Isolators Including Main Spring Linear Guide Systems
Goold, Ryan (Inventor); Buchele, Paul (Inventor); Hindle, Timothy (Inventor); Ruebsamen, Dale Thomas (Inventor)
2017-01-01
Embodiments of isolators, such as three parameter isolators, including a main spring linear guide system are provided. In one embodiment, the isolator includes first and second opposing end portions, a main spring mechanically coupled between the first and second end portions, and a linear guide system extending from the first end portion, across the main spring, and toward the second end portion. The linear guide system expands and contracts in conjunction with deflection of the main spring along the working axis, while restricting displacement and rotation of the main spring along first and second axes orthogonal to the working axis.
Linearization Technologies for Broadband Radio-Over-Fiber Transmission Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiupu Zhang
2014-11-01
Full Text Available Linearization technologies that can be used for linearizing RoF transmission are reviewed. Three main linearization methods, i.e. electrical analog linearization, optical linearization, and electrical digital linearization are presented and compared. Analog linearization can be achieved using analog predistortion circuits, and can be used for suppression of odd order nonlinear distortion components, such as third and fifth order. Optical linearization includes mixed-polarization, dual-wavelength, optical channelization and the others, implemented in optical domain, to suppress both even and odd order nonlinear distortion components, such as second and third order. Digital predistortion has been a widely used linearization method for RF power amplifiers. However, digital linearization that requires analog to digital converter is severely limited to hundreds of MHz bandwidth. Instead, analog and optical linearization provide broadband linearization with up to tens of GHz. Therefore, for broadband radio over fiber transmission that can be used for future broadband cloud radio access networks, analog and optical linearization are more appropriate than digital linearization. Generally speaking, both analog and optical linearization are able to improve spur-free dynamic range greater than 10 dB over tens of GHz. In order for current digital linearization to be used for broadband radio over fiber transmission, the reduced linearization complexity and increased linearization bandwidth are required. Moreover, some digital linearization methods in which the complexity can be reduced, such as Hammerstein type, may be more promising and require further investigation.
Linear scleroderma en coup de sabre including abnormal dental development
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hørberg, M; Lauesen, S R; Daugaard-Jensen, J
2015-01-01
BACKGROUND: Linear scleroderma en coup de sabre (SCS) is a rare skin condition, where dense collagen is deposited in a localised groove of the head and neck area resembling the stroke of a sabre. The SCS may involve the oral cavity, but the severity and relation to this skin abnormality is unknown...
[New technology for linear colliders.] Progress report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McIntyre, P.M.
1986-01-01
The purpose of the contract is to devise and analyze new technologies appropriate for future linear colliders. The focus of our research during 1986 has been the coaxial pulse line (CPL) accelerating structure. It is similar to a wake field structure, except that it replaces the annular ring beam driver by an annular TEM wave. The driver wave can be launched using a capacitor discharge arrangement similar to induction linacs. The structure has the combined advantages of high gradient (∼200 MeV/m) and high efficiency (perhaps ∼50%). A high-power lasertron based on a ribbon electron beam is proposed
U.S. Linear Collider Technology Options Study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bagger, J.
2006-01-01
This study was carried out at the request of the United States Linear Collider Steering Group (USLCSG). The establishment of such a body was recommended by the HEPAP Subpanel on Long Range Planning [1]. The USLCSG is led by an Executive Committee, chaired by Jonathan Dorfan of SLAC, and consisting currently of the members shown in Table 1.1.1.1. Three subcommittees report to the Executive Committee: an Accelerator Subcommittee, a Physics/Detector Subcommittee, and an International Aggairs Subcommittee. While the functions of the Steering Group are expected to evolve with time, the initial charge includes the following items: (1) Provide an evaluation of options for building the linear collider involving factors such as scientific requirements, technical feasibility, risk, cost, initial facility parameters, upgradeability of alternate technologies, and the implications of different sites; and (2) Prepare the elements of a U.S. bid to host the linear collider. To address these items in its charge, the USLCSG Executive Committee asked the Accelerator Subcommittee to carry out an evaluation of two options for a US-sited linear collider. The two options were to be based on the normal conducting X-band RF technology developed by the GLC/NLC collaboration [ZDR, NLC01], [TRC, Chapter 3], and the superconducting L-band RF technology developed by the TESLA collaboration [TDR]. The physics design requirements which both technical options must meet were established [2] by the Physics and Detector Subcommittee of the USLCSG
Femtosecond laser technologies for linear collider designs
Kobayashi, K
2001-01-01
A highly stabilized high-energy femtosecond laser system was developed for Compton X-ray experiments. The laser system is based on the chirped pulse amplification, and each component is actively or passively stabilized. A master oscillator with less than 100 fs timing jitter, two independent oscillators with 300 fs relative timing lag, a new measurement technique of timing fluctuation of low-repetition amplified pulse, and a special designed regenerative amplifier with high quality beam were developed. New technical options for linear collider are proposed based on these expertises. The options are temporally square pulse for low emittance electron generation, a timing stabilized seeder for CO sub 2 amplifier, and multi-pulse high-energy lasers for gamma-gamma collision and for multi-bunch electron generation.
Interviewing Objects: Including Educational Technologies as Qualitative Research Participants
Adams, Catherine A.; Thompson, Terrie Lynn
2011-01-01
This article argues the importance of including significant technologies-in-use as key qualitative research participants when studying today's digitally enhanced learning environments. We gather a set of eight heuristics to assist qualitative researchers in "interviewing" technologies-in-use (or other relevant objects), drawing on concrete…
Optimization of piezoelectric cantilever energy harvesters including non-linear effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Patel, R; McWilliam, S; Popov, A A
2014-01-01
This paper proposes a versatile non-linear model for predicting piezoelectric energy harvester performance. The presented model includes (i) material non-linearity, for both substrate and piezoelectric layers, and (ii) geometric non-linearity incorporated by assuming inextensibility and accurately representing beam curvature. The addition of a sub-model, which utilizes the transfer matrix method to predict eigenfrequencies and eigenvectors for segmented beams, allows for accurate optimization of piezoelectric layer coverage. A validation of the overall theoretical model is performed through experimental testing on both uniform and non-uniform samples manufactured in-house. For the harvester composition used in this work, the magnitude of material non-linearity exhibited by the piezoelectric layer is 35 times greater than that of the substrate layer. It is also observed that material non-linearity, responsible for reductions in resonant frequency with increases in base acceleration, is dominant over geometric non-linearity for standard piezoelectric harvesting devices. Finally, over the tested range, energy loss due to damping is found to increase in a quasi-linear fashion with base acceleration. During an optimization study on piezoelectric layer coverage, results from the developed model were compared with those from a linear model. Unbiased comparisons between harvesters were realized by using devices with identical natural frequencies—created by adjusting the device substrate thickness. Results from three studies, each with a different assumption on mechanical damping variations, are presented. Findings showed that, depending on damping variation, a non-linear model is essential for such optimization studies with each model predicting vastly differing optimum configurations. (paper)
Linear thermal expansion coefficient measurement technology in hot cell
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Dae Gyu; Choo, Yong Sun; Ahn, Sang Bok; Hong, Kwon Pyo; Lee, K. S.
1998-06-01
To establish linear thermal expansion coefficient measurement technology in hot cell, we reviewed and evaluated various measuring technology by paper and these were compared with the data produced with pre-installed dilatometer in hot cell. Detailed contents are as follows; - The theory of test. - Review of characteristics for various measurement technology and compatibility with hot cell. - Review of standard testing regulations(ASTM). - System calibration of pre-installed dilatometer. - Performance test of pre-installed dilatometer. (author). 12 refs., 15 tabs., 8 figs
Holmberg, Andreas; Kierkegaard, Axel; Weng, Chenyang
2015-06-01
In this paper, a method for including damping of acoustic energy in regions of strong turbulence is derived for a linearized Navier-Stokes method in the frequency domain. The proposed method is validated and analyzed in 2D only, although the formulation is fully presented in 3D. The result is applied in a study of the linear interaction between the acoustic and the hydrodynamic field in a 2D T-junction, subject to grazing flow at Mach 0.1. Part of the acoustic energy at the upstream edge of the junction is shed as harmonically oscillating disturbances, which are conveyed across the shear layer over the junction, where they interact with the acoustic field. As the acoustic waves travel in regions of strong shear, there is a need to include the interaction between the background turbulence and the acoustic field. For this purpose, the oscillation of the background turbulence Reynold's stress, due to the acoustic field, is modeled using an eddy Newtonian model assumption. The time averaged flow is first solved for using RANS along with a k-ε turbulence model. The spatially varying turbulent eddy viscosity is then added to the spatially invariant kinematic viscosity in the acoustic set of equations. The response of the 2D T-junction to an incident acoustic field is analyzed via a plane wave scattering matrix model, and the result is compared to experimental data for a T-junction of rectangular ducts. A strong improvement in the agreement between calculation and experimental data is found when the modification proposed in this paper is implemented. Discrepancies remaining are likely due to inaccuracies in the selected turbulence model, which is known to produce large errors e.g. for flows with significant rotation, which the grazing flow across the T-junction certainly is. A natural next step is therefore to test the proposed methodology together with more sophisticated turbulence models.
2-D linear motion system. Innovative technology summary report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1998-11-01
The US Department of Energy's (DOE's) nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) program requires buildings to be decontaminated, decommissioned, and surveyed for radiological contamination in an expeditious and cost-effective manner. Simultaneously, the health and safety of personnel involved in the D and D activities is of primary concern. D and D workers must perform duties high off the ground, requiring the use of manlifts or scaffolding, often, in radiologically or chemically contaminated areas or in areas with limited access. Survey and decontamination instruments that are used are sometimes heavy or awkward to use, particularly when the worker is operating from a manlift or scaffolding. Finding alternative methods of performing such work on manlifts or scaffolding is important. The 2-D Linear Motion System (2-D LMS), also known as the Wall Walker trademark, is designed to remotely position tools and instruments on walls for use in such activities as radiation surveys, decontamination, and painting. Traditional (baseline) methods for operating equipment for these tasks require workers to perform duties on elevated platforms, sometimes several meters above the ground surface and near potential sources of contamination. The Wall Walker 2-D LMS significantly improves health and safety conditions by facilitating remote operation of equipment. The Wall Walker 2-D LMS performed well in a demonstration of its precision, accuracy, maneuverability, payload capacity, and ease of use. Thus, this innovative technology is demonstrated to be a viable alternative to standard methods of performing work on large, high walls, especially those that have potential contamination concerns. The Wall Walker was used to perform a final release radiological survey on over 167 m 2 of walls. In this application, surveying using a traditional (baseline) method that employs an aerial lift for manual access was 64% of the total cost of the improved technology. However
2010-11-23
... Employment and Training Administration Metlife Technology, Operations, and Information Technology Groups Including On-Site Leased Workers From Adecco, Cognizant, IBM, Infosys, Kana, Patni, Siemens, Tapfin, Veritas... Workers From At&T Solutions, Chimes, Cognizant, Patni, Siemens, Xerox Clarks Summit, PA; Notice of Revised...
Exploration Technology Development including Surface Acoustic Wave RFID chips
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project is focused on maturing future surface exploration technologies and instrumentation and working towards flight instrumentation and systems to support...
Hanks, Brantley R.; Skelton, Robert E.
1991-01-01
Vibration in modern structural and mechanical systems can be reduced in amplitude by increasing stiffness, redistributing stiffness and mass, and/or adding damping if design techniques are available to do so. Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) theory in modern multivariable control design, attacks the general dissipative elastic system design problem in a global formulation. The optimal design, however, allows electronic connections and phase relations which are not physically practical or possible in passive structural-mechanical devices. The restriction of LQR solutions (to the Algebraic Riccati Equation) to design spaces which can be implemented as passive structural members and/or dampers is addressed. A general closed-form solution to the optimal free-decay control problem is presented which is tailored for structural-mechanical system. The solution includes, as subsets, special cases such as the Rayleigh Dissipation Function and total energy. Weighting matrix selection is a constrained choice among several parameters to obtain desired physical relationships. The closed-form solution is also applicable to active control design for systems where perfect, collocated actuator-sensor pairs exist.
Linear perturbations in spherically symmetric dust cosmologies including a cosmological constant
Meyer, Sven; Bartelmann, Matthias
2017-12-01
We study the dynamical behaviour of gauge-invariant linear perturbations in spherically symmetric dust cosmologies including a cosmological constant. In contrast to spatially homogeneous FLRW models, the reduced degree of spatial symmetry causes a non-trivial dynamical coupling of gauge-invariant quantities already at first order perturbation theory and the strength and influence of this coupling on the spacetime evolution is investigated here. We present results on the underlying dynamical equations augmented by a cosmological constant and integrate them numerically. We also present a method to derive cosmologically relevant initial variables for this setup. Estimates of angular power spectra for each metric variable are computed and evaluated on the central observer's past null cone. By comparing the full evolution to the freely evolved initial profiles, the coupling strength will be determined for a best fit radially inhomogeneous patch obtained in previous works (see [1]). We find that coupling effects are not noticeable within the cosmic variance limit and can therefore safely be neglected for a relevant cosmological scenario. On the contrary, we find very strong coupling effects in a best fit spherical void model matching the distance redshift relation of SNe which is in accordance with previous findings using parametric void models.
Physics and technology of the next linear collider
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1996-06-01
The authors present the prospects for the next generation of high-energy physics experiments with electron-positron colliding beams. This report summarizes the current status of the design and technological basis of a linear collider of center-of-mass energy 0.5--1.5 TeV, and the opportunities for high-energy physics experiments that this machine is expected to open. The physics goals discussed here are: Standard Model processes and simulation; top quark physics; Higgs boson searches and properties; supersymmetry; anomalous gauge boson couplings; strong WW scattering; new gauge bosons and exotic particles; e - e - , e - γ, and γγ interactions; and precision tests of QCD
Physics and technology of the next linear collider
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1996-06-01
The authors present the prospects for the next generation of high-energy physics experiments with electron-positron colliding beams. This report summarizes the current status of the design and technological basis of a linear collider of center-of-mass energy 0.5--1.5 TeV, and the opportunities for high-energy physics experiments that this machine is expected to open. The physics goals discussed here are: Standard Model processes and simulation; top quark physics; Higgs boson searches and properties; supersymmetry; anomalous gauge boson couplings; strong WW scattering; new gauge bosons and exotic particles; e{sup {minus}}e{sup {minus}}, e{sup {minus}}{gamma}, and {gamma}{gamma} interactions; and precision tests of QCD.
Expanding Health Technology Assessments to Include Effects on the Environment
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Marsh, Kevin; Ganz, Michael Lee; Hsu, John
2016-01-01
for incorporating environmental impacts into the health technology assessment (HTA) process and discusses the associated challenges. Two arguments favor incorporating environmental impacts into HTA: 1) environmental changes could directly affect people's health and 2) policy decision makers have broad mandates...
Expanding Health Technology Assessments to Include Effects on the Environment.
Marsh, Kevin; Ganz, Michael L; Hsu, John; Strandberg-Larsen, Martin; Gonzalez, Raquel Palomino; Lund, Niels
2016-01-01
There is growing awareness of the impact of human activity on the climate and the need to stem this impact. Public health care decision makers from Sweden and the United Kingdom have started examining environmental impacts when assessing new technologies. This article considers the case for incorporating environmental impacts into the health technology assessment (HTA) process and discusses the associated challenges. Two arguments favor incorporating environmental impacts into HTA: 1) environmental changes could directly affect people's health and 2) policy decision makers have broad mandates and objectives extending beyond health care. Two types of challenges hinder this process. First, the nascent evidence base is insufficient to support the accurate comparison of technologies' environmental impacts. Second, cost-utility analysis, which is favored by many HTA agencies, could capture some of the value of environmental impacts, especially those generating health impacts, but might not be suitable for addressing broader concerns. Both cost-benefit and multicriteria decision analyses are potential methods for evaluating health and environmental outcomes, but are less familiar to health care decision makers. Health care is an important and sizable sector of the economy that could warrant closer policy attention to its impact on the environment. Considerable work is needed to track decision makers' demands, augment the environmental evidence base, and develop robust methods for capturing and incorporating environmental data as part of HTA. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Including information technology project management in the nursing informatics curriculum.
Sockolow, Paulina; Bowles, Kathryn H
2008-01-01
Project management is a critical skill for nurse informaticists who are in prominent roles developing and implementing clinical information systems. It should be included in the nursing informatics curriculum, as evidenced by its inclusion in informatics competencies and surveys of important skills for informaticists. The University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing includes project management in two of the four courses in the master's level informatics minor. Course content includes the phases of the project management process; the iterative unified process methodology; and related systems analysis and project management skills. During the introductory course, students learn about the project plan, requirements development, project feasibility, and executive summary documents. In the capstone course, students apply the system development life cycle and project management skills during precepted informatics projects. During this in situ experience, students learn, the preceptors benefit, and the institution better prepares its students for the real world.
Input-output linearizing tracking control of induction machine with the included magnetic saturation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dolinar, Drago; Ljusev, Petar; Stumberger, Gorazd
2003-01-01
The tracking control design of an induction motor, based on input-output linearisation with magnetic saturation included is addressed. The magnetic saturation is represented by a nonlinear magnetising curve for the iron core and is used in the control, the observer of the state variables, and in ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher
2009-01-01
-induced loads are evaluated for specific operational profiles. Non-linearity in the wave bending moment is modeled using results derived from a second-order strip theory and water entry solutions for wedge type sections. Hence, bow flare slamming is accounted for through a momentum type of approach....... The stochastic properties of this non-linear response are calculated through a monotonic Hermite transformation. In addition, the impulse loading due to e.g. bottom slamming or a rapid change in bow flare is included using a modal expansion in the two lowest vertical vibration modes. These whipping vibrations...
Results and Comparison from the SAM Linear Fresnel Technology Performance Model: Preprint
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wagner, M. J.
2012-04-01
This paper presents the new Linear Fresnel technology performance model in NREL's System Advisor Model. The model predicts the financial and technical performance of direct-steam-generation Linear Fresnel power plants, and can be used to analyze a range of system configurations. This paper presents a brief discussion of the model formulation and motivation, and provides extensive discussion of the model performance and financial results. The Linear Fresnel technology is also compared to other concentrating solar power technologies in both qualitative and quantitative measures. The Linear Fresnel model - developed in conjunction with the Electric Power Research Institute - provides users with the ability to model a variety of solar field layouts, fossil backup configurations, thermal receiver designs, and steam generation conditions. This flexibility aims to encompass current market solutions for the DSG Linear Fresnel technology, which is seeing increasing exposure in fossil plant augmentation and stand-alone power generation applications.
International Linear Collider Project and civil engineering technology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2007-01-01
The objectives, activities and members of the Linear Collider Subcommittee of Japan Society of Civil Engineers (LC subcommittee) are described. The LC subcommittee consisted of five working groups such as the working group on planning and project and management, working group on geological survey, test, and environmental design, working group on structural and environmental design, working group on construction and maintenance and working group on information investigation of ILC. The policy of activities, work schedule, and report of each working group are described. Construction of ILC research facilities, standard cross section of tunnel, measurement results of long-term displacement of large underground cavities, the tunnel damages by earthquake in the south part of Hyogo prefecture in Japan, TBM method, collection of information are reported. (S.Y.)
Technology Development for Linear Optics Quantum Computing Program
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Franson, J. D
2005-01-01
.... The main results of the study include a demonstration of a CNOT logic gate, a source of single photons on demand, a quantum memory device for photonic qubits, a small-scale circuit for photonic...
Technology of Manufacture of the Negative Matrices for Linear Fresnel Lenses
Lapshin, V. V.; Zakharevich, E. M.; Grubyy, S. V.
2016-04-01
This article describes the main structural features of negative matrices which are intended for the production of positive copies of linear Fresnel lenses. Linear lenses are used in a space solar energy industry as solar concentrators in the photovoltaic modules. The article covers the essential requirements which are placed on the equipment and technology for the production of such matrices.
2011-04-22
... Industries, including on-site leased workers from Westaff, Supply Technologies, Aerotek, Securitas Security... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-74,336] Polaris Industries, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Westaff, Supply Technologies, Aerotek, Securitas Security Services...
ICFA announces launch of technology recommendation process for future linear collider
2003-01-01
The International Committee for Future Accelerators has announced the membership and chair of the 12-person International Technology Recommendation Panel. The ITRP, with four members each from Europe, North America and Asia, is charged with recommending which of two leading accelerating technologies will form the best choice for a future international linear collider (1 page).
Hanks, Brantley R.; Skelton, Robert E.
1991-01-01
This paper addresses the restriction of Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) solutions to the algebraic Riccati Equation to design spaces which can be implemented as passive structural members and/or dampers. A general closed-form solution to the optimal free-decay control problem is presented which is tailored for structural-mechanical systems. The solution includes, as subsets, special cases such as the Rayleigh Dissipation Function and total energy. Weighting matrix selection is a constrained choice among several parameters to obtain desired physical relationships. The closed-form solution is also applicable to active control design for systems where perfect, collocated actuator-sensor pairs exist. Some examples of simple spring mass systems are shown to illustrate key points.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shkarofsky, I.P.
1997-01-01
The relativistic Fokker-Planck collision term in Braams and Karney [Phys. Fluids B 1, 1355 (1989)] is expanded using Cartesian tensors (equivalent to associated Legendre spherical harmonics) retaining all non-linear terms and an arbitrary zeroth order distribution background. Expressions are given for collision terms between all harmonics and the background distribution in terms of the j and y functions in Braams and Karney. The results reduce to Braams and Karney for the first order harmonic term with a Maxwellian background and to those given by Shkarofsky [Can. J. Phys. 41, 1753 (1963)] in the non-relativistic limit. Expressions for the energy and momentum transfer associated with relativistic Coulomb collisions are given. The fast two dimensional Fokker-Planck solver in Shoucri and Shkarofsky [Comput. Phys. Commun. 82, 287 (1994)] has been extended to include the second order harmonic term. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics
2013-02-06
... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-81,755] Thomson Reuters, Finance... of Thomson Reuters, Finance Operations & Technology Division, including on-site leased workers from... administrative services. New findings show that workers of Thomson Reuters, Finance Operations & Technology...
Çoklar, Ahmet Naci; Efilti, Erkan; Sahin, Yusef Levent; Akçay, Arif
2016-01-01
Techno-stress is defined as a modern adaptation disorder resulting from the failure in coping with new technologies in a healthy way. Techno-stress affects many occupational groups, including teachers. FATIH project and many other previous studies conducted in Turkey in recent years have necessitated the use of technology for teachers. The present…
2011-01-26
... from Supply Technologies were employed on-site at the Osceola, Wisconsin location of Polaris Industries... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-74,336] Polaris Industries, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Westaff and Supply Technologies, Osceola, WI; Amended Certification...
2010-12-13
... from Supply Technologies were employed on-site at the Osceola, Wisconsin location of Polaris Industries... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-74,336] Polaris Industries, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Westaff and Supply Technologies, Osceola, WI; Amended Certification...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marsolat, F; De Marzi, L; Mazal, A; Pouzoulet, F
2016-01-01
In proton therapy, the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) depends on various types of parameters such as linear energy transfer (LET). An analytical model for LET calculation exists (Wilkens’ model), but secondary particles are not included in this model. In the present study, we propose a correction factor, L sec , for Wilkens’ model in order to take into account the LET contributions of certain secondary particles. This study includes secondary protons and deuterons, since the effects of these two types of particles can be described by the same RBE-LET relationship. L sec was evaluated by Monte Carlo (MC) simulations using the GATE/GEANT4 platform and was defined by the ratio of the LET d distributions of all protons and deuterons and only primary protons. This method was applied to the innovative Pencil Beam Scanning (PBS) delivery systems and L sec was evaluated along the beam axis. This correction factor indicates the high contribution of secondary particles in the entrance region, with L sec values higher than 1.6 for a 220 MeV clinical pencil beam. MC simulations showed the impact of pencil beam parameters, such as mean initial energy, spot size, and depth in water, on L sec . The variation of L sec with these different parameters was integrated in a polynomial function of the L sec factor in order to obtain a model universally applicable to all PBS delivery systems. The validity of this correction factor applied to Wilkens’ model was verified along the beam axis of various pencil beams in comparison with MC simulations. A good agreement was obtained between the corrected analytical model and the MC calculations, with mean-LET deviations along the beam axis less than 0.05 keV μm −1 . These results demonstrate the efficacy of our new correction of the existing LET model in order to take into account secondary protons and deuterons along the pencil beam axis. (paper)
2011-02-02
... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-74,336] Polaris Industries, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Westaff, Supply Technologies, Aerotek, and Securitas Security Services..., applicable to workers of Polaris Industries, including on-site leased workers from Westaff, Osceola...
International Linear Collider Steering Committee issues charge to Technology Recommendation Panel
2003-01-01
"Following its November 19 meeting in Paris, the International Linear Collider Steering Committee, a subcommittee of the International Committee for Future Accelerators, has published the charge http://www.fnal.gov/directorate/icfa/ITRP_Charge.pdf to the International Technology Recommendation Panel appointed by ICFA" (2 paragraphs).
Few-photon Non-linearities in Nanophotonic Devices for Quantum Information Technology
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nysteen, Anders
In this thesis we investigate few-photon non-linearities in all-optical, on-chip circuits, and we discuss their possible applications in devices of interest for quantum information technology, such as conditional two-photon gates and single-photon sources. In order to propose efficient devices...
Using virtual reality technology to include field operators in simulation and training
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nystad, E.; Strand, S.
2006-01-01
By using virtual reality technology, field operators can be included in simulator training. A study has been performed where field operators could perform their activities in a virtual plant and communicate with a control room operator who was placed in a physical control room simulator. This paper describes the use of VR technology in the study and how the operators experienced interacting with the virtual plant. (author)
Annual Technology Baseline (Including Supporting Data); NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blair, Nate; Cory, Karlynn; Hand, Maureen; Parkhill, Linda; Speer, Bethany; Stehly, Tyler; Feldman, David; Lantz, Eric; Augusting, Chad; Turchi, Craig; O' Connor, Patrick
2015-07-08
Consistent cost and performance data for various electricity generation technologies can be difficult to find and may change frequently for certain technologies. With the Annual Technology Baseline (ATB), National Renewable Energy Laboratory provides an organized and centralized dataset that was reviewed by internal and external experts. It uses the best information from the Department of Energy laboratory's renewable energy analysts and Energy Information Administration information for conventional technologies. The ATB will be updated annually in order to provide an up-to-date repository of current and future cost and performance data. Going forward, we plan to revise and refine the values using best available information. The ATB includes both a presentation with notes (PDF) and an associated Excel Workbook. The ATB includes the following electricity generation technologies: land-based wind; offshore wind; utility-scale solar PV; concentrating solar power; geothermal power; hydropower plants (upgrades to existing facilities, powering non-powered dams, and new stream-reach development); conventional coal; coal with carbon capture and sequestration; integrated gasification combined cycle coal; natural gas combustion turbines; natural gas combined cycle; conventional biopower. Nuclear laboratory's renewable energy analysts and Energy Information Administration information for conventional technologies. The ATB will be updated annually in order to provide an up-to-date repository of current and future cost and performance data. Going forward, we plan to revise and refine the values using best available information.
Physics and technology of the Next Linear Collider a report submitted to Snowmass '96
Kuhlman, S; Aiello, R; Akemoto, M; Alley, R; Assmann, R W; Baer, Howard W; Baltay, C; Bane, Karl Leopold Freitag; Barakat, B; Barker, A; Barklow, Timothy L; Barletta, W A; Bauer, D A; Bertolini, L R; Bharadwaj, V K; Bogart, J R; Bowden, G B; Bower, G; Brau, J E; Breidenbach, M; Brown, K L; Burke, D L; Burrows, P N; Byrd, J M; Cai, Y; Caryotakis, G; Cassel, R L; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, P; Clark, S L; Cleaver, G B; Clem, D; Clendenin, J E; Corlett, J N; Corvin, C; Couture, G; Cuypers, F; Danielson, M; Deadrick, F J; Decker, Franz Josef; Donaldson, A R; Dragt, A J; Dubois, R; Early, R A; Ecklund, S D; Eichner, J; Einhorn, Martin B; Emma, P; Eppley, K R; Eriksson, L; Fahey, S; Farkas, Z D; Fawley, W M; Feng, J L; Fero, M J; Fisher, A S; Foundoulis, C; Fowkes, W R; Frey, R E; Frisch, J; Fuller, R W; Furman, M A; Genova, L F; Gintner, M; Giordano, G; Gluckstern, R L; Godfrey, S; Gold, S; Goluboff, M; Gross, G; Gunion, J F; Haber, Howard E; Han, T; Hanna, S; Hartman, S; Heifets, S A; Helm, R H; Hendrickson, L; Henestroza, E; Hertzbach, S S; Heusch, C A; Hewett, J L; Higashi, K; Higo, T; Hoag, H A; Hodgson, J; Hollebeek, R J; Holt, J A; Houck, T L; Humphrey, J W; Humphrey, R; Irwin, J; Jackson, A; Jacobsen, R A; Jaros, J A; Jobe, R Keith; Jones, R M; Kalyniak, P A; Kane, G L; Keller, L P; Kim, K J; Klem, D E; Ko, K; Koontz, R F; Kraft, E; Krejcik, P; Kroll, N M; Kubo, K; Kulikov, A; Lavine, T L; Li, H; Li, Z; Lidia, S M; Linebarger, W A; Loew, G A; Loewen, R J; Maeshima, K; Manly, S L; Marciano, W J; Markiewicz, T W; Maruyama, T; Mattison, T S; McDonald, K F; McKee, B; Messner, R; Meyerhofer, D D; Miller, R H; Minkowski, Peter; Minty, Michiko G; Moshammer, W; Munro, M H; Munroe, R; Murayama, H; Nantista, C D; Nauenberg, U; Nelson, E M; Nelson, H; Nelson, W R; Ng, C K; Nosochkov, Yu M; Ohgaki, T; Oide, K; Paige, Frank E; Palmer, D; Palmer, R B; Paterson, J M; Pearson, C; Perry, M; Peskin, Michael E; Phillips, R M; Phinney, N; Pope, R S; Raja, R; Raubenheimer, T O; Reginato, L; Rifkin, J; Riles, K; Rimmer, R A; Rinolfi, Louis; Rizzo, T; Robin, D; Rokni, S H; Ronan, Michael T; Rosenzweig, J; Ross, M C; Rowson, P C; Ruland, R E; Ruth, Ronald D; Saab, A; Sawyer, L; Schumm, B; Schwarz, H; Scott, B; Sessler, Andrew M; Sheppard, J C; Shoaee, H; Smith, S; Spence, W L; Spencer, C M; Spencer, J E; Sprehn, D; Strom, D; Stupakov, G; Takahashi, T; Tanaka, K; Tang, H; Tantawi, S G; Tata, Xerxes; Telnov, V I; Tenenbaum, P G; Thomas, S; Thompson, K A; Tian, F; Turner, J; Usher, T; Van Bibber, K; Van Kooten, R; Vanecek, D L; Vlieks, A E; Wagner, D L; Walz, D R; Wang, J W; Ward, B F L; Weidemann, A W; Westenskow, G A; White, T; Whittum, D H; Wilson, P B; Wilson, Z; Woodley, M; Woods, M; Wudka, J; Wurtele, J S; Xie, M; Yan, Y T; Yeremian, A D; Yokoya, K; Yu, S S; Zholents, A A; Zimmermann, Frank
1996-01-01
We present the current expectations for the design and physics program of an e+e- linear collider of center of mass energy 500 GeV -- 1 TeV. We review the experiments that would be carried out at this facility and demonstrate its key role in exploring physics beyond the Standard Model over the full range of theoretical possibilities. We then show the feasibility of constructing this machine, by reviewing the current status of linear collider technology and by presenting a precis of our `zeroth- order' design.
Guillemin, Ernst A
2013-01-01
An eminent electrical engineer and authority on linear system theory presents this advanced treatise, which approaches the subject from the viewpoint of classical dynamics and covers Fourier methods. This volume will assist upper-level undergraduates and graduate students in moving from introductory courses toward an understanding of advanced network synthesis. 1963 edition.
Uslan, Mark; Blubaugh, Morgan
2010-09-01
In an article in this issue of Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, Sherwyn Schwartz, M.D., presents a study to validate the design of the ClikSTAR® insulin pen from sanofi-aventis and demonstrates that the device can be used correctly by participants with diabetes. Concern with this article lies with the selection of participants, which was meant to reflect the intended audience for the insulin pen device but does not address the inclusion of visually impaired individuals, who comprise over 20% of the adult diabetes population. Visually impaired individuals need to be included as part of the intended audience for insulin administration technology, and manufacturers of these devices need to design their products for safe use by all people, including those who are visually impaired. The study demonstrated successful use of the ClikSTAR insulin pen in a population that did not include subjects with severe visual impairment. We believe that future validation studies for insulin administration technology should also include samples of visually impaired users and that visually impaired patients will embrace the use of insulin pens designed with their needs in mind. © 2010 Diabetes Technology Society.
2011-04-28
...] Reliability and Continuity of Communications Networks, Including Broadband Technologies; Effects on Broadband...: Effects on Broadband Communications Networks of Damage or Failure of Network Equipment or Severe Overload... Docket 10-92 (Effects on Broadband Communications Networks of Damage or Failure of Network Equipment or...
2012-03-06
... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-74,336] Polaris Industries, Including On-site Leased Workers From Westaff, Supply Technologies, Aerotek Securitas Security Services... for Worker Adjustment Assistance on August 26, 2010, applicable to workers of Polaris Industries...
Microwave technology for waste management applications including disposition of electronic circuitry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wicks, G.G.; Clark, D.E.; Schulz, R.L.; Folz, D.C.
1995-01-01
Microwave technology is being developed nationally and internationally for a variety of environmental remediation purposes. These efforts include treatment and destruction of a vast array of gaseous, liquid and solid hazardous wastes as well as subsequent immobilization of selected components. Microwave technology provides an important contribution to an arsenal of existing remediation methods that are designed to protect the public and environment from undesirable consequences of hazardous materials. Applications of microwave energy for environmental remediation will be discussed. Emphasized will be a newly developed microwave process designed to treat discarded electronic circuitry and reclaim the precious metals within for reuse
Microwave Technology for Waste Management Applications Including Disposition of Electronic Circuitry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wicks, G.G.; Clark, D.E.; Schulz, R.L.
1998-01-01
Advanced microwave technology is being developed nationally and internationally for a variety of waste management and environmental remediation purposes. These efforts include treatment and destruction of a vast array of gaseous, liquid and solid hazardous wastes as well as subsequent immobilization of hazardous components into leach resistant forms. Microwave technology provides an important contribution to an arsenal of existing remediation methods that are designed to protect the public and environment from the undesirable consequences of hazardous materials. One application of special interest is the treatment of discarded electronic circuitry using a new hybrid microwave treatment process and subsequent reclamation of the precious metals within
Boulton, Elisabeth; Hawley-Hague, Helen; Vereijken, Beatrix; Clifford, Amanda; Guldemond, Nick; Pfeiffer, Klaus; Hall, Alex; Chesani, Federico; Mellone, Sabato; Bourke, Alan; Todd, Chris
2016-06-01
Recent Cochrane reviews on falls and fall prevention have shown that it is possible to prevent falls in older adults living in the community and in care facilities. Technologies aimed at fall detection, assessment, prediction and prevention are emerging, yet there has been no consistency in describing or reporting on interventions using technologies. With the growth of eHealth and data driven interventions, a common language and classification is required. The FARSEEING Taxonomy of Technologies was developed as a tool for those in the field of biomedical informatics to classify and characterise components of studies and interventions. The Taxonomy Development Group (TDG) comprised experts from across Europe. Through face-to-face meetings and contributions via email, five domains were developed, modified and agreed: Approach; Base; Components of outcome measures; Descriptors of technologies; and Evaluation. Each domain included sub-domains and categories with accompanying definitions. The classification system was tested against published papers and further amendments undertaken, including development of an online tool. Six papers were classified by the TDG with levels of consensus recorded. Testing the taxonomy with papers highlighted difficulties in definitions across international healthcare systems, together with differences of TDG members' backgrounds. Definitions were clarified and amended accordingly, but some difficulties remained. The taxonomy and manual were large documents leading to a lengthy classification process. The development of the online application enabled a much simpler classification process, as categories and definitions appeared only when relevant. Overall consensus for the classified papers was 70.66%. Consensus scores increased as modifications were made to the taxonomy. The FARSEEING Taxonomy of Technologies presents a common language, which should now be adopted in the field of biomedical informatics. In developing the taxonomy as an
Polzin, K. A.; Pearson, J. B.; Webster, K.; Godfoy, T. J.; Bossard, J. A.
2013-01-01
Results of performance testing of an annular linear induction pump that has been designed for integration into a fission surface power technology demonstration unit are presented. The pump electromagnetically pushes liquid metal (NaK) through a specially-designed apparatus that permits quantification of pump performance over a range of operating conditions. Testing was conducted for frequencies of 40, 55, and 70 Hz, liquid metal temperatures of 125, 325, and 525 C, and input voltages from 30 to 120 V. Pump performance spanned a range of flow rates from roughly 0.3 to 3.1 L/s (4.8 to 49 gpm), and pressure heads of <1 to 104 kPa (<0.15 to 15 psi). The maximum efficiency measured during testing was 5.4%. At the technology demonstration unit operating temperature of 525 C the pump operated over a narrower envelope, with flow rates from 0.3 to 2.75 L/s (4.8 to 43.6 gpm), developed pressure heads from <1 to 55 kPa (<0.15 to 8 psi), and a maximum efficiency of 3.5%. The pump was supplied with three-phase power at 40 and 55 Hz using a variable-frequency motor drive, while power at 55 and 70 Hz was supplied using a variable-frequency power supply. Measured performance of the pump at 55 Hz using either supply exhibited good quantitative agreement. For a given temperature, the peak in efficiency occurred at different flow rates as the frequency was changed, but the maximum value of efficiency was relative insensitive within 0.3% over the frequency range tested, including a scan from 45 to 78 Hz. The objectives of the FSP technology project are as follows:5 • Develop FSP concepts that meet expected surface power requirements at reasonable cost with added benefits over other options. • Establish a nonnuclear hardware-based technical foundation for FSP design concepts to reduce overall development risk. • Reduce the cost uncertainties for FSP and establish greater credibility for flight system cost estimates. • Generate the key nonnuclear products to allow Agency
Developing linear-alpha-Olefins technology. From laboratory to a commercial plant
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Meiswinkel, Andreas; Woehl, Anina; Mueller, Wolfgang; Boelt, Heinz V. [Linde AG, Pullach (Germany). Engineering Div.; Mosa, Fuad M.; Al-Hazmi, Mohammed H. [Saudi Basic Industries Corporation, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)
2012-06-15
Linear {alpha}-Olefins (LAOs) are used in several applications in chemical industry. Together with SABIC (Saudi Basic Industries Corporation) Linde jointly developed the {alpha}-SABLIN {sup registered} technology for a full range LAO plant as well as a 1-Hexene selective On Purpose technology (LAO OP) to cover the rapidly increasing demand for this specific comonomer. The {alpha}-SABLIN {sup registered} as well as the LAO OP technology are both homogenously catalyzed systems. This is raising special challenges concerning process and reactor design compared to much more established heterogeneous systems in chemical industry. E.g., the reactor concept is a bubble-column which allows efficient mixing as well as cooling of the reaction mixture. The development of the process was based on laboratory experiments which - based on an initial conceptual design for a large scale technical process - were first transformed into a pilot device before the commercial plant was designed, engineered and successfully started up and declared as commercialized. Today the {alpha}-SABLIN {sup registered} technology is the only LAO technology with a commercial reference which is free for licensing. A lot of experience and knowledge from the {alpha}-SABLIN development and commercial operation was gained. Although newly developed LAO OP technology is based on a different catalytic system, this experience is now utilized and transformed within the commercialization of this new technological development. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kumaran, P.; Hari, Z.; Boosroh, M.H.
2006-01-01
Two technologies have been considered to generate electricity using palm oil mill waste, the Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) as power plant fuel. One technology is to build new 100% EFB fired power plants, located in the vicinity of the palm oil mill, in which the produced electricity would be connected to the national electricity grid system. The other technology is to transport all the available EFB fuel to an existing coal power station in which the EFB fuel would be blended with coal and co-fired in conventional coal power plant to produce electricity. A study intended to compare the difference between these two technologies, to obtain the same electricity generation, has been done. Linear programming software was used simulate the two technologies to generate 5% of Peninsular Malaysia's electricity demand in the year 2005. The study indicated that the co firing technology total cost is 43.7% cheaper than EFB technology and the fuel coat is competitive until transport cost reaches 78 RM/tone
Developing linear-alpha-olefins technology. From laboratory to a commercial plant
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Meiswinkel, A.; Woehl, A.; Mueller, W.; Boelt, H. [Linde AG, Pullach (Germany)
2011-07-01
Linear {alpha}-Olefins (LAOs) are used in several applications in chemical industry. Together with SABIC (Saudi Basic Industries Corporation) Linde jointly developed the {alpha}-SABLIN technology for a full range LAO plant as well as a 1-Hexene selective ''On Purpose'' technology (LAO OP) to cover the rapidly increasing demand for this specific comonomer. The {alpha}-SABLIN as well as the OP technology are both homogenously catalyzed systems. This is raising special challenges concerning process and reactor design compared to much more established heterogeneous systems in chemical industry. E.g., the reactor concept is a bubble-column which allows efficient mixing as well as cooling of the reaction mixture. The development of the process was based on laboratory experiments which - based on an initial conceptual design for a large scale technical process - were first transformed into a pilot device before the commercial plant was designed, engineered and successfully started up and declared as commercialized. Today the {alpha}-SABLIN technology is the only LAO technology with a commercial reference which is free for licensing. A lot of experience and knowledge from the {alpha}-SABLIN development and commercial operation was gained. Although newly developed OP technology is based on a different catalytic system, this experience is now utilized and transformed within the commercialization of this new technological development. (orig.)
Patro, Rob; Norel, Raquel; Prill, Robert J; Saez-Rodriguez, Julio; Lorenz, Peter; Steinbeck, Felix; Ziems, Bjoern; Luštrek, Mitja; Barbarini, Nicola; Tiengo, Alessandra; Bellazzi, Riccardo; Thiesen, Hans-Jürgen; Stolovitzky, Gustavo; Kingsford, Carl
2016-04-08
Understanding the interactions between antibodies and the linear epitopes that they recognize is an important task in the study of immunological diseases. We present a novel computational method for the design of linear epitopes of specified binding affinity to Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIg). We show that the method, called Pythia-design can accurately design peptides with both high-binding affinity and low binding affinity to IVIg. To show this, we experimentally constructed and tested the computationally constructed designs. We further show experimentally that these designed peptides are more accurate that those produced by a recent method for the same task. Pythia-design is based on combining random walks with an ensemble of probabilistic support vector machines (SVM) classifiers, and we show that it produces a diverse set of designed peptides, an important property to develop robust sets of candidates for construction. We show that by combining Pythia-design and the method of (PloS ONE 6(8):23616, 2011), we are able to produce an even more accurate collection of designed peptides. Analysis of the experimental validation of Pythia-design peptides indicates that binding of IVIg is favored by epitopes that contain trypthophan and cysteine. Our method, Pythia-design, is able to generate a diverse set of binding and non-binding peptides, and its designs have been experimentally shown to be accurate.
Burrows, Tracy L.; Rollo, Megan E.; Williams, Rebecca; Wood, Lisa G.; Garg, Manohar L.; Jensen, Megan; Collins, Clare E.
