WorldWideScience

Sample records for technology human rights

  1. Law in Transition Biblioessay: Globalization, Human Rights, Environment, Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Marien

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available As globalization continues, many transformations in international and domestic laws areunderway or called for. There are too many laws and too few, too much law that is inadequateor obsolete, and too much law-breaking. This biblioessay covers some 100 recentbooks, nearly all recently published, arranged in four categories. 1 International Lawincludes six overviews/textbooks on comparative law, laws related to warfare and security,pushback against demands of globalization, and gender perspectives; 2 Human Rightsencompasses general overviews and normative visions, several books on how some statesviolate human rights, five items on how good laws can end poverty and promote prosperity,and laws regulating working conditions and health rights; 3 Environment/Resources coversgrowth of international environmental law, visions of law for a better environmental future,laws to govern genetic resources and increasingly stressed water resources, two books onprospects for climate change liability, and items on toxic hazards and problems of compliance;4 Technology, Etc. identifies eight books on global crime and the failed war on drugs,books on the response to terrorism and guarding privacy and mobility in our high-tech age,seven books on how infotech is changing law and legal processes while raising intellectualproperty questions, biomedical technologies and the law, and general views on the need forupdated laws and constitutions. In sum, this essay suggests the need for deeper and timelyanalysis of the many books on changes in law.

  2. Human rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de

    2006-01-01

    Human rights reflect a determined effort to protect the dignity of each and every human being against abuse of power. This endeavour is as old as human history. What is relatively new is the international venture for the protection of human dignity through internationally accepted legal standards

  3. Technology, conflict early warning systems, public health, and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Phuong N; Vinck, Patrick

    2012-12-15

    Public health and conflict early warning are evolving rapidly in response to technology changes for the gathering, management, analysis and communication of data. It is expected that these changes will provide an unprecedented ability to monitor, detect, and respond to crises. One of the potentially most profound and lasting expected change affects the roles of the various actors in providing and sharing information and in responding to early warning. Communities and civil society actors have the opportunity to be empowered as a source of information, analysis, and response, while the role of traditional actors shifts toward supporting those communities and building resilience. However, by creating new roles, relationships, and responsibilities, technology changes raise major concerns and ethical challenges for practitioners, pressing the need for practical guidelines and actionable recommendations in line with existing ethical principles. Copyright © 2012 Pham and Vinck. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  4. Human Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Schlundt, Marie Gertz

    2011-01-01

    The project intends to investigate to what extent and under what conditions, United Nations human rights conventions have been internalized in the minimally democratic and isolated state of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK). The ‘spiral model’ of Risse et al (1999) will be used as the theoretical framework for the project. This framework sets out to understand the process of socialization by which principled ideas held by individuals become norms in the sense of collective unde...

  5. Promising Practices in Higher Education: Art Education and Human Rights Using Information, Communication Technologies (ICT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Joanna; Cap, Orest

    2014-01-01

    Promising pedagogical practices is described in relation to incorporating ICT (Information, Communication and Technologies) with the study of Human Rights issues in Visual Arts Education for teacher candidates. As part of a course, "Senior Years Art," students at the Faculty of Education, University of Manitoba during 2013-2014…

  6. The Contributions of Digital Communications Technology to Human Rights Education: A Case Study of Amnesty International

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norlander, Rebecca Joy

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the need for critical assessment and evaluation of human rights education (HRE) programs and activities, especially newer initiatives that incorporate the use of digital information and communications technology (ICT). It provides an in-depth case study of the use of digital ICT in Amnesty International's HRE efforts,…

  7. Natural Rights and Human Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Nasser Qorban Nia

    2013-01-01

    Any human rights bereft of philosophical and anthropological foundations are susceptible to weakness and vulnerability. The question as to how from a logical point of view we arrive at the conclusion that the fact of being a human accords us with rights is one that has been provided with several answers. Belief in the natural rights is justification for some prominent proponents. However, in spite of serious challenges facing the proponents of natural rights, it is possible to consider the...

  8. Negative Emissions Technologies, the Paris Agreement, and the Need for a Human-Rights Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, W. C. G.

    2016-12-01

    The new Paris Agreement under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change contemplates that its prospective Parties will balance emissions and sinks by 2050 as a means to effectuate the goal of holding temperature increases to well below 2°C from pre-industrial levels, as well as the more aspirational goal of holding temperature increases to 1.5°C. Most of the IPCC's AR5 scenarios that achieve these objectives contemplate the large-scale deployment of so-called "negative emissions technologies," with an emphasis on bioenergy and carbon capture and storage (BECCS), and to a lesser degree afforestation. BECCS could assuredly help society avoid passing critical climatic thresholds, or address overshoot scenarios in this century and beyond. However, it could also profound implications for food production, the status of forests, access to lands for livelihoods by vulnerable populations, and the integrity of critical ecosystems. This, in turn could have serious ramifications for human rights of some of the world's most vulnerable populations, including the rights to food, water, livelihoods and the benefits of biodiversity. The Preamble to the Paris Agreement acknowledges the need to take into consideration the potential impact of responses to climate change, providing that "Parties should, when taking action to address climate change, respect, promote and consider their respective obligations on human rights." This presentation will outline how application of a human rights-based approach to assessing such options could help to reconcile the objectives of ameliorating potential climatic impacts while protecting the human rights of potentially affected individuals and groups. This will include the potential role of Human Rights Impacts Assessments and potential configuration of HRIAs at the national and international level. It will also briefly suggest how to operationalize this approach within the Paris Agreement framework, including institutional

  9. Human Rights and the Biolaw Prospects: The Promotion of Social Emancipation Through Assistive Technology in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Pordeus Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research brings reflections about human rights facing the assistive technology promotion's necessity in Brazil. Begins with: It is possible the complete social emancipation of people with physical disabilities or reduced mobility with the assistive tecnologies they need. Consequently, once they have acessibility and the physical mechanisms to make easier to have the right to freedom and the right to equal opportunities, the State would play his part in making the human rights ideology guided by social inclusion. There are vulnerable groups needing the protection that comes from the State and gives the right to live with dignity and also the access to public goods and services. It is recognized the new subjects of rights' appearance (e.g. people with phisical disabilities or reduced mobility; they are important in this consolidation process of democratic spaces and citizenship, because it is comprehensible the rights effectiveness when it happens by the State's obligation to promote them with the society support as a whole.

  10. Human Rights in the Humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpham, Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    Human rights are rapidly entering the academic curriculum, with programs appearing all over the country--including at Duke, Harvard, Northeastern, and Stanford Universities; the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; the Universities of Chicago, of Connecticut, of California at Berkeley, and of Minnesota; and Trinity College. Most of these…

  11. Localizing human rights

    OpenAIRE

    Feyter, De, Koen

    2007-01-01

    International human rights lawyers tend to focus on establishing the universality of human rights rather than on improving the usefulness of human rights in addressing local problems. This paper draws attention to the need to make human rights more locally relevant, particularly in a context of economic globalisation. Human rights can be made more locally relevant by interpreting existing global norms in the light of needs identified by community organisations, and by developing human rights ...

  12. Choosing the right technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milan, Christian; Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Bojesen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    . These systems not only require an optimal design with respect to the installed capacities but also the right choice in combining the available technologies assuring a cost-effective solution. e aim of this paper is to present an optimization methodology for residential on-site energy supply systems based...... on mixed integer linear programming. The methodology chooses the right combination of technologies and sizes the components based on on-site weather data and expected consumption profiles. Through this approach the fluctuations of RES as well as the user behavior are taken into account already during...

  13. Intervention and Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Arthur J.

    1988-01-01

    Defends the right of nations to criticize human rights violations within other nations. Pointing out that the human rights protections cannot be left to domestic jurisdiction, Goldberg cites numerous treaties and declarations which make human rights protection a matter of international law. (GEA)

  14. Special Section: Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydenlund, Knut; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Eleven articles examine human rights in Europe. Topics include unemployment, human rights legislation, role of the Council of Europe in promoting human rights, labor unions, migrant workers, human dignity in industralized societies, and international violence. Journal available from Council of Europe, Directorate of Press and Information, 67006…

  15. Human Rights/Human Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, Cynthia

    1978-01-01

    The faculty of Holy Names High School developed an interdisciplinary human rights program with school-wide activities focusing on three selected themes: the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in conjunction with Human Rights Week; Food; and Women. This article outlines major program activities. (SJL)

  16. Human Rights, History of

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Baets, Antoon; Wright, James

    2015-01-01

    In this article, six basic debates about human rights are clarified from a historical perspective: the origin of human rights as moral rights connected to the natural law doctrine and opposed to positive rights; the wave of criticism of their abstract and absolute character by nineteenth-century

  17. Teaching Human Rights Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Howard R.

    1985-01-01

    The international community has developed a system of human rights law relevant to many areas of legal encounter, which American law schools have been slow to incorporate into curricula. Teaching human rights law provides an opportunity for law schools to enrich the learning process and contribute creatively to the respect for rights in society.…

  18. A Human Rights Glossary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Nancy

    1998-01-01

    Presents a human rights glossary that includes definitions of basic terms, treaties, charters, and groups/organizations that have been featured in previous articles in this edition of "Update on Law-Related Education"; the human rights terms have been compiled as part of the celebration of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights…

  19. Human rights and the challenges of science and technology: Commentary on Meier et al. "Translating the human right to water and sanitation into public policy reform" and Hall et al. "The human right to water: the importance of domestic and productive water rights".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Stephen P

    2014-12-01

    The expansion of the corpus of international human rights to include the right to water and sanitation has implications both for the process of recognizing human rights and for future developments in the relationships between technology, engineering and human rights. Concerns with threats to human rights resulting from developments in science and technology were expressed in the early days of the United Nations (UN), along with the recognition of the ambitious human right of everyone "to enjoy the benefits of scientific progress and its applications." This comment explores the hypothesis that the emerging concepts most likely to follow recognition of the human right to water primarily involve issues of science and technology, such as access to medicines or clean and healthy environment. Many threats to human rights from advances in science, which were identified in the past as potential, have become real today, such as invasion of privacy from electronic recording, deprivation of health and livelihood as a result of climate change, or control over individual autonomy through advances in genetics and neuroscience. This comment concludes by urging greater engagement of scientists and engineers, in partnership with human rights specialists, in translating normative pronouncements into defining policy and planning interventions.

  20. Are human rights universal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurbuchen, Simone

    2010-12-01

    It is often held that the universality of human rights can best be defended on the basis of the idea of an "overlapping consensus". This paper contends that some of the most prominent philosophical human rights conceptions that have recently been proposed ("basis-driven" conceptions) cannot be reconciled with this idea. It is however possible to sketch an alternative strategy for defending the universality of human rights.

  1. Human Rights and Human Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Possenti

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available There seems to be two different versions of human rights in Western tradition: say Rationalistic and Christian; the former adopted in revolutionary France, the latter highly developed in Renaissance Spain. Current relativistic criticisms attempt to deny the universality of human rights alleging that this theory has been created in Western countries or it has no strong justification, and therefore cannot have universal approach; but this objection can be dismissed with an alternative justification of human rights.

  2. Reproductive Rights are Human Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Jacqueline Pitanguy

    1999-01-01

    Jacqueline Pitanguy outlines the political context of the ICPD +5 process on the basis of her work in Brazil and internationally on reproductive rights. She argues that the women's movement has to continue to lobby hard to decrease the gap between what has been promised and the reality of most women's lives, particularly in the context of the cuts in state funding towards social and health services. Development (1999) 42, 11–14. doi:10.1057/palgrave.development.1110002

  3. Urbanization and human rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihr, A.

    Urban governance on the basis of human rights can help to set up problem solving mechanisms to guarantee social peace, economic growth and political participation.If states both integrate more in international or regional human rights regime and give more autonomy to urban governments and local

  4. Denialism and Human Rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moerland, Roland; Nelen, Hans; Willems, Jan CM

    2016-01-01

    The safeguarding of human rights remains highly problematic, despite the proliferation of human rights instruments and the many actions taken by a variety of actors, such as governmental and non-governmental organizations, (individual) states and the international community over the past decades.

  5. Normative foundations of technology transfer and transnational benefit principles in the UNESCO Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunce, Thomas Alured; Nasu, Hitoshi

    2009-06-01

    The United Nations Scientific, Education, and Cultural Organization Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights (UDBHR) expresses in its title and substance a controversial linkage of two normative systems: international human rights law and bioethics. The UDBHR has the status of what is known as a "nonbinding" declaration under public international law. The UDBHR's foundation within bioethics (and association, e.g., with virtue-based or principlist bioethical theories) is more problematic. Nonetheless, the UDBHR contains socially important principles of technology transfer and transnational benefit (articles 14, 15, and 21). This paper is one of the first to explore how the disciplines of bioethics and international human rights law may interact in the UDBHR to advance the policy relevance and health impact of such principles. It investigates their normative ancestry in the UDBHR, as well as relevant conceptual differences between bioethics and public international law in this respect, and how these may be relevant to their conceptual evolution and application.

  6. Abortion and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Dorothy

    2010-10-01

    Abortion has been a reality in women's lives since the beginning of recorded history, typically with a high risk of fatal consequences, until the last century when evolutions in the field of medicine, including techniques of safe abortion and effective methods of family planning, could have ended the need to seek unsafe abortion. The context of women's lives globally is an important but often ignored variable, increasingly recognised in evolving human rights especially related to gender and reproduction. International and regional human rights instruments are being invoked where national laws result in violations of human rights such as health and life. The individual right to conscientious objection must be respected and better understood, and is not absolute. Health professional organisations have a role to play in clarifying responsibilities consistent with national laws and respecting reproductive rights. Seeking common ground using evidence rather than polarised opinion can assist the future focus. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Nature of Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos López Dawson

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the formation of a new Constitution the constituents will require to know or reach an agreement on the nature of human rights; then, to determine how the State will enforce the respect to those rights. To do so, it is necessary to resort to the history and evolution of these rights, and the present work aims to contribute to an efficient productive debate about the nature of human rights, so that citizens can decide on the understanding that this is a thoughtful democratic and humanistic founded decision. The analysis is in the actual technical-ideological republican system which correspond to the current state of international law

  8. Deuteronomy and Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Braulik

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available If one compares the articles of the "Universal Declaration of Human Rights" dated December 10th, 1948, with the regulations of the book of Deuteronomy, one detects a surprising abundance of correspondences, or at least of similar tendencies, between them. As the social theorists of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the architects of the catalogue of Human Rights, knew the Scripture very well. References to Deuteronomy are historically well probable and factually hardly coincidental. Deuteronomy rightly boasts about its social laws (4:8 that are unique in the Ancient Near East. The paper orientates itself to the short formula of Human Rights and at the same time to the normative basic character of each human right, as it is formulated in the first article of the declaration: "liberty", "equality", "fraternity". Each of these basic categories are concretised in terms of several Deuteronomic regulations and prove themselves to be central matters of concern within the YHWH religion. Finally, it is outlined how the connection between Deuteronomy and modem expressions of human rights might be explained, and further it is shown what actually makes up the peculiarity of biblical thinking on human rights.

  9. Extraterritorial Human Rights Obligations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amsinck Boie, Hans Nikolaj; Torp, Kristian

    The book addresses the issue of corporate respect for human rights by examining if and how states are obligated to ensure that corporations originating from their jurisdiction respect human rights when they operate abroad. The existence of such a duty is much debated by academics at national...... and international level, and in an attempt to bring something new to the table, the book examines both if states have extraterritorial obligations in regard to their corporations and what can be required of states under such an obligation. The complex issue of states and corporate respect for human rights cannot...... adequately be addressed without including the approach to the problem taken in practice; Corporate Social Responsibility, CSR. The book therefore draws upon the concept of CSR and the approaches developed here and discusses whether states may utilize the CSR-based concept of human rights due diligence...

  10. Extraterritorial Human Rights Obligations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amsinck Boie, Hans Nikolaj; Torp, Kristian

    adequately be addressed without including the approach to the problem taken in practice; Corporate Social Responsibility, CSR. The book therefore draws upon the concept of CSR and the approaches developed here and discusses whether states may utilize the CSR-based concept of human rights due diligence...... and international level, and in an attempt to bring something new to the table, the book examines both if states have extraterritorial obligations in regard to their corporations and what can be required of states under such an obligation. The complex issue of states and corporate respect for human rights cannot......The book addresses the issue of corporate respect for human rights by examining if and how states are obligated to ensure that corporations originating from their jurisdiction respect human rights when they operate abroad. The existence of such a duty is much debated by academics at national...

  11. Urbanization and human rights

    OpenAIRE

    Mihr, A.

    2010-01-01

    Urban governance on the basis of human rights can help to set up problem solving mechanisms to guarantee social peace, economic growth and political participation.If states both integrate more in international or regional human rights regime and give more autonomy to urban governments and local authorities, many of these issues of urbanization can be solved. Where people organize themselves on local levels and in neighborhood initiatives, new forms of governance mechanisms evolve. These mecha...

  12. Human Rights in Prisons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jefferson, Andrew M.; Gaborit, Liv Stoltze

    Drawing on participatory action research conducted in Sierra Leone, Kosovo and the Philippines, Human Rights in Prisons analyses encounters between rights-based non-governmental organisations and prisons. It explores the previously under-researched perspectives of prison staff and prisoners...

  13. Human rights and citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojić-Mitrović Marta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of universal human rights, as described in the Universal declaration of human rights in 1948 doesn’t seem to be able to exert itself as truly universal. For this, there are two reasons: one is politico-legal in nature, and the other is conceptual. From a politico-legal point of view, human rights are a practice which is perceived as law, a precedent which is still taking place, the illusion of law, a custom practice by a few which aims to become the law of all, practice/”law” which came into being as the consequence of specific historical and political circumstances but strives to impose itself as a kind of universal logos, independent from the geopolitical relations of power. From the conceptual point of view, human rights as they have been determined, are inextricably bound up with the concept of citizenship, but the nation-state is not the universally optimal polis/social order, through which a universal human whose rights are to be protected can be defined. Human rights, as they are defined, are too culturally and historically specific in order to become universal. As an example, I will give the different treatment received by persons of different citizenship in situations in which their lives are in peril. It turns out that human rights are less (or not at all protected if the persons in need aren’t perceived as fullfledged members of the group, and hence, cannot fully participate in political life. That is to say, people who are perceived as non-citizens or whose citizenship is perceived as less valuable, and especially those whose existence has been reduced to survival are being politically dehumanized. Human rights remain reserved for so-called active citizens, those who have influence over matters of public importance, which points us to the conclusion that the practice of protecting human rights is completely politicized. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177027: Multietnicitet, multikulturalnost

  14. Scientists and Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makdisi, Yousef

    2012-02-01

    The American Physical Society has a long history of involvement in defense of human rights. The Committee on International Freedom of Scientists was formed in the mid seventies as a subcommittee within the Panel On Public Affairs ``to deal with matters of an international nature that endangers the abilities of scientists to function as scientists'' and by 1980 it was established as an independent committee. In this presentation I will describe some aspects of the early history and the impetus that led to such an advocacy, the methods employed then and how they evolved to the present CIFS responsibility ``for monitoring concerns regarding human rights for scientists throughout the world''. I will also describe the current approach and some sample cases the committee has pursued recently, the interaction with other human rights organizations, and touch upon some venues through which the community can engage to help in this noble cause.

  15. Business and Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    This article analyses the United Nations (UN) Guidelines on Business and Human Rights adopted in 2011 by the UN Human Rights Council from the perspective of Transnational Business Governance Interactions (TBGI) analytical framework (Eberlein et al. 2014). The article identifies and discusses...... that the UN Guiding Principles are unique in several respects of relevance to transnational business governance interaction and indicate the relevance of the TBGI approach to public regulatory transnational business governance initiatives. The analysis of the Guiding Principles as interactional transnational...... business governance suggests that this form of governance offers prospects for public institutions as a means towards regulating global sustainability concerns....

  16. Tackling Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLester, Susan

    2005-01-01

    In 2003, four high school students from the Tashkent International School in the capital city confronted the issue of their nation's human rights problems head on by researching the topic and publishing their findings on the Web. The site, "Uzbekistan: Opaque Reality," was created as an entry for the non-profit Global SchoolNet's Doors…

  17. [Tuberculosis and human rights].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Hideaki; Inagaki, Tomokazu; Toyoda, Emiko; Kawabe, Yoshiko; Fujiwara, Keiko; Masuyama, Hidenori; Takahashi, Shigeru

    2005-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) patients must be hospitalized while the smear of sputum is positive because TB spreads through air. Cooperation of a patient is important in order to complete the treatment of TB. However, a small number of patients are noncooperative for the treatment and may sometimes refuse it. At this symposium, we discussed about whether we could restrict the human rights of noncooperative TB patients. Although the patients' human rights must be protected, we also have to protect the human rights of people who may receive TB infection. The balance of the both people's rights is fully considered in the TB control policy. It is epoch-making that the TB society took up the theme about the human rights' restriction of TB patients. Five speakers presented their papers from each position. There were presentations about the scientific evidence of isolation, the actual cases, the situation of the United States, and the legal view on the human rights' restriction of TB patients. The present situation and the legal problems in Japan became clear at this symposium. We need further discussion about the human rights' restriction of TB patients for the revision of the Tuberculosis Protection Act and have to obtain the national consensus on it. 1. The evidence for isolation: Emiko TOYODA (International Medical Center of Japan) To determine appropriate periods of respiratory isolation, available biological, clinical, and epidemiological issues and data were studied. Although absolute lack of infectiousness requires consecutive culture negative and it takes too long and impractical periods. There seems to be no established evidence for noncontagiousness after 2 to 3 weeks effective treatment. Practically conversion to 3 negative consecutive smear results may used as a surrogate for noninfectiousness, even though a small risk of transmission still be present. Chemical isolation has been more important and administration with DOT should be indicated to keep compliance. 2

  18. Getting the engineering right is not always enough: Researching the human dimensions of the new energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webler, Thomas; Tuler, Seth P.

    2010-01-01

    Achieving the ambitious targets for carbon emissions reductions that are necessary to reduce the risks associated with climate change will require significant changes in the way people use energy. Redesigning energy technologies at a societal level is certainly a major scientific challenge, however, succeeding in this endeavor requires more than getting the engineering right. Technologies can fail to win public approval for a variety of reasons. Good social science research, coordinated properly with technological R and D, is an essential part of the solution. Social science research is needed to: clarify the behavioral changes that can reduce energy consumption; characterize public understandings and concerns of new energy technologies; help overcome barriers to public adoption; maximize the benefits for users; and better understand society's needs and abilities to make energy transitions. We argue that social science research into the human dimensions of new energy technologies be promoted and overseen by a new office of social science research to be established in the United States Department of Energy. The funding levels needed for these endeavors are a tiny fraction of the amount that was allocated to carbon sequestration research in the 2009 stimulus bill.

  19. Human Rights and Human Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Javadi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper firstly explores some theories of Human Rights justification and then assents to the theory that Human Rights is based on justified moral values. In order to justify moral values, Aristotle’s approach called “Function Argument” is reviewed. Propounding this argument, the writer attempts to show that all analysis of human identity will directly contribute to the man’s view of his rights. Not only Human rights is really determined by human function or human distinguishing characteristic i.e. human identity, but in the world of knowledge the proper method to know human rights is to know human being himself. n cloning violates man’s rights due to two reasons: damage of human identity and violation of the right to be unique. Attempting to clarify the nature of human cloning, this article examines the aspects to be claimed to violate human rights and evaluates the strength of the reasons for this claim. این مقاله پس از بررسی اجمالی برخی از نظریه‌های توجیه حقوق بشر، نظریة ابتنای آن بر ارزش‌های اخلاقی موجّه را می‌پذیرد. دربارة چگونگی توجیه ارزش اخلاقی، رویکرد ارسطو که به «برهان ارگن» موسوم است، مورد بحث و بررسی قرار می‌گیرد. مؤلف با طرح این برهان می‌کوشد نشان دهد ارائه هرگونه تحلیل از هویت انسان در نگرش آدمی به حقوق خود تأثیر مستقیم خواهد گذاشت. حقوق آدمی نه فقط از ناحیة کارویژه یا فصل ممیز وی (هویت انسان تعیّن واقعی می‌گیرد، بلکه در عالم معرفت هم راه درست شناخت حقوق بشر، شناخت خود انسان است.

  20. Inconvenient Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Natasha

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Following an increase in Roma migration under the European “freedom of movement” laws, Swedish municipalities initiated more than 80 evictions of informal Roma settlements on the grounds of poor sanitation between 2013 and 2016. These evictions echo policies from earlier in the 20th century, when Roma living in Sweden were often marginalized through the denial of access to water and sanitation facilities. The recent Swedish evictions also follow similar government actions across Europe, where Roma settlements are controlled through the denial of access to water and sanitation. However, access to water and sanitation—central aspects of human health—are universal human rights that must be available to all people present in a jurisdiction, regardless of their legal status. The evictions described here violated Sweden’s obligations under both European and international human rights law. More positive government responses are required, such as providing shelters or camping sites, setting up temporary facilities, and directly engaging with communities to address water and sanitation issues. The authors conclude by providing guidance on how states and municipalities can meet their human rights obligations with respect to water and sanitation for vulnerable Roma individuals and informal settlements in their communities. PMID:29302163

  1. Business and Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses the United Nations (UN) Guidelines on Business and Human Rights adopted in 2011 by the UN Human Rights Council from the perspective of transnational business governance interactions (TBGI) analytical framework.1 The article identifies and discusses dimensions of interaction...... and components of regulatory governance which characterize the Guiding Principles, focusing in particular on rule formation and implementation. The article notes that the Guiding Principles actively enrolled other actors for the rule-making process, ensuring support in a politically and legally volatile field...... in several areas of relevance to transnational business governance interaction and indicates the relevance of the TBGI approach to public regulatory transnational business governance initiatives. The analysis of the Guiding Principles as interactional transnational business governance suggests that this form...

  2. Evaluating Human Rights INGOs

    OpenAIRE

    Graffeo, Elizabeth Marie

    2010-01-01

    Over the past several decades, the numbers of international nongovernmental organizations (INGOs) that focus on tackling human rights issues have grown rapidly. These organizations operate internationally and work with governments, legislatures, social movement leaders, activists, donors, and individual citizens. As the number of operating INGOs has risen dramatically, researchers have simultaneously begun to investigate the possibility of creating a global civil society that would govern its...

  3. Philanthropy and Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Øjvind

    2013-01-01

    in Germany, England, France and USA. In each tradition is developed special features of the concept of philanthropy. The four traditions are summarized in the UN universal human rights, which has become the common normative reference for global philanthropy. In this way philanthropy has become, in a modern......, and normally utilized to promote one’s own prestige in the city-state. In Roman context, universal humanism, humanitas, was invented. This universal perspective was also supported by Christianity. It is this universal concept of philanthropy which is the foundation for the different philanthropic traditions...... sense, a charitable act with the aim to promote human happiness independent of gender, class, race, etc. This is the genealogy of the modern understanding of philanthropy, which will be developed in this paper....

  4. Communication rights: Fundamental human rights for all.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Sharynne

    2018-02-01

    The right to communicate includes the right to "freedom of opinion and expression" and rights and freedoms "without distinction of … language". The 70th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights is a time to celebrate and reflect on communication as a human right, particularly with respect to Article 19 and its relationship to national and international conventions, declarations, policies and practices. This review profiles articles from the special issue of International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology (volume 20, issue 1) addressing communication rights from four perspectives: (1) communication rights of all people; (2) communication rights of people with communication disabilities; (3) communication rights of children and (4) communication rights relating to language. Divergent perspectives from across the globe are considered. First-hand accounts of people whose right to communicate is compromised/upheld are included and perspectives are provided from people with expertise and advocacy roles in speech-language pathology, audiology, linguistics, education, media, literature and law, including members of the International Communication Project. Three steps are outlined to support communication rights: acknowledge people - adjust the communication style - take time to listen. Future advocacy for communication rights could be informed by replicating processes used to generate the Yogyakarta Principles.

  5. Philosophical foundations of human rights

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Matthew S

    2015-01-01

    What makes something a human right? What is the relationship between the moral foundations of human rights and human rights law? What are the difficulties of appealing to human rights? This book offers the first comprehensive survey of current thinking on the philosophical foundations of human rights. Divided into four parts, this book focusses firstly on the moral grounds of human rights, for example in our dignity, agency, interests or needs. 'Secondly, it looks at the implications that different moral perspectives on human rights bear for human rights law and politics. Thirdly, it discusses specific and topical human rights including freedom of expression and religion, security, health and more controversial rights such as a human right to subsistence. The final part discusses nuanced critical and reformative views on human rights from feminist, Kantian and relativist perspectives among others. The essays represent new and canonical research by leading scholars in the field. Each part is comprised of a set...

  6. Human Rights: The Essential Reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Carol; Hansen, Carol Rae; Wilde, Ralph; Bronkhorst, Daan; Moritz, Frederic A.; Rolle, Baptiste; Sherman, Rebecca; Southard, Jo Lynn; Wilkinson, Robert; Poole, Hilary, Ed.

    This reference work documents the history of human rights theory, explains each article of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, explores the contemporary human rights movement, and examines the major human rights issues facing the world today. This book is the first to combine historical and contemporary perspectives on these critical…

  7. Pragmatic Challenges to Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaumburg-Müller, Sten

    2007-01-01

    Pragmatism offers a platform for posing relevant questions. This article uses a pragmatic point of departure to question a natural law conception of human rights and to take a closer look at three pressing human rights problems: The human rights situation in states with little or no state capacity......; the revision and adaptation of human rights law; and the not straightforward relationship betweemn human rights and democracy....

