quantum-based applications. Focusing on quantum Information Technology (qIT) as a key application area, we review recent progress in integrated silicon-based sources of nonclassical states of light. We assess the state of the art in this growing field and highlight the challenges that need to be overcome to make quantum photonics a reliable and widespread technology.

  9. High Efficiency, Low Cost Solar Cells Manufactured Using 'Silicon Ink' on Thin Crystalline Silicon Wafers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniadis, H.

    2011-03-01

    Reported are the development and demonstration of a 17% efficient 25mm x 25mm crystalline Silicon solar cell and a 16% efficient 125mm x 125mm crystalline Silicon solar cell, both produced by Ink-jet printing Silicon Ink on a thin crystalline Silicon wafer. To achieve these objectives, processing approaches were developed to print the Silicon Ink in a predetermined pattern to form a high efficiency selective emitter, remove the solvents in the Silicon Ink and fuse the deposited particle Silicon films. Additionally, standard solar cell manufacturing equipment with slightly modified processes were used to complete the fabrication of the Silicon Ink high efficiency solar cells. Also reported are the development and demonstration of a 18.5% efficient 125mm x 125mm monocrystalline Silicon cell, and a 17% efficient 125mm x 125mm multicrystalline Silicon cell, by utilizing high throughput Ink-jet and screen printing technologies. To achieve these objectives, Innovalight developed new high throughput processing tools to print and fuse both p and n type particle Silicon Inks in a predetermined pat-tern applied either on the front or the back of the cell. Additionally, a customized Ink-jet and screen printing systems, coupled with customized substrate handling solution, customized printing algorithms, and a customized ink drying process, in combination with a purchased turn-key line, were used to complete the high efficiency solar cells. This development work delivered a process capable of high volume producing 18.5% efficient crystalline Silicon solar cells and enabled the Innovalight to commercialize its technology by the summer of 2010.

  10. Silicon micro-mold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Alfredo M.

    2006-10-24

    The present invention describes a method for rapidly fabricating a robust 3-dimensional silicon-mold for use in preparing complex metal micro-components. The process begins by depositing a conductive metal layer onto one surface of a silicon wafer. A thin photoresist and a standard lithographic mask are then used to transfer a trace image pattern onto the opposite surface of the wafer by exposing and developing the resist. The exposed portion of the silicon substrate is anisotropically etched through the wafer thickness down to conductive metal layer to provide an etched pattern consisting of a series of rectilinear channels and recesses in the silicon which serve as the silicon micro-mold. Microcomponents are prepared with this mold by first filling the mold channels and recesses with a metal deposit, typically by electroplating, and then removing the silicon micro-mold by chemical etching.

  11. Effect of Rheology and Poloxamers Properties on Release of Drugs from Silicon Dioxide Gel-Filled Hard Gelatin Capsules-A Further Enhancement of Viability of Liquid Semisolid Matrix Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Misbah; Butt, Mobashar Ahmad; Saeed, Tariq; Mahmood, Rizwan; Ul Hassan, Saeed; Hussain, Khalid; Raza, Syed Atif; Ahsan, Muhammad; Bukhari, Nadeem Irfan

    2016-12-08

    The liquid and semisolid matrix technology, filling liquids, semi-solids and gels in hard gelatin capsule are promising, thus, there is a need of enhanced research interest in the technology. Therefore, the present study was aimed to investigate isoniazid (freely soluble) and metronidazole (slightly soluble) gels filled in hard gelatin capsules for the effect of poloxamers of different viscosities on release of the drugs. Gel of each drug (10% w/w, particle size 180-250 μm), prepared by mixing poloxamer and 8% w/w hydrophilic silicon dioxide (Aerosil® A200), was assessed for rheology, dispersion stability and release profile. Both the drugs remained dispersed in majority of gels for more than 30 days, and dispersions were depended on gels' viscosity, which was further depended on viscosity of poloxamers. A small change in viscosity was noted in gels on storage. FTIR spectra indicated no interactions between components of the gels. The gels exhibited thixotropic and shear-thinning behaviour, which were suitable for filling in hard gelatin capsules without any leakage from the capsules. The release of both drugs from the phase-stable gels for 30 days followed first-order kinetics and was found to be correlated to drugs' solubility, poloxamers' viscosity, polyoxyethylene contents and proportion of block copolymer (poloxamers) in the gels. The findings of the present study indicated that release of drugs of different solubilities (isoniazid and metronidazole) might be modified from gels using different poloxamers and Aerosil® A200.

  12. Qualification of a new supplier for silicon particle detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dragicevic, M., E-mail: marko.dragicevic@cern.ch [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Bartl, U. [Infineon Technologies Austria AG, Villach (Austria); Bergauer, T.; Frühwirth, E. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Gamerith, S.; Hacker, J.; Kröner, F.; Kucher, E.; Moser, J.; Neidhart, T. [Infineon Technologies Austria AG, Villach (Austria); Schulze, H.-J. [Infineon Technologies AG, Munich (Germany); Schustereder, W. [Infineon Technologies Austria AG, Villach (Austria); Treberspurg, W. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Wübben, T. [Infineon Technologies Austria AG, Villach (Austria)

    2013-12-21

    Most modern particle physics experiments use silicon based sensors for their tracking systems. These sensors are able to detect particles generated in high energy collisions with high spatial resolution and therefore allow the precise reconstruction of particle tracks. So far only a few vendors are capable of producing silicon strip sensors with the quality needed in particle physics experiments. Together with the European semiconductor manufacturer Infineon Technologies Austria AG the Institute of High Energy Physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences developed planar silicon strip sensors in p-on-n technology. This paper presents the development, production and results from the electrical characterisation of the first sensors produced by Infineon.

  13. Review. Industrial silicon wafer solar cells. Status and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aberle, Armin G.; Boreland, Matthew B.; Hoex, Bram; Mueller, Thomas [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore). Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore (SERIS)

    2012-11-01

    Crystalline silicon solar cells dominate today's global photovoltaic (PV) market. This paper presents the status and trends of the most important industrial silicon wafer solar cells, ranging from standard p-type homojunction cells to heterojunction cells on n-type wafers. Owing to ongoing technological innovations such as improved surface passivation and the use of increasingly thinner wafers, the trend towards higher cell efficiencies and lower dollar/watt costs is expected to continue during the next 10 years, making silicon wafer based PV modules a moving target for any competing PV technology. (orig.)