2017-01-01
Technological advances have allowed for the evolution of traditional dietary assessment methods. The aim of this review is to evaluate the accuracy of technology-based dietary assessment methods to determine carotenoid and/or fruit and vegetable intake when compared with carotenoid biomarkers. An online search strategy was undertaken to identify studies published in the English language up to July 2016. Inclusion criteria were adults ≥18 years, a measure of dietary intake that used information and communication technologies that specified fruit and/or vegetable intake or dietary carotenoid, a biomarker of carotenoid status and the association between the two. Sixteen articles from 13 studies were included with the majority cross-sectional in design (n = 9). Some studies used multiple dietary assessment methods with the most common: food records (n = 7), 24-h diet recalls (n = 5), food frequency questionnaires (n = 3) and diet quality assessed by dietary screener (n = 1). Two studies were directly web based, with four studies using technology that could be completed offline and data later transferred. Two studies utilised technology in the collection of dietary data, while the majority (n = 11) automated the collection in combination with nutrient analysis of the dietary data. Four studies provided correlation values between dietary carotenoids with biomarkers, ranging from r = 0.13 to 0.62 with the remaining studies comparing a measure of fruit and vegetable intake with biomarkers (r = 0.09 to 0.25). This review provides an overview of technology-based dietary assessment methods that have been used in validation studies with objectively measured carotenoids. Findings were positive with these dietary assessment measures showing mostly moderate associations with carotenoid biomarkers. PMID:28216582
Burrows, Tracy L; Rollo, Megan E; Williams, Rebecca; Wood, Lisa G; Garg, Manohar L; Jensen, Megan; Collins, Clare E
2017-02-14
Technological advances have allowed for the evolution of traditional dietary assessment methods. The aim of this review is to evaluate the accuracy of technology-based dietary assessment methods to determine carotenoid and/or fruit and vegetable intake when compared with carotenoid biomarkers. An online search strategy was undertaken to identify studies published in the English language up to July 2016. Inclusion criteria were adults ≥18 years, a measure of dietary intake that used information and communication technologies that specified fruit and/or vegetable intake or dietary carotenoid, a biomarker of carotenoid status and the association between the two. Sixteen articles from 13 studies were included with the majority cross-sectional in design ( n = 9). Some studies used multiple dietary assessment methods with the most common: food records ( n = 7), 24-h diet recalls ( n = 5), food frequency questionnaires ( n = 3) and diet quality assessed by dietary screener ( n = 1). Two studies were directly web based, with four studies using technology that could be completed offline and data later transferred. Two studies utilised technology in the collection of dietary data, while the majority ( n = 11) automated the collection in combination with nutrient analysis of the dietary data. Four studies provided correlation values between dietary carotenoids with biomarkers, ranging from r = 0.13 to 0.62 with the remaining studies comparing a measure of fruit and vegetable intake with biomarkers ( r = 0.09 to 0.25). This review provides an overview of technology-based dietary assessment methods that have been used in validation studies with objectively measured carotenoids. Findings were positive with these dietary assessment measures showing mostly moderate associations with carotenoid biomarkers.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tracy L. Burrows
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Technological advances have allowed for the evolution of traditional dietary assessment methods. The aim of this review is to evaluate the accuracy of technology-based dietary assessment methods to determine carotenoid and/or fruit and vegetable intake when compared with carotenoid biomarkers. An online search strategy was undertaken to identify studies published in the English language up to July 2016. Inclusion criteria were adults ≥18 years, a measure of dietary intake that used information and communication technologies that specified fruit and/or vegetable intake or dietary carotenoid, a biomarker of carotenoid status and the association between the two. Sixteen articles from 13 studies were included with the majority cross-sectional in design (n = 9. Some studies used multiple dietary assessment methods with the most common: food records (n = 7, 24-h diet recalls (n = 5, food frequency questionnaires (n = 3 and diet quality assessed by dietary screener (n = 1. Two studies were directly web based, with four studies using technology that could be completed offline and data later transferred. Two studies utilised technology in the collection of dietary data, while the majority (n = 11 automated the collection in combination with nutrient analysis of the dietary data. Four studies provided correlation values between dietary carotenoids with biomarkers, ranging from r = 0.13 to 0.62 with the remaining studies comparing a measure of fruit and vegetable intake with biomarkers (r = 0.09 to 0.25. This review provides an overview of technology-based dietary assessment methods that have been used in validation studies with objectively measured carotenoids. Findings were positive with these dietary assessment measures showing mostly moderate associations with carotenoid biomarkers.
Development plan of basic technology for a high intensity proton linear accelerator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mizumoto, M.
1990-01-01
The national program called OMEGA (Option Making Extra Gains from Actinide and Fission Products) has started with the aim of promoting the research and development of the new technologies for nuclear waste partitioning and transmutation. As a part of this program, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, JAERI, has laid out several R and D plans for accelerator based actinide transmutation. The present article first outlines the status of the high intensity proton linear accelerator. Then it describes the time schedule for the development of a high intensity proton linac, focusing on the first step development (basic technology accelerator), second step development (engineering test accelerator, and third step development (commercial plant). It also outlines the conceptual design study and preliminary design calculations for basic technology accelerator, focusing on general consideration, ion source, radio frequency quadrupole, drift tube linac, and high beta linac. (N.K.)
A Multi-TeV Linear Collider Based on CLIC Technology : CLIC Conceptual Design Report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aicheler, M [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Burrows, P. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Draper, M. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Garvey, T. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Lebrun, P. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Peach, K. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Phinney, N. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Schmickler, H. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Schulte, D. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Toge, N. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland)
2014-02-13
This report describes the accelerator studies for a future multi-TeV e^{+}e^{-} collider based on the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) technology. The CLIC concept as described in the report is based on high gradient normal-conducting accelerating structures where the RF power for the acceleration of the colliding beams is extracted from a high-current Drive Beam that runs parallel with the main linac. The focus of CLIC R&D over the last years has been on addressing a set of key feasibility issues that are essential for proving the fundamental validity of the CLIC concept. The status of these feasibility studies are described and summarized. The report also includes a technical description of the accelerator components and R&D to develop the most important parts and methods, as well as a description of the civil engineering and technical services associated with the installation. Several larger system tests have been performed to validate the two-beam scheme, and of particular importance are the results from the CLIC test facility at CERN (CTF3). Both the machine and detector/physics studies for CLIC have primarily focused on the 3 TeV implementation of CLIC as a benchmark for the CLIC feasibility. This report also includes specific studies for an initial 500 GeV machine, and some discussion of possible intermediate energy stages. The performance and operation issues related to operation at reduced energy compared to the nominal, and considerations of a staged construction program are included in the final part of the report. The CLIC accelerator study is organized as an international collaboration with 43 partners in 22 countries. An associated report describes the physics potential and experiments at CLIC and a shorter report in preparation will focus on the CLIC implementation strategy, together with a plan for the CLIC R&D studies 2012–2016. Critical and important implementation issues such as cost, power and schedule will be addressed there.
Script of Healthcare Technology: Do Designs of Robotic Beds Exclude or Include Users?
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brodersen, Søsser Grith Kragh; Hansen, Meiken; Lindegaard, Hanne
2015-01-01
of assistive technologies as design of socio-material assemblies , which include an analysis of the products already used in relation to multiple users, their practices and wishes. In the article we focus on the challenges in the implementation of two types of robotic beds used for disability care...... in a municipality in Denmark. We follow both the caregivers and disabled people’s daily practices. By using Actor Network Theory we explore the socio-material settings and the design challenges. The theoretical concept of ‘script’ is used to investigate how the artifacts (beds) and the multiple users go through...
Stamenovic, Milorad; Dobraca, Amra; Smajlovic, Mersiha
2018-01-01
The aim of this paper is to present the marketing strategy and the application of management (marketing management) and advertising in order to increase the efficiency of innovative approach in clinical trials that include and involve the use of new technologies and transfer of technologies. This paper has a descriptive character and represents a narrative review of the literature and new model implementation. Marketing models are primarily used to improve the inclusion of a larger (and appropriate) number of patients, but they can be credited for the stay and monitoring of patients in the trial. Regulatory mechanisms play an important role in the application of various marketing strategies within clinical trials. The value for the patient as the most important stakeholder is defined in the field of clinical trials according to Kotler's value model for the consumer. In order to achieve the best results it is important to adequately examine all the elements of clinical trials and apply this knowledge in creation of a marketing plan that will be made in accordance with the legal regulations defined globally and locally. In this paper, two challenges have been highlighted for the adequate application of marketing tools in the field of clinical trials, namely: defining business elements in order to provide an adequate marketing approach for clinical trials and technology transfer and ensuring uniformity and regulatory affirmation of marketing attitudes in clinical trials in all regions in which they are carried out in accordance with ICH-GCP and valid regulations.
32 CFR 37.875 - Should my TIA include a provision concerning foreign access to technology?
2010-07-01
... preclude the establishment of domestic sources of the technology for defense purposes. Financial and... foreign access to technology? 37.875 Section 37.875 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Award Terms...
2011-01-12
... Employment and Training Administration Quest Diagnostics, Inc. Information Technology Help Desk Services...., Information Technology Help Desk Services, West Norriton, Pennsylvania. The workers are engaged in activities... Technology Help Desk ] Services. The Department has determined that these workers were sufficiently under the...
Vasseur, V.; Kamp, L.M.; Negro, S.O.
2013-01-01
This paper investigates the development and diffusion of photovoltaic (PV) technology in Japan and The Netherlands. Both cases are analysed with the Technological Innovation Systems (TIS) framework, which focuses on a particular technology and includes all those factors that influence the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoelzl, M; Merkel, P; Lackner, K; Strumberger, E; Huijsmans, G T A; Aleynikova, K; Liu, F; Atanasiu, C; Nardon, E; Fil, A; McAdams, R; Chapman, I
2014-01-01
The dynamics of large scale plasma instabilities can be strongly influenced by the mutual interaction with currents flowing in conducting vessel structures. Especially eddy currents caused by time-varying magnetic perturbations and halo currents flowing directly from the plasma into the walls are important. The relevance of a resistive wall model is directly evident for Resistive Wall Modes (RWMs) or Vertical Displacement Events (VDEs). However, also the linear and non-linear properties of most other large-scale instabilities may be influenced significantly by the interaction with currents in conducting structures near the plasma. The understanding of halo currents arising during disruptions and VDEs, which are a serious concern for ITER as they may lead to strong asymmetric forces on vessel structures, could also benefit strongly from these non-linear modeling capabilities. Modeling the plasma dynamics and its interaction with wall currents requires solving the magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) equations in realistic toroidal X-point geometry consistently coupled with a model for the vacuum region and the resistive conducting structures. With this in mind, the non-linear finite element MHD code JOREK [1, 2] has been coupled [3] with the resistive wall code STARWALL [4], which allows us to include the effects of eddy currents in 3D conducting structures in non-linear MHD simulations. This article summarizes the capabilities of the coupled JOREK-STARWALL system and presents benchmark results as well as first applications to non-linear simulations of RWMs, VDEs, disruptions triggered by massive gas injection, and Quiescent H-Mode. As an outlook, the perspectives for extending the model to halo currents are described
Kler, A. M.; Maximov, A. S.; Epishkin, N. O.
2017-09-01
The paper describes the developed method for analyzing technological schemes of thermal power plants based on solving problems of auxiliary linear programming. This method involves solving the linear programming problems to evaluate the effect of supply and removal of heat or material flows of various sizes at different points of the technological scheme of a thermal power plant (TPP). The method effectiveness is demonstrated by the example of the coaldust steam turbine unit with nominal electrical output of 660 MW. As a result of its application, the change of the technological scheme of the unit was found to provide reduction in electricity cost by 0.3%.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1996-10-01
This report is one of a series designed to introduce British exporters to the opportunities offered by the Malaysian market. The Seventh Malaysia Plan, covering the five year period, 1996-2000, contains an ambitious menu of infrastructure projects. Total expenditure under the Plan is envisaged at RM450 billion, of which around RM380 billion will be sourced from the private sector. This is an indication of the wealth accumulated within the Malaysian economy. The infrastructure developments identified are designed to take the country towards Vision 2020. These infrastructure developments will continue to make the country highly attractive to foreign investors, who were the catalyst for Malaysia`s explosive growth over the last few years. Malaysian Corporations have also grown rapidly and are becoming international investors and traders in their own right, including in the United Kingdom. As they expand, seeking new markets, they are looking also for partners with whom they can share technology and jointly develop projects. Such companies are often ideal partners for UK companies wishing to enter the Malaysian and Asian market. Malaysia offers opportunities to companies prepared to make the small effort to know and understand the country and its people. This report will assist companies to develop a useful understanding of the market. (author)
2010-09-29
... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-74,164] International Business... 25, 2010, applicable to workers of International Business Machines (IBM), Global Technology Services... hereby issued as follows: All workers of International Business Machines (IBM), Global Technology...
Gusarov, E. E.; Malkov, Yu. P.; Stepanov, S. G.; Troshchinenko, G. A.; Zasypkin, I. M.
2010-12-01
We consider the developed plasma-chemical technology of halogen-containing substances treatment. The paper contains the experimental plant schematic and the positive results obtained after the treatment of tetrafluoromethane, ozone-damaging freon 12, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), the waste containing fluoride and chloride organics. The technology is proposed for industrial application.
Bryant, D P; Bryant, B R
1998-01-01
Cooperative learning (CL) is a common instructional arrangement that is used by classroom teachers to foster academic achievement and social acceptance of students with and without learning disabilities. Cooperative learning is appealing to classroom teachers because it can provide an opportunity for more instruction and feedback by peers than can be provided by teachers to individual students who require extra assistance. Recent studies suggest that students with LD may need adaptations during cooperative learning activities. The use of assistive technology adaptations may be necessary to help some students with LD compensate for their specific learning difficulties so that they can engage more readily in cooperative learning activities. A process for integrating technology adaptations into cooperative learning activities is discussed in terms of three components: selecting adaptations, monitoring the use of the adaptations during cooperative learning activities, and evaluating the adaptations' effectiveness. The article concludes with comments regarding barriers to and support systems for technology integration, technology and effective instructional practices, and the need to consider technology adaptations for students who have learning disabilities.
Hergt, Steven; Shah, Abhay; Schäfer, Gerhard
2013-07-01
The orbital motion is derived for a nonspinning test mass in the relativistic, gravitational field of a rotationally deformed body not restricted to the equatorial plane or spherical orbit. The gravitational field of the central body is represented by the Kerr metric, expanded to second post-Newtonian order including the linear and quadratic spin terms. The orbital period, the intrinsic periastron advance, and the precession of the orbital plane are derived with the aid of novel canonical variables and action-based methods.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anderson, C.S.; Yarroch, W.L.
1993-04-27
The Michigan Technological University Teacher Education Program received funding from the US Department of Energy for the purpose of providing capable and suitably inclined, MTU Engineering and Science students a chance to explore high school level science and mathematics teaching as a career option. Ten undergraduate students were selected from nominations and were paired with mentor teachers for the study. This report covers the experience of the first ten nominees and their participation in the program.
Brekke, Stewart
2017-09-01
Einstein calculated the total energy at low speeds in the Special Theory of Relativity to be Etotal =m0c2 + 1 / 2m0v2 . However, the total energy must include the rotational and vibrational kinetic energies as well as the linear kinetic energies. If 1 / 2 Iω2 is the expression for the rotational kinetic energy of mass and 1 / 2 kx02 is the vibrational kinetic energy expression of a typical mass, the expression for the total energy of a mass at low speeds must be Etotal =m0c2 + 1 / 2m0v2 + 1 / 2 Iω2 + 1 / 2 kx02 . If this expression is correct, the relativistic kinetic energy of a mass. at low speeds must include the rotational and vibrational kinetic energies as well as the linear kinetic energies since according to Einstein K = (m -m0) c2 and therefore, K = 1 / 2m0v2 + 1 / 2 Iω2 + 1 / 2 kx02 .
Technology of surface wastewater purification, including high-rise construction areas
Tsyba, Anna; Skolubovich, Yury
2018-03-01
Despite on the improvements in the quality of high-rise construction areas and industrial wastewater treatment, the pollution of water bodies continues to increase. This is due to the organized and unorganized surface untreated sewage entry into the reservoirs. The qualitative analysis of some cities' surface sewage composition is carried out in the work. Based on the published literature review, the characteristic contamination present in surface wastewater was identified. The paper proposes a new technology for the treatment of surface sewage and presents the results of preliminary studies.
Mooij, Ton; Dijkstra, Elma; Walraven, Amber; Kirschner, Paul A.
2014-01-01
At the start of preschool, four-year-old pupils differ in their development, including the capacity to self-regulate their playing and learning. In preschool and primary school, educational processes are generally adapted to the mean age of the pupils in class. The same may apply to ICT-based
Beckley, L. E.
1977-01-01
Progress in various space flight research programs is reported. Emphasis is placed on X-ray astronomy and interplanetary plasma physics. Topics covered include: infrared astronomy, long base line interferometry, geological spectroscopy, space life science experiments, atmospheric physics, and space based materials and structures research. Analysis of galactic and extra-galactic X-ray data from the Small Astronomy Satellite (SAS-3) and HEAO-A and interplanetary plasma data for Mariner 10, Explorers 47 and 50, and Solrad is discussed.
2011-06-03
... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-74,649; TA-W-74,649a] DST Systems... Kelly Services Kansas City, MO; DST Technologies, a Wholly Owned Subsidiary of DST Systems, Inc., Boston... November 5, 2010, applicable to workers of DST Systems, Inc., including on-site leased workers from Comsys...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1963-01-01
One of the major aims of the International Atomic Energy Agency in furthering the peaceful uses of atomic energy is to encourage the development of economical nuclear power. Certainly, one of the more obvious methods of producing economical nuclear power is the development of economical fuels that can be used at high temperatures for long periods of time, and which have sufficient strength and integrity to operate under these conditions without permitting the release of fission products. In addition it is desirable that after irradiation these new fuels be economically reprocessed to reduce further the cost of the fuel cycle. As nuclear power becomes more and more competitive with conventional power the interest in new and more efficient higher-temperature fuels naturally increases rapidly. For these reasons, the Agency organized a Conference on New Nuclear Materials Technology, Including Non-Metallic Fuel Elements, which was held from 1 to 5 July 1963 at the International Hotel, Prague, with the assistance and co-operation of the Government of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic. A total of 151 scientists attended, from 23 countries and 4 international organizations. The participants heard and discussed more than 60 scientific papers. The Agency wishes to thank the scientists who attended this Conference for their papers and for many spirited discussions that truly mark a successful meeting. The Agency wishes also to record its gratitude for the assistance and generous hospitality accorded the Conference, the participants and the Agency's staff by the Government of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic and by the people of Prague. The scientific information contained in these Proceedings should help to quicken the pace of progress in the fabrication of new and m ore economical fuels, and it is hoped that these proceedings will be found useful to all workers in this and related fields
Single-Event Effect Testing of the Linear Technology LTC6103HMS8#PBF Current Sense Amplifier
Yau, Ka-Yen; Campola, Michael J.; Wilcox, Edward
2016-01-01
The LTC6103HMS8#PBF (henceforth abbreviated as LTC6103) current sense amplifier from Linear Technology was tested for both destructive and non-destructive single-event effects (SEE) using the heavy-ion cyclotron accelerator beam at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) Berkeley Accelerator Effects (BASE) facility. During testing, the input voltages and output currents were monitored to detect single event latch-up (SEL) and single-event transients (SETs).
Yildiz Ulus, Aysegul
2013-01-01
This paper examines experimental and algorithmic contributions of advanced calculators (graphing and computer algebra system, CAS) in teaching the concept of "diagonalization," one of the key topics in Linear Algebra courses taught at the undergraduate level. Specifically, the proposed hypothesis of this study is to assess the effective…
Using Technology to Facilitate Reasoning: Lifting the Fog from Linear Algebra
Berry, John S.; Lapp, Douglas A.; Nyman, Melvin A.
2008-01-01
This article discusses student difficulties in grasping concepts from linear algebra. Using an example from an interview with a student, we propose changes that might positively impact student understanding of concepts within a problem-solving context. In particular, we illustrate barriers to student understanding and suggest technological…
Comparison of Available Technologies for Fire Spots Detection via Linear Heat Detector
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Miksa František
2016-12-01
Full Text Available It is very demanding to detect fire spots under difficult conditions with high occurrence of interfering external factors such as large distances, airflow difficultly, high dustiness, high humidity, etc. Spot fire sensors do not meet the requirements due to the aforementioned conditions as well as large distances. Therefore, the detection of a fire spot via linear heat sensing cables is utilized.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Raquel Muelas
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Traditional farming practices include the use of local agricultural by-products in the diet of ruminants. Artichoke harvesting and transformation yield high amounts of by-products that, if properly used, may reduce farming costs and the environmental impact of farming. The present study tests the inclusion of silages from artichoke by-products (plant and outer bracts in the diet of dairy goats (0%, 12.5% and 25% inclusion on the technological and sensory properties of milk during a five-month study. Milk composition, color, stability, coagulation and fermentation properties remained unaffected by diet changes. Panelists were not able to differentiate among yogurts obtained from those milks by discriminant triangular sensory tests. Silages of artichoke by-products can be included in isoproteic and isoenergetic diets for dairy goats, up to a 25% (feed dry matter, without negatively affecting milk technological and sensory properties whereas reducing feeding costs.
2010-03-12
... Quest Corporation, Quantum Consultants, Rapid Global Business, Resource Technologies, Ricardo, RSB...., Quantum Consultants, Rapid Global Business, Resource Technologies, Ricardo, RSB Systems, Spherion, Synova... Learning, Resource Technologies, Ricardo, Spherion, Synova, Systems Technology, TAC, Technical Training...
Fiber technology applications for a future e+e- linear collider detector
Leich, H.; Nahnhauer, R.; Shanidze, R.
1998-11-01
The advantages and possibilities of fiber technology for the detection of particles in 500 GeV e+e-1 reactions are considered. It is suggested to build a fast trigger which could be used also for intermediate tracking. A fiber preshower in front of the electromagnetic calorimeter would allow to identify electrons and photons with a space precision better than 100 μm.
Fiber technology applications for a future e+e- linear collider detector
Leich, H.; Nahnhauer, R.; Shanidze, R.
1998-01-01
The advantages and possibilities of fiber technology for the detection of particles in 500 GeV e+e- reactions are considered. It is suggested to build a fast trigger which could be used also for intermediate tracking. A fiber preshower in front of the electromagnetic calorimeter would allow to identify electrons and photons with a space precision better than 0.1 mm.
Kambe, Hidetoshi; Mitsui, Hiroyasu; Endo, Satoshi; Koizumi, Hisao
The applications of embedded system technologies have spread widely in various products, such as home appliances, cellular phones, automobiles, industrial machines and so on. Due to intensified competition, embedded software has expanded its role in realizing sophisticated functions, and new development methods like a hardware/software (HW/SW) co-design for uniting HW and SW development have been researched. The shortfall of embedded SW engineers was estimated to be approximately 99,000 in the year 2006, in Japan. Embedded SW engineers should understand HW technologies and system architecture design as well as SW technologies. However, a few universities offer this kind of education systematically. We propose a student experiment method for learning the basics of embedded system development, which includes a set of experiments for developing embedded SW, developing embedded HW and experiencing HW/SW co-design. The co-design experiment helps students learn about the basics of embedded system architecture design and the flow of designing actual HW and SW modules. We developed these experiments and evaluated them.
He, Jun; Wei, Yan-Yu; Gong, Yu-Bin; Wang, Wen-Xiang
2009-11-01
A novel slow-wave structure (SWS), the folded double-ridged waveguide structure, is presented and its linear gain properties are investigated. The perturbed dispersion equation is derived and the small signal growth rate is calculated for dimensions of the ridge-loaded region and the parameters of the electron beam. The novel structure has potential applications in the production of high power and broad band radiation. For a cold beam, the linear theory predicts a gain of 1.1-1.27 dB/period and a 3-dB small-signal gain bandwidth of 30% in W-band. A comparison between the folded double-ridged waveguide SWS and folded waveguide SWS (FWSWS) shows that with the same physical parameters, the novel SWS has an advantage over the FWSWS on the bandwidth and electron efficiency.
Jutier, L.; Léonard, C.; Gatti, F.
2009-04-01
For electronically degenerate states of linear tetra-atomic molecules, a new method is developed for the variational treatment of the Renner-Teller and spin-orbit couplings. The approach takes into account all rotational and vibrational degrees of freedom, the dominant couplings between the corresponding angular momenta as well as the couplings with the electronic and electron spin angular momenta. The complete rovibrational kinetic energy operator is expressed in Jacobi coordinates, where the rovibrational angular momenta ĴN have been replaced by L̂ez-Ŝ and the spin-orbit coupling has been described by the perturbative term ASO×L̂ezṡŜz. Attention has been paid on the electronic wave functions, which require additional phase for linear tetra-atomic molecules. Our implemented rovibrational basis functions and the integration of the different parts of the total Hamiltonian operator are described. This new variational approach is tested on the electronic ground state X Π2u of HCCH+ for which new six-dimensional potential energy surfaces have been computed using the internally contracted multireference configuration interaction method and the cc-pV5Z basis set. The calculated rovibronic energies and their comparisons with previous theoretical and experimental works are presented in the next paper.
Solow, Daniel
2014-01-01
This text covers the basic theory and computation for a first course in linear programming, including substantial material on mathematical proof techniques and sophisticated computation methods. Includes Appendix on using Excel. 1984 edition.
2012-07-10
... Insight Global Stone Staffing, and Randstad Formerly Known as Sapphire Technologies, Watertown, MA... workers from Insight Global, Stone Staffing, Randstad formerly known as Sapphire Technologies, Watertown... telecommunication services. The company reports that workers leased from Insight Global, Stone Staffing, Randstad...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1982-01-01
This extensively revised and updated 5th Edition features contributions by 3000 distinguished experts - including 16 Nobel Prize winners - working with an international advisory board and 60 consulting editors. Thorough coverage is devoted to 75 separate disciplines in science and technology, from acoustics and biochemistry through fluid mechanics and geophysics to thermodynamics and vertebrate zoology. Detailed entries examine not only the physical and natural sciences, but also all engineering disciplines, discussing both the basic and the most recent theories, concepts, terminology, discoveries, materials, methods, and techniques. All of the new developments and technical advances that have occurred during the last five years - in each of the 75 disciplines - have been added to the encyclopedia and are explored in depth. Completely new material deals with such timely and newsworthy subjects as genetic engineering, artificial intelligence, nuclear medicine, desertification, psycholinguistics, industrial robots, and immunoassay. Also covered in extensive entries are such current topics as video disk recording, metallic glasses, acoustic levitation, magnetic bubble memory, gluons, and computerized tomography. The encyclopedia includes more than 15,000 photographs, drawings, maps, charts, and diagrams, shown in full-color, two-color, or black-and-white reproductions.
Arthurs, C. P.; Baker, Ian M.; Crimes, Graham J.; Bains, S.; Murray, D. C.
1996-06-01
This paper discusses the technology used by GMIRL for high performance long linear arrays based on CdHgTe/CMOS hybrid multiplexers. Modern silicon processes allow the realization of a high degree of functionality within focal plane detectors. GMIRL have used this enhanced functionality to facilitate the deselection of defective elements within a diode array and provide time delay and integration. Two design approaches have been evaluated leading to the design and manufacture of high performance arrays for imaging applications. The resulting detector allows the enhancement of the signal to noise ratio at low IR flux levels and has a low overall power consumption, while requiring the minimum of real time correction for nonuniformities. The design can be readily adapted to suit arrays of varying length. The infrared sensor technology is based on CdHgTe (CMT) material grown by a tellurium rich, liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) process. Lateral collection photodiode arrays are fabricated within this material as a silicon CMT hybrid structure.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gengyu He
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Water shortage and water pollution are important factors restricting sustainable social and economic development. As a typical coal resource-exhausted city and a node city of the South-to-North Water Transfer East Route Project in China, Zaozhuang City’s water resources management faces multiple constraints such as transformation of economic development, restriction of groundwater exploitation, and improvement of water environment. In this paper, we develop a linear optimization model by input–output analysis to study water resources management with the introduction of three advanced sewage treatment technologies for pollutant treatment and reclaimed water production. The simulation results showed that from 2014 to 2020, Zaozhuang City will realize an annual GDP growth rate of 7.1% with an annual chemical oxygen demand (COD emissions reduction rate of 5.5%. The proportion of primary industry, secondary industry, and tertiary industry would be adjusted to 5.6%, 40.8%, and 53.6%, respectively. The amount of reclaimed water supply could be increased by 91% and groundwater supply could be decreased by 6%. Based on the simulation, this model proposes a scientific reference on water resources management policies, including water environment control, water supply plan, and financial subsidy, to realize the sustainable development of economy and water resources usage.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hösel, Markus; Dam, Henrik Friis; Krebs, Frederik C
2015-01-01
We describe and review how the scaling of printed energy technologies not only requires scaling of the input materials but also the machinery used in the processes. The general consensus that ultrafast processing of technologies with large energy capacity can only be realized using roll-to-roll m......We describe and review how the scaling of printed energy technologies not only requires scaling of the input materials but also the machinery used in the processes. The general consensus that ultrafast processing of technologies with large energy capacity can only be realized using roll...... the lower end of the industrial scale. The machinery bridges the gap through firstly achieving improved ink efficiency without surface contact, followed by better ink efficiency at higher speeds, and finally large-area processing at high speed with very high ink efficiency....
Patel, M.; De Jager, G.; Nkosi, Z.; Wyngaard, A.; Govender, K.
2017-10-01
In this paper we report on the study of two and multi-level atoms interacting with multiple laser beams. The semi-classical approach is used to describe the system in which the atoms are treated quantum mechanically via the density matrix operator, while the laser beams are treated classically using Maxwells equations. We present results of a two level atom interacting with single and multiple laser beams and demonstrate Rabi oscillations between the levels. The effects of laser modulation on the dynamics of the atom (atomic populations and coherences) are examined by solving the optical Bloch equations. Plots of the density matrix elements as a function of time are presented for various parameters such as laser intensity, detuning, modulation etc. In addition, phase-space plots and Fourier analysis of the density matrix elements are provided. The atomic polarization, estimated from the coherence terms of the density matrix elements, is used in the numerical solution of Maxwells equations to determine the behaviour of the laser beams as they propagate through the atomic ensemble. The effects of saturation and hole-burning are demonstrated in the case of two counter propagating beams with one being a strong beam and the other being very weak. The above work is extended to include four-wave mixing in four level atoms in a diamond configuration. Two co-propagating beams of different wavelengths drive the atoms from a ground state |1〉 to an excited state |3〉 via an intermediate state |2〉. The atoms then move back to the ground state via another intermediate state |4〉, resulting in the generation of two additional correlated photon beams. The characteristics of these additional photons are studied.
Said-Houari, Belkacem
2017-01-01
This self-contained, clearly written textbook on linear algebra is easily accessible for students. It begins with the simple linear equation and generalizes several notions from this equation for the system of linear equations and introduces the main ideas using matrices. It then offers a detailed chapter on determinants and introduces the main ideas with detailed proofs. The third chapter introduces the Euclidean spaces using very simple geometric ideas and discusses various major inequalities and identities. These ideas offer a solid basis for understanding general Hilbert spaces in functional analysis. The following two chapters address general vector spaces, including some rigorous proofs to all the main results, and linear transformation: areas that are ignored or are poorly explained in many textbooks. Chapter 6 introduces the idea of matrices using linear transformation, which is easier to understand than the usual theory of matrices approach. The final two chapters are more advanced, introducing t...
Liesen, Jörg
2015-01-01
This self-contained textbook takes a matrix-oriented approach to linear algebra and presents a complete theory, including all details and proofs, culminating in the Jordan canonical form and its proof. Throughout the development, the applicability of the results is highlighted. Additionally, the book presents special topics from applied linear algebra including matrix functions, the singular value decomposition, the Kronecker product and linear matrix equations. The matrix-oriented approach to linear algebra leads to a better intuition and a deeper understanding of the abstract concepts, and therefore simplifies their use in real world applications. Some of these applications are presented in detailed examples. In several ‘MATLAB-Minutes’ students can comprehend the concepts and results using computational experiments. Necessary basics for the use of MATLAB are presented in a short introduction. Students can also actively work with the material and practice their mathematical skills in more than 300 exerc...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cho, Il Hoon; Cho, Young Hyun; Park, Guen Il; Kim, In Tae; Kim, June Hyung; Ahn, Byung Kil
2001-01-01
For environmental and health effects due to increasing levels of pollution in the atmosphere, it is necessary to develop environmentally sound technologies for the treatment of greenhouse gases (CO 2 , CH 4 , CFC, etc.) and acid gases (SOx, NOx, etc.). Specifically, advanced technology for CO 2 capturing is currently one of the most important environmental issues in worldwide. 14 CO 2 , specially which has been gradually emerging issue in the nuclear facilities, is generated about 330 ppm from the CANDU (Canadian Deuterium Uranium Reactor) nuclear power plant and the DUPIC (Direct Use of spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors) process which is the process of spent fuel treatment. For this purpose, it is necessary to develop the most efficient treatment technology of CO 2 capture by various lime materials in semi- or dry process, it should be also considering a removal performance, waste recycling and safety of disposal. In order to develop a highly active slaked lime as a sorbent for CO 2 and high temperature desulfurization, macroporous slaked lime is necessarily prepared by modified swelling process and equipment, which was developed under carrying out this project. And also for the optimal removal process of off-gases the removal performance tests of various sorbents and the effects of relative humidity and bed depth on the removal capacity must be considered
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1997-03-01
To promote the succession of history of and the creative use of industrial science technologies, the paper made lists and databases of the articles of industrial technology museums and material halls in Japan. Record/preservation and collection/systematization of history of the industrial technology is useful for forming bases necessary for promotion of future research/development and international contribution. Museums and material halls are the fields for making comprehensive and practical activities. The data were made as one of the basic databases as the first step for promoting activities for examining the technical succession situation in a long term range continuously and systematically. In the classification of the data, the energy relation was divided into electric power, nuclear power, oil, coal, gas and energy in general. Others were classified into metal/mine, electricity/electronics/communication, chemistry/food, ship building/heavy machinery, printing/precision instrument, and textile/spinning. Moreover, the traffic relation was classified into railroad, automobiles/two-wheeled vehicles, airline/space, and ships. Items were also set of life relation, civil engineering/architecture, and general. The total number of the museums for the survey reached 208.
CERN balances linear collider studies
ILC Newsline
2011-01-01
The forces behind the two most mature proposals for a next-generation collider, the International Linear Collider (ILC) and the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) study, have been steadily coming together, with scientists from both communities sharing ideas and information across the technology divide. In a support of cooperation between the two, CERN in Switzerland, where most CLIC research takes place, recently converted the project-specific position of CLIC Study Leader to the concept-based Linear Collider Study Leader. The scientist who now holds this position, Steinar Stapnes, is charged with making the linear collider a viable option for CERN’s future, one that could include either CLIC or the ILC. The transition to more involve the ILC must be gradual, he said, and the redefinition of his post is a good start. Though not very much involved with superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) technology, where ILC researchers have made significant advances, CERN participates in many aspect...
2010-03-12
... workers of the subject firm. The workers are engaged in the production of electronic design automation software and related services including quality assurance and learning products, marketing, product development, marketing and administration. The company reports that on-site leased workers from Managed...
Andreeva, Irina; Vasenev, Ivan
2017-04-01
In recent years, Russia adopted a policy towards increasing of the share of renewable energy in total amount of used energy, albeit with some delay comparing to the EU countries and the USA. It was expected that the use of biofuels over time will reduce significantly the dependency of Russian economy on fossil fuels, increase its competitiveness, and increase Russian contribution to the prevention of global climate changes. Russia has significant bio-energy potential and resources which are characterized by great diversity due to the large extent of the territory, which require systematic studies and environmental assessment of used bio-energy technologies. Results of research carried at the Laboratory of agroecological monitoring, modeling and prediction of ecosystems RSAU-MTAA demonstrated significant differences in the assessment of the environmental, economic and social effects of biofuel production and use, depending on the species of bio-energy crops, regional soil-ecological and agro-climatic characteristics, applied farming systems and production processes. The total area of temporarily unused and fallow land, which could be allocated to the active agricultural use in Russia, according to various estimates, ranges from 20 to 33 million hectares, which removes the problem, typical of most European countries, of adverse agro-ecological changes in land use connected with the expansion of bio-energy crops cultivation. However, the expansion of biofuel production through the use of fallow land and conversion of natural lands has as a consequence the problem of greenhouse gas emissions due to land use changes, which, according to FAO, could be even higher than CO2 emission from fossil fuels for some of bio-energy raw materials and production systems. Assessment of the total impacts of biofuels on greenhouse gas emissions in the Russian conditions should be based on regionally adapted calculations of flows throughout the entire life cycle of production, taking
Applicability of linear and non-linear potential flow models on a Wavestar float
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bozonnet, Pauline; Dupin, Victor; Tona, Paolino
2017-01-01
Numerical models based on potential flow theory, including different types of nonlinearities are compared and validated against experimental data for the Wavestar wave energy converter technology. Exact resolution of the rotational motion, non-linear hydrostatic and Froude-Krylov forces as well...... control action, limited to small amplitude motion with a single float, is well predicted by the numerical models, including the linear one. Still, float velocity is better predicted by accounting for non-linear hydrostatic and Froude-Krylov forces....
Barber, Larissa K; Cucalon, Maria S
2017-12-01
University students often have sleep issues that arise from poor sleep hygiene practices and technology use patterns. Yet, technology-related behaviors are often neglected in sleep hygiene education. This study examined whether the Sleep Treatment Education Program for Students-modified to include information regarding managing technology use (STEPS-TECH)-helps improve both subjective and objective sleep outcomes among university students. Results of an experimental study among 78 university students showed improvements in objective indicators of sleep quantity (total sleep time) and sleep quality (less awakenings) during the subsequent week for students in the STEPS-TECH intervention group compared to a control group. Exploratory analyses indicated that effects were driven by improvements in weekend days immediately following the intervention. There were also no intervention effects on subjective sleep quality or quantity outcomes. In terms of self-reported behavioral responses to educational content in the intervention, there were no group differences in sleep hygiene practices or technology use before bedtime. However, the intervention group reported less technology use during sleep periods than the control group. These preliminary findings suggest that STEPS-TECH may be a useful educational tool to help improve objective sleep and reduce technology use during sleep periods among university students. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Hoppe, Cristina E; Williams, Roberto J J
2018-03-01
The self-assembly of n-alkyl chains at the bulk or at the interface of different types of materials and substrates has been extensively studied in the past. The packing of alkyl chains is driven by Van der Waals interactions and can generate crystalline or disordered domains, at the bulk of the material, or self-assembled monolayers at an interface. This natural property of alkyl chains has been employed in recent years to develop a new generation of materials for technological applications. These studies are dispersed in a variety of journals. The purpose of this article was to discuss some selected examples where these advanced properties arise from a process involving the self-assembly of alkyl chains. We included a description of electronic devices and new-generation catalysts with properties derived from a controlled two-dimensional (2D) or three-dimensional (3D) self-assembly of alkyl chains at an interface. Then, we showed that controlling the crystallization of alkyl chains at the bulk can be used to generate a variety of advanced materials such as superhydrophobic coatings, shape memory hydrogels, hot-melt adhesives, thermally reversible light scattering (TRLS) films for intelligent windows and form-stable phase change materials (FS-PCMs) for the storage of thermal energy. Finally, we discussed two examples where advanced properties derive from the formation of disordered domains by physical association of alkyl chains. This was the case of photoluminescent nanocomposites and materials used for reversible optical storage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Karloff, Howard
1991-01-01
To this reviewer’s knowledge, this is the first book accessible to the upper division undergraduate or beginning graduate student that surveys linear programming from the Simplex Method…via the Ellipsoid algorithm to Karmarkar’s algorithm. Moreover, its point of view is algorithmic and thus it provides both a history and a case history of work in complexity theory. The presentation is admirable; Karloff's style is informal (even humorous at times) without sacrificing anything necessary for understanding. Diagrams (including horizontal brackets that group terms) aid in providing clarity. The end-of-chapter notes are helpful...Recommended highly for acquisition, since it is not only a textbook, but can also be used for independent reading and study. —Choice Reviews The reader will be well served by reading the monograph from cover to cover. The author succeeds in providing a concise, readable, understandable introduction to modern linear programming. —Mathematics of Computing This is a textbook intend...
Linear Algebra and Linear Models
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Linear Algebra and Linear. Models. Kalyan Das. Linear Algebra and linear Models. (2nd Edn) by R P Bapat. Hindustan Book Agency, 1999 pp.xiii+180, Price: Rs.135/-. This monograph provides an introduction to the basic aspects of the theory oflinear estima- tion and that of testing linear hypotheses. The primary objective ...
Shilov, Georgi E
1977-01-01
Covers determinants, linear spaces, systems of linear equations, linear functions of a vector argument, coordinate transformations, the canonical form of the matrix of a linear operator, bilinear and quadratic forms, Euclidean spaces, unitary spaces, quadratic forms in Euclidean and unitary spaces, finite-dimensional space. Problems with hints and answers.
Online-Offline, 1998
1998-01-01
Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kushnir V.
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The problem of constructing quadratic equations and systems of equations with parameters using Maple-technology is studied. Today, the "learning tasks of reverse thinking" (V.A. Krutetsky or simply "inverse problems" (P.M.Erdniev are increasingly being introduced into the educational process. The tasks of constructing mathematical tasks in advance of a certain type and certain properties are inverse problems that unfold another aspect of the learning situation and thereby create a "surplus of its vision" (M.M. Bakhtin. The solution of inverse problems develops students’ thinking, imagination and other higher mental functions. However, their introduction into the educational process is still insufficient. One of the reasons for this situation is the insufficient number of benefits with a sufficient number of variants of the same type of tasks. Especially it concerns the construction of problems with parameters. Designing in "manual mode" requires significant temporary cognitive, physical and other efforts, carries the risks of allowing technical and computational errors. In the days of the information society and the digital economy, there are all the possibilities to perform the chain of design actions in a certain ICT environment (we have a Maple-environment. It solves the resulted difficulties of construction, creates a new educational and information environment, allows to produce automatically a sufficient number of different versions of the same type of tasks. Tasks with parameters require creativity from the students, non-standard approaches to the solution. Each task with parameters requires the creation of its own method and algorithm for solving and productive learning. The article is devoted to solving of the above problems.
Stormlund, Sacha; Løssl, Kristine; Zedeler, Anne; Bogstad, Jeanette; Prætorius, Lisbeth; Nielsen, Henriette Svarre; Bungum, Mona; Skouby, Sven O; Mikkelsen, Anne Lis; Andersen, Anders Nyboe; Bergh, Christina; Humaidan, Peter; Pinborg, Anja
2017-07-31
Pregnancy rates after frozen embryo transfer (FET) have improved in recent years and are now approaching or even exceeding those obtained after fresh embryo transfer. This is partly due to improved laboratory techniques, but may also be caused by a more physiological hormonal and endometrial environment in FET cycles. Furthermore, the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome is practically eliminated in segmentation cycles followed by FET and the use of natural cycles in FETs may be beneficial for the postimplantational conditions of fetal development. However, a freeze-all strategy is not yet implemented as standard care due to limitations of large randomised trials showing a benefit of such a strategy. Thus, there is a need to test the concept against standard care in a randomised controlled design. This study aims to compare ongoing pregnancy and live birth rates between a freeze-all strategy with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist triggering versus human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) trigger and fresh embryo transfer in a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Multicentre randomised, controlled, double-blinded trial of women undergoing assisted reproductive technology treatment including 424 normo-ovulatory women aged 18-39 years from Denmark and Sweden. Participants will be randomised (1:1) to either (1) GnRH agonist trigger and single vitrified-warmed blastocyst transfer in a subsequent hCG triggered natural menstrual cycle or (2) hCG trigger and single blastocyst transfer in the fresh (stimulated) cycle. The primary endpoint is to compare ongoing pregnancy rates per randomised patient in the two treatment groups after the first single blastocyst transfer. The study will be performed in accordance with the ethical principles in the Helsinki Declaration. The study is approved by the Scientific Ethical Committees in Denmark and Sweden. The results of the study will be publically disseminated. NCT02746562; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peterson, David; Stofleth, Jerome H.; Saul, Venner W.