  8. Oil companies and human rights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, Geoffrey [Amnesty International (United Kingdom)

    1997-11-01

    This article highlights the need for oil companies in the future to take into account human rights in corporate decision making. The influence oil companies can bring to bear on government violating human rights, excuses for not voicing condemnation of abuses, and the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights are discussed. (UK)

  9. Human Rights and Public Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowring, Bill

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts a contrast to the contribution by Hugh Starkey. Rather than his account of the inexorable rise of human rights discourse, and of the implementation of human rights standards, human rights are here presented as always and necessarily scandalous and highly contested. First, I explain why the UK has lagged so far behind its…

  10. Teachers and Human Rights Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osler, Audrey; Starkey, Hugh

    2010-01-01

    Why do teachers need to be familiar with human rights? In multicultural societies, whose values take precedence? How do schools resolve tensions between children's rights and teachers' rights? Campaigners, politicians and the media cite human rights to justify or challenge anything from peaceful protest to military action. The phrase "human…

  11. Homoaffectivity and Human Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Mott

    2006-01-01

    The civil union between persons of the same sex is analyzed in this essay through the discussion of the roots of the anti-homosexual prejudice and the fight for the citizenship of gays, lesbians and transgenders in Brazil, and through listing the different manifestations of homofobia in our social environment. We deconstruct the contrary opinions against the homosexual marriage, justifying with etho-historical evidences the extending of equal rights to the couples of the same s...

  12. Homoaffectivity and Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Mott

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The civil union between persons of the same sex is analyzed in this essay through the discussion of the roots of the anti-homosexual prejudice and the fight for the citizenship of gays, lesbians and transgenders in Brazil, and through listing the different manifestations of homofobia in our social environment. We deconstruct the contrary opinions against the homosexual marriage, justifying with etho-historical evidences the extending of equal rights to the couples of the same sex, including the legal recognition of the civil union.

  13. Philanthropy and Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Øjvind

    2013-01-01

    of personal responsibility. Such a responsibility is institutionalized in the big global CSR movement, which has now been integrated in the UN Global Compact. Philanthropy has many dimensions; these include ethical, juridical, political, economic and cultural dimensions. In the last years, a lot has been......, and normally utilized to promote one’s own prestige in the city-state. In Roman context, universal humanism, humanitas, was invented. This universal perspective was also supported by Christianity. It is this universal concept of philanthropy which is the foundation for the different philanthropic traditions...

  14. Breastmilk is a human right.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Olivia

    2010-11-01

    All babies have a human right to breastmilk, based on the right to life, to adequate nutrition and to the highest attainable standard of health, and based on women's rights, which include the right to breastfeed, to breastfeeding education and to paid maternity leave. This article examines international human rights law as it applies to breastfeeding, with particular reference to the Australian context. It also lays out the rights obligations of organisations such as the Australian Breastfeeding Association, their relations with government and the merits of such organisations adopting a rights-based approach to advocacy.

  15. Discursive Framings of Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    What does it mean to be a subject of human rights? The status of the subject is closely connected with the form and rhetoric of the framing discourse, and this book investigates the relationship between the status of the subject and the form of human rights discourse, in differing aesthetic...... and social contexts. Historical as well as contemporary declarations of rights have stressed both the protective and political aspects of human rights. But in concrete situations and conflictual moments, the high moral legitimacy of human rights rhetoric has often clouded the actual character of specific...... interventions, and so made it difficult to differentiate between the objects of humanitarian intervention and the subjects of politics. Critically re-examining this opposition – between victims and agents of human rights – through a focus on the ways in which discourses of rights are formed and circulated...

  16. Human rights and health law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freckelton, Ian

    2006-08-01

    Important statutory and common law developments are changing the landscape of health law in Australia. Human rights considerations are formally included amongst the factors to be applied in the interpretation of statutory provisions and evaluating the lawfulness of actions on the part of government instrumentalities. The Human Rights Act 2004 (ACT) and the Charter of Human Rights and Responsibilities Act 2006 (Vic) create limited bills of rights at State/Territory level in two Australian jurisdictions. Although neither is entrenched, they have the potential to make it more difficult for government to promulgate laws that are inconsistent with human rights, as defined. They will have important repercussions for the evolution of health law in these jurisdictions. The decision of Royal Women's Hospital v Medical Practitioners Board (Vic) [2006] VSCA 85 by the Victorian Court of Appeal has also provided a legitimation for parties to incorporate human rights perspectives in submissions about the interpretation of statutory provisions where health rights are in conflict.

  17. The nature of human rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krivokapić Boris

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the first part of the paper, the author points out that, unlike in the past, in our time human rights developed into a fair legal institution, and even a special system. They are formulated and protected both internally and internationally. The second part deals with the approach according to which human rights are part of the so-called. natural law. The author notes that the theory of natural law can not be accepted for many reasons. It is pure construction, which is far from reality, and besides it is unnecessary. Law and thus human rights as a part of it, is a social creation, developing along with the society itself, whereby, in the longer term, advanced norms in the matter of human rights replace obsolete ones. Life and human needs are the ones who impose such development. In the third part the writer notes that since under human rights one can have in mind various things, at least such a special concept and, on the other hand, specific rights, it is not possible to give a single answer to what is the nature of human rights. It is even harder as human rights, have a variety of dimensions - legal, philosophical, ideological, political, economic, social, educational, etc. However, he gives his view of the main characteristics of the modern concept of human rights. In the fourth part, the author notes that, speaking not about the concept, but human rights as such, their main characteristics are that they are: 1 source - belong to anyone on the grounds that he is a human being (general rights or a member specific vulnerable groups (special rights; 2 universal - belong to everyone or all members of vulnerable groups, without any discrimination based on personal characteristics, and on the other hand, the most important such rights shall be recognized in all states; 3 inalienable - one can not give up or else share his basic human rights, such as the right to life, the right to vote, etc.; 4 somewhat different - although, in principle, all

  18. The Human Right to Peace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Villán Durán

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The international codification of the human right to peace was brought to the United Nations by civil society organizations. The draft declaration submitted to the States has a holistic nature, is very rooted in the international human rights law, and considers peace as the absence of all forms of violence (Santiago Declaration on the Human Right to Peace of 10 December 2010. A working group appointed by the UN Human Rights Council should achieve a new and consensual text to bridge the existing gap between developed and developing States in this field, the former being more supportive of the thesis maintained by civil society.

  19. Kingdom, covenant, and human rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koos Vorster

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This research revisits the idea of a Christian perspective on human rights. Departing from a hermeneutics of trust, this article considers the concept of human rights from the perspective of revelation history. Revelation history departs from the consent of the parts of Scripture, irrespective of differences in dating, original languages, canonical differentiation, cultural, social and historical contexts. Scripture offers a theological unity consisting of various topics which are developed continuing and purposeful throughout the biblical revelation. Two of the major topics in Scripture as they are revealed by a revelation historical survey are the concepts kingdom of God and the covenant of God with God’s people. In this article these two concepts will be used as a foundation for a Christian theory of human rights both as legal human rights and moral human rights. The central theoretical argument of this investigation is that both the concepts kingdom and covenant are essentially about justice and relationships – the justice of the kingdom and the relation between God and humankind, the relation between people and the relation between humans and creation. These relations are the essence of the rights people have, vis-à-vis the authority of the day and other people. These rights, which deal with the orderly maintenance of relationships, can be formalised in legal human rights and should be nurtured and protected by the civil authorities. Christians and churches as moral agents in society have the calling to promote the idea of human rights in constitutional democracies.

  20. Maternal health and human rights

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. In Malawi the maternal mortality ratio is extremely high. Since almost all maternal deaths are avoidable, maternal mortality is also an issue of human rights. This paper examines the root causes of high maternal mortality in Malawi and applies a human rights-based approach to the reduction of maternal mortality.

  1. A Night For Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Lourie

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A review of "A Night For Human Rights", a contemporary art auction curated by Marc Mayer and Julia Lourie to call attention to urgent human rights violations including America's mass incarceration epidemic and the current Syrian refugee crisis.

  2. [Human rights and informed consent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Reynoso, Francisco P; Argüelles-Mier, Miguel; Cicero-Sabido, Raúl

    2004-01-01

    The right to information is a right that all human beings have; it is unrenounceable and confers to the human being the Rights to the Political Constitution of the United States of Mexico, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Declaration of Geneva, and the Code of Behavior for Health Personnel. Information given to a sick person should suffice so that he/she can make a decision on management and treatment. Information is related directly with medical ethics and is obligatory not only for health workers but for all professionals in general.

  3. International Migration and Human Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon H. Hanson

    2010-01-01

    Freedom of movement is considered a basic human right by the majority of countries of the world. As defined in practice, it encompasses the right to move internally within a country, the right to move abroad, and the right to return from abroad. It does not include the right of an individual from one sovereign nation to move to another. In this paper, I examine whether there is an economic rationale for restricting the rights of individuals to move across borders. The typical individual who m...

  4. Human Rights, Human Security and Political Theologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Lorite Escorihuela

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Human rights, particularly in the form of international human rights law, intersect with religion and peace at foundational levels, as symbolically highlighted by the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR. The Preamble to the Declaration proclaims in its very first line that respect for human dignity is the foundation of peace, and proceeds to declare that freedom of belief, alongside freedom of speech and freedom from fear, are the highest aspirations of humankind. One could similarly highlight the special relationship between the project of human rights, peace and religion, particularly religious tolerance, in the texts of the universal, as well as regional, human rights instruments adopted since 1948, as well as the text of the Charter of the United Nations of 1945. The relationship between contemporary human rights, on the one hand, and religion and peace on the other, is arguably determined by the structure of international human rights law as a political discourse, which describes the relationship between individuals, society and the State. The visible influence of social contract theory on the wording of the Universal Declaration reminds us that from its inception, the project of human rights is intimately linked to religious diversity (because of the birth of modern sovereignty in European wars of religion and evangelical imperialism and peace (because of the connection that the Declaration draws between the stability of States and respect for the human dignity of citizens. Against this known conceptual and historical backdrop, this paper starts with the displacement, at the global level, of human rights by the ambiguous discourse of "human security," since the early 1990s. A general idea is that "human security", which has rapidly evolved to become an organizing principle of policy-making for governments as well as non-governmental and inter-governmental organizations, constitutes an alternative, sometimes deliberately

  5. Taking the "human" out of human rights

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, John

    2011-01-01

    Human rights are universally acknowledged to be important, although they are, of course, by no means universally respected. This universality has helped to combat racism and sexism and other arbitrary and vicious forms of discrimination. Unfortunately, as we shall see, the universality of human rights is both too universal and not universal enough. It is time to take the "human" out of human rights. Indeed, it is very probable that in the future there will be no more humans as we know them no...

  6. Public health nursing, ethics and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Luba L; Oden, Tami L

    2013-05-01

    Public health nursing has a code of ethics that guides practice. This includes the American Nurses Association Code of Ethics for Nurses, Principles of the Ethical Practice of Public Health, and the Scope and Standards of Public Health Nursing. Human rights and Rights-based care in public health nursing practice are relatively new. They reflect human rights principles as outlined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and applied to public health practice. As our health care system is restructured and there are new advances in technology and genetics, a focus on providing care that is ethical and respects human rights is needed. Public health nurses can be in the forefront of providing care that reflects an ethical base and a rights-based approach to practice with populations. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Scientific Freedom and Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Elisa

    2000-03-01

    As part of her ongoing work monitoring issues at the intersection of science and human rights, Ms. Munoz has highlighted violations of academic freedom in Serbia and Iran, the denial of visas and travel licenses to U.S. and Cuban scientists, interference with scientific freedom in Brazil, Mexico, Russia, and the Ukraine, the use of organs from executed prisoners in China, legislation jeopardizing women's health in Iran, and the closure of centers for the treatment of torture survivors in Turkey. Such violations contravene international human rights principles listed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other international human rights covenants. Ms. Munoz will describe current violations of scientific freedom and the relevant international principles on which these freedoms rest.

  8. Land Center for Human Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Saber, Karam

    2013-01-01

    Why Land Center for Human Rights? The farmers’ issue represents a new and very important dimension for the Human Rights movement in Egypt for several reasons. The inadequacy of a legislative structure to protect agrarian laborers. In consequence, they are exposed to daily violations. The main targeted categories are women, children and permanent or seasonal agrarian laborers. The widening gap between urban and rural Egypt, especially in the services. Thus, a wide category of people are expose...

  9. Human rights concepts in EU Human Rights Dialogues

    OpenAIRE

    Timmer, A.S.H.; Sosa, Lorena; Majtényi, Balázs

    2016-01-01

    This report presents five case studies on EU Human Rights Dialogues (HRDs). The case studies concern the HRDs with the African Union, China, India, Morocco and Peru. Building on the findings of the previous reports in Work Package 3 of the FRAME project, the aim of this report is to explore how domestic and organisation-based conceptions of human rights, democracy and rule of law emerge in HRDs and what consequences these conceptions entails for the HRDs’ goals. The report starts with a descr...

  10. Gender equality and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This editorial introduces an issue of INSTRAW News that commemorates the 50th anniversary of the UN's Universal Declaration of Human Rights. This introduction notes that the lead article in the journal expresses optimism about potential progress towards achieving gender equity and human rights because 1) industrialized countries are undergoing a "powershift" to an information society that will offer more and better jobs for women and give women greater access to the power of information, 2) women's earnings have increased worldwide, 3) more and more women are organizing on their own behalf, and 4) a public discourse is being created that promotes the mainstreaming of women's rights and their equality. In addition, several of the UN's international treaties promote gender equality and women's human rights. Foremost among these are 1) the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women; 2) the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action, adopted by the 1993 World Conference on Human Rights; 3) the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women; and 4) the Platform for Action of the Fourth World Conference on women. Counteracting these positive steps is a trend towards defining identity and rights on the basis of community membership only, which ignores the fact that cultures, traditions, and religions are not gender neutral. Given the challenges ahead, the partnership model of society created by women when they have political power is more likely to result in sustainable solutions than the dominator model that men have forwarded for the past 6000 years.

  11. Human rights concepts in EU Human Rights Dialogues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, A.S.H.; Sosa, Lorena; Majtényi, Balázs

    2016-01-01

    This report presents five case studies on EU Human Rights Dialogues (HRDs). The case studies concern the HRDs with the African Union, China, India, Morocco and Peru. Building on the findings of the previous reports in Work Package 3 of the FRAME project, the aim of this report is to explore how

  12. Global Law: Humanism and Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilane Serratine Grubba

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the ideal of human rights before globalizatórios inflows. It begins with a general statement about the legal globalization, comparing it with the Global Law in the political and economic implications. Later, it approaches the ideal predicted with transnationalism. Proposes a reflection on the present Human Rights. Also, rethinks the lines of the complex web of Global Law, its institutions and its actors, which circulate between the public and private plans. There is no sense in space maintenance of the ideal of human rights only in the state or territory in international treaties originally linked to the states.

  13. "Taking the human out of human rights" human rights or group rights?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojanić Petar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available What interest me are the reasons why “human” or “human rights” could be important or possibly most important in constituting a group (hence the introduction of the complicated word “group” and “group right(s” in the subtitle. If I had to justify the existence of the latest debates on nature, justification and universality of human rights, on their distinction from other normative standards, on the philosophy and (legal foundation of human rights, on “Human Rights without (or with Foundations” (Raz, Tasioulas, Besson, then I would immediately conclude that this “process of grandiose concretization” of a complete fabrication is far from over. Despite the innumerable pacts and international conventions established after World War II, the slew of obligations to which states have agreed in the last few decades, the establishment of rights to secession or humanitarian intervention it is as if the constitution of classification of basic human rights and their universality is far from over. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007

  14. Human Rights in the West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorgen S. Nielsen

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the areas of conflict between Islam and the West in today’s world is the concern for human rights. This has sometimes been criticized in the Muslim world as a form of neo-imperialism. It is therefore necessary to understand the various dimensions of human rights, and the various phases through which this concern has grown. In the earliest form, it was an assertion of the rights of the landed aristocracy against those of the monarch. The French revolution, with its emphasis on "liberty, equality and fraternity," for all individuals, provided another dimension. There were many occasions on which individual and organized religion came into conflict during the Middle Ages. The experience of World War II, particularly the atrocities of the Nazis, led to the internationalization of individual rights.

  15. Human rights of an embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wennergren, Bertil

    1991-01-01

    Spontaneous ethical views very often spring just from feelings. But an ethical standpoint of any lasting value cannot be based just upon feelings. Relevant facts and values are indispensable. The purpose of the article is to draw the attention to the set of values that is enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, particularly the values of human life, human dignity, human liberty, human physical integrity and the brotherhood of man. More generally recognized values are difficult to find. The usefulness of them as criteria in ethical contexts is tested by applying them to a judging pro and con of research on human embryos. The testing is performed against the background of the report of the Warnock Committee.

  16. Pursuing the Right to an Effective Remedy for Human Rights ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Undoubtedly, global and regional human rights instruments clearly entrench the right to an effective remedy for a human rights violation. The substantive nature of the right to an effective remedy makes it relevant to the realisation of the right to equality as well as the right to equal protection under the law. Cameroon, as a ...

  17. Human Rights and Health Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skitsou, Alexandra; Bekos, Christos; Charalambous, George

    2016-01-01

    Background: It has been observed that health services provided to certain patients in Cyprus do not fully meet their human rights. Objective: This study was conducted to identify the main shortcomings of the Health System in Cyprus. Methodology: The relevant administrative decisions......, ongoing education of health professionals along with relevant education of the community and the broad application of triage in the emergency departments will all contribute to delivering health services more effectively. Keywords: Cyprus, health services, patient rights...

  18. Human Rights & Accountability panel presentatiom

    OpenAIRE

    Sabot, K; Avan, BI; Becker, AJ

    2013-01-01

    This presentation covers an overview of the Partnership for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health and an insight into the process of producing a Partnership for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health Knowledge Summary as well as highlights from the Knowledge Summary on Human Rights & Accountability.

  19. Judicial Dialogue and Human Rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, A.; Kjos, H.E.

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive analysis of the extent, method, purpose and effects of domestic and international courts' judicial dialogue on human rights. The analysis covers national courts' judicial dialogue from different regions of the world, including Eastern Europe, Latin America, Canada,

  20. Nutrition, health and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brundtland, G H

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents the speech delivered by Gro Harlem Brundtland, Director-General of WHO, on issues related to nutrition from a health and a human rights perspective. According to Brundtland, nutrition is a universal factor that both affects and defines the health of all people. It affects not only growth and physical development of a child, but also his cognitive and social development. However, inequity, poverty, underdevelopment, as well as inadequate access to food, health and care still exist which have resulted to the deaths of millions of children and left many more suffering from diseases. Poverty has also been identified as the main obstacle to the attainment of health. The existence of structural poverty and ill health eventually leads to poor development, which includes poor nutrition, poor health, and poor human rights. The impact of poverty on health is further worsened by discrimination on the basis of race, color, sex, language, or religion. To address this issue, the WHO will renew their focus on the political and legal links between health and human rights. A human rights perspective provides the international community with an opportunity to support the development of public health policies and practices that promote healthy nutrition as a center of all social and economic development.

  1. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security

    OpenAIRE

    Gasper, D.R.

    2007-01-01

    Human rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and politics; each has emerged within the United Nations world; each relies implicitly on a conceptualisation of human need; each has specific strengths. Yet mutual communication, understanding and co-operation are deficient, espec...

  2. Human dignity, bioethics, and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häyry, Matti; Takala, Tuija

    2005-09-01

    The authors analyse and assess the Universal Draft Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights published by UNESCO. They argue that the Draft has two main weaknesses. It unnecessarily confines the scope of bioethics to life sciences and their practical applications. And it fails to spell out the intended role of human dignity in international ethical regulation.

  3. Foundations of Collective Cultural Rights in International Human Rights Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donders, Y.; Jakubowski, A.

    2016-01-01

    Although collective cultural rights are included in international human rights law, their place and their nature and significance are not well-explored or understood. This chapter aims to classify collective cultural rights in international human rights instruments and to explore how these rights

  4. Speaking Truth to Power: Women's Rights as Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocco, Margaret Smith

    2007-01-01

    The author considers the treatment of women's rights as human rights in the social studies curriculum. She discusses the role of the United Nations in promoting women's rights since the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948. She also reviews the treatment of women's rights within social studies curriculum today through a…

  5. Right-handed fossil humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Marina; Estalrrich, Almudena; Bondioli, Luca; Fiore, Ivana; Bermúdez de Castro, José-Maria; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Carbonell, Eudald; Rosas, Antonio; Frayer, David W

    2017-11-01

    Fossil hominids often processed material held between their upper and lower teeth. Pulling with one hand and cutting with the other, they occasionally left impact cut marks on the lip (labial) surface of their incisors and canines. From these actions, it possible to determine the dominant hand used. The frequency of these oblique striations in an array of fossil hominins documents the typically modern pattern of 9 right- to 1 left-hander. This ratio among living Homo sapiens differs from that among chimpanzees and bonobos and more distant primate relatives. Together, all studies of living people affirm that dominant right-handedness is a uniquely modern human trait. The same pattern extends deep into our past. Thus far, the majority of inferred right-handed fossils come from Europe, but a single maxilla from a Homo habilis, OH-65, shows a predominance of right oblique scratches, thus extending right-handedness into the early Pleistocene of Africa. Other studies show right-handedness in more recent African, Chinese, and Levantine fossils, but the sample compiled for non-European fossil specimens remains small. Fossil specimens from Sima del los Huesos and a variety of European Neandertal sites are predominately right-handed. We argue the 9:1 handedness ratio in Neandertals and the earlier inhabitants of Europe constitutes evidence for a modern pattern of handedness well before the appearance of modern Homo sapiens. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Human Rights and Indigenous Peoples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garth Nettheim

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper begins by noting the low level of reference to Indigenous Australians in the Commonwealth Constitution at the start of Federation, and goes on to discuss the limits to what was achieved by the 1967 amendments. The situation represents a marked contrast with the USA and Canada in terms of treaties and constitutional recognition. In Australia, particularly during the period of the ‘Reconciliation’ process in the 1990s, important steps were taken by Indigenous Australians to identify items of ‘unfinished business’ in a ‘Statement of Indigenous Rights’. But there has been limited progress to meet these aspirations. And Australian law still lacks a tradition of recognition of human rights generally, let alone Indigenous rights. International law, too, largely lacked recognition of human rights, generally prior to the adoption in 1945 of the Charter of the United Nations. The brief references in the Charter were subsequently developed in a range of declarations and of treaties. These applied to people generally, with scant reference to Indigenous peoples. But, since the 1970s, there has been growing international recognition of the rights of Indigenous peoples under existing declarations and treaties. Since the 1990s, in particular, the UN system has established specific mechanisms for addressing such issues. On 13 September 2007, the General Assembly finally adopted a Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples.

  7. From humanitarianism to human rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Fiona

    2006-01-01

    The chapter is a critical enquiry into 'aid models' as currently used by donor agencies and the implications for local aid workers and beneficiaries when the aid model, together with concepts and buzz words, are changed by 'top' management. The chapter examines the particular case of an aid progr...... programme in Ethiopia that incorporates seven NGOs, is funded by the Danish bilateral agency (Danida), and has moved from a focus on food security to livelihoods and then to human rights....

  8. 75 FR 78147 - Human Rights Day, Bill of Rights Day, and Human Rights Week, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ... idea that ``all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.'' As Americans, this self..., certain rights belong to all people: freedom to live as they choose, to speak openly, to organize... liberty in the lives of individual human beings. Today, we continue the fight to make universal human...

  9. An African Perspective on Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiman, David

    1992-01-01

    Presents a series of classroom activities comparing differing views of human rights in the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the African Charter on Human and People's Rights. Includes excerpts from the African Charter on Human and People's Rights and the full text of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. (CFR)

  10. Foundations of collective cultural rights in international human rights law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donders, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Although collective cultural rights are included in international human rights law, their precise place and their nature and significance are not well-explored or understood. This paper aims to show where collective cultural rights can be found in international human rights law and explore how these

  11. Family planning and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, M S

    1984-01-01

    Inherent in the right to control one's reproductive destiny is the means of exercising it through access to family planning methods. Many donor groups, governments, and private agencies have lost sight of that right in their efforts to solve some small part of the population problem. A hodgepodge of programs are created with high concentrations of programs in some countries and limited access to family planning in other countries not considered statistically signigicant or sufficiently overpopulated. Those who would substitute their authority for the right of individuals to follow their religious, moral, or ethical convictions are equally at fault. Among women lacking access to family planning, 175,000 die each year from clandestine abortions, over 100,000 die in childbirth, and countless numbers see their children die of malnutrition or disease. Concerned groups must address the issue of people who are prevented from exercising their rights because they have no access to family planning methods. The entire range of birth control methods are not being made available to as many persons as possible. contraceptive methods are introduced according to whin or fad in donor countries, and only a small amount of family planning funds are spent on determining consumers' choices and helping to effect their decision. The international family planning community must offer the ability to exercise the basic human right to those denied access to family planning.

  12. Human Rights or Environmental Rights?:A Reassessment

    OpenAIRE

    Boyle, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Should we continue to think about human rights and the environment within the existing framework of human rights law in which the protection of humans is the central focus - essentially a greening of the rights to life, private life and property - or has the time come to talk directly about environmental rights - in other words to have the environment itslef protected? Should we transcend the anthropocentric in favour of the ecocentric?

  13. Child feeding and human rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent George

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human right to adequate food needs to be interpreted for the special case of young children because they are vulnerable, others make the choices for them, and their diets are not diverse. There are many public policy issues relating to child feeding. Discussion The core of the debate lies in differences in views on the merits of infant formula. In contexts in which there is strong evidence and a clear consensus that the use of formula would be seriously dangerous, it might be sensible to adopt rules limiting its use. However, until there is broad consensus on this point, the best universal rule would be to rely on informed choice by mothers, with their having a clearly recognized right to objective and consistent information on the risks of using different feeding methods in their particular local circumstances. Summary The obligation of the state to assure that mothers are well informed should be viewed as part of its broader obligation to establish social conditions that facilitate sound child feeding practices. This means that mothers should not be compelled to feed in particular ways by the state, but rather the state should assure that mothers are supported and enabled to make good feeding choices. Thus, children should be viewed as having the right to be breastfed, not in the sense that the mother is obligated to breastfeed the child, but in the sense that no one may interfere with the mother's right to breastfeed the child. Breastfeeding should be viewed as the right of the mother and child together.

  14. Human Technology and Human Affects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2009-01-01

    Human Technology and Human Affects  This year Samsung introduced a mobile phone with "Soul". It was made with a human touch and included itself a magical touch. Which function does technology and affects get in everyday aesthetics like this, its images and interactions included this presentation...

  15. Using international human rights law to promote constitutional rights ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parliaments are guardians of human rights due to their role of representing the people in the management of public affairs. The activities of parliaments cover the entire spectrum of human rights and have an immediate impact on the enjoyment, protection andpromotion of rights. In South Africa, the Constitution requires ...

  16. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Rights: A Human Rights Perspective. Human Rights Education Series, Topic Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, David M.

    This curriculum is intended to further thoughtful examination and responsible action among high school students about lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) issues. Unlike other curricula this discussion is not in the context of civil or political rights but in the broader context of human rights. These rights, as defined in the Universal…

  17. Evolution of Human Rights in the Age of Biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hron, Benjamin

    1998-01-01

    Considers how biotechnology affects human-rights issues; in particular, the need for reexamining concerns about reproductive technology, the rights of indigenous peoples, and the rights of future generations. Maintains that the new areas for human-rights discussions, such as germ-line manipulation and genetic screening, are unprecedented concerns…

  18. Working of UN Council for Human Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Jangir, Dr. Sunil Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Working of UN Council for Human Rights the study found the importance of Human rights historically and to present the comprehensive coverage of the Human Rights council, the working from the prospective of national and international point of view, the research also finds out the basic tenets of human rights for the promotion of human status. So that one can get real image of Human Rights.

  19. The Human Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    towards this very special and lost humanity. Without the technology, no special humanity is the prophecy. This personification or anthropomorphism is important for the branding of new technology. The technology is seen as creating a technotranscendens towards a more qualified humanity, which is in contact...... with fundamental human values like intuition, vision and sensing; all the qualities the technology, the industrialisation and rationalisation, or in short modernity, has been criticized for having taken away from human existence. What technology has taken away now comes back through new technology as an aid...

  20. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landorf, Hilary

    2012-01-01

    A study of human rights prepares students for their role as global citizens and their study of practices in the world's countries that relate to the rights of human beings. Today, when one talks of human rights it is usually with reference to the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). It is the task of teachers to give students the…

  1. Teaching Strategy: Using the Human Rights Poster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Update on Law-Related Education, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Describes a lesson focusing on a human-rights poster that provides visual reinforcement of the second article of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights that enforces freedom from discrimination. Presents students with examples of human-rights situations to assist them in understanding that all people are entitled to human rights. (CMK)

  2. Defensive Enforcement: Human Rights in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadiprayitno, I.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the article is to examine the human rights enforcement in Indonesian legal and political system. This is done by studying the legal basis of human rights, the process of proliferation of human rights discourse, and the actual controversies of human rights enforcement. The study has

  3. The human rights approach to climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Kristian Høyer

    2013-01-01

    It is often argued that concerns about the equity of a global climate agreement might appropriately be addressed in the language of human rights. The human rights approach has been promoted by a number of international political actors, including the UN Human Rights Council. As such, human rights....... Finally, there is the question of whether the cosmopolitan conception of human rights is at odds with the goal of ensuring that individuals assume responsibility for their own carbon-dependent lifestyle....

  4. Human-Centered Design Bill of Rights for Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar, William A.

    This paper presents a potential solution to encourage technology adoption and integration within schools by proposing a human-centered technology "bill of rights" for educators. The intention of this bill of rights it to influence educators' beliefs towards technology and to enable educators to confront with confidence the seemingly…

  5. Migration in the human rights discourse

    OpenAIRE

    Jasiulevičienė, Regina

    2008-01-01

    This article analyses the relationship between migration and the application of human rights norms to migrants. International migration and human rights intersect in the state sovereignty domain. In many situations there are contradictions between the rights which are given to migrants under human rights law, the principles agreed to by governments, and reality. In the first part of the article the major human rights documents are analysed to show that the rights of migrants as a collectiv...