  14. Design and Fabrication of Silicon-on-Silicon-Carbide Substrates and Power Devices for Space Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gammon P.M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new generation of power electronic semiconductor devices are being developed for the benefit of space and terrestrial harsh-environment applications. 200-600 V lateral transistors and diodes are being fabricated in a thin layer of silicon (Si wafer bonded to silicon carbide (SiC. This novel silicon-on-silicon-carbide (Si/SiC substrate solution promises to combine the benefits of silicon-on-insulator (SOI technology (i.e device confinement, radiation tolerance, high and low temperature performance with that of SiC (i.e. high thermal conductivity, radiation hardness, high temperature performance. Details of a process are given that produces thin films of silicon 1, 2 and 5 μm thick on semi-insulating 4H-SiC. Simulations of the hybrid Si/SiC substrate show that the high thermal conductivity of the SiC offers a junction-to-case temperature ca. 4× less that an equivalent SOI device; reducing the effects of self-heating, and allowing much greater power density. Extensive electrical simulations are used to optimise a 600 V laterally diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (LDMOSFET implemented entirely within the silicon thin film, and highlight the differences between Si/SiC and SOI solutions.

  15. Revised activation estimates for silicon carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinisch, H.L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Cheng, E.T.; Mann, F.M.

    1996-10-01

    Recent progress in nuclear data development for fusion energy systems includes a reevaluation of neutron activation cross sections for silicon and aluminum. Activation calculations using the newly compiled Fusion Evaluated Nuclear Data Library result in calculated levels of {sup 26}Al in irradiated silicon that are about an order of magnitude lower than the earlier calculated values. Thus, according to the latest internationally accepted nuclear data, SiC is much more attractive as a low activation material, even in first wall applications.

  16. Silicon-Chip-Based Optical Frequency Combs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-26

    frequencies . This phenomenon appears in many systems spanning biology, chemistry, neuroscience, and physics [29,30]. Examples include power grid networks... Frequency Combs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013902 (2008). [91] F. Leo, et al., “Dispersive wave emission and supercontinuum generation in a silicon wire...AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2015-0365 Silicon-Chip-Based Optical Frequency Combs Alexander Gaeta CORNELL UNIVERSITY Final Report 10/26/2015 DISTRIBUTION A

  17. Selective etching of silicon carbide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Di; Howe, Roger T.; Maboudian, Roya

    2006-12-19

    A method of etching silicon carbide using a nonmetallic mask layer. The method includes providing a silicon carbide substrate; forming a non-metallic mask layer by applying a layer of material on the substrate; patterning the mask layer to expose underlying areas of the substrate; and etching the underlying areas of the substrate with a plasma at a first rate, while etching the mask layer at a rate lower than the first rate.

  18. Silicon Carbide Shapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Free-standing silicon carbide shapes are produced by passing a properly diluted stream of a reactant gas, for example methyltrichlorosilane, into a...reaction chamber housing a thin walled, hollow graphite body heated to 1300-1500C. After the graphite body is sufficiently coated with silicon carbide , the...graphite body is fired, converting the graphite to gaseous CO2 and CO and leaving a silicon carbide shaped article remaining.

  19. Industrial Silicon Wafer Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk-Holger Neuhaus

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2006, around 86% of all wafer-based silicon solar cells were produced using screen printing to form the silver front and aluminium rear contacts and chemical vapour deposition to grow silicon nitride as the antireflection coating onto the front surface. This paper reviews this dominant solar cell technology looking into state-of-the-art equipment and corresponding processes for each process step. The main efficiency losses of this type of solar cell are analyzed to demonstrate the future efficiency potential of this technology. In research and development, more various advanced solar cell concepts have demonstrated higher efficiencies. The question which arises is “why are new solar cell concepts not transferred into industrial production more frequently?”. We look into the requirements a new solar cell technology has to fulfill to have an advantage over the current approach. Finally, we give an overview of high-efficiency concepts which have already been transferred into industrial production.

  20. Novel Silicon Nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Novel silicon nanotubes with inner-diameter of 60-80 nm was prepared using hydrogen-added dechlorination of SiCl4 followed by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on a NixMgyO catalyst. The TEM observation showed that the suitable reaction temperature is 973 K for the formation of silicon nanotubes. Most of silicon nanotubes have one open end and some have two closed ends. The shape ofnanoscale silicon, however, is a micro-crystal type at 873 K, a rod or needle type at 993 K and an onion-type at 1023 K, respectively.

  1. Microfabricated silicon biosensors for microphysiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousse, L. J.; Libby, J. M.; Parce, J. W.

    1993-01-01

    Microphysiometers are biosensor devices that measure the metabolic rate of living cells by detecting the rate of extracellular acidification caused by a small number of cells. The cells are entrapped in a microvolume chamber, whose bottom surface is a silicon sensor chip. In a further miniaturization step, we have recently fabricated multichannel flow-through chips that will allow greater throughput and multiplicity. Microphysiometer technology can be applied to the detection of microorganisms. We describe the sensitive detection of bacteria and yeast. Further applications of microphysiometry to the characterization of microorganisms can be anticipated.

  2. Breast Implants: Saline vs. Silicone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... differ in material and consistency, however. Saline breast implants Saline implants are filled with sterile salt water. ... of any age for breast reconstruction. Silicone breast implants Silicone implants are pre-filled with silicone gel — ...

  3. Silicon pore optics developments and status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bavdaz, Marcos; Wille, Eric; Wallace, Kotska;

    2012-01-01

    Silicon Pore Optics (SPO) is a lightweight high performance X-ray optics technology being developed in Europe, driven by applications in observatory class high energy astrophysics missions. An example of such application is the former ESA science mission candidate ATHENA (Advanced Telescope...... of the SPO technology. The technology development programme has succeeded in maturing the SPO further and achieving important milestones, in each of the main activity streams: environmental compatibility, industrial production and optical performance. In order to accurately characterise the increasing...... performance of this innovative optical technology, the associated X-ray test facilities and beam-lines have been refined and upgraded. © 2012 SPIE....