2017-07-11
Linear shaped charges are described herein. In a general embodiment, the linear shaped charge has an explosive with an elongated arrowhead-shaped profile. The linear shaped charge also has and an elongated v-shaped liner that is inset into a recess of the explosive. Another linear shaped charge includes an explosive that is shaped as a star-shaped prism. Liners are inset into crevices of the explosive, where the explosive acts as a tamper.
Carr, Joseph
1996-01-01
The linear IC market is large and growing, as is the demand for well trained technicians and engineers who understand how these devices work and how to apply them. Linear Integrated Circuits provides in-depth coverage of the devices and their operation, but not at the expense of practical applications in which linear devices figure prominently. This book is written for a wide readership from FE and first degree students, to hobbyists and professionals.Chapter 1 offers a general introduction that will provide students with the foundations of linear IC technology. From chapter 2 onwa
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Russell, C.M.
1988-01-01
The purpose of this study was twofold. The first part was to describe the development and evaluation of an interactive videodisc system to train radiation therapy technology students how to treat malignancies using a Linear Accelerator. The second part of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the interactive videodisc system as a simulation. The Gagne-Briggs instructional model was adapted to develop the interactive videodisc system. A model emerged as part of the project to conduct the formative evaluation of the prototype. A quasiexperimental research design was used to conduct the summative evaluation with two groups of first-year Radiation Therapy Technology students who entered the program in consecutive years. All testing and evaluation instruments were developed for the study with the exception of the clinical evaluation form. This latter form was already being used at the clinical sites. T-tests were used to analyze all data. A significant difference in cognitive achievement was evidenced between students exposed to the interactive videodisc system and students who were not exposed to the system. There was no significant difference found in clinical performance achievement and in attitude toward the clinical experience between both sets of participants. Instructor time was reduced by 1 and 1/2 hours for students on the interactive videodisc system. In conclusion, the interactive videodisc system was found to be more effective as an instructional method for cognitive achievement and as equally an effective method preparing students for clinical performance
Direct linear driving systems; Les entrainements lineaires directs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Favre, E.; Brunner, C.; Piaget, D. [ETEL SA (France)
1999-11-01
The linear motor is one of the most important developments in electrical drive technology. However, it only, began to be adopted on a large scale at the beginning of the 1990's and will not be considered a mature technology until well into the next millennium. Actuators based on linear motor technology have a number of technical advantages including high speed, high positional accuracy and fine resolution. They also require fewer component parts. Some precautions are necessary when using linear motors. Care must be taken to avoid overheating and excessive vibration, and the magnetic components must be protected.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suwono.
1978-01-01
A linear gate providing a variable gate duration from 0,40μsec to 4μsec was developed. The electronic circuity consists of a linear circuit and an enable circuit. The input signal can be either unipolar or bipolar. If the input signal is bipolar, the negative portion will be filtered. The operation of the linear gate is controlled by the application of a positive enable pulse. (author)
Hagedorn, Peter
1982-01-01
Thoroughly revised and updated, the second edition of this concise text provides an engineer's view of non-linear oscillations, explaining the most important phenomena and solution methods. Non-linear descriptions are important because under certain conditions there occur large deviations from the behaviors predicted by linear differential equations. In some cases, completely new phenomena arise that are not possible in purely linear systems. The theory of non-linear oscillations thus has important applications in classical mechanics, electronics, communications, biology, and many other branches of science. In addition to many other changes, this edition has a new section on bifurcation theory, including Hopf's theorem.
Linearization Method and Linear Complexity
Tanaka, Hidema
We focus on the relationship between the linearization method and linear complexity and show that the linearization method is another effective technique for calculating linear complexity. We analyze its effectiveness by comparing with the logic circuit method. We compare the relevant conditions and necessary computational cost with those of the Berlekamp-Massey algorithm and the Games-Chan algorithm. The significant property of a linearization method is that it needs no output sequence from a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) because it calculates linear complexity using the algebraic expression of its algorithm. When a PRNG has n [bit] stages (registers or internal states), the necessary computational cost is smaller than O(2n). On the other hand, the Berlekamp-Massey algorithm needs O(N2) where N(≅2n) denotes period. Since existing methods calculate using the output sequence, an initial value of PRNG influences a resultant value of linear complexity. Therefore, a linear complexity is generally given as an estimate value. On the other hand, a linearization method calculates from an algorithm of PRNG, it can determine the lower bound of linear complexity.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Behnke, Olaf; Diehl, Markus; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Steinbrueck, Georg (eds.)
2010-01-15
The following topics were dealt with: Electroweak and new physics, photon-collider technology, low-energy photon experiments, prompt photons, photon structure, jets and heavy flavours, vacuum polarization and light-by-light scattering, small-x processes, diffraction, total cross sections, exclusive channels and resonances, photons in astroparticle physics. (HSI)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Behnke, Olaf; Diehl, Markus; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Steinbrueck, Georg
2010-01-01
The following topics were dealt with: Electroweak and new physics, photon-collider technology, low-energy photon experiments, prompt photons, photon structure, jets and heavy flavours, vacuum polarization and light-by-light scattering, small-x processes, diffraction, total cross sections, exclusive channels and resonances, photons in astroparticle physics. (HSI)
Linear Algebra and Image Processing
Allali, Mohamed
2010-01-01
We use the computing technology digital image processing (DIP) to enhance the teaching of linear algebra so as to make the course more visual and interesting. Certainly, this visual approach by using technology to link linear algebra to DIP is interesting and unexpected to both students as well as many faculty. (Contains 2 tables and 11 figures.)
Lee, Hyunsu; Park, Jae-Hyung; Seo, Incheol; Park, Sun-Hyun; Kim, Shin
2014-12-21
Mapping of tissue structure at the cellular, circuit, and organ-wide scale is important for understanding physiological and biological functions. A bio-electrochemical technique known as CLARITY used for three-dimensional anatomical and phenotypical mapping within transparent intact tissues has been recently developed. This method provided a major advance in understanding the structure-function relationships in circuits of the nervous system and organs by using whole-body clearing. Thus, in the present study, we aimed to improve the original CLARITY procedure and developed specific CLARITY protocols for various intact organs. We determined the optimal conditions for reducing bubble formation, discoloration, and depositing of black particles on the surface of tissue, which allowed production of clearer organ images. We also determined the appropriate replacement cycles of clearing solution for each type of organ, and convincingly demonstrated that 250-280 mA is the ideal range of electrical current for tissue clearing. We then acquired each type of cleared organs including brain, pancreas, liver, lung, kidney, and intestine. Additionally, we determined the images of axon fibers of hippocampal region, the Purkinje layer of cerebellum, and vessels and cellular nuclei of pancreas. CLARITY is an innovative biochemical technology for the structural and molecular analysis of various types of tissue. We developed improved CLARITY methods for clearing of the brain, pancreas, lung, intestine, liver, and kidney, and identified the appropriate experimental conditions for clearing of each specific tissue type. These optimized methods will be useful for the application of CLARITY to various types of organs.
Stoll, R R
1968-01-01
Linear Algebra is intended to be used as a text for a one-semester course in linear algebra at the undergraduate level. The treatment of the subject will be both useful to students of mathematics and those interested primarily in applications of the theory. The major prerequisite for mastering the material is the readiness of the student to reason abstractly. Specifically, this calls for an understanding of the fact that axioms are assumptions and that theorems are logical consequences of one or more axioms. Familiarity with calculus and linear differential equations is required for understand
Searle, Shayle R
2012-01-01
This 1971 classic on linear models is once again available--as a Wiley Classics Library Edition. It features material that can be understood by any statistician who understands matrix algebra and basic statistical methods.
Berberian, Sterling K
2014-01-01
Introductory treatment covers basic theory of vector spaces and linear maps - dimension, determinants, eigenvalues, and eigenvectors - plus more advanced topics such as the study of canonical forms for matrices. 1992 edition.
Matrices and linear transformations
Cullen, Charles G
1990-01-01
""Comprehensive . . . an excellent introduction to the subject."" - Electronic Engineer's Design Magazine.This introductory textbook, aimed at sophomore- and junior-level undergraduates in mathematics, engineering, and the physical sciences, offers a smooth, in-depth treatment of linear algebra and matrix theory. The major objects of study are matrices over an arbitrary field. Contents include Matrices and Linear Systems; Vector Spaces; Determinants; Linear Transformations; Similarity: Part I and Part II; Polynomials and Polynomial Matrices; Matrix Analysis; and Numerical Methods. The first
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dannemand Andersen, P.
1993-01-01
The overall aim of this thesis is to examine the interactions between the Danish wind turbine industry and the Test Station for Wind Turbines. Because these interactions are concerning technological innovation, it follows that the innovation processes within the enterprises must be analyzed and modelled. The study is carried out as an iterative model-developing process using case study methods. The findings from some less structured interviews are discussed with literature and forms a basis for models and new interviews. The thesis is based on interviews with 20 R and D engineers in the Danish wind turbine industry, 7 engineers at The Test Station and 7 people involved in wind power abroad (American and British). The theoretical frame for this thesis is sociology/organizational theory and industrial engineering. The thesis consists of five main sections, dealing with technology and knowledge, innovation processes, organizational culture, innovation and interaction between the Test Station's research activities and the companies' innovation processes, and finally interaction through the Test Stations certification activity. First a taxonomy for technology and knowledge is established in order to clarify what kind of technology the interactions are all about, and what kind of knowledge is transferred during the interactions. This part of the thesis also contains an analysis of the patents drawn by the Danish wind turbine industry. The analysis shows that the Danish wind turbine industry do not use patents. Instead the nature of the technology and the speed of innovation are used to protect the industry's knowledge. (EG) (192 refs.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rowe, C.H.; Wilton, M.S. de.
1979-01-01
An improved recirculating electron beam linear accelerator of the racetrack type is described. The system comprises a beam path of four straight legs with four Pretzel bending magnets at the end of each leg to direct the beam into the next leg of the beam path. At least one of the beam path legs includes a linear accelerator. (UK)
Santos-Ribeiro, Samuel; Tournaye, Herman; Polyzos, Nikolaos P
2016-02-01
Have the advancement of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) and changes in the incidence of specific causes of infertility-altered ectopic pregnancy (EP) rates following ART over time in the UK? EP rates in the UK following IVF/ICSI have progressively decreased, and this appears to be associated with a reduction in the incidence of tubal factor infertility and the increased use of both a lower number of embryos transferred and extended embryo culture. Historically, EP rates following ART are known to have increased over time. However, the impact of progress in ART procedures and changes in both policy and the incidence of specific causes of infertility on the overall EP rate in the UK has yet to be studied. A population-based retrospective analysis was carried out on all pregnancies following ART cycles carried out in the UK between 2000 and 2012 included in the anonymized database of the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority. Overall, 161 967 treatment cycles resulting in a pregnancy were included in the analysis. Among them, 8852 pregnancies occurred after intrauterine insemination (IUI) and 153 115 following IVF/ICSI. During this period of 12 years, ∼1.4% (n = 2244) of all pregnancies following ART were an EP. Crude EP rates were significantly higher after IVF/ICSI when compared with following IUI (1.4 versus 1.1%, P = 0.043). The incidence of EP decreased significantly over time for IVF/ICSI cycles [incidence rate ratios (IRR) 0.96 per year, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.94-0.97], but not after IUI (IRR 0.96 per year, 95% CI 0.91-1.03).Among pregnancies resulting from IVF/ICSI, multivariable logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the major risk factor for EP was the presence of tubal infertility [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.23, 95% CI 1.93-2.58), followed by the increased number of embryos transferred (aOR 1.29 for 2 versus 1 embryo transferred, 95% CI 1.11-1.49; aOR 1.69 for 3 or more versus 1 embryo transferred, 95% CI 1.35-2.11). The
Olive, David J
2017-01-01
This text covers both multiple linear regression and some experimental design models. The text uses the response plot to visualize the model and to detect outliers, does not assume that the error distribution has a known parametric distribution, develops prediction intervals that work when the error distribution is unknown, suggests bootstrap hypothesis tests that may be useful for inference after variable selection, and develops prediction regions and large sample theory for the multivariate linear regression model that has m response variables. A relationship between multivariate prediction regions and confidence regions provides a simple way to bootstrap confidence regions. These confidence regions often provide a practical method for testing hypotheses. There is also a chapter on generalized linear models and generalized additive models. There are many R functions to produce response and residual plots, to simulate prediction intervals and hypothesis tests, to detect outliers, and to choose response trans...
Edwards, Harold M
1995-01-01
In his new undergraduate textbook, Harold M Edwards proposes a radically new and thoroughly algorithmic approach to linear algebra Originally inspired by the constructive philosophy of mathematics championed in the 19th century by Leopold Kronecker, the approach is well suited to students in the computer-dominated late 20th century Each proof is an algorithm described in English that can be translated into the computer language the class is using and put to work solving problems and generating new examples, making the study of linear algebra a truly interactive experience Designed for a one-semester course, this text adopts an algorithmic approach to linear algebra giving the student many examples to work through and copious exercises to test their skills and extend their knowledge of the subject Students at all levels will find much interactive instruction in this text while teachers will find stimulating examples and methods of approach to the subject
The mathematics of networks of linear systems
Fuhrmann, Paul A
2015-01-01
This book provides the mathematical foundations of networks of linear control systems, developed from an algebraic systems theory perspective. This includes a thorough treatment of questions of controllability, observability, realization theory, as well as feedback control and observer theory. The potential of networks for linear systems in controlling large-scale networks of interconnected dynamical systems could provide insight into a diversity of scientific and technological disciplines. The scope of the book is quite extensive, ranging from introductory material to advanced topics of current research, making it a suitable reference for graduate students and researchers in the field of networks of linear systems. Part I can be used as the basis for a first course in algebraic system theory, while Part II serves for a second, advanced, course on linear systems. Finally, Part III, which is largely independent of the previous parts, is ideally suited for advanced research seminars aimed at preparing graduate ...
Linear and integer programming made easy
Hu, T C
2016-01-01
Linear and integer programming are fundamental toolkits for data and information science and technology, particularly in the context of today’s megatrends toward statistical optimization, machine learning, and big data analytics. Drawn from over 30 years of classroom teaching and applied research experience, this textbook provides a crisp and practical introduction to the basics of linear and integer programming. The authors’ approach is accessible to students from all fields of engineering, including operations research, statistics, machine learning, control system design, scheduling, formal verification, and computer vision. Readers will learn to cast hard combinatorial problems as mathematical programming optimizations, understand how to achieve formulations where the objective and constraints are linear, choose appropriate solution methods, and interpret results appropriately. •Provides a concise introduction to linear and integer programming, appropriate for undergraduates, graduates, a short cours...
Santos, Wagner Jorge dos; Giacomin, Karla Cristina; Firmo, Josélia Oliveira Araújo
2014-08-01
In the health field, technologies of care relations are in the scope of the worker-user encounter, implying intersubjectivity with the development of relationships between subjects, resulting in action. Evaluation studies synthesize knowledge produced on the consequences of using these technologies for society. This anthropological study aims to understand the perception of the elderly regarding the resolution capability and effectiveness of the acts produced in health care relationships in the context of the Family Health Strategy (ESF). The group studied consisted of 57 elderly residents in Bambui, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The model of signs, meanings and actions was used for collecting and analyzing data and the semi-structured interview was applied as a research technique. Elderly individuals assess resolution capability and effectiveness of the acts of care in the ESF as negative, with relation to the quality of user and professional interaction. The ESF is not effective and the desired change in the health care model has not occurred in practice. It repeats the centrality of the medical-drug-procedure model that treats the disease rather than the patient, perceiving old age as a disease and illness as being related to aging.
High density linear systems for fusion power
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ellis, W.R.; Krakowski, R.A.
1975-01-01
The physics and technological limitations and uncertainties associated with the linear theta pinch are discussed in terms of a generalized energy balance, which has as its basis the ratio (Q/sub E/) of total electrical energy generated to net electrical energy consumed. Included in this total is the virtual energy of bred fissile fuel, if a hybrid blanket is used, as well as the actual of real energy deposited in the blanket by the fusion neutron. The advantages and disadvantages of the pulsed operation demanded by the linear theta pinch are also discussed
Axler, Sheldon
2015-01-01
This best-selling textbook for a second course in linear algebra is aimed at undergrad math majors and graduate students. The novel approach taken here banishes determinants to the end of the book. The text focuses on the central goal of linear algebra: understanding the structure of linear operators on finite-dimensional vector spaces. The author has taken unusual care to motivate concepts and to simplify proofs. A variety of interesting exercises in each chapter helps students understand and manipulate the objects of linear algebra. The third edition contains major improvements and revisions throughout the book. More than 300 new exercises have been added since the previous edition. Many new examples have been added to illustrate the key ideas of linear algebra. New topics covered in the book include product spaces, quotient spaces, and dual spaces. Beautiful new formatting creates pages with an unusually pleasant appearance in both print and electronic versions. No prerequisites are assumed other than the ...
Franklin, D; Freedman, L; Milne, N
2005-01-01
In order to compare linear dimensions made by traditional anthropometric techniques, and those obtained from three-dimensional coordinates, samples of four indigenous southern African populations were analysed. Linear measurements were obtained using mathematically transformed, three-dimensional landmark data on 207 male crania of Cape Nguni, Natal Nguni, Sotho and Shangaan. Univariate comparisons for accuracy of the transformed linear data were made with those in a traditional linear study by de Villiers (The Skull of the South African Negro: A Biometrical and Morphological Study. Witwatersrand University Press, Johannesburg) on similar samples and equivalent landmarks. Comparisons were not made with her Penrose (Ann Eugenics 18 (1954) 337) analysis as an apparently anomalous 'shape'-'size' statistic was found. The univariate comparisons demonstrated that accurate linear measurements could be derived from three-dimensional data, showing that it is possible to simultaneously obtain data for three-dimensional geometric 'shape' and linear interlandmark analyses. Using Penrose and canonical variates analyses of the transformed three-dimensional interlandmark measurements, similar population distances were found for the four indigenous southern African populations. The inter-population distance relationships took the form of three separated pairs of distances, with the within-pair distances very similar in size. The cranial features of the four populations were found to be overall very similar morphometrically. However the populations were each shown by CVA to have population specific features, and using discriminant analyses 50% or more of the individual crania (with the exception of the Sotho) could be referred to their correct populations.
Recursive Algorithm For Linear Regression
Varanasi, S. V.
1988-01-01
Order of model determined easily. Linear-regression algorithhm includes recursive equations for coefficients of model of increased order. Algorithm eliminates duplicative calculations, facilitates search for minimum order of linear-regression model fitting set of data satisfactory.
Bourlès, Henri
2013-01-01
Linear systems have all the necessary elements (modeling, identification, analysis and control), from an educational point of view, to help us understand the discipline of automation and apply it efficiently. This book is progressive and organized in such a way that different levels of readership are possible. It is addressed both to beginners and those with a good understanding of automation wishing to enhance their knowledge on the subject. The theory is rigorously developed and illustrated by numerous examples which can be reproduced with the help of appropriate computation software. 60 exe
Amir-Moez, A R; Sneddon, I N
1962-01-01
Elements of Linear Space is a detailed treatment of the elements of linear spaces, including real spaces with no more than three dimensions and complex n-dimensional spaces. The geometry of conic sections and quadric surfaces is considered, along with algebraic structures, especially vector spaces and transformations. Problems drawn from various branches of geometry are given.Comprised of 12 chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to real Euclidean space, followed by a discussion on linear transformations and matrices. The addition and multiplication of transformations and matrices a
Reduction of Linear Programming to Linear Approximation
Vaserstein, Leonid N.
2006-01-01
It is well known that every Chebyshev linear approximation problem can be reduced to a linear program. In this paper we show that conversely every linear program can be reduced to a Chebyshev linear approximation problem.
Stamatakos, G S; Zacharaki, E I; Makropoulou, M I; Mouravliansky, N A; Marsh, A; Nikita, K S; Uzunoglu, N K
2001-12-01
A simplified three-dimensional Monte Carlo simulation model of in vitro tumor growth and response to fractionated radiotherapeutic schemes is presented in this paper. The paper aims at both the optimization of radiotherapy and the provision of insight into the biological mechanisms involved in tumor development. The basics of the modeling philosophy of Duechting have been adopted and substantially extended. The main processes taken into account by the model are the transitions between the cell cycle phases, the diffusion of oxygen and glucose, and the cell survival probabilities following irradiation. Specific algorithms satisfactorily describing tumor expansion and shrinkage have been applied, whereas a novel approach to the modeling of the tumor response to irradiation has been proposed and implemented. High-performance computing systems in conjunction with Web technologies have coped with the particularly high computer memory and processing demands. A visualization system based on the MATLAB software package and the virtual-reality modeling language has been employed. Its utilization has led to a spectacular representation of both the external surface and the internal structure of the developing tumor. The simulation model has been applied to the special case of small cell lung carcinoma in vitro irradiated according to both the standard and accelerated fractionation schemes. A good qualitative agreement with laboratory experience has been observed in all cases. Accordingly, the hypothesis that advanced simulation models for the in silico testing of tumor irradiation schemes could substantially enhance the radiotherapy optimization process is further strengthened. Currently, our group is investigating extensions of the presented algorithms so that efficient descriptions of the corresponding clinical (in vivo) cases are achieved.
Wangler, Thomas P
2008-01-01
Thomas P. Wangler received his B.S. degree in physics from Michigan State University, and his Ph.D. degree in physics and astronomy from the University of Wisconsin. After postdoctoral appointments at the University of Wisconsin and Brookhaven National Laboratory, he joined the staff of Argonne National Laboratory in 1966, working in the fields of experimental high-energy physics and accelerator physics. He joined the Accelerator Technology Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1979, where he specialized in high-current beam physics and linear accelerator design and technology. In 2007
Experimental determination of linear optics including quadrupole rotations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Safranek, J.
1995-01-01
The measured response matrix giving the change in orbit at beam position monitors (BPMs) with changes in steering magnet excitation can be used to accurately determine many important parameters in a storage ring. Using the NSLS X-Ray Ring measured response matrix we have determined the gradients in all 56 quadrupole magnets; the calibration of the steering magnets and BPMs; the rotational mis-alignments of the quadrupoles, steering magnets, and BPMs about the electron beam direction; the longitudinal magnetic centers of the orbit steering magnets; and the transverse mis-alignments of the sextupoles. Random orbit measurement error of the BPMs propagated to give 0.04% rms error in determination of individual quadrupole gradients and 0.4 mrad rms error in the determination of quadrupole rotational alignment. Small variations of a few parts in a thousand in the quadrupole gradients within an individual family were resolved. The improved understanding of the X-Ray Ring has enabled us to better control the electron beam size
Templates for Linear Algebra Problems
Bai, Z.; Day, D.; Demmel, J.; Dongarra, J.; Gu, M.; Ruhe, A.; Vorst, H.A. van der
1995-01-01
The increasing availability of advanced-architecture computers is having a very signicant eect on all spheres of scientic computation, including algorithm research and software development in numerical linear algebra. Linear algebra {in particular, the solution of linear systems of equations and
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2016-08-26
Aug 26, 2016 ... Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 5 ... email addresses used by the office of Indian Academy of Sciences, including those of the staff, the journals, various programmes, and Current Science, has changed from 'ias.ernet.in' (or 'academy.ias.ernet.in') to 'ias.ac.in'.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xu Jing
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The traditional answer card reading method using OMR (Optical Mark Reader, most commonly, OMR special card special use, less versatile, high cost, aiming at the existing problems proposed a method based on pattern recognition of the answer card identification method. Using the method based on Line Segment Detector to detect the tilt of the image, the existence of tilt image rotation correction, and eventually achieve positioning and detection of answers to the answer sheet .Pattern recognition technology for automatic reading, high accuracy, detect faster
Hogben, Leslie
2013-01-01
With a substantial amount of new material, the Handbook of Linear Algebra, Second Edition provides comprehensive coverage of linear algebra concepts, applications, and computational software packages in an easy-to-use format. It guides you from the very elementary aspects of the subject to the frontiers of current research. Along with revisions and updates throughout, the second edition of this bestseller includes 20 new chapters.New to the Second EditionSeparate chapters on Schur complements, additional types of canonical forms, tensors, matrix polynomials, matrix equations, special types of
Pierce, Kenneth E; Wangh, Lawrence J
2007-01-01
Accurate detection of gene sequences in single cells is the ultimate challenge to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) sensitivity. Unfortunately, commonly used conventional and real-time PCR techniques are often too unreliable at that level to provide the accuracy needed for clinical diagnosis. Here we provide details of linear-after-the-exponential-PCR (LATE-PCR), a method similar to asymmetric PCR in the use of primers at different concentrations, but with novel design criteria to ensure high efficiency and specificity. Compared with conventional PCR, LATE-PCR increases the signal strength and allele discrimination capability of oligonucleotide probes such as molecular beacons and reduces variability among replicate samples. The analysis of real-time kinetics of LATE-PCR signals provides a means for improving the accuracy of single cell genetic diagnosis.
Linear programming using Matlab
Ploskas, Nikolaos
2017-01-01
This book offers a theoretical and computational presentation of a variety of linear programming algorithms and methods with an emphasis on the revised simplex method and its components. A theoretical background and mathematical formulation is included for each algorithm as well as comprehensive numerical examples and corresponding MATLAB® code. The MATLAB® implementations presented in this book are sophisticated and allow users to find solutions to large-scale benchmark linear programs. Each algorithm is followed by a computational study on benchmark problems that analyze the computational behavior of the presented algorithms. As a solid companion to existing algorithmic-specific literature, this book will be useful to researchers, scientists, mathematical programmers, and students with a basic knowledge of linear algebra and calculus. The clear presentation enables the reader to understand and utilize all components of simplex-type methods, such as presolve techniques, scaling techniques, pivoting ru...
Blyth, T S
2002-01-01
Most of the introductory courses on linear algebra develop the basic theory of finite dimensional vector spaces, and in so doing relate the notion of a linear mapping to that of a matrix. Generally speaking, such courses culminate in the diagonalisation of certain matrices and the application of this process to various situations. Such is the case, for example, in our previous SUMS volume Basic Linear Algebra. The present text is a continuation of that volume, and has the objective of introducing the reader to more advanced properties of vector spaces and linear mappings, and consequently of matrices. For readers who are not familiar with the contents of Basic Linear Algebra we provide an introductory chapter that consists of a compact summary of the prerequisites for the present volume. In order to consolidate the student's understanding we have included a large num ber of illustrative and worked examples, as well as many exercises that are strategi cally placed throughout the text. Solutions to the ex...
Linear Algebra and Smarandache Linear Algebra
Vasantha, Kandasamy
2003-01-01
The present book, on Smarandache linear algebra, not only studies the Smarandache analogues of linear algebra and its applications, it also aims to bridge the need for new research topics pertaining to linear algebra, purely in the algebraic sense. We have introduced Smarandache semilinear algebra, Smarandache bilinear algebra and Smarandache anti-linear algebra and their fuzzy equivalents. Moreover, in this book, we have brought out the study of linear algebra and vector spaces over finite p...
Du, Xuan-Quang; Knobloch, Anselm; Grözing, Markus; Buck, Matthias; Berroth, Manfred
2017-03-01
This paper presents the analysis and the design of a fully-differential digital programmable gain amplifier (PGA) in a 0.13 µm BiCMOS technology. The PGA has a gain control range of 31 dB with 1 dB gain step size and consumes 284 mW from a 3.6 V power supply. At a maximum gain of 25 dB, the PGA exhibits a 3-dB bandwidth of 10.1 GHz. The measured gain error for all 32 possible gain settings is between -0.19/+0.46 dB at 1 GHz. Up to 13 GHz the third harmonic distortion H{D3} stays below -34 dB for all 32 gain settings at a differential output peak-to-peak voltage of 1 V after the last amplifier stage.
Linear Programming and Network Flows
Bazaraa, Mokhtar S; Sherali, Hanif D
2011-01-01
The authoritative guide to modeling and solving complex problems with linear programming-extensively revised, expanded, and updated The only book to treat both linear programming techniques and network flows under one cover, Linear Programming and Network Flows, Fourth Edition has been completely updated with the latest developments on the topic. This new edition continues to successfully emphasize modeling concepts, the design and analysis of algorithms, and implementation strategies for problems in a variety of fields, including industrial engineering, management science, operations research
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bondia, Ripsy; Ghosh, Sajal; Kanjilal, Kakali
2016-01-01
Increasing greenhouse gas emissions, exhaustibility and geo-politics induced price volatility of crude oil has magnified the importance of looking for alternative sources of energy. In this paper, we investigate the long term relationship of stock prices of alternative energy companies with oil prices in a multivariate framework. To this end, we use threshold cointegration tests, which endogenously incorporate possible regime shifts in long run relationship of underlying variables. In contrast to the findings of the previous study by Managi and Okimoto (2013), our results indicate presence of cointegration among the variables with two endogenous structural breaks. This study confirms that ignoring the presence of structural breaks in a long time series data, as has been done in previous study, can produce misleading results. In terms of causality, while the stock prices of alternative energy companies are impacted by technology stock prices, oil prices and interest rates in the short run, there is no causality running towards prices of alternative energy stock prices in the long run. The study discusses the possible reasons behind the empirical findings and concludes with a discussion on short run and long run investment opportunities for the investors. - Highlights: • Cointegration between alternative energy companies stock price and oil price. • Threshold cointegration tests are employed. • Cointegration among the variables exists with two endogenous structural breaks. • Alternative energy companies stock price impacted by oil prices in short run. • No causality running towards prices of alternative energy stock prices in long run.
Spaces of Piecewise Linear Manifolds
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gomez Lopez, Mauricio Esteban
maps, and on a fiberwise transversality result for piecewise linear submersions whose fibers are contained in R × (-1,1)N-1 ⊆ RN . For the proof of this transversality result we use a theorem of Hudson on extensions of piecewise linear isotopies which is why we need to include the condition N — d ≥ 3...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Hole, Arne Risa
2012-01-01
We develop an extension of the familiar linear mixed logit model to allow for the direct estimation of parametric non-linear functions defined over structural parameters. Classic applications include the estimation of coefficients of utility functions to characterize risk attitudes and discounting...
Elementary linear programming with applications
Kolman, Bernard
1995-01-01
Linear programming finds the least expensive way to meet given needs with available resources. Its results are used in every area of engineering and commerce: agriculture, oil refining, banking, and air transport. Authors Kolman and Beck present the basic notions of linear programming and illustrate how they are used to solve important common problems. The software on the included disk leads students step-by-step through the calculations. The Second Edition is completely revised and provides additional review material on linear algebra as well as complete coverage of elementary linear program
Linear operators for quantum mechanics
Jordan, Thomas F
1969-01-01
This compact treatment highlights the logic and simplicity of the mathematical structure of quantum mechanics. Suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students, it treats the language of quantum mechanics as expressed in the mathematics of linear operators.Originally oriented toward atomic physics, quantum mechanics became a basic language for solid-state, nuclear, and particle physics. Its grammar consists of the mathematics of linear operators, and with this text, students will find it easier to understand and use the language of physics. Topics include linear spaces and linear fun
Linear magnetic fusion: summary of Seattle workshop
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
None
1977-12-01
The linear-geometry magnetic confinement concept is among the oldest used in the study of high-temperature plasmas. However, it has generally been discounted as a suitable approach for demonstrating controlled thermonuclear fusion because rapid losses from the plasma column ends necessitate very long devices. Further, the losses and how to overcome them have not yet received parametric experimental study, nor do facilities exist with which such definitive experiments could be performed. Nonetheless, the important positive attribute, simplicity, together with the appearance of several ideas for reducing end losses have provided motivation for continued research on linear magnetic fusion (LMF). These motivations led to the LMF workshop, held in Seattle, March 9--11, 1977, which explored the potential of LMF as an alternate approach to fusion. A broad range of LMF aspects were addressed, including radial and axial losses, stability and equilibrium, heating, technology, and reactor considerations. The conclusions drawn at the workshop are summarized.
Linear magnetic fusion: summary of Seattle workshop
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1977-12-01
The linear-geometry magnetic confinement concept is among the oldest used in the study of high-temperature plasmas. However, it has generally been discounted as a suitable approach for demonstrating controlled thermonuclear fusion because rapid losses from the plasma column ends necessitate very long devices. Further, the losses and how to overcome them have not yet received parametric experimental study, nor do facilities exist with which such definitive experiments could be performed. Nonetheless, the important positive attribute, simplicity, together with the appearance of several ideas for reducing end losses have provided motivation for continued research on linear magnetic fusion (LMF). These motivations led to the LMF workshop, held in Seattle, March 9--11, 1977, which explored the potential of LMF as an alternate approach to fusion. A broad range of LMF aspects were addressed, including radial and axial losses, stability and equilibrium, heating, technology, and reactor considerations. The conclusions drawn at the workshop are summarized
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Emma, P.
1995-01-01
The Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) is the first and only high-energy e + e - linear collider in the world. Its most remarkable features are high intensity, submicron sized, polarized (e - ) beams at a single interaction point. The main challenges posed by these unique characteristics include machine-wide emittance preservation, consistent high intensity operation, polarized electron production and transport, and the achievement of a high degree of beam stability on all time scales. In addition to serving as an important machine for the study of Z 0 boson production and decay using polarized beams, the SLC is also an indispensable source of hands-on experience for future linear colliders. Each new year of operation has been highlighted with a marked improvement in performance. The most significant improvements for the 1994-95 run include new low impedance vacuum chambers for the damping rings, an upgrade to the optics and diagnostics of the final focus systems, and a higher degree of polarization from the electron source. As a result, the average luminosity has nearly doubled over the previous year with peaks approaching 10 30 cm -2 s -1 and an 80% electron polarization at the interaction point. These developments as well as the remaining identifiable performance limitations will be discussed
Miniature linear cooler development
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pruitt, G.R.
1993-01-01
An overview is presented of the status of a family of miniature linear coolers currently under development by Hughes Aircraft Co. for use in hand held, volume limited or power limited infrared applications. These coolers, representing the latest additions to the Hughes family of TOP trademark [twin-opposed piston] linear coolers, have been fabricated and tested in three different configurations. Each configuration is designed to utilize a common compressor assembly resulting in reduced manufacturing costs. The baseline compressor has been integrated with two different expander configurations and has been operated with two different levels of input power. These various configuration combinations offer a wide range of performance and interface characteristics which may be tailored to applications requiring limited power and size without significantly compromising cooler capacity or cooldown characteristics. Key cooler characteristics and test data are summarized for three combinations of cooler configurations which are representative of the versatility of this linear cooler design. Configurations reviewed include the shortened coldfinger [1.50 to 1.75 inches long], limited input power [less than 17 Watts] for low power availability applications; the shortened coldfinger with higher input power for lightweight, higher performance applications; and coldfingers compatible with DoD 0.4 Watt Common Module coolers for wider range retrofit capability. Typical weight of these miniature linear coolers is less than 500 grams for the compressor, expander and interconnecting transfer line. Cooling capacity at 80K at room ambient conditions ranges from 400 mW to greater than 550 mW. Steady state power requirements for maintaining a heat load of 150 mW at 80K has been shown to be less than 8 Watts. Ongoing reliability growth testing is summarized including a review of the latest test article results
Klumpp, A. R.; Lawson, C. L.
1988-01-01
Routines provided for common scalar, vector, matrix, and quaternion operations. Computer program extends Ada programming language to include linear-algebra capabilities similar to HAS/S programming language. Designed for such avionics applications as software for Space Station.
Witt, August F.
1992-01-01
In line with the specified objectives, a Bridgman-type growth configuration in which unavoidable end effects - conventionally leading to growth interface relocation - are compensated by commensurate input-power changes is developed; the growth rate on a microscale is predictable and unaffected by changes in heat transfer conditions. To permit quantitative characterization of the growth furnace cavity (hot-zone), a 3-D thermal field mapping technique, based on the thermal image, is being tested for temperatures up to 1100 C. Computational NIR absorption analysis was modified to now permit characterization of semi-insulating single crystals. Work on growth and characterization of bismuth-silicate was initiated. Growth of BSO (B12SiO20) for seed material by the Czochralski technique is currently in progress. Undergraduate research currently in progress includes: ground based measurements of the wetting behavior (contact angles) of semiconductor melts on substrates consisting of potential confinement materials for solidification experiments in a reduced gravity environment. Hardware modifications required for execution of the wetting experiments in a KC-135 facility are developed.
Proceedings of the 18. international linear accelerator conference. Vol. 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hill, C.; Vretenar, M.
1996-01-01
These proceedings cover the whole field of linear accelerators, from its original and continuing role in particle physics research to the wide range of applications found today in many other disciplines and technologies. The contributions were deliberately spread among the different conference sessions in order to maintain a broad interest. The topics covered include: the design, construction and control of linear accelerators and the associated technology; dedicated test facilities, injection, wakefields, bunching, halo, dynamics, radio-frequency (RF), electron and ion accelerators, (laser) ion sources; active alignment, beam steering and spot size; simulation, monitoring and diagnostics; a description of the performance and current status of many machines, including proposed ones such as CLIC, the NLC and TESLA; applications to medical diagnosis and radiotherapy; use in the treatment and sterilisation of materials (including food) and in the reprocessing of radioactive waste; use as potential suppliers of energy. (orig.)
... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Linear Accelerator A linear accelerator (LINAC) customizes high energy x-rays or ... ensured? What is this equipment used for? A linear accelerator (LINAC) is the device most commonly used ...
Square pulse linear transformer driver
Kim, A. A.; Mazarakis, M. G.; Sinebryukhov, V. A.; Volkov, S. N.; Kondratiev, S. S.; Alexeenko, V. M.; Bayol, F.; Demol, G.; Stygar, W. A.
2012-04-01
The linear transformer driver (LTD) technological approach can result in relatively compact devices that can deliver fast, high current, and high-voltage pulses straight out of the LTD cavity without any complicated pulse forming and pulse compression network. Through multistage inductively insulated voltage adders, the output pulse, increased in voltage amplitude, can be applied directly to the load. The usual LTD architecture [A. A. Kim, M. G. Mazarakis, V. A. Sinebryukhov, B. M. Kovalchuk, V. A. Vizir, S. N Volkov, F. Bayol, A. N. Bastrikov, V. G. Durakov, S. V. Frolov, V. M. Alexeenko, D. H. McDaniel, W. E. Fowler, K. LeCheen, C. Olson, W. A. Stygar, K. W. Struve, J. Porter, and R. M. Gilgenbach, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12, 050402 (2009)PRABFM1098-440210.1103/PhysRevSTAB.12.050402; M. G. Mazarakis, W. E. Fowler, A. A. Kim, V. A. Sinebryukhov, S. T. Rogowski, R. A. Sharpe, D. H. McDaniel, C. L. Olson, J. L. Porter, K. W. Struve, W. A. Stygar, and J. R. Woodworth, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12, 050401 (2009)PRABFM1098-440210.1103/PhysRevSTAB.12.050401] provides sine shaped output pulses that may not be well suited for some applications like z-pinch drivers, flash radiography, high power microwaves, etc. A more suitable power pulse would have a flat or trapezoidal (rising or falling) top. In this paper, we present the design and first test results of an LTD cavity that generates such a type of output pulse by including within its circular array a number of third harmonic bricks in addition to the main bricks. A voltage adder made out of a square pulse cavity linear array will produce the same shape output pulses provided that the timing of each cavity is synchronized with the propagation of the electromagnetic pulse.
Foundations of linear and generalized linear models
Agresti, Alan
2015-01-01
A valuable overview of the most important ideas and results in statistical analysis Written by a highly-experienced author, Foundations of Linear and Generalized Linear Models is a clear and comprehensive guide to the key concepts and results of linear statistical models. The book presents a broad, in-depth overview of the most commonly used statistical models by discussing the theory underlying the models, R software applications, and examples with crafted models to elucidate key ideas and promote practical model building. The book begins by illustrating the fundamentals of linear models,
Linear interpolation of histograms
Read, A L
1999-01-01
A prescription is defined for the interpolation of probability distributions that are assumed to have a linear dependence on a parameter of the distributions. The distributions may be in the form of continuous functions or histograms. The prescription is based on the weighted mean of the inverses of the cumulative distributions between which the interpolation is made. The result is particularly elegant for a certain class of distributions, including the normal and exponential distributions, and is useful for the interpolation of Monte Carlo simulation results which are time-consuming to obtain.
Linear and Generalized Linear Mixed Models and Their Applications
Jiang, Jiming
2007-01-01
This book covers two major classes of mixed effects models, linear mixed models and generalized linear mixed models, and it presents an up-to-date account of theory and methods in analysis of these models as well as their applications in various fields. The book offers a systematic approach to inference about non-Gaussian linear mixed models. Furthermore, it has included recently developed methods, such as mixed model diagnostics, mixed model selection, and jackknife method in the context of mixed models. The book is aimed at students, researchers and other practitioners who are interested
Comparison of linear synchronous and induction motors
2004-06-01
A propulsion prade study was conducted as part of the Colorado Maglev Project of FTA's Urban Maglev Technology Development Program to identify and evaluate prospective linear motor designs that could potentially meet the system performance requiremen...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop and mature rover technologies supporting robotic exploration including rover design, controlling rovers over time delay and for exploring . Technology...
Photon Linear Collider Gamma-Gamma Summary
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gronberg, J.
2012-01-01
High energy photon - photon collisions can be achieved by adding high average power short-pulse lasers to the Linear Collider, enabling an expanded physics program for the facility. The technology required to realize a photon linear collider continues to mature. Compton back-scattering technology is being developed around the world for low energy light source applications and high average power lasers are being developed for Inertial Confinement Fusion.
Busch, Michael; Wodrich, Matthew D.
2015-01-01
Linear free energy scaling relationships and volcano plots are common tools used to identify potential heterogeneous catalysts for myriad applications. Despite the striking simplicity and predictive power of volcano plots, they remain unknown in homogeneous catalysis. Here, we construct volcano plots to analyze a prototypical reaction from homogeneous catalysis, the Suzuki cross-coupling of olefins. Volcano plots succeed both in discriminating amongst different catalysts and reproducing experimentally known trends, which serves as validation of the model for this proof-of-principle example. These findings indicate that the combination of linear scaling relationships and volcano plots could serve as a valuable methodology for identifying homogeneous catalysts possessing a desired activity through a priori computational screening. PMID:28757966
Microminiature linear split Stirling cryogenic cooler for portable infrared imagers
Veprik, A.; Vilenchik, H.; Riabzev, S.; Pundak, N.
2007-04-01
Novel tactics employed in carrying out military and antiterrorist operations call for the development of a new generation of warfare, among which sophisticated portable infrared (IR) imagers for surveillance, reconnaissance, targeting and navigation play an important role. The superior performance of such imagers relies on novel optronic technologies and maintaining the infrared focal plane arrays at cryogenic temperatures using closed cycle refrigerators. Traditionally, rotary driven Stirling cryogenic engines are used for this purpose. As compared to their military off-theshelf linear rivals, they are lighter, more compact and normally consume less electrical power. Latest technological advances in industrial development of high-temperature (100K) infrared detectors initialized R&D activity towards developing microminiature cryogenic coolers, both of rotary and linear types. On this occasion, split linearly driven cryogenic coolers appear to be more suitable for the above applications. Their known advantages include flexibility in the system design, inherently longer life time, low vibration export and superior aural stealth. Moreover, recent progress in designing highly efficient "moving magnet" resonant linear drives and driving electronics enable further essential reduction of the cooler size, weight and power consumption. The authors report on the development and project status of a novel Ricor model K527 microminiature split Stirling linear cryogenic cooler designed especially for the portable infrared imagers.