  6. Human Rights and Environmental Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Basir

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Happiness of human beings in his/her worldly life and even the hereafter has direct contact with the environment’s health. Healthy environment is central to the worldly and spiritual human prosperity. Today, the unbridled destruction of the environment (water, air, space is threatening the universal human rights. The ethics protecting environment has universal foundations and principles which are shared by religions as well as legal and philosophical scholars. This article tries to deal with the relationship between human rights and environmental ethics. The main question this research is going to answer is whether human rights can be realized through the promotion of environmental ethics. The main premise of this paper is that through the development of environmental ethics, universal human rights can be better achieved. The research method of this paper is descriptive – analytical by using library tools. ze: 11.0pt;letter-spacing:-.2pt'> Within the law and justice system in practice in the Islamic Republic of Iran, fee splitting in considered unacceptable and illegal and fee splitters may be pursued by law. The same is true in different societies and most medical councils and accepted ethical codes and guidelines. It is clearly stated in the fifth paragraph of the medical affidavit vowed by all Iranian medical students and doctors that fee splitting is considered amoral and even illegal and that healthcare and medical practices are not to be used as a means of gathering wealth for oneself. All Islamic religious leaders have also questioned the lawfulness of money and wealth earned by fee splitting. The act of fee splitting is also recognized as unethical and unlawful in the guidelines and codes affected by universal medicine societies. کمال انسان در حیات دنیوی و حتی اخروی ارتباط مستقیم با داشتن محیط زیست سالم است. محیط زیست سالم زمینه‌ساز سعادت

  7. Human Technology and Human Affects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2009-01-01

    - is the prophecy. This personification or anthropomorphism is important for the branding of new technology. The technology is seen as creating a technotranscendens towards a more qualified humanity, which is in contact with the fundamental human values like intuition, vision, and sensing; all the qualities...

  8. The Right to Health as a Human Right in Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orquídia Massarongo-Jona

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the issue of access and availability of health services and essential medicines as components of the right to health, focusing on the obligations of the Mozambican State resulting from international human rights instruments, in particular in economic, social rights Taking into account the vulnerability of the Mozambican population to endemic diseases, particularly malaria. The approach considers the recent assessment of Mozambique's human rights performance about the right to health through the Universal Periodic Review Mechanism. The article focuses on the four criteria for approaching human rights established by the UN and which form the basis for assessing the situation of the right to health in Mozambique: Availability, Accessibility, Acceptability and Quality (DAQA and how the current Mozambican legal framework responds to obligations Protection of the right to health.

  9. Human rights literacy: Moving towards rights-based education and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hennie

    http://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/1045-. 3830.23.4.587. Longman P 2009. Dictionary of Contemporary English. (5th ed). New York: Pearson Longman. Mihr A 2009. Global human rights awareness, education and democratization. Journal of Human Rights,. 8(2):177-189. doi: 10.1080/14754830902939080. Nieuwenhuis J ...

  10. Human Rights, Mineral Rights and Corporate Social Responsibility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This view of the company is often described under the concept of corporate social responsibility. This Paper assesses the nature of corporate social responsibility in Ghana primarily focusing on the mining industry. The Paper outlines the various human rights and mineral rights in Ghana and the effects of mining on human ...

  11. Fundamental Human Rights under the Nigerian Constitution: Right ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is almost tempting to apologise for returning to the subject of human rights, but the temptation ought to be resisted. The question of the recognition and protection of Human rights, a perennial, worldwide problem since the immediate aftermath of the Second World War in particular, has played a leading role in international, ...

  12. Misconceptions about Human Rights and Women's Rights in Islam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Khalida Tanvir

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to clarify three current misconceptions about the Islamic faith and issues of human rights and women's rights in the West. The first misconception is that Muslims are terrorists because they believe in Jihad. It is factually the case that Islamic teachings stress the value of peace and prosperity for all human beings. The second…

  13. Pursuing the Right to an Effective Remedy for Human Rights ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJM Venter

    2017-12-19

    Dec 19, 2017 ... effective remedy for a human rights violation.1 In other words, a victim of a human rights violation is legally .... Lord Denning in Gouriet v Union of Post Office Workers [1978] AC 435 quoted by. Zegveld above and .... Put in a practical and comparative perspective, there is a great deal of disparity in terms of ...

  14. Human rights literacy: Moving towards rights-based education and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our theoretical framework examines the continual process of moving towards an open and democratic society through the facilitation of human rights literacy, rights-based education and transformative action. We focus specifically on understandings of dignity, equality and freedom, as both rights (legal claims) and values ...

  15. Web Resources for Teaching about Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merryfield, Merry M.; Badang, Germain; Bragg, Christina; Kvasov, Aleksandr; Taylor, Nathan; Waliaula, Anne; Yamaguchi, Misato

    2012-01-01

    The study of human rights is inseparable from social studies. Beyond the basic political, economic, and social freedoms and rights spelled out in The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, hundreds of specialized topics have developed that demonstrate the complex nature of human rights in the twenty-first-century world--environmental exploitation…

  16. Human rights and cultural rights: An anthropological critique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiljević Jelena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper starts by examining some of the key conceptual problems related to the idea of human rights, as well as some key arguments raised in defence of human rights as universal and emacipatory modern project. This is followed by a discussion on cultural rights, sometimes understood as a correction of human rights’ universalism, at other times taken as their „logical extension“; it will be shown how human rights have gradually begun to be amalgamated with cultural and collective rights. The third section of the paper continues with an overview of anthropological critique of cultural (and collective rights, with an emphasis on ethnographies critically examining the domination of the „rights talk“ in perceptions and self-perceptions of various local „cultural“ struggles. Finally, the issue of the universality of human rights is reexamined from the perspective of the particularity of citizens’ rights with the aim of questioning the validity of their conceptual demarcation. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007 i br. 41004

  17. Women's Rights, Human Rights, and Duties: From Domination to Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lester R. Kurtz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The idea of women's rights as human rights can facilitate our identifying the causes, consequences, and potential remedies for the current quagmire in which we find themselves, but it needs some reformulation. To the traditional understandings of human rights, I add four conceptual tools: (1 Mahatma Gandhi’s idea of the counterparts of rights and duties, (2 Eisler’s concept of partnership (as opposed to dominator societies, (3 Johan Galtung’s expansion of our conception of violence to include its structural and cultural forms, and, finally, (4 the literature on nonviolence as a path to mobilization and transformation that resists existing social structures and builds new ones.

  18. [Human rights and their relationship with patient's rights].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trejo, C

    2000-12-01

    This historical article reviews the most important milestones in the evolution of human and patient's rights. The latter have derived from human rights and have followed a similar historical evolution, but in markedly different times. This has lead to the persistence of monarchic type, paternalistic clinical relationship forms in republican societies. The acceptance of informed consent and patient's rights has been a democratization of clinical relationships. On the other hand the right to body health management is a real cultural revolution. The democratization of clinical relationship is in agreement with our technical, pluralist and secularized times.

  19. Protection of civil rights and technological development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, H.

    1985-01-01

    The question of how the consequences of technological development are to be mastered on the legal level is not primarily a problem of the administrative procedure. The essential point in the discussion on protection of basic rights is not to be seen in the citizen's right to participate in administrative procedures, but rather in the substantive civil rights of individual persons as against the government, together with the system of values established in the Basic Law and derived from the basic rights, as well as in the proper functioning of the principle of separation of powers (legislature, administration, and judicature). The law on procedure and thus the idea of (protection of civil rights by rules of procedure) in this context only have an enhancing effect. Practical protection of civil rights is also ascertained in the Federal Republic of Germany by the particularly well-established guarantee of access to the courts. Another idea to be mentioned in this context is an approach that can be termed as 'protection of civil rights by government-funded research'. Other facts contributing to building a protective shield against infringement of civil rights by technology, activities or installations, include e.g. the federal structure of the state and the administration, type and scope of organisation of the public service, the established system of environmental protection and the safety provided by the current system of expert opinions. (orig./HSCH) [de

  20. Health, Human Rights and Lesbian Existence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller; Rosga; Satterthwaite

    1995-01-01

    This essay briefly examines the intersection of "health and human rights" strategies with two critical international human rights movements: women's rights and gay rights. It concludes that within international frameworks defining a woman's right to health, reproductive health has played a predominant role, and when discussions of health and human rights have addressed issues of homosexuality, they have tended to focus on the explosive conjunction of AIDS and discrimination in the lives of gay men. Nevertheless, despite the fact that strategies for achieving a human right to health have tended to focus on issues less than central to many lesbians' lives, the emerging health and human rights paradigm by allowing a "whole person" analysis that takes into account the dynamics of individual and social relations as well as basic human needsmay paradoxically offer lesbians the potential to counteract the harms that have evolved within the arenas of health and human rights independently, while avoiding the pitfalls of identity-based claims.

  1. Women's Rights in Human Rights Systems: Past, Present and Future ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. In the 2009 Dullah Omar Memorial Lecture, United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights Navanethem Pillay contextualises many of the issues facing women that were raised in earlier articles.

  2. Civil Rights, Human Rights and Terrorism in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Kathryn

    1979-01-01

    Reviews political events of the past decade in Northern Ireland, focusing particularly on national and international legal actions relating to civil and human rights. The roles of England and, more briefly, the United States are discussed. (GC)

  3. The Human Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

     Bent Fausing  "The Humane Technology", abstract (for The Two Cultures: Balancing Choices and Effects Oxford University July 20-26, 2008). The paper will investigate the use of technology in everyday aesthetics such as TV-commercials for mobile phones for Nokia, which slogan is, as it is well known......, "Nokia - connecting people". Which function does this technology get in narratives, images, interactions and affects here?      The mobile phone and its digital camera are depicted as being able to make a unique human presence and interaction. The medium, the technology is a necessary helper to get...... towards this very special and lost humanity. Without the technology, no special humanity is the prophecy. This personification or anthropomorphism is important for the branding of new technology. The technology is seen as creating a technotranscendens towards a more qualified humanity, which is in contact...

  4. Human rights and migration policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmora, L

    1990-01-01

    This paper concerns the history of migration, migration policies, and the rights of migrants in Latin America from 1500 to the present. In the first part of the article, the author identifies and discusses the basic rights of migrants. In the second part, migration policies, migration flows, and the treatment of migrants are examined over time.

  5. Technology Transfer: Creating the Right Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, John M.

    2003-01-01

    Small and medium-sized enterprises are considered to be the backbone of many European economies and a catalyst for economic growth. Universities are key players in encouraging and supporting economic growth through technology and knowledge-related transfer. The right environment to foster transfer is a proactive culture. (Contains 22 references.)…

  6. US Human Rights Conduct and International Legitimacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keating, Vincent Charles

    Did the Bush administration fundamentally harm the international human rights system through its rejection of human rights norms? This is the central question explored within US Human Rights Conduct and International Legitimacy, which analyses the practices of legitimacy between the Bush...... nations have followed in America's footsteps, and that the Bush administration's deviation from international norms has served to reaffirm worldwide commitment to human rights....

  7. Human rights education for nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, M

    2001-05-01

    This article is based largely on a research study undertaken by the author into the teaching of human rights in nursing courses in the UK on behalf of the national section of the human rights organization Amnesty International. It attempts to provide a baseline estimate of human rights education in nursing curricula in the UK while making suggestions on how the teaching of human rights issues could be more clearly incorporated into nursing curricula, ending with some recommendations for further research.

  8. Building a Human Rights Youth Justice System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyles, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The Australian Capital Territory's Human Rights Act 2004 and the establishment of an ACT Human Rights Commission have begun to create a human rights culture in the ACT. This paper highlights the influence of this culture on the design and build of the ACT's new youth justice centre. (Contains 2 figures.)

  9. NGO Duties in Relation to Human Rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philips, J.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the moral duties that human rights NGOs, such as Amnesty International, and development NGOs, such as Oxfam, have in relation to human rights – especially in relation to the human right to a decent standard of living. The mentioned NGOs are powerful new agents on the global

  10. US Human Rights Conduct and International Legitimacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keating, Vincent Charles

    Did the Bush administration fundamentally harm the international human rights system through its rejection of human rights norms? This is the central question explored within US Human Rights Conduct and International Legitimacy, which analyses the practices of legitimacy between the Bush...

  11. Examining Human Rights in a Global Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Greg; Inoue, Keiko; Orrick, Stefanie

    The United Nations' founding in 1945 and the 1948 adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights reflected the international community's growing commitment to the protection and recognition of what is now referred to as human rights. Despite increased international attention, human rights violations continue to occur at the local, regional,…

  12. Food Prints on Human Rights Law Paradigms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der B.M.J.; Ratescu, I.

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the interaction between the development of the doctrine on human rights, in general, and on the right to food, in particular. In 1948 the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which listed the rights that were considered to

  13. Human rights to in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegers-Hochschild, Fernando; Dickens, Bernard M; Dughman-Manzur, Sandra

    2013-10-01

    The Inter-American Court of Human Rights (the Court) has ruled that the Supreme Court of Costa Rica's judgment in 2000 prohibiting in vitro fertilization (IVF) violated the human right to private and family life, the human right to found and raise a family, and the human right to non-discrimination on grounds of disability, financial means, or gender. The Court's conclusions of violations contrary to the American Convention on Human Rights followed from its ruling that, under the Convention, in vitro embryos are not "persons" and do not possess a right to life. Accordingly, the prohibition of IVF to protect embryos constituted a disproportionate and unjustifiable denial of infertile individuals' human rights. The Court distinguished fertilization from conception, since conception-unlike fertilization-depends on an embryo's implantation in a woman's body. Under human rights law, legal protection of an embryo "from conception" is inapplicable between its creation by fertilization and completion of its implantation in utero. © 2013.

  14. Information as a Human Right

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Lesley S. J.

    2015-01-01

    Information lies at the core of freedom of expression since it empowers citizens to understand the functions of media and other information providers, to access and critically evaluate their content, and to make informed decisions as users and producer of information and media content. Information and related technologies have become increasingly…

  15. 3 CFR 8464 - Proclamation 8464 of December 9, 2009. Human Rights Day, Bill of Rights Day, And Human Rights...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proclamation 8464 of December 9, 2009. Human Rights Day, Bill of Rights Day, And Human Rights Week, 2009 8464 Proclamation 8464 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8464 of December 9, 2009 Proc. 8464 Human Rights Day, Bill of Rights Day, And Human...

  16. Dangerous rights: of citizens and humans

    OpenAIRE

    Nash, Kate

    2006-01-01

    In this chapter I will explore the discrepancy between Arendt’s and Agamben’s pessimism concerning human rights, and the determined optimism of ‘well-meaning idealists’. I will explore the cosmopolitan project to abolish the distinction between citizens and non-citizens through human rights from a sociological perspective. As sociologists we are well-equipped to study how the legalisation of human rights works in practice. In the following section I consider how the legalisation of human righ...

  17. Disability, human rights and justice

    OpenAIRE

    Diniz, Debora; Barbosa, Lívia; Santos, Wederson Rufino dos

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper aims to demonstrate how the feld of disability studies consolidated the concept of disability as social oppression. By reviewing the main ideas of the social model of disability, this article presents the genesis of the concept of disability as a restriction of participation for disabled people, as adopted by the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, which Brazil ratifed in 2008.

  18. Designing Human Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper

    Research Initiative supporting Roskilde University’s new Humanities and Technology bachelor programme (‘HumTek’), and its three dimensions: Design, Humanities, and Technology. The research initiative involves 70 researchers from different departments and research groups at Roskilde University through...... a shared interdisciplinary research and educational collaboration. As a creative research initiative it focuses on change and innovative thinking. The innovativeness is a result of the strongly interdisciplinary perspective which is at the heart of Designing Human Technologies. Designing Human Technologies......Design is increasingly becoming a part of the university curriculum and research agenda. The keynote present and discuss Designing Human Technologies – an initiative aiming at establishing a design oriented main subject area alongside traditional main subject areas such as Natural Science...

  19. The Human Rights of Minority Women:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnbøl, Camilla Ida

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the complexities surrounding the human rights of minority women. With analytical focus on Romani women in Europe it seeks to contribute with new insight into the grey areas of rights issues, where groups within special rights categories share different human rights concerns......, by being both women and members of a minority group. Through an investigation of how contemporary human rights law and politics serve to address the concerns of Romani women, it sheds light on the challenges that the Romani women’s issue presents to the international human rights framework...... rights attention that they claim. It is argued that in order to strengthen the validity of human rights in the lives of Romani women, as a framework that ensures their full and equal protection, special attention needs to be given to interrelated grounds and forms of discrimination. “Intersectionality...

  20. Human Rights within Education: Assessing the Justifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCowan, Tristan

    2012-01-01

    While respect for human rights has long been endorsed as a goal of education, only recently has significant attention been paid to the need to incorporate rights within educational processes. Current support for human rights within education, however, has a variety of motivations. This paper provides a theoretical exploration of these diverse…

  1. China and Africa: Human Rights Perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    its business'. In this regard, China perceives human rights as one thing that should not disregard the issue of national sovereignty. Chinese officials have repeatedly argued that attempts by other countries to link positions on democracy and human rights to economic assistance/co-operation violates the rights of sovereign ...

  2. Teaching about Human Rights and American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Karen D.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a flexible lesson plan integrating teaching about human rights into the existing curriculum about American Indians. Asserts that American Indians have the right to maintain their cultural ways and connects that subject to the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Includes three lists of resources and references. (MJP)

  3. Complementing the surveillance law principles of the Court of Strasbourg with its environmental law principles. An integrated technology approach to a human rights framework for surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hert, P.J.A.; Galetta, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    If one looks at the case law of the European Court of Human Rights on surveillance matters, a well mature set of principles emerge, namely: legality, legitimacy, proportionality (the standard check) and, if the Court is "on it", also necessity and subsidiarity (the closer scrutiny check). We pass

  4. Teaching Human Rights: Confronting the Contradictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John L. Hammond

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Teaching human rights means taking on a series of controversies over what human rights are, how they are determined, and how they are (or are not upheld.  The "possession paradox" is that often human rights are declared but many, or even most, people do not actually enjoy them.  In teaching human rights we must convey both the promise of human rights and the discrepancy between that promise and their fulfillment.  I review a number of controversies in the current application of human rights, many of which arise from that discrepancy.  I then suggest the use of literary works and simulation games that can sometimes convey meanings more effectively than expository material.

  5. Human Rights and the Leap of Love

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Lefebvre

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To commemorate the 75th anniversary of Henri Bergson’s death I present what I believe is his most vital and lasting contribution to political philosophy: his conception of human rights. This article has two goals. The first is to present Bergson’s writings on human rights as clearly and simply as possible, so as to reach the wide audience it deserves. The second is to demonstrate his relevance for contemporary human rights scholarship. To do so, I connect him to recent debates in the history and historiography of human rights. I also highlight his distinctive approach to human rights as furnishing a tool for individuals to work upon and improve themselves. For Bergson, the great promise of human rights is that they simultaneously open new possibilities to care for others and also to care for oneself.

  6. Promoting human rights : National Human Rights Commissions in Indonesia and Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Setiawan, Ken Marijtje Prahari

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1990s, the number of National Human Rights Institutions (NHRIs) has grown rapidly worldwide. NHRIs are widely believed to be able to contribute to the realisation of human rights, by embedding international norms in domestic structures. Promoting Human Rights: National Human Rights

  7. 48 Human Rights in and around Cuba

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The article takes point of department in the current reform process in Cuba and its perspectives regarding human rights. To understand the background of the fundamental human rights' problems in Cuba, an analysis of the 'constituting dichotomy' is included and discussed in relation to its...... representation in the film, 'Strawberry and Chocolate'. The further perspectives for human rights in Cuba in relation to other Developments in Latin America constitutes the last part....

  8. Disclosures on managing human rights risks

    OpenAIRE

    ACCA Australia and New Zealand; Net Balance Foundation; CAER

    2011-01-01

    This report examines the human rights governance, risk management and reporting quality of companies in the ASX 100. The report focuses predominantly on the 47 companies in the ASX 100 identified by CAER as having high-risk exposure to human rights issues, on the basis they are operating in countries with human rights concerns. The report also addresses, in brief, the approach of the remaining 53 ASX 100 companies not operating in countries of concern but with potential exposure to other huma...

  9. Book Review: Islam and Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloryne Trie Isana Dewi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Human rights and Islam are two very interesting issues to be discussed since there has been tension for decades. One agrees that Islamic law violates many aspects of human rights, yet other argues that human rights are against Islamic law. Nonetheless, there are also groups who accept that human rights and Islam are not contrary. This book written by Ann Elizabeth Mayer tries to give such objective perspective on the relation between human rights and Islam. With conspicuous title “Human Rights and Islam”, potential readers can assume that this book will discuss all matters in regards to the problematic of Islam and human rights in a whole. Beyond the expectation, this book focuses on the politics and tradition of Islamic countries in several ’attractive‘ areas such as Iran, Saudi Arabia, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Sudan in interacting with human rights. However, Mayer declares from the very first sentence of the preface that this title is purposed for practical function for those who search for references on Islam and Human Rights and emphasizes that this book is written based on her research in the area of Middle East as her area of interest. Mayer argues that there is no Islamic consensus on a single Islamic human rights philosophy as her main thesis in this book. This claim is based on her research, that even other religions with long and complex traditions, they prone to create conflict in the interpretation between religious doctrine and human rights. Furthermore, she elaborates her research in 10 chapters of the book particularly on how Muslims from North Africa to Pakistan are responding human rights, from total rejection to wholehearted embrace.

  10. A vegan jurisprudence of human rights

    OpenAIRE

    Rowley, Jeanette

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces ethical veganism to human rights discourse. It examines the postmodern and posthuman critique of Kantian human rights and the call for Levinasian ethics of alterity to replace the Kantian primary values of reason and autonomy. In congruence with existing scholarship, it advances the argument for a transformational paradigm shift in the foundational architecture of human rights to entrench the importance of duty to Others. However, in examining veganism in the context of ...

  11. MAKING LEGAL SENSE OF HUMAN RIGHTS: Introduction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eliasn

    Rotterdam: PhD. Thesis, Erasmus University of Rotterdam, The Netherlands, 1993. Galenkamp holds that collective rights, while they can be ascriptively made legal rights--rights by consensus—cannot be moral (and hence human) rights. Reason: collectivities do not have a moral agency that individuals have. This seems to ...

  12. Human Rights in Sino-American Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Day, Jana

    2002-01-01

    .... Key among these has been human rights, which both countries view differently. Whereas the United States emphasizes individual civil and political liberties, the People's Republic of China (PRC...

  13. The human rights and the terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Rafiei Fanood

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Regarding Human rights has been emphasized by governments through universal declaration human rights and its violations faced the global reaction in any case. From this perspective; the necessity of observing human rights against terrorism has been emphasized by many resolutions of the General Assembly, the Security Council and many regional resolutions. But, today especially after the September 11 events and America unilateral attacks by resorting to human rights and of course by considering the lack of international agreement on the norms, strategies and principles of human rights, the campaign against terrorism has started on the basis of its obligations, regardless to existing norms. So it would be said that today; the war against terrorism more than any other terrorist attacks threatens the security and human rights. However, human rights framework has never prevented effective and legitimate actions to the terrorist attacks. In other words; in the human right framework, there is no conflict with the campaign against terrorism, it emphasizes on identifying and fighting and even it guarantees the effectiveness of such a fight. As a result, Human rights violations at the expense of security, certainly associated with the destruction of both.

  14. Democracy, Human Rights and Women's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Jalil

    2012-01-01

    Significant improvements in human rights and democracy have been made since the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights by the United Nations in 1948. Yet, human rights, especially women's rights, are still being violated in many parts of the developing world. The adverse effects of such violations on women's and children's health are well known, but they are rarely measured. This study uses cross-national data from over 145 countries to estimate the impact of democracy and respect for human rights on various measures of women's health while controlling for confounding socio-economic factors such as income, education, fertility and healthcare. It finds that democracy and regards for human rights contribute positively to women's health outcomes, as do socio-economic variables.

  15. Can human rights law bend mass surveillance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikke Frank Joergensen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing gap between the right to privacy and contemporary surveillance schemes. As a concrete example, the US surveillance operation PRISM and its impact on European citizens’ right to privacy is discussed. This paper provides a brief introduction to PRISM, continues with an outline of the right to privacy as stipulated in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR, the European Convention on Human Rights and the EU Directive on Data Protection, and moves on to discuss whether international human rights law may be used to bend mass surveillance.

  16. (Public) Health and Human Rights in Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annas, George J; Mariner, Wendy K

    2016-02-01

    Public health's reliance on law to define and carry out public activities makes it impossible to define a set of ethical principles unique to public health. Public health ethics must be encompassed within--and consistent with--a broader set of principles that define the power and limits of governmental institutions. These include human rights, health law, and even medical ethics. The human right to health requires governments not only to respect individual human rights and personal freedoms, but also, importantly, to protect people from harm from external sources and third parties, and to fulfill the health needs of the population. Even if human rights are the natural language for public health, not all public health professionals are comfortable with the language of human rights. Some argue that individual human rights--such as autonomy and privacy--unfairly limit the permissible means to achieve the goal of health protection. We argue that public health should welcome and promote the human rights framework. In almost every instance, this will make public health more effective in the long run, because the goals of public health and human rights are the same: to promote human flourishing. Copyright © 2016 by Duke University Press.

  17. Will Technology Humanize Us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, Robert C.

    1972-01-01

    The author considers the question of whether technology will cause humanization or dehumanization in the schools. He concludes that we can not stop tecchnology; we can only give it direction and purpose. (Author/MS)

  18. Human rights and the right to abortion in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zúñiga-Fajuri, Alejandra

    2014-03-01

    The scope of this study is to question the fact that in some countries in Latin America (Chile, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Honduras and the Dominican Republic) abortion is still forbidden in all situations. Even after all the debate on this thorny issue, the theory of human rights is not often used in the defense of abortion. This is clearly related to the pervasive, albeit unspoken belief that, due to their condition, pregnant women inherently lose their full human rights and should surrender and even give up their lives in favor of the unborn child. This article seeks to show that an adequate reading of the theory of human rights should include abortion rights through the first two trimesters of pregnancy, based on the fact that basic liberties can only be limited for the sake of liberty itself. It also seeks to respond to those who maintain that the abortion issue cannot be resolved since the exact point in the development of the embryo that distinguishes legitimate from illegitimate abortion cannot be determined. There are strong moral and scientific arguments for an approach capable of reducing uncertainty and establishing the basis for criminal law reforms that focus on the moral importance of trimester laws.

  19. Human rights and the right to abortion in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Zúñiga-Fajuri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this study is to question the fact that in some countries in Latin America (Chile, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Honduras and the Dominican Republic abortion is still forbidden in all situations. Even after all the debate on this thorny issue, the theory of human rights is not often used in the defense of abortion. This is clearly related to the pervasive, albeit unspoken belief that, due to their condition, pregnant women inherently lose their full human rights and should surrender and even give up their lives in favor of the unborn child. This article seeks to show that an adequate reading of the theory of human rights should include abortion rights through the first two trimesters of pregnancy, based on the fact that basic liberties can only be limited for the sake of liberty itself. It also seeks to respond to those who maintain that the abortion issue cannot be resolved since the exact point in the development of the embryo that distinguishes legitimate from illegitimate abortion cannot be determined. There are strong moral and scientific arguments for an approach capable of reducing uncertainty and establishing the basis for criminal law reforms that focus on the moral importance of trimester laws.

  20. Can human rights law bend mass surveillance?

    OpenAIRE

    Joergensen (Rikke Frank)

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing gap between the right to privacy and contemporary surveillance schemes. As a concrete example, the US surveillance operation PRISM and its impact on European citizens’ right to privacy is discussed. This paper provides a brief introduction to PRISM, continues with an outline of the right to privacy as stipulated in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), the European Convention on Human Rights and the EU Directive on Data Protection, and moves ...

  1. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security - Relationships between four international human discourses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2007-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract: Human rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and

  2. Stealth Radicalism: Teaching Refugee Rights as Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Jones

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this essay, I describe a Human Rights course in which I focused on refugee rights through a service-learning project with a refugee resettlement agency. I will summarize my own approach to “radical teaching,” my objectives for the course, the course itself, and the impact of the course on the students. Ideally, I would describe the impact on the refugees with whom the students interacted, but I was not able to collect narratives in that regard.