  4. Dynamic surface deformation of silicone elastomers for management of marine biofouling: laboratory and field studies using pneumatic actuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivapooja, Phanindhar; Wang, Qiming; Szott, Lizzy M; Orihuela, Beatriz; Rittschof, Daniel; Zhao, Xuanhe; López, Gabriel P

    2015-01-01

    Many strategies have been developed to improve the fouling release (FR) performance of silicone coatings. However, biofilms inevitably build on these surfaces over time. Previous studies have shown that intentional deformation of silicone elastomers can be employed to detach biofouling species. In this study, inspired by the methods used in soft-robotic systems, controlled deformation of silicone elastomers via pneumatic actuation was employed to detach adherent biofilms. Using programmed surface deformation, it was possible to release > 90% of biofilm from surfaces in both laboratory and field environments. A higher substratum strain was required to remove biofilms accumulated in the field environment as compared with laboratory-grown biofilms. Further, the study indicated that substratum modulus influences the strain needed to de-bond biofilms. Surface deformation-based approaches have potential for use in the management of biofouling in a number of technological areas, including in niche applications where pneumatic actuation of surface deformation is feasible.

  5. Multifunctional epitaxial systems on silicon substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singamaneni, Srinivasa Rao; Prater, John Thomas; Narayan, Jagdish

    2016-09-01

    Multifunctional heterostructures can exhibit a wide range of functional properties, including colossal magneto-resistance, magnetocaloric, and multiferroic behavior, and can display interesting physical phenomena including spin and charge ordering and strong spin-orbit coupling. However, putting this functionality to work remains a challenge. To date, most of the work reported in the literature has dealt with heterostructures deposited onto closely lattice matched insulating substrates such as DyScO3, SrTiO3 (STO), or STO buffered Si(100) using concepts of lattice matching epitaxy (LME). However, strain in heterostructures grown by LME is typically not fully relaxed and the layers contain detrimental defects such as threading dislocations that can significantly degrade the physical properties of the films and adversely affect the device characteristics. In addition, most of the substrates are incompatible with existing CMOS-based technology, where Si (100) substrates dominate. This review discusses recent advances in the integration of multifunctional oxide and non-oxide materials onto silicon substrates. An alternative thin film growth approach, called "domain matching epitaxy," is presented which identifies approaches for minimizing lattice strain and unwanted defects in large misfit systems (7%-25% and higher). This approach broadly allows for the integration of multifunctional materials onto silicon substrates, such that sensing, computation, and response functions can be combined to produce next generation "smart" devices. In general, pulsed laser deposition has been used to epitaxially grow these materials, although the concepts developed here can be extended to other deposition techniques, as well. It will be shown that TiN and yttria-stabilized zirconia template layers provide promising platforms for the integration of new functionality into silicon-based computer chips. This review paper reports on a number of thin-film heterostructure systems that span a

  6. Multifunctional epitaxial systems on silicon substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singamaneni, Srinivasa Rao, E-mail: ssingam@ncsu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Materials Science Division, Army Research Office, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709 (United States); Department of Physics, The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas 79968 (United States); Prater, John Thomas [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Materials Science Division, Army Research Office, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709 (United States); Narayan, Jagdish [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    Multifunctional heterostructures can exhibit a wide range of functional properties, including colossal magneto-resistance, magnetocaloric, and multiferroic behavior, and can display interesting physical phenomena including spin and charge ordering and strong spin-orbit coupling. However, putting this functionality to work remains a challenge. To date, most of the work reported in the literature has dealt with heterostructures deposited onto closely lattice matched insulating substrates such as DyScO{sub 3}, SrTiO{sub 3} (STO), or STO buffered Si(100) using concepts of lattice matching epitaxy (LME). However, strain in heterostructures grown by LME is typically not fully relaxed and the layers contain detrimental defects such as threading dislocations that can significantly degrade the physical properties of the films and adversely affect the device characteristics. In addition, most of the substrates are incompatible with existing CMOS-based technology, where Si (100) substrates dominate. This review discusses recent advances in the integration of multifunctional oxide and non-oxide materials onto silicon substrates. An alternative thin film growth approach, called “domain matching epitaxy,” is presented which identifies approaches for minimizing lattice strain and unwanted defects in large misfit systems (7%–25% and higher). This approach broadly allows for the integration of multifunctional materials onto silicon substrates, such that sensing, computation, and response functions can be combined to produce next generation “smart” devices. In general, pulsed laser deposition has been used to epitaxially grow these materials, although the concepts developed here can be extended to other deposition techniques, as well. It will be shown that TiN and yttria-stabilized zirconia template layers provide promising platforms for the integration of new functionality into silicon-based computer chips. This review paper reports on a number of thin

  7. Silicon heterojunction solar cell and crystallization of amorphous silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Meijun

    The rapid growth of photovoltaics in the past decade brings on the soaring price and demand for crystalline silicon. Hence it becomes necessary and also profitable to develop solar cells with over 20% efficiency, using thin (˜100mum) silicon wafers. In this respect, diffused junction cells are not the best choice, since the inescapable heating in the diffusion process not only makes it hard to handle thin wafers, but also reduces carriers' bulk lifetime and impairs the crystal quality of the substrate, which could lower cell efficiency. An alternative is the heterojunction cells, such as amorphous silicon/crystalline silicon heterojunction (SHJ) solar cell, where the emitter layer can be grown at low temperature (solar cell, including the importance of intrinsic buffer layer; the discussion on the often observed anomalous "S"-shaped J-V curve (low fill factor) by using band diagram analysis; the surface passivation quality of intrinsic buffer and its relationship to the performance of front-junction SHJ cells. Although the a-Si:H is found to help to achieve high efficiency in c-Si heterojuntion solar cells, it also absorbs short wavelength (cells. Considering this, heterojunction with both a-Si:H emitter and base contact on the back side in an interdigitated pattern, i.e. interdigitated back contact silicon heterojunction (IBC-SHJ) solar cell, is developed. This dissertation will show our progress in developing IBC-SHJ solar cells, including the structure design; device fabrication and characterization; two dimensional simulation by using simulator Sentaurus Device; some special features of IBC-SHJ solar cells; and performance of IBC-SHJ cells without and with back surface buffer layers. Another trend for solar cell industry is thin film solar cells, since they use less materials resulting in lower cost. Polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) is one promising thin-film material. It has the potential advantages to not only retain the performance and stability of c

  8. Seventh workshop on the role of impurities and defects in silicon device processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    This workshop is the latest in a series which has looked at technological issues related to the commercial development and success of silicon based photovoltaic (PV) modules. PV modules based on silicon are the most common at present, but face pressure from other technologies in terms of cell performance and cell cost. This workshop addresses a problem which is a factor in the production costs of silicon based PV modules.