Seventh International Accelerator School for Linear Colliders
Organizers of the Seventh International Accelerator School for Linear Colliders
2012-01-01
We are pleased to announce the Seventh International Accelerator School for Linear Colliders. This school is a continuation of the series of schools which began six years ago. The first school was held in 2006 in Sokendai, Japan, the second in 2007 in Erice, Italy, the third in 2008 in Oakbrook Hills, USA, the fourth in 2009 in Huairou, China, the fifth in 2010 in Villars-sur-Ollon, Switzerland, and the sixth in 2011 in Pacific Grove, USA. The school is organized by the International Linear Collider (ILC) Global Design Effort (GDE), the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) and the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA) Beam Dynamics Panel. The school this year will take place at the Radisson Blu Hotel, Indore, India from November 27 to December 8, 2012. It is hosted by the Raja Ramanna Center for Advanced Technology (RRCAT) and sponsored by a number of funding agencies and institutions around the world including the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. National Science...
Classifying Linear Canonical Relations
Lorand, Jonathan
2015-01-01
In this Master's thesis, we consider the problem of classifying, up to conjugation by linear symplectomorphisms, linear canonical relations (lagrangian correspondences) from a finite-dimensional symplectic vector space to itself. We give an elementary introduction to the theory of linear canonical relations and present partial results toward the classification problem. This exposition should be accessible to undergraduate students with a basic familiarity with linear algebra.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Briggs, R.J.
1986-06-01
The development of linear induction accelerators has been motivated by applications requiring high-pulsed currents of charged particles at voltages exceeding the capability of single-stage, diode-type accelerators and at currents too high for rf accelerators. In principle, one can accelerate charged particles to arbitrarily high voltages using a multi-stage induction machine, but the 50-MeV, 10-kA Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) at LLNL is the highest voltage machine in existence at this time. The advent of magnetic pulse power systems makes sustained operation at high-repetition rates practical, and this capability for high-average power is very likely to open up many new applications of induction machines in the future. This paper surveys the US induction linac technology with primary emphasis on electron machines. A simplified description of how induction machines couple energy to the electron beam is given, to illustrate many of the general issues that bound the design space of induction linacs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Briggs, R.J.
1986-01-01
The development of linear induction accelerators has been motivated by applications requiring high-pulsed currents of charged particles at voltages exceeding the capability of single-stage, diode-type accelerators and at currents too high for r.f. accelerators. In principle, one can accelerate charged particles to arbitrarily high voltages using a multi-stage induction machine, but the 50-MeV, 10-kA Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) at LLNL is the highest voltage machine in existence at this time. The advent of magnetic pulse power systems makes sustained operation at high-repetition rates practical, and this capability for high-average power in very likely to open up many new applications of induction machines in the future. The US induction linac technology is surveyed with primary emphasis on electron machines. A simplified description of how induction machines couple energy to the electron beam is given, to illustrate many of the general issues that bound the design space of induction linacs. A key issue in all high-intensity linacs is that of beam instability
Lawson, C. L.; Krogh, F. T.; Gold, S. S.; Kincaid, D. R.; Sullivan, J.; Williams, E.; Hanson, R. J.; Haskell, K.; Dongarra, J.; Moler, C. B.
1982-01-01
The Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS) library is a collection of 38 FORTRAN-callable routines for performing basic operations of numerical linear algebra. BLAS library is portable and efficient source of basic operations for designers of programs involving linear algebriac computations. BLAS library is supplied in portable FORTRAN and Assembler code versions for IBM 370, UNIVAC 1100 and CDC 6000 series computers.
Linear Back-Drive Differentials
Waydo, Peter
2003-01-01
Linear back-drive differentials have been proposed as alternatives to conventional gear differentials for applications in which there is only limited rotational motion (e.g., oscillation). The finite nature of the rotation makes it possible to optimize a linear back-drive differential in ways that would not be possible for gear differentials or other differentials that are required to be capable of unlimited rotation. As a result, relative to gear differentials, linear back-drive differentials could be more compact and less massive, could contain fewer complex parts, and could be less sensitive to variations in the viscosities of lubricants. Linear back-drive differentials would operate according to established principles of power ball screws and linear-motion drives, but would utilize these principles in an innovative way. One major characteristic of such mechanisms that would be exploited in linear back-drive differentials is the possibility of designing them to drive or back-drive with similar efficiency and energy input: in other words, such a mechanism can be designed so that a rotating screw can drive a nut linearly or the linear motion of the nut can cause the screw to rotate. A linear back-drive differential (see figure) would include two collinear shafts connected to two parts that are intended to engage in limited opposing rotations. The linear back-drive differential would also include a nut that would be free to translate along its axis but not to rotate. The inner surface of the nut would be right-hand threaded at one end and left-hand threaded at the opposite end to engage corresponding right- and left-handed threads on the shafts. A rotation and torque introduced into the system via one shaft would drive the nut in linear motion. The nut, in turn, would back-drive the other shaft, creating a reaction torque. Balls would reduce friction, making it possible for the shaft/nut coupling on each side to operate with 90 percent efficiency.
Square pulse linear transformer driver
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. A. Kim
2012-04-01
Full Text Available The linear transformer driver (LTD technological approach can result in relatively compact devices that can deliver fast, high current, and high-voltage pulses straight out of the LTD cavity without any complicated pulse forming and pulse compression network. Through multistage inductively insulated voltage adders, the output pulse, increased in voltage amplitude, can be applied directly to the load. The usual LTD architecture [A. A. Kim, M. G. Mazarakis, V. A. Sinebryukhov, B. M. Kovalchuk, V. A. Vizir, S. N Volkov, F. Bayol, A. N. Bastrikov, V. G. Durakov, S. V. Frolov, V. M. Alexeenko, D. H. McDaniel, W. E. Fowler, K. LeCheen, C. Olson, W. A. Stygar, K. W. Struve, J. Porter, and R. M. Gilgenbach, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12, 050402 (2009PRABFM1098-440210.1103/PhysRevSTAB.12.050402; M. G. Mazarakis, W. E. Fowler, A. A. Kim, V. A. Sinebryukhov, S. T. Rogowski, R. A. Sharpe, D. H. McDaniel, C. L. Olson, J. L. Porter, K. W. Struve, W. A. Stygar, and J. R. Woodworth, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12, 050401 (2009PRABFM1098-440210.1103/PhysRevSTAB.12.050401] provides sine shaped output pulses that may not be well suited for some applications like z-pinch drivers, flash radiography, high power microwaves, etc. A more suitable power pulse would have a flat or trapezoidal (rising or falling top. In this paper, we present the design and first test results of an LTD cavity that generates such a type of output pulse by including within its circular array a number of third harmonic bricks in addition to the main bricks. A voltage adder made out of a square pulse cavity linear array will produce the same shape output pulses provided that the timing of each cavity is synchronized with the propagation of the electromagnetic pulse.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1999-03-01
The energy-saving and other global environmental technologies are surveyed by collecting relevant information from various institutes, both abroad and domestic, to contribute to development of ceramic gas turbines. USA has announced a climate change plan, based on the five principles, to promote utilization of high-efficiency technologies and development of new clean technologies. UK is promoting to improve energy efficiency, along with liberalization of its energy markets. Germany concentrates its efforts in the 'Program for Energy Research and Energy Technologies.' France places emphasis on prevention of air pollution and rational use of energy. The R and D trends at public institutes, e.g., universities, for global environmental technologies are surveyed, from which a total of 14 themes are extracted as the seed technologies. At the same time, a total of 9 techniques potentially applicable to the seeds are extracted by mainly reviewing JICST and patent information, and assessed. The R&D trends of the IPCC-related researchers are also surveyed, but provide no theme directly applicable to the seeds. Most of the related themes at the private and public institutes surveyed, both domestic and abroad, are concentrated on carbon dioxide. (NEDO)
QUANTUM OPTICS. Universal linear optics.
Carolan, Jacques; Harrold, Christopher; Sparrow, Chris; Martín-López, Enrique; Russell, Nicholas J; Silverstone, Joshua W; Shadbolt, Peter J; Matsuda, Nobuyuki; Oguma, Manabu; Itoh, Mikitaka; Marshall, Graham D; Thompson, Mark G; Matthews, Jonathan C F; Hashimoto, Toshikazu; O'Brien, Jeremy L; Laing, Anthony
2015-08-14
Linear optics underpins fundamental tests of quantum mechanics and quantum technologies. We demonstrate a single reprogrammable optical circuit that is sufficient to implement all possible linear optical protocols up to the size of that circuit. Our six-mode universal system consists of a cascade of 15 Mach-Zehnder interferometers with 30 thermo-optic phase shifters integrated into a single photonic chip that is electrically and optically interfaced for arbitrary setting of all phase shifters, input of up to six photons, and their measurement with a 12-single-photon detector system. We programmed this system to implement heralded quantum logic and entangling gates, boson sampling with verification tests, and six-dimensional complex Hadamards. We implemented 100 Haar random unitaries with an average fidelity of 0.999 ± 0.001. Our system can be rapidly reprogrammed to implement these and any other linear optical protocol, pointing the way to applications across fundamental science and quantum technologies. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
JET VELOCITY OF LINEAR SHAPED CHARGES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vječislav Bohanek
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Shaped explosive charges with one dimension significantly larger than the other are called linear shaped charges. Linear shaped charges are used in various industries and are applied within specific technologies for metal cutting, such as demolition of steel structures, separating spent rocket fuel tanks, demining, cutting holes in the barriers for fire service, etc. According to existing theories and models efficiency of linear shaped charges depends on the kinetic energy of the jet which is proportional to square of jet velocity. The original method for measuring velocity of linear shaped charge jet is applied in the aforementioned research. Measurements were carried out for two different linear materials, and the results are graphically presented, analysed and compared. Measurement results show a discrepancy in the measured velocity of the jet for different materials with the same ratio between linear and explosive mass (M/C per unit of surface, which is not described by presented models (the paper is published in Croatian.
Linearly constrained minimax optimization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Kaj; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans
1978-01-01
We present an algorithm for nonlinear minimax optimization subject to linear equality and inequality constraints which requires first order partial derivatives. The algorithm is based on successive linear approximations to the functions defining the problem. The resulting linear subproblems...... are solved in the minimax sense subject to the linear constraints. This ensures a feasible-point algorithm. Further, we introduce local bounds on the solutions of the linear subproblems, the bounds being adjusted automatically, depending on the quality of the linear approximations. It is proved...... that the algorithm will always converge to the set of stationary points of the problem, a stationary point being defined in terms of the generalized gradients of the minimax objective function. It is further proved that, under mild regularity conditions, the algorithm is identical to a quadratically convergent...
Blyth, T S
2002-01-01
Basic Linear Algebra is a text for first year students leading from concrete examples to abstract theorems, via tutorial-type exercises. More exercises (of the kind a student may expect in examination papers) are grouped at the end of each section. The book covers the most important basics of any first course on linear algebra, explaining the algebra of matrices with applications to analytic geometry, systems of linear equations, difference equations and complex numbers. Linear equations are treated via Hermite normal forms which provides a successful and concrete explanation of the notion of linear independence. Another important highlight is the connection between linear mappings and matrices leading to the change of basis theorem which opens the door to the notion of similarity. This new and revised edition features additional exercises and coverage of Cramer's rule (omitted from the first edition). However, it is the new, extra chapter on computer assistance that will be of particular interest to readers:...
Efficient Non Linear Loudspeakers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petersen, Bo R.; Agerkvist, Finn T.
2006-01-01
Loudspeakers have traditionally been designed to be as linear as possible. However, as techniques for compensating non linearities are emerging, it becomes possible to use other design criteria. This paper present and examines a new idea for improving the efficiency of loudspeakers at high levels...... by changing the voice coil layout. This deliberate non-linear design has the benefit that a smaller amplifier can be used, which has the benefit of reducing system cost as well as reducing power consumption....
Directivity of basic linear arrays
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bach, Henning
1970-01-01
For a linear uniform array ofnelements, an expression is derived for the directivity as a function of the spacing and the phase constants. The cases of isotropic elements, collinear short dipoles, and parallel short dipoles are included. The formula obtained is discussed in some detail and contour...
Pump apparatus including deconsolidator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew
2014-10-07
A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.
Displacement measurement system for linear array detector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Pengchong; Chen Ziyu; Shen Ji
2011-01-01
It presents a set of linear displacement measurement system based on encoder. The system includes displacement encoders, optical lens and read out circuit. Displacement read out unit includes linear CCD and its drive circuit, two amplifier circuits, second order Butterworth low-pass filter and the binarization circuit. The coding way is introduced, and various parts of the experimental signal waveforms are given, and finally a linear experimental test results are given. The experimental results are satisfactory. (authors)
Magnetic levitation Maglev technology and applications
Han, Hyung-Suk
2016-01-01
This book provides a comprehensive overview of magnetic levitation (Maglev) technologies, from fundamental principles through to the state-of-the-art, and describes applications both realised and under development. It includes a history of Maglev science and technology showing the various milestones in its advancement. The core concepts, operating principles and main challenges of Maglev applications attempted across various fields are introduced and discussed. The principle difficulties encountered when applying Maglev technology to different systems, namely air gap control and stabilization, are addressed in detail. The book describes how major advancements in linear motor and magnet technologies have enabled the development of the linear-motor-powered Maglev train, which has a high speed advantage over conventional wheeled trains and has the potential to reach speed levels achieved by aircraft. However, many expect that Maglev technology to be a green technology that is applied not only in rail transportat...
Faraway, Julian J
2014-01-01
A Hands-On Way to Learning Data AnalysisPart of the core of statistics, linear models are used to make predictions and explain the relationship between the response and the predictors. Understanding linear models is crucial to a broader competence in the practice of statistics. Linear Models with R, Second Edition explains how to use linear models in physical science, engineering, social science, and business applications. The book incorporates several improvements that reflect how the world of R has greatly expanded since the publication of the first edition.New to the Second EditionReorganiz
Superconducting linear accelerator cryostat
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ben-Zvi, I.; Elkonin, B.V.; Sokolowski, J.S.
1984-01-01
A large vertical cryostat for a superconducting linear accelerator using quarter wave resonators has been developed. The essential technical details, operational experience and performance are described. (author)
Mathematical Modelling in Engineering: An Alternative Way to Teach Linear Algebra
Domínguez-García, S.; García-Planas, M. I.; Taberna, J.
2016-01-01
Technological advances require that basic science courses for engineering, including Linear Algebra, emphasize the development of mathematical strengths associated with modelling and interpretation of results, which are not limited only to calculus abilities. Based on this consideration, we have proposed a project-based learning, giving a dynamic…
Optical modulator including grapene
Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang
2016-06-07
The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.
Segmented rail linear induction motor
Cowan, Jr., Maynard; Marder, Barry M.
1996-01-01
A segmented rail linear induction motor has a segmented rail consisting of a plurality of nonferrous electrically conductive segments aligned along a guideway. The motor further includes a carriage including at least one pair of opposed coils fastened to the carriage for moving the carriage. A power source applies an electric current to the coils to induce currents in the conductive surfaces to repel the coils from adjacent edges of the conductive surfaces.
Segmented rail linear induction motor
Cowan, M. Jr.; Marder, B.M.
1996-09-03
A segmented rail linear induction motor has a segmented rail consisting of a plurality of nonferrous electrically conductive segments aligned along a guideway. The motor further includes a carriage including at least one pair of opposed coils fastened to the carriage for moving the carriage. A power source applies an electric current to the coils to induce currents in the conductive surfaces to repel the coils from adjacent edges of the conductive surfaces. 6 figs.
A fuzzy Bi-linear management model in reverse logistic chains
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tadić Danijela
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The management of the electrical and electronic waste (WEEE problem in the uncertain environment has a critical effect on the economy and environmental protection of each region. The considered problem can be stated as a fuzzy non-convex optimization problem with linear objective function and a set of linear and non-linear constraints. The original problem is reformulated by using linear relaxation into a fuzzy linear programming problem. The fuzzy rating of collecting point capacities and fix costs of recycling centers are modeled by triangular fuzzy numbers. The optimal solution of the reformulation model is found by using optimality concept. The proposed model is verified through an illustrative example with real-life data. The obtained results represent an input for future research which should include a good benchmark base for tested reverse logistic chains and their continuous improvement. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 035033: Sustainable development technology and equipment for the recycling of motor vehicles
Awuah, Lawrence J.
2012-01-01
Understanding citizens' adoption of electronic-government (e-government) is an important topic, as the use of e-government has become an integral part of governance. Success of such initiatives depends largely on the efficient use of e-government services. The unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) model has provided a…
Diep, Lucy; Wolbring, Gregor
2013-01-01
Some new and envisioned technologies such as brain machine interfaces (BMI) that are being developed initially for people with disabilities, but whose use can also be expanded to the general public have the potential to change body ability expectations of disabled and non-disabled people beyond the species-typical. The ways in which this dynamic…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rogner, H.H.
1989-01-01
The submitted sections on linear programming are extracted from 'Theorie und Technik der Planung' (1978) by W. Blaas and P. Henseler and reformulated for presentation at the Workshop. They consider a brief introduction to the theory of linear programming and to some essential aspects of the SIMPLEX solution algorithm for the purposes of economic planning processes. 1 fig
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Richter, B.
1985-01-01
A report is given on the goals and progress of the SLAC Linear Collider. The author discusses the status of the machine and the detectors and give an overview of the physics which can be done at this new facility. He also gives some ideas on how (and why) large linear colliders of the future should be built
Linear Logical Voting Protocols
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
DeYoung, Henry; Schürmann, Carsten
2012-01-01
. In response, we promote linear logic as a high-level language for both specifying and implementing voting protocols. Our linear logical specifications of the single-winner first-past-the-post (SW- FPTP) and single transferable vote (STV) protocols demonstrate that this approach leads to concise...
Window observers for linear systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Utkin Vadim
2000-01-01
Full Text Available Given a linear system x ˙ = A x + B u with output y = C x and a window function ω ( t , i.e., ∀ t , ω ( t ∈ {0,1 }, and assuming that the window function is Lebesgue measurable, we refer to the following observer, x ˆ = A x + B u + ω ( t L C ( x − x ˆ as a window observer. The stability issue is treated in this paper. It is proven that for linear time-invariant systems, the window observer can be stabilized by an appropriate design under a very mild condition on the window functions, albeit for linear time-varying system, some regularity of the window functions is required to achieve observer designs with the asymptotic stability. The corresponding design methods are developed. An example is included to illustrate the possible applications
Topics in quaternion linear algebra
Rodman, Leiba
2014-01-01
Quaternions are a number system that has become increasingly useful for representing the rotations of objects in three-dimensional space and has important applications in theoretical and applied mathematics, physics, computer science, and engineering. This is the first book to provide a systematic, accessible, and self-contained exposition of quaternion linear algebra. It features previously unpublished research results with complete proofs and many open problems at various levels, as well as more than 200 exercises to facilitate use by students and instructors. Applications presented in the book include numerical ranges, invariant semidefinite subspaces, differential equations with symmetries, and matrix equations. Designed for researchers and students across a variety of disciplines, the book can be read by anyone with a background in linear algebra, rudimentary complex analysis, and some multivariable calculus. Instructors will find it useful as a complementary text for undergraduate linear algebra courses...
Semidefinite linear complementarity problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eckhardt, U.
1978-04-01
Semidefinite linear complementarity problems arise by discretization of variational inequalities describing e.g. elastic contact problems, free boundary value problems etc. In the present paper linear complementarity problems are introduced and the theory as well as the numerical treatment of them are described. In the special case of semidefinite linear complementarity problems a numerical method is presented which combines the advantages of elimination and iteration methods without suffering from their drawbacks. This new method has very attractive properties since it has a high degree of invariance with respect to the representation of the set of all feasible solutions of a linear complementarity problem by linear inequalities. By means of some practical applications the properties of the new method are demonstrated. (orig.) [de
Handbook on linear motor application
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1988-10-01
This book guides the application for Linear motor. It lists classification and speciality of Linear Motor, terms of linear-induction motor, principle of the Motor, types on one-side linear-induction motor, bilateral linear-induction motor, linear-DC Motor on basic of the motor, linear-DC Motor for moving-coil type, linear-DC motor for permanent-magnet moving type, linear-DC motor for electricity non-utility type, linear-pulse motor for variable motor, linear-pulse motor for permanent magneto type, linear-vibration actuator, linear-vibration actuator for moving-coil type, linear synchronous motor, linear electromagnetic motor, linear electromagnetic solenoid, technical organization and magnetic levitation and linear motor and sensor.
Linear collider RF structure design using ARGUS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kwok Ko
1991-01-01
In a linear collider, both the driving system (klystrons) and the accelerating system (linac) consists of RF structures that are inherently three-dimensional. These structures which are responsible for power input/output, have to satisfy many requirements in order that instabilities, beam or RF related, are to be avoided. At the same time, system efficiencies have to be maintained at optimal to minimize cost. Theoretical analysis on these geometrically complex structures are difficult and until recently, numerical solutions have been limited. At SLAC, there has been a continuing and close collaboration among accelerator physicists, engineers and numericists to integrate supercomputing into the design procedure which involves 3-D RF structures. The outcome is very encouraging. Using the 3-D/electromagnetic code ARGUS (developed by SAIC) on the Cray computers at NERSC in conjunction with supporting theories, a wide variety of critical components have been simulated and evaluated. Aside from structures related to the linear collider, the list also includes the RF cavity for the proposed Boson Factory and the anode circuit for the Cross-Field Amplifier, once considered as an alternative to the klystron as a possible power source. This presentation will focus on two specific structures: (1) the klystron output cavity; and (2) the linac input coupler. As the results demonstrate, supercomputing is fast becoming a viable technology that could conceivably replace actual cold-testing in the near future
Frequency scaling of linear super-colliders
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mondelli, A.; Chernin, D.; Drobot, A.; Reiser, M.; Granatstein, V.
1986-06-01
The development of electron-positron linear colliders in the TeV energy range will be facilitated by the development of high-power rf sources at frequencies above 2856 MHz. Present S-band technology, represented by the SLC, would require a length in excess of 50 km per linac to accelerate particles to energies above 1 TeV. By raising the rf driving frequency, the rf breakdown limit is increased, thereby allowing the length of the accelerators to be reduced. Currently available rf power sources set the realizable gradient limit in an rf linac at frequencies above S-band. This paper presents a model for the frequency scaling of linear colliders, with luminosity scaled in proportion to the square of the center-of-mass energy. Since wakefield effects are the dominant deleterious effect, a separate single-bunch simulation model is described which calculates the evolution of the beam bunch with specified wakefields, including the effects of using programmed phase positioning and Landau damping. The results presented here have been obtained for a SLAC structure, scaled in proportion to wavelength
Linear and non-linear simulation of joints contact surface using ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The joint modelling including non-linear effects needs accurate and precise study of their behaviors. When joints are under the dynamic loading, micro, macro- slip happens in contact surface which is non-linear reason of the joint contact surface. The non-linear effects of joint contact surface on total behavior of structure are ...
Linear ubiquitination in immunity.
Shimizu, Yutaka; Taraborrelli, Lucia; Walczak, Henning
2015-07-01
Linear ubiquitination is a post-translational protein modification recently discovered to be crucial for innate and adaptive immune signaling. The function of linear ubiquitin chains is regulated at multiple levels: generation, recognition, and removal. These chains are generated by the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC), the only known ubiquitin E3 capable of forming the linear ubiquitin linkage de novo. LUBAC is not only relevant for activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in various signaling pathways, but importantly, it also regulates cell death downstream of immune receptors capable of inducing this response. Recognition of the linear ubiquitin linkage is specifically mediated by certain ubiquitin receptors, which is crucial for translation into the intended signaling outputs. LUBAC deficiency results in attenuated gene activation and increased cell death, causing pathologic conditions in both, mice, and humans. Removal of ubiquitin chains is mediated by deubiquitinases (DUBs). Two of them, OTULIN and CYLD, are constitutively associated with LUBAC. Here, we review the current knowledge on linear ubiquitination in immune signaling pathways and the biochemical mechanisms as to how linear polyubiquitin exerts its functions distinctly from those of other ubiquitin linkage types. © 2015 The Authors. Immunological Reviews Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
9th International Accelerator School for Linear Colliders
2015-01-01
This school is a continuation of the series of schools that began nine years ago: Japan 2006, Italy 2007, United States 2008, China 2009, Switzerland 2010, United States 2011, India 2012 and Turkey 2013. Based on needs from the accelerator community, the Linear Collider Collaboration (LCC) and ICFA Beam Dynamics Panel are organising the Ninth International Accelerator School for Linear Colliders. The school will present instruction in TeV-scale linear colliders including the ILC, CLIC and other advanced accelerators. An important change of this year’s school from previous LC schools is that it will also include the free electron laser (FEL), a natural extension for applications of the ILC/CLIC technology. The school is offered to graduate students, postdoctoral fellows and junior researchers from around the world. We welcome applications from physicists who are considering changing to a career in accelerator physics and technology. This school adopts an in depth approach. A selective course on the FEL has b...
Schneider, Hans
1989-01-01
Linear algebra is one of the central disciplines in mathematics. A student of pure mathematics must know linear algebra if he is to continue with modern algebra or functional analysis. Much of the mathematics now taught to engineers and physicists requires it.This well-known and highly regarded text makes the subject accessible to undergraduates with little mathematical experience. Written mainly for students in physics, engineering, economics, and other fields outside mathematics, the book gives the theory of matrices and applications to systems of linear equations, as well as many related t
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krivonos, S.O.; Sorin, A.S.
1994-06-01
We show that the Zamolodchikov's and Polyakov-Bershadsky nonlinear algebras W 3 and W (2) 3 can be embedded as subalgebras into some linear algebras with finite set of currents. Using these linear algebras we find new field realizations of W (2) 3 and W 3 which could be a starting point for constructing new versions of W-string theories. We also reveal a number of hidden relationships between W 3 and W (2) 3 . We conjecture that similar linear algebras can exist for other W-algebra as well. (author). 10 refs
Linearity in Process Languages
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nygaard, Mikkel; Winskel, Glynn
2002-01-01
The meaning and mathematical consequences of linearity (managing without a presumed ability to copy) are studied for a path-based model of processes which is also a model of affine-linear logic. This connection yields an affine-linear language for processes, automatically respecting open......-map bisimulation, in which a range of process operations can be expressed. An operational semantics is provided for the tensor fragment of the language. Different ways to make assemblies of processes lead to different choices of exponential, some of which respect bisimulation....
Systematized linear epidermolytic hyperkeratosis.
Kumar, Piyush; Kumar, Rajesh; Mandal, Rajesh Kumar; Hassan, Shahid
2014-01-15
A 5-year-old boy presented with widespread asymptomatic hyperpigmented verrucous plaques since 3 months of age. The lesions were distributed in a linear manner along Blaschko's lines on trunk and extremities and were accentuated in flexures and around joints. There was no history of blistering or redness and no other family member was affected. Ichthyosis hystrix (of Curth and Macklin) and generalized linear/mosaic epidermolytic hyperkeratosis (EHK) were considered in the differential diagnosis. Biopsy from both trunk lesion and lesion on knee revealed characteristic epidermolytic hyperkeratosis, thereby clinching the diagnosis of systematized linear EHK.
Weisberg, Sanford
2013-01-01
Praise for the Third Edition ""...this is an excellent book which could easily be used as a course text...""-International Statistical Institute The Fourth Edition of Applied Linear Regression provides a thorough update of the basic theory and methodology of linear regression modeling. Demonstrating the practical applications of linear regression analysis techniques, the Fourth Edition uses interesting, real-world exercises and examples. Stressing central concepts such as model building, understanding parameters, assessing fit and reliability, and drawing conclusions, the new edition illus
Determination of regression laws: Linear and nonlinear
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Onishchenko, A.M.
1994-01-01
A detailed mathematical determination of regression laws is presented in the article. Particular emphasis is place on determining the laws of X j on X l to account for source nuclei decay and detector errors in nuclear physics instrumentation. Both linear and nonlinear relations are presented. Linearization of 19 functions is tabulated, including graph, relation, variable substitution, obtained linear function, and remarks. 6 refs., 1 tab
The linear-non-linear frontier for the Goldstone Higgs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gavela, M.B.; Saa, S.; Kanshin, K.; Machado, P.A.N.
2016-01-01
The minimal SO(5)/SO(4) σ-model is used as a template for the ultraviolet completion of scenarios in which the Higgs particle is a low-energy remnant of some high-energy dynamics, enjoying a (pseudo) Nambu-Goldstone-boson ancestry. Varying the σ mass allows one to sweep from the perturbative regime to the customary non-linear implementations. The low-energy benchmark effective non-linear Lagrangian for bosons and fermions is obtained, determining as well the operator coefficients including linear corrections. At first order in the latter, three effective bosonic operators emerge which are independent of the explicit soft breaking assumed. The Higgs couplings to vector bosons and fermions turn out to be quite universal: the linear corrections are proportional to the explicit symmetry-breaking parameters. Furthermore, we define an effective Yukawa operator which allows a simple parametrization and comparison of different heavy-fermion ultraviolet completions. In addition, one particular fermionic completion is explored in detail, obtaining the corresponding leading low-energy fermionic operators. (orig.)
The linear-non-linear frontier for the Goldstone Higgs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gavela, M.B.; Saa, S. [IFT-UAM/CSIC, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Departamento de Fisica Teorica y Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Madrid (Spain); Kanshin, K. [Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia ' G. Galilei' , Padua (Italy); INFN, Padova (Italy); Machado, P.A.N. [IFT-UAM/CSIC, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Departamento de Fisica Teorica y Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Madrid (Spain); Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Theoretical Physics Department, Batavia, IL (United States)
2016-12-15
The minimal SO(5)/SO(4) σ-model is used as a template for the ultraviolet completion of scenarios in which the Higgs particle is a low-energy remnant of some high-energy dynamics, enjoying a (pseudo) Nambu-Goldstone-boson ancestry. Varying the σ mass allows one to sweep from the perturbative regime to the customary non-linear implementations. The low-energy benchmark effective non-linear Lagrangian for bosons and fermions is obtained, determining as well the operator coefficients including linear corrections. At first order in the latter, three effective bosonic operators emerge which are independent of the explicit soft breaking assumed. The Higgs couplings to vector bosons and fermions turn out to be quite universal: the linear corrections are proportional to the explicit symmetry-breaking parameters. Furthermore, we define an effective Yukawa operator which allows a simple parametrization and comparison of different heavy-fermion ultraviolet completions. In addition, one particular fermionic completion is explored in detail, obtaining the corresponding leading low-energy fermionic operators. (orig.)
Vranish, John
2009-01-01
T-slide linear actuators use gear bearing differential epicyclical transmissions (GBDETs) to directly drive a linear rack, which, in turn, performs the actuation. Conventional systems use a rotary power source in conjunction with a nut and screw to provide linear motion. Non-back-drive properties of GBDETs make the new actuator more direct and simpler. Versions of this approach will serve as a long-stroke, ultra-precision, position actuator for NASA science instruments, and as a rugged, linear actuator for NASA deployment duties. The T slide can operate effectively in the presence of side forces and torques. Versions of the actuator can perform ultra-precision positioning. A basic T-slide actuator is a long-stroke, rack-and-pinion linear actuator that, typically, consists of a T-slide, several idlers, a transmission to drive the slide (powered by an electric motor) and a housing that holds the entire assembly. The actuator is driven by gear action on its top surface, and is guided and constrained by gear-bearing idlers on its other two parallel surfaces. The geometry, implemented with gear-bearing technology, is particularly effective. An electronic motor operating through a GBDET can directly drive the T slide against large loads, as a rack and pinion linear actuator, with no break and no danger of back driving. The actuator drives the slide into position and stops. The slide holes position with power off and no brake, regardless of load. With the T slide configuration, this GBDET has an entire T-gear surface on which to operate. The GB idlers coupling the other two T slide parallel surfaces to their housing counterpart surfaces provide constraints in five degrees-of-freedom and rolling friction in the direction of actuation. Multiple GB idlers provide roller bearing strength sufficient to support efficient, rolling friction movement, even in the presence of large, resisting forces. T-slide actuators can be controlled using the combination of an off
Blondel, Alain; Chou, Weiren; Gao, Jie; Schulte, Daniel; Yokoya, Kaoru
2013-01-01
This paper is a summary report of the ICFA Beam Dynamics Workshop 'Accelerators for a Higgs Factory: Linear vs. Circular' (HF2012). It discusses four types of accelerators as possible candidates for a Higgs factory: linear e+e- colliders, circular e+e- colliders, muon collider and photon colliders. The comparison includes: physics reach, performance (energy and luminosity), upgrade potential, technology maturity and readiness, and technical challenges requiring further R&D.
German lab wins linear collider contest
Cartlidge, Edwin
2004-01-01
Particle physicists have chosen to base the proposed International Linear Collider on superconducting technology developed by an international collaboration centred on the DESY lab in Germany. The superconducting approach was chosen by an internatinal panel ahead of a rival technology developed at Stanford in the US and the KEK lab in Japan. The eagerly-awaited decision was announced at the International Conference on High Energy Physics in Beijing today (½ page)
Linear Classification of Dairy Cattle. Slide Script.
Sipiorski, James; Spike, Peter
This slide script, part of a series of slide scripts designed for use in vocational agriculture classes, deals with principles of the linear classification of dairy cattle. Included in the guide are narrations for use with 63 slides, which illustrate the following areas that are considered in the linear classification system: stature, strength,…
Composite Linear Models | Division of Cancer Prevention
By Stuart G. Baker The composite linear models software is a matrix approach to compute maximum likelihood estimates and asymptotic standard errors for models for incomplete multinomial data. It implements the method described in Baker SG. Composite linear models for incomplete multinomial data. Statistics in Medicine 1994;13:609-622. The software includes a library of thirty examples from the literature. |
Linear algebra a first course with applications
Knop, Larry E
2008-01-01
Linear Algebra: A First Course with Applications explores the fundamental ideas of linear algebra, including vector spaces, subspaces, basis, span, linear independence, linear transformation, eigenvalues, and eigenvectors, as well as a variety of applications, from inventories to graphics to Google's PageRank. Unlike other texts on the subject, this classroom-tested book gives students enough time to absorb the material by focusing on vector spaces early on and using computational sections as numerical interludes. It offers introductions to Maple™, MATLAB®, and TI-83 Plus for calculating matri
Grégoire, G.
2014-12-01
This chapter deals with the multiple linear regression. That is we investigate the situation where the mean of a variable depends linearly on a set of covariables. The noise is supposed to be gaussian. We develop the least squared method to get the parameter estimators and estimates of their precisions. This leads to design confidence intervals, prediction intervals, global tests, individual tests and more generally tests of submodels defined by linear constraints. Methods for model's choice and variables selection, measures of the quality of the fit, residuals study, diagnostic methods are presented. Finally identification of departures from the model's assumptions and the way to deal with these problems are addressed. A real data set is used to illustrate the methodology with software R. Note that this chapter is intended to serve as a guide for other regression methods, like logistic regression or AFT models and Cox regression.
Banach, S
1987-01-01
This classic work by the late Stefan Banach has been translated into English so as to reach a yet wider audience. It contains the basics of the algebra of operators, concentrating on the study of linear operators, which corresponds to that of the linear forms a1x1 + a2x2 + ... + anxn of algebra.The book gathers results concerning linear operators defined in general spaces of a certain kind, principally in Banach spaces, examples of which are: the space of continuous functions, that of the pth-power-summable functions, Hilbert space, etc. The general theorems are interpreted in various mathematical areas, such as group theory, differential equations, integral equations, equations with infinitely many unknowns, functions of a real variable, summation methods and orthogonal series.A new fifty-page section (``Some Aspects of the Present Theory of Banach Spaces'''') complements this important monograph.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Høskuldsson, Agnar
1996-01-01
Determination of the proper dimension of a given linear model is one of the most important tasks in the applied modeling work. We consider here eight criteria that can be used to determine the dimension of the model, or equivalently, the number of components to use in the model. Four of these cri......Determination of the proper dimension of a given linear model is one of the most important tasks in the applied modeling work. We consider here eight criteria that can be used to determine the dimension of the model, or equivalently, the number of components to use in the model. Four...... the basic problems in determining the dimension of linear models. Then each of the eight measures are treated. The results are illustrated by examples....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mamyrin, B.A.; Shmikk, D.V.
1979-01-01
A description and operating principle of a linear mass reflectron with V-form trajectory of ion motion -a new non-magnetic time-of-flight mass spectrometer with high resolution are presented. The ion-optical system of the device consists of an ion source with ionization by electron shock, of accelerating gaps, reflector gaps, a drift space and ion detector. Ions move in the linear mass refraction along the trajectories parallel to the axis of the analyzer chamber. The results of investigations into the experimental device are given. With an ion drift length of 0.6 m the device resolution is 1200 with respect to the peak width at half-height. Small-sized mass spectrometric transducers with high resolution and sensitivity may be designed on the base of the linear mass reflectron principle
Spaces of Piecewise Linear Manifolds
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gomez Lopez, Mauricio Esteban
Abstract In this thesis we introduce Δ-set ψPLd(RN) which we regard as the piecewise linear analogue of the space ψd(RN) of smooth d-dimensional submanifoldsin RN introduced by Galatius in [4]. Using ψPLd(RN) we define a bi-Δ-set Cd(RN)•,• ( whose geometric realization BCPLd(RN) = llCd(RN)•,•ll ......Abstract In this thesis we introduce Δ-set ψPLd(RN) which we regard as the piecewise linear analogue of the space ψd(RN) of smooth d-dimensional submanifoldsin RN introduced by Galatius in [4]. Using ψPLd(RN) we define a bi-Δ-set Cd(RN)•,• ( whose geometric realization BCPLd(RN) = ll...... BCPLd (RN) ≅ ΩN–1lψPLd (RN)•l when N — d ≥ 3. The proof of the main theorem relies on properties of ψPLd (RN) • which arise from the fact that this Δ-set can be obtained from a more general contravariant functor PL op → Sets defined on the category of finite dimensional polyhedraand piecewise linear...... maps, and on a fiberwise transversality result for piecewise linear submersions whose fibers are contained in R × (-1,1)N-1 ⊆ RN . For the proof of this transversality result we use a theorem of Hudson on extensions of piecewise linear isotopies which is why we need to include the condition N — d ≥ 3...
Linearly Adjustable International Portfolios
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fonseca, R. J.; Kuhn, D.; Rustem, B.
2010-01-01
We present an approach to multi-stage international portfolio optimization based on the imposition of a linear structure on the recourse decisions. Multiperiod decision problems are traditionally formulated as stochastic programs. Scenario tree based solutions however can become intractable as the number of stages increases. By restricting the space of decision policies to linear rules, we obtain a conservative tractable approximation to the original problem. Local asset prices and foreign exchange rates are modelled separately, which allows for a direct measure of their impact on the final portfolio value.
Linearly Adjustable International Portfolios
Fonseca, R. J.; Kuhn, D.; Rustem, B.
2010-09-01
We present an approach to multi-stage international portfolio optimization based on the imposition of a linear structure on the recourse decisions. Multiperiod decision problems are traditionally formulated as stochastic programs. Scenario tree based solutions however can become intractable as the number of stages increases. By restricting the space of decision policies to linear rules, we obtain a conservative tractable approximation to the original problem. Local asset prices and foreign exchange rates are modelled separately, which allows for a direct measure of their impact on the final portfolio value.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barkman, W.E.; Adams, W.Q.; Berrier, B.R.
1978-01-01
A linear induction motor has been operated on a test bed with a feedback pulse resolution of 5 nm (0.2 μin). Slewing tests with this slide drive have shown positioning errors less than or equal to 33 nm (1.3 μin) at feedrates between 0 and 25.4 mm/min (0-1 ipm). A 0.86-m (34-in)-stroke linear motor is being investigated, using the SPACO machine as a test bed. Initial results were encouraging, and work is continuing to optimize the servosystem compensation
Non linear viscoelastic models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Agerkvist, Finn T.
2011-01-01
Viscoelastic eects are often present in loudspeaker suspensions, this can be seen in the displacement transfer function which often shows a frequency dependent value below the resonance frequency. In this paper nonlinear versions of the standard linear solid model (SLS) are investigated. The simu......Viscoelastic eects are often present in loudspeaker suspensions, this can be seen in the displacement transfer function which often shows a frequency dependent value below the resonance frequency. In this paper nonlinear versions of the standard linear solid model (SLS) are investigated...
Silva, João Manuel Andrade e
1995-01-01
Neste testo procede-se a uma apresentação muito sumária dos modelos lineares generalizados. Começa-se assim por definir esta família de modelos, apresentando-se então o processo de estimação dos seus parâmetros bem como o conceito de desvio (“deviance”). Finalmente exemplifica-se as potencialidades destes modelos com base num exemplo prático, procurando-se simultaneamente ilustrar o funcionamento do programa GLIM, especialmente concebido para lidar com modelos lineares generalizados....
Linear Algebra Thoroughly Explained
Vujičić, Milan
2008-01-01
Linear Algebra Thoroughly Explained provides a comprehensive introduction to the subject suitable for adoption as a self-contained text for courses at undergraduate and postgraduate level. The clear and comprehensive presentation of the basic theory is illustrated throughout with an abundance of worked examples. The book is written for teachers and students of linear algebra at all levels and across mathematics and the applied sciences, particularly physics and engineering. It will also be an invaluable addition to research libraries as a comprehensive resource book for the subject.
Federal Laboratory Consortium — Chemistry technology experts at NCATS engage in a variety of innovative translational research activities, including:Design of bioactive small molecules.Development...
Computational linear and commutative algebra
Kreuzer, Martin
2016-01-01
This book combines, in a novel and general way, an extensive development of the theory of families of commuting matrices with applications to zero-dimensional commutative rings, primary decompositions and polynomial system solving. It integrates the Linear Algebra of the Third Millennium, developed exclusively here, with classical algorithmic and algebraic techniques. Even the experienced reader will be pleasantly surprised to discover new and unexpected aspects in a variety of subjects including eigenvalues and eigenspaces of linear maps, joint eigenspaces of commuting families of endomorphisms, multiplication maps of zero-dimensional affine algebras, computation of primary decompositions and maximal ideals, and solution of polynomial systems. This book completes a trilogy initiated by the uncharacteristically witty books Computational Commutative Algebra 1 and 2 by the same authors. The material treated here is not available in book form, and much of it is not available at all. The authors continue to prese...
Linear Classification Functions.
Huberty, Carl J.; Smith, Jerry D.
Linear classification functions (LCFs) arise in a predictive discriminant analysis for the purpose of classifying experimental units into criterion groups. The relative contribution of the response variables to classification accuracy may be based on LCF-variable correlations for each group. It is proved that, if the raw response measures are…
Linear Projective Program Syntax
Bergstra, J.A.; Bethke, I.
2004-01-01
Based on an extremely simple program notation more advanced program features can be developed in linear projective program syntax such as conditional statements, while loops, recursion, use of an evaluation stack, object classes, method calls etc. Taking care of a cumulative and bottom up
Resistors Improve Ramp Linearity
Kleinberg, L. L.
1982-01-01
Simple modification to bootstrap ramp generator gives more linear output over longer sweep times. New circuit adds just two resistors, one of which is adjustable. Modification cancels nonlinearities due to variations in load on charging capacitor and due to changes in charging current as the voltage across capacitor increases.
Dobbs, David E.