  3. The Human Right of Home Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Homeschooling is legal and growing in many countries but is virtually forbidden by law in Germany and a few others. The European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) has reviewed and upheld this ban. Is home education a human right? How do these courts employ their jurisprudence of proportionality to find banning home education does not violate relevant…

  4. Human Rights, Diversity, and Citizenship Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, James A.

    2009-01-01

    The 60th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights is a propitious time for educators to examine its implications for educating citizens in multicultural nation states. The author argues that students must experience democratic classrooms and schools that reflect their cultures and identities to internalize human rights values,…

  5. Human rights education (HRE) and transnational activism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihr, A.; Schmitz, Hans-Peter

    2007-01-01

    Transnational human rights activism occupies today a significant place in the practice and scholarship of current global affairs. This article reviews the past successes and limits of this activism and suggests Human Rights Education (HRE) as a strategic tool currently underutilized by activists and

  6. Access to Medicines and Human Rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oehlke, Krista; Perehudoff, Katrina; Geddes, Katrina; Ruiz Mancera, Silvia; Fuller, Arlan

    This chapter will introduce you to key issues and resources in access to medicines and human rights. In addition, this chapter will help you understand why, more now than ever, access to medicines must be understood and approached as a human rights issue. Some of these issues are also addressed in

  7. Teaching Literature and Human Rights: Curricular Possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldwyn, Merrill Harvey

    1983-01-01

    A course emphasizing the relationship between literature and human rights can provide opportunities to examine the history of social protest literature and to look at the distinctions between authors and cultural or historical contexts. One such course used guest lecturers involved in human rights struggles and special events outside the…

  8. Advancing safe motherhood through human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, R

    1998-01-01

    In order to reduce preventable maternal mortality, it is necessary to go beyond ensuring the development and availability of effective health interventions. What is needed is a recognition that maternal mortality is caused by women's inferior social status and that women's disempowerment from birth represents a cumulative social injustice that governments are obliged to remedy through application of their political, health, and legal systems. The challenge of effectively applying such a human rights perspective to safe motherhood is similar to that required in efforts to eliminate slavery or racial discrimination: the necessary reforms threaten conventional practices and value systems. The claim that safe motherhood is a human right will gather legitimacy when it is understood that denying this claim creates an injustice within the standards of fairness that societies hold dear. In addition, countries must recognize that this human rights claim arises from their own cultural values. Then, governments must be held accountable. Advancing safe motherhood through human rights will require a diagnosis of laws, policies, and social norms. The task must include inquiries into the nearly 600,000 annual maternal deaths, and it must meet the challenge of translating human rights into the rights of each person to be human. As 1998 celebrates the first 50 years since the 1948 UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the next phase in human rights development must focus on the previously neglected interests of women.

  9. Chinese Human Rights Guidance on Minerals Sourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    2017-01-01

    in the minerals sector and due diligence to ensure socially responsible sourcing of minerals with a particular focus on human rights, the guidelines refer to international human rights standards and are designed to be consistent with guidance issued by the OECD. The article discusses the Chinese guidelines...

  10. Global human rights awareness, education and democratization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihr, A.

    The 1990s was the era of human rights awareness, democratic transitions, and growing involvement of international organizations and the nongovernmental sector in human rights education (HRE). The UN Decade for HRE from 1995–2004 was not only born out of the initiatives and pressures of

  11. Poverty, equity, human rights and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braveman, Paula; Gruskin, Sofia

    2003-01-01

    Those concerned with poverty and health have sometimes viewed equity and human rights as abstract concepts with little practical application, and links between health, equity and human rights have not been examined systematically. Examination of the concepts of poverty, equity, and human rights in relation to health and to each other demonstrates that they are closely linked conceptually and operationally and that each provides valuable, unique guidance for health institutions' work. Equity and human rights perspectives can contribute concretely to health institutions' efforts to tackle poverty and health, and focusing on poverty is essential to operationalizing those commitments. Both equity and human rights principles dictate the necessity to strive for equal opportunity for health for groups of people who have suffered marginalization or discrimination. Health institutions can deal with poverty and health within a framework encompassing equity and human rights concerns in five general ways: (1) institutionalizing the systematic and routine application of equity and human rights perspectives to all health sector actions; (2) strengthening and extending the public health functions, other than health care, that create the conditions necessary for health; (3) implementing equitable health care financing, which should help reduce poverty while increasing access for the poor; (4) ensuring that health services respond effectively to the major causes of preventable ill-health among the poor and disadvantaged; and (5) monitoring, advocating and taking action to address the potential health equity and human rights implications of policies in all sectors affecting health, not only the health sector.

  12. Animal rights, animal minds, and human mindreading

    OpenAIRE

    Mameli, M; Bortolotti, L

    2006-01-01

    Do non‐human animals have rights? The answer to this question depends on whether animals have morally relevant mental properties. Mindreading is the human activity of ascribing mental states to other organisms. Current knowledge about the evolution and cognitive structure of mindreading indicates that human ascriptions of mental states to non‐human animals are very inaccurate. The accuracy of human mindreading can be improved with the help of scientific studies of animal minds. However, the s...

  13. Ritual male infant circumcision and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Allan J; Arora, Kavita Shah

    2015-01-01

    Opponents of male circumcision have increasingly used human rights positions to articulate their viewpoint. We characterize the meaning of the term "human rights." We discuss these human rights arguments with special attention to the claims of rights to an open future and to bodily integrity. We offer a three-part test under which a parental decision might be considered an unacceptable violation of a child's right. The test considers the impact of the practice on society, the impact of the practice on the individual, and the likelihood of adverse impact. Infant circumcision is permissible under this test. We conclude that infant circumcision may be proscribed as violating local norms, even though it does not violate human rights.

  14. Human right to water and conventionality control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana N. Martínez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Humanity faces the challenge of achieving the sustainability of water resources supply for the satisfaction of human needs and ofensuring the sustainability of the natural ecosystems for the achievement of sustainable human development and the quality of life of present and future generations. For this reason the recognition of access to water as a Human Right has fundamental significance. We proceed to analyze the international instruments that provide content and legal basis to the human right to water and the obligations of States. In this context, we deal with the constitutional reception of human right to water in Argentina in the constitutional reform of 1994 and the control of conventionality as guarantor of access to water, which has led to different domestic courts to consider cases in which a violation ofthe right to water was proved.

  15. Philosophical Justification for Fundamental Human Rights ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    People the world over often lay claims to fundamental human rights without giving thought to the justification for them. They forget that the assertion of one's right without justification would not be enough. Thus, it is not enough for man to assert his rights; he must justify them in some way. For example a liquor dealer must be ...

  16. Where Public Health Meets Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiragu, Karusa; Sawicki, Olga; Smith, Sally; Brion, Sophie; Sharma, Aditi; Mworeko, Lilian; Iovita, Alexandrina

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) initiated a process for validation of the elimination of mother-to-child transmission (EMTCT) of HIV and syphilis by countries. For the first time in such a process for the validation of disease elimination, WHO introduced norms and approaches that are grounded in human rights, gender equality, and community engagement. This human rights-based validation process can serve as a key opportunity to enhance accountability for human rights protection by evaluating EMTCT programs against human rights norms and standards, including in relation to gender equality and by ensuring the provision of discrimination-free quality services. The rights-based validation process also involves the assessment of participation of affected communities in EMTCT program development, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation. It brings awareness to the types of human rights abuses and inequalities faced by women living with, at risk of, or affected by HIV and syphilis, and commits governments to eliminate those barriers. This process demonstrates the importance and feasibility of integrating human rights, gender, and community into key public health interventions in a manner that improves health outcomes, legitimizes the participation of affected communities, and advances the human rights of women living with HIV. PMID:29302179

  17. Human rights, State Violence and Political Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signe Larsen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates Hannah Arendt’s and Giorgio Agamben’s critiques of human rights and argues that the two thinkers share a blind spot with regard to the radical potentials of human rights. The problem is that they do not break with two fixed imaginaries which still haunt liberal democracies: (1 the historical essentialist understanding of human rights and (2 nation-states and individuals as the principal loci for political rights, power, and action. Based on the work of Jacques Rancière, Costas Douzinas, and Étienne Balibar this article argues that human rights can be thought of as a constituent part of a radical political praxis and resistance movement. If human rights are thought of as a praxis of “right-ing” (Douzinas or a “dissensus” (Rancière, which both contest the current “distribution of the sensible,” a new “cosmopolitics of human rights” can be imagined where human rights are conceived as a borderline concept (Balibar.

  18. Women, reproductive health and international human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This article addresses the issue concerning the reproductive health and international human rights of women. The modern era of human rights applied to women's health started with the adoption of the UN Charter in 1946 and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights adopted by the General Assembly in 1948. However, the leading instrument of women's equal rights is the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women adopted in 1979. This treaty assumed the legal responsibility to eradicate all forms of discrimination against women, particularly in the field of health care, thus ensuring that women will have access to health and family planning services. The concept of health as "the state of physical, mental and social well-being" as described by WHO emphasizes the significance of the social well-being in which the social, cultural, and economic factors plays a pivotal role in women's health status. In other parts of the world however, women are considered as relatively insignificant and are made to suffer discrimination in health because of their sex role. Such disadvantages against the female gender include injustices in the light of human rights law, particularly in the context of reproductive health services. Addressing the health disadvantages of women calls for actions gearing towards the promotion of women's empowerment. Efforts to advance the reproductive health through human rights of women should be rooted on the existing framework of human rights as recognized in most national constitutions and international human rights treaties.

  19. Is inclusive education a human right?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John-Stewart

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I question the general idea that inclusive education--i.e., to teach all students in one class--is a moral human right. The following discussion shows that the widespread view in disability studies that there is a moral human right to inclusive education can be reasonably called into question by virtue of the proposed counter arguments, but without denying that inclusive education is of utmost importance. Practically speaking, the legal human right to inclusive education is of great practical value for impaired students, and for their basic right to be free from discrimination in education, since their concern thereby gains great legal and moral force. But, theoretically speaking, this particular human right lacks an attainable consensus concerning proper moral justification. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  20. Transformative combinations: women's health and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamin, A E

    1997-01-01

    From the human rights perspective proposed in this article, a woman's good or ill health reflects more than biology or individual behaviors; it reflects her enjoyment (or lack thereof) of fundamental human rights that enable her to exercise basic power over the course and quality of her life. The "structural" view of health that such a human rights perspective suggests is concerned first with identifying the effects of social, economic, and political relations on women's health and then with promoting "interventions" aimed at transforming the laws, institutions, and structures that deny women's rights and well-being. Yet, traditional human rights law and practice have been limited to narrowly defined abuses by public officials against individuals that fail to capture the most pervasive denials of women's rights, which, though rooted in systematic discrimination, are frequently played out in so-called "private" institutions, primarily within the family. The experiences of women's health advocates in addressing complex women's health issues makes it clear that women's lack of access to economic and political power in the public sphere creates the conditions under which they are discriminated against and physically and sexually abused in the private sphere. Combining the pragmatic understanding of women's health professionals with an expansive conception of human rights norms has the potential to transform the fields of women's health and human rights.

  1. Human Dignity – Constitutional Principle of Fundamental Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Pop

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available As a constitutional principle of the human rights, the human dignity is a supreme value, a norm and a right, thus that the reconfiguration of protection standards of fundamental human rights is made by cohesion of the legal, social and moral dimensions of human dignity. With this article, the author argues that legal meaning, social meaning and moral meaning of human dignity, are centerpiece of protection of freedom under law.

  2. Animal rights, animal minds, and human mindreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mameli, M; Bortolotti, L

    2006-02-01

    Do non-human animals have rights? The answer to this question depends on whether animals have morally relevant mental properties. Mindreading is the human activity of ascribing mental states to other organisms. Current knowledge about the evolution and cognitive structure of mindreading indicates that human ascriptions of mental states to non-human animals are very inaccurate. The accuracy of human mindreading can be improved with the help of scientific studies of animal minds. However, the scientific studies do not by themselves solve the problem of how to map psychological similarities (and differences) between humans and animals onto a distinction between morally relevant and morally irrelevant mental properties. The current limitations of human mindreading-whether scientifically aided or not-have practical consequences for the rational justification of claims about which rights (if any) non-human animals should be accorded.

  3. Evolving International Practices for Protection of Human Rights- the UN Human Rights Advisory Panel and EU Human Rights Review Panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remzije ISTREFI

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the unique development of the international human rights non judicial protection mechanism in Kosovo. Since 1999 Kosovo has been placed under international supervision carried out by international organizations, namely the United Nations and the European Union. The UN’s Mission in Kosovo (UNMK was unprecedented both in scope and structural complexity. After the Declaration of Independence by Kosovo authorities on 17 February 2008, the European Union Rule of Law Mission in Kosovo EULEX took over to assist and support the Kosovo authorities in the rule of law area, specifically in the areas of the police, the judiciary and customs. The UNMIK’s extensive mandate and EULEXs limited executive powers in practice have affected human rights of Kosovars as a consequence of the UNMIK and EULEX actions and inactions in the course of exercise of their mandates. This study will try to reveal the processes that lead to establishment of these two unique international human rights Panels and their impact on human rights protection of individuals under international administration. The main question to be addressed is if these two human rights panels are providing the adequate remedy for addressing human rights violations by international actors in a post conflict Kosovo.

  4. Disability in a Human Rights Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresia Degener

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD is a modern human rights treaty with innovative components. It impacts on disability studies as well as human rights law. Two innovations are scrutinized in this article: the model of disability and the equality and discrimination concepts of the CRPD. It is argued that the CRPD manifests a shift from the medical model to the human rights model of disability. Six propositions are offered why and how the human rights model differs from the social model of disability. It is further maintained that the CRPD introduces a new definition of discrimination into international public law. The underlying equality concept can be categorized as transformative equality with both individual and group oriented components. The applied methodology of this research is legal doctrinal analysis and disability studies model analysis. The main finding is that the human rights model of disability improves the social model of disability. Three different models of disability can be attributed to different concepts of equality. The medical model corresponds with formal equality, while the social model with substantive equality and the human rights model can be linked with transformative equality.

  5. When Human Rights Clash at the European Court of Human Rights: Conflict or Harmony?

    OpenAIRE

    Smet, Stijn; Brems, Eva

    2017-01-01

    The notion of conflict rests at the heart of the judicial function. Judges are routinely asked to resolve disputes and defuse tensions. Yet, when judges are called upon to adjudicate a purported conflict between human rights, they face particular challenges and must address specific questions. Some of these concern the very existence of human rights conflicts. Can human rights really conflict with one another, in terms of mutual incompatibility? Or should human rights be interpreted in harmon...

  6. Ethik und Menschenrechte / Ethics and Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter G. Kirchschläger

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Menschenrechte schützen essenzielle Elemente und Bereiche der menschlichen Existenz, die dem Menschen ermöglichen, zu überleben und als Mensch zu leben. Menschenrechte können dabei vierdimensional verstanden werden: Neben einer rechtlichen, einer politischen und einer historischen Dimension weisen die Menschenrechte eine moralische Dimension auf. Daher ergibt sich aus einer ethischen Perspektive zum einen die Frage nach dem Verhältnis der Menschenrechte als moralische Rechte zu anderen moralischen Rechten. Zum anderen gilt es, die moralische Dimension der Menschenrechte (u.a. die Frage nach der Begründung der Menschenrechte, ihre Grundlage und ihr Verhältnis zu den anderen Dimensionen der Menschenrechte genauer zu reflektieren. Menschenrechte können zudem als ethischer Referenzpunkt dienen, da sie sich durch den ihnen zugrundeliegenden universellen Konsens, ihren Praxisbezug und ihre Offenheit für eine Positivierung in juristische Rechte auszeichnen. Gleichzeitig lösen die Menschenrechte aufgrund ihres Universalitätsanspruchs Fragen in Bezug auf ihr Verhältnis zu anderen moralischen Systemen aus, denen nachgegangen werden sollte. Human rights protect essential elements and spheres of human existence that enable humans to survive and exist as humans. In this context, human rights can be viewed as having four dimensions: In addition to the legal, the political, and the historic dimension, human rights also have a moral dimension. From an ethical perspective, this raises two issues. The first concerns the relationship of human rights as a moral right compared to other moral rights. The second deals with the moral dimension of human rights (i.e. the question of the legitimation of human rights, what they are based on, and their relationship to other dimensions of human rights, which need to be examined in detail. Furthermore, human rights can serve as an ethical point of reference, since they are characterized by an essential universal

  7. The controversial universality of individual human rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich Graf

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Human rights is currently a very relevant but also very controversial issue in international politics in the aftermath of some of the events that occurred during the twentieth century. In this article, the author puts the present issues in perspective by initiating the discussion with a look at aspects of the historical development of the concept of human rights. He then moves on to take a closer look at how the concept of human rights feature� and function in the Christian religion and follows that up with an overview of how human rights are perceived and are operative in the religion of Islam. The article concludes with a focus on inter-cultural discourse.�

  8. Human Rights and International Relations. Some Remarks

    OpenAIRE

    Mogens Chrom Jacobsen

    2017-01-01

    An introductory note to the this special issue of Nordicum-Mediterraneum, which contains select proceedings from the meeting of the Nordic Summer University (NSU) research circle “Human Rights and International Relations”.

  9. Anti-humanism of the human rights ideology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirić Jovan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available How can we say that the ideology of human rights is not human? Yes, we can say that, because the human rights of one person usually stay in confrontation with the human rights of some other person. There is no social conflict and the law deals with social conflicts, which could be arranged by respecting the human rights of both sides. SomeoneÆs human right always has to be refused in some way. The author talks about that in this article. He talks about criminal law for example and that the human rights of an accused and convicted offender stay in confrontation with the human rights of a victim. If we respect the human rights of the accused and the convicted person it does mean that we do not respect enough the human rights of the victim. Because of that, the human rights are not a good concept to build-up the law system. Something that is more objective then 'my' or 'his', (individual understanding of what is the human right, what is the justice has to exist. TodayÆs concept of human rights is based on reducing the state regulation, but it does mean that there is no criteria which is above our individual points of view. In that situation of total individualism no oneÆs human right could be respected well. That is the second name for the anarchy, where we can not speak about the law and the human rights. On the other side, the problem of human rights is very much connected with the problem of understanding what is normal, what is moral, what is justice and the answer to those questions is very different in different societies and different cultures. If we are trying to build one global law system, in fact we are reducing the human right of people from different civilizations to have their own different answer on what is moral. That is also one very interesting paradox of the ideology of human rights which we can express in a very strange sentence: 'there is no human rights for those who are against human rights!',

  10. The human factor: enhancing women's rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinzor, N

    1995-01-01

    The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted by the UN in 1948, declares that all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights, and that everyone has the right to life, liberty, and security of person. In practice, however, far from everyone has these rights, especially women. Many women worldwide have neither the awareness of nor access to family planning methods with which they could regulate their fertility and childbearing. Thus deprived of their reproductive freedom, these women cannot pursue education, employment, and other life options which would otherwise be readily available to them were they not saddled with poor reproductive health and too many children. Expanded choices enhance the status of women, which in turn helps them to reduce fertility rates and stabilize population growth. The author discusses how the wide range of cultural and social norms, and economic and political systems worldwide make it very difficult and complex to actually implement universal human rights.

  11. HUMAN RIGHTS IN NATIONAL CYBERSECURITY STRATEGY DOCUMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Ünver, Gül Nazik

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the United States, Turkey, United Kingdom, Germany, the Netherlands and Belgium's national cyber security strategy documents and their impact on human rights and international human rights protection mechanisms are being analyzed in the cyber space. First of all, this work will focus on steps and suggestions with a new outlook for bringing a different dimension by focusing on legal regulations of countries, the security approaches of countries by putting forward the perspe...

  12. Migration in the Mediterranean : human rights perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Mehyar, Muayyad

    2014-01-01

    At the outset I would like to highlight that this paper is not intended to cover all aspects of the relationship between migration and human rights. It will seek only to stress on some remarks and questions that may engender some thoughts, for us all to reflect on and discuss. In order to do so, I will commence by emphasising six key messages about migration which are, in my view, important considerations in the context of the relationship between migration and human rights.

  13. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Dură

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948 was preceded by several other Declarations in the first half of the twentieth century, beginning with the Declaration of 1929 and ending with the one of 1947. All these Declarations make express reference only to the “Human rights” and not to those of the “individual” or of the “Citizen”, as in the Declaration of the French Revolution, in 1789, or in the one of the Bolshevik Revolution, in 1917. Among other things, in our paper, we emphasized that the Universal Declaration of Human Rights remains the first legal international instrument that imposed an unitary and universal conception regarding the human rights and fundamental freedoms, and, ipso facto, of the “Dignitas humana” (dignity of the human person, to which the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe (Lisbon, 2007 would make express reference.

  14. Foucault and Human Rights: Seeking the Renewal of Human Rights Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2016-01-01

    This article takes up Foucault's politics of human rights and suggests that it may constitute a point of departure for the renewal of HRE, not only because it rejects the moral superiority of humanism--the grounding for the dominant liberal framework of international human rights--but also because it makes visible the complexities of human rights…

  15. Economic Justice: Necessary Condition for Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloud, Fred

    1993-01-01

    Economic justice means taking the personhood of poor people into account; respecting their needs, personal ambitions, rights, and dignity; and affording equal opportunity and equal access to education, health care, housing, and jobs. Examples of injustice to minority groups are provided, citing the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. (SLD)

  16. Human Rights in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Information Service, New York, NY. Reference Div.

    This pamphlet uses the Articles of the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights as a framework within which to describe legal safeguards of individual rights in the United Kingdom. Under each article of the Declaration, a historical perspective of the tradition of civil liberties is provided, as are descriptions of recent trends and…

  17. Human Rights Act, 12 February 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    This document reprints major provisions of the Yukon's (Canada) 1987 Human Rights Act. The Act furthers the public policy that every individual is free and equal in dignity and rights, seeks to discourage and eliminate discrimination, and promotes the underlying principles of Canadian and international human rights instruments. Part 1 contains a Bill of Rights that protects the right to freedom of: 1) religion and conscience, 2) expression, 3) assembly and association, and 4) to enjoyment and disposition of property. Part 2 prohibits discrimination based on ancestry (including color and race), national origin, ethnic or linguistic background or origin, age, sex (including pregnancy), and marital or family status. Discrimination is also prohibited when offering services, goods, or facilities to the public; in connection with employment; in connection with membership in trade unions or trade, occupational, or professional associations; and in negotiation or performance of public contracts. The Bill of Rights lists reasonable causes for discrimination as well as exemptions, including preferential treatment for organization or family members or employment in a private home. Special programs and affirmative action programs are specifically not considered discrimination under this Act. The Act sets forth rules for providing equal pay for work of equal value and creates a Yukon Human Rights Commission to promote human rights and assist adjudication of complaints.

  18. Food Security and Human Rights in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadiprayitno, I.

    2010-01-01

    Food is crucial to an adequate standard of living. The acknowledgement of the right to food in government policies is fundamental to the protection of human dignity, particularly in relation to food insecurity. It allows the right-holder to seek redress and hold government accountable for

  19. Human Rights Arrangement on Indonesian Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Masribut Sardol

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Article 1 paragraph (3 of the Constitution of 1945 (UUD 1945 stated that Indonesia is a Rule of Law. One feature of the Rule of Law is the existence of human rights in the state administration. Indonesia, since independence on August 17, 1945 has asserted the defense of human rights as stated in the opening clause and in the torso of the 1945 Constitution Article 27-34. In the era of reform, on the Government of President Habibie, the President and the Parliament ratified the UN convention against torture and other cruel, inhuman, or degrading human dignity into Law number 5 of 1998. Then the MPR also publishes the statutes of MPR No. XVII/MPR/1998 on Human Rights, which was followed up with the appearance of Law No. 39 of 1999 on human rights. In accordance with the law in Indonesia based on the sort of Law No. 12 of 2011, the actual products that have been issued by the Government (the MPR, DPR and President that follow up the substance of Human Rights in the Constitution with established Assembly and the law is already correct. But when the MPR then does the second amendment to the Constitution on August 18, 2000 by adding a special article chapters and contains about Human Rights (as mentioned in Chapter X-A section 28 A-J, have made the complexity hierarchy of law in Indonesia because it is not in accordance with the substance of article 7 of Law No. 12 of 2011. How To Cite: Sardol, S. (2014. Human Rights Arrangement on Indonesian Law. Rechtsidee, 1(1, 85-100. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.21070/jihr.v1i1.105

  20. FCJ-195 Privacy, Responsibility, and Human Rights Activism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becky Kazansky

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we argue that many difficulties associated with the protection of digital privacy are rooted in the framing of privacy as a predominantly individual responsibility. We examine how models of privacy protection, such as Notice and Choice, contribute to the ‘responsibilisation’ of human rights activists who rely on the use of technologies for their work. We also consider how a group of human rights activists countered technology-mediated threats that this ‘responsibilisation’ causes by developing a collective approach to address their digital privacy and security needs. We conclude this article by discussing how technological tools used to maintain or counter the loss of privacy can be improved in order to support the privacy and digital security of human rights activists.

  1. Classification Of Human Rights: Modern Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor I. Pishhulin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article existing doctrinal approaches to the classification of the rights and freedoms of person are revealed. Author suggests to approach a problem of the rights and freedoms of person classification in a historical and chronological order and on this basis to allocate three generations of human rights. In the article the role of human rights in creation of democratic constitutional state is shown. It is emphasized that a main goal of any state – protection of constitutional rights of the personality and providing opportunities for their full practical realization. According to the author, achievements of modern legal and political science can act as a form of insurance from false understanding of human rights. Author analyzes essence and principles of the rights and freedoms of person, reflecting on problems of their classification and protection, scientists create the base for the legislation on human rights development and for their full realization. Due to such understanding of the scientific activity importance the state and scientific community can combine efforts for the achievement of public consent objectives, creation of civil society, development of its institutes. Author proves that an important role in this process is played also by the legal education which carries out educational functions, promotes in the society formation of the legal culture. In the conclusion author explains why a main goal of any state – protection of constitutional rights of the personality and providing opportunities for their full practical realization. In the achievement of this goal the modern state has to consider human rights not as the instrument of political struggle and a factor of games of politics, but as an inherent supreme value.

  2. STATE SOVEREIGNTY, INTERNATIONAL HUMAN MOBILITY AND HUMAN RIGHTS

    OpenAIRE

    Vedovato, Luís Renato; Naspolini, Samyra Haydêe Dal Farra

    2015-01-01

    International human mobility and human rights can be linked by the dinamogenesis theory. The State sovereignty isn’t the same it was in the past. The State can’t decide about the right to entry without consider international human rights treaties. The nationality has an important row in finding how dinamogenesis can modify the interpretation of the State sovereignty. The right to entry is built in the evolution of human rights. Now State has no more the discretion to decide who can enter its ...

  3. Land administration, planning and human rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Hvingel, Line Træholt; Galland, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The people-to-land relationship is dynamic and changes over time in response to cultural, social, and economic development. Land policies, institutions and land administration systems are key tools aimed at governing this relationship. Such tools will normally include the means for allocating...... and controlling rights, restrictions and responsibilities in land – often termed RRRs. Each of the RRRs encompasses a human rights dimension that should be seen and unfolded as more than just political rhetoric. This paper attempts to analyse the aspect of human rights in relation to land administration systems...... with a special focus on less developed countries struggling to build adequate systems for governing the RRRs in land. In doing so, the paper conceives planning as a key function and means of land administration systems by which human rights should be underpinned in solving concrete land issues....

  4. Education of Youth, Human Rights and Human Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Sergio

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses youth and adult education in a twofold perspective: that of a human right and that of human development. The first perspective is related to the concept of rights and the second perspective is related to the guarantee or negation of the right to development. In this article, the author discusses the universality of rights…

  5. Human Rights Education and Training for Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreopoulos, George

    2002-07-01

    Although human rights education (HRE) has a long history, it has only recently begun to realize its transformative potential. A critical catalyst in this process is the emerging global ethos of accountability. Within this context, HRE can play a crucial role in the construction of a universal culture of human rights, inspired by a shared commitment to a humane order and a belief that human beings have both the capacity and the responsibility to make a difference. In such an effort, the training of professionals is vital, especially of those professionals who can influence public debate on accountability and governance. Innovative HRE initiatives, characterized by a commitment to experiential learning and to international and regional cooperation among state and non-state actors, constitute a step in the right direction.

  6. Gender equality is a human right. Empowerment, women and human rights, past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, R L

    1998-01-01

    This analysis opens by noting that the fact that women's equality is a human right is gaining universal acceptance and by outlining some of the major events that have marked recognition of the concept of human rights and women's rights. The analysis then considers the history of how humans have subsisted on earth in hunter-gatherer societies, horticultural (hoe-based, shifting cultivation) societies, agrarian (plow, permanent cultivation) societies, industrial societies, and information and technological societies. Next, a theory of gender stratification is applied to each situation to show how gender stratification depends upon who has control of economic resources (not who does the most work or even who legally owns the resources). Thus, women and men enjoy equality and cooperation to survive in foraging societies, men dominate in horticultural and agrarian societies, and women begin to regain ground in industrial societies. The analysis also takes into account macro- and micro-level "discount" factors that affect the amount of leverage a woman can get from money earned. The next section of the analysis deals with present conditions and notes that women can achieve equal rights via economic empowerment in combination with macro-level changes. This section also explains how "sexism kills" and considers the economic factors affecting violence against women. The article goes on to quantify progress to date, with a focus on women's gains in education, health, work and income, and political equality as well as slower gains in ratification of pertinent international treaties. The article concludes with an optimistic view of the future as the information age allows women to gain more power.

  7. A Culture Of Health And Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariner, Wendy K; Annas, George J

    2016-11-01

    A culture of health can be seen as a social norm that values health as the nation's priority or as an appeal to improve the social determinants of health. Better population health will require changing social and economic policies. Effective changes are unlikely unless health advocates can leverage a framework broader than health to mobilize political action in collaboration with non-health sector advocates. We suggest that human rights-the dominant international source of norms for government responsibilities-provides this broader framework. Human rights, as expressed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and enforceable treaties, require governments to assure their populations nondiscriminatory access to food, water, education, work, social security, and a standard of living adequate for health and well-being. The policies needed to realize human rights also improve population health, well-being, and equity. Aspirations for human rights are strong enough to endure beyond inevitable setbacks to specific causes. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  8. Human Rights Texts: Converting Human Rights Primary Source Documents into Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fariss, Christopher J.; Linder, Fridolin J.; Jones, Zachary M.; Crabtree, Charles D.; Biek, Megan A.; Ross, Ana-Sophia M.; Kaur, Taranamol; Tsai, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We introduce and make publicly available a large corpus of digitized primary source human rights documents which are published annually by monitoring agencies that include Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch, the Lawyers Committee for Human Rights, and the United States Department of State. In addition to the digitized text, we also make available and describe document-term matrices, which are datasets that systematically organize the word counts from each unique document by each unique term within the corpus of human rights documents. To contextualize the importance of this corpus, we describe the development of coding procedures in the human rights community and several existing categorical indicators that have been created by human coding of the human rights documents contained in the corpus. We then discuss how the new human rights corpus and the existing human rights datasets can be used with a variety of statistical analyses and machine learning algorithms to help scholars understand how human rights practices and reporting have evolved over time. We close with a discussion of our plans for dataset maintenance, updating, and availability. PMID:26418817

  9. Human Rights Texts: Converting Human Rights Primary Source Documents into Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fariss, Christopher J; Linder, Fridolin J; Jones, Zachary M; Crabtree, Charles D; Biek, Megan A; Ross, Ana-Sophia M; Kaur, Taranamol; Tsai, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We introduce and make publicly available a large corpus of digitized primary source human rights documents which are published annually by monitoring agencies that include Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch, the Lawyers Committee for Human Rights, and the United States Department of State. In addition to the digitized text, we also make available and describe document-term matrices, which are datasets that systematically organize the word counts from each unique document by each unique term within the corpus of human rights documents. To contextualize the importance of this corpus, we describe the development of coding procedures in the human rights community and several existing categorical indicators that have been created by human coding of the human rights documents contained in the corpus. We then discuss how the new human rights corpus and the existing human rights datasets can be used with a variety of statistical analyses and machine learning algorithms to help scholars understand how human rights practices and reporting have evolved over time. We close with a discussion of our plans for dataset maintenance, updating, and availability.