  9. Printed Barium Strontium Titanate capacitors on silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sette, Daniele [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology LIST, Materials Research and Technology Department, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg); Kovacova, Veronika [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Defay, Emmanuel, E-mail: emmanuel.defay@list.lu [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology LIST, Materials Research and Technology Department, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg)

    2015-08-31

    In this paper, we show that Barium Strontium Titanate (BST) films can be prepared by inkjet printing of sol–gel precursors on platinized silicon substrate. Moreover, a functional variable capacitor working in the GHz range has been made without any lithography or etching steps. Finally, this technology requires 40 times less precursors than the standard sol–gel spin-coating technique. - Highlights: • Inkjet printing of Barium Strontium Titanate films • Deposition on silicon substrate • Inkjet printed silver top electrode • First ever BST films thinner than 1 μm RF functional variable capacitor that has required no lithography.

  10. Two novel silicon phases with direct band gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qingyang; Chai, Changchun; Wei, Qun; Yang, Yintang

    2016-05-14

    Due to its abundance, silicon is the preferred solar-cell material despite the fact that many silicon allotropes have indirect band gaps. Elemental silicon has a large impact on the economy of the modern world and is of fundamental importance in the technological field, particularly in the solar cell industry. Looking for direct band gap silicon is still an important field in material science. Based on density function theory with the ultrasoft pseudopotential scheme in the frame of the local density approximation and the generalized gradient approximation, we have systematically studied the structural stability, absorption spectra, electronic, optical and mechanical properties and minimum thermal conductivity of two novel silicon phases, Cm-32 silicon and P21/m silicon. These are both thermally, dynamically and mechanically stable. The absorption spectra of Cm-32 silicon and P21/m silicon exhibit significant overlap with the solar spectrum and thus, excellent photovoltaic efficiency with great improvements over Fd3[combining macron]m Si. These two novel Si structures with direct band gaps could be applied in single p-n junction thin-film solar cells or tandem photovoltaic devices.

  11. Polymer grafting modification of the surface of nano silicon dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on the composite modification technology of the surface of nano silicon dioxide by non-soap emulsion polymerization, it is verified that there are polymer grafted on the surface of nano silicon dioxide. The modification mechanism and the bonding status on the surface of nano silicon dioxide after modification were suggested via the results of the infrared spectrum, transmission electronic microscope photograph and X-ray photoelectron spectrum. The hydroxyl formed by hydrolyzing of silane coupling agent reacts with hydroxyl on the surface of nano silicon dioxide to form Si-O-Si bonds by losing water molecules and hence the double bonds are introduced onto the surface of nano silicon dioxide. The surface of nano silicon dioxide is grafted with polymer through free radical polymerization between the double bonds on the surface of nano silicon dioxide and styrene under the action of initiating agent. The dispersibility of nano silicon dioxide and the controllability of surface modification of nano silicon dioxide can be greatly improved by the modification process.

  12. Industrialization study, phase 2. [assessment of advanced photovoltaic technologies for commerical development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The potentials and requirements of advanced photovoltaic technologies still in their early developmental stages were evaluated and compared to the present day single crystal silicon wafer technology and to each other. The major areas of consideration include polycrystalline and amorphous silicon, single crystal and polycrystalline gallium arsenide, and single crystal and polycrystalline cadmium sulfide. A rank ordering of the advanced technologies is provided. The various ranking schemes were based upon present-day efficiency levels, their stability and long-term reliability prospects, material availability, capital investments both at the laboratory and production level, and associated variable costs. An estimate of the timing of the possible readiness of these advanced technologies for technology development programs and industrialization is presented along with a set of recommended government actions concerning the various advanced technologies.

  13. Silicon Heat Pipe Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Karl Y.; Ganapathi, Gani B.; Sunada, Eric T.; Bae, Youngsam; Miller, Jennifer R.; Beinsford, Daniel F.

    2013-01-01

    Improved methods of heat dissipation are required for modern, high-power density electronic systems. As increased functionality is progressively compacted into decreasing volumes, this need will be exacerbated. High-performance chip power is predicted to increase monotonically and rapidly with time. Systems utilizing these chips are currently reliant upon decades of old cooling technology. Heat pipes offer a solution to this problem. Heat pipes are passive, self-contained, two-phase heat dissipation devices. Heat conducted into the device through a wick structure converts the working fluid into a vapor, which then releases the heat via condensation after being transported away from the heat source. Heat pipes have high thermal conductivities, are inexpensive, and have been utilized in previous space missions. However, the cylindrical geometry of commercial heat pipes is a poor fit to the planar geometries of microelectronic assemblies, the copper that commercial heat pipes are typically constructed of is a poor CTE (coefficient of thermal expansion) match to the semiconductor die utilized in these assemblies, and the functionality and reliability of heat pipes in general is strongly dependent on the orientation of the assembly with respect to the gravity vector. What is needed is a planar, semiconductor-based heat pipe array that can be used for cooling of generic MCM (multichip module) assemblies that can also function in all orientations. Such a structure would not only have applications in the cooling of space electronics, but would have commercial applications as well (e.g. cooling of microprocessors and high-power laser diodes). This technology is an improvement over existing heat pipe designs due to the finer porosity of the wick, which enhances capillary pumping pressure, resulting in greater effective thermal conductivity and performance in any orientation with respect to the gravity vector. In addition, it is constructed of silicon, and thus is better

  14. Research on Nanofabrication Technology of Micro-/Nano-Stereo Rapid Prototyping of PCVD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sandy; TO

    2002-01-01

    At present, the most common micro/nano-scale fabri ca tion processes include the plane silicon process based on IC technology, stereo silicon process, LIGA, quasi-LIGA based on near ultra violet deep lithography, MEMS, energy beam etching and micro/nano-machining, etc. A common problem for t hese processes is the difficulty to fabricate arbitrary form for 3-dimensional micro/nano-parts, devices or mechanisms. To develop advanced MEMS manufacturin g technology, and to achieve fabrication of true 3-dimen...