2013-01-01
A direct method is given for solving first-order linear recurrences with constant coefficients. The limiting value of that solution is studied as "n to infinity." This classroom note could serve as enrichment material for the typical introductory course on discrete mathematics that follows a calculus course.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Southworth, B.
1985-01-01
The peak of the construction phase of the Stanford Linear Collider, SLC, to achieve 50 GeV electron-positron collisions has now been passed. The work remains on schedule to attempt colliding beams, initially at comparatively low luminosity, early in 1987. (orig./HSI).
LINEAR COLLIDERS: 1992 workshop
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Settles, Ron; Coignet, Guy
1992-01-01
As work on designs for future electron-positron linear colliders pushes ahead at major Laboratories throughout the world in a major international collaboration framework, the LC92 workshop held in Garmisch Partenkirchen this summer, attended by 200 machine and particle physicists, provided a timely focus
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ovidiu T. Pop
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Using the method of Jakimovski and Leviatan from their work in 1969, we construct a general class of linear positive operators. We study the convergence, the evaluation for the rate of convergence in terms of the first modulus of smoothness and we give a Voronovskaja-type theorem for these operators.
Brameier, Markus
2007-01-01
Presents a variant of Genetic Programming that evolves imperative computer programs as linear sequences of instructions, in contrast to the more traditional functional expressions or syntax trees. This book serves as a reference for researchers, but also contains sufficient introduction for students and those who are new to the field
Order-constrained linear optimization.
Tidwell, Joe W; Dougherty, Michael R; Chrabaszcz, Jeffrey S; Thomas, Rick P
2017-11-01
Despite the fact that data and theories in the social, behavioural, and health sciences are often represented on an ordinal scale, there has been relatively little emphasis on modelling ordinal properties. The most common analytic framework used in psychological science is the general linear model, whose variants include ANOVA, MANOVA, and ordinary linear regression. While these methods are designed to provide the best fit to the metric properties of the data, they are not designed to maximally model ordinal properties. In this paper, we develop an order-constrained linear least-squares (OCLO) optimization algorithm that maximizes the linear least-squares fit to the data conditional on maximizing the ordinal fit based on Kendall's τ. The algorithm builds on the maximum rank correlation estimator (Han, 1987, Journal of Econometrics, 35, 303) and the general monotone model (Dougherty & Thomas, 2012, Psychological Review, 119, 321). Analyses of simulated data indicate that when modelling data that adhere to the assumptions of ordinary least squares, OCLO shows minimal bias, little increase in variance, and almost no loss in out-of-sample predictive accuracy. In contrast, under conditions in which data include a small number of extreme scores (fat-tailed distributions), OCLO shows less bias and variance, and substantially better out-of-sample predictive accuracy, even when the outliers are removed. We show that the advantages of OCLO over ordinary least squares in predicting new observations hold across a variety of scenarios in which researchers must decide to retain or eliminate extreme scores when fitting data. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.
A direct heuristic algorithm for linear programming
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. An (3) mathematically non-iterative heuristic procedure that needs no artificial variable is presented for solving linear programming problems. An optimality test is included. Numerical experiments depict the utility/scope of such a procedure.
Linear and passive silicon diodes, isolators, and logic gates
Li, Zhi-Yuan
2013-12-01
Silicon photonic integrated devices and circuits have offered a promising means to revolutionalize information processing and computing technologies. One important reason is that these devices are compatible with conventional complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) processing technology that overwhelms current microelectronics industry. Yet, the dream to build optical computers has yet to come without the breakthrough of several key elements including optical diodes, isolators, and logic gates with low power, high signal contrast, and large bandwidth. Photonic crystal has a great power to mold the flow of light in micrometer/nanometer scale and is a promising platform for optical integration. In this paper we present our recent efforts of design, fabrication, and characterization of ultracompact, linear, passive on-chip optical diodes, isolators and logic gates based on silicon two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs. Both simulation and experiment results show high performance of these novel designed devices. These linear and passive silicon devices have the unique properties of small fingerprint, low power request, large bandwidth, fast response speed, easy for fabrication, and being compatible with COMS technology. Further improving their performance would open up a road towards photonic logics and optical computing and help to construct nanophotonic on-chip processor architectures for future optical computers.
Proceedings of the 18. international linear accelerator conference (Linac96). V.1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hill, C.; Vretenar, M.
1996-01-01
These Proceedings cover the whole field of linear accelerators, from its original and continuing role in particle physics research to the wide range of applications found today in many other disciplines and technologies. The contributions were deliberately spread among the different conference sessions in order to maintain a broad interest. The topics covered include: the design, construction and control of linear accelerators and the associated technology; dedicated test facilities, injection, wakefields, bunching, halo, dynamics, radio-frequency (RF), electron and ion accelerators, (laser) ion sources; active alignment, beam steering and spot size; simulation, monitoring and diagnostics; a description of the performance and current status of many machines, including proposed ones such as CLIC, the NLC and TESLA; applications to medical diagnosis and radiotherapy; use in the treatment and sterilisation of materials (including food) and in the reprocessing of radioactive waste; use as potential suppliers of energy. (author)
THK: CLB Crossed Linear Bearing Seismic Isolators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toniolo, Roberto
2008-01-01
This text highlights the new seismic isolation technology called CLB (Crossed Linear Bearing), which is made of linear guides with recirculating steel ball technology. It describes specifications and building characteristics, provides examples of seismic isolation and application functionalities and shows experimental data. Since 1994, the constant commitment by Japan to develop diversified anti-seismic systems based on the precise needs of the structures to protect and the areas where they were built has led to the creation of important synergy between the research institutions of leading Japanese companies and THK's Centre for Research and Development. Their goal has been to develop new technology and solutions to allow seismic isolation to be effective in the following cases:
CERN. Geneva
2008-01-01
Their planned performances, challenges and key issues, the present status and the planned R&D to develop these two technologies will be shown. Prerequisite knowledge: Common sense and a little bit of physics
Linear ubiquitination signals in adaptive immune responses.
Ikeda, Fumiyo
2015-07-01
Ubiquitin can form eight different linkage types of chains using the intrinsic Met 1 residue or one of the seven intrinsic Lys residues. Each linkage type of ubiquitin chain has a distinct three-dimensional topology, functioning as a tag to attract specific signaling molecules, which are so-called ubiquitin readers, and regulates various biological functions. Ubiquitin chains linked via Met 1 in a head-to-tail manner are called linear ubiquitin chains. Linear ubiquitination plays an important role in the regulation of cellular signaling, including the best-characterized tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced canonical nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway. Linear ubiquitin chains are specifically generated by an E3 ligase complex called the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC) and hydrolyzed by a deubiquitinase (DUB) called ovarian tumor (OTU) DUB with linear linkage specificity (OTULIN). LUBAC linearly ubiquitinates critical molecules in the TNF pathway, such as NEMO and RIPK1. The linear ubiquitin chains are then recognized by the ubiquitin readers, including NEMO, which control the TNF pathway. Accumulating evidence indicates an importance of the LUBAC complex in the regulation of apoptosis, development, and inflammation in mice. In this article, I focus on the role of linear ubiquitin chains in adaptive immune responses with an emphasis on the TNF-induced signaling pathways. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Finite-dimensional linear algebra
Gockenbach, Mark S
2010-01-01
Some Problems Posed on Vector SpacesLinear equationsBest approximationDiagonalizationSummaryFields and Vector SpacesFields Vector spaces Subspaces Linear combinations and spanning sets Linear independence Basis and dimension Properties of bases Polynomial interpolation and the Lagrange basis Continuous piecewise polynomial functionsLinear OperatorsLinear operatorsMore properties of linear operatorsIsomorphic vector spaces Linear operator equations Existence and uniqueness of solutions The fundamental theorem; inverse operatorsGaussian elimination Newton's method Linear ordinary differential eq
Preliminary results of Linear Induction Accelerator LIA-200
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharma, Archana; Senthil, K; Kumar, D D Praveen; Mitra, S; Sharma, V; Patel, A; Sharma, D K; Rehim, R; Kolge, T S; Saroj, P C; Acharya, S; Amitava, Roy; Rakhee, M; Nagesh, K V; Chakravarthy, D P
2010-01-01
Repetitive Pulsed Power Technology is being developed keeping in mind the potential applications of this technology in material modifications, disinfections of water, timber, and food pasteurization etc. BARC has indigenously developed a Linear Induction Accelerator (LIA-200) rated for 200 kV, 4 kA, 100 ns, 10 Hz. The satisfactory performance of all the sub-systems including solid state power modulator, amorphous core based pulsed transformers, magnetic switches, water capacitors, water pulse- forming line, induction adder and field-emission diode have been demonstrated. This paper presents some design details and operational results of this pulsed power system. It also highlights the need for further research and development to build reliable and economic high-average power systems for industrial applications.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Phinney, N.
1992-01-01
The SLAC Linear Collider has begun a new era of operation with the SLD detector. During 1991 there was a first engineering run for the SLD in parallel with machine improvements to increase luminosity and reliability. For the 1992 run, a polarized electron source was added and more than 10,000 Zs with an average of 23% polarization have been logged by the SLD. This paper discusses the performance of the SLC in 1991 and 1992 and the technical advances that have produced higher luminosity. Emphasis will be placed on issues relevant to future linear colliders such as producing and maintaining high current, low emittance beams and focusing the beams to the micron scale for collisions. (Author) tab., 2 figs., 18 refs
Extended linear chain compounds
Linear chain substances span a large cross section of contemporary chemistry ranging from covalent polymers, to organic charge transfer com plexes to nonstoichiometric transition metal coordination complexes. Their commonality, which coalesced intense interest in the theoretical and exper imental solid state physics/chemistry communities, was based on the obser vation that these inorganic and organic polymeric substrates exhibit striking metal-like electrical and optical properties. Exploitation and extension of these systems has led to the systematic study of both the chemistry and physics of highly and poorly conducting linear chain substances. To gain a salient understanding of these complex materials rich in anomalous aniso tropic electrical, optical, magnetic, and mechanical properties, the conver gence of diverse skills and talents was required. The constructive blending of traditionally segregated disciplines such as synthetic and physical organic, inorganic, and polymer chemistry, crystallog...
Robust linear dimensionality reduction.
Koren, Yehuda; Carmel, Liran
2004-01-01
We present a novel family of data-driven linear transformations, aimed at finding low-dimensional embeddings of multivariate data, in a way that optimally preserves the structure of the data. The well-studied PCA and Fisher's LDA are shown to be special members in this family of transformations, and we demonstrate how to generalize these two methods such as to enhance their performance. Furthermore, our technique is the only one, to the best of our knowledge, that reflects in the resulting embedding both the data coordinates and pairwise relationships between the data elements. Even more so, when information on the clustering (labeling) decomposition of the data is known, this information can also be integrated in the linear transformation, resulting in embeddings that clearly show the separation between the clusters, as well as their internal structure. All of this makes our technique very flexible and powerful, and lets us cope with kinds of data that other techniques fail to describe properly.
Linearity and Non-linearity of Photorefractive effect in Materials ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In this paper we have studied the Linearity and Non-linearity of Photorefractive effect in materials using the band transport model. For low light beam intensities the change in the refractive index is proportional to the electric field for linear optics while for non- linear optics the change in refractive index is directly proportional ...
Sander, K F
1964-01-01
Linear Network Theory covers the significant algebraic aspect of network theory, with minimal reference to practical circuits. The book begins the presentation of network analysis with the exposition of networks containing resistances only, and follows it up with a discussion of networks involving inductance and capacity by way of the differential equations. Classification and description of certain networks, equivalent networks, filter circuits, and network functions are also covered. Electrical engineers, technicians, electronics engineers, electricians, and students learning the intricacies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scheffel, J.
1984-03-01
The linear Grad-Shafranov equation for a toroidal, axisymmetric plasma is solved analytically. Exact solutions are given in terms of confluent hyper-geometric functions. As an alternative, simple and accurate WKBJ solutions are presented. With parabolic pressure profiles, both hollow and peaked toroidal current density profiles are obtained. As an example the equilibrium of a z-pinch with a square-shaped cross section is derived.(author)
Relativistic Linear Restoring Force
Clark, D.; Franklin, J.; Mann, N.
2012-01-01
We consider two different forms for a relativistic version of a linear restoring force. The pair comes from taking Hooke's law to be the force appearing on the right-hand side of the relativistic expressions: d"p"/d"t" or d"p"/d["tau"]. Either formulation recovers Hooke's law in the non-relativistic limit. In addition to these two forces, we…
Fundamentals of linear algebra
Dash, Rajani Ballav
2008-01-01
FUNDAMENTALS OF LINEAR ALGEBRA is a comprehensive Text Book, which can be used by students and teachers of All Indian Universities. The Text has easy, understandable form and covers all topics of UGC Curriculum. There are lots of worked out examples which helps the students in solving the problems without anybody's help. The Problem sets have been designed keeping in view of the questions asked in different examinations.
Diamond, Jared M.
1966-01-01
1. The relation between osmotic gradient and rate of osmotic water flow has been measured in rabbit gall-bladder by a gravimetric procedure and by a rapid method based on streaming potentials. Streaming potentials were directly proportional to gravimetrically measured water fluxes. 2. As in many other tissues, water flow was found to vary with gradient in a markedly non-linear fashion. There was no consistent relation between the water permeability and either the direction or the rate of water flow. 3. Water flow in response to a given gradient decreased at higher osmolarities. The resistance to water flow increased linearly with osmolarity over the range 186-825 m-osM. 4. The resistance to water flow was the same when the gall-bladder separated any two bathing solutions with the same average osmolarity, regardless of the magnitude of the gradient. In other words, the rate of water flow is given by the expression (Om — Os)/[Ro′ + ½k′ (Om + Os)], where Ro′ and k′ are constants and Om and Os are the bathing solution osmolarities. 5. Of the theories advanced to explain non-linear osmosis in other tissues, flow-induced membrane deformations, unstirred layers, asymmetrical series-membrane effects, and non-osmotic effects of solutes could not explain the results. However, experimental measurements of water permeability as a function of osmolarity permitted quantitative reconstruction of the observed water flow—osmotic gradient curves. Hence non-linear osmosis in rabbit gall-bladder is due to a decrease in water permeability with increasing osmolarity. 6. The results suggest that aqueous channels in the cell membrane behave as osmometers, shrinking in concentrated solutions of impermeant molecules and thereby increasing membrane resistance to water flow. A mathematical formulation of such a membrane structure is offered. PMID:5945254
Progress on $e^{+}e^{-}$ linear colliders
CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit; Siemann, Peter
2002-01-01
Physics issues. The physics program will be reviewed for e+e- linear colliders in the TeV energy range. At these prospective facilities central issues of particle physics can be addressed, the problem of mass, unification and structure of space-time. In this context the two lectures will focus on analyses of the Higgs mechanism, supersymmetry and extra space dimensions. Moreover, high-precision studies of the top-quark and the gauge boson sector will be discussed. Combined with LHC results, a comprehensive picture can be developed of physics at the electroweak scale and beyond. Designs and technologies (R. Siemann - 29, 30, 31 May) The physics and technologies of high energy linear colliders will be reviewed. Fundamental concepts of linear colliders will be introduced. They will be discussed in: the context of the Stanford Linear Collider where many ideas changed and new ones were developed in response to operational experience. the requirements for future linear colliders. The different approaches for reac...
Parametric Linear Dynamic Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peter Faymonville
2014-08-01
Full Text Available We introduce Parametric Linear Dynamic Logic (PLDL, which extends Linear Dynamic Logic (LDL by temporal operators equipped with parameters that bound their scope. LDL was proposed as an extension of Linear Temporal Logic (LTL that is able to express all ω-regular specifications while still maintaining many of LTL's desirable properties like an intuitive syntax and a translation into non-deterministic Büchi automata of exponential size. But LDL lacks capabilities to express timing constraints. By adding parameterized operators to LDL, we obtain a logic that is able to express all ω-regular properties and that subsumes parameterized extensions of LTL like Parametric LTL and PROMPT-LTL. Our main technical contribution is a translation of PLDL formulas into non-deterministic Büchi word automata of exponential size via alternating automata. This yields a PSPACE model checking algorithm and a realizability algorithm with doubly-exponential running time. Furthermore, we give tight upper and lower bounds on optimal parameter values for both problems. These results show that PLDL model checking and realizability are not harder than LTL model checking and realizability.
Linear positivity and virtual probability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hartle, James B.
2004-01-01
We investigate the quantum theory of closed systems based on the linear positivity decoherence condition of Goldstein and Page. The objective of any quantum theory of a closed system, most generally the universe, is the prediction of probabilities for the individual members of sets of alternative coarse-grained histories of the system. Quantum interference between members of a set of alternative histories is an obstacle to assigning probabilities that are consistent with the rules of probability theory. A quantum theory of closed systems therefore requires two elements: (1) a condition specifying which sets of histories may be assigned probabilities and (2) a rule for those probabilities. The linear positivity condition of Goldstein and Page is the weakest of the general conditions proposed so far. Its general properties relating to exact probability sum rules, time neutrality, and conservation laws are explored. Its inconsistency with the usual notion of independent subsystems in quantum mechanics is reviewed. Its relation to the stronger condition of medium decoherence necessary for classicality is discussed. The linear positivity of histories in a number of simple model systems is investigated with the aim of exhibiting linearly positive sets of histories that are not decoherent. The utility of extending the notion of probability to include values outside the range of 0-1 is described. Alternatives with such virtual probabilities cannot be measured or recorded, but can be used in the intermediate steps of calculations of real probabilities. Extended probabilities give a simple and general way of formulating quantum theory. The various decoherence conditions are compared in terms of their utility for characterizing classicality and the role they might play in further generalizations of quantum mechanics
Linearization and efficiency enhancement techniques for silicon power amplifiers from RF to mmW
Kerhervé, Eric
2015-01-01
This book provides an overview of current efficiency enhancement and linearization techniques for silicon power amplifier designs. It examines the latest state of the art technologies and design techniques to address challenges for RF cellular mobile, base stations, and RF and mmW WLAN applications. Coverage includes material on current silicon (CMOS, SiGe) RF and mmW power amplifier designs, focusing on advantages and disadvantages compared with traditional GaAs implementations. With this book you will learn: The principles of linearization and efficiency improvement techniquesThe arch
Gyrokinetic linearized Landau collision operator
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Jens
2013-01-01
, which is important in multiple ion-species plasmas. Second, the equilibrium operator describes drag and diffusion of the magnetic field aligned component of the vorticity associated with the E×B drift. Therefore, a correct description of collisional effects in turbulent plasmas requires the equilibrium......The full gyrokinetic electrostatic linearized Landau collision operator is calculated including the equilibrium operator, which represents the effect of collisions between gyrokinetic Maxwellian particles. First, the equilibrium operator describes energy exchange between different plasma species...... operator, even for like-particle collisions....
Dietary arginine and linear growth
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
van Vught, Anneke J A H; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Arts, Ilja C W
2013-01-01
and slopes were defined to estimate the association between arginine intake and growth velocity, including the following covariates: sex; age; baseline height; energy intake; puberty stage at 7-year follow-up and intervention/control group. The association between arginine intake and growth velocity......The amino acid arginine is a well-known growth hormone (GH) stimulator and GH is an important modulator of linear growth. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of dietary arginine on growth velocity in children between 7 and 13 years of age. Data from the Copenhagen School...
The International Linear Collider Progress Report 2015
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Evans, L. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Yamamoto, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
2015-07-15
The International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA) set up the Global Design Effort (GDE) for the design of the International Linear Collider (ILC) in 2005. Drawing on the resources of over 300 national laboratories, universities and institutes worldwide, the GDE produced a Reference Design Report in 2007, followed by a more detailed Technical Design Report (TDR) in 2013. Following this report, the GDE was disbanded. A compact core team, the Linear Collider Collaboration (LCC), replaced it. This is still under the auspices of ICFA and is directly overseen by the Linear Collider Board, which reports to ICFA. The LCC is charged with continuing the design effort on a much-reduced scale until the Project is approved for construction. An additional mandate of the LCC was to bring together all linear collider work, including the CERN-based Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) under one structure in order to exploit synergies between the two studies.
Multivariate generalized linear mixed models using R
Berridge, Damon Mark
2011-01-01
Multivariate Generalized Linear Mixed Models Using R presents robust and methodologically sound models for analyzing large and complex data sets, enabling readers to answer increasingly complex research questions. The book applies the principles of modeling to longitudinal data from panel and related studies via the Sabre software package in R. A Unified Framework for a Broad Class of Models The authors first discuss members of the family of generalized linear models, gradually adding complexity to the modeling framework by incorporating random effects. After reviewing the generalized linear model notation, they illustrate a range of random effects models, including three-level, multivariate, endpoint, event history, and state dependence models. They estimate the multivariate generalized linear mixed models (MGLMMs) using either standard or adaptive Gaussian quadrature. The authors also compare two-level fixed and random effects linear models. The appendices contain additional information on quadrature, model...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Herman
1997-01-01
Elementary introduction to the subject "Maritime Technology".The contents include drawings, sketches and references in English without any supplementary text.......Elementary introduction to the subject "Maritime Technology".The contents include drawings, sketches and references in English without any supplementary text....
Numerical computation of linear instability of detonations
Kabanov, Dmitry; Kasimov, Aslan
2017-11-01
We propose a method to study linear stability of detonations by direct numerical computation. The linearized governing equations together with the shock-evolution equation are solved in the shock-attached frame using a high-resolution numerical algorithm. The computed results are processed by the Dynamic Mode Decomposition technique to generate dispersion relations. The method is applied to the reactive Euler equations with simple-depletion chemistry as well as more complex multistep chemistry. The results are compared with those known from normal-mode analysis. We acknowledge financial support from King Abdullah University of Science and Technology.
Modeling digital switching circuits with linear algebra
Thornton, Mitchell A
2014-01-01
Modeling Digital Switching Circuits with Linear Algebra describes an approach for modeling digital information and circuitry that is an alternative to Boolean algebra. While the Boolean algebraic model has been wildly successful and is responsible for many advances in modern information technology, the approach described in this book offers new insight and different ways of solving problems. Modeling the bit as a vector instead of a scalar value in the set {0, 1} allows digital circuits to be characterized with transfer functions in the form of a linear transformation matrix. The use of transf
Parallel beam dynamics simulation of linear accelerators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qiang, Ji; Ryne, Robert D.
2002-01-01
In this paper we describe parallel particle-in-cell methods for the large scale simulation of beam dynamics in linear accelerators. These techniques have been implemented in the IMPACT (Integrated Map and Particle Accelerator Tracking) code. IMPACT is being used to study the behavior of intense charged particle beams and as a tool for the design of next-generation linear accelerators. As examples, we present applications of the code to the study of emittance exchange in high intensity beams and to the study of beam transport in a proposed accelerator for the development of accelerator-driven waste transmutation technologies
Memristance controlling approach based on modification of linear M—q curve
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Hai-Jun; Li Zhi-Wei; Yu Hong-Qi; Sun Zhao-Lin; Nie Hong-Shan
2014-01-01
The memristor has broad application prospects in many fields, while in many cases, those fields require accurate impedance control. The nonlinear model is of great importance for realizing memristance control accurately, but the implementing complexity caused by iteration has limited the actual application of this model. Considering the approximate linear characteristics at the middle region of the memristance-charge (M—q) curve of the nonlinear model, this paper proposes a memristance controlling approach, which is achieved by linearizing the middle region of the M—q curve of the nonlinear memristor, and establishes the linear relationship between memristances M and input excitations so that it can realize impedance control precisely by only adjusting input signals briefly. First, it analyzes the feasibility for linearizing the middle part of the M—q curve of the memristor with a nonlinear model from the qualitative perspective. Then, the linearization equations of the middle region of the M—q curve is constructed by using the shift method, and under a sinusoidal excitation case, the analytical relation between the memristance M and the charge time t is derived through the Taylor series expansions. At last, the performance of the proposed approach is demonstrated, including the linearizing capability for the middle part of the M—q curve of the nonlinear model memristor, the controlling ability for memristance M, and the influence of input excitation on linearization errors. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)
Linear transformer driver for pulse generation
Kim, Alexander A; Mazarakis, Michael G; Sinebryukhov, Vadim A; Volkov, Sergey N; Kondratiev, Sergey S; Alexeenko, Vitaly M; Bayol, Frederic; Demol, Gauthier; Stygar, William A
2015-04-07
A linear transformer driver includes at least one ferrite ring positioned to accept a load. The linear transformer driver also includes a first power delivery module that includes a first charge storage devices and a first switch. The first power delivery module sends a first energy in the form of a first pulse to the load. The linear transformer driver also includes a second power delivery module including a second charge storage device and a second switch. The second power delivery module sends a second energy in the form of a second pulse to the load. The second pulse has a frequency that is approximately three times the frequency of the first pulse. The at least one ferrite ring is positioned to force the first pulse and the second pulse to the load by temporarily isolating the first pulse and the second pulse from an electrical ground.
ESPRIT And Uniform Linear Arrays
Roy, R. H.; Goldburg, M.; Ottersten, B. E.; Swindlehurst, A. L.; Viberg, M.; Kailath, T.
1989-11-01
Abstract ¬â€?ESPRIT is a recently developed and patented technique for high-resolution estimation of signal parameters. It exploits an invariance structure designed into the sensor array to achieve a reduction in computational requirements of many orders of magnitude over previous techniques such as MUSIC, Burg's MEM, and Capon's ML, and in addition achieves performance improvement as measured by parameter estimate error variance. It is also manifestly more robust with respect to sensor errors (e.g. gain, phase, and location errors) than other methods as well. Whereas ESPRIT only requires that the sensor array possess a single invariance best visualized by considering two identical but other-wise arbitrary arrays of sensors displaced (but not rotated) with respect to each other, many arrays currently in use in various applications are uniform linear arrays of identical sensor elements. Phased array radars are commonplace in high-resolution direction finding systems, and uniform tapped delay lines (i.e., constant rate A/D converters) are the rule rather than the exception in digital signal processing systems. Such arrays possess many invariances, and are amenable to other types of analysis, which is one of the main reasons such structures are so prevalent. Recent developments in high-resolution algorithms of the signal/noise subspace genre including total least squares (TLS) ESPRIT applied to uniform linear arrays are summarized. ESPRIT is also shown to be a generalization of the root-MUSIC algorithm (applicable only to the case of uniform linear arrays of omni-directional sensors and unimodular cisoids). Comparisons with various estimator bounds, including CramerRao bounds, are presented.
Lopez, Cesar
2014-01-01
MATLAB is a high-level language and environment for numerical computation, visualization, and programming. Using MATLAB, you can analyze data, develop algorithms, and create models and applications. The language, tools, and built-in math functions enable you to explore multiple approaches and reach a solution faster than with spreadsheets or traditional programming languages, such as C/C++ or Java. MATLAB Linear Algebra introduces you to the MATLAB language with practical hands-on instructions and results, allowing you to quickly achieve your goals. In addition to giving an introduction to
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garbet, X.; Mourgues, F.; Samain, A.
1987-01-01
Among the various instabilities which could explain the anomalous electron heat transport observed in tokamaks during additional heating, a microtearing turbulence is a reasonable candidate since it affects directly the magnetic topology. This turbulence may be described in a proper frame rotating around the majors axis by a static potential vector. In strong non linear regimes, the flow of electrons along the stochastic field lines induces a current. The point is to know whether this current can sustain the turbulence. The mechanisms of this self-consistency, involving the combined effects of the thermal diamagnetism and of the electric drift are presented here
Cosmic statistics on linear scales
Papai, Peter
We use the formalism of Szapudi (2004) to derive full explicit expressions for the linear two-point correlation function, including redshift space distortions and large angle effects. We take into account a non-perturbative geometric term in the Jacobian, which is still linear in terms of the dynamics. This term had been identified previously (Kaiser, 1987; Hamilton and Culhane, 1996), but has been neglected in all subsequent explicit calculations of the linear redshift space two-point correlation function. Our results represent a significant correction to previous explicit expressions and608are in excellent agreement with our measurements in the Hubble Volume Simulation. We measure the matter probability distribution function (PDF) via counts in cells in a volume limited subsample of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Luminous Red Galaxy Catalog on scales from 30 h-1 Mpc to 150 h-1Mpc and estimate the linear integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect produced by supervoids and superclusters in the tail of the PDF. We characterize the PDF by the variance, S3, and S4, and study in simulations the systematic effects due to finite volume, survey shape and redshift distortion. We compare our measurement to the prediction of ΛCDM with linear bias and find a good agreement. We use the moments to approximate the tail of the PDF with analytic functions. A simple Gaussian model for the superstructures appears to be consistent with the claim by Granett et al. (2008) that density fluctuations on 100 h-1Mpc scales produce hot and cold spots with DeltaT ≈ 10mu K on the cosmic microwave background. We calculate the full density and ISW profiles of spherical superstructures. We find that the Gaussian assumptions capable of describing N-body simulations and simulated ISW maps remarkably well on large scales. We construct an ISW map based on locations of superstructures identified previously in the SDSS Luminous Red Galaxy sample. A matched filter analysis of the cosmic microwave
Interior point decoding for linear vector channels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wadayama, T
2008-01-01
In this paper, a novel decoding algorithm for low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes based on convex optimization is presented. The decoding algorithm, called interior point decoding, is designed for linear vector channels. The linear vector channels include many practically important channels such as inter-symbol interference channels and partial response channels. It is shown that the maximum likelihood decoding (MLD) rule for a linear vector channel can be relaxed to a convex optimization problem, which is called a relaxed MLD problem
Polarized electron sources for linear colliders
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clendenin, J.E.; Ecklund, S.D.; Miller, R.H.; Schultz, D.C.; Sheppard, J.C.
1992-07-01
Linear colliders require high peak current beams with low duty factors. Several methods to produce polarized e - beams for accelerators have been developed. The SLC, the first linear collider, utilizes a photocathode gun with a GaAs cathode. Although photocathode sources are probably the only practical alternative for the next generation of linear colliders, several problems remain to be solved, including high voltage breakdown which poisons the cathode, charge limitations that are associated with the condition of the semiconductor cathode, and a relatively low polarization of ≤5O%. Methods to solve or at least greatly reduce the impact of each of these problems are at hand
Development of semiconductor tracking: The future linear collider case
Savoy-Navarro, Aurore
2011-04-01
An active R&D on silicon tracking for the linear collider, SiLC, is pursued since several years to develop the new generation of large area silicon trackers for the future linear collider(s). The R&D objectives on new sensors, new front end processing of the signal, and the related mechanical and integration challenges for building such large detectors within the proposed detector concepts are described. Synergies and differences with the LHC construction and upgrades are explained. The differences between the linear collider projects, namely the international linear collider, ILC, and the compact linear collider, CLIC, are discussed as well. Two final objectives are presented for the construction of this important sub-detector for the future linear collider experiments: a relatively short term design based on micro-strips combined or not with a gaseous central tracker and a longer term design based on an all-pixel tracker.The R&D objectives on sensors include single sided micro-strips as baseline for the shorter term with the strips from large wafers (at least 6 in), 200 μm thick, 50 μm pitch and the edgeless and alignment friendly options. This work is conducted by SiLC in collaboration with three technical research centers in Italy, Finland, and Spain and HPK. SiLC is studied as well, using advanced Si sensor technologies for higher granularity trackers especially short strips and pixels all based on 3D technology. New Deep Sub-Micron CMOS mix mode (analog and digital) FE and readout electronics are developed to fully process the detector signals currently adapted to the ILC cycle. It is a high-level processing and a fully programmable ASIC; highly fault tolerant. In its latest version, handling 128 channels will equip these next coming years larger size silicon tracking prototypes at test beams. Connection of the FEE chip on the silicon detector especially in the strip case is a major issue. Very preliminary results with inline pitch adapter based on wiring
Core seismic behaviour: linear and non-linear models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bernard, M.; Van Dorsselaere, M.; Gauvain, M.; Jenapierre-Gantenbein, M.
1981-08-01
The usual methodology for the core seismic behaviour analysis leads to a double complementary approach: to define a core model to be included in the reactor-block seismic response analysis, simple enough but representative of basic movements (diagrid or slab), to define a finer core model, with basic data issued from the first model. This paper presents the history of the different models of both kinds. The inert mass model (IMM) yielded a first rough diagrid movement. The direct linear model (DLM), without shocks and with sodium as an added mass, let to two different ones: DLM 1 with independent movements of the fuel and radial blanket subassemblies, and DLM 2 with a core combined movement. The non-linear (NLM) ''CORALIE'' uses the same basic modelization (Finite Element Beams) but accounts for shocks. It studies the response of a diameter on flats and takes into account the fluid coupling and the wrapper tube flexibility at the pad level. Damping consists of one modal part of 2% and one part due to shocks. Finally, ''CORALIE'' yields the time-history of the displacements and efforts on the supports, but damping (probably greater than 2%) and fluid-structures interaction are still to be precised. The validation experiments were performed on a RAPSODIE core mock-up on scale 1, in similitude of 1/3 as to SPX 1. The equivalent linear model (ELM) was developed for the SPX 1 reactor-block response analysis and a specified seismic level (SB or SM). It is composed of several oscillators fixed to the diagrid and yields the same maximum displacements and efforts than the NLM. The SPX 1 core seismic analysis with a diagrid input spectrum which corresponds to a 0,1 g group acceleration, has been carried out with these models: some aspects of these calculations are presented here
Who Will Win?: Predicting the Presidential Election Using Linear Regression
Lamb, John H.
2007-01-01
This article outlines a linear regression activity that engages learners, uses technology, and fosters cooperation. Students generated least-squares linear regression equations using TI-83 Plus[TM] graphing calculators, Microsoft[C] Excel, and paper-and-pencil calculations using derived normal equations to predict the 2004 presidential election.…
Linear Temporal Logic-based Mission Planning
Anil Kumar; Rahul Kala
2016-01-01
In this paper, we describe the Linear Temporal Logic-based reactive motion planning. We address the problem of motion planning for mobile robots, wherein the goal specification of planning is given in complex environments. The desired task specification may consist of complex behaviors of the robot, including specifications for environment constraints, need of task optimality, obstacle avoidance, rescue specifications, surveillance specifications, safety specifications, etc. We use Linear Tem...
Technology and Love for Everyone, Including the Elderly
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dora Ivonne Alvarez Tamayo
2017-01-01
Full Text Available La tecnología al alcance de todos es un objetivo tendencia. Se aplica un estudio cuantitativo sobre el uso del tiempo libre basado en el Modelo de Adopción de la Precaución y la teoría del código en adultos mayores de clase media en Puebla, México. Se revela que el concepto que tienen de tiempo libre no refleja ninguna conexión con el uso de la tecnología, ni en lo familiar, la amistad o las actividades de ocio. Sin embargo, el análisis cualitativo de sus discursos en redes sociales, particularmente en Facebook, muestra que la tecnología contribuye a disminuir la distancia con su familia, a actualizarlos, al encuentro con amigos y a nuevas relaciones. Los hábitos de los adultos mayores en el entorno virtual están vinculados con la emoción.
LINEAR REGRESSION WITH R AND HADOOP
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bogdan OANCEA
2015-07-01
Full Text Available In this paper we present a way to solve the linear regression model with R and Hadoop using the Rhadoop library. We show how the linear regression model can be solved even for very large models that require special technologies. For storing the data we used Hadoop and for computation we used R. The interface between R and Hadoop is the open source library RHadoop. We present the main features of the Hadoop and R software systems and the way of interconnecting them. We then show how the least squares solution for the linear regression problem could be expressed in terms of map-reduce programming paradigm and how could be implemented using the Rhadoop library.
Linearization of the Lorenz system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Chunbiao; Sprott, Julien Clinton; Thio, Wesley
2015-01-01
A partial and complete piecewise linearized version of the Lorenz system is proposed. The linearized versions have an independent total amplitude control parameter. Additional further linearization leads naturally to a piecewise linear version of the diffusionless Lorenz system. A chaotic circuit with a single amplitude controller is then implemented using a new switch element, producing a chaotic oscillation that agrees with the numerical calculation for the piecewise linear diffusionless Lorenz system. - Highlights: • A partial and complete piecewise linearized version of the Lorenz system are addressed. • The linearized versions have an independent total amplitude control parameter. • A piecewise linear version of the diffusionless Lorenz system is derived by further linearization. • A corresponding chaotic circuit without any multiplier is implemented for the chaotic oscillation
On the linear programming bound for linear Lee codes.
Astola, Helena; Tabus, Ioan
2016-01-01
Based on an invariance-type property of the Lee-compositions of a linear Lee code, additional equality constraints can be introduced to the linear programming problem of linear Lee codes. In this paper, we formulate this property in terms of an action of the multiplicative group of the field [Formula: see text] on the set of Lee-compositions. We show some useful properties of certain sums of Lee-numbers, which are the eigenvalues of the Lee association scheme, appearing in the linear programming problem of linear Lee codes. Using the additional equality constraints, we formulate the linear programming problem of linear Lee codes in a very compact form, leading to a fast execution, which allows to efficiently compute the bounds for large parameter values of the linear codes.
General solution of linear vector supersymmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blasi, Alberto; Maggiore, Nicola
2007-01-01
We give the general solution of the Ward identity for the linear vector supersymmetry which characterizes all topological models. Such a solution, whose expression is quite compact and simple, greatly simplifies the study of theories displaying a supersymmetric algebraic structure, reducing to a few lines the proof of their possible finiteness. In particular, the cohomology technology, usually involved for the quantum extension of these theories, is completely bypassed. The case of Chern-Simons theory is taken as an example
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1976-01-01
This report covers the activity of the Linear Accelerator Laboratory during the period June 1974-June 1976. The activity of the Laboratory is essentially centered on high energy physics. The main activities were: experiments performed with the colliding rings (ACO), construction of the new colliding rings and beginning of the work at higher energy (DCI), bubble chamber experiments with the CERN PS neutrino beam, counter experiments with CERN's PS and setting-up of equipment for new experiments with CERN's SPS. During this period a project has also been prepared for an experiment with the new PETRA colliding ring at Hamburg. On the other hand, intense collaboration with the LURE Laboratory, using the electron synchrotron radiation emitted by ACO and DCI, has been developed [fr
Introduction to linear elasticity
Gould, Phillip L
2013-01-01
Introduction to Linear Elasticity, 3rd Edition, provides an applications-oriented grounding in the tensor-based theory of elasticity for students in mechanical, civil, aeronautical, and biomedical engineering, as well as materials and earth science. The book is distinct from the traditional text aimed at graduate students in solid mechanics by introducing the subject at a level appropriate for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students. The author's presentation allows students to apply the basic notions of stress analysis and move on to advanced work in continuum mechanics, plasticity, plate and shell theory, composite materials, viscoelasticity and finite method analysis. This book also: Emphasizes tensor-based approach while still distilling down to explicit notation Provides introduction to theory of plates, theory of shells, wave propagation, viscoelasticity and plasticity accessible to advanced undergraduate students Appropriate for courses following emerging trend of teaching solid mechan...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haniger, L.; Elger, R.; Kocandrle, L.; Zdebor, J.
1986-01-01
A linear step drive is described developed in Czechoslovak-Soviet cooperation and intended for driving WWER-1000 control rods. The functional principle is explained of the motor and the mechanical and electrical parts of the drive, power control, and the indicator of position are described. The motor has latches situated in the reactor at a distance of 3 m from magnetic armatures, it has a low structural height above the reactor cover, which suggests its suitability for seismic localities. Its magnetic circuits use counterpoles; the mechanical shocks at the completion of each step are damped using special design features. The position indicator is of a special design and evaluates motor position within ±1% of total travel. A drive diagram and the flow chart of both the control electronics and the position indicator are presented. (author) 4 figs
Branched-linear and agglomerate protein polymers as vaccine platforms.
Wang, Leyi; Xia, Ming; Huang, Pengwei; Fang, Hao; Cao, Dianjun; Meng, Xiang-Jin; McNeal, Monica; Jiang, Xi; Tan, Ming
2014-09-01
Many viral structural proteins and their truncated domains share a common feature of homotypic interaction forming dimers, trimers, and/or oligomers with various valences. We reported previously a simple strategy for construction of linear and network polymers through the dimerization feature of viral proteins for vaccine development. In this study, technologies were developed to produce more sophisticated polyvalent complexes through both the dimerization and oligomerization natures of viral antigens. As proof of concept, branched-linear and agglomerate polymers were made via fusions of the dimeric glutathione-s-transferase (GST) with either a tetrameric hepatitis E virus (HEV) protruding protein or a 24-meric norovirus (NoV) protruding protein. Furthermore, a monomeric antigen, either the M2e epitope of influenza A virus or the VP8* antigen of rotavirus, was inserted and displayed by the polymer platform. All resulting polymers were easily produced in Escherichia coli at high yields. Immunization of mice showed that the polymer vaccines induced significantly higher specific humoral and T cell responses than those induced by the dimeric antigens. Additional evidence in supporting use of polymer vaccines included the significantly higher neutralization activity and protective immunity of the polymer vaccines against the corresponding viruses than those of the dimer vaccines. Thus, our technology for production of polymers containing different viral antigens offers a strategy for vaccine development against infectious pathogens and their associated diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fausing, Bent
2010-01-01
or anthropomorphism is important for the branding of new technology. Technology is seen as creating a techno-transcendence towards a more qualified humanity which is in contact with fundamental human values like intuition, vision, and sensing; all the qualities that technology, industrialization, and rationalization......, - in short modernity - have taken away from human existence. What old technology has removed now comes back through new technology promoting a better humanity. The present article investigates how digital technology and affects are presented and combined, with examples from everyday imagery, e.g. TV......Samsung introduced in 2008 a mobile phone called "Soul" made with a human touch and including itself a "magic touch". Through the analysis of a Nokia mobile phone TV-commercials I want to examine the function and form of digital technology in everyday images. The mobile phone and its digital camera...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1994-11-01
Described herein are the results of the industrial science and technology research and development project for nonlinear optoelectronic materials. The more functional chiral and pi-conjugated compounds are investigated as the organic, low-molecular-weight materials. The technologies for the orientation-controlled crystal growth are continuously investigated. Polyacetylene is investigated as the conjugated pi-electron system. The glass-dispersed systems, prepared by the sol-gel, superlow-melting glass and super-cooling methods, are investigated. In order to elucidate the relationship between the organic superlattice and properties (e.g., photoelectronic properties), the intramolecular interactions under the superlattice conditions are estimated by the theoretical chemical calculations, and the optimum structures deduced from the measured properties are proposed. The thin, composite films of fine metallic particles and glass are prepared by the multi-dimensional sputtering, to explore the constituent materials suitable for the three-dimensional superstructures, and their properties are analyzed. The thin semiconductor films of superlattices are prepared by the molecular beam epitaxy method, to investigate the optimization of the structures and compositions. The basic aspects of the three-dimensional superstructures, prepared by the superfine machining, are investigated. The results of the comprehensive investigations and researches are also described. (NEDO)
Efficiency in Linear Model with AR (1) and Correlated Error ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Nekky Umera
Assumptions in the classical normal linear regression model include that of lack of autocorrelation of the error terms ... which the classical linear regression model is based will usually be violated. These violations, seen in widespread .... we conclude in section 5. The Model. We assume a simple linear regression model:.
Linear Quantum Systems: Non-Classical States and Robust Stability
2016-06-29
paper is to extend linear systems and signals theory to include single photon quantum signals . We provide detailed results describing how quantum...v) physical realizability results for finite level quantum systems. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Control Theory , Quantum Feedback, Quantum Algorithms 16...nominal linear models, and (v) physical realizability results for finite level quantum systems. Introduction: Classical linear systems theory
Computer Program For Linear Algebra
Krogh, F. T.; Hanson, R. J.
1987-01-01
Collection of routines provided for basic vector operations. Basic Linear Algebra Subprogram (BLAS) library is collection from FORTRAN-callable routines for employing standard techniques to perform basic operations of numerical linear algebra.