  10. Interdependence, Human Rights and Global Health Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viens, A M

    2015-12-01

    The connection between health and human rights continues to play a prominent role within global health law. In particular, a number of theorists rely on the claim that there is a relation of interdependence between health and human rights. The nature and extent of this relation, however, is rarely defined, developed or defended in a conceptually robust way. This paper seeks to explore the source, scope and strength of this putative relation and what role it might play in developing a global health law framework.

  11. Gender Equality, Citizenship and Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This comparative volume examines the ways in which current controversies and political, legal, and social struggles for gender equality raise conceptual questions and challenge our thinking on political theories of equality, citizenship and human rights. Bringing together scholars and activists who...... reflect upon challenges to gender equality, citizenship, and human rights in their respective societies; it combines theoretical insights with empirically grounded studies. The volume contextualises feminist political theory in China and the Nordic countries and subsequently puts it into a global...... perspective. It tackles a complex set of tensions across a dense and shifting landscape and addresses issues including labour, health, democracy, homosexuality, migration and racism....

  12. Russia and Human Rights: Incompatible Opposites?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Bowring

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The Article raises in his article “Russia and human rights: incompatible opposites?” the question, if the currently complicated relations between Russia and the CoE concerning Russia’s obligations under the ECHR are at breaking-point. In regard to this issue he gives a description of the history of law in Russia to prove the pre-existing tradition of argument about human rights.

  13. Mental health disabilities and human rights protections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmukler, G; Bach, M

    2015-01-01

    Around the world, reports regularly expose persistent and systemic human rights violations of patients in mental health services and facilities, and of those who are unable to access needed supports. A number of factors contribute - political will; the range and quality of services available; public and professional attitudes to mental health; stigma; health professionals' training and expertise; and available resources. This paper examines one of the main determinants, the legal framework. This sets the parameters for mental health policies and services and for applicable human rights norms and standards that can be realized in practice. We provide an overview of international human rights instruments in relation to mental health disabilities, and of the major human rights violations in this area. Key implications for mental health law reform are drawn with a particular focus on discrimination and coercive interventions. The major challenges posed by the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (2006) are examined. Current mental health laws, to greater or lesser degrees, fail to meet the newly required standards. We discuss reforms based on 'generic law' and 'legal capacity' principles that seek to meet those standards. We outline some emergent and promising examples of reform. The role of civil society and the importance of the standing of those with mental health disabilities in this process is noted.

  14. The Human Right to Access Electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tully, Stephen

    2006-04-15

    Electricity access is already well established within the framework of human rights, either as an implicit attribute of a pre-existing right (such as non-discrimination or sustainable development) or explicitly in the context of eliminating discrimination against women. There is also broad acknowledgement by states of the desirability of eliminating energy poverty - for all, but particularly for the rural poor, and women. (author)

  15. Human rights in Sino-American relations

    OpenAIRE

    Day, Jana R.

    2002-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited Over the past decade, numerous issues largely ignored during the era of Sino-American strategic cooperation emerged to complicate U.S.-China relations. Key among these has been human rights, which both countries view differently. Whereas the United States emphasizes individual civil and political liberties, the People's Republic of China (PRC) primarily advocates economic, social, and cultural rights. This has provided a major source o...

  16. Documentation: International Legal Human Rights Framework -- Human Rights and the Institutionalisation of ASEAN: An Ambiguous Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodor Rathgeber

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While the ASEAN Charter of 2007 heralded an era of improved democracy, human rights protection and good governance in accordance with the rule of law, the reality on the ground tells a different story. While all of the trappings of a human rights mechanism are in place, the normative and protective capacity of the regime is ambiguous at best. The adoption of core international human rights treaties by ASEAN member states presents an ambiguous picture, one which reveals significant variations between the ten countries. The purported institutionalisation of international human rights standards since 2007 in the region via the creation of an ASEAN human rights mechanism in that year is betrayed by the poor condition of actual protection of human rights at the national and regional level. The article analyses the situation on the ground in light of the normative obligations and aspirations of the states.

  17. Human Rights in Sino-American Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-12-01

    individual’s interests and those of society.25 The family, not the individual, was the basis of society, and filial piety had a great impact on Chinese...differ fundamentally in the way they define human rights. As a democracy and duly influenced by classical Western philosophers such as John Locke...Perspective As a democracy and duly influenced by classical Western philosophers such as John Locke and Immanuel Kant, the United States defines human

  18. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security : Relationships between four international 'human' discourses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractHuman rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and politics; each

  19. [Human rights, maternal mortality and reproductive health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, R J

    1993-06-01

    This work examines reproductive health within the framework of human rights assured by various international conventions, and analyzes the high maternal mortality rates of developing countries as a violation of several guaranteed rights. The 1st of 3 main sections of the report discusses the failure of governments to make protection of women's reproductive health a priority. Historically, women's principal role has been to bear children, and no recognition was given to the cost in health of accomplishing this duty. Women's reproductive health has created controversies in many traditional juridical systems because of its relation to human sexuality and morals. WHO has estimated that some 500,000 maternal deaths occur each year, with 25-50% resulting from unsafe abortions. The causes of maternal mortality often have their roots in the poor nutrition or inadequate health care provided to the woman long before the 1st pregnancy. Early and frequent pregnancies and heavy physical labor are among the many factors that contribute to maternal death. Laws to protect women's health may be lacking or may not be applied. For example, many countries have no legal minimum age for marriage. To combat the traditional negligence, a new viewpoint is emerging which views women's reproductive health as a condition in which childbearing occurs in a state of physical, mental, and social wellbeing. It implies that women have the capacity to reproduce, regulate their fertility, and enjoy sexual relations. Laws that deny access to reproductive health services or place obstacles or conditions in the way are coming under question as violations of basic human rights of women protected by international conventions. The main such convention discussed in this article is the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, although several other conventions are relevant to protecting women's reproductive health. If international law on human rights is to become truly

  20. Global human rights governance and orchestration: National human rights institutions as intermediaries

    OpenAIRE

    Pegram, T.

    2015-01-01

    The United Nations remains the principal international governmental organisation for promoting human rights. However, serious concerns focus on persistent compliance gaps between human rights standards and domestic practice. In response and against a backdrop of growing regime complexity, United Nations human rights agencies have increasingly sought to bypass states by coordinating new forms of non-state and private authority. International Relations scholarship has captured this governance a...

  1. The Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Federico

    2003-01-01

    Since 1985, UNESCO studies ethical questions arising in genetics. In 1992, I established the International Bioethics Committee at UNESCO with the mission to draft the Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights, which was adopted by UNESCO in 1997 and the United Nations in 1998. The Declaration relates the human genome with human dignity, deals with the rights of the persons concerned by human genome research and provides a reference legal framework for both stimulating the ethical debate and the harmonization of the law worldwide, favouring useful developments that respect human dignity.

  2. Human dignity according to international instruments on human rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pablo Alzina de Aguilar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available According to international instruments on human rights, the dignity of the human person is the foundation of human rights, and both human dignity and human rights are inherent to the human being, universal and inviolable. This understanding of human dignity is not a fruitless truism, but the solid foundation on which to build a world community under the rule of the new ius gentium: the International Law for Humankind. Moreover, it is the clue to answer many questions raised by the new world of globalization and of the exponential growth of international rules.Consequently, there is a need to a common doctrine on a notion of human dignity which will allow the implementation and adjudication of the aforementioned instruments, at the service of the human person and in conformity with the juridical conscience which they reflect. Philosophy of Law concepts which can be traced back to Aristotle provide that notion. According to these concepts, the demanding nature of “human dignity” sustains the notion of “legal personhood”, and both notions pertain to the realm of Law and Right, not of Morale and Values. Thus, human dignity and human rights are and must be, respectively, a basic principle and a necessary part of any Law system, including international law

  3. Humanization: Towards a Critical Education in Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Hernando Gómez-Esteban**

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to problematize the three fundamental dimensions of the human rights education: the dialogicity, the ”Otherness” and the juridicity, having previously discussed minimum ethical, political and legal conditions for a critical education in human rights. The article ends with some methodological assumptions to continue this discussion and this type of education.

  4. Human rights and sustainable spatial development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pallemaerts, M.

    2009-01-01

    What is the relationship between spatial planning and human rights? Though this question may seem highly theoretical at first glance, closer analysis will reveal that there are in fact a number of ways in which public policies in the area of territorial planning and development and the imperative of

  5. Human Rights and Cosmopolitan Democratic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snauwaert, Dale T.

    2009-01-01

    The foundation upon which this discussion is based is the basic nature of democracy as both a political and moral ideal. Democracy can be understood as a system of rights premised upon the logic of equality. At its core is a fundamental belief in moral equality, a belief that all human beings possess an equal inherent dignity or worth. The ideal…

  6. Human Rights and People with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdekin, Brian

    1995-01-01

    This lecture transcript discusses human rights issues related to people with disabilities in Australia, focusing on concepts of discrimination, legislation, and social justice. Findings from recent federal inquiries into homeless children and mental illness highlight major deficits in services for people with disabilities. (Author/DB)

  7. The Politics of European Human Rights Culture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Agha, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 3 (2017), s. 200-215 ISSN 1805-8396 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-30299S Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : Court of Justice of the European Union * European Court of Human Rights * religious symbols Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences OBOR OECD: Law

  8. Human rights and multinational firm returns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dag, Nihat; Eije, Henk von; Pennink, Bartjan

    1998-01-01

    Corporate social responsibility receives increased attention in economic analysis and research, but the knowledge of the effect of ethical issues on company performance is still in its infancy. In this paper we attempt to measure the impact of the human rights issue with an event study. In

  9. Human rights standards for targeted sanctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cortright, D.; de Wet, E.

    2010-01-01

    Legal scholar Erika de Wet and sanctions expert David Cortright team up to analyze the core principles of international human rights law in relation to the procedures for the imposition of targeted sanctions by the UN Security Council and the European Union. They define core legal standards such as

  10. China in Africa: The Human Rights Impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.L. Bennett (Clare); S. McCann (S.); B. Radley (Ben)

    2008-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This report examines the practical impact of Chinese investment on human rights in Africa, in order to assess how the positive effects of China in Africa can be maximised and how the negative effects – which have the potential to be particularly damaging in states

  11. Female genital mutilation: Tradition versus human rights

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A.E. Groeneveld

    www.sciencedirect.com. Opinion article. Female genital mutilation: Tradition versus human rights. A.E. Groeneveld. Department of Urology, Mbabane Clinic, Swaziland. Received 22 November 2012; received in revised form 1st December 2012; accepted 1st December 2012. 'All procedures that involve partial or complete ...

  12. The Struggle for Human Rights in Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    The non-violent participation of Nobel Peace Prize laureate Aung San Suu Kyi and Buddhist monks in resistance efforts to advocate for the welfare of Myanmar's people has played an important role in educating the world about human rights violations in the country. Faced with international condemnation, Myanmar's junta released Aung San Suu Kyi from…

  13. Human rights: eye for cultural diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donders, Y.M.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship and interaction between international human rights law and cultural diversity is a current topic, as is shown by the recent debates in The Netherlands on, for instance, the proposed ban on wearing facial coverage, or burqas, and the proposed ban on ritual slaughter without

  14. Gender, human rights and cultural diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastrup, Marianne C

    2011-01-01

    and the elucidation of their symptom manifestations, as well as effective therapeutic interventions, which clearly show how human rights issues are linked to research and clinical psychiatry. The analyses of how different ethnic groups use psychiatric services, epitomize how important it is to pay attention to gender...

  15. Human Rights and Environmental Wrongs: Achieving Environmental Justice through Human Rights Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget Lewis

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The numerous interconnections between the environment and human rights are well established internationally. It is understood that environmental issues such as pollution, deforestation or the misuse of resources can impact on individuals’ and communities’ enjoyment of fundamental rights, including the right to health, the right to an adequate standard of living, the right to self-determination and the right to life itself. These are rights which are guaranteed under international human rights law and in relation to which governments bear certain responsibilities. Further, environmental issues can also impact on governments’ capacity to protect and fulfil the rights of their citizens. In this way human rights and environmental protection can be constructed as being mutually supportive. In addition to these links between the environment and human rights, human rights principles arguably offer a framework for identifying and addressing environmental injustice. The justice implications of environmental problems are well documented and there are many examples where pollution, deforestation or other degradation disproportionately impact upon poorer neighbourhoods or areas populated by minority groups. On the international level, environmental injustice exists between developed and developing States, as well as between present and future generations who will inherit the environmental problems we are creating today. This paper investigates the role of human rights principles, laws and mechanisms in addressing these instances of environmental injustice and argues that the framework of human rights norms provides an approach to environmental governance which can help to minimise injustice and promote the interests of those groups which are most adversely affected. Further, it suggests that the human rights enforcement mechanisms which exist at international law could be utilised to lend weight to claims for more equitable environmental policies.

  16. Human Right and Internet Access : A philosophical investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Xiaowei

    2016-01-01

    As of December 2014, there are three billion Internet users worldwide, of which 649 million are Chinese. This number will grow in the years to come. This technology, of course, possesses immense significance in our everyday life. What is currently new in international human rights practice is the

  17. Canadian Civil Society Organizations and Human Rights and Global ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project aims to strengthen the capacity of Canadian civil society organizations (CSOs) to inform Canadian policy on human rights and global justice. ... in the developing world continue to face obstacles that limit their ability to establish careers and become leaders in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and ...

  18. Human Rights in National Administrative Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næsborg-Andersen, Ayo

    rights law is visible in the case-law of institutions performing reviews of Danish administrative decisions. The book consists of three parts. The first part contains the introduction, research question, methodological considerations and delimitations. The second part is an in-depth look at the theory...... of empowerment and legal capability, coupled with an analysis of how this theory is supported by international and national law. The third and final part contains an analysis of cases from both the Danish Parliamentary Ombudsman and the Danish Equality Board (Ligebehandlingsnævnet), applying a model of analysis...... developed using the theory of legal capability and communication theories. Discussing new ways of analysing the application of human rights, this book is relevant for scholars and professionals primarily working with human rights law, but also administrative law, both nationally and internationally....

  19. The Discourse on Human Rights and the International Regime of Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyassu Gayim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The international regime of human rights governs the kinds of freedoms, liberties, benefits, autonomy and protection which human beings are entitled to, what kind of obligations we have in this connection and what the roles of states are in recognizing and protecting these rights. Yet, the sources, foundation and justifications for these rights and who we are by nature to deserve some rights has been contentious over the centuries, not least because we live in social context, which requires balancing rights by meeting the broader community interests: political order, stability, and satisfying the general welfare. This paper re-visits the major contentious positions in the discourse on human rights for purposes of explaining how the international community has navigated when shaping the contours of the international regime of human rights. Has this regime endorsed, rejected or avoided some of these positions? Does it follow a clear political ideology?

  20. Remembering a sociology of Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A sociology of human rights sounds almost like a contradiction in terms. Sociology is about social groups, about particular experiences, about how people, embedded in space and time, make sense of their lives and give meaning to their world. It deals with power and interest and the social bases of our experiences. On the other hand, human rights are about human beings in general, without temporal or spatial references, not about groups and their boundaries. Human rights are about humanity, located in the world and connected to an inviolable nature. Global media representations, among others, create new cosmopolitan memories, providing new epistemological vantage points and emerging moral-political interdependencies. As such, memories of the Holocaust contribute to the creation of a common European cultural memory based on the abstract notion of human rights. Sociologically, a theory of human rights has to show how universal and particular memories co-exist, are reconciled etc. and what it means for the recognition of the “other”, and the broadening of circles of solidarity.Una sociología de los derechos humans suena casi como un oxímoron. La sociología se fija en los grupos sociales, en las experiencias particulares, y en cómo las personas, marcadas por el espacio y el tiempo, dan sentido a sus vidas y atribuyen un significado al mundo. Trata del poder, el interés y la base social de nuestras experiencias. Contrariamente, los derechos humanos se refieren a humanos en general, sin referencias temporales ni espaciales, y no a grupos y sus límites. Los derechos humanos tratan de la humanidad, ubicado en el mundo y conectado con su naturaleza inviolable. Representaciones mediáticas globales, entre otras, crean memorias cosmopólitas nuevas, disponiendo nuevos puntos de vista epistemológicos y interdependencias morales-políticas emergentes. Así, las memorias del Holocausto contribuyen a la creación de una memoria cultural europea com

  1. Advancing palliative care as a human right.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwyther, Liz; Brennan, Frank; Harding, Richard

    2009-11-01

    The international palliative care community has articulated a simple but challenging proposition that palliative care is an international human right. International human rights covenants and the discipline of palliative care have, as common themes, the inherent dignity of the individual and the principles of universality and nondiscrimination. However, when we consider the evidence for the effectiveness of palliative care, the lack of palliative care provision for those who may benefit from it is of grave concern. Three disciplines (palliative care, public health, and human rights) are now interacting with a growing resonance. The maturing of palliative care as a clinical specialty and academic discipline has coincided with the development of a public health approach to global and community-wide health problems. The care of the dying is a public health issue. Given that death is both inevitable and universal, the care of people with life-limiting illness stands equal to all other public health issues. The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) includes the right to health care and General Comment 14 (paragraph 34) CESCR stipulates that "States are under the obligation to respect the right to health by, inter alia, refraining from denying or limiting equal access for all persons, ... to preventive, curative and palliative health services." However, these rights are seen to be aspirational-rights to be achieved progressively over time by each signatory nation to the maximum capacity of their available resources. Although a government may use insufficient resources as a justification for inadequacies of its response to palliative care and pain management, General Comment 14 set out "core obligations" and "obligations of comparable priority" in the provision of health care and placed the burden on governments to justify "that every effort has nevertheless been made to use all available resources at its disposal in order to satisfy, as

  2. Translating Human Rights Principles into Classroom Practices: Inequities in Educating about Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Carol

    2017-01-01

    The overarching aim of this paper is to explore how key principles inherent in human rights declarations and conventions are translated into practices associated with human rights education within school contexts. It is argued that this translation from discourse to practice opens up the potential for children and young people to encounter…

  3. Human Rights Here and Now: Celebrating the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Nancy, Ed.

    Although December 10, 1998, marked the 50th anniversary of the United Nations' Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), most people living in the United States remain unaware of this document, the foundation stone of all human rights. Intended for use by both community groups and teachers in elementary and secondary schools, this educational…

  4. Environmental and occupational health and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slatin, Craig

    2011-01-01

    Modern environmental- and occupational-related morbidities and mortality are determined by the power relations inherent in our existing capitalist systems of production and consumption. These systems thwart human public health rights because of the priority to maximize profit for the systems' owners rather than to establish ecologically sound and socially just development for all. The international public health community must return to its primary prevention roots and take action to eliminate the potential for population morbidities that result from hazardous substance exposures in work and community environments. The 1988 Adelaide Recommendations on Healthy Public Policy provide us with guidelines that incorporate a human rights approach and build on several decades of international public health declarations and charters. To succeed, public health must work with the labor movement. A human rights approach to environmental public health can help us make a transition to sustainable modes of production and consumption. The environmental justice movement's strategy for an economic greening that sets as a priority "pathways out of poverty" can help to advance environmental public health rights.

  5. Health (care) and human rights: a fundamental conditions approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, S Matthew

    2016-08-01

    Many international declarations state that human beings have a human right to health care. However, is there a human right to health care? What grounds this right, and who has the corresponding duties to promote this right? Elsewhere, I have argued that human beings have human rights to the fundamental conditions for pursuing a good life. Drawing on this fundamental conditions approach of human rights, I offer a novel way of grounding a human right to health care.

  6. Climate Change, Human Rights, and Social Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Barry S; Patz, Jonathan A

    2015-01-01

    The environmental and health consequences of climate change, which disproportionately affect low-income countries and poor people in high-income countries, profoundly affect human rights and social justice. Environmental consequences include increased temperature, excess precipitation in some areas and droughts in others, extreme weather events, and increased sea level. These consequences adversely affect agricultural production, access to safe water, and worker productivity, and, by inundating land or making land uninhabitable and uncultivatable, will force many people to become environmental refugees. Adverse health effects caused by climate change include heat-related disorders, vector-borne diseases, foodborne and waterborne diseases, respiratory and allergic disorders, malnutrition, collective violence, and mental health problems. These environmental and health consequences threaten civil and political rights and economic, social, and cultural rights, including rights to life, access to safe food and water, health, security, shelter, and culture. On a national or local level, those people who are most vulnerable to the adverse environmental and health consequences of climate change include poor people, members of minority groups, women, children, older people, people with chronic diseases and disabilities, those residing in areas with a high prevalence of climate-related diseases, and workers exposed to extreme heat or increased weather variability. On a global level, there is much inequity, with low-income countries, which produce the least greenhouse gases (GHGs), being more adversely affected by climate change than high-income countries, which produce substantially higher amounts of GHGs yet are less immediately affected. In addition, low-income countries have far less capability to adapt to climate change than high-income countries. Adaptation and mitigation measures to address climate change needed to protect human society must also be planned to protect

  7. [Human dignity, human rights and bioethics: what is the connection?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andorno, Roberto

    2010-12-01

    Human rights are closely related to the notion of human dignity, to such a point that it is very difficult, if not impossible, to promote them without appealing, at least implicitly, to the idea that each individual has intrinsic worth simply by virtue of being human. This relationship between dignity and rights is even stronger in the field of bioethics, which deals directly with some of the most basic human rights, such as the rights to life and to physical integrity. It is therefore not by chance that the international norms relating to bioethics give a central role to the concept of human dignity. However, one should not expect from dignity more than it can offer; dignity is a "principle", not a "rule"; it embodies a fundamental value, but it alone does not determine the content of a particular decision.

  8. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolae Dură

    2015-01-01

    The Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948 was preceded by several other Declarations in the first half of the twentieth century, beginning with the Declaration of 1929 and ending with the one of 1947. All these Declarations make express reference only to the “Human rights” and not to those of the “individual” or of the “Citizen”, as in the Declaration of the French Revolution, in 1789, or in the one of the Bolshevik Revolution, in 1917. Among other things, in our paper, we...

  9. Medicine, law and human rights - a symbiotic relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupanceski, Nikola; Kiprijanovska, Dragana

    2014-04-01

    Law and medicine are separate professions, and attorneys and physicians often see their professions in conflict. There are, however, more similarities than differences between the two professions. And there are areas of mutual concern and overlap that demand the application of both legal and medical knowledge for the good of the society. In the new categorical system of values, which is substantially influenced by the so-called modern or aggressive medicine, clever physicians, researchers, and technicians discover newer and better ways to do things. Often, what science and technology make possible soon becomes permissible and, eventually, normal and expected. Given the rapid advances in technology and medical technology in particular, it is clear that without the reasonable restraints imposed by philosophical but also, legal critique, medicine and its practitioners may unintentionally convert science and medical method into a muddled philosophy of human life'. Against this background, this paper will handle the questions posed by the extent and protection of human rights and freedoms in terms of application of new biomedical techniques and technologies of treatment toward the development of International human rights law. It also discusses the compatibility of domestic medical law with the normative system of international human rights.

  10. Logical Relation of Human Rights and Religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Talebi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Before establishing any kind of rights for human being, the man should be first known. The best approach to know human being is to utilize the knowledge and teachings that God has given us as the Creator of man. He knows better than anyone else the man whom He has created. This article tries to show that the Man who has (human rights is not that human being as we are used to know him by popular experimental view, but is an existent that is constantly moving on the path of absolute perfection with the aim of achieving the status of the perfect man. To prove this, at this writing, first the concept of right has been studied with an epistemological and ontological look, and look then the concepts of human and religion will be considered.and investigated. Finally, different kinds of the rights of right owners, which one of these rights is human rights, are discussed. Human rights are those rights that belong to every individual because he/she is a human being. -free framework, which has constituted the basis of mainstream conceptions of Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Criticizing the deontological view, this article defends the teleological approach toward the universality of human rights, based on contemporary philosophical hermeneutics specially Paul Ricoeur’s outlook. I argue that this approach can provide the philosophical requirements for interaction between the universality of human rights on one hand and the cultural and local contents of various societies on the other hand and offers a “thick” conception of human rights principles. قبل از اثبات هر نوع حق برای بشر باید ابتدا بشر را شناخت. بهترین شیوه شناسایی بشر استفاده از معارفی است که خدای متعال به عنوان خالق بشر در اختیار ما قرار داده است. او بهتر از هرکس بشری را که ساخته است می‌شناسد. این مقاله درصدد

  11. Assisted reproductive technologies and the right to reproduce under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reproductive rights in South Africa have traditionally focused on the rights of individuals to avoid reproduction. However, with an increase in the use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART), there has been a shift in the focus on reproductive rights from the rights of individuals to avoid reproduction to the rights of ...

  12. Women's rights are human rights : The practice of the United Nations Human Rights Committee and the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, F.C.

    2009-01-01

    ‘Women’s rights are human rights!’ This notion may seem self evident, as the international system for the promotion and the protection of human rights that was installed under the auspice of the United Nations (UN) builds on the idea of equality in dignity and rights of men and women. Yet, as was

  13. Human Rights Education in Language Teaching

    OpenAIRE

    Yulita, Leticia; Porto, Melina

    2016-01-01

    As intercultural communication in language teaching is extending to citizenship education, there is an increasing need for research focusing on the implementation of theory into practice. With Critical Pedagogy as its driving principle, this chapter examines an online international project between language undergraduates within Argentina and the UK as an approach to human rights education in language teaching. It provides an overview of the pedagogical interventions designed to enhance awaren...

  14. The Global Movement for Human Rights Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Flowers

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available An overview of the global movement for human rights education (HRE, its impetus, challenges, and contrasting developments in different regions of the world, focusing especially on Latin America, the Philippines, South Africa, the Middle East, and Europe. Seeks to put HRE in the USA into an international perspective, as well as to show the variety of goals that inspire HRE and how methodologies have evolved to meet specific regional and political cultures and needs.

  15. The Global Movement for Human Rights Education

    OpenAIRE

    Nancy Flowers

    2015-01-01

    An overview of the global movement for human rights education (HRE), its impetus, challenges, and contrasting developments in different regions of the world, focusing especially on Latin America, the Philippines, South Africa, the Middle East, and Europe. Seeks to put HRE in the USA into an international perspective, as well as to show the variety of goals that inspire HRE and how methodologies have evolved to meet specific regional and political cultures and needs.

  16. Human rights, ideology and population policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, B

    1977-01-01

    Only too often ideology means fanaticism, intolerance, even violence, but the term can be used also to denote sets of preconceptions and presuppositions which act as a stimulus and a guide to scientific innovation, particularly in the field of social science. This sort of insight into the realities of life and the world is a contribution to knowledge and the search for truth, also in the field of human rights. These are taken in the paper as those rights whose infringement constitutes a "vulnus" of the essential characteristics of human beings and those which assume the role of a basic safeguard of them. The meaning of the insistence on the human rights theme in the United Nations system is briefly touched upon, but the main effort is spent in trying to find a firm base for both fundamental rights and duties, shown as strictly and simmetrically linked. Various examples of population policies - broadly defined as governmental interventions influencing demographic variables - are then examined in the light of the basic principles laid down in the said effort. The fields taken up in succession for consideration are international and internal migration, mortality, marriage, fertility in countries at different stages of demographic transition, and growth. Rather than trying an extensive coverage of the whole horizon, a line of critical and deep thought about typical problematic themes is preferred. One of the main conclusions which may be quoted is a statement according to which the problem remains wide open of discovering acceptable ways aiming at a modification of fertility patterns which combine a reduction of the average family size with the maintenance of its variability in order to respect free and responsible individual choices. How important and urgent this task is, is underscored by the observations advanced in the final section of the paper including a meditation on the limits that human sexuality appears to have imposed on itself.

  17. HIV / AIDS, human rights and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, D

    2000-06-01

    AIDS is killing more people worldwide than any other infectious disease. Given the expensive treatments for AIDS, preventing new infections is the only way to stem the growing tide of morbidity and mortality, particularly in the developing world. Yet in almost every developing country, prevention programs have no effect in preventing new infections, and are often narrow in scope and applicability. In many cases, interventions focus on the individual and on individual behavioral change. Socioeconomic and political factors such as gender-based inequalities, poverty, corruption and government inaction are not addressed. The paper discusses the link between HIV/AIDS, development and human rights. It presents case studies and other examples of rights-based projects and activities that provide models for rights-based programming that can be adapted to different national contexts.