  15. Considerations for Solar Energy Technologies to Make Progress Towards Grid Price Parity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhouse, Michael; Fu, Ran; Chung, Donald; Horowitz, Kelsey; Remo, Timothy; Feldman, David; Margolis, Robert

    2015-11-07

    In this seminar the component costs for solar photovoltaics module and system prices will be highlighted. As a basis for comparison to other renewable and traditional energy options, the metric of focus will be total lifecycle cost-of-energy (LCOE). Several innovations to traditional photovoltaics technologies (including crystalline silicon, CdTe, and CIGS) and developing technologies (including organics and perovskites) that may close the gaps in LCOE will be discussed.

  16. Nonlinear silicon photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsia, Kevin K.; Jalali, Bahram

    2010-05-01

    An intriguing optical property of silicon is that it exhibits a large third-order optical nonlinearity, with orders-ofmagnitude larger than that of silica glass in the telecommunication band. This allows efficient nonlinear optical interaction at relatively low power levels in a small footprint. Indeed, we have witnessed a stunning progress in harnessing the Raman and Kerr effects in silicon as the mechanisms for enabling chip-scale optical amplification, lasing, and wavelength conversion - functions that until recently were perceived to be beyond the reach of silicon. With all the continuous efforts developing novel techniques, nonlinear silicon photonics is expected to be able to reach even beyond the prior achievements. Instead of providing a comprehensive overview of this field, this manuscript highlights a number of new branches of nonlinear silicon photonics, which have not been fully recognized in the past. In particular, they are two-photon photovoltaic effect, mid-wave infrared (MWIR) silicon photonics, broadband Raman effects, inverse Raman scattering, and periodically-poled silicon (PePSi). These novel effects and techniques could create a new paradigm for silicon photonics and extend its utility beyond the traditionally anticipated applications.

  17. Periodically poled silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon, Nick K.; Tsia, Kevin K.; Solli, Daniel R.; Khurgin, Jacob B.; Jalali, Bahram

    2010-02-01

    Bulk centrosymmetric silicon lacks second-order optical nonlinearity χ(2) - a foundational component of nonlinear optics. Here, we propose a new class of photonic device which enables χ(2) as well as quasi-phase matching based on periodic stress fields in silicon - periodically-poled silicon (PePSi). This concept adds the periodic poling capability to silicon photonics, and allows the excellent crystal quality and advanced manufacturing capabilities of silicon to be harnessed for devices based on χ(2)) effects. The concept can also be simply achieved by having periodic arrangement of stressed thin films along a silicon waveguide. As an example of the utility, we present simulations showing that mid-wave infrared radiation can be efficiently generated through difference frequency generation from near-infrared with a conversion efficiency of 50% based on χ(2) values measurements for strained silicon reported in the literature [Jacobson et al. Nature 441, 199 (2006)]. The use of PePSi for frequency conversion can also be extended to terahertz generation. With integrated piezoelectric material, dynamically control of χ(2)nonlinearity in PePSi waveguide may also be achieved. The successful realization of PePSi based devices depends on the strength of the stress induced χ(2) in silicon. Presently, there exists a significant discrepancy in the literature between the theoretical and experimentally measured values. We present a simple theoretical model that produces result consistent with prior theoretical works and use this model to identify possible reasons for this discrepancy.

  18. ALICE silicon strip module

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    This small silicon detector strip will be inserted into the inner tracking system (ITS) on the ALICE detector at CERN. This detector relies on state-of-the-art particle tracking techniques. These double-sided silicon strip modules have been designed to be as lightweight and delicate as possible as the ITS will eventually contain five square metres of these devices.

  19. Photoluminescence of Silicon Nanocrystals in Silicon Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ferraioli

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent results on the photoluminescence properties of silicon nanocrystals embedded in silicon oxide are reviewed and discussed. The attention is focused on Si nanocrystals produced by high-temperature annealing of silicon rich oxide layers deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The influence of deposition parameters and layer thickness is analyzed in detail. The nanocrystal size can be roughly controlled by means of Si content and annealing temperature and time. Unfortunately, a technique for independently fine tuning the emission efficiency and the size is still lacking; thus, only middle size nanocrystals have high emission efficiency. Interestingly, the layer thickness affects the nucleation and growth kinetics so changing the luminescence efficiency.

  20. High-performance porous silicon solar cell development. Final report, October 1, 1993--September 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruska, P [Spire Corp., Bedford, MA (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The goal of the program was to demonstrate use of porous silicon in new solar cell structures. Porous silicon technology has been developed at Spire for producing visible light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The major aspects that they have demonstrated are the following: porous silicon active layers have been made to show photovoltaic action; porous silicon surface layers can act as antireflection coatings to improve the performance of single-crystal silicon solar cells; and porous silicon surface layers can act as antireflection coatings on polycrystalline silicon solar cells. One problem with the use of porous silicon is to achieve good lateral conduction of electrons and holes through the material. This shows up in terms of poor blue response and photocurrents which increase with increasing reverse bias applied to the diode.

  1. Fully-depleted silicon-on-sapphire and its application to advanced VLSI design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offord, Bruce W.

    1992-01-01

    In addition to the widely recognized advantages of full dielectric isolation, e.g., reduced parasitic capacitance, transient radiation hardness, and processing simplicity, fully-depleted silicon-on-sapphire offers reduced floating body effects and improved thermal characteristics when compared to other silicon-on-insulator technologies. The properties of this technology and its potential impact on advanced VLSI circuitry will be discussed.

  2. Evolutionary process development towards next generation crystalline silicon solar cells : a semiconductor process toolbox application

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, J.; Prajapati, V.; Vermang, B.; Lorenz, A.; Allebe, C.; Rothschild, A.; Tous, L.; Uruena, A.; Baert, K.; Poortmans, J.