Linear Versus Non-linear Supersymmetry, in General
Ferrara, Sergio; Van Proeyen, Antoine; Wrase, Timm
2016-01-01
We study superconformal and supergravity models with constrained superfields. The underlying version of such models with all unconstrained superfields and linearly realized supersymmetry is presented here, in addition to the physical multiplets there are Lagrange multiplier (LM) superfields. Once the equations of motion for the LM superfields are solved, some of the physical superfields become constrained. The linear supersymmetry of the original models becomes non-linearly realized, its exact form can be deduced from the original linear supersymmetry. Known examples of constrained superfields are shown to require the following LM's: chiral superfields, linear superfields, general complex superfields, some of them are multiplets with a spin.
Monahan, John F
2008-01-01
Preface Examples of the General Linear Model Introduction One-Sample Problem Simple Linear Regression Multiple Regression One-Way ANOVA First Discussion The Two-Way Nested Model Two-Way Crossed Model Analysis of Covariance Autoregression Discussion The Linear Least Squares Problem The Normal Equations The Geometry of Least Squares Reparameterization Gram-Schmidt Orthonormalization Estimability and Least Squares Estimators Assumptions for the Linear Mean Model Confounding, Identifiability, and Estimability Estimability and Least Squares Estimators F
Linear programming mathematics, theory and algorithms
1996-01-01
Linear Programming provides an in-depth look at simplex based as well as the more recent interior point techniques for solving linear programming problems. Starting with a review of the mathematical underpinnings of these approaches, the text provides details of the primal and dual simplex methods with the primal-dual, composite, and steepest edge simplex algorithms. This then is followed by a discussion of interior point techniques, including projective and affine potential reduction, primal and dual affine scaling, and path following algorithms. Also covered is the theory and solution of the linear complementarity problem using both the complementary pivot algorithm and interior point routines. A feature of the book is its early and extensive development and use of duality theory. Audience: The book is written for students in the areas of mathematics, economics, engineering and management science, and professionals who need a sound foundation in the important and dynamic discipline of linear programming.
Dual-range linearized transimpedance amplifier system
Wessendorf, Kurt O.
2010-11-02
A transimpedance amplifier system is disclosed which simultaneously generates a low-gain output signal and a high-gain output signal from an input current signal using a single transimpedance amplifier having two different feedback loops with different amplification factors to generate two different output voltage signals. One of the feedback loops includes a resistor, and the other feedback loop includes another resistor in series with one or more diodes. The transimpedance amplifier system includes a signal linearizer to linearize one or both of the low- and high-gain output signals by scaling and adding the two output voltage signals from the transimpedance amplifier. The signal linearizer can be formed either as an analog device using one or two summing amplifiers, or alternately can be formed as a digital device using two analog-to-digital converters and a digital signal processor (e.g. a microprocessor or a computer).
Manning, Robert M.
1991-01-01
The dynamic and composite nature of propagation impairments that are incurred on Earth-space communications links at frequencies in and above 30/20 GHz Ka band, i.e., rain attenuation, cloud and/or clear air scintillation, etc., combined with the need to counter such degradations after the small link margins have been exceeded, necessitate the use of dynamic statistical identification and prediction processing of the fading signal in order to optimally estimate and predict the levels of each of the deleterious attenuation components. Such requirements are being met in NASA's Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) Project by the implementation of optimal processing schemes derived through the use of the Rain Attenuation Prediction Model and nonlinear Markov filtering theory.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Engberg, Uffe Henrik; Winskel, Glynn
This article shows how individual Petri nets form models of Girard's intuitionistic linear logic. It explores questions of expressiveness and completeness of linear logic with respect to this interpretation. An aim is to use Petri nets to give an understanding of linear logic and give some apprai...
Generalized Linear Covariance Analysis
Carpenter, James R.; Markley, F. Landis
2014-01-01
This talk presents a comprehensive approach to filter modeling for generalized covariance analysis of both batch least-squares and sequential estimators. We review and extend in two directions the results of prior work that allowed for partitioning of the state space into solve-for'' and consider'' parameters, accounted for differences between the formal values and the true values of the measurement noise, process noise, and textita priori solve-for and consider covariances, and explicitly partitioned the errors into subspaces containing only the influence of the measurement noise, process noise, and solve-for and consider covariances. In this work, we explicitly add sensitivity analysis to this prior work, and relax an implicit assumption that the batch estimator's epoch time occurs prior to the definitive span. We also apply the method to an integrated orbit and attitude problem, in which gyro and accelerometer errors, though not estimated, influence the orbit determination performance. We illustrate our results using two graphical presentations, which we call the variance sandpile'' and the sensitivity mosaic,'' and we compare the linear covariance results to confidence intervals associated with ensemble statistics from a Monte Carlo analysis.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Richards, J.A.
1977-01-01
A linear particle accelerator which provides a pulsed beam of charged particles of uniform energy is described. The accelerator is in the form of an evacuated dielectric tube, inside of which a particle source is located at one end of the tube, with a target or window located at the other end of the dielectric tube. Along the length of the tube are externally located pairs of metal plates, each insulated from each other in an insulated housing. Each of the plates of a pair are connected to an electrical source of voltage of opposed polarity, with the polarity of the voltage of the plates oriented so that the plate of a pair, nearer to the particle source, is of the opposed polarity to the charge of the particle emitted by the source. Thus, a first plate about the tube located nearest the particle source, attracts a particle which as it passes through the tube past the first plate is then repelled by the reverse polarity of the second plate of the pair to continue moving towards the target
Sidik, S. M.
1975-01-01
Ridge, Marquardt's generalized inverse, shrunken, and principal components estimators are discussed in terms of the objectives of point estimation of parameters, estimation of the predictive regression function, and hypothesis testing. It is found that as the normal equations approach singularity, more consideration must be given to estimable functions of the parameters as opposed to estimation of the full parameter vector; that biased estimators all introduce constraints on the parameter space; that adoption of mean squared error as a criterion of goodness should be independent of the degree of singularity; and that ordinary least-squares subset regression is the best overall method.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Balzer, Frank; Jett, S. D.; Rubahn, Horst-Günter
2000-01-01
are initially monitored in ultrahigh vacuum by comparison of calculated with measured polarization-dependent extinction spectra. We find that at low surface temperatures (150 K) the cluster growth is very similar to growth directly on insulating substrates. With increasing surface temperature the size...
Linear regression in astronomy. I
Isobe, Takashi; Feigelson, Eric D.; Akritas, Michael G.; Babu, Gutti Jogesh
1990-01-01
Five methods for obtaining linear regression fits to bivariate data with unknown or insignificant measurement errors are discussed: ordinary least-squares (OLS) regression of Y on X, OLS regression of X on Y, the bisector of the two OLS lines, orthogonal regression, and 'reduced major-axis' regression. These methods have been used by various researchers in observational astronomy, most importantly in cosmic distance scale applications. Formulas for calculating the slope and intercept coefficients and their uncertainties are given for all the methods, including a new general form of the OLS variance estimates. The accuracy of the formulas was confirmed using numerical simulations. The applicability of the procedures is discussed with respect to their mathematical properties, the nature of the astronomical data under consideration, and the scientific purpose of the regression. It is found that, for problems needing symmetrical treatment of the variables, the OLS bisector performs significantly better than orthogonal or reduced major-axis regression.
28th Linear Accelerator Conference
Facco, Alberto; McCausey, Amy; Schaa, Volker R W
2017-01-01
The 28th Linear Accelerator Conference, LINAC 16, to take place at the Kellogg Hotel and Conference Center in East Lansing, Michigan, on 25-30 September 2016. This conference is the main bi-yearly gathering for the world-wide community of linac specialists. It provides a unique opportunity to hear about the latest advances of projects and developments concerning hadron and lepton linacs, and their applications. In the tradition of previous LINAC conferences, plenary sessions including invited speakers are scheduled every day. Poster sessions will be held on Monday, Tuesday and Thursday afternoons. There will also be two special events on Sunday, 25 September 2016, namely a student poster session and an evening reception for registrants and their companions at the Kellogg Hotel and Conference Center. Participants are also warmly invited to join an outing to Lake Michigan and the beautiful surroundings on Wednesday afternoon, and to visit the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams on Friday afternoon, after the formal...
Reticle stage based linear dosimeter
Berger, Kurt W.
2005-06-14
A detector to measure EUV intensity employs a linear array of photodiodes. The detector is particularly suited for photolithography systems that includes: (i) a ringfield camera; (ii) a source of radiation; (iii) a condenser for processing radiation from the source of radiation to produce a ringfield illumination field for illuminating a mask; (iv) a reticle that is positioned at the ringfield camera's object plane and from which a reticle image in the form of an intensity profile is reflected into the entrance pupil of the ringfield camera, wherein the reticle moves in a direction that is transverse to the length of the ringfield illumination field that illuminates the reticle; (v) detector for measuring the entire intensity along the length of the ringfield illumination field that is projected onto the reticle; and (vi) a wafer onto which the reticle imaged is projected from the ringfield camera.
Decomposable log-linear models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Eriksen, Poul Svante
can be characterized by a structured set of conditional independencies between some variables given some other variables. We term the new model class decomposable log-linear models, which is illustrated to be a much richer class than decomposable graphical models.It covers a wide range of non...... The present paper considers discrete probability models with exact computational properties. In relation to contingency tables this means closed form expressions of the maksimum likelihood estimate and its distribution. The model class includes what is known as decomposable graphicalmodels, which......-hierarchical models, models with structural zeroes, models described by quasi independence and models for level merging. Also, they have a very natural interpretation as they may be formulated by a structured set of conditional independencies between two events given some other event. In relation to contingency...
Three-stage linear, split-Stirling cryocooler for 1 to 2K magnetic cold stage
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Longsworth, R.C.
1993-08-01
A long-life, linear, high efficiency 8K split Stirling cycle cryocooler was designed, built, and tested. The refrigerator is designed for cooling a 50 mW, 1.5K magnetic cold stage. Dual opposed piston compressors are driven by moving-coil linear motors. The three stage expander, although not completed, is also driven by a linear motor and is designed to produce 1 SW at 60K, 4W at 16K, and 1.2W at 8K. The cold regenerator employs a parallel gap construction for high efficiency. The key technology areas addressed include warm and cold flexible suspension bearings and a new cold regenerator geometry for high efficiency at 8K
Random linear codes in steganography
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kamil Kaczyński
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Syndrome coding using linear codes is a technique that allows improvement in the steganographic algorithms parameters. The use of random linear codes gives a great flexibility in choosing the parameters of the linear code. In parallel, it offers easy generation of parity check matrix. In this paper, the modification of LSB algorithm is presented. A random linear code [8, 2] was used as a base for algorithm modification. The implementation of the proposed algorithm, along with practical evaluation of algorithms’ parameters based on the test images was made.[b]Keywords:[/b] steganography, random linear codes, RLC, LSB
Emerging technologies for compact visible laser sources
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Forrest, G.T.
1988-01-01
A number of laser and non-linear optical technologies and converging on commercial designs. High power laser diodes and non-linear materials are being incorporated in prototype lasers, many of which will become commercially available products during the next 1-5 years. This paper reviews the output characteristics of such lasers. Lasers which are discussed include direct doubling of laser diodes based on proton exchanged lithium niobate, fiber lasers, frequency doubled diode pumped Nd:YAG lasers, and sum frequency mixed Nd:YAG lasers. Such lasers are capable of providing milliwatt output powers in the green and/or blue spectral regions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1991-01-01
The US Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories have a long history of excellence in performing research and development in a number of areas, including the basic sciences, applied-energy technology, and weapons-related technology. Although technology transfer has always been an element of DOE and laboratory activities, it has received increasing emphasis in recent years as US industrial competitiveness has eroded and efforts have increased to better utilize the research and development resources the laboratories provide. This document, Technology '90, is the latest in a series that is intended to communicate some of the many opportunities available for US industry and universities to work with the DOE and its laboratories in the vital activity of improving technology transfer to meet national needs. Technology '90 is divided into three sections: Overview, Technologies, and Laboratories. The Overview section describes the activities and accomplishments of the DOE research and development program offices. The Technologies section provides descriptions of new technologies developed at the DOE laboratories. The Laboratories section presents information on the missions, programs, and facilities of each laboratory, along with a name and telephone number of a technology transfer contact for additional information. Separate papers were prepared for appropriate sections of this report
Faraway, Julian J
2005-01-01
Linear models are central to the practice of statistics and form the foundation of a vast range of statistical methodologies. Julian J. Faraway''s critically acclaimed Linear Models with R examined regression and analysis of variance, demonstrated the different methods available, and showed in which situations each one applies. Following in those footsteps, Extending the Linear Model with R surveys the techniques that grow from the regression model, presenting three extensions to that framework: generalized linear models (GLMs), mixed effect models, and nonparametric regression models. The author''s treatment is thoroughly modern and covers topics that include GLM diagnostics, generalized linear mixed models, trees, and even the use of neural networks in statistics. To demonstrate the interplay of theory and practice, throughout the book the author weaves the use of the R software environment to analyze the data of real examples, providing all of the R commands necessary to reproduce the analyses. All of the ...
A linear evolution for non-linear dynamics and correlations in realistic nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Levin, E.; Lublinsky, M.
2004-01-01
A new approach to high energy evolution based on a linear equation for QCD generating functional is developed. This approach opens a possibility for systematic study of correlations inside targets, and, in particular, inside realistic nuclei. Our results are presented as three new equations. The first one is a linear equation for QCD generating functional (and for scattering amplitude) that sums the 'fan' diagrams. For the amplitude this equation is equivalent to the non-linear Balitsky-Kovchegov equation. The second equation is a generalization of the Balitsky-Kovchegov non-linear equation to interactions with realistic nuclei. It includes a new correlation parameter which incorporates, in a model-dependent way, correlations inside the nuclei. The third equation is a non-linear equation for QCD generating functional (and for scattering amplitude) that in addition to the 'fan' diagrams sums the Glauber-Mueller multiple rescatterings
(including travel dates) Proposed itinerary
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Ashok
1-5 August: Bangalore, Karnataka. Suggested institutions: Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. St Johns Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre, Bangalore. 6-8 August: Chennai, TN. Suggested institutions: Indian Institute of Technology, Madras. 8-10 August: Vellore, TN. Suggested institutions:.
Approximation with positive linear operators and linear combinations
Gupta, Vijay
2017-01-01
This book presents a systematic overview of approximation by linear combinations of positive linear operators, a useful tool used to increase the order of approximation. Fundamental and recent results from the past decade are described with their corresponding proofs. The volume consists of eight chapters that provide detailed insight into the representation of monomials of the operators Ln , direct and inverse estimates for a broad class of positive linear operators, and case studies involving finite and unbounded intervals of real and complex functions. Strong converse inequalities of Type A in terminology of Ditzian–Ivanov for linear combinations of Bernstein and Bernstein–Kantorovich operators and various Voronovskaja-type estimates for some linear combinations are analyzed and explained. Graduate students and researchers in approximation theory will find the list of open problems in approximation of linear combinations useful. The book serves as a reference for graduate and postgraduate courses as we...
Linear Algebraic Method for Non-Linear Map Analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu, L.; Nash, B.
2009-01-01
We present a newly developed method to analyze some non-linear dynamics problems such as the Henon map using a matrix analysis method from linear algebra. Choosing the Henon map as an example, we analyze the spectral structure, the tune-amplitude dependence, the variation of tune and amplitude during the particle motion, etc., using the method of Jordan decomposition which is widely used in conventional linear algebra.
Gain scheduled linear quadratic control for quadcopter
Okasha, M.; Shah, J.; Fauzi, W.; Hanouf, Z.
2017-12-01
This study exploits the dynamics and control of quadcopters using Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) control approach. The quadcopter’s mathematical model is derived using the Newton-Euler method. It is a highly manoeuvrable, nonlinear, coupled with six degrees of freedom (DOF) model, which includes aerodynamics and detailed gyroscopic moments that are often ignored in many literatures. The linearized model is obtained and characterized by the heading angle (i.e. yaw angle) of the quadcopter. The adopted control approach utilizes LQR method to track several reference trajectories including circle and helix curves with significant variation in the yaw angle. The controller is modified to overcome difficulties related to the continuous changes in the operating points and eliminate chattering and discontinuity that is observed in the control input signal. Numerical non-linear simulations are performed using MATLAB and Simulink to illustrate to accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed controller.
Cohen, Philip R
2017-09-18
Melanomas usually present as oval lesions in which the borders may be irregular. Other morphological features of melanoma include clinical asymmetry, variable color, diameter greater than 6 mm and evolving lesions. Two males whose melanoma in situ presented as linear skin lesions are described and cutaneous malignancies that may appear linear in morphology are summarized in this report. A medical literature search engine, PubMed, was used to search the following terms: cancer, cutaneous, in situ, linear, malignant, malignant melanoma, melanoma in situ, neoplasm, and skin. The 25 papers that were generated by the search and their references, were reviewed; 10 papers were selected for inclusion. The cancer of the skin typically presents as round lesions. However, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma may arise from primary skin conditions or benign skin neoplasms such as linear epidermal nevus and linear porokeratosis. In addition, linear tumors such as basal cell carcinoma can occur. The development of linear cutaneous neoplasms may occur secondary to skin tension line or embryonal growth patterns (as reflected by the lines of Langer and lines of Blaschko) or exogenous factors such as prior radiation therapy. Cutaneous neoplasms and specifically melanoma in situ can be added to the list of linear skin lesions.
Kaufmann, Anton; Walker, Stephan
2017-11-30
The linear intrascan and interscan dynamic ranges of mass spectrometers are important in metabolome and residue analysis. A large linear dynamic range is mandatory if both low- and high-abundance ions have to be detected and quantitated in heavy matrix samples. These performance criteria, as provided by modern high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), were systematically investigated. The comparison included two generations of Orbitraps, and an ion mobility quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) system In addition, different scan modes, as provided by the utilized instruments, were investigated. Calibration curves of different compounds covering a concentration range of five orders of magnitude were measured to evaluate the linear interscan dynamic range. The linear intrascan dynamic range and the resulting mass accuracy were evaluated by repeating these measurements in the presence of a very intense background. Modern HRMS instruments can show linear dynamic ranges of five orders of magnitude. Often, however, the linear dynamic range is limited by the detection capability (sensitivity and selectivity) and by the electrospray ionization. Orbitraps, as opposed to TOF instruments, show a reduced intrascan dynamic range. This is due to the limited C-trap and Orbitrap capacity. The tested TOF instrument shows poorer mass accuracies than the Orbitraps. In contrast, hyphenation with an ion-mobility device seems not to affect the linear dynamic range. The linear dynamic range of modern HRMS instrumentation has been significantly improved. This also refers to the virtual absence of systematic mass shifts at high ion abundances. The intrascan dynamic range of the current Orbitrap technology may still be a limitation when analyzing complex matrix extracts. On the other hand, the linear dynamic range is not only limited by the detector technology, but can also be shortened by peripheral devices, where the ionization and transfer of ions take place. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley
Voltage linear transformation circuit design
Sanchez, Lucas R. W.; Jin, Moon-Seob; Scott, R. Phillip; Luder, Ryan J.; Hart, Michael
2017-09-01
Many engineering projects require automated control of analog voltages over a specified range. We have developed a computer interface comprising custom hardware and MATLAB code to provide real-time control of a Thorlabs adaptive optics (AO) kit. The hardware interface includes an op amp cascade to linearly shift and scale a voltage range. With easy modifications, any linear transformation can be accommodated. In AO applications, the design is suitable to drive a range of different types of deformable and fast steering mirrors (FSM's). Our original motivation and application was to control an Optics in Motion (OIM) FSM which requires the customer to devise a unique interface to supply voltages to the mirror controller to set the mirror's angular deflection. The FSM is in an optical servo loop with a wave front sensor (WFS), which controls the dynamic behavior of the mirror's deflection. The code acquires wavefront data from the WFS and fits a plane, which is subsequently converted into its corresponding angular deflection. The FSM provides +/-3° optical angular deflection for a +/-10 V voltage swing. Voltages are applied to the mirror via a National Instruments digital-to-analog converter (DAC) followed by an op amp cascade circuit. This system has been integrated into our Thorlabs AO testbed which currently runs at 11 Hz, but with planned software upgrades, the system update rate is expected to improve to 500 Hz. To show that the FSM subsystem is ready for this speed, we conducted two different PID tuning runs at different step commands. Once 500 Hz is achieved, we plan to make the code and method for our interface solution freely available to the community.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hildebrandt, Christina
2009-03-23
This work describes the development of new absorber coatings for different applications - para-bolic trough and linear Fresnel collectors - and operating conditions - absorber in vacuum or in air. The demand for higher efficiencies of solar thermal power plants using parabolic trough technology results in higher temperatures in the collectors and on the absorber tubes. As heat losses increase strongly with increasing temperatures, the need for a lower emissivity of the absorber coating at constant absorptivity arises. The linear Fresnel application envisions ab-sorber tubes stable in air at high temperatures of about 450 C, which are to date commercially not available. This work comprises the theoretical background, the modeling and the fabrication of absorber tubes including the technology transfer to a production-size inline sputter coater. In annealing tests and accompanying optical measurements, degradation processes have been observed and specified more precisely by material characterization techniques. The simulations provided the capability of different materials used as potential IR-reflector. The highest selectivity can be achieved by applying silver which consequently has been chosen for the application in absorber coatings of the parabolic trough technology. Thin silver films how-ever need to be stabilized when used at high temperatures. Appropriate barrier layers as well as process and layer parameters were identified. A high selectivity was achieved and stability of the absorber coating for 1200 h at 500 C in vacuum has been demonstrated. For the application in air, silver was also analyzed as a potential IR-reflector. Even though the stability could be increased considerably, it nevertheless proved to be insufficient. The main factors influencing stability in a positive way are the use of higher quality polishing, additional barrier layers and adequate process parameters. This knowledge was applied for developing coatings which are stable in air at
Precise stacking and bonding technology for RDDS structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Higo, T; Toge, N.; Suzuki, T.
2000-01-01
The X-band accelerating structures called RDDS1 (Rounded Dumped Detuned Structure) for the linear collider have been developed. The main body of RDDS1 was successfully fabricated in Japan (KEK, IHI). We established basic fabrication techniques through the development of prototype structures including RDDS1. The precise stacking and bonding technologies for RDDS structure are presented in this paper. (author)
Fuzzy Multi-objective Linear Programming Approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amna Rehmat
2007-07-01
Full Text Available Traveling salesman problem (TSP is one of the challenging real-life problems, attracting researchers of many fields including Artificial Intelligence, Operations Research, and Algorithm Design and Analysis. The problem has been well studied till now under different headings and has been solved with different approaches including genetic algorithms and linear programming. Conventional linear programming is designed to deal with crisp parameters, but information about real life systems is often available in the form of vague descriptions. Fuzzy methods are designed to handle vague terms, and are most suited to finding optimal solutions to problems with vague parameters. Fuzzy multi-objective linear programming, an amalgamation of fuzzy logic and multi-objective linear programming, deals with flexible aspiration levels or goals and fuzzy constraints with acceptable deviations. In this paper, a methodology, for solving a TSP with imprecise parameters, is deployed using fuzzy multi-objective linear programming. An example of TSP with multiple objectives and vague parameters is discussed.
Test Results From a High Power Linear Alternator Test Rig
Birchenough, Arthur G.; Hervol, David S.; Gardner, Brent G.
2010-01-01
Stirling cycle power conversion is an enabling technology that provides high thermodynamic efficiency but also presents unique challenges with regard to electrical power generation, management, and distribution. The High Power Linear Alternator Test Rig (HPLATR) located at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio is a demonstration test bed that simulates electrical power generation from a Stirling engine driven alternator. It implements the high power electronics necessary to provide a well regulated DC user load bus. These power electronics use a novel design solution that includes active rectification and power factor control, active ripple suppression, along with a unique building block approach that permits the use of high voltage or high current alternator designs. This report describes the HPLATR, the test program, and the operational results.
Equivalent linearization of nonlinear forces
Meng, Guang; Xue, Zhongqing
1987-07-01
A method used for equivalent linearization of the two orthogonal squeeze-film forces is extended here to the general case of n degrees of freedom and n components of nonlinear forces, and the expressions for equivalent linear coefficients are derived. Nonlinear forces can be linearized by the methods of Fourier expansion, active and reactive powers, or mean-square error. The n components of nonlinear forces can all be expressed formally as the sum of an average force, a linear spring force, and a linear damping force. This paper also gives a flow chart for calculating the steady-state responses of a nonlinear system with many degrees of freedom, using the method of equivalent linearization. The resulting saving in computation time is demonstrated by a numerical example of a flexible rotor-bearing system with a noncentralized squeeze-film damper.
Sparse Linear Identifiable Multivariate Modeling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Henao, Ricardo; Winther, Ole
2011-01-01
In this paper we consider sparse and identifiable linear latent variable (factor) and linear Bayesian network models for parsimonious analysis of multivariate data. We propose a computationally efficient method for joint parameter and model inference, and model comparison. It consists of a fully...... Bayesian hierarchy for sparse models using slab and spike priors (two-component δ-function and continuous mixtures), non-Gaussian latent factors and a stochastic search over the ordering of the variables. The framework, which we call SLIM (Sparse Linear Identifiable Multivariate modeling), is validated...... computational complexity. We attribute this mainly to the stochastic search strategy used, and to parsimony (sparsity and identifiability), which is an explicit part of the model. We propose two extensions to the basic i.i.d. linear framework: non-linear dependence on observed variables, called SNIM (Sparse Non-linear...
Linear representation of a graph
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eduardo Montenegro
2019-10-01
Full Text Available In this paper the linear representation of a graph is defined. A linear representation of a graph is a subgroup of $GL(p,\\mathbb{R}$, the group of invertible matrices of order $ p $ and real coefficients. It will be demonstrated that every graph admits a linear representation. In this paper, simple and finite graphs will be used, framed in the graphs theory's area
Noise limitations in optical linear algebra processors.
Batsell, S G; Jong, T L; Walkup, J F; Krile, T F
1990-05-10
A general statistical noise model is presented for optical linear algebra processors. A statistical analysis which includes device noise, the multiplication process, and the addition operation is undertaken. We focus on those processes which are architecturally independent. Finally, experimental results which verify the analytical predictions are also presented.
Anomalous VVH interactions at a linear collider
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We examine, in a model independent way, the sensitivity of a linear collider to the couplings of a light Higgs boson to a pair of gauge bosons, including the possibility of CP violation. We construct several observables that probe the various possible anomalous couplings. For an intermediate mass Higgs, a collider operating ...
Progress report on the SLAC Linear Collider
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rees, J.
1986-06-01
The SLAC Linear Collider project (SLC) is reported as being near completion. The performance specifications are tabulated both for the initial form and for eventual goals. Various parts of the SLC are described and the status of their construction is reported, including the front end electron gun and booster, the linac, damping ring, positron source, SLC arcs, and conventional facilities. 5 refs., 12 figs
Consys Linear Control System Design Software Package
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diamantidis, Z.
1987-01-01
This package is created in order to help engineers, researchers, students and all who work on linear control systems. The software includes all time and frequency domain analysises, spectral analysises and networks, active filters and regulators design aids. The programmes are written on Hewlett Packard computer in Basic 4.0
Pharmaceutical applications of non-linear imaging
Strachan, Clare J.; Windbergs, Maike; Offerhaus, Herman L.
2011-01-01
Non-linear optics encompasses a range of optical phenomena, including two- and three-photon fluorescence, second harmonic generation (SHG), sum frequency generation (SFG), difference frequency generation (DFG), third harmonic generation (THG), coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), and
Smart Antenna Skins, including Conformal Array, MMICs and Applications
Bogaart, F.L.M. van den
2000-01-01
Low-cost technologies are presented for future space-borne and airborne SAR systems. These technologies include state-of-the art highly integrated circuits to miniaturise front-end, solutions to lower-cost interconnection technologies, new beamforming aspects and new architectures. The MMICs address
Non-linear aeroelastic prediction for aircraft applications
de C. Henshaw, M. J.; Badcock, K. J.; Vio, G. A.; Allen, C. B.; Chamberlain, J.; Kaynes, I.; Dimitriadis, G.; Cooper, J. E.; Woodgate, M. A.; Rampurawala, A. M.; Jones, D.; Fenwick, C.; Gaitonde, A. L.; Taylor, N. V.; Amor, D. S.; Eccles, T. A.; Denley, C. J.
2007-05-01
Current industrial practice for the prediction and analysis of flutter relies heavily on linear methods and this has led to overly conservative design and envelope restrictions for aircraft. Although the methods have served the industry well, it is clear that for a number of reasons the inclusion of non-linearity in the mathematical and computational aeroelastic prediction tools is highly desirable. The increase in available and affordable computational resources, together with major advances in algorithms, mean that non-linear aeroelastic tools are now viable within the aircraft design and qualification environment. The Partnership for Unsteady Methods in Aerodynamics (PUMA) Defence and Aerospace Research Partnership (DARP) was sponsored in 2002 to conduct research into non-linear aeroelastic prediction methods and an academic, industry, and government consortium collaborated to address the following objectives: To develop useable methodologies to model and predict non-linear aeroelastic behaviour of complete aircraft. To evaluate the methodologies on real aircraft problems. To investigate the effect of non-linearities on aeroelastic behaviour and to determine which have the greatest effect on the flutter qualification process. These aims have been very effectively met during the course of the programme and the research outputs include: New methods available to industry for use in the flutter prediction process, together with the appropriate coaching of industry engineers. Interesting results in both linear and non-linear aeroelastics, with comprehensive comparison of methods and approaches for challenging problems. Additional embryonic techniques that, with further research, will further improve aeroelastics capability. This paper describes the methods that have been developed and how they are deployable within the industrial environment. We present a thorough review of the PUMA aeroelastics programme together with a comprehensive review of the relevant research
Linear operator inequalities for strongly stable weakly regular linear systems
Curtain, RF
2001-01-01
We consider the question of the existence of solutions to certain linear operator inequalities (Lur'e equations) for strongly stable, weakly regular linear systems with generating operators A, B, C, 0. These operator inequalities are related to the spectral factorization of an associated Popov
Hood, John Linsley
2013-01-01
The Art of Linear Electronics presents the principal aspects of linear electronics and techniques in linear electronic circuit design. The book provides a wide range of information on the elucidation of the methods and techniques in the design of linear electronic circuits. The text discusses such topics as electronic component symbols and circuit drawing; passive and active semiconductor components; DC and low frequency amplifiers; and the basic effects of feedback. Subjects on frequency response modifying circuits and filters; audio amplifiers; low frequency oscillators and waveform generato
Linear and non-linear optics of condensed matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McLean, T.P.
1977-01-01
Part I - Linear optics: 1. General introduction. 2. Frequency dependence of epsilon(ω, k vector). 3. Wave-vector dependence of epsilon(ω, k vector). 4. Tensor character of epsilon(ω, k vector). Part II - Non-linear optics: 5. Introduction. 6. A classical theory of non-linear response in one dimension. 7. The generalization to three dimensions. 8. General properties of the polarizability tensors. 9. The phase-matching condition. 10. Propagation in a non-linear dielectric. 11. Second harmonic generation. 12. Coupling of three waves. 13. Materials and their non-linearities. 14. Processes involving energy exchange with the medium. 15. Two-photon absorption. 16. Stimulated Raman effect. 17. Electro-optic effects. 18. Limitations of the approach presented here. (author)
Linear Regression Based Real-Time Filtering
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Misel Batmend
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This paper introduces real time filtering method based on linear least squares fitted line. Method can be used in case that a filtered signal is linear. This constraint narrows a band of potential applications. Advantage over Kalman filter is that it is computationally less expensive. The paper further deals with application of introduced method on filtering data used to evaluate a position of engraved material with respect to engraving machine. The filter was implemented to the CNC engraving machine control system. Experiments showing its performance are included.
An R companion to linear statistical models
Hay-Jahans, Christopher
2011-01-01
Focusing on user-developed programming, An R Companion to Linear Statistical Models serves two audiences: those who are familiar with the theory and applications of linear statistical models and wish to learn or enhance their skills in R; and those who are enrolled in an R-based course on regression and analysis of variance. For those who have never used R, the book begins with a self-contained introduction to R that lays the foundation for later chapters.This book includes extensive and carefully explained examples of how to write programs using the R programming language. These examples cove
Emerging technology and ethics
Wakunuma, Kutoma
2011-01-01
This e-book on Emerging Technologies and Ethics includes a collection of essays which explore the future and ethics of emerging information and communication technologies. Articles in the collection include an overview of the legal implications which may be relevant to the ethical aspects of emerging technologies and also ethical issues arising from the mass-take up of mobile technologies.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Crasmareanu Mircea
2017-12-01
Full Text Available We consider the paracomplex version of the notion of mixed linear spaces introduced by M. Jurchescu in [4] by replacing the complex unit i with the paracomplex unit j, j2 = 1. The linear algebra of these spaces is studied with a special view towards their morphisms.
175 Years of Linear Programming
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
context of managerial decision making. Vijay Chandru and M R Rao. The theory of flows in networks began to evolve in the early 1950's. The various linear optimisation questions that could be asked of flows in conserv- ing networks turned out to be neat combinatorial specialisations of linear programming. The simplex.
Introduction to coordinated linear systems
Kempker, P.L.
2014-01-01
This chapter serves as an introduction to the concepts of coordinated linear systems, in formal as well as intuitive terms. The concept of a coordinated linear system is introduced and formulated, and some basic properties are derived, providing both a motivaton and a formal basis for the following
175 Years of Linear Programming
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
ming, we will review the remarkable and prescient work on linear inequalities ... function over a polyhedron described by a system of linear constraint ..... An organic role of. Fourier elimination is in obtaining an implicit representation of a convex polyhedron from a parametric representation. SERIES I ARTICLE and extreme ...
Linear Quadratic Games : An Overview
Engwerda, J.C.
2006-01-01
In this paper we review some basic results on linear quadratic differential games.We consider both the cooperative and non-cooperative case.For the non-cooperative game we consider the open-loop and (linear) feedback information structure.Furthermore the effect of adding uncertainty is
175 Years of Linear Programming
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The announcement, by L G Khachiyan, of the poly- nomial solvability of linear programming by the el- lipsoid method, followed by the probabilistic anal- yses of the simplex method in the early 1980's left researchers in linear programming with a dilemma. We had one method that was good in a theoreti- cal sense but poor in ...
Linear contextual modal type theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schack-Nielsen, Anders; Schürmann, Carsten
Abstract. When one implements a logical framework based on linear type theory, for example the Celf system [?], one is immediately con- fronted with questions about their equational theory and how to deal with logic variables. In this paper, we propose linear contextual modal type theory that gives...
Spatial Processes in Linear Ordering
von Hecker, Ulrich; Klauer, Karl Christoph; Wolf, Lukas; Fazilat-Pour, Masoud
2016-01-01
Memory performance in linear order reasoning tasks (A > B, B > C, C > D, etc.) shows quicker, and more accurate responses to queries on wider (AD) than narrower (AB) pairs on a hypothetical linear mental model (A -- B -- C -- D). While indicative of an analogue representation, research so far did not provide positive evidence for spatial…
Linear Programming across the Curriculum
Yoder, S. Elizabeth; Kurz, M. Elizabeth
2015-01-01
Linear programming (LP) is taught in different departments across college campuses with engineering and management curricula. Modeling an LP problem is taught in every linear programming class. As faculty teaching in Engineering and Management departments, the depth to which teachers should expect students to master this particular type of…
Optical systolic solutions of linear algebraic equations
Neuman, C. P.; Casasent, D.
1984-01-01
The philosophy and data encoding possible in systolic array optical processor (SAOP) were reviewed. The multitude of linear algebraic operations achievable on this architecture is examined. These operations include such linear algebraic algorithms as: matrix-decomposition, direct and indirect solutions, implicit and explicit methods for partial differential equations, eigenvalue and eigenvector calculations, and singular value decomposition. This architecture can be utilized to realize general techniques for solving matrix linear and nonlinear algebraic equations, least mean square error solutions, FIR filters, and nested-loop algorithms for control engineering applications. The data flow and pipelining of operations, design of parallel algorithms and flexible architectures, application of these architectures to computationally intensive physical problems, error source modeling of optical processors, and matching of the computational needs of practical engineering problems to the capabilities of optical processors are emphasized.
Hypocoercivity for linear kinetic equations conserving mass
Dolbeault, Jean
2015-02-03
We develop a new method for proving hypocoercivity for a large class of linear kinetic equations with only one conservation law. Local mass conservation is assumed at the level of the collision kernel, while transport involves a confining potential, so that the solution relaxes towards a unique equilibrium state. Our goal is to evaluate in an appropriately weighted $ L^2$ norm the exponential rate of convergence to the equilibrium. The method covers various models, ranging from diffusive kinetic equations like Vlasov-Fokker-Planck equations, to scattering models or models with time relaxation collision kernels corresponding to polytropic Gibbs equilibria, including the case of the linear Boltzmann model. In this last case and in the case of Vlasov-Fokker-Planck equations, any linear or superlinear growth of the potential is allowed. - See more at: http://www.ams.org/journals/tran/2015-367-06/S0002-9947-2015-06012-7/#sthash.ChjyK6rc.dpuf
Introduction to generalized linear models
Dobson, Annette J
2008-01-01
Introduction Background Scope Notation Distributions Related to the Normal Distribution Quadratic Forms Estimation Model Fitting Introduction Examples Some Principles of Statistical Modeling Notation and Coding for Explanatory Variables Exponential Family and Generalized Linear Models Introduction Exponential Family of Distributions Properties of Distributions in the Exponential Family Generalized Linear Models Examples Estimation Introduction Example: Failure Times for Pressure Vessels Maximum Likelihood Estimation Poisson Regression Example Inference Introduction Sampling Distribution for Score Statistics Taylor Series Approximations Sampling Distribution for MLEs Log-Likelihood Ratio Statistic Sampling Distribution for the Deviance Hypothesis Testing Normal Linear Models Introduction Basic Results Multiple Linear Regression Analysis of Variance Analysis of Covariance General Linear Models Binary Variables and Logistic Regression Probability Distributions ...
Acoustic emission linear pulse holography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Collins, H.D.; Busse, L.J.; Lemon, D.K.
1983-01-01
This paper describes the emission linear pulse holography which produces a chronological linear holographic image of a flaw by utilizing the acoustic energy emitted during crack growth. A thirty two point sampling array is used to construct phase-only linear holograms of simulated acoustic emission sources on large metal plates. The concept behind the AE linear pulse holography is illustrated, and a block diagram of a data acquisition system to implement the concept is given. Array element spacing, synthetic frequency criteria, and lateral depth resolution are specified. A reference timing transducer positioned between the array and the inspection zone and which inititates the time-of-flight measurements is described. The results graphically illustrate the technique using a one-dimensional FFT computer algorithm (ie. linear backward wave) for an AE image reconstruction
Chaos as an intermittently forced linear system.
Brunton, Steven L; Brunton, Bingni W; Proctor, Joshua L; Kaiser, Eurika; Kutz, J Nathan
2017-05-30
Understanding the interplay of order and disorder in chaos is a central challenge in modern quantitative science. Approximate linear representations of nonlinear dynamics have long been sought, driving considerable interest in Koopman theory. We present a universal, data-driven decomposition of chaos as an intermittently forced linear system. This work combines delay embedding and Koopman theory to decompose chaotic dynamics into a linear model in the leading delay coordinates with forcing by low-energy delay coordinates; this is called the Hankel alternative view of Koopman (HAVOK) analysis. This analysis is applied to the Lorenz system and real-world examples including Earth's magnetic field reversal and measles outbreaks. In each case, forcing statistics are non-Gaussian, with long tails corresponding to rare intermittent forcing that precedes switching and bursting phenomena. The forcing activity demarcates coherent phase space regions where the dynamics are approximately linear from those that are strongly nonlinear.The huge amount of data generated in fields like neuroscience or finance calls for effective strategies that mine data to reveal underlying dynamics. Here Brunton et al.develop a data-driven technique to analyze chaotic systems and predict their dynamics in terms of a forced linear model.
R&D progress toward future linear colliders
Voss, G A
1999-01-01
During the last 20 years there has been a worldwide effort to develop the physics and technology of linear colliders. Present goals at SLAC, KEK and DESY are to bring the R&D efforts to the point where proposals for 500/1000 GeV cms electron-positron colliders can be officially submitted in the years 2002/2003. The CLIC study at CERN aims at a second generation very high energy electron-positron collider, to be considered after completion of the LHC. The main areas of hardware R&D include efficient accelerating waveguides without harmful higher order mode (h.o.m) effects, high peak power klystrons, klystron modulators and RF-power compression. Test facilities have been put in place for the testing of h.o.m behavior of new waveguide designs (ASSET), focusing on low emittance beams to spot sizes in the nanometer range (FFTB) and damping particle oscillations in a special damping ring (ATF) to prepare low emittance bunch trains of electrons for injection into linear colliders. (0 refs).
Non-linear seismic analysis of structures coupled with fluid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Descleve, P.; Derom, P.; Dubois, J.
1983-01-01
This paper presents a method to calculate non-linear structure behaviour under horizontal and vertical seismic excitation, making possible the full non-linear seismic analysis of a reactor vessel. A pseudo forces method is used to introduce non linear effects and the problem is solved by superposition. Two steps are used in the method: - Linear calculation of the complete model. - Non linear analysis of thin shell elements and calculation of seismic induced pressure originating from linear and non linear effects, including permanent loads and thermal stresses. Basic aspects of the mathematical formulation are developed. It has been applied to axi-symmetric shell element using a Fourier series solution. For the fluid interaction effect, a comparison is made with a dynamic test. In an example of application, the displacement and pressure time history are given. (orig./GL)
Mathematical Modeling of Linear and Non-Linear Aircraft Structures.
1980-07-01
7 A-A OBO 439 LISORY GROUP FOR AEROSPACE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT--ETC F IG 1/2 MATHENATICAL MODELING OF LINEAR AND NON-LINEAR AIRCRAFT STRUCTu...theoretical model. (see Fig.1): Continuum Physical Model Mathematical Model Numerical computation ] Analytical treatment (Discretization)Ft Fig.: 1...this model neglecting unessential details. This "Mathematical Model" is usually solved by numerical computation , which means that a discretization of
Efficient Searching with Linear Constraints
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Arge, Lars Allan; Erickson, Jeff
2000-01-01
We show how to preprocess a set S of points in d into an external memory data structure that efficiently supports linear-constraint queries. Each query is in the form of a linear constraint xd a0+∑d−1i=1 aixi; the data structure must report all the points of S that satisfy the constraint....... This problem is called halfspace range searching in the computational geometry literature. Our goal is to minimize the number of disk blocks required to store the data structure and the number of disk accesses (I/Os) required to answer a query. For d=2, we present the first data structure that uses linear...... space and answers linear-constraint queries using an optimal number of I/Os in the worst case. For d=3, we present a near-linear-size data structure that answers queries using an optimal number of I/Os on the average. We present linear-size data structures that can answer d-dimensional linear...
The Theory of Linear Prediction
Vaidyanathan, PP
2007-01-01
Linear prediction theory has had a profound impact in the field of digital signal processing. Although the theory dates back to the early 1940s, its influence can still be seen in applications today. The theory is based on very elegant mathematics and leads to many beautiful insights into statistical signal processing. Although prediction is only a part of the more general topics of linear estimation, filtering, and smoothing, this book focuses on linear prediction. This has enabled detailed discussion of a number of issues that are normally not found in texts. For example, the theory of vecto
Precision magnetic suspension linear bearing
Trumper, David L.; Queen, Michael A.