  18. Human rights and immigrants’ access to care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Parmet

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although the human right to health is well established under international law, many states limit non-citizens’ participation in public insurance programs. In the United States, immigrants face especially high barriers due to the lack of recognition of a broad right to health as well as federal statutes restricting many immigrants’ eligibility to federally-funded insurance. High rates of uninsurance among immigrants have a detrimental effect on their health, as well as on the health of citizens who live in their communities. Finch vs. Commonwealth Health Insurance Connector, a recent case decided by the Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts, recognized the rights of legal immigrants in Massachusetts to state-supported health care, and demonstrates the importance of insuring immigrants in broadly-based, rather than immigrant-specific, programs.

  19. The human right to science: An old right with a great future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikel Mancisidor

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available When we talk about the human right to science, many may think that we are speaking about a new right, recently created to face the challenges that science and technology generate in our society of the 21st century. However, the right to science is already enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948 and in the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1966. We can find it even earlier in the inter-American regional system, particularly, in the Charter of the Organization of American States (1948 and in the American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man (1948. Few know that, in fact, the Latin American countries in general and Chile in particular played a crucial role in the universal recognition of this right. The first part of the article explains the history of the right to science and its international legal recognition. In a second chapter, we will study its current institutional situation within the United Nations and, finally, in the third chapter, we will analyze the characteristics of this right, its normative content, elements and type of obligations that it creates.

  20. Teaching Strategy: Human Rights Around the World and at Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, Patrick

    1998-01-01

    Presents a lesson on human rights for middle and secondary school students in which they identify human rights, cite examples of human-rights abuses and affirmations, and relate actions to the articles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). Explains that students identify human-rights issues globally and at home. (CMK)

  1. The golden triangle of human dignity: human security, human development and human rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de

    2004-01-01

    The success or failure of processes of democratization cannot be detached from processes of development related to the aspirations of people at the grassroots. Human rights, in a more theoretical terminology, require human development in order to enhance human security.

  2. Human rights at work: Physical standards for employment and human rights law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Eric M

    2016-06-01

    This review focuses on the human rights dimensions of creating and implementing physical standards for employment for prospective and incumbent employees. The review argues that physical standards for employment engage two fundamental legal concepts of employment law: freedom of contract and workplace human rights. While the former promotes an employer's right to set workplace standards and make decisions of whom to hire and terminate, the latter prevents employers from discriminating against individuals contrary to human rights legislation. With reference to applicable human rights legislative regimes and their judicial interpretation in Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia, this review demonstrates the judicial preference for criterion validation in testing mechanisms in the finding of bona fide occupational requirements. With particular attention to the Supreme Court of Canada decision in Meiorin, this review argues that an effective balance between workplace safety and human rights concerns can be found, not in applying different standards to different groups of individuals, but in an approach that holds employers to demonstrating a sufficient connection between a uniform physical standard of employment and the actual minimum requirements to perform the job safety and efficiently. Combined with an employer's duty to accommodate, such an approach to lawful physical standards for employment conceives of worker and public safety and workplace diversity as emanating from a shared concern for human rights.

  3. Human Rights and the Rights of Aliens. Working Paper NB-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, James W.

    This paper examines the issue of human rights and the rights of aliens. Contemporary ideas of human rights and contractarian alternatives to universal rights are reviewed. The obligations of governments to admit refugees and to honor the rights of aliens within their borders are discussed. The right to political participation and right to welfare…

  4. Purchasing medical innovation the right technology, for the right patient, at the right price

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, James C

    2015-01-01

    Innovation in medical technology generates a remarkable supply of new drugs, devices, and diagnostics that improve health, reduce risks, and extend life. But these technologies are too often used on the wrong patient, in the wrong setting, or at an unaffordable price. The only way to moderate the growth in health care costs without undermining the dynamic of medical innovation is to improve the process of assessing, pricing, prescribing, and using new technologies. Purchasing Medical Innovation analyzes the contemporary revolution in the purchasing of health care technology, with a focus on th

  5. Human Rights in China: Trends and Policy Implications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lum, Thomas; Fischer, Hannah

    2008-01-01

    .... This report analyzes China's mixed human rights record of the past several years major human rights problems, new human rights legislation, and the development of civil society, legal awareness, and social activism...

  6. Human Rights of Irregular Immigrants: A Challenge for the Universality of Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luljeta Ikonomi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Irregular immigration is a phenomenon with a substantial impact for the majority of the countries. The paper analyses whether there is an adequate human rights framework for protection of irregular immigrants or whether the irregular status exempts the migrants from the protection of international human rights law. If this is the case, then the human rights universality has failed. The paper takes into consideration the developments in the International and EU Law, as well as in the jurisprudence of the international tribunals regarding protection of irregular immigrants. It is divided into three main sections. The first section informs briefly on the dynamics of irregular immigrants; the second section analyses the legislation on irregular immigration from the perspective of the state sovereignty, the third section analyses the human rights law and the protection it affords to irregular immigrants, pursuant to the interpretation of International tribunals.

  7. ‘Gay Rights are Human Rights: The framing of new interpretations of international human rights norms’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holzhacker, Ron

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to explore the development of the framing of the rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) persons and sexual orientation and gender identity in terms of a human rights paradigm. This decades-long process involved many actors, from within academia, gay

  8. Victims of human rights violations and victims of human rights restrictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiter Axelle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of international human rights law is to protect basic individual rights and provide to the victims of violations legal remedies against the authors of the abuses. One major difficulty faced in this context originates in the limiting clauses that states insert in international conventions. This paper looks at their compatibility with human rights agreements, in the view of strengthening the legal avenues open to the victims and the possibility for them to obtain redress. The crucial position of human rights at the core of the notion of international public order conditions the approach to adopt in relation to most issues that touch upon the scope and substance of protected rights, including withdrawal from treaties, reservations, implied limitations, overtly broad or inappropriate restrictions, misguided interpretations and failure to apply the relevant provisions. It is put forward that limiting clauses should be narrowly construed and most restrictions discarded altogether.

  9. Children's rights, international human rights and the promise of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While dealing with issues broadly, it evaluates Islamic legal understanding of the rights of the unborn child in some detail, arguing that the Sharia includes not only law but also religion and ethics, thus offering a multidimensional approach covering the total personality of the child. Moreover, Islam provides enforceable ...

  10. Sen and the Human Rights: Freedom as Material Object of Human Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Ibáñez

    2017-01-01

    Specifically we understand that the capability approach of Amartya Sen, is his greatest contribution to thinking about human rights. In this paper, in addition to placing its origin and significance for them, we will put in relation the capability approach with some contributions of liberation thought on Latin American as Ellacuría, highlighting its importance in connection with an intercultural vision human rights. We will discuss other relevant versions of the capability approach, specifica...

  11. Corporate Social Responsibility and Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    2006-01-01

    rather than public regulation. The UN Global Compact and the UN Norms on human rights responsibilities for transnational and other corporations are discussed as examples of changes in international UN based regulation of corporations in relation to CSR topics, and as examples of network governance......Taking its point of departure in the aims of the United Nations, the article discusses challenges to international law making and the UN in the relatively immediate future in view of the increasing role and influence of corporations. This is done addressing challenges posed by globalisation...

  12. Human Rights and Cohen's Anti-Statism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper

    2014-01-01

    , but not to the exclusion of, certain state policies - justice requires talented people to improve the position of the worst off through their actions in their daily lives. Specifically, it prohibits talented people from insisting on inequality-causing incentives. To this extent, Cohen's view of distributive justice...... in distributive justice that it commits us to an implausible anti-statist view of human rights?......G. A. Cohen's critique of standard liberal interpretations of the difference principle has been very influential. According to Cohen, justice is not realized simply because the state's tax policies and other distributive tools maximize the position of the worst off. Rather - possibly in addition to...

  13. Human rights abuses and concerns about women's health and human rights in southern Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amowitz, Lynn L; Kim, Glen; Reis, Chen; Asher, Jana L; Iacopino, Vincent

    2004-03-24

    Although human rights abuses have been reported in Iraq, the full scope of these abuses has not been well documented. To assess the prevalence of human rights abuses since 1991 in southern Iraq, along with attitudes about women's health and human rights and women's rights and roles in society, to inform reconstruction and humanitarian assistance efforts in Iraq. Cross-sectional, randomized survey of Iraqi men and women conducted in July 2003 using structured questionnaires. Three major cities in 3 of the 9 governorates in southern Iraq. A total of 1991 respondents representing 16 520 household members. Respondent demographics, information on human rights abuses that occurred among household members since 1991, women's health and human rights, opinions regarding women's rights and roles in society, and conditions for community health and development. Respondents were a mean age of 38 years and were mostly of Arab ethnicity (99.7% [1976/1982]) and Muslim Shi'a (96.7% [1906/1971]). Overall, 47% of those interviewed reported 1 or more of the following abuses among themselves and household members since 1991: torture, killings, disappearance, forced conscription, beating, gunshot wounds, kidnappings, being held hostage, and ear amputation, among others. Seventy percent of abuses (408/586) were reputed to have occurred in homes. Baath party regime-affiliated groups were identified most often (95% [449/475]) as the perpetrators of the abuses; 53% of the abuses occurred between 1991 and 1993, following the Shi'a uprising, and another 30% between 2000 and the first 6 months of 2003. While the majority of men and women expressed support for women's equal opportunities for education, freedom of expression, access to health care, equality in deciding marriage and the number and spacing of children, and participation in community development decisions, there was less support among both men and women for women's freedom of movement, association with people of their choosing, and

  14. Elder mistreatment, ageism, and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Simon; Haapala, Irja

    2013-08-01

    Elder mistreatment, social ageism, and human rights are increasingly powerful discourses in positioning older people in society, yet the relationship between them has rarely been subjected to critical investigation. This perceived relationship will have implications for how mistreatment is understood and responded to. Critical gerontological approach based on narrative and textual analysis. Reports of public attitudes toward mistreatment suggest that it is thought to be more common than scientific evidence would suggest; however, reporting is much lower than prevalence. While the discourse over mistreatment has tended to focus on interpersonal relationships, ageism has emphasized social attitudes, and human rights have concentrated on relations between the state and the individual. In this paper, a series of models have been examined which mark a tendency to restrict and then attempt to reintegrate individual, interpersonal, and social levels of analysis. It is concluded that a focus on the processes of transaction across boundaries rather than contents would facilitate both integrative modeling and deeper understanding of the qualities of abusive situations.

  15. HUMAN RIGHTS AND NIGERIAN PRISONERS--ARE PRISONERS NOT HUMANS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshua, I A; Dangata, Y Y; Audu, O; Nmadu, A G; Omole, N V

    2014-12-01

    In Nigeria, just like in many other parts of the world, one of the most extensively discussed issues on the public agenda today is the increase in prison population. The aims of imprisonment are protection, retribution, deterrence, reformation and vindication. Investigations revealed that the prison services have been,neglected more than any other criminal justice agency in Nigeria. For example, most of the prisons were built during the colonial era for the purpose of accommodating a small number of inmates. Human Rights are the basic guarantees for human beings to be able to achieve happiness and self-respect; consequently, in most jurisdictions, the Human Rights Act confirms that these Rights do not stop at the prison gates. However, most States fail to meet the Human Rights obligations of their prisoners. As regards to health, for example, every prison should have proper health facilities and medical staff to provide dental and psychiatric care among others. This article discusses the Nigerian Prison System and challenges, trends and the related Human Rights and Ethical issues in Nigerian prisons. Some of the unmet needs of Nigerian prisoners which include, inter alia, living in unwholesome cells, delayed trial of inmates, lack of voting rights, access to information, lack of conjugal facilities for married prisoners, poor and inadequate nutrition, poor medical care, torture, inhumane treatment and the need to protect prisoners in a changing world. The present report has policy implications for reforming prison services in Nigeria, and countries that sing from the same song sheet with Nigeria on prison services, to conform to the Fundamental Human Rights of prisoners in the 21St century.

  16. The Human Rights Code, 17 July 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    This document contains major provisions of the 1987 Human Rights Code of Manitoba, Canada. The Code describes "discrimination" as differential treatment based on membership in a group or on ancestry (including race), national origin, ethnic origin, religion, age, sex (including pregnancy), gender-determined characteristics or circumstances, sexual orientation, marital or family status, source of income, political belief, or physical or mental disability. "Discrimination" is also defined as the failure to reasonably accommodate special needs based upon the above characteristics. Affirmative action programs are deemed nondiscriminatory if the object is to ameliorate the conditions of disadvantaged individuals or groups. The Code allows the right to discriminate in cases where bona fide and reasonable cause exists, provides an exception for individuals who have not reached the age of majority if a denial to provide services is required by law, and prohibits discrimination in employment unless the discrimination is based upon bona fide and reasonable requirements or qualifications for the employment. Specific directions are included for the aspects of employment which are to be free of discrimination, for employment advertising, for preemployment inquiries, for employment agencies, for labor organizations, and in cases of employee benefits. Exceptions are made for employing a person to provide personal services in a private residence and for limiting the employment of a person under the age of majority in accordance with the law. Specific provisions are made to prevent a reduction of wages, termination of employment, or changes in employment to comply with this section of the law. Discrimination is expressly forbidden in contracts, life insurance, rental or premises (with an exception for private residences), the purchase of real property, and advertising. Harassment of individuals responsible for an activity to which this Code applies is forbidden as are reprisals

  17. Men, HIV/AIDS, and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Dean; Stemple, Lara; Sawires, Sharif; Coates, Thomas J

    2009-07-01

    Though still limited in scale, work with men to achieve gender equality is occurring on every continent and in many countries. A rapidly expanding evidence base demonstrates that rigorously implemented initiatives targeting men can change social practices that affect the health of both sexes, particularly in the context of HIV and AIDS. Too often however, messages only address the harm that regressive masculinity norms cause women, while neglecting the damage done to men by these norms. This article calls for a more inclusive approach which recognizes that men, far from being a monolithic group, have unequal access to health and rights depending on other intersecting forms of discrimination based on race, class, sexuality, disability, nationality, and the like. Messages that target men only as holders of privilege miss men who are disempowered or who themselves challenge rigid gender roles. The article makes recommendations which move beyond treating men simply as "the problem", and instead lays a foundation for engaging men both as agents of change and holders of rights to the ultimate benefit of women and men. Human rights and other policy interventions must avoid regressive stereotyping, and successful local initiatives should be taken to scale nationally and internationally.

  18. Men, HIV/AIDS, and Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Dean; Stemple, Lara; Sawires, Sharif; Coates, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Though still limited in scale, work with men to achieve gender equality is occurring on every continent and in many countries. A rapidly expanding evidence base demonstrates that rigorously implemented initiatives targeting men can change social practices that affect the health of both sexes, particularly in the context of HIV and AIDS. Too often however, messages only address the harm that regressive masculinity norms cause women, while neglecting the damage done to men by these norms. This article calls for a more inclusive approach which recognizes that men, far from being a monolithic group, have unequal access to health and rights depending on other intersecting forms of discrimination based on race, class, sexuality, disability, nationality, and the like. Messages that target men only as holders of privilege miss men who are disempowered or who themselves challenge rigid gender roles. The article makes recommendations which move beyond treating men simply as “the problem”, and instead lays a foundation for engaging men both as agents of change and holders of rights to the ultimate benefit of women and men. Human rights and other policy interventions must avoid regressive stereotyping, and successful local initiatives should be taken to scale nationally and internationally. PMID:19553779

  19. Risk-based Approach to Corporate Human Rights Responsibility : Moving the Business and Human Rights Agenda Forward?

    OpenAIRE

    Khardikova, Ekaterina

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Guiding Principles on business and human rights, unanimously endorsed by the UN Human Rights Council in 2011 represent a watershed in the business and human rights debate. The Guiding Principles are based on differentiated but complementary responsibilities: the state duty to protect human rights and corporate responsibility to respect human rights. The proposed mechanism of human rights due diligence, which is intended to help companies discharge their responsibility to re...

  20. Human dignity and human rights in bioethics: the Kantian approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothhaar, Markus

    2010-08-01

    The concept of human dignity plays an important role in the public discussion about ethical questions concerning modern medicine and biology. At the same time, there is a widespread skepticism about the possibility to determine the content and the claims of human dignity. The article goes back to Kantian Moral Philosophy, in order to show that human dignity has in fact a determinable content not as a norm in itself, but as the principle and ground of human rights and any deontological norms in biomedical ethics. When it comes to defining the scope of human dignity, i.e., the question which entities are protected by human dignity, Kant clearly can be found on the "pro life"-side of the controversy. This, however, is the result of some specific implications of Kant's transcendental approach that may be put into question.

  1. [Human rights and genetics: the fundamental principles of the Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergel, S D

    1998-01-01

    The Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights sets out generally agreed criteria in response to the human rights challenges posed by advances in molecular biology and genetics. The lynchpin of these criteria is respect for human dignity, a premise from which other principles are derived. The author examines and gives the justification for these principles, and refers to another crucial bioethics text, the recent Council of Europe Convention on the protection of human rights and the dignity of the human person in regard to applications of biology and medicine.

  2. Intellectual Property Rights and Innovation: Evidence from the Human Genome

    OpenAIRE

    Heidi L. Williams

    2013-01-01

    Do intellectual property (IP) rights on existing technologies hinder subsequent innovation? Using newly-collected data on the sequencing of the human genome by the public Human Genome Project and the private firm Celera, this paper estimates the impact of Celera’s gene-level IP on subsequent scientific research and product development. Genes initially sequenced by Celera were held with IP for up to two years, but moved into the public domain once re-sequenced by the public effort. Across a ra...

  3. From the rights of man to the human rights: Man - nation - humanity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaharijević Adriana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The insistence on the fact that human rights and the rights of man (codified in The Universal Declaration of Human Rights and Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, respectively are not one and the same, which could be deduced from the notion of man common to both terms, is the key thesis of this text. By developing this motive, I try to determine the following: that the notion of man, by definition inclusive and abstractly non-discriminative term, is in fact established on tacit exclusions in the time of its inception (Enlightenment revolutinary era, and it was only upon these exclusions that the term man could have signified "the free and equal". Although the parallel or simultaneous evolution and implementation of the rights of man and national rights might seem contradictory, I seek to demonstrate that this paradox is only ostensible, arguing that the notion of man is itself limited and exclusionary, and is therefore compatible with the exclusivity which is the conditio sine qua non of nation. The consequences of nationalism - World Wars, primarily - proved that the conception of liberty and equality, based on the conception of fraternity of men (white European males, and of partial democracy pretending to be universal, cannot be maintained any further. Codification of universal human rights represents a reaction to this internal discrepancy inasmuch as it is a reaction to the destructiveness of all kinds of nationalisms. The notion of life, developed in this text, corresponds to the fundamental requirement for the right to life (as the first and the most basic of all human rights, which no longer belongs to "man", but to everyone.

  4. Using Transformative Learning as a Model for Human Rights Education: A Case Study of the Canadian Human Rights Foundation's International Human Rights Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazzari, Vincenza; McAdams, Paul; Roy, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the essential practices and conditions for fostering transformative learning using the Canadian Human Rights Foundation's "International Human Rights Training Program" as a case study. It suggests that the program's participants challenge their own values and assumptions about human rights, their work and their society through…

  5. Human Rights and Religion in the English Secondary RE Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowie, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between religion and human rights is an ambiguous and complex one, but there are academic, moral and political arguments for the inclusion of human rights in religious education (RE). The Universal Declaration of Human Rights advocates education in human rights and the English school curriculum aims to encourage a commitment to…

  6. Human Rights Education, Constitutionalism and Their Interrelations in Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusy, Miroslav

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews national and cultural traditions that inform human rights consciousness in Slovakia and examines the role of constitutionalism in human rights protection and education on human rights. A prospering civil society is possible only in the context of a well-functioning civil state, making education in human rights and…

  7. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights - Only a Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Elisabeth

    2002-01-01

    Explains provisions contained within the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, tracing historical beginnings of human rights to 1945, detailing events after 1945 up to the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights by the United Nations, and explaining essential terminology used in describing human rights instruments that have been…

  8. Fostering human rights through TalkBank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacWhinney, Brian; Fromm, Davida; Rose, Yvan; Bernstein Ratner, Nan

    2018-02-01

    In accord with articles 19 and 27 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, people with speech and language disorders have the right to receive maximal benefit from academic research on speech and language acquisition and disorders. To evaluate the diverse nature of speech and language disorders, this research must have access to large datasets, as well as to refined tools for the systematic analysis of these datasets. The TalkBank system addresses this need by providing researchers with thousands of hours of open-access database archives of digital audio, video and transcript files documenting typical and disordered language use in dozens of languages and cultures. In this paper, we review the TalkBank system, with an emphasis on the AphasiaBank, PhonBank and FluencyBank databases. We describe how specialised assessment tools can be used to study issues in speech and language acquisition and disorders recorded within these databases. We then provide illustrations of how assessments support the needs of researchers, clinicians, developers, and educators, whose combined work contributes solutions for people with speech, language and language learning disorders worldwide.

  9. Mother tongue as a universal human right.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Christine

    2018-02-01

    Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights enshrines the right to freedom of opinion and expression. UN Resolution A/RES/61/266 called upon Member States "to promote the preservation and protection of all languages used by peoples of the world". This resolution has particular relevance for minority language groups where mother tongue - so vital to self-expression - is primarily a spoken medium, often ascribed low status. With few fluent readers and writers, and a consequent dearth of written resources, a vicious circle develops and linguistic and cultural heritage erodes. Not all governments are vigilant with appropriate policies and funding. Even in a community like Shetland, where there is no class connotation associated with speaking Shetlandic, the proportion of fluent dialect speakers is now relatively small. It therefore falls to the writer to create resources for children, to help stem the tide. Engaging in translation can also help raise the status of dialect and pinpoint the somewhat arbitrary distinction between dialect and language. There are many problems in publishing in minority tongues; for example, uneconomic print runs, language authenticity versus contemporaneity, standardisation of orthography and the trend to "exotic-ise" dialect in mainstream literature.

  10. Human rights, global trade and moral values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Dehgan Simkani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Today, immoralities and prevalence of injustice and corruption on the one hand, and dissatisfaction of the world people due to not considering their natural rights on the other hand, show that there are certain problems in the foundations of human rights and declining of moral values. This article tries to show a weakening trend for moral values and human rights in practice, in the process of globalization and especially global trade, which today has a major impact on cultures. For this purpose, in the first part, in addition to studying the concept of human rights, the status of moral values in the intellectual foundations of the Declaration of Human Rights would investigated. In the second part, in addition to explaining the global trade, it shows that there is a decline trend in the moral values in the capitalist economy; and finally, in the third part, in addition to explaining the principles of human rights, the reasons for the weakening of moral values and not regarding human rights in practical consideration, recognized as having problems in the theoretical principles of Universal Declaration of Human Rights, including relying on secularist worldview and humanist ideas. امروزه بی‌اخلاقی‌ها و رواج ظلم و فساد از یک طرف و نارضایتی مردمان جهان مبنی بر عدم دستیابی به حقوق طبیعیشان از طرف دیگر، نشانگر وجود مشکلات خاصی در مبانی حقوق بشر و رو به ضعف رفتنِ ارزش‌های اخلاقی است. این مقاله در پی آن است تا روند رو به ضعف ارزش‌های اخلاقی و حقوق‌بشر در مقام عمل را در فرآیند جهانی شدن و خصوصاً تجارت جهانی که امروزه بر تمام فرهنگ‌ها تأثیرات خاص خود را گذاشته است، نشان دهد. بدین منظور در بخش اوّل ضمن بررسی مفهوم

  11. Human Rights Education before the Challenges of the Emerging Human Rights of the 21st Century

    OpenAIRE

    Gloria Ramirez

    2006-01-01

    This article examines Human Rights Education vis-a-vis the challenges of the emerging human rights of the 21st century. It discusses the difficult situation of HRE in the uncertain and insecure times of globalization and permanent violence particularly after the September 11 attacks. In spite of these unfavorable circumstances, it can be concluded that HRE has gained ground in the agenda of NGO´s to become a demand formulated hand in hand with the fight for democracy and peace. Due to the fac...

  12. Sen and the Human Rights: Freedom as Material Object of Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Ibáñez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Specifically we understand that the capability approach of Amartya Sen, is his greatest contribution to thinking about human rights. In this paper, in addition to placing its origin and significance for them, we will put in relation the capability approach with some contributions of liberation thought on Latin American as Ellacuría, highlighting its importance in connection with an intercultural vision human rights. We will discuss other relevant versions of the capability approach, specifically that of Martha Nussbaum. Finally, the most relevant reviews are located and the author's response to them.

  13. Technology-enhanced human interaction in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imel, Zac E; Caperton, Derek D; Tanana, Michael; Atkins, David C

    2017-07-01

    Psychotherapy is on the verge of a technology-inspired revolution. The concurrent maturation of communication, signal processing, and machine learning technologies begs an earnest look at how these technologies may be used to improve the quality of psychotherapy. Here, we discuss 3 research domains where technology is likely to have a significant impact: (1) mechanism and process, (2) training and feedback, and (3) technology-mediated treatment modalities. For each domain, we describe current and forthcoming examples of how new technologies may change established applications. Moreover, for each domain we present research questions that touch on theoretical, systemic, and implementation issues. Ultimately, psychotherapy is a decidedly human endeavor, and thus the application of modern technology to therapy must capitalize on-and enhance-our human capacities as counselors, students, and supervisors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Foundations of Human Rights: The Unfinished Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Ann Glendon

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Reviewing the discussions on the foundations of human rights that took place in the U.N.'s first Human Rights Commission to draft the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the author points out that the Commissioners, due to the situation at that time, had few discussions on the foundations of human rights and left the problem of foundations for another day. She rejects the idea that the Universal Declaration is western believing that all effective cultures in the world had a creative hand in the shaping of the document. The article then answers the question that how there can be universal rights in diverse cultures. It continues to explain the derby to deconstruct the Declaration and in the end concludes that the challenge of the Declaration is its incoherence and the different meanings and interpretations of human “dignity”. s but also seriously damage the hard gained doctor-patient trust and the historical honor of their profession. Within the law and justice system in practice in the Islamic Republic of Iran, fee splitting in considered unacceptable and illegal and fee splitters may be pursued by law. The same is true in different societies and most medical councils and accepted ethical codes and guidelines. It is clearly stated in the fifth paragraph of the medical affidavit vowed by all Iranian medical students and doctors that fee splitting is considered amoral and even illegal and that healthcare and medical practices are not to be used as a means of gathering wealth for oneself. All Islamic religious leaders have also questioned the lawfulness of money and wealth earned by fee splitting. The act of fee splitting is also recognized as unethical and unlawful in the guidelines and codes affected by universal medicine societies. نویسنده در این مقاله با مرور مباحث صورت گرفته در باره مبانی حقوق بشر، در کمیسیون تدوین کننده پیش نویس اعلامیه

  15. The world trade organisation, human rights and development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    enjoyment of other rights. While it is generally considered to be part of the group of economic, social and cultural rights (as opposed to civil and political rights) the right to health is closely related to and dependent upon the realisation of other human rights, including the rights to food, housing, work, education, human dignity ...

  16. “GAY RIGHTS ARE HUMAN RIGHTS”: : THE FRAMING OF NEW INTERPRETATIONS OF INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS NORMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holzhacker, Ron

    2014-01-01

    “Gay Rights are Human Rights” may have begun as a slogan chanted in the street, but academics and human rights organizations began to use the international human rights frame systematically in the 1990s to argue for universal human rights to fully apply to LGBT persons. This framing gradually began

  17. Human rights begin at birth: international law and the claim of fetal rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copelon, Rhonda; Zampas, Christina; Brusie, Elizabeth; Devore, Jacqueline

    2005-11-01

    In the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the foundation of human rights, the text and negotiating history of the "right to life" explicitly premises human rights on birth. Likewise, other international and regional human rights treaties, as drafted and/or subsequently interpreted, clearly reject claims that human rights should attach from conception or any time before birth. They also recognise that women's right to life and other human rights are at stake where restrictive abortion laws are in place. This paper reviews the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the Convention on the Rights of the Child, and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, the Inter-American Human Rights Agreements and African Charter on Human and People's Rights in this regard. No one has the right to subordinate another in the way that unwanted pregnancy subordinates a woman by requiring her to risk her own health and life to save her own child. Thus, the long-standing insistence of women upon voluntary motherhood is a demand for minimal control over one's destiny as a human being. From a human rights perspective, to depart from voluntary motherhood would impose upon women an extreme form of discrimination and forced labour.

  18. 76 FR 77363 - Human Rights Day and Human Rights Week, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... the threat of extrajudicial killing, torture, oppression, and discrimination, regardless of gender... United States of America A Proclamation With the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights on..., THEREFORE, I, BARACK OBAMA, President of the United States of America, by virtue of the authority vested in...

  19. The prevention of gross human rights violations under international human rights law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Have, N.S.

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decades there has been a great deal of attention for concepts aiming to prevent gross human rights violations, such as conflict prevention and the responsibility to protect. Despite this shift in attention towards prevention, it has remained unclear what legal obligations states have

  20. Right To Property: From Magna Carta To The European Convention On Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristik Jelena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Property rights are integral part of the freedom and prosperity of every person, although their centrality has often been misprized and their provenance was doubted. Yet, traces of their origin can be found in Magna Carta, signed by the King of England in 1215. It was a turning point in human rights. Namely, it enumerates what later came to be thought of as human rights. Among them was also the right of all free citizens to own and inherit property. The European Convention on Human Rights was heavily influenced by British legal traditions, including Magna Carta. Among other rights, it also guaranties the right to property as a human right. Moreover, the protection of property rights has been extended to intellectual property rights as well. Namely, the European Court of Human Rights has provided protection of intellectual property rights through the adoption of decisions that interpret the right to property, in relation to intellectual property protection claims. It has extended the human rights protection of property to the mere application for registration of the trade mark. This paper has placed its focus on the development and treatment of the right to property starting from Magna Carta to the European Convention on Human Rights, as modern version of Magna Carta. In this sense, the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights and its role and approach in the protection of the right to property will be examined as well.