    2012-08-01

    Bulk crystalline Silicon solar cells are covering more than 85% of the world's roof top module installation in 2010. With a growth rate of over 30% in the last 10 years this technology remains the working horse of solar cell industry. The full Aluminum back-side field (Al BSF) technology has been developed in the 90's and provides a production learning curve on module price of constant 20% in average. The main reason for the decrease of module prices with increasing production capacity is due to the effect of up scaling industrial production. For further decreasing of the price per wattpeak silicon consumption has to be reduced and efficiency has to be improved. In this paper we describe a successive efficiency improving process development starting from the existing full Al BSF cell concept. We propose an evolutionary development includes all parts of the solar cell process: optical enhancement (texturing, polishing, anti-reflection coating), junction formation and contacting. Novel processes are benchmarked on industrial like baseline flows using high-efficiency cell concepts like i-PERC (Passivated Emitter and Rear Cell). While the full Al BSF crystalline silicon solar cell technology provides efficiencies of up to 18% (on cz-Si) in production, we are achieving up to 19.4% conversion efficiency for industrial fabricated, large area solar cells with copper based front side metallization and local Al BSF applying the semiconductor toolbox.

  3. Development of practical application technology for photovoltaic power generation systems in fiscal 1997. Development of technologies to manufacture thin film solar cells, development of technologies to manufacture materials and substrates, development of technologies to manufacture amorphous-based high-quality materials and substrates (Volume 1); 1997 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, zairyo kiban seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, amorphous silicon kei kohinshitsu zairyo kiban no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (daiichi bunsatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Research and development was made for the purpose of reducing cost and enhancing safety and reliability in amorphous solar cells. In the research of photo-deterioration phenomena in amorphous silicon, measurements were made on bending displacement alternately when light irradiation is turned on and off on an a-Si:H film manufactured at a substrate temperature of 250 degrees C and the SiH{sub 4}:H{sub 2} ratio at 1:4. As a result, a result was obtained that the film has swollen. It was made clear that this phenomenon is reversible from the fact that one-hour annealing at 200 degrees C has returned the film to the initial condition, and another light irradiation reproduces the light-induced swelling. In developing a stable and transparent electrically conductive substrate for a thin film solar cell, aqueous silica-sol solution dispersed with polymeric micro-fine particles was painted and printed uniformly on a glass substrate for the purpose of improving the permeation rate. As a result, a low-reflection film was obtained after sintering at about 500 degrees C. This has allowed visible light permeation rate to increase by 87%, thus having achieved the objective for fiscal 1997. In order to enhance mass production performance for this transparent conductive substrate, development was performed on a technology to form a texture with even thinner film. (NEDO)

  4. Silicon germanium mask for deep silicon etching

    KAUST Repository

    Serry, Mohamed

    2014-07-29

    Polycrystalline silicon germanium (SiGe) can offer excellent etch selectivity to silicon during cryogenic deep reactive ion etching in an SF.sub.6/O.sub.2 plasma. Etch selectivity of over 800:1 (Si:SiGe) may be achieved at etch temperatures from -80 degrees Celsius to -140 degrees Celsius. High aspect ratio structures with high resolution may be patterned into Si substrates using SiGe as a hard mask layer for construction of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices and semiconductor devices.

  5. Ultra-Thin Deformable Silicon Substrates with Lateral Segmentation and Flexible Metal Interconnect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoumpouidis, T.; Wang, L.; Bartek, M.; Jansen, K.M.B.; Ernst, L.J.

    2007-01-01

    Our progress in developing technology modules for deformable single-crystalline-silicon electronics is presented in this contribution. Additional deformability/reliability is accomplished by modifications of the previously reported ultra-thin and flexible CIRCONFLEX technology (1). The flexibility

  6. Quantitative Analysis of Defects in Silicon. Silicon Sheet Growth Development for the Large Area Silicon Sheet Task of the Low-cost Solar Array Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natesh, R.; Smith, J. M.; Qidwai, H. A.

    1979-01-01

    The various steps involved in the chemical polishing and etching of silicon samples are described. Data on twins, dislocation pits, and grain boundaries from thirty-one (31) silicon sample are also discussed. A brief review of the changes made to upgrade the image analysis system is included.

  7. Silicon ball grid array chip carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, David W.; Gassman, Richard A.; Chu, Dahwey

    2000-01-01

    A ball-grid-array integrated circuit (IC) chip carrier formed from a silicon substrate is disclosed. The silicon ball-grid-array chip carrier is of particular use with ICs having peripheral bond pads which can be reconfigured to a ball-grid-array. The use of a semiconductor substrate such as silicon for forming the ball-grid-array chip carrier allows the chip carrier to be fabricated on an IC process line with, at least in part, standard IC processes. Additionally, the silicon chip carrier can include components such as transistors, resistors, capacitors, inductors and sensors to form a "smart" chip carrier which can provide added functionality and testability to one or more ICs mounted on the chip carrier. Types of functionality that can be provided on the "smart" chip carrier include boundary-scan cells, built-in test structures, signal conditioning circuitry, power conditioning circuitry, and a reconfiguration capability. The "smart" chip carrier can also be used to form specialized or application-specific ICs (ASICs) from conventional ICs. Types of sensors that can be included on the silicon ball-grid-array chip carrier include temperature sensors, pressure sensors, stress sensors, inertia or acceleration sensors, and/or chemical sensors. These sensors can be fabricated by IC processes and can include microelectromechanical (MEM) devices.

  8. Silicon Micromachining for Terahertz Component Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Reck, Theodore J.; Jung-Kubiak, Cecile; Siles, Jose V.; Lee, Choonsup; Lin, Robert; Mehdi, Imran

    2013-01-01

    Waveguide component technology at terahertz frequencies has come of age in recent years. Essential components such as ortho-mode transducers (OMT), quadrature hybrids, filters, and others for high performance system development were either impossible to build or too difficult to fabricate with traditional machining techniques. With micromachining of silicon wafers coated with sputtered gold it is now possible to fabricate and test these waveguide components. Using a highly optimized Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) process, we are now able to fabricate silicon micromachined waveguide structures working beyond 1 THz. In this paper, we describe in detail our approach of design, fabrication, and measurement of silicon micromachined waveguide components and report the results of a 1 THz canonical E-plane filter.