1992-01-01
We have shown the design and analyzed the electromechanics of a linear motor suitable for independently controlling two suspension degrees of freedom. This motor, at least on paper, meets the requirements for driving an X-Y stage of 10 Kg mass with about 4 m/sq sec acceleration, with travel of several hundred millimeters in X and Y, and with reasonable power dissipation. A conceptual design for such a stage is presented. The theoretical feasibility of linear and planar bearings using single or multiple magnetic suspension linear motors is demonstrated.
Dynamics of multivalued linear operators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chen Chung-Chuan
2017-07-01
Full Text Available We introduce several notions of linear dynamics for multivalued linear operators (MLO’s between separable Fréchet spaces, such as hypercyclicity, topological transitivity, topologically mixing property, and Devaney chaos. We also consider the case of disjointness, in which any of these properties are simultaneously satisfied by several operators. We revisit some sufficient well-known computable criteria for determining those properties. The analysis of the dynamics of extensions of linear operators to MLO’s is also considered.
Half-linear differential equations
Dosly, Ondrej
2005-01-01
The book presents a systematic and compact treatment of the qualitative theory of half-lineardifferential equations. It contains the most updated and comprehensive material and represents the first attempt to present the results of the rapidly developing theory of half-linear differential equations in a unified form. The main topics covered by the book are oscillation and asymptotic theory and the theory of boundary value problems associated with half-linear equations, but the book also contains a treatment of related topics like PDE's with p-Laplacian, half-linear difference equations and var
Optimal control linear quadratic methods
Anderson, Brian D O
2007-01-01
This augmented edition of a respected text teaches the reader how to use linear quadratic Gaussian methods effectively for the design of control systems. It explores linear optimal control theory from an engineering viewpoint, with step-by-step explanations that show clearly how to make practical use of the material.The three-part treatment begins with the basic theory of the linear regulator/tracker for time-invariant and time-varying systems. The Hamilton-Jacobi equation is introduced using the Principle of Optimality, and the infinite-time problem is considered. The second part outlines the
Linear infrastructure impacts on landscape hydrology.
Raiter, Keren G; Prober, Suzanne M; Possingham, Hugh P; Westcott, Fiona; Hobbs, Richard J
2018-01-15
The extent of roads and other forms of linear infrastructure is burgeoning worldwide, but their impacts are inadequately understood and thus poorly mitigated. Previous studies have identified many potential impacts, including alterations to the hydrological functions and soil processes upon which ecosystems depend. However, these impacts have seldom been quantified at a regional level, particularly in arid and semi-arid systems where the gap in knowledge is the greatest, and impacts potentially the most severe. To explore the effects of extensive track, road, and rail networks on surface hydrology at a regional level we assessed over 1000 km of linear infrastructure, including approx. 300 locations where ephemeral streams crossed linear infrastructure, in the largely intact landscapes of Australia's Great Western Woodlands. We found a high level of association between linear infrastructure and altered surface hydrology, with erosion and pooling 5 and 6 times as likely to occur on-road than off-road on average (1.06 erosional and 0.69 pooling features km -1 on vehicle tracks, compared with 0.22 and 0.12 km -1 , off-road, respectively). Erosion severity was greater in the presence of tracks, and 98% of crossings of ephemeral streamlines showed some evidence of impact on water movement (flow impedance (62%); diversion of flows (73%); flow concentration (76%); and/or channel initiation (31%)). Infrastructure type, pastoral land use, culvert presence, soil clay content and erodibility, mean annual rainfall, rainfall erosivity, topography and bare soil cover influenced the frequency and severity of these impacts. We conclude that linear infrastructure frequently affects ephemeral stream flows and intercepts natural overland and near-surface flows, artificially changing site-scale moisture regimes, with some parts of the landscape becoming abnormally wet and other parts becoming water-starved. In addition, linear infrastructure frequently triggers or exacerbates erosion
Linear Bregman algorithm implemented in parallel GPU
Li, Pengyan; Ke, Jue; Sui, Dong; Wei, Ping
2015-08-01
At present, most compressed sensing (CS) algorithms have poor converging speed, thus are difficult to run on PC. To deal with this issue, we use a parallel GPU, to implement a broadly used compressed sensing algorithm, the Linear Bregman algorithm. Linear iterative Bregman algorithm is a reconstruction algorithm proposed by Osher and Cai. Compared with other CS reconstruction algorithms, the linear Bregman algorithm only involves the vector and matrix multiplication and thresholding operation, and is simpler and more efficient for programming. We use C as a development language and adopt CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture) as parallel computing architectures. In this paper, we compared the parallel Bregman algorithm with traditional CPU realized Bregaman algorithm. In addition, we also compared the parallel Bregman algorithm with other CS reconstruction algorithms, such as OMP and TwIST algorithms. Compared with these two algorithms, the result of this paper shows that, the parallel Bregman algorithm needs shorter time, and thus is more convenient for real-time object reconstruction, which is important to people's fast growing demand to information technology.
Development of electron linear accelerators in SAMEER
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krishnan, R.
2015-01-01
LINear Accelerator (LINAC) based Radiotherapy machine is a key tool for Cancer Treatment. The number of such linac machines available is far less than the actual requirement projected, to suffice the needs of the vast number of Cancer Patients in the country. Development of indigenous state-of-art cancer therapy machine was therefore a crucial achievement under the Jai Vigyan Project of Govt. of India. With the support of Department of Electronics and Information Technology (DeitY), Govt of India, SAMEER has successfully developed 6 MV Radiation Oncology machine at par international standards and is being used to treat cancer patients in the country. SAMEER is also currently developing the dual photon energy and multiple electron energy medical linac machine for radiotherapy and also critical accessories to make a complete oncology system required for advanced state of art treatment. In this paper the work in SAMEER on electron linear accelerators for the medical applications and the related technology and facilities available will be presented. (author)
1988 linear accelerator conference proceedings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1989-06-01
This report contains papers presented at the 1988 Linear Accelerator Conference. A few topics covered are beam dynamics; beam transport; superconducting components; free electron lasers; ion sources; and klystron research
Linearity Testing of Photovoltaic Cells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pinegar, S.; Nalley, D.; Emery, K.
2006-01-01
Photovoltaic devices are rated in terms of their power output or efficiency with respect to a specific spectrum, total irradiance, and temperature. In order to rate photovoltaic devices, a reference detector whose response is linear with total irradiance is needed. This procedure documents a procedure to determine if a detector is linear over the irradiance range of interest. Testing the short circuit current versus the total irradiance is done by illuminating a reference cell candidate with two lamps that are fitted with programmable filter wheels. The purpose is to reject nonlinear samples as determined by national and international standards from being used as primary reference cells. A calibrated linear reference cell tested by the two lamp method yields a linear result.
An introduction to linear algebra
Mirsky, L
2003-01-01
Rigorous, self-contained coverage of determinants, vectors, matrices and linear equations, quadratic forms, more. Elementary, easily readable account with numerous examples and problems at the end of each chapter.
Feedback systems for linear colliders
Hendrickson, L; Himel, Thomas M; Minty, Michiko G; Phinney, N; Raimondi, Pantaleo; Raubenheimer, T O; Shoaee, H; Tenenbaum, P G
1999-01-01
Feedback systems are essential for stable operation of a linear collider, providing a cost-effective method for relaxing tight tolerances. In the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC), feedback controls beam parameters such as trajectory, energy, and intensity throughout the accelerator. A novel dithering optimization system which adjusts final focus parameters to maximize luminosity contributed to achieving record performance in the 1997-98 run. Performance limitations of the steering feedback have been investigated, and improvements have been made. For the Next Linear Collider (NLC), extensive feedback systems are planned as an intregal part of the design. Feedback requiremetns for JLC (the Japanese Linear Collider) are essentially identical to NLC; some of the TESLA requirements are similar but there are significant differences. For NLC, algorithms which incorporate improvements upon the SLC implementation are being prototyped. Specialized systems for the damping rings, rf and interaction point will operate at hi...
Topics in computational linear optimization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hultberg, Tim Helge
2000-01-01
. While preserving the traditional strengths of algebraic modelling languages, FLOPC++ eases the integration of linear optimization models with other software components. The class library implements a full-fledged algebraic modelling language with indexed variables and constraints, repeated sums, index...
Acoustic emission linear pulse holography
Collins, H.D.; Busse, L.J.; Lemon, D.K.
1983-10-25
This device relates to the concept of and means for performing Acoustic Emission Linear Pulse Holography, which combines the advantages of linear holographic imaging and Acoustic Emission into a single non-destructive inspection system. This unique system produces a chronological, linear holographic image of a flaw by utilizing the acoustic energy emitted during crack growth. The innovation is the concept of utilizing the crack-generated acoustic emission energy to generate a chronological series of images of a growing crack by applying linear, pulse holographic processing to the acoustic emission data. The process is implemented by placing on a structure an array of piezoelectric sensors (typically 16 or 32 of them) near the defect location. A reference sensor is placed between the defect and the array.
Compressor Surge Control Design Using Linear Matrix Inequality Approach
Uddin, Nur; Gravdahl, Jan Tommy
2017-01-01
A novel design for active compressor surge control system (ASCS) using linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach is presented and including a case study on piston-actuated active compressor surge control system (PAASCS). The non-linear system dynamics of the PAASCS is transformed into linear parameter varying (LPV) system dynamics. The system parameters are varying as a function of the compressor performance curve slope. A compressor surge stabilization problem is then formulated as a LMI probl...
General presentation including new structure
Soons, A.
2002-12-01
Electrical, electronic and electro-mechanical components play an essential role in the functional performance, quality, life cycle and costs of space systems. Their standardisation, product specification, development, evaluation, qualification and procurement must be based on a coherent and efficient approach, paying due attention to present and prospective European space policies and must be commensurate with user needs, market developments and technology trends. The European Space Components Coordination (ESCC) is established with the objective of harmonising the efforts concerning the various aspects of EEE space components by ESA. European national and international public space organisations, the component manufacturers and the user industries. The goal of the ESCC is to improve the availability of strategic EEE space components with the required performance and at affordable costs for institutional and commercial space programmes. It is the objective of ESCC to achieve this goal by harmonising the resources and development efforts for space components in the ESA Member States and by providing a single and unified system for the standardisation, product specification, evaluation, qualification and procurement of European EEE space components and for the certification of components and component manufacturers.
Newnes communications technology handbook
Lewis, Geoff
1994-01-01
Newnes Communications Technology Handbook provides a discussion on different topics relevant to communications technology. The book is comprised of 39 chapters that tackle a wide variety of concern in communications technology. The coverage of the text includes technologies, such as analog digital communications systems, radio frequency receiver, and satellite systems. The book also discusses some methods and techniques used in communications technology, including mixer signal processing, modulation and demodulation, and spread spectrum techniques. The text will be of great use to engineers, t
Cellular Automata Rules and Linear Numbers
Nayak, Birendra Kumar; Sahoo, Sudhakar; Biswal, Sagarika
2012-01-01
In this paper, linear Cellular Automta (CA) rules are recursively generated using a binary tree rooted at "0". Some mathematical results on linear as well as non-linear CA rules are derived. Integers associated with linear CA rules are defined as linear numbers and the properties of these linear numbers are studied.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rumen Daskalov
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Let an $[n,k,d]_q$ code be a linear code of length $n$, dimension $k$ and minimum Hamming distance $d$ over $GF(q$. One of the most important problems in coding theory is to construct codes with optimal minimum distances. In this paper 22 new ternary linear codes are presented. Two of them are optimal. All new codes improve the respective lower bounds in [11].
Explorative methods in linear models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Høskuldsson, Agnar
2004-01-01
The author has developed the H-method of mathematical modeling that builds up the model by parts, where each part is optimized with respect to prediction. Besides providing with better predictions than traditional methods, these methods provide with graphic procedures for analyzing different feat...... features in data. These graphic methods extend the well-known methods and results of Principal Component Analysis to any linear model. Here the graphic procedures are applied to linear regression and Ridge Regression....
Functionalized linear and cyclic polyolefins
Tuba, Robert; Grubbs, Robert H.
2018-02-13
This invention relates to methods and compositions for preparing linear and cyclic polyolefins. More particularly, the invention relates to methods and compositions for preparing functionalized linear and cyclic polyolefins via olefin metathesis reactions. Polymer products produced via the olefin metathesis reactions of the invention may be utilized for a wide range of materials applications. The invention has utility in the fields of polymer and materials chemistry and manufacture.
(including travel dates) Proposed itinerary
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Ashok
31 July to 22 August 2012 (including travel dates). Proposed itinerary: Arrival in Bangalore on 1 August. 1-5 August: Bangalore, Karnataka. Suggested institutions: Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. St Johns Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre, Bangalore. 6-8 August: Chennai, TN.
Sahin, Rubina; Tapadia, Kavita
2015-01-01
The three widely used isotherms Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin were examined in an experiment using fluoride (F⁻) ion adsorption on a geo-material (limonite) at four different temperatures by linear and non-linear models. Comparison of linear and non-linear regression models were given in selecting the optimum isotherm for the experimental results. The coefficient of determination, r², was used to select the best theoretical isotherm. The four Langmuir linear equations (1, 2, 3, and 4) are discussed. Langmuir isotherm parameters obtained from the four Langmuir linear equations using the linear model differed but they were the same when using the nonlinear model. Langmuir-2 isotherm is one of the linear forms, and it had the highest coefficient of determination (r² = 0.99) compared to the other Langmuir linear equations (1, 3 and 4) in linear form, whereas, for non-linear, Langmuir-4 fitted best among all the isotherms because it had the highest coefficient of determination (r² = 0.99). The results showed that the non-linear model may be a better way to obtain the parameters. In the present work, the thermodynamic parameters show that the absorption of fluoride onto limonite is both spontaneous (ΔG 0). Scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction images also confirm the adsorption of F⁻ ion onto limonite. The isotherm and kinetic study reveals that limonite can be used as an adsorbent for fluoride removal. In future we can develop new technology for fluoride removal in large scale by using limonite which is cost-effective, eco-friendly and is easily available in the study area.
Generalized linear model for partially ordered data.
Zhang, Qiang; Ip, Edward Haksing
2012-01-13
Within the rich literature on generalized linear models, substantial efforts have been devoted to models for categorical responses that are either completely ordered or completely unordered. Few studies have focused on the analysis of partially ordered outcomes, which arise in practically every area of study, including medicine, the social sciences, and education. To fill this gap, we propose a new class of generalized linear models--the partitioned conditional model--that includes models for both ordinal and unordered categorical data as special cases. We discuss the specification of the partitioned conditional model and its estimation. We use an application of the method to a sample of the National Longitudinal Study of Youth to illustrate how the new method is able to extract from partially ordered data useful information about smoking youths that is not possible using traditional methods. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Malignant lymphomas (including myeloproliferative disorders)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Todd, I.D.H.
1985-01-01
This chapter deals with the radiotherapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy of the malignant lymphomas. Included within this group are Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, mycosis fungoides, and chronic lymphatic leukaemia. A further section deals with the myeloproliferative disorders, including granulocytic leukaemia, polycythaemia vera, and primary thrombocythaemia. Excluded are myeloma and reticulum cell sarcoma of bone and acute leukaemia. With regard to Hodgkin's disease, the past 25 years have seen general recognition of the curative potential of radiotherapy, at least in the local stages, and, more recently, awareness of the ability to achieve long-term survival after combination chemotherapy in generalised or in recurrent disease. At the same time the importance of staging has become appreciated and the introduction of procedures such as lymphography, staging laparotomy, and computer tomography (CT) has enormously increased its reliability. Advances have not been so dramatic in the complex group of non-Hodgkins's lymphomas, but are still very real
The Next Linear Collider: NLC2001
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
D. Burke et al.
2002-01-14
Recent studies in elementary particle physics have made the need for an e{sup +}e{sup -} linear collider able to reach energies of 500 GeV and above with high luminosity more compelling than ever [1]. Observations and measurements completed in the last five years at the SLC (SLAC), LEP (CERN), and the Tevatron (FNAL) can be explained only by the existence of at least one particle or interaction that has not yet been directly observed in experiment. The Higgs boson of the Standard Model could be that particle. The data point strongly to a mass for the Higgs boson that is just beyond the reach of existing colliders. This brings great urgency and excitement to the potential for discovery at the upgraded Tevatron early in this decade, and almost assures that later experiments at the LHC will find new physics. But the next generation of experiments to be mounted by the world-wide particle physics community must not only find this new physics, they must find out what it is. These experiments must also define the next important threshold in energy. The need is to understand physics at the TeV energy scale as well as the physics at the 100-GeV energy scale is now understood. This will require both the LHC and a companion linear electron-positron collider. A first Zeroth-Order Design Report (ZDR) [2] for a second-generation electron-positron linear collider, the Next Linear Collider (NLC), was published five years ago. The NLC design is based on a high-frequency room-temperature rf accelerator. Its goal is exploration of elementary particle physics at the TeV center-of-mass energy, while learning how to design and build colliders at still higher energies. Many advances in accelerator technologies and improvements in the design of the NLC have been made since 1996. This Report is a brief update of the ZDR.
Non-linear Loudspeaker Unit Modelling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Bo Rohde; Agerkvist, Finn T.
2008-01-01
Simulations of a 6½-inch loudspeaker unit are performed and compared with a displacement measurement. The non-linear loudspeaker model is based on the major nonlinear functions and expanded with time-varying suspension behaviour and flux modulation. The results are presented with FFT plots of thr...... frequencies and different displacement levels. The model errors are discussed and analysed including a test with loudspeaker unit where the diaphragm is removed....
Collimation systems in the next linear collider
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Merminga, N.; Irwin, J.; Helm, R.; Ruth, R.D.
1991-02-01
Experience indicates that beam collimation will be an essential element of the next generation e + E - linear colliders. A proposal for using nonlinear lenses to drive beam tails to large amplitudes was presented in a previous paper. Here we study the optimization of such systems including effects of wakefields and optical aberrations. Protection and design of the scrapers in these systems are discussed. 9 refs., 7 figs
Linear and non-linear autoregressive models for short-term wind speed forecasting
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lydia, M.; Suresh Kumar, S.; Immanuel Selvakumar, A.; Edwin Prem Kumar, G.
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Models for wind speed prediction at 10-min intervals up to 1 h built on time-series wind speed data. • Four different multivariate models for wind speed built based on exogenous variables. • Non-linear models built using three data mining algorithms outperform the linear models. • Autoregressive models based on wind direction perform better than other models. - Abstract: Wind speed forecasting aids in estimating the energy produced from wind farms. The soaring energy demands of the world and minimal availability of conventional energy sources have significantly increased the role of non-conventional sources of energy like solar, wind, etc. Development of models for wind speed forecasting with higher reliability and greater accuracy is the need of the hour. In this paper, models for predicting wind speed at 10-min intervals up to 1 h have been built based on linear and non-linear autoregressive moving average models with and without external variables. The autoregressive moving average models based on wind direction and annual trends have been built using data obtained from Sotavento Galicia Plc. and autoregressive moving average models based on wind direction, wind shear and temperature have been built on data obtained from Centre for Wind Energy Technology, Chennai, India. While the parameters of the linear models are obtained using the Gauss–Newton algorithm, the non-linear autoregressive models are developed using three different data mining algorithms. The accuracy of the models has been measured using three performance metrics namely, the Mean Absolute Error, Root Mean Squared Error and Mean Absolute Percentage Error.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
This book constitutes the proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Persuasive Technology, PERSUASIVE 2010, held in Copenhagen Denmark in June 2010. The 25 papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 80 submissions. In addition three keynote papers are included in this vol......This book constitutes the proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Persuasive Technology, PERSUASIVE 2010, held in Copenhagen Denmark in June 2010. The 25 papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 80 submissions. In addition three keynote papers are included...... in this volume. The topics covered are emotions and user experience, ambient persuasive systems, persuasive design, persuasion profiles, designing for health, psychology of persuasion, embodied and conversational agents, economic incentives, and future directions for persuasive technology....
Linear scaling of density functional algorithms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stechel, E.B.; Feibelman, P.J.; Williams, A.R.
1993-01-01
An efficient density functional algorithm (DFA) that scales linearly with system size will revolutionize electronic structure calculations. Density functional calculations are reliable and accurate in determining many condensed matter and molecular ground-state properties. However, because current DFA's, including methods related to that of Car and Parrinello, scale with the cube of the system size, density functional studies are not routinely applied to large systems. Linear scaling is achieved by constructing functions that are both localized and fully occupied, thereby eliminating the need to calculate global eigenfunctions. It is, however, widely believed that exponential localization requires the existence of an energy gap between the occupied and unoccupied states. Despite this, the authors demonstrate that linear scaling can still be achieved for metals. Using a linear scaling algorithm, they have explicitly constructed localized, almost fully occupied orbitals for the quintessential metallic system, jellium. The algorithm is readily generalizable to any system geometry and Hamiltonian. They will discuss the conceptual issues involved, convergence properties and scaling for their new algorithm
Generalized Cross-Gramian for Linear Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shaker, Hamid Reza
2012-01-01
The cross-gramian is a well-known matrix with embedded controllability and observability information. The cross-gramian is related to the Hankel operator and the Hankel singular values of a linear square system and it has several interesting properties. These properties make the cross-gramian pop......The cross-gramian is a well-known matrix with embedded controllability and observability information. The cross-gramian is related to the Hankel operator and the Hankel singular values of a linear square system and it has several interesting properties. These properties make the cross......-gramian popular in several applications including model reduction, control configuration selection and sensitivity analysis. The ordinary cross-gramian which has been defined in the literature is the solution of a Sylvester equation. This Sylvester equation is not always solvable and therefore for some linear...... square symmetric systems, the ordinary cross-gramian does not exist. To cope with this problem, a new generalized cross-gramian is introduced in this paper. In contrast to the ordinary cross-gramian, the generalized cross-gramian can be easily obtained for general linear systems and therefore can be used...
Resources for Teaching Linear Algebra. MAA Notes Volume 42.
Carlson, David, Ed.; And Others
This book takes the position that the teaching of elementary linear algebra can be made more effective by emphasizing applications, exposition, and pedagogy. It includes the recommendations of the Linear Algebra Curriculum Study Group with their core syllabus for the first course, and the thoughts of mathematics faculty who have taught linear…
Differentially pumped dual linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer
Owen, Benjamin C.; Kenttamaa, Hilkka I.
2015-10-20
The present disclosure provides a new tandem mass spectrometer and methods of using the same for analyzing charged particles. The differentially pumped dual linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer of the present disclose includes a combination of two linear quadrupole (LQIT) mass spectrometers with differentially pumped vacuum chambers.
More on the linearization of W-algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krivonos, S.; Sorin, A.
1995-01-01
We show that a wide class of W-(super)algebras, including W N (N-1) , U(N)-superconformal as well as W N nonlinear algebras, can be linearized by embedding them as subalgebras into some linear (super)conformal algebras with finite sets of currents. The general construction is illustrated by the example of W 4 algebra. 16 refs
Exact linearization of an induction machine with rotoric flux orientation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bentaallah Abderrahim
2008-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we present the linearization control of an asynchronous machine. It allows decoupling and linearization of the system without including flux orientation. This non-linear control (NLC applied to the asynchronous machine breaks up the system into two linear and independent mono systems. The speed and the Id current controls are carried out by traditional regulators PI. A qualitative analysis of the evolution of the principal variables describing the behaviour of the global system (IM-control and its robustness is developed by several tests of digital simulation in the final stage. Numerous tests have been performed under Simulink/Matlab to show the control system performances.
Eaton, William W.
Reviewed are technological problems faced in energy production including locating, recovering, developing, storing, and distributing energy in clean, convenient, economical, and environmentally satisfactory manners. The energy resources of coal, oil, natural gas, hydroelectric power, nuclear energy, solar energy, geothermal energy, winds, tides,…
Reed, Philip A.; Ritz, John
2004-01-01
Geospatial technology refers to a system that is used to acquire, store, analyze, and output data in two or three dimensions. This data is referenced to the earth by some type of coordinate system, such as a map projection. Geospatial systems include thematic mapping, the Global Positioning System (GPS), remote sensing (RS), telemetry, and…
Device including a contact detector
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2011-01-01
The present invention relates to a probe for determining an electrical property of an area of a surface of a test sample, the probe is intended to be in a specific orientation relative to the test sample. The probe may comprise a supporting body defining a first surface. A plurality of cantilever...... of cantilever arms (12) contacting the surface of the test sample when performing the movement....... arms (12) may extend from the supporting body in co-planar relationship with the first surface. The plurality of cantilever arms (12) may extend substantially parallel to each other and each of the plurality of cantilever arms (12) may include an electrical conductive tip for contacting the area...
Linear covariance analysis for gimbaled pointing systems
Christensen, Randall S.
Linear covariance analysis has been utilized in a wide variety of applications. Historically, the theory has made significant contributions to navigation system design and analysis. More recently, the theory has been extended to capture the combined effect of navigation errors and closed-loop control on the performance of the system. These advancements have made possible rapid analysis and comprehensive trade studies of complicated systems ranging from autonomous rendezvous to vehicle ascent trajectory analysis. Comprehensive trade studies are also needed in the area of gimbaled pointing systems where the information needs are different from previous applications. It is therefore the objective of this research to extend the capabilities of linear covariance theory to analyze the closed-loop navigation and control of a gimbaled pointing system. The extensions developed in this research include modifying the linear covariance equations to accommodate a wider variety of controllers. This enables the analysis of controllers common to gimbaled pointing systems, with internal states and associated dynamics as well as actuator command filtering and auxiliary controller measurements. The second extension is the extraction of power spectral density estimates from information available in linear covariance analysis. This information is especially important to gimbaled pointing systems where not just the variance but also the spectrum of the pointing error impacts the performance. The extended theory is applied to a model of a gimbaled pointing system which includes both flexible and rigid body elements as well as input disturbances, sensor errors, and actuator errors. The results of the analysis are validated by direct comparison to a Monte Carlo-based analysis approach. Once the developed linear covariance theory is validated, analysis techniques that are often prohibitory with Monte Carlo analysis are used to gain further insight into the system. These include the creation
Dynamical criteria for a unified gauge theory (including gravity)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1979-01-01
It is shown that local gauge invariance together with dynamical (and possibly Higgs) symmetry breaking can be taken as a basis for a unified gauge theory including gravity. The criterion for the breakdown of the linear gauge symmetry of the space-time sector turns out to be the absence of a prior geometry. The usual postulates of general relativity, such as general coordinate invariance, etc., follow from the above two criteria. Gravity actions that are natural from the point of view are discussed. The extension to superspace relevant to gauge supergroups is also given, including a large number of linear and quadratic superspace invariants
Demagnetization Tests Performed on a Linear Alternator for a Stirling Power Convertor
Geng, Steven M.; Niedra, Janis M.; Schwarze, Gene E.
2012-01-01
The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is conducting in-house research on rare-earth permanent magnets and linear alternators to assist in developing free-piston Stirling convertors for radioisotope space power systems and for developing advanced linear alternator technology. This research continues at GRC, but, with the exception of Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator references, the work presented in this paper was conducted in 2005. A special arc-magnet characterization fixture was designed and built to measure the M-H characteristics of the magnets used in Technology Demonstration Convertors developed under the 110-W Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG110) project. This fixture was used to measure these characteristics of the arc magnets and to predict alternator demagnetization temperatures in the SRG110 application. Demagnetization tests using the TDC alternator on the Alternator Test Rig were conducted for two different magnet grades: Sumitomo Neomax 44AH and 42AH. The purpose of these tests was to determine the demagnetization temperatures of the magnets for the alternator under nominal loads. Measurements made during the tests included the linear alternator terminal voltage, current, average power, magnet temperatures, and stator temperatures. The results of these tests were found to be in good agreement with predictions. Alternator demagnetization temperatures in the Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC-developed under the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator project) were predicted as well because the prediction method had been validated through the SRG110 alternator tests. These predictions led to a specification for maximum temperatures of the ASC pressure vessel.
Linear programming foundations and extensions
Vanderbei, Robert J
2001-01-01
Linear Programming: Foundations and Extensions is an introduction to the field of optimization. The book emphasizes constrained optimization, beginning with a substantial treatment of linear programming, and proceeding to convex analysis, network flows, integer programming, quadratic programming, and convex optimization. The book is carefully written. Specific examples and concrete algorithms precede more abstract topics. Topics are clearly developed with a large number of numerical examples worked out in detail. Moreover, Linear Programming: Foundations and Extensions underscores the purpose of optimization: to solve practical problems on a computer. Accordingly, the book is coordinated with free efficient C programs that implement the major algorithms studied: -The two-phase simplex method; -The primal-dual simplex method; -The path-following interior-point method; -The homogeneous self-dual methods. In addition, there are online JAVA applets that illustrate various pivot rules and variants of the simplex m...
Bayes linear statistics, theory & methods
Goldstein, Michael
2007-01-01
Bayesian methods combine information available from data with any prior information available from expert knowledge. The Bayes linear approach follows this path, offering a quantitative structure for expressing beliefs, and systematic methods for adjusting these beliefs, given observational data. The methodology differs from the full Bayesian methodology in that it establishes simpler approaches to belief specification and analysis based around expectation judgements. Bayes Linear Statistics presents an authoritative account of this approach, explaining the foundations, theory, methodology, and practicalities of this important field. The text provides a thorough coverage of Bayes linear analysis, from the development of the basic language to the collection of algebraic results needed for efficient implementation, with detailed practical examples. The book covers:The importance of partial prior specifications for complex problems where it is difficult to supply a meaningful full prior probability specification...
Multivariate covariance generalized linear models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bonat, W. H.; Jørgensen, Bent
2016-01-01
We propose a general framework for non-normal multivariate data analysis called multivariate covariance generalized linear models, designed to handle multivariate response variables, along with a wide range of temporal and spatial correlation structures defined in terms of a covariance link...... function combined with a matrix linear predictor involving known matrices. The method is motivated by three data examples that are not easily handled by existing methods. The first example concerns multivariate count data, the second involves response variables of mixed types, combined with repeated...... measures and longitudinal structures, and the third involves a spatiotemporal analysis of rainfall data. The models take non-normality into account in the conventional way by means of a variance function, and the mean structure is modelled by means of a link function and a linear predictor. The models...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, O. Krogh
1975-01-01
Two approximate methods for solving the band-structure problem in an efficient and physically transparent way are presented and discussed in detail. The variational principle for the one-electron Hamiltonian is used in both schemes, and the trial functions are linear combinations of energy......-independent augmented plane waves (APW) and muffin-tin orbitals (MTO), respectively. The secular equations are therefore eigenvalue equations, linear in energy. The trial functions are defined with respect to a muffin-tin (MT) potential and the energy bands depend on the potential in the spheres through potential...... parameters which describe the energy dependence of the logarithmic derivatives. Inside the spheres, the energy-independent APW is that linear combination of an exact solution, at the arbitrary but fixed energy Eν, and its energy derivative which matches continuously and differentiably onto the plane...
Uniqueness theorems in linear elasticity
Knops, Robin John
1971-01-01
The classical result for uniqueness in elasticity theory is due to Kirchhoff. It states that the standard mixed boundary value problem for a homogeneous isotropic linear elastic material in equilibrium and occupying a bounded three-dimensional region of space possesses at most one solution in the classical sense, provided the Lame and shear moduli, A and J1 respectively, obey the inequalities (3 A + 2 J1) > 0 and J1>O. In linear elastodynamics the analogous result, due to Neumann, is that the initial-mixed boundary value problem possesses at most one solution provided the elastic moduli satisfy the same set of inequalities as in Kirchhoffs theorem. Most standard textbooks on the linear theory of elasticity mention only these two classical criteria for uniqueness and neglect altogether the abundant literature which has appeared since the original publications of Kirchhoff. To remedy this deficiency it seems appropriate to attempt a coherent description ofthe various contributions made to the study of uniquenes...
New final doublets and power densities for the international linear ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. In this paper we use current and proposed final doublet magnet technologies to reoptimise the interaction region of the international linear collider and reduce the power losses. The result is a set of three new final doublet layouts with improved beam transport properties. The effect of localised power deposition and ...
Design, analysis and fabrication of a linear permanent magnet ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
MONOJIT SEAL
Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur,. Howrah 711103, India ... Linear permanent magnet synchronous machine; LPMSM—fabrication; design optimisation; finite-element ...... LIM and simulation of its Robust control: ME Thesis, Dep- tartment of Electrical ...
Geometrically non linear analysis of functionally graded material ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Geometrically non linear analysis of functionally graded material plates using higher order theory. ... International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology. Journal Home ... The analysis of functionally graded material (FGM) plates with material variation parameter (n), boundary conditions, aspect ratios and side to ...
New final doublets and power densities for the international linear ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In this paper we use current and proposed final doublet magnet technologies to reoptimise the interaction region of the international linear collider and reduce the power losses. The result is a set of three new final doublet layouts with improved beam transport properties. The effect of localised power deposition and it's ...
Permafrost Hazards and Linear Infrastructure
Stanilovskaya, Julia; Sergeev, Dmitry
2014-05-01
The international experience of linear infrastructure planning, construction and exploitation in permafrost zone is being directly tied to the permafrost hazard assessment. That procedure should also consider the factors of climate impact and infrastructure protection. The current global climate change hotspots are currently polar and mountain areas. Temperature rise, precipitation and land ice conditions change, early springs occur more often. The big linear infrastructure objects cross the territories with different permafrost conditions which are sensitive to the changes in air temperature, hydrology, and snow accumulation which are connected to climatic dynamics. One of the most extensive linear structures built on permafrost worldwide are Trans Alaskan Pipeline (USA), Alaska Highway (Canada), Qinghai-Xizang Railway (China) and Eastern Siberia - Pacific Ocean Oil Pipeline (Russia). Those are currently being influenced by the regional climate change and permafrost impact which may act differently from place to place. Thermokarst is deemed to be the most dangerous process for linear engineering structures. Its formation and development depend on the linear structure type: road or pipeline, elevated or buried one. Zonal climate and geocryological conditions are also of the determining importance here. All the projects are of the different age and some of them were implemented under different climatic conditions. The effects of permafrost thawing have been recorded every year since then. The exploration and transportation companies from different countries maintain the linear infrastructure from permafrost degradation in different ways. The highways in Alaska are in a good condition due to governmental expenses on annual reconstructions. The Chara-China Railroad in Russia is under non-standard condition due to intensive permafrost response. Standards for engineering and construction should be reviewed and updated to account for permafrost hazards caused by the
International Linear Collider-A Technical Progress Report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Elsen, Eckhard; /DESY; Harrison, Mike; /Brookhaven; Hesla, Leah; /Fermilab; Ross, Marc; /Fermilab; Royole-Degieux, Perrine; /Paris, IN2P3; Takahashi, Rika; /KEK, Tsukuba; Walker, Nicholas; /DESY; Warmbein, Barbara; /DESY; Yamamoto, Akira; /KEK, Tsukuba; Yokoya, Kaoru; /KEK, Tsukuba; Zhang, Min; /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys.
2011-11-04
The International Linear Collider: A Technical Progress Report marks the halfway point towards the Global Design Effort fulfilling its mandate to follow up the ILC Reference Design Report with a more optimised Technical Design Report (TDR) by the end of 2012. The TDR will be based on much of the work reported here and will contain all the elements needed to propose the ILC to collaborating governments, including a technical design and implementation plan that are realistic and have been better optimised for performance, cost and risk. We are on track to develop detailed plans for the ILC, such that once results from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN establish the main science goals and parameters of the next machine, we will be in good position to make a strong proposal for this new major global project in particle physics. The two overriding issues for the ILC R&D programme are to demonstrate that the technical requirements for the accelerator are achievable with practical technologies, and that the ambitious physics goals can be addressed by realistic ILC detectors. This GDE interim report documents the impressive progress on the accelerator technologies that can make the ILC a reality. It highlights results of the technological demonstrations that are giving the community increased confidence that we will be ready to proceed with an ILC project following the TDR. The companion detector and physics report document likewise demonstrates how detector designs can meet the ambitious and detailed physics goals set out by the ILC Steering Committee. LHC results will likely affect the requirements for the machine design and the detectors, and we are monitoring that very closely, intending to adapt our design as those results become available.
Correct Linearization of Einstein's Equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rabounski D.
2006-06-01
Full Text Available Regularly Einstein's equations can be reduced to a wave form (linearly dependent from the second derivatives of the space metric in the absence of gravitation, the space rotation and Christoffel's symbols. As shown here, the origin of the problem is that one uses the general covariant theory of measurement. Here the wave form of Einstein's equations is obtained in the terms of Zelmanov's chronometric invariants (physically observable projections on the observer's time line and spatial section. The obtained equations depend on solely the second derivatives even if gravitation, the space rotation and Christoffel's symbols. The correct linearization proves: the Einstein equations are completely compatible with weak waves of the metric.
Vanilla technicolor at linear colliders
Frandsen, Mads T.; Järvinen, Matti; Sannino, Francesco
2011-08-01
We analyze the reach of linear colliders for models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We show that linear colliders can efficiently test the compositeness scale, identified with the mass of the new spin-one resonances, until the maximum energy in the center of mass of the colliding leptons. In particular we analyze the Drell-Yan processes involving spin-one intermediate heavy bosons decaying either leptonically or into two standard model gauge bosons. We also analyze the light Higgs production in association with a standard model gauge boson stemming also from an intermediate spin-one heavy vector.
Introduction to computational linear algebra
Nassif, Nabil; Erhel, Jocelyne
2015-01-01
Introduction to Computational Linear Algebra introduces the reader with a background in basic mathematics and computer programming to the fundamentals of dense and sparse matrix computations with illustrating examples. The textbook is a synthesis of conceptual and practical topics in ""Matrix Computations."" The book's learning outcomes are twofold: to understand state-of-the-art computational tools to solve matrix computations problems (BLAS primitives, MATLAB® programming) as well as essential mathematical concepts needed to master the topics of numerical linear algebra. It is suitable for s
Passive longitudinal phase space linearizer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Craievich
2010-03-01
Full Text Available We report on the possibility to passively linearize the bunch compression process in electron linacs for the next generation x-ray free electron lasers. This can be done by using the monopole wakefields in a dielectric-lined waveguide. The optimum longitudinal voltage loss over the length of the bunch is calculated in order to compensate both the second-order rf time curvature and the second-order momentum compaction terms. Thus, the longitudinal phase space after the compression process is linearized up to a fourth-order term introduced by the convolution between the bunch and the monopole wake function.
Linear feedback controls the essentials
Haidekker, Mark A
2013-01-01
The design of control systems is at the very core of engineering. Feedback controls are ubiquitous, ranging from simple room thermostats to airplane engine control. Helping to make sense of this wide-ranging field, this book provides a new approach by keeping a tight focus on the essentials with a limited, yet consistent set of examples. Analysis and design methods are explained in terms of theory and practice. The book covers classical, linear feedback controls, and linear approximations are used when needed. In parallel, the book covers time-discrete (digital) control systems and juxtapos
Basic linear partial differential equations
Treves, Francois
1975-01-01
Focusing on the archetypes of linear partial differential equations, this text for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students features most of the basic classical results. The methods, however, are decidedly nontraditional: in practically every instance, they tend toward a high level of abstraction. This approach recalls classical material to contemporary analysts in a language they can understand, as well as exploiting the field's wealth of examples as an introduction to modern theories.The four-part treatment covers the basic examples of linear partial differential equations and their
Quantized, piecewise linear filter network
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, John Aasted
1993-01-01
A quantization based piecewise linear filter network is defined. A method for the training of this network based on local approximation in the input space is devised. The training is carried out by repeatedly alternating between vector quantization of the training set into quantization classes...... and equalization of the quantization classes linear filter mean square training errors. The equalization of the mean square training errors is carried out by adapting the boundaries between neighbor quantization classes such that the differences in mean square training errors are reduced...
Generalized, Linear, and Mixed Models
McCulloch, Charles E; Neuhaus, John M
2011-01-01
An accessible and self-contained introduction to statistical models-now in a modernized new editionGeneralized, Linear, and Mixed Models, Second Edition provides an up-to-date treatment of the essential techniques for developing and applying a wide variety of statistical models. The book presents thorough and unified coverage of the theory behind generalized, linear, and mixed models and highlights their similarities and differences in various construction, application, and computational aspects.A clear introduction to the basic ideas of fixed effects models, random effects models, and mixed m
Wakefield effects in a linear collider
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bane, K.L.F.
1986-12-01
In this paper the wakefields for the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) accelerating structure are first discussed, and then some considerations dealing with the longitudinal wakefields are described. The main focus is on the effects of the transverse wakefield on the beam, including the case when there is an energy variation along the bunch. The use of an energy spread to inhibit emittance growth in a linac, indeed to damp the oscillations of the core of the bunch to below the unperturbed betatron oscillations, (in a process that is similar to Landau Damping) is qualitatively detailed. The example of the SLC, including errors, is also in detail
MEMS linear and nonlinear statics and dynamics
Younis, Mohammad I
2011-01-01
MEMS Linear and Nonlinear Statics and Dynamics presents the necessary analytical and computational tools for MEMS designers to model and simulate most known MEMS devices, structures, and phenomena. This book also provides an in-depth analysis and treatment of the most common static and dynamic phenomena in MEMS that are encountered by engineers. Coverage also includes nonlinear modeling approaches to modeling various MEMS phenomena of a nonlinear nature, such as those due to electrostatic forces, squeeze-film damping, and large deflection of structures. The book also: Includes examples of nume
Maglev trains key underlying technologies
Liu, Zhigang; Li, Xiaolong
2015-01-01
The motion of the train depends on the traction of linear motors in the vehicle. This book describes a number of essential technologies that can ensure the safe operation of Maglev trains, such as suspension and orientation technologies, network control and diagnosis technologies. This book is intended for researchers, scientists, engineers and graduate students involved in the rail transit industry, train control and diagnosis, and Maglev technology.
A Review on Inertia and Linear Friction Welding of Ni-Based Superalloys
Chamanfar, Ahmad; Jahazi, Mohammad; Cormier, Jonathan
2015-04-01
Inertia and linear friction welding are being increasingly used for near-net-shape manufacturing of high-value materials in aerospace and power generation gas turbines because of providing a better quality joint and offering many advantages over conventional fusion welding and mechanical joining techniques. In this paper, the published works up-to-date on inertia and linear friction welding of Ni-based superalloys are reviewed with the objective to make clarifications on discrepancies and uncertainties reported in literature regarding issues related to these two friction welding processes as well as microstructure, texture, and mechanical properties of the Ni-based superalloy weldments. Initially, the chemical composition and microstructure of Ni-based superalloys that contribute to the quality of the joint are reviewed briefly. Then, problems related to fusion welding of these alloys are addressed with due consideration of inertia and linear friction welding as alternative techniques. The fundamentals of inertia and linear friction welding processes are analyzed next with emphasis on the bonding mechanisms and evolution of temperature and strain rate across the weld interface. Microstructural features, texture development, residual stresses, and mechanical properties of similar and dissimilar polycrystalline and single crystal Ni-based superalloy weldments are discussed next. Then, application of inertia and linear friction welding for joining Ni-based superalloys and related advantages over fusion welding, mechanical joining, and machining are explained briefly. Finally, present scientific and technological challenges facing inertia and linear friction welding of Ni-based superalloys including those related to modeling of these processes are addressed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goldstein, L.
2002-09-01
This report, prepared by NREL's Energy Analysis Office, includes up-to-date information on power technologies, including complete technology profiles. The data book also contains charts on electricity restructuring, power technology forecasts and comparisons, electricity supply, electricity capability, electricity generation, electricity demand, prices, economic indicators, environmental indicators, conversion factors, and selected congressional questions and answers.
Linear regression and the normality assumption.