  1. Climate Change, Human Rights and the International Legal Order: The Role of the UN Human Rights Council

    OpenAIRE

    Margaretha Wewerinke

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses recent developments related to recognition of the link between human rights and climate change in international human rights forums. It focuses on the main human rights body of the United Nations, the Human Rights Council, which has addressed climate change in three resolutions, two panel discussions and at its annual Social Forum. The analysis shows that the main challenge faced by the Human Rights Council as it seeks to address climate change is getting to grips with ...

  2. The object of "Rights" : third world women and the production of global human rights discourse

    OpenAIRE

    Hua, Julietta Y.

    2006-01-01

    The US "women's rights as human rights" doctrine continues to represent campaigns for international women's rights through the stories and images of Asian, African, and Latin American women. As both the idea of global human rights, and the place of women within the context of international human rights discourse become more powerful in framing a U.S. national identity, it seems that only certain issues (located in Other places that are always assumed to be "behind") come to define the US wome...

  3. Human right education and the Nigerian child: implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the concept of human right to education as listed in Article 26 of the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights of December 1948. Human right is viewed as natural or moral law which has the force of conscience. The declaration is directed at the right to formal Western education in Nigeria, rather ...

  4. The Life Esidimeni tragedy: A human-rights perspective | Ferlito ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) affirms that all human beings are entitled to core rights essential to human fulfilment. Although all human rights are important, the ICESCR's guarantee of the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and ...

  5. We "Must" Integrate Human Rights into the Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Ed

    1999-01-01

    Asserts that educators need to teach about human rights issues, such as social and economic rights, in the social studies curriculum because these issues are disregarded throughout the country. Defines human rights, discusses the importance of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), and provides two lessons. (CMK)

  6. International Human Rights on the Internet. Internet Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Jack

    2000-01-01

    Provides an annotated list of websites that focus on international human rights. Explains that human rights can be incorporated into curricula whether the focus is on human geography or contemporary global issues. Indicates that the Northern Light search engine produced over 700,000 hits for human rights websites. (CMK)

  7. Advancement of human rights standards for LGBT people through the perspective of international human rights law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Cviklová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the issue how various religious and legal systems cope with current developments that undermine binary opposition of man and woman including definition of their sexual and cultural identities. More concretely, it tries to explain, how concrete societies and legislations deal with claims of lesbians, gays, bisexuals, and transsexuals (LGBT that claim broader recognition. It elucidates differences among Western provisions and policies of the relevant legal bodies such as the General Assembly of the United Nations, the European Court of Human Rights and the Supreme Court concerning these issues. It also points to the nature and real impact of international civil society forces such as Yogyakarta principles that formulate extension of rights concerning lesbians, gays, bisexuals, and transsexuals. On the basis of comparison of various legal and religious discourses it explains current practices of direct and indirect discrimination and in some non-European national systems even extra-judicial killings, torture and ill-treatment, sexual assault, rape and other violations of human rights. When emphasizing substantial differences among current European states and non-European ones concerning policies toward lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people (LGBT, it shows current tendencies of advancement in the field by common policies of Council of Europe, recent judgments issued by the European Court of Human Rights as well as civil society efforts such as Yogyakarta principles. Swedish standards have been introduced in order to emphasize existing progressive attitudes to LGBT people concerning gay marriages and adoption procedures.

  8. The Human Right to Leisure in Old Age: Reinforcement of the Rights of an Aging Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karev, Iris; Doron, Israel Issi

    2017-01-01

    The right to leisure is recognized as a human right under the 1948 United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The actual meaning and material content of this human right is subject to debate. The aim of this study is to examine the extent and the context to which this human right is specifically recognized with regard to older persons. Methodologically, this study textually analyzed 17 different international older persons' human rights documents. The findings reveal that in the majority of these documents there is no reference to the right to leisure. In the remaining documents, the right to leisure is mostly referred to indirectly or in a narrow legal construction. These findings support the notion that despite the growing body of knowledge regarding the importance of meaningful leisure in old age-and its empowering and anti-ageist nature-this knowledge has not transformed into a legal human rights discourse.

  9. Interpreting the International Right to Health in a Human Rights-Based Approach to Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Paul

    2016-12-01

    This article tracks the shifting place of the international right to health, and human rights-based approaches to health, in the scholarly literature and United Nations (UN). From 1993 to 1994, the focus began to move from the right to health toward human rights-based approaches to health, including human rights guidance adopted by UN agencies in relation to specific health issues. There is a compelling case for a human rights-based approach to health, but it runs the risk of playing down the right to health, as evidenced by an examination of some UN human rights guidance. The right to health has important and distinctive qualities that are not provided by other rights-consequently, playing down the right to health can diminish rights-based approaches to health, as well as the right to health itself. Because general comments, the reports of UN Special Rapporteurs, and UN agencies' guidance are exercises in interpretation, I discuss methods of legal interpretation. I suggest that the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights permits distinctive interpretative methods within the boundaries established by the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties. I call for the right to health to be placed explicitly at the center of a rights-based approach and interpreted in accordance with public international law and international human rights law.

  10. Institutional Mechanisms for Human Rights Protection in Nigeria: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . There are legal and institutional mechanisms for protecting the human rights guaranteed in these constitutions. This paper has focused on the institutional mechanisms for human rights protection in Nigeria. The meaning, features and ...

  11. Human Rights Education Standards for Teachers and Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Todd

    2006-01-01

    This article proposes a set of human rights education standards for classroom teachers and, by implication, outcomes for teacher preparation programs. The discussion includes a brief description of human rights education and concludes with recommendations for teacher preparation programs.

  12. Global human rights frameworks applicable to LGBTI migrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shana Tabak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Although no international legal instrument exists to specifically protect the human rights of LGBTI individuals, over recent years international legal bodies have interpreted basic human rights provisions to apply to LGBTI populations.

  13. KRITIK TERHADAP EPISTEMOLOGI UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS: PERSPEKTIF ISLAM

    OpenAIRE

    Afdal Afdal; Waston Waston

    2015-01-01

    Since established, Universal Declaracion of Human Rights (UDHR) upheld as a global value by all the countries in the world. UDHR through the UN as a reference as a common standard for measuring the level of success of a country in upholding human rights. How this study focus on the implications of the secular epistemology against the substance of the Universal Declaration Of Human Rights? and How does Islam look at epistemology Universal Declaration Of Human Rights? To answer t...

  14. Moral and political conceptions of human rights: rethinking the distinction

    OpenAIRE

    Horn Anita

    2016-01-01

    In one important strand of the philosophical debate human rights are seen as a practical benchmark to evaluate and orient matters of national politics international relations and global governance. The article investigates the possible benefits and problems of this approach. Problematising the well established distinction between moral and political human rights in philosophical human rights debate the author follows Paolo Gilabert's attempt to alternatively discuss human rights under the per...

  15. The Right to Assistive Technology: For Whom, for What, and by Whom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Johan; Larsson, Stig; Ostergren, Per-Olof

    2011-01-01

    Despite its facilitating role in creating opportunities for people with disabilities to exercise human rights, access to assistive technology is limited in many countries. It is therefore promising that the Convention on Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) addresses this area. The purpose of this study was to analyse the assistive…

  16. Right to Development and Right to the City : A Proposal of Human Rights Categories Universal as assumptions Citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Danielle Carneiro dos Santos Hilário

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the Right to the City, in a conceptual dimension and wide, and his dialectical relationship with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948 and its universalism and cultural relativism categories. The Right to the City (RtC is capitula- ted as one of the categories of the Human Right to Development from the compartments on Human Rights to descend from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Linked to this assumption, the discussion of universalism and cultural relativism theories bring to the fore important questions and considerations as to RtC condition, since in its current design and trampled by an evil legacy of neoliberalism, this right has demonstrated the need for authoritative action of the State, given the nature of fundamental human right of the third dimension. Through RtC, boasts up of economic, social and cultural rights, requiring a positive action of the state as compliance guarantee this human right. In this bias, relevant are discussions about the concept of law, morality, liberalism, effectiveness and universality of human rights theories and cultural relativism in dialectic with the RtC and its complexity. It starts from the assumption that the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other statements which have descended universality (despite criticism, however, this har- vest, it is imperative closer examination of the concept, forecast, guarantee and effective- ness fundamental human rights, which may lead to a mixed application of universalistic and relativistic theories when analyzed from the perspective of these institutes. The Hu- man Right to Development (RtD presupposes notions of environmental sustainability and economic democracy, with qualified participation of social subjects (wide citizenship, seen continuous and articulated perspective as guiding the development process.

  17. The Functions of Selected Human Rights Institutions and Related Role-Players in the Protection of Human Rights in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Chitimira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Various violations of the human rights of ordinary people and human rights defenders have been reported in Zimbabwe since the late 1980s. It is widely acknowledged that such violations have been perpetrated mostly by the government through its different organs for political and other related reasons. Human rights violations were also easily committed against ordinary people and human rights defenders because there was no Constitution that adequately protected such people's fundamental human rights (including their civil and political rights and their socio-economic rights in Zimbabwe. Given this background, the article discusses the protection of human rights in Zimbabwe, in the light of the Zimbabwe Constitution Amendment Act 20 of 2013 (Zimbabwe Constitution 2013. This is done in order to investigate whether the promotion, protection, enforcement and respect for human rights in Zimbabwe has now improved. To this end, the functions of selected national human rights institutions and other related role-players, namely civil society, the judiciary, the law enforcement organs and the Zimbabwe Human Rights Commission, are briefly discussed first. Secondly, the functions of selected regional and international institutions, namely the Southern African Development Community, the African Union and the United Nations are discussed in relation to the protection of human rights in Zimbabwe. Thereafter, concluding remarks and possible recommendations that could be utilised to combat human rights violations and enhance the protection of human rights in Zimbabwe are provided.

  18. National Award for Human Rights Education in 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariê Luise Campos

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2008, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights completed 60 years of existence. To commemorate this date, the Ministry of Education, the Special Secretariat for Human Rights of the Presidency, the Organization of Iberoamerican States with the sponsorship and implementation of the SM Foundation, created the National Award for Human Rights Education.

  19. The functions of selected human rights institutions and related role ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various violations of the human rights of ordinary people and human rights defenders have been reported in Zimbabwe since the late 1980s. It is widely acknowledged that such violations have been perpetrated mostly by the government through its different organs for political and other related reasons. Human rights ...

  20. Teaching Human Rights? "All Hell Will Break Loose!"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Claire; Brunner, Richard; Webster, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    Human rights education is a prominent concern of a number of international organisations and has been dominant on the United Nations' agenda for the past 20 years. The UN Decade for Human Rights Education (1995-2004) has been followed by the World Programme for Human Rights Education (2005-ongoing) and the recently adopted UN Declaration on Human…

  1. 75 FR 75615 - Helsinki Human Rights Day, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ... Helsinki Human Rights Day, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation This year... states with respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms within states. With the signing of the Act... occasion also spurred courageous human rights activists in Eastern Europe to form citizens' groups to press...

  2. Human Rights and the African Renaissance | Acheampong | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the idea of African renaissance in relation to the teaching of human rights in African schools. It explores the connection between the African Renaissance and human rights, and whether there is a specific African concept of human rights. In the light of these discussions, the article sketches a perspective ...

  3. The Rhetorical Question of Human Rights--A Preface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxtader, Erik

    2010-01-01

    Does rhetoric have a place in the discourse of human rights? Without certain reply, as the dilemmas of defining, claiming, and promoting human rights appear both to include and exclude the rhetorical gesture, this question invites inquiry into the preface of the contemporary human rights regime, the moment of the aftermath that provokes a struggle…

  4. Human Rights Education: Is Social Work behind the Curve?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Julie A.; Mathiesen, Sally

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a descriptive assessment of human rights education within schools of social work and law. A review of course titles and descriptions within MSW programs and law programs was conducted for identification of human rights content. The results suggest a dearth of human rights content in social work curricula and a great disparity…

  5. International criminal tribunals and human rights law: Adherence and contextualization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeegers, K.J.

    2015-01-01

    Given their mandate to prosecute persons responsible for the most atrocious of human rights violations, International Criminal Tribunals (ICTs) are generally hailed as welcome enforcers of international human rights law: a new instrument in the toolkit of human rights protectors. However, ICTs

  6. Human Rights under the Ethiopian Constitution: A Descriptive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article summarizes human rights under the Ethiopian Constitution (mainly surrounding Chapter 3 of Constitution and related constitutional provisions on human and democratic rights), and forwards some insights. It, inter alia, covers various aspects of the application and interpretation of human rights provisions, ...

  7. institutional mechanisms for human rights protection in nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mofasony

    Abstract. Human rights are guaranteed in the constitutions of various countries of the world. There are legal and institutional mechanisms for protecting the human rights guaranteed in these constitutions. This paper has focused on the institutional mechanisms for human rights protection in Nigeria. The meaning, features ...

  8. Tensions and Dilemmas about Education in Human Rights in Democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magendzo, Abraham

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that incorporating human rights issues into the curriculum causes tensions, especially in nations with histories of military dictatorships. Describes human rights education in Chile and other Latin American nations. Discusses whether human rights should be a separate curriculum subject or integrated into all courses. (CFR)

  9. An Overview of Human Rights, Good Governance and Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The human rights issues have continue to generate both interest and controversy in the world. This is because more than before the organized world community has placed considerable emphasis on human rights violation especially in developing world. This study focuses on the issue of evolution of human rights, then ...

  10. Health and human rights a South African perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Sudeshni

    2014-01-01

    General statements of basic entitlements are established as a guide for potential laws and regulations protecting human rights. Human rights are those claimed to belong to every individual regardless of nationality or position within society. The historical evolution of human rights relative to health in the Republic of South Africa is discussed.

  11. Human Rights: 1948-1978--Changing Perceptions. A Wingspread Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Louis B.; Roosevelt, Curtis

    Conference participants examined the attitudes toward human rights which led to the drafting of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948, as compared to today's perceptions of the meaning of human rights. Using Franklin D. Roosevelt's "Four Freedoms" as a point of departure--freedom of speech and expression, freedom of every…

  12. Ethnicity and Human Rights: An Organizational and Individual Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, George E.

    Despite the Universal Declaration of Human Rights adopted by the United Nations in 1948, the issue of the human rights of ethnic minority groups is widely ignored in the United States--both in policy and as an issue worthy of examination. In this country and abroad, violations of human rights continue to take place regularly; minority group…

  13. The rudiments of human rights | Chinyere | Nnamdi Azikiwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The knowledge of the evolution of human rights is a key to understanding the concept and the factors that influenced the growth and advancement of human rights. The wide spectrum of what we have today as human rights can be traced from the earliest times, down to the middle ages, and up to the present century.

  14. The World War II Era and Human Rights Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Stewart; Russell, William B., III

    2012-01-01

    International revulsion at the violation of human rights during World War II helped spark a global movement to define and protect individual human rights. Starting with the creation of war crimes tribunals after the war, this newfound awareness stimulated a concerted international effort to establish human rights for all, both in periods of war…

  15. Racism and poverty in a human rights perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de

    2002-01-01

    The problematique of racialised inequalities is the major focus of this chapter. Remedies will be looked for in human rights. First we shall go into the meaning of human rights. The international project for the realisation of human rights will then be confronted with racism in general. Next, we

  16. Perspective: Economic Human Rights: The Time Has Come!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Anuradha

    1998-01-01

    Maintains that the high poverty levels in the United States implies that the goals of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) have not yet transformed the reality of U.S. citizens. Describes the national campaign called "Economic Human Rights: The Time Has Come!" that combats the violations of basic human rights like poverty.…

  17. A New Human Rights Regime to Address Robotics and Artificial Intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hin-Yan; Zawieska, Karolina

    2017-01-01

    to exert increasing influence over human opportunities and activities, such that human beings are increasingly under ‘the loop’. This paper explores the impact that the inversion of power between human beings and their technologies has on the protection of fundamental human rights....

  18. The Right To Appeal For The Social Insurance As A Human And Constitutional Right

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selita Mirela

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Magna Carat is a highly significant document that found the way into the rights and the constitutions. Magna Carat is a symbol of human and constitutional rights. Social insurance is part of the social security and the recognition of social security as a basic human right is enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 10 December 1948 at the Palais de Chaillot, Paris and furthermore the European Conventions on Human Rights, specially the article 6.

  19. Understanding Women\\'s Economic And Social Human Rights ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article considers the evolution of women\\'s rights in international human rights law. It then moves on to consider the gender dimension of economic, social and cultural rights before examining constraints to their enjoyment and enforcement. East African Journal of Peace and Human Rights Vol. 12 (2) 2006: pp. 232-253 ...

  20. International human rights and cultural diversity: a balancing act

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donders, Y.

    2013-01-01

    It is broadly agreed that international human rights law and cultural diversity have a mutually interdependent and beneficial relationship. Many human rights, such as the rights to freedom of expression, freedom of religion, freedom of assembly, as well as the rights to take part in cultural life

  1. Adolescent health: policy, science, and human rights

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roche, Jennifer; Davies, Diane; Boyce, William Francis

    2009-01-01

    ... Implications of Early Age of Sexual Debut 126 Roger S. Tonkin, Aileen Murphy, and Colleen S. Poon 9 Substance Use: Harm Reduction and the Rights of the Canadian Adolescent 152 Christiane Poulin 10 R...

  2. Internet content governance and human rights

    OpenAIRE

    Lucchi, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    The Internet has become an essential tool for various life-related purposes, and it is an instrument necessary for the proper enjoyment of a series of rights—including the right to access knowledge and information and the right to communicate. This new paradigm also implies that all people should have access to the Internet at affordable conditions, and any restrictions should be strictly limited and proportionate. As a consequence, any regulatory and policy measures that affect the Internet ...

  3. Strategies for Protecting and Implementing Human Rights in Today

    OpenAIRE

    Montesinos Oltra, Salvador; Añón Roig, María José

    2010-01-01

    Human Rights and integration: and appraisal from Europe. Conference on Human Rigths Research Centres and Institutes. December 2-3, 2010. Institut de Drets Humans. Universitat de València.Duración:49M

  4. Establishing a meaningful human rights due diligence process for corporations : learning from experience of human rights impact assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, James

    2013-01-01

    The United Nations Special Representative of the Secretary-General on Business and Human Rights, Professor John Ruggie, has constructed a new international framework, which is set to become the cornerstone for all action on human rights and business at the international level. The principle of human rights due diligence (HRDD) is the central component of the corporate duty to respect human rights within that framework. This article argues that Ruggie's HRDD principle contains the majority of ...

  5. Intellectual property rights and innovation: Evidence from the human genome*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Heidi L.

    2013-01-01

    Do intellectual property (IP) rights on existing technologies hinder subsequent innovation? Using newly-collected data on the sequencing of the human genome by the public Human Genome Project and the private firm Celera, this paper estimates the impact of Celera’s gene-level IP on subsequent scientific research and product development. Genes initially sequenced by Celera were held with IP for up to two years, but moved into the public domain once re-sequenced by the public effort. Across a range of empirical specifications, I find evidence that Celera’s IP led to reductions in subsequent scientific research and product development on the order of 20 to 30 percent. Taken together, these results suggest that Celera’s short-term IP had persistent negative effects on subsequent innovation relative to a counterfactual of Celera genes having always been in the public domain. PMID:24639594

  6. Intellectual property rights and innovation: Evidence from the human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Heidi L

    2010-07-01

    Do intellectual property (IP) rights on existing technologies hinder subsequent innovation? Using newly-collected data on the sequencing of the human genome by the public Human Genome Project and the private firm Celera, this paper estimates the impact of Celera's gene-level IP on subsequent scientific research and product development. Genes initially sequenced by Celera were held with IP for up to two years, but moved into the public domain once re-sequenced by the public effort. Across a range of empirical specifications, I find evidence that Celera's IP led to reductions in subsequent scientific research and product development on the order of 20 to 30 percent. Taken together, these results suggest that Celera's short-term IP had persistent negative effects on subsequent innovation relative to a counterfactual of Celera genes having always been in the public domain.

  7. Teachers' Pedagogical Perspectives and Teaching Practices on Human Rights in Cyprus: An Empirical Exploration and Implications for Human Rights Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembylas, Michalinos; Charalambous, Constadina; Charalambous, Panayiota

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a qualitative study that explored the understandings of human rights, pedagogical perspectives and practices in human rights teaching of three Greek-Cypriot elementary teachers. The study revealed some significant challenges in human rights teaching that seemed to be common for all three participating teachers. First, all of…

  8. Sexual and reproductive rights and the human rights agenda: controversial and contested.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicka, Wanda

    2011-11-01

    In this paper I share some of my experience and observations, as an advocate for women's rights, of the last 20 years of struggles for sexual and reproductive health and rights, carried out in many key places where these issues have been debated and decided. I do not aspire to be comprehensive about the current status of human rights related to sexuality and reproduction. Given that my expertise is of a practical (rather than theoretical) nature, the complexity of the topic and contradictory events with regard to it, which take place almost everyday, I will highlight some selected achievements and setbacks in this area, particularly regarding abortion rights. I will provide examples of how human rights related to sexual and reproductive health have been addressed in UN policy-setting bodies, such as the Commission on the Status of Women and Commission on Population and Development, as well as in the UN human rights system such as Treaty Monitoring Bodies and Human Rights Council. Given my work with European institutions, I provide examples of important decisions by the Council of Europe and the European Court of Human Rights. Lastly, I discuss growing opposition to a progressive human rights agenda and the universality of human rights. Despite significant successes, sexual and reproductive rights will long remain controversial and contested. Hence, it is crucial to try to find new ways to engage and new partners to work with. Copyright © 2011 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. International Human Rights and the Mistreatment of Women During Childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, Rajat; Zampas, Christina; Vogel, Joshua P; Bohren, Meghan A; Roseman, Mindy; Erdman, Joanna N

    2016-12-01

    International human rights bodies have played a critical role in codifying, setting standards, and monitoring human rights violations in the context of sexual and reproductive health and rights. In recent years, these institutions have developed and applied human rights standards in the more particular context of maternal mortality and morbidity, and have increasingly recognized a critical human rights issue in the provision and experience of care during and after pregnancy, including during childbirth. However, the international human rights standards on mistreatment during facility-based childbirth remain, in an early stage of development, focused largely on a discrete subset of experiences, such as forced sterilization and lack of access to emergency obstetric care. As a consequence, the range of mistreatment that women may experience has not been adequately addressed or analyzed under international human rights law. Identifying human rights norms and standards related to the full range of documented mistreatment is thus a first step towards addressing violations of human rights during facility-based childbirth, ensuring respectful and humane treatment, and developing a program of work to improve the overall quality of maternal care. This article reviews international human rights standards related to the mistreatment of women during childbirth in facility settings under regional and international human rights law and lays out an agenda for further research and action.

  10. Progress in the international protection of human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Keith

    2002-01-01

    Great progress has been made in the international protection of human rights since 10 December 1948 (when the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights). Amidst the doom and gloom of the media's reporting of current affairs, it is easy to overlook this progress. This article provides a definition of 'human rights' and examines early human rights campaigns. It then considers the areas of progress: human rights are now part of the international political vocabulary, there is a recognition that respect for human rights can assist a country's economic and social development, there has been a growth of human rights treaties and techniques and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) see protecting human rights as a major activity. State sovereignty has been eroded as national governments are being held accountable to the international community for their human rights policies. A new challenge is to ensure respect for human rights by non-state entities, such as transnational corporations. The growing culture of international protection of human rights is here to stay. This is not a reason for complacency, but it is a sign of hope.

  11. International Human Rights and the Mistreatment of Women During Childbirth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampas, Christina; Vogel, Joshua P.; Bohren, Meghan A.; Roseman, Mindy; Erdman, Joanna N.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract International human rights bodies have played a critical role in codifying, setting standards, and monitoring human rights violations in the context of sexual and reproductive health and rights. In recent years, these institutions have developed and applied human rights standards in the more particular context of maternal mortality and morbidity, and have increasingly recognized a critical human rights issue in the provision and experience of care during and after pregnancy, including during childbirth. However, the international human rights standards on mistreatment during facility-based childbirth remain, in an early stage of development, focused largely on a discrete subset of experiences, such as forced sterilization and lack of access to emergency obstetric care. As a consequence, the range of mistreatment that women may experience has not been adequately addressed or analyzed under international human rights law. Identifying human rights norms and standards related to the full range of documented mistreatment is thus a first step towards addressing violations of human rights during facility-based childbirth, ensuring respectful and humane treatment, and developing a program of work to improve the overall quality of maternal care. This article reviews international human rights standards related to the mistreatment of women during childbirth in facility settings under regional and international human rights law and lays out an agenda for further research and action. PMID:28559681

  12. Who's right? Human rights, sexual rights and social change in Barbados.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, David A B

    2006-01-01

    Currently, in a number of public and semi-public forums in Barbados, the idea of 'sexual rights' is being discussed and debated. However, different meanings are attached to 'rights'. This paper examines how these meanings demonstrate that different interpretations of sexuality, society, and morality are circulating through Barbados today. It also addresses whether or not sexual rights discourses are the best way to advocate for social justice or bring about changes to socio-sexual attitudes in the Caribbean. It is argued that framing justice and equality through rights talk may have deleterious effects for its advocates, as there is no 'clear' or transparent universality as to what rights means. It is suggested that it may be more efficacious for groups who are stigmatized based on sexual orientation to develop vernacular strategies with values and/or logics stressing elements of justice, equality, dignity and respect for personhood, which include but also move beyond sexual orientation as a principal identification.

  13. Sexuality and human rights: an Asian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Erick

    2005-01-01

    In Asia, the lesbian and gay rights movements are clearly dominated by activists, who tend to think in terms of a binary opposition (homo- vs hetero-) and clear-cut categories. Based on "Western patterns," the approach is practical, the arguments based on minority rights. "Coming out" is often perceived as a "white model" bringing more problems than real freedom. On the contrary, "Asian values" put the emphasis on family and social harmony, often in contradiction to what is pictured as "lesbian and gay rights." Homophobia follows very subtle ways in Asian countries. Asian gays have to negotiate their freedom, lifestyle and identities in an atmosphere of heterosexism, and not the endemic violent homophobia prevalent in many western countries. In Asia, one's identity relates to one's position in the group and sexuality plays a relatively insignificant role in its cultural construction. That Asian gays often marry and have children shows the elasticity their sexual identity encompasses. Fluidity of sexuality does not really match the Western approach in terms of essentialist categories that have a right to exist. Most Asian societies can be thought of as "tolerant" as long as homosexuality remains invisible. Procreative sexuality can be seen as a social duty, and heterosexual marriage is often not considered incompatible with a "homosexual life." The development of the Internet has even facilitated the encounters while allowing secrecy. Unfortunately, the traditional figures of transgender and transvestites have often been separated from the gay liberation movement.

  14. Finding the right technology solutions to secure our borders

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Venter, CP

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Venter-2015.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 1509 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Venter-2015.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Finding the right technology solutions...

  15. Human rights in the energy sector: where are we going?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Jim [KBC Advanced Technologies, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    There is considerable guidance and tools to avoid and remediate adverse Human Rights impacts; Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), specific Human Right Impact Assessments or stand alone assessments across the whole spectrum of Human Rights. However the oil and gas sector has yet to address Human Rights risks in a comprehensive manner. In 2011 the Special Representative of the Secretary-General issued Guiding Principles (GP) to implement the United Nations 'Protect, Respect and Remedy' Framework. A survey of Human Rights performance against GP16 by the largest International Oil Companies (IOCs) and National Oil Companies (NOCs) shows a dichotomy with most (93%) of IOCs having a Human Rights Policy, approved at the highest level and available via the www to the general public (compliant with GP16) whilst 27% of NOCs have a Policy, of which, 9% are GP16 compliant. When service companies are included, only 23% are GP16 compliant. Only 8% provide Human Rights training. Human Rights in 41% of new projects are assessed via an EIA process, 18% via a specific Human Rights process, and 41% do not focus on Human Rights at all. Most companies do not have a Human Rights grievance mechanism. Whilst the IOCs are performing well the rest of the oil and gas sector, including the NOCs and service companies, are under-performing. The apparent reliance on the EIA process to Protect, Respect and Remedy Human Rights may be inadequate as the delivery of EIA is: still heavily biased toward environment compared to social and health impacts; they are time consuming and the Human Rights landscape can change during the EIA process; and the EIA disclosure process may expose vulnerable people to abuse. The oil and gas sector needs to address the record of poor compliance and develop and integrate some of the widely available Human rights tools. (author)

  16. Oriental Culture and Human Rights Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leon Wessels

    Also the. Allied countries were embarrassed that none of them had complained officially between. January 1933 (when Hitler came to power) and September 1939 (the onset of World War. II) about the treatment of the Jews. Suter K “The Fiftieth Anniversary of the Declaration of Human Rights” Contemporary Review, Dec 98, ...

  17. Research Professorship on International Human Rights | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Toward a Regional Security Architecture for the Horn of Africa - Phase II. The Horn of Africa region has endured decades of destruction and human suffering due to long and interrelated wars. View moreToward a Regional Security Architecture for the Horn of Africa - Phase II ...

  18. Kritik Terhadap Epistemologi Universal Declaration of Human Rights: Perspektif Islam

    OpenAIRE

    Afdal, Afdal; Waston, Waston

    2015-01-01

    Since established, Universal Declaracion of Human Rights (UDHR) upheldas a global value by all the countries in the world. UDHR through the UN as a referenceas a common standard for measuring the level of success of a country in upholdinghuman rights. How this study focus on the implications of the secular epistemologyagainst the substance of the Universal Declaration Of Human Rights? and How doesIslam look at epistemology Universal Declaration Of Human Rights? To answer thesequestions used t...