  9. Initial results for the silicon monolithically interconnected solar cell product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinetta, L. C.; Shreve, K. P.; Cotter, J. E.; Barnett, A. M.

    1995-01-01

    This proprietary technology is based on AstroPower's electrostatic bonding and innovative silicon solar cell processing techniques. Electrostatic bonding allows silicon wafers to be permanently attached to a thermally matched glass superstrate and then thinned to final thicknesses less than 25 micron. These devices are based on the features of a thin, light-trapping silicon solar cell: high voltage, high current, light weight (high specific power) and high radiation resistance. Monolithic interconnection allows the fabrication costs on a per watt basis to be roughly independent of the array size, power or voltage, therefore, the cost effectiveness to manufacture solar cell arrays with output powers ranging from milliwatts up to four watts and output voltages ranging from 5 to 500 volts will be similar. This compares favorably to conventionally manufactured, commercial solar cell arrays, where handling of small parts is very labor intensive and costly. In this way, a wide variety of product specifications can be met using the same fabrication techniques. Prototype solar cells have demonstrated efficiencies greater than 11%. An open-circuit voltage of 5.4 volts, fill factor of 65%, and short-circuit current density of 28 mA/sq cm at AM1.5 illumination are typical. Future efforts are being directed to optimization of the solar cell operating characteristics as well as production processing. The monolithic approach has a number of inherent advantages, including reduced cost per interconnect and increased reliability of array connections. These features make this proprietary technology an excellent candidate for a large number of consumer products.

  10. CMS silicon tracker milestone 200

    CERN Document Server

    Dierlamm, A

    2002-01-01

    The tracker of CMS will fully consist of silicon micro-strip and pixel sensors. Building a detector with 210 m/sup 2/ sensor surface in about 3 years requires a tightly controlled construction schedule. All different aspects of the production are exercised within a pre- production of 200 modules (Milestone 200) to identify and eliminate possible bottlenecks and to test the complete electronic chain. The quality, process stability and radiation hardness of the silicon sensors will be permanently monitored. Automatic assembly procedure and industrial bonding machines will guarantee a fast and reliable construction. All modules will be tested for signal, noise and pedestals at room temperature and operation temperature of -10 degrees C. Quality assurance of the Milestone 200 sensors and modules including irradiation and stability tests are presented. (6 refs).

  11. Comparative study. Thin-film technology (si-a) compared to crystalline silicon in real operating conditions; Estudio comparativo. Tecnologia de capa fina (Si-a) frente a silicio cristalino en condiciones reales de funcionamiento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izard Gomez-Rodulfo, J.; Avellaner, J.; Sanchez, E.; Torreblanca, J.

    2010-07-01

    We present a comparative study of thin film solar modules (amorphous silicon) compared to crystalline silicon modules. This study was conducted in real operating conditions using a test bench able to obtain the characteristic curve of several modules in sequence. defined the parameter efficiency index to characterize the extent to which actual performance is close to ideal. Finally we have calculated the energy that would produce each module in the day and efficiency in relation to the energy which ideally should produce. (Author)

  12. Silicon sensors for trackers at high-luminosity environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltola, Timo, E-mail: timo.peltola@helsinki.fi

    2015-10-01

    The planned upgrade of the LHC accelerator at CERN, namely the high luminosity (HL) phase of the LHC (HL-LHC foreseen for 2023), will result in a more intense radiation environment than the present tracking system that was designed for. The required upgrade of the all-silicon central trackers at the ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb experiments will include higher granularity and radiation hard sensors. The radiation hardness of the new sensors must be roughly an order of magnitude higher than in the current LHC detectors. To address this, a massive R&D program is underway within the CERN RD50 Collaboration “Development of Radiation Hard Semiconductor Devices for Very High Luminosity Colliders” to develop silicon sensors with sufficient radiation tolerance. Research topics include the improvement of the intrinsic radiation tolerance of the sensor material and novel detector designs with benefits like reduced trapping probability (thinned and 3D sensors), maximized sensitive area (active edge sensors) and enhanced charge carrier generation (sensors with intrinsic gain). A review of the recent results from both measurements and TCAD simulations of several detector technologies and silicon materials at radiation levels expected for HL-LHC will be presented. - Highlights: • An overview of the recent results from the RD50 collaboration. • Accuracy of TCAD simulations increased by including both bulk and surface damage. • Sensors with n-electrode readout and MCz material offer higher radiation hardness. • 3D detectors are a promising choice for the extremely high fluence environments. • Detectors with an enhanced charge carrier generation under systematic investigation.

  13. CHP Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about CHP technologies, including reciprocating engines, combustion turbines, steam turbines, microturbines, fuel cells, and waste heat to power. Access the Catalog of CHP Technologies and the Biomass CHP Catalog of Technologies.

  14. Continuous Czochralski growth. Development of advanced Czochralski growth process to produce low cost 150 kg silicon ingots from a single crucible for technology readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The improvement of growth rates using radiation shielding and investigation of the crucible melt interaction for improved yields were emphasized. Growth runs were performed from both 15 and 16 inch diameter crucibles, producing 30 and 37 kg ingots respectively. Efforts to increase the growth rate of 150 mm diameter ingots were limited by temperature instabilities believed to be caused by undesirable thermal convections in the larger melts. The radiation shield improved the growth rate somewhat, but the thermal instability was still evident, leading to nonround ingots and loss of dislocation-free structure. A 38 kg crystal was grown to demonstrate the feasibility of producing 150 kg with four growth cycles. After the grower construction phase, the Hamco microprocessor control system was interfaced to the growth facility, including the sensor for automatic control of seeding temperature, and the sensor for automatic shouldering. Efforts focused upon optimization of the seeding, necking, and shoulder growth automation programs.