Schmidt, Amand F; Finan, Chris
2017-12-16
Researchers often perform arbitrary outcome transformations to fulfill the normality assumption of a linear regression model. This commentary explains and illustrates that in large data settings, such transformations are often unnecessary, and worse may bias model estimates. Linear regression assumptions are illustrated using simulated data and an empirical example on the relation between time since type 2 diabetes diagnosis and glycated hemoglobin levels. Simulation results were evaluated on coverage; i.e., the number of times the 95% confidence interval included the true slope coefficient. Although outcome transformations bias point estimates, violations of the normality assumption in linear regression analyses do not. The normality assumption is necessary to unbiasedly estimate standard errors, and hence confidence intervals and P-values. However, in large sample sizes (e.g., where the number of observations per variable is >10) violations of this normality assumption often do not noticeably impact results. Contrary to this, assumptions on, the parametric model, absence of extreme observations, homoscedasticity, and independency of the errors, remain influential even in large sample size settings. Given that modern healthcare research typically includes thousands of subjects focusing on the normality assumption is often unnecessary, does not guarantee valid results, and worse may bias estimates due to the practice of outcome transformations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Automating linear accelerator quality assurance.
Eckhause, Tobias; Al-Hallaq, Hania; Ritter, Timothy; DeMarco, John; Farrey, Karl; Pawlicki, Todd; Kim, Gwe-Ya; Popple, Richard; Sharma, Vijeshwar; Perez, Mario; Park, SungYong; Booth, Jeremy T; Thorwarth, Ryan; Moran, Jean M
2015-10-01
The purpose of this study was 2-fold. One purpose was to develop an automated, streamlined quality assurance (QA) program for use by multiple centers. The second purpose was to evaluate machine performance over time for multiple centers using linear accelerator (Linac) log files and electronic portal images. The authors sought to evaluate variations in Linac performance to establish as a reference for other centers. The authors developed analytical software tools for a QA program using both log files and electronic portal imaging device (EPID) measurements. The first tool is a general analysis tool which can read and visually represent data in the log file. This tool, which can be used to automatically analyze patient treatment or QA log files, examines the files for Linac deviations which exceed thresholds. The second set of tools consists of a test suite of QA fields, a standard phantom, and software to collect information from the log files on deviations from the expected values. The test suite was designed to focus on the mechanical tests of the Linac to include jaw, MLC, and collimator positions during static, IMRT, and volumetric modulated arc therapy delivery. A consortium of eight institutions delivered the test suite at monthly or weekly intervals on each Linac using a standard phantom. The behavior of various components was analyzed for eight TrueBeam Linacs. For the EPID and trajectory log file analysis, all observed deviations which exceeded established thresholds for Linac behavior resulted in a beam hold off. In the absence of an interlock-triggering event, the maximum observed log file deviations between the expected and actual component positions (such as MLC leaves) varied from less than 1% to 26% of published tolerance thresholds. The maximum and standard deviations of the variations due to gantry sag, collimator angle, jaw position, and MLC positions are presented. Gantry sag among Linacs was 0.336 ± 0.072 mm. The standard deviation in MLC
Linear position sensing using magnetoresistive sensors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bratland, T.; Wan, H. [Honeywell Inc., Plymouth, MN (United States). Solid State Electronics Center
2001-07-01
This paper presents a non-contact, non-wear-out solution for long span absolute linear position sensing. This solution utilizes an array of magnetoresistive (MR) sensors, a magnet and signal conditioning electronics. The sensors are used to determine the position of a magnet that is attached to a moving object. In addition to mechanical benefits, this solution offers a high accuracy, low power solution. In this paper we will discuss the operating principles, system error and applications of this approach. This approach will be beneficial in applications for linear position or displacement, LVDT replacements, proximity detection, valve positioning, shaft travel, automotive steering, brake and throttle position systems. This will be used in industries including automotive, aviation and industrial process control. (orig.)
Analysis of latent structures in linear systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Høskuldsson, Agnar
2004-01-01
In chemometrics the emphasis is on latent structure models. The latent structure is the part of the data that the modeling task is based upon. This paper is addressing some fundamental issues, when latent structures are used. The paper consists of three parts. The first part is concerned defining...... the latent structure of a linear model. Here the ‘atomic’ parts of the algorithms that generate the latent structure for linear models are analyzed. It is shown how the PLS algorithm fits within this way of presenting the numerical procedures. The second part is concerning graphic illustrations...... to use for deciding if single or multiple latent structures should be used. The last part is about choosing the variables that should be used in the analysis. The traditional procedures to select variables to include in the model are presented and the insufficiencies of such approaches are demonstrated...
A nonlinear plate control without linearization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yildirim Kenan
2017-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper, an optimal vibration control problem for a nonlinear plate is considered. In order to obtain the optimal control function, wellposedness and controllability of the nonlinear system is investigated. The performance index functional of the system, to be minimized by minimum level of control, is chosen as the sum of the quadratic 10 functional of the displacement. The velocity of the plate and quadratic functional of the control function is added to the performance index functional as a penalty term. By using a maximum principle, the nonlinear control problem is transformed to solving a system of partial differential equations including state and adjoint variables linked by initial-boundary-terminal conditions. Hence, it is shown that optimal control of the nonlinear systems can be obtained without linearization of the nonlinear term and optimal control function can be obtained analytically for nonlinear systems without linearization.
175 Years of Linear Programming
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
emergence of modem economic theory was the simultane- ous but independent development of linear programming on the one hand and game theory ..... constant to each of the elements does not change th~ equilibrium or stable strategies but merely changes the expected payoff by the added constant. If x* and y* denote.
175 Years of Linear Programming
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
optimisation and risk management in the context of managerial decision making. Vijay Chandru and M R Rao. "One of the most striking events in connection with the emergence of modem economic theory was the simultane- ous but independent development of linear programming on the one hand and game theory on the ...
175 Years of Linear Programming
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
context of managerial decision making. Vijay Chandru and M R Rao. The simplex method has been the veritable work- horse of linear programming for five decades now. An elegant geometric interpretation of the simplex method can be visualised by viewing the animation of the algorithm in a column space representation.
Linear collider systems and costs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Loew, G.A.
1993-05-01
The purpose of this paper is to examine some of the systems and sub-systems involved in so-called ''conventional'' e + e - linear colliders and to study how their design affects the overall cost of these machines. There are presently a total of at least six 500 GeV c. of m. linear collider projects under study in the world. Aside from TESLA (superconducting linac at 1.3 GHz) and CLIC (two-beam accelerator with main linac at 30GHz), the other four proposed e + e - linear colliders can be considered ''conventional'' in that their main linacs use the proven technique of driving room temperature accelerator sections with pulsed klystrons and modulators. The centrally distinguishing feature between these projects is their main linac rf frequency: 3 GHz for the DESY machine, 11.424 GHz for the SLAC and JLC machines, and 14 GHz for the VLEPP machine. The other systems, namely the electron and positron sources, preaccelerators, compressors, damping rings and final foci, are fairly similar from project to project. Probably more than 80% of the cost of these linear colliders will be incurred in the two main linacs facing each other and it is therefore in their design and construction that major savings or extra costs may be found
175 Years of Linear Programming
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 5. 175 Years of Linear Programming - Pune's Gift. Vijay Chandru M R Rao. Series Article Volume 4 Issue 5 May 1999 pp 31-39. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/05/0031-0039 ...
175 Years of Linear Programming
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 10. 175 Years of Linear Programming - Max Flow = Min Cut. Vijay Chandru M R Rao. Series Article Volume 4 Issue 10 October 1999 pp 22-39. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:
Introduction to RF linear accelerators
Pichoff, N
2006-01-01
After a short introduction to applications of RF linacs and their advantages and drawbacks as opposed to circular accelerators, the model of RF resonant cavities and their excitation by RF sources or beam is introduced. Then beam dynamics notions, essential to linacs, such as transit-time factor, synchronism, r.m.s. properties, matching and mismatching in linear or nonlinear forces, are presented.
175 Years of Linear Programming
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 5. 175 Years of Linear Programming - Pune's Gift. Vijay Chandru M R Rao. Series Article Volume 4 Issue 5 May ... Computer Science and Automation, IISc Bangalore 560012, India. Director, Indian Institute of Management, Bannerghatta Road, ...
175 Years of Linear Programming
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Annual Meetings · Mid Year Meetings · Discussion Meetings · Public Lectures · Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 10. 175 Years of Linear Programming - The French Connection. Vijay Chandru M R Rao.
175 Years of Linear Programming
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2. Pivots In Column Space. The Simplex Method. 3. Pune's Glft.Karmarkar's. Projective Scaling MethQd. 4. Minimax and Cake.von. Neumann's. Minimax. Theorem. 5. MaxFlow equals MlnCut. The Theory of Network. Flows. SERIES I ARTICLE system Ax ::; b. Let us denote. Our goal is to create an equivalent system of linear ...
Vanilla Technicolor at Linear Colliders
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
T. Frandsen, Mads; Jarvinen, Matti; Sannino, Francesco
2011-01-01
We analyze the reach of Linear Colliders (LC)s for models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We show that LCs can efficiently test the compositeness scale, identified with the mass of the new spin-one resonances, till the maximum energy in the center-of-mass of the colliding leptons...
175 Years of Linear Programming
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A 1-simplex is a line segment, a 2-simplex a triangle, a 3-simplex a tetrahedron, and so on. • Basic Feasible Solution: An algebraic representation of an extreme point for a linear programme with equality constraints and all non-negative variables. • Dictionary: A tableaux of coefficients displaying a basic feasible solution.
Linear Algebra and Analysis Masterclasses
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
be available in digital format and will be housed as always on the Academy website, will be valuable to both students and experts as a useful handbook on Linear ..... Hilbert transform, Hilbert class-field, Hilbert basis theorem, Hilbert irreducibility theorem,. Hilbert nullstellensatz. Hilbert also changed the way mathematicians ...
Parameterized Linear Longitudinal Airship Model
Kulczycki, Eric; Elfes, Alberto; Bayard, David; Quadrelli, Marco; Johnson, Joseph
2010-01-01
A parameterized linear mathematical model of the longitudinal dynamics of an airship is undergoing development. This model is intended to be used in designing control systems for future airships that would operate in the atmospheres of Earth and remote planets. Heretofore, the development of linearized models of the longitudinal dynamics of airships has been costly in that it has been necessary to perform extensive flight testing and to use system-identification techniques to construct models that fit the flight-test data. The present model is a generic one that can be relatively easily specialized to approximate the dynamics of specific airships at specific operating points, without need for further system identification, and with significantly less flight testing. The approach taken in the present development is to merge the linearized dynamical equations of an airship with techniques for estimation of aircraft stability derivatives, and to thereby make it possible to construct a linearized dynamical model of the longitudinal dynamics of a specific airship from geometric and aerodynamic data pertaining to that airship. (It is also planned to develop a model of the lateral dynamics by use of the same methods.) All of the aerodynamic data needed to construct the model of a specific airship can be obtained from wind-tunnel testing and computational fluid dynamics
Linear perturbations of quaternionic metrics
Alexandrov, S.; Pioline, B.; Saueressig, F.; Vandoren, S.J.G.
2010-01-01
We extend the twistor methods developed in our earlier work on linear deformations of hyperkähler manifolds [1] to the case of quaternionic-Kähler manifolds. Via Swann’s construction, deformations of a 4d-dimensional quaternionic-Kähler manifoldMare in one-to-one correspondence with deformations of
Linear accelerators of the future
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Loew, G.A.
1986-07-01
Some of the requirements imposed on future linear accelerators to be used in electron-positron colliders are reviewed, as well as some approaches presently being examined for meeting those requirements. RF sources for use in these linacs are described, as well as wakefields, single bunches, and multiple-bunch trains. (LEW)
Linear and non-linear video and TV applications using IPv6 and IPv6 multicast
Minoli, Daniel
2012-01-01
Provides options for implementing IPv6 and IPv6 multicast in service provider networks New technologies, viewing paradigms, and content distribution approaches are taking the TV/video services industry by storm. Linear and Nonlinear Video and TV Applications: Using IPv6 and IPv6 Multicast identifies five emerging trends in next-generation delivery of entertainment-quality video. These trends are observable and can be capitalized upon by progressive service providers, telcos, cable operators, and ISPs. This comprehensive guide explores these evolving directions in the TV/v
Optimization for decision making linear and quadratic models
Murty, Katta G
2010-01-01
While maintaining the rigorous linear programming instruction required, Murty's new book is unique in its focus on developing modeling skills to support valid decision-making for complex real world problems, and includes solutions to brand new algorithms.
VT Linear Referencing System - Town-Based 2013
Vermont Center for Geographic Information — LRS2013 is a Linear Referencing System layer that includes Interstate, U.S., State (VT), and other transportation routes logged by the Vermont Agency of...
Linear signal processing using silicon micro-ring resonators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Peucheret, Christophe; Ding, Yunhong; Ou, Haiyan
2012-01-01
We review our recent achievements on the use of silicon micro-ring resonators for linear optical signal processing applications, including modulation format conversion, phase-to-intensity modulation conversion and waveform shaping....
Nyman, Melvin A.; Lapp, Douglas A.; St. John, Dennis; Berry, John S.
2010-01-01
This paper discusses student difficulties in grasping concepts from Linear Algebra--in particular, the connection of eigenvalues and eigenvectors to other important topics in linear algebra. Based on our prior observations from student interviews, we propose technology-enhanced instructional approaches that might positively impact student…
Advertising and New Narrative: Linearity to Transmediality
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marisa Avogadro-Thomé
2016-07-01
Full Text Available Our environment has changed. We live in a real and virtual society, where new Information and Communications Technology (ICT offers us various possibilities of information generation and transmission, getting through geographical and cultural barriers and crossing the world in record time. The digital revolution is not over and the media ecosystem as a consequence has not stabilized yet. The increasing use of media and ICT has put traditional media in crisis within the transformation of the Advertising industry context and the alternative funding and business practices. Therefore, this article presents a critical analysis on Advertising and the new narratives, trying to find adequate bibliographical support to study the path from linearity to transmediality.
Smith, Karan B.
1996-01-01
Presents activities which highlight major concepts of linear programming. Demonstrates how technology allows students to solve linear programming problems using exploration prior to learning algorithmic methods. (DDR)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tapping, R.L.; Turner, C.W.; Yu, S.K.W.; Olmstead, R.; Speranzini, R.A.
2004-01-01
A successful advanced reactor plant will have optimized economics including reduced operating and maintenance costs, improved performance, and enhanced safety. Incorporating improvements based on advanced technologies ensures cost, safety and operational competitiveness of the ACR-700. These advanced technologies include modern configuration management; construction technologies; operational technology for the control centre and information systems for plant monitoring and analysis. This paper summarizes the advanced technologies used to achieve construction and operational improvements to enhance plant economic competitiveness, advances in the operational technology used for reactor control, and presents the development of the Smart CANDU suite of tools and its application to existing operating reactors and to the ACR-700. (author)
NASA Technology Transfer System
Tran, Peter B.; Okimura, Takeshi
2017-01-01
NTTS is the IT infrastructure for the Agency's Technology Transfer (T2) program containing 60,000+ technology portfolio supporting all ten NASA field centers and HQ. It is the enterprise IT system for facilitating the Agency's technology transfer process, which includes reporting of new technologies (e.g., technology invention disclosures NF1679), protecting intellectual properties (e.g., patents), and commercializing technologies through various technology licenses, software releases, spinoffs, and success stories using custom built workflow, reporting, data consolidation, integration, and search engines.
Input/Output linearizing control of a nuclear reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perez C, V.
1994-01-01
The feedback linearization technique is an approach to nonlinear control design. The basic idea is to transform, by means of algebraic methods, the dynamics of a nonlinear control system into a full or partial linear system. As a result of this linearization process, the well known basic linear control techniques can be used to obtain some desired dynamic characteristics. When full linearization is achieved, the method is referred to as input-state linearization, whereas when partial linearization is achieved, the method is referred to as input-output linearization. We will deal with the latter. By means of input-output linearization, the dynamics of a nonlinear system can be decomposed into an external part (input-output), and an internal part (unobservable). Since the external part consists of a linear relationship among the output of the plant and the auxiliary control input mentioned above, it is easy to design such an auxiliary control input so that we get the output to behave in a predetermined way. Since the internal dynamics of the system is known, we can check its dynamics behavior on order of to ensure that the internal states are bounded. The linearization method described here can be applied to systems with one-input/one-output, as well as to systems with multiple-inputs/multiple-outputs. Typical control problems such as stabilization and reference path tracking can be solved using this technique. In this work, the input/output linearization theory is presented, as well as the problem of getting the output variable to track some desired trayectories. Further, the design of an input/output control system applied to the nonlinear model of a research nuclear reactor is included, along with the results obtained by computer simulation. (Author)
A micromanipulation cell including a tool changer
Clévy, Cédric; Hubert, Arnaud; Agnus, Joël; Chaillet, Nicolas
2005-10-01
This paper deals with the design, fabrication and characterization of a tool changer for micromanipulation cells. This tool changer is part of a manipulation cell including a three linear axes robot and a piezoelectric microgripper. All these parts are designed to perform micromanipulation tasks in confined spaces such as a microfactory or in the chamber of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The tool changer principle is to fix a pair of tools (i.e. the gripper tips) either on the tips of the microgripper actuator (piezoceramic bulk) or on a tool magazine. The temperature control of a thermal glue enables one to fix or release this pair of tools. Liquefaction and solidification are generated by surface mounted device (SMD) resistances fixed on the surface of the actuator or magazine. Based on this principle, the tool changer can be adapted to other kinds of micromanipulation cells. Hundreds of automatic tool exchanges were performed with a maximum positioning error between two consecutive tool exchanges of 3.2 µm, 2.3 µm and 2.8 µm on the X, Y and Z axes respectively (Z refers to the vertical axis). Finally, temperature measurements achieved under atmospheric pressure and in a vacuum environment and pressure measurements confirm the possibility of using this device in the air as well as in a SEM.
Metric preheating and limitations of linearized gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bassett, Bruce A.; Tamburini, Fabrizio; Kaiser, David I.; Maartens, Roy
1999-01-01
During the preheating era after inflation, resonant amplification of quantum field fluctuations takes place. Recently it has become clear that this must be accompanied by resonant amplification of scalar metric fluctuations, since the two are united by Einstein's equations. Furthermore, this 'metric preheating' enhances particle production, and leads to gravitational rescattering effects even at linear order. In multi-field models with strong preheating (q>>1), metric perturbations are driven non-linear, with the strongest amplification typically on super-Hubble scales (k→0). This amplification is causal, being due to the super-Hubble coherence of the inflaton condensate, and is accompanied by resonant growth of entropy perturbations. The amplification invalidates the use of the linearized Einstein field equations, irrespective of the amount of fine-tuning of the initial conditions. This has serious implications on all scales - from large-angle cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies to primordial black holes. We investigate the (q,k) parameter space in a two-field model, and introduce the time to non-linearity, t nl , as the timescale for the breakdown of the linearized Einstein equations. t nl is a robust indicator of resonance behavior, showing the fine structure in q and k that one expects from a quasi-Floquet system, and we argue that t nl is a suitable generalization of the static Floquet index in an expanding universe. Backreaction effects are expected to shut down the linear resonances, but cannot remove the existing amplification, which threatens the viability of strong preheating when confronted with the CMB. Mode-mode coupling and turbulence tend to re-establish scale invariance, but this process is limited by causality and for small k the primordial scale invariance of the spectrum may be destroyed. We discuss ways to escape the above conclusions, including secondary phases of inflation and preheating solely to fermions. The exclusion principle
Integrability and Linear Stability of Nonlinear Waves
Degasperis, Antonio; Lombardo, Sara; Sommacal, Matteo
2018-03-01
It is well known that the linear stability of solutions of 1+1 partial differential equations which are integrable can be very efficiently investigated by means of spectral methods. We present here a direct construction of the eigenmodes of the linearized equation which makes use only of the associated Lax pair with no reference to spectral data and boundary conditions. This local construction is given in the general N× N matrix scheme so as to be applicable to a large class of integrable equations, including the multicomponent nonlinear Schrödinger system and the multiwave resonant interaction system. The analytical and numerical computations involved in this general approach are detailed as an example for N=3 for the particular system of two coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations in the defocusing, focusing and mixed regimes. The instabilities of the continuous wave solutions are fully discussed in the entire parameter space of their amplitudes and wave numbers. By defining and computing the spectrum in the complex plane of the spectral variable, the eigenfrequencies are explicitly expressed. According to their topological properties, the complete classification of these spectra in the parameter space is presented and graphically displayed. The continuous wave solutions are linearly unstable for a generic choice of the coupling constants.
Linear regression in astronomy. II
Feigelson, Eric D.; Babu, Gutti J.
1992-01-01
A wide variety of least-squares linear regression procedures used in observational astronomy, particularly investigations of the cosmic distance scale, are presented and discussed. The classes of linear models considered are (1) unweighted regression lines, with bootstrap and jackknife resampling; (2) regression solutions when measurement error, in one or both variables, dominates the scatter; (3) methods to apply a calibration line to new data; (4) truncated regression models, which apply to flux-limited data sets; and (5) censored regression models, which apply when nondetections are present. For the calibration problem we develop two new procedures: a formula for the intercept offset between two parallel data sets, which propagates slope errors from one regression to the other; and a generalization of the Working-Hotelling confidence bands to nonstandard least-squares lines. They can provide improved error analysis for Faber-Jackson, Tully-Fisher, and similar cosmic distance scale relations.
Challenges in future linear colliders
Chattopadhyay, S
2002-01-01
For decades, electron-positron colliders have been complementing proton-proton colliders. But the circular LEP, the largest e/sup -/e /sup +/ collider, represented an energy limit beyond which energy losses to synchrotron radiation necessitate moving to e/sup -/e/sup + / linear colliders (LCs), thereby raising new challenges for accelerator builders. Japanese-American, German, and European collaborations have presented options for the "Future Linear Collider " (FLC). Key accelerator issues for any FLC option are the achievement of high enough energy and luminosity. Damping rings, taking advantage of the phenomenon of synchrotron radiation, have been developed as the means for decreasing beam size, which is crucial for ensuring a sufficiently high rate of particle-particle collisions. Related challenges are alignment and stability in an environment where even minute ground motion can disrupt performance, and the ability to monitor beam size. The technical challenges exist within a wider context of socioeconomi...
Forms and Linear Network Codes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Johan P.
We present a general theory to obtain linear network codes utilizing forms and obtain explicit families of equidimensional vector spaces, in which any pair of distinct vector spaces intersect in the same small dimension. The theory is inspired by the methods of the author utilizing the osculating...... spaces of Veronese varieties. Linear network coding transmits information in terms of a basis of a vector space and the information is received as a basis of a possibly altered vector space. Ralf Koetter and Frank R. Kschischang introduced a metric on the set af vector spaces and showed that a minimal...... distance decoder for this metric achieves correct decoding if the dimension of the intersection of the transmitted and received vector space is sufficiently large. The vector spaces in our construction are equidistant in the above metric and the distance between any pair of vector spaces is large making...
An Assessment of Linear Versus Non-linear Multigrid Methods for Unstructured Mesh Solvers
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Mavriplis, Dimitri
2001-01-01
.... When an exact linearization is employed, the linear and non-linear multigrid methods converge at identical rates, asymptotically, and the linear method is found to be more efficient due to its lower cost per cycle...
Introduction to Microwave Linear [Accelerators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Whittum, David H
1999-01-04
The elements of microwave linear accelerators are introduced starting with the principles of acceleration and accelerating structures. Considerations for microwave structure modeling and design are developed from an elementary point of view. Basic elements of microwave electronics are described for application to the accelerator circuit and instrumentation. Concepts of beam physics are explored together with examples of common beamline instruments. Charged particle optics and lattice diagnostics are introduced. Considerations for fixed-target and colliding-beam experimentation are summarized.
Linear polarization of BY Draconis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koch, R.H.; Pfeiffer, R.J.
1976-01-01
Linear polarization measurements are reported in four bandpasses for the flare star BY Dra. The red polarization is intrinsically variable at a confidence level greater than 99 percent. On a time scale of many months, the variability is not phase-locked to either a rotational or a Keplerian ephemeris. The observations of the three other bandpasses are useful principally to indicate a polarization spectrum rising toward shorter wavelengths
Squares of Random Linear Codes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cascudo Pueyo, Ignacio; Cramer, Ronald; Mirandola, Diego
2015-01-01
a positive answer, for codes of dimension $k$ and length roughly $\\frac{1}{2}k^2$ or smaller. Moreover, the convergence speed is exponential if the difference $k(k+1)/2-n$ is at least linear in $k$. The proof uses random coding and combinatorial arguments, together with algebraic tools involving the precise...... computation of the number of quadratic forms of a given rank, and the number of their zeros....
Linear morphea with secondary mucinosis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Khandpur Sujay
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Secondary mucin deposition in the skin is a common feature of lupus erythematosus and dermatomyositis. In scleroderma, it occurs uncommonly or in small amount. We describe a 7-year-old boy with progressive, linear, bound-down plaques involving the thighs, lower abdomen and back with no systemic involvement. Histopathology showed features of scleroderma with abundant mucin deposition in the reticular dermis. This report highlights excessive mucin deposition in lesions of morphea.
BLAS- BASIC LINEAR ALGEBRA SUBPROGRAMS
Krogh, F. T.
1994-01-01
The Basic Linear Algebra Subprogram (BLAS) library is a collection of FORTRAN callable routines for employing standard techniques in performing the basic operations of numerical linear algebra. The BLAS library was developed to provide a portable and efficient source of basic operations for designers of programs involving linear algebraic computations. The subprograms available in the library cover the operations of dot product, multiplication of a scalar and a vector, vector plus a scalar times a vector, Givens transformation, modified Givens transformation, copy, swap, Euclidean norm, sum of magnitudes, and location of the largest magnitude element. Since these subprograms are to be used in an ANSI FORTRAN context, the cases of single precision, double precision, and complex data are provided for. All of the subprograms have been thoroughly tested and produce consistent results even when transported from machine to machine. BLAS contains Assembler versions and FORTRAN test code for any of the following compilers: Lahey F77L, Microsoft FORTRAN, or IBM Professional FORTRAN. It requires the Microsoft Macro Assembler and a math co-processor. The PC implementation allows individual arrays of over 64K. The BLAS library was developed in 1979. The PC version was made available in 1986 and updated in 1988.
Preface: Introductory Remarks: Linear Scaling Methods
Bowler, D. R.; Fattebert, J.-L.; Gillan, M. J.; Haynes, P. D.; Skylaris, C.-K.
2008-07-01
It has been just over twenty years since the publication of the seminal paper on molecular dynamics with ab initio methods by Car and Parrinello [1], and the contribution of density functional theory (DFT) and the related techniques to physics, chemistry, materials science, earth science and biochemistry has been huge. Nevertheless, significant improvements are still being made to the performance of these standard techniques; recent work suggests that speed improvements of one or even two orders of magnitude are possible [2]. One of the areas where major progress has long been expected is in O(N), or linear scaling, DFT, in which the computer effort is proportional to the number of atoms. Linear scaling DFT methods have been in development for over ten years [3] but we are now in an exciting period where more and more research groups are working on these methods. Naturally there is a strong and continuing effort to improve the efficiency of the methods and to make them more robust. But there is also a growing ambition to apply them to challenging real-life problems. This special issue contains papers submitted following the CECAM Workshop 'Linear-scaling ab initio calculations: applications and future directions', held in Lyon from 3-6 September 2007. A noteworthy feature of the workshop is that it included a significant number of presentations involving real applications of O(N) methods, as well as work to extend O(N) methods into areas of greater accuracy (correlated wavefunction methods, quantum Monte Carlo, TDDFT) and large scale computer architectures. As well as explicitly linear scaling methods, the conference included presentations on techniques designed to accelerate and improve the efficiency of standard (that is non-linear-scaling) methods; this highlights the important question of crossover—that is, at what size of system does it become more efficient to use a linear-scaling method? As well as fundamental algorithmic questions, this brings up
Non-linear dynamics in Parkinsonism
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Olivier eDarbin
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Over the last 30 years, the functions (and dysfunctions of the sensory-motor circuitry have been mostly conceptualized using linear modelizations which have resulted in two main models: the "rate hypothesis" and the "oscillatory hypothesis". In these two models, the basal ganglia data stream is envisaged as a random temporal combination of independent simple patterns issued from its probability distribution of interval interspikes or its spectrum of frequencies respectively.More recently, non-linear analyses have been introduced in the modelization of motor circuitry activities, and they have provided evidences that complex temporal organizations exist in basal ganglia neuronal activities. Regarding movement disorders, these complex temporal organizations in the basal ganglia data stream differ between conditions (i.e. parkinsonism, dyskinesia, healthy control and are responsive to treatments (i.e. L-DOPA,DBS. A body of evidence has reported that basal ganglia neuronal entropy (a marker for complexity/irregularity in time series is higher in hypokinetic state. In line with these findings, an entropy-based model has been recently formulated to introduce basal ganglia entropy as a marker for the alteration of motor processing and a factor of motor inhibition. Importantly, non-linear features have also been identified as a marker of condition and/or treatment effects in brain global signals (EEG, muscular activities (EMG or kinetic of motor symptoms (tremor, gait of patients with movement disorders. It is therefore warranted that the non-linear dynamics of motor circuitry will contribute to a better understanding of the neuronal dysfunctions underlying the spectrum of parkinsonian motor symptoms including tremor, rigidity and hypokinesia.
Automating linear accelerator quality assurance
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eckhause, Tobias; Thorwarth, Ryan; Moran, Jean M., E-mail: jmmoran@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-5010 (United States); Al-Hallaq, Hania; Farrey, Karl [Department of Radiation Oncology and Cellular Oncology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Ritter, Timothy [Ann Arbor VA Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); DeMarco, John [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California, 90048 (United States); Pawlicki, Todd; Kim, Gwe-Ya [UCSD Medical Center, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Popple, Richard [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Alabama Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35249 (United States); Sharma, Vijeshwar; Park, SungYong [Karmanos Cancer Institute, McLaren-Flint, Flint, Michigan 48532 (United States); Perez, Mario; Booth, Jeremy T. [Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, NSW 2065 (Australia)
2015-10-15
Purpose: The purpose of this study was 2-fold. One purpose was to develop an automated, streamlined quality assurance (QA) program for use by multiple centers. The second purpose was to evaluate machine performance over time for multiple centers using linear accelerator (Linac) log files and electronic portal images. The authors sought to evaluate variations in Linac performance to establish as a reference for other centers. Methods: The authors developed analytical software tools for a QA program using both log files and electronic portal imaging device (EPID) measurements. The first tool is a general analysis tool which can read and visually represent data in the log file. This tool, which can be used to automatically analyze patient treatment or QA log files, examines the files for Linac deviations which exceed thresholds. The second set of tools consists of a test suite of QA fields, a standard phantom, and software to collect information from the log files on deviations from the expected values. The test suite was designed to focus on the mechanical tests of the Linac to include jaw, MLC, and collimator positions during static, IMRT, and volumetric modulated arc therapy delivery. A consortium of eight institutions delivered the test suite at monthly or weekly intervals on each Linac using a standard phantom. The behavior of various components was analyzed for eight TrueBeam Linacs. Results: For the EPID and trajectory log file analysis, all observed deviations which exceeded established thresholds for Linac behavior resulted in a beam hold off. In the absence of an interlock-triggering event, the maximum observed log file deviations between the expected and actual component positions (such as MLC leaves) varied from less than 1% to 26% of published tolerance thresholds. The maximum and standard deviations of the variations due to gantry sag, collimator angle, jaw position, and MLC positions are presented. Gantry sag among Linacs was 0.336 ± 0.072 mm. The
Linear concentration system; Sistema de concentracion lineal
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gonzalez Lugo, J.I; Leon Rovira, N; Aguayo Tellez, H [Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)]. E-mails: a00812662@itesm.mx; noel.leon@itesm.mx; haguayo@itesm.mx
2013-03-15
Solar linear concentration technologies to generate high temperatures are limited to the ranges of 200 to 500 degrees Celsius. While its performance has been tested through prototypes and pilot plants around the world, there are still areas of opportunity that can be exploited to obtain a linear concentration that achieves temperatures above this range in order to have a better use of the available solar energy. Because of this: It is possible to develop a linear concentration system that can track the sun with minimal movement of the absorber-receiver while maintaining temperatures above 850 degrees Celsius sufficient for industrial processes that require that temperature. The methodology consists of a series of stages (conceptual design, simulation, evaluation, development concept, results and validation) through which concepts are generated that allow design and evaluation of solar concentrator configurations with the help of simulation software. We have designed a linear parabolic concentrating system which comprises a set of mirrors segments with different focal lengths that works within the range of 600 degrees Celsius; however, it is advancing in the development of a double concentration to reach 850 degrees Celsius. [Spanish] Las tecnologias de concentracion lineal solar para generar altas temperaturas se ven limitadas a los rangos de 200 a 500 grados centigrados. Si bien su funcionamiento ha sido probado a traves de prototipos y plantas piloto alrededor del mundo, aun existen areas de oportunidad que pueden ser aprovechadas para obtener un sistema de concentracion lineal que permita alcanzar temperaturas mayores a este rango para asi tener un mejor aprovechamiento de la energia solar disponible. Debido a esto: Es posible desarrollar un sistema de concentracion lineal capaz de seguir la trayectoria del Sol con minimo movimiento del absorbedor-recibidor al mismo tiempo que mantiene temperaturas superiores a los 850 grados centigrados suficientes para
2015-02-01
MUTT ) is a semi-autonomous robotic follower that lightens the load for Soldiers by decreasing the amount of equipment they need to carry when...dismounted in the toughest of terrains. The MUTT uses advanced, proven commercial technology that has been adapted for the rigors of the battlefield...With ultra-quiet electric motors, the MUTT gives Soldiers unmatched internal transportability options and expeditionary power that includes hands- free
Gauger, Robert
1993-01-01
Describes lasers and indicates that learning about laser technology and creating laser technology activities are among the teacher enhancement processes needed to strengthen technology education. (JOW)
Relativistic klystron research for linear colliders
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Allen, M.A.; Callin, R.S.; Deruyter, H.
1988-09-01
Relativistic klystrons are being developed as a power source for high gradient accelerator applications which include large linear electron-positron colliders, compact accelerators, and FEL sources. We have attained 200 MW peak power at 11.4 GHz from a relativistic klystron, and 140 MV/m longitudinal gradient in a short 11.4 GHz accelerator section. We report here on the design of our relativistic klystrons, the results of our experiments so far, and some of our plans for the near future. 5 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab
Atomic mass formula with linear shell terms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uno, Masahiro; Yamada, Masami; Ando, Yoshihira; Tachibana, Takahiro.
1981-01-01
An atomic mass formula is constructed in the form of a sum of gross terms and empirical linear shell terms. Values of the shell parameters are determined after the statistical method of Uno and Yamada, Which is characterized by inclusion of the error inherent in the mass formula. The resulting formula reproduces the input masses with the standard deviation of 393 keV. A prescription is given for estimating errors of calculated masses. The mass formula is compared with recent experimental data of Rb, Cs and Fr isotopes, which are not included in the input data, and also with the constant-shell-term formula of Uno and Yamada. (author)
Linear electric machines, drives, and MAGLEVs handbook
Boldea, Ion
2013-01-01
Based on author Ion Boldea's 40 years of experience and the latest research, Linear Electric Machines, Drives, and Maglevs Handbook provides a practical and comprehensive resource on the steady improvement in this field. The book presents in-depth reviews of basic concepts and detailed explorations of complex subjects, including classifications and practical topologies, with sample results based on an up-to-date survey of the field. Packed with case studies, this state-of-the-art handbook covers topics such as modeling, steady state, and transients as well as control, design, and testing of li
Optical linear algebra processors - Architectures and algorithms
Casasent, David
1986-01-01
Attention is given to the component design and optical configuration features of a generic optical linear algebra processor (OLAP) architecture, as well as the large number of OLAP architectures, number representations, algorithms and applications encountered in current literature. Number-representation issues associated with bipolar and complex-valued data representations, high-accuracy (including floating point) performance, and the base or radix to be employed, are discussed, together with case studies on a space-integrating frequency-multiplexed architecture and a hybrid space-integrating and time-integrating multichannel architecture.
Parallel algorithms for numerical linear algebra
van der Vorst, H
1990-01-01
This is the first in a new series of books presenting research results and developments concerning the theory and applications of parallel computers, including vector, pipeline, array, fifth/future generation computers, and neural computers.All aspects of high-speed computing fall within the scope of the series, e.g. algorithm design, applications, software engineering, networking, taxonomy, models and architectural trends, performance, peripheral devices.Papers in Volume One cover the main streams of parallel linear algebra: systolic array algorithms, message-passing systems, algorithms for p
Beam dynamics in stripline linear induction accelerators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adler, R.J.
1983-01-01
Stripline (parallel plate transmission line) pulsed power modules have been considered for application to advanced high current linear accelerators. Some advantages of the stripline designs include compact size, easy maintenance, and most importantly, the small number of switches required (one switch per 2 MeV). The principle drawback of stripline designs is that they impart a NET transverse force to particles in the gap. This is shown to result in randomized transverse momentum, and NET, constructive transverse guiding center motion. In this paper, a semi-quantitative analysis of several facets of the problem is presented
Flexure Based Linear and Rotary Bearings
Voellmer, George M. (Inventor)
2016-01-01
A flexure based linear bearing includes top and bottom parallel rigid plates; first and second flexures connecting the top and bottom plates and constraining exactly four degrees of freedom of relative motion of the plates, the four degrees of freedom being X and Y axis translation and rotation about the X and Y axes; and a strut connecting the top and bottom plates and further constraining exactly one degree of freedom of the plates, the one degree of freedom being one of Z axis translation and rotation about the Z axis.
Stochastic linear programming models, theory, and computation
Kall, Peter
2011-01-01
This new edition of Stochastic Linear Programming: Models, Theory and Computation has been brought completely up to date, either dealing with or at least referring to new material on models and methods, including DEA with stochastic outputs modeled via constraints on special risk functions (generalizing chance constraints, ICC’s and CVaR constraints), material on Sharpe-ratio, and Asset Liability Management models involving CVaR in a multi-stage setup. To facilitate use as a text, exercises are included throughout the book, and web access is provided to a student version of the authors’ SLP-IOR software. Additionally, the authors have updated the Guide to Available Software, and they have included newer algorithms and modeling systems for SLP. The book is thus suitable as a text for advanced courses in stochastic optimization, and as a reference to the field. From Reviews of the First Edition: "The book presents a comprehensive study of stochastic linear optimization problems and their applications. … T...
Modern linear control design a time-domain approach
Caravani, Paolo
2013-01-01
This book offers a compact introduction to modern linear control design. The simplified overview presented of linear time-domain methodology paves the road for the study of more advanced non-linear techniques. Only rudimentary knowledge of linear systems theory is assumed - no use of Laplace transforms or frequency design tools is required. Emphasis is placed on assumptions and logical implications, rather than abstract completeness; on interpretation and physical meaning, rather than theoretical formalism; on results and solutions, rather than derivation or solvability. The topics covered include transient performance and stabilization via state or output feedback; disturbance attenuation and robust control; regional eigenvalue assignment and constraints on input or output variables; asymptotic regulation and disturbance rejection. Lyapunov theory and Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMI) are discussed as key design methods. All methods are demonstrated with MATLAB to promote practical use and comprehension. ...
Parametrices and exact paralinearisation of semi-linear boundary problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johnsen, Jon
The subject is parametrices for semi-linear problems, based on parametrices for linear boundary problems and on non-linearities that decompose into solution-dependent linear operators acting on the solutions. Non-linearities of product type are shown to admit this via exact paralinearisation....... The parametrices give regularity properties under weak conditions; improvements in subdomains result from pseudo-locality of type 1,1-operators. The framework encompasses a broad class of boundary problems in Hölder and Lp -Sobolev spaces (and also Besov and Lizorkin-Triebel spaces). The Besov analyses...... of homogeneous distributions, tensor products and halfspace extensions have been revised. Examples include the von Karman equation....
Evolution of linear chromosomes and multipartite genomes in yeast mitochondria
Valach, Matus; Farkas, Zoltan; Fricova, Dominika; Kovac, Jakub; Brejova, Brona; Vinar, Tomas; Pfeiffer, Ilona; Kucsera, Judit; Tomaska, Lubomir; Lang, B. Franz; Nosek, Jozef
2011-01-01
Mitochondrial genome diversity in closely related species provides an excellent platform for investigation of chromosome architecture and its evolution by means of comparative genomics. In this study, we determined the complete mitochondrial DNA sequences of eight Candida species and analyzed their molecular architectures. Our survey revealed a puzzling variability of genome architecture, including circular- and linear-mapping and multipartite linear forms. We propose that the arrangement of large inverted repeats identified in these genomes plays a crucial role in alterations of their molecular architectures. In specific arrangements, the inverted repeats appear to function as resolution elements, allowing genome conversion among different topologies, eventually leading to genome fragmentation into multiple linear DNA molecules. We suggest that molecular transactions generating linear mitochondrial DNA molecules with defined telomeric structures may parallel the evolutionary emergence of linear chromosomes and multipartite genomes in general and may provide clues for the origin of telomeres and pathways implicated in their maintenance. PMID:21266473
Orthopedic complications of linear morphea: Implications for early interdisciplinary care.
Schoch, Jennifer J; Schoch, Bradley S; Werthel, Jean David; McIntosh, Amy L; Davis, Dawn M R
2018-01-01
Linear morphea of the limb primarily affects children, and extracutaneous manifestations are common. Orthopedic surgeons are often essential in the care of patients with linear morphea, yet there are few reports outlining specific orthopedic complications in this population. We sought to improve the understanding of orthopedic complications in linear morphea of the limb. Between 1999 and 2014, 51 children were evaluated for linear morphea of an extremity. Twenty-six (51%) had documented orthopedic manifestations. Outcome measures included limb length discrepancy, angular malalignment, limb atrophy, and orthopedic surgical intervention. Joint contractures were most common, affecting 88% of patients, followed by limb atrophy, angular deformity, and limb length discrepancy; 14% required surgical intervention. Despite the use of systemic immunosuppressive therapy in many patients, approximately half of patients with linear morphea of an extremity have orthopedic disease. Early orthopedist involvement is crucial to improve limb alignment and preserve function. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Controllability analysis of decentralised linear controllers for polymeric fuel cells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Serra, Maria; Aguado, Joaquin; Ansede, Xavier; Riera, Jordi [Institut de Robotica i Informatica Industrial, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya - Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, C. Llorens i Artigas 4, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)
2005-10-10
This work deals with the control of polymeric fuel cells. It includes a linear analysis of the system at different operating points, the comparison and selection of different control structures, and the validation of the controlled system by simulation. The work is based on a complex non linear model which has been linearised at several operating points. The linear analysis tools used are the Morari resiliency index, the condition number, and the relative gain array. These techniques are employed to compare the controllability of the system with different control structures and at different operating conditions. According to the results, the most promising control structures are selected and their performance with PI based diagonal controllers is evaluated through simulations with the complete non linear model. The range of operability of the examined control structures is compared. Conclusions indicate good performance of several diagonal linear controllers. However, very few have a wide operability range. (author)
Linear and integer programming theory and practice
Sierksma, Gerard
2001-01-01
Linear optimisation; basic concepts; Dantzig's simplex method; duality and optimality; sensitivity analysis; karmarkar's interior path method; integer linear optimisation; linear network models; computational complexity issues; model building, case studies, and advanced techniques; solutions to selected exercises. Appendices: linear algebra; convexity; graph theory; optimisation theory; computer package INTPM.
Applications of aerospace technology in industry. A technology transfer profile: Food technology
Murray, D. M.
1971-01-01
Food processing and preservation technologies are reviewed, expected technological advances are considered including processing and market factors. NASA contributions to food technology and nutrition are presented with examples of transfer from NASA to industry.