  19. Of sweatshops and subsistence: Habermas on human rights

    OpenAIRE

    Ingram, David

    2009-01-01

    In this paper I argue that the discourse theoretic account of human rights defended by Jürgen Habermas contains a fruitful tension that is obscured by its dominant tendency to identify rights with legal claims. This weakness in Habermas’s account becomes manifest when we examine how sweatshops diminish the secure enjoyment of subsistence, which Habermas himself (in recognition of the UDHR) recognizes as a human right. Discourse theories of human rights are unique in tying the legit...

  20. Specific features of human rights guaranteed by the Aarhus Convention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etinski Rodoljub

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Aarhus Convention legally articulates basic human needs to live in the environment adequate for human health and well-being and to engage in protection and improvement of the environment. It recognized and protected a general human right to adequate environment and three particular rights in environmental matters - to information, to public participation in decision-making and to justice. The Aarhus Convention introduced innovative approach to human rights protection in relation to transboundary issues and legal standing.

  1. Do cultural diversity and human rights make a good match?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donders, Yvonne

    2010-01-01

    The link between cultural diversity and human rights was clearly established by the Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity, adopted by the member states of UNESCO in 2001, which holds that "the defence of cultural diversity is … inseparable from respect for human dignity" and that it "implies a commitment to human rights and fundamental freedoms." The UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions, adopted in 2005, states that "cultural diversity can be protected and promoted only if human rights and fundamental freedoms … are guaranteed" (Article 2[1]). The precise relationship between cultural diversity and human rights, however, is not clarified and thus leaves room for further exploration. This contribution analyses the issues surrounding the relationship between cultural diversity and human rights, in particular cultural rights. Firstly, it addresses general human rights issues such as universality and cultural relativism and the principles of equality and non-discrimination. Secondly, it explores the scope of cultural rights, as well as the cultural dimension of human rights. Thirdly, several cases are discussed in which human rights were invoked to protect cultural interests, confirming the value of cultural diversity. Finally, some concluding remarks are presented, indicating which areas require attention in order to further improve the promotion and protection of human rights in relation to cultural diversity.

  2. Responding to Globalization and Urban Conflict: Human Rights City Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackie Smith

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Expanding globalization and urbanization have intensified the threats to human rights for many vulnerable groups and have restricted resources available to the primary guarantors of these rights—local authorities. Human rights cities initiatives are bottom-up efforts to advance human rights implementation in local contexts. They are emerging around the world in response to the global pressures on cities that intensify urban inequality and conflict. In this article I discuss how global changes are impacting cities and their abilities to protect the basic rights of residents. I then discuss the human rights cities model as a strategic response of social movements to secure people’s basic needs and strengthen local mechanisms for addressing social conflicts. I provide detailed analysis based on participatory research with Pittsburgh’s Human Rights City Alliance between 2013 and 2016. Drawing from literature on international peacebuilding, I argue that human rights cities are an emergent model of peacebuilding and governance that can guide policy and planning at multiple levels. Human rights movements are challenging neoliberal globalization’s emphasis on economic growth and putting forward frameworks that prioritize the needs of people and communities. In their appeals to international human rights norms, human rights cities advocates both advance international law and governance while giving voice to inherent contradictions between human rights and the policies of economic globalization.

  3. Prolegomena of Human Rights. Historical Roots and Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Alina Dumitrache-Ionescu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper Prolegomena of Human Rights. Historical Roots and Globalization analyses the complexity of the history of human rights which revolve around an incessant struggle for the awareness of the value of the human being. It is the history which defends the man, the human being, regarded individually or collectively, who was subjected in the course of time to some atrocities and abuses, confronting itself with exploitation, discrimination, oppression, slavery, torture and even extermination. Moreover, the historical evolution of human rights knows halting places in which the concepts of human rights are accompanied by ambiguity, by different meanings for different people and vary in accordance with the context. By way of resemblance, the problem of human rights in the context of globalization which transforms human rights into rights of the global citizen, rights which acquire new dimensions and significances imposed by the economic, politic and social changes specific of globalization is approached in this paper. The global vision of the new human rights involves both the opportunity to have a say when they are infringed for example, when they are subjected to torture or terror, and where human rights abuses are carried out by the people, for example, trafficking in human beings. (Ritzer, & Dean, 2015, p. 115

  4. Victims’ rights are human rights: The importance of recognizing victims as persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wemmers Jo-Anne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author argues that victims’ rights are human rights. Criminal law typically views victims as witnesses to a crime against the state, thus shutting them out of the criminal justice process and only allowing them in when they are needed to testify. This is a major source of dissatisfaction for victims who seek validation in the criminal justice system. Victims are persons with rights and privileges. Crimes constitute violations of their rights as well as acts against society or the state. While human rights instruments, such as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, do not mention crime victims specifically, a number of rights are identified, which can be viewed from the victim’s perspective. As individuals with dignity, victims have the right to recognition as persons before the law. However, such rights are only meaningful if they can be enforced.

  5. Are modern technologies a threat to fundamental rights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Discussion of the problem whether nuclear technology represents a more serious threat to fundamental rights (such as the right to live and to be protected from bodily harm) than other technical developments. Stating that nuclear facilities as an object of possible assaults by terrorist groups cannot be regarded as an additional menace to the existance of our free and democratic society. Science and technology on the whole, together with their impact on our every-day life might, under the specific conditions of our industrial society based on division of labour, entail an undue infringement of fundamental rights unless the consequences of the technical development are evaluated in due time by the competent authorities in government, industry and society on the basis of the standard of value set by the Basic Law for the Fed. Republic of Germany. (orig./HP) 891 HP/orig.- 892 MBE [de

  6. Human health monitoring technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung-Hyun; Yook, Jong-Gwan

    2017-05-01

    Monitoring vital signs from human body is very important to healthcare and medical diagnosis, because they contain valuable information about arterial occlusions, arrhythmia, atherosclerosis, autonomous nervous system pathologies, stress level, and obstructive sleep apnea. Existing methods, such as electrocardiogram (ECG) sensor and photoplethysmogram (PPG) sensor, requires direct contact to the skin and it can causes skin irritation and the inconvenience of long-term wearing. For reducing the inconvenience in the conventional sensors, microwave and millimeter-wave sensors have been proposed since 1970s using micro-Doppler effect from one's cardiopulmonary activity. The Doppler radar sensor can remotely detect the respiration and heartbeat up to few meters away from the subject, but they have a multiple subject issue and are not suitable for an ambulatory subject. As a compromise, a noncontact proximity vital sign sensor has been recently proposed and developed. The purpose of this paper is to review the noncontact proximity vital sign sensors for detection of respiration, heartbeat rate, and/or wrist pulse. This sensor basically employs near-field perturbation of radio-frequency (RF) planar resonator due to the proximity of the one's chest or radial artery at the wrist. Various sensing systems based on the SAW filter, phase-locked loop (PLL) synthesizer, reflectometer, and interferometer have been proposed. These self-sustained systems can measure the nearfield perturbation and transform it into DC voltage variation. Consequently, they can detect the respiration and heartbeat rate near the chest of subject and pulse from radial artery at the wrist.

  7. The life and times of religion and human rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de; Salih, Mohamed

    2003-01-01

    Seen from a human perspective and as communal protection of human dignity, human rights are universal challenges to which all major traditions of the human family have subscribed. However, ways and means as to the realisation of this universal human ideal have been subject to controversy because of

  8. Euthanasia, empathy, compassion and Human Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Baum, Erica

    2017-01-01

    What is problematic in the study of empathy is his absence to the suffering of others. Euthanasia highlights the moral conflict about suffering or stop suffering facing at an irreversible and painful illness. I will analyze the conflict that has full respect of human dignity, laid down in Article 51 of the Civil and Commercial Code of Argentina, in relation to advance medical directives that involve a practice euthanasia, according to the Article 60 of the same legal body, should not be writt...

  9. Human Rights and Transitional Societies: Contemporary Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Obel

    2008-01-01

    societies are said to have an obligation to apply criminal justice in dealing with such past violations. In Rwanda, the transitional government decided to prosecute the perpetrators of the 1994 genocide. As a result of widespread participation in the genocide and a devastated legal sector, difficulties...... in respecting the rights of the accused arose. A group of paralegals known as the "Corps of Judicial Defenders" was thus relied upon as to provide legal assistance for genocide suspects, but also for civil parties. This paper describes the work of these paralegals relating to the transitional trials, and, more...

  10. Human rights reasoning and medical law: a sceptical essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Jesse

    2015-03-01

    I am sceptical as to the contribution that human rights can make to our evaluation of medical law. I will argue here that viewing medical law through a human rights framework provides no greater clarity, insight or focus. If anything, human rights reasoning clouds any bioethical or evaluative analysis. In Section 1 of this article, I outline the general structure of human rights reasoning. I will describe human rights reasoning as (a) reasoning from rights that each person has 'by virtue of their humanity', (b) reasoning from rights that provide 'hard to defeat' reasons for action and (c) reasoning from abstract norms to specified duties. I will then argue in Section 2 that, unless we (a) re-conceive of human rights as narrow categories of liberties, it becomes (b) necessary for our human rights reasoning to gauge the normative force of each claim or liberty. When we apply this approach to disputes in medical law, we (in the best case scenario) end up (c) 'looking straight through' the human right to the (disagreement about) values and features that each person has by virtue of their humanity. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Human rights barriers for displaced persons in southern Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlish, Carol; Ho, Anita

    2009-01-01

    This community-based research explores community perspectives on human rights barriers that women encounter in a postconflict setting of southern Sudan. An ethnographic design was used to guide data collection in five focus groups with community members and during in-depth interviews with nine key informants. A constant comparison method of data analysis was used. Atlas.ti data management software facilitated the inductive coding and sorting of data. Participants identified three formal and one set of informal community structures for human rights. Human rights barriers included shifting legal frameworks, doubt about human rights, weak government infrastructure, and poverty. The evolving government infrastructure cannot currently provide adequate human rights protection, especially for women. The nature of living in poverty without development opportunities includes human rights abuses. Good governance, protection, and human development opportunities were emphasized as priority human rights concerns. Human rights framework could serve as a powerful integrator of health and development work with community-based organizations. Results help nurses understand the intersection between health and human rights as well as approaches to advancing rights in a culturally attuned manner.

  12. Strategies for Implementing Human Rights Education in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human rights education promotes understanding and friendship among people and nations of the world. It is very essential because, it is used to affirm that all individuals, irrespective of status, have moral rights which a society should not deny. This work therefore attempts to explore strategies for implementing human rights ...

  13. On the Concept of Fundamental Human Right to Favourable Environment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blahož, Josef

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 150/1, č. 12/3 TLQ (2011), s. 170-180 ISSN 0231-6625 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70680506 Keywords : European Court of Human Right * the human rights idea and the right to environment * constitutional law Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences

  14. The United States and the universality of human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomsky, N

    1999-01-01

    The United States takes a highly relativistic stance toward the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. It regards the socio-economic rights and the right to development as without status; exempts itself from all provisions of the Declaration by failing to sign the conventions designed to implement these provisions; and unilaterally qualifies its support of civil and political rights. Leading recipients of U.S. aid have traditionally included regimes with atrocious human rights records. Those struggling for human rights should have no illusions about the systems of power and their servants.

  15. Radiation pollution: present and future perplexities about human rights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Raj; Bharti, Mukesh

    2012-01-01

    Out of the several pollutions included in environmental pollution, the radiation pollution is also a part of this, which is most damageable and serious for the society. Historical evidences reveal about the devastating effects of radiation pollution on human being. No form of pollution exists in the world which influences the human race with its devastating affects for more than one generation except radiation pollution. The radiation pollution affects human health in several ways. It is a man made problem and also affects human rights of masses for which state are responsible ultimately. The radiation pollution affects a big spectrum of human rights. The sources of radiation pollution and its impact on human health may be different according to the sources. These sources may be classified as electronic goods, Nuclear tests, Nuclear war, Reactors and thermal plants etc. Although we have some legal provisions to handle the problem of radiation pollution but there is no specific laws available for the protection and promotion of human rights from radiation pollution in the lights of international human rights principles. At present, there is no human right oriented policy framework is available to protect and promote the human rights of the radiation pollutions sufferers. The paper explores Present and Future Perplexities about Human Rights. It also tells about the available legal framework, state obligations and judicial responses for radiation pollution. The paper concludes with some suggestions in the light of present and future perplexities about human rights. (author)

  16. 60 THE PLACE OF HUMAN RIGHTS IN NIGERIA'S DEMOCRACY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ike Odimegwu

    Abstract. Human Rights are ontological, inherent and intrinsic to all human beings in as much as they are human, irrespective of nationality, sex, ethnicity, origin, colour or any other status. These rights can be protected in a functional democratic setting that anchors its foundation in the rule of law. In democracy, the rule of ...

  17. Health and Human Rights : In Search of the Legal Dimension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toebes, Brigit

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: – This paper explores the legal contours of the field of ‘health and human rights’ as a new and emerging field of human rights law. After an analysis of its conceptual foundations, it explains illustrates how health and human rights evolved from a phase of standard-setting to a field that

  18. Philosophical foundations of human rights: the Yoruba example ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some foundations have been provided for the social validity of human rights in Western philosophical literature. Some African scholars have also sought to ground the notion of human rights within the traditional African cultural beliefs and practices. There is, however, a dearth in literature on the Yoruba notion of human ...

  19. Human and peoples' rights: social representations among Cameroonian students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirttilä-Backman, Anna-Maija; Kassea, Raul; Sakki, Inari

    2009-12-01

    Social representations of human and peoples' rights were studied among Cameroonian university students (N = 666) with a questionnaire based on the UN Declaration of Human Rights and the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights and Duties. The respondents were asked how important and how well realized they regarded the 39 human and peoples' rights to be. A 13-factor model provided the best fit with Cameroonian students' perceptions of human and peoples' rights. Taken as a whole, our results are in line with previous quantitative studies on human rights, confirming structural similarity but also country-specific variation in the aggregation of specific rights. Moreover, our data showed that Cameroonian students value human and peoples' rights highly (M = 6.18), whereas their fulfillment is not regarded as highly (M = 5.09). Same law for all, equality and freedom, and right to work and living were highly appreciated but lowly realized rights. Higher than average in importance and realization were right to education and self-fulfillment, right to marriage and property, peoples' social and political basic rights and right to life and safety. Low in importance and realization were peoples' right to their country's natural resources and independence, right to meetings, and right to express opinion. Women appreciated the rights more than men and thought of their rights as better realized compared to men. We suggest that when women say that their rights are better fulfilled than men do, it is in comparison with the older generation, who are still very dependent on men. Nowadays, thanks to education and urbanization, young women have wider choices or opportunities for marriage and jobs. Men may feel frustrated in the context of political liberalization because the freedoms are more theoretical than fulfilled; the economic crises and cultural changes have hindered their economic domination and their prerogatives.

  20. EDITORIAL: ISLAM AND HUMAN RIGHTS: Contested Viewpoints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor Al-Jami'ah: Journal of Islamic Studies

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The remaining problem faced by Muslims living in this modern life is how the teachings of Islam believed as bless for all human being can be confirmed in the reality of everyday life humanity crammed with conflicts and dissonances. It is staggering to consider that not all Muslims concern, and perhaps do not wish to know, about the current discourse on Islam and its relation with others. Although Samuel Huntington’s controversial theory of “Clash of Civilization” might be challenged by most Muslim circles, the heightening conflict involving Western and Islamic civilizations in the aftermath of September 11, 2001 has approved his theory. The attack of terrorism to the US soil has triggered not only the unremitting war on terror undergone towards the alleged Muslim terrorists worldwide but also the worsening relationship between the two civilizations believed to have been engulfed since the two decades before. Candidly, this phenomenon has also affected the intra-faith dialogue among Muslims having different thought of religion.

  1. The military and violations of human rights : a comparative study of Guatemala and Honduras military and violations of human rights

    OpenAIRE

    Høgdahl, Kristin

    1994-01-01

    «THE MILITARY AND VIOLATIONS OF HUMAN RIGHTS. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF GUATEMALA AND HONDURAS» The study explores the extent of and reasons for military involvement in violations of human rights by focusing on developments in two Central American countries: Guatemala and Honduras throughout the 1980s. There is currently a need for greater understanding of why human rights are violated since the international community is seeking to improve implementation of internationally recognized human r...

  2. Accommodating the Right to Development in Kosovo: A Human Rights Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remzije Istrefi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The right to development is the right of individuals and peoples to an enabling environment for development that is equitable, sustainable, and participatory and in accordance with the full range of human rights and fundamental freedoms. A wide range of international law on development exists, and numerous Declarations and Programs of Action from the UN World Conferences have been proclaimed. Nevertheless, due to its nature and its legal status the right to development continues to be one of the most contested rights in academic and political circles. The conflicting interpretation of the right to development and its contested legal status affects realization of development to which every human person is entitled by virtue of the right to development. But, if the right to development is read through the human rights “lenses”, it can result in an interpretation that can be most helpful for its realization in practice. The relevance of interpretation of the right to development as a human right becomes imperative in transitional society such as the one in Kosovo where the environment continues to encounter legal and structural obstacles to development. In light of this situation the present paper analyses the relationship between human rights and development, the relevance of development in post conflict society and its impact on overcoming the transition and securing a lasting peace.

  3. Human rights in patient care: a theoretical and practical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jonathan; Ezer, Tamar

    2013-12-12

    The concept of "human rights in patient care" refers to the application of human rights principles to the context of patient care. It provides a principled alternative to the growing discourse of "patients' rights" that has evolved in response to widespread and severe human rights violations in health settings. Unlike "patients' rights," which is rooted in a consumer framework, this concept derives from inherent human dignity and neutrally applies universal, legally recognized human rights principles, protecting both patients and providers and admitting of limitations that can be justified by human rights norms. It recognizes the interrelation between patient and provider rights, particularly in contexts where providers face simultaneous obligations to patients and the state ("dual loyalty") and may be pressured to abet human rights violations. The human rights lens provides a means to examine systemic issues and state responsibility. Human rights principles that apply to patient care include both the right to the highest attainable standard of health, which covers both positive and negative guarantees in respect of health, as well as civil and political rights ranging from the patient's right to be free from torture and inhumane treatment to liberty and security of person. They also focus attention on the right of socially excluded groups to be free from discrimination in the delivery of health care. Critical rights relevant to providers include freedom of association and the enjoyment of decent work conditions. Some, but not all, of these human rights correspond to rights that have been articulated in "patients' rights" charters. Complementary to—but distinct from—bioethics, human rights in patient care carry legal force and can be applied through judicial action. They also provide a powerful language to articulate and mobilize around justice concerns, and to engage in advocacy through the media and political negotiation. As "patients' rights" movements and

  4. Perspective from Shariah on Legal and Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Abdul Azeez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine concepts of Legal and Human Rights from the perspective of Shariah. The discussion is divided into three components, the first of which focuses on the origins, nature and development of Legal and Human Rights law(s in the Shariah perspective. The second part discusses debates and declarations on Legal and Human Rights in modern times, while the third evaluates the role and impact of Shariah in the implementation and execution of Legal and Human Rights provisions by modern society. This is done with a view to highlight the dynamic nature of Islamic Legal and Human Rights systems that establish distinctly energetic Legal and Human Rights provisions and values for mankind.

  5. Human rights and health: opportunities to advance rural occupational health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    Human rights norms principally apply to governments, setting out state obligations and citizen entitlements to a range of social and material claims, whereas the highest ethical standards of occupational health professionals (OHPs) are outlined in ethical codes. Human rights discourse is rarely used to shape professional standards for health and safety. Yet there is much potential for synergy by applying human rights approaches to workplace health and safety and professional ethics. A review of international treaties confirms an extensive articulation of the right to workplace health and safety. A case study of pesticide exposure risks to small farmers in developing countries illustrates the links between human rights, occupational health practice, and professional ethics. OHPs have a responsibility to assist in the realization of workers' occupational health rights, particularly by promoting meaningful participation of those affected by hazardous exposures. Human rights approaches may assist the prevention of work-related morbidity.

  6. Integrating Human Performance and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farris, Ronald K.; Medema, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Human error is a significant factor in the cause and/or complication of events that occur in the commercial nuclear industry. In recent years, great gains have been made using Human Performance (HU) tools focused on targeting individual behaviors. However, the cost of improving HU is growing and resistance to add yet another HU tool certainly exists, particularly for those tools that increase the paperwork for operations. Improvements in HU that are the result of leveraging existing technology, such as hand-held mobile technologies, have the potential to reduce human error in controlling system configurations, safety tag-outs, and other verifications. Operator rounds, valve lineup verifications, containment closure verifications, safety and equipment protection, and system tagging can be supported by field-deployable wireless technologies. These devices can also support the availability of critical component data in the main control room and other locations. This research pilot project reviewing wireless hand-held technology is part of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program (LWRSP), a research and development (R and D) program sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). The project is being performed in close collaboration with industry R and D programs to provide the technical foundations for licensing, and managing the long-term, safe, and economical operation of current nuclear power plants. The LWRSP vision is to develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of the current nuclear reactor fleet. (author)

  7. Integrating Human Performance and Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald K. Farris; Heather Medema

    2012-05-01

    Human error is a significant factor in the cause and/or complication of events that occur in the commercial nuclear industry. In recent years, great gains have been made using Human Performance (HU) tools focused on targeting individual behaviors. However, the cost of improving HU is growing and resistance to add yet another HU tool certainly exists, particularly for those tools that increase the paperwork for operations. Improvements in HU that are the result of leveraging existing technology, such as hand-held mobile technologies, have the potential to reduce human error in controlling system configurations, safety tag-outs, and other verifications. Operator rounds, valve line-up verifications, containment closure verifications, safety & equipment protection, and system tagging can be supported by field-deployable wireless technologies. These devices can also support the availability of critical component data in the main control room and other locations. This research pilot project reviewing wireless hand-held technology is part of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program (LWRSP), a research and development (R&D) program sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). The project is being performed in close collaboration with industry R&D programs to provide the technical foundations for licensing, and managing the long-term, safe, and economical operation of current nuclear power plants. The LWRSP vision is to develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of the current nuclear reactor fleet.

  8. Climate change as a business and human rights issue?

    OpenAIRE

    Toft, Kristian Høyer

    2017-01-01

    This paper questions whether human rights are relevant to framing corporate responsibility in regard to climate change. Expanding the holders of human rights duties to also include private actors such as business corporations is becoming widely accepted due to the success of John Ruggie’s UN Guiding Principles (2008, 2011). However, the scope of corporate responsibilities is constrained to merely ‘respecting’ human rights. Moreover, it is unclear how, if at all, climate change can be consider...

  9. The Pinochet case : cosmopolitanism and intermestic human rights

    OpenAIRE

    Nash, Kate

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the Pinochet case, widely heralded as a landmark, as a case of ‘intermestic’ human rights that raises difficult normative and empirical questions concerning cosmopolitan justice. The article is a contribution to the sociology of human rights from the perspective of methodological cosmopolitanism, developing conceptual tools and methods to study intermestic human rights in terms of the inter-relations between cosmopolitanising state institutions and cultural norms. The ar...

  10. Theorizing Time in Abortion Law and Human Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Erdman, Joanna N.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The legal regulation of abortion by gestational age, or length of pregnancy, is a relatively undertheorized dimension of abortion and human rights. Yet struggles over time in abortion law, and its competing representations and meanings, are ultimately struggles over ethical and political values, authority and power, the very stakes that human rights on abortion engage. This article focuses on three struggles over time in abortion and human rights law: those related to morality, healt...

  11. Poverty and Human Rights: New Direction in Poverty Eradication

    OpenAIRE

    Buhaerah, Pihri

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to support the argument that poverty is multidimensional and part of human rights concern. In doing so, this paper uses relevant literature review on poverty issues. This paper finds that the capability approach is a useful conceptual framework to link conventional approach with human rights and support the argument that poverty is multidimensional. Under this perspective, there are two prerequisites cases of non-fulfillment of human rights can be counted as pover...

  12. Human rights and sanction. A paradox in international relations

    OpenAIRE

    MOHAMMAD KORDZADEH KERMANI

    2016-01-01

    The Protection and promotion of human rights, however, have become one of the most important issues for the international community as a whole. Yet, at the same time, it has become increasingly difficult for the international community to address human rights problems collectively. Undertaking research on human rights, immorality and illegality of sanctions covers wide area of study. This article explores the immoral aspects and consequently illegal aspects of sanctions as a foreign policy to...

  13. Responding to Globalization and Urban Conflict: Human Rights City Initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Jackie Smith

    2018-01-01

    Expanding globalization and urbanization have intensified the threats to human rights for many vulnerable groups and have restricted resources available to the primary guarantors of these rights—local authorities. Human rights cities initiatives are bottom-up efforts to advance human rights implementation in local contexts. They are emerging around the world in response to the global pressures on cities that intensify urban inequality and conflict. In this article I discuss how global changes...

  14. Moslem Women, Religion And The Hijab: A Human Rights Perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    veil (niqab) and the head-to-toe all enveloping garment (jilbab) has raised complex human rights issues particularly in the context of women's rights to freedom of religion and its manifestation, equality and nondiscrimination, education and work ...

  15. The Existence of Human Rights Court as a National Effort to Eliminate the Severe Violation of Human Rights in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Junaedi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The law on human rights court has brought the new hopes for certain people have suffered because of the human rights violation happened in the past government (before the law enacted in the years of 2000. The demand of justice has been made by victims, the families of victims and other sympathetic parties by bringing those who have violated human rights in the past. The demand for justice does not only focus on human rights violations, which occurred in the past but also similar human rights violations that will occur in the future. The existence of a permanent Human Rights Court seems to imply that human rights will be upheld and protected. The resolution of past human rights violations via a conflict approach is preferable for the national reconciliation. The resolution of past human rights violations through extra-judicial organizations is an advanced step towards resolving the case, whereas a conflict approach can be used to settle the case. The existence of the Human Rights Law provides a new frontier in implementing the principle of restorative justice in the approach of case settlement. It is hoped that such restorative justice can create a political balance between the past and the future.

  16. LGBT rights versus Asian values: de/re-constructing the universality of human rights

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Po-Han

    2016-01-01

    Law, especially from the international human rights regime, is a direct reference on which minority groups rely when it comes to ‘non-discrimination’. Drawing upon LGBT rights in Taiwan, as well as Hong Kong and Singapore, this article – through an application of K.H. Chen’s (2010) Asia as Method – critically reviews how global LGBT politics interact with local societies influenced by Confucianism. Along a perpetual competition between the universalism and cultural relativism of human rights,...

  17. Corporate Responsibility to Respect Human Rights and Business Schools' Responsibility to Teach It: Incorporating Human Rights into the Sustainability Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhail, Ken

    2013-01-01

    The Preamble to the Universal Declaration on Human Rights (UNDHR) calls on every organ of society to teach and educate for the promotion of the rights it contains. However, few if any business schools have any systematic or critical human rights content in their accounting and business curricula. This oversight is increasingly problematic as…

  18. Impact of Globalization on the Right to Health as an Instance of Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayashree Palande

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the advent of globalization, the issue of human rights - especially right to health- and their violation through the process of globalization was discussed. These impotent rights are affected both in positive and negative way by the globalization. Present study scrutinizes these effects and concludes that globalization is functioning as a double edged-sword in this regards.

  19. The Society's Involvement in the Defense of Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerjuoy, Edward

    2015-04-01

    The history of the Society's involvement in the defense of human rights, a history of which the Society can be proud, will be summarized; the summary will include illustrative specific APS human rights defense actions in illustrative specific cases. As will be emphasized, the aforesaid involvement has been primarily through the activities of the APS Committee on International Freedom of Scientists (CIFS). It is noteworthy-and one of the reasons the Society can be proud-that CIFS is charged with ``monitoring concerns regarding human rights for scientists,'' not solely for physicists, and that CIFS indeed has sought to protect the human rights of nonphysicists.

  20. Health and Human Rights in Karen State, Eastern Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, William W; Mullany, Luke C; Shwe Oo, Eh Kalu; Richards, Adam K; Iacopino, Vincent; Beyrer, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Decades of conflict in eastern Myanmar have resulted in high prevalence of human rights violations and poor health outcomes. While recent ceasefire agreements have reduced conflict in this area, it is unknown whether this has resulted in concomitant reductions in human rights violations. We conducted a two-stage cluster survey of 686 households in eastern Myanmar to assess health status, access to healthcare, food security, exposure to human rights violations and identification of alleged perpetrators over the 12 months prior to January 2012, a period of near-absence of conflict in this region. Household hunger (FANTA-2 scale) was moderate/high in 91 (13.2%) households, while the proportion of households reporting food shortages in each month of 2011 ranged from 19.9% in December to 47.0% in September, with food insecurity peaking just prior to the harvest. Diarrhea prevalence in children was 14.2% and in everyone it was 5.8%. Forced labor was the most common human rights violation (185 households, 24.9%), and 210 households (30.6%) reported experiencing one or more human rights violations in 2011. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified associations between human rights violations and poor health outcomes. Human rights violations and their health consequences persist despite reduced intensity of conflict in eastern Myanmar. Ceasefire agreements should include language that protects human rights, and reconciliation efforts should address the health consequences of decades of human rights violations.

  1. Protection of the right to privacy in the practice of the European Court of Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenov Marijana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The right to privacy is a fundamental human right and an essential component of the protection of human autonomy and freedom. The development of science and information systems creates various opportunities for interferences with physical and moral integrity of a person. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the precise content of the right to privacy. The European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms guarantees this right under Article 8. The European Court of Human Rights did not precisely define the content of the right to privacy and thereby the applicants could bring different aspects of life into the scope of respect for private life. According to the Court, the concept of privacy and private life includes the following areas of human life: the right to establish and maintain relationships with other human beings, protection of the physical and moral integrity of persons, protection of personal data, change of personal name, various issues related to sexual orientation and transgender. The subject of this paper is referring to previously mentioned spheres of human life in the light of interpretation of Article 8 of the Convention.

  2. Promotion of Human Rights in the Republic of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Albulena Ukimeraj

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental rights and freedoms are