  15. Development of advanced Czochralski growth process to produce low cost 150 kg silicon ingots from a single crucible for technology readiness. [crystal growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    Six growth runs used the Kayex-Hameo Automatic Games Logic (AGILE) computer based system for growth from larger melts in the Mod CG2000. The implementation of the melt pyrometer sensor allowed for dip temperature monitoring and usage by the operator/AGILE system. Use of AGILE during recharge operations was successfully evaluated. The tendency of crystals to lose cylindrical shape (spiraling) continued to be a problem. The hygrometer was added to the Furnace Gas Analysis System and used on several growth runs. The gas chromatograph, including the integrator, was also used for more accurate carbon monoxide concentration measurements. Efforts continued for completing the automation of the total Gas Analysis System. An economic analysis, based on revised achievable straight growth rate, is presented.

  16. The Research on Technology Park Innovative Mechanism Based on The "Six in One" Theory:Case Study of "Blue Silicon Valley" of Qingdao%基于“六位一体”的园区创新机制--以青岛“蓝色硅谷”为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隋映辉; 卢磊

    2014-01-01

    本文从产学研合作与协同创新的的角度,分析了产学研合作的集聚局限性和资源链接不足,通过引入系统创新的理论观点,以青岛蓝色硅谷为例,寻求蓝色硅谷的比较优势和问题,提出了六位一体的园区创新机制。%From the perspective of Industey-University-Research cooperation and collaborative innovation, this paper analyzes the agglomeration limitations of I-U-R cooperation and the shortage of links to resources. By introducing system innovation theory , as a case study of Qingdao " blue silicon valley ", to seek the blue silicon valley's comparative advantages and problems, and puts forward "six in one" technology park innovation mechanism.

  17. Nano-semiconductors devices and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Iniewski, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    With contributions from top international experts from both industry and academia, Nano-Semiconductors: Devices and Technology is a must-read for anyone with a serious interest in future nanofabrication technologies. Taking into account the semiconductor industry's transition from standard CMOS silicon to novel device structures--including carbon nanotubes (CNT), graphene, quantum dots, and III-V materials--this book addresses the state of the art in nano devices for electronics. It provides an all-encompassing, one-stop resource on the materials and device structures involved in the evolution

  18. 氮化硅基多孔陶瓷的制备技术、孔隙结构及其相关性能%Silicon Nitride Based Porous Ceramics:Preparation Technologies, Porous Structure and Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏睿; 黄志锋; 李飞宇; 陈斐; 沈强

    2016-01-01

    氮化硅多孔陶瓷是近年来得到广泛关注的一类新型的结构-功能一体化陶瓷材料,在航空航天、机械、化工、海洋工程等重要领域有着广阔的应用前景。本文介绍了氮化硅基多孔陶瓷的主要制备技术,回顾了氮化硅基多孔陶瓷力学性能和介电性能的研究进展。考虑到高孔隙率氮化硅基多孔陶瓷力学性能难以提高,磷酸盐结合氮化硅基多孔陶瓷已经逐渐成为新的研究热点,因此,本文进一步对磷酸盐结合氮化硅基多孔陶瓷的制备技术、力学性能、介电性能、热学性能进行了综合评述,并对氮化硅基多孔陶瓷的应用前景进行了展望。%Silicon nitride porous ceramics is an advanced type of structure –function integration ceramic materials which is popular in recently, and it has profound application prospect in aerospace, machinery, chemistry, oceanographic engineering and other significant domain. In this article, the main preparation technologies of porous Si3N4 ceramics have been summarized, and the research progress about the mechanical and dielectric properties of porous Si3N4 ceramics have been reviewed in this paper. Further, consider about the problem that it is hard to improve the mechanical properties of porous Si3N4 ceramics with high porosity, the research hotspot is moving on porous Si3N4 ceramics with phosphate binder. Therefore, their preparation technologies, mechanical, dielectric and thermal properties have been analyzed in further, and the potential application of porous Si3N4 ceramics was discussed.

  19. Utilization of thermal effects for silicon photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Daoxin; Yu, Longhai; Chen, Sitao; Wu, Hao

    2015-08-01

    Thermal effect plays a key role and has been utilized for various photonic devices. For silicon photonics, the thermal effect is usually important because of the large thermo-optical coefficient of silicon material. This paper gives a review for the utilization of thermal effects for silicon photonics. First, the thermal effect is very beneficial to realize energy-efficient silicon photonic devices with tunability/switchability (including switches, variable optical attenuators, etc). Traditionally metal micro-heater sitting on a buried silicon-on-insulator (SOI) nanowire is used to introduce a phase shift for thermal tunability by injecting a electrical current. An effective way to improve the energy-efficiency of thermal tuning is reducing the volume of the optical waveguide as well as the micro-heater. Our recent work on silicon nanophotonic waveguides with novel nano-heaters based on metal wires as well as graphene ribbons will be summarized. Second, the thermal resistance effect of the metal strip on a hybrid plasmonic waveguide structure can be utilized to realize an ultra-small on-chip photodetector available for an ultra-broad band of wavelength, which will also be discussed.

  20. Microtextured Silicon Surfaces for Detectors, Sensors & Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carey, JE; Mazur, E

    2005-05-19

    With support from this award we studied a novel silicon microtexturing process and its application in silicon-based infrared photodetectors. By irradiating the surface of a silicon wafer with intense femtosecond laser pulses in the presence of certain gases or liquids, the originally shiny, flat surface is transformed into a dark array of microstructures. The resulting microtextured surface has near-unity absorption from near-ultraviolet to infrared wavelengths well below the band gap. The high, broad absorption of microtextured silicon could enable the production of silicon-based photodiodes for use as inexpensive, room-temperature multi-spectral photodetectors. Such detectors would find use in numerous applications including environmental sensors, solar energy, and infrared imaging. The goals of this study were to learn about microtextured surfaces and then develop and test prototype silicon detectors for the visible and infrared. We were extremely successful in achieving our goals. During the first two years of this award, we learned a great deal about how microtextured surfaces form and what leads to their remarkable optical properties. We used this knowledge to build prototype detectors with high sensitivity in both the visible and in the near-infrared. We obtained room-temperature responsivities as high as 100 A/W at 1064 nm, two orders of magnitude higher than standard silicon photodiodes. For wavelengths below the band gap, we obtained responsivities as high as 50 mA/W at 1330 nm and 35 mA/W at 1550 nm, close to the responsivity of InGaAs photodiodes and five orders of magnitude higher than silicon devices in this wavelength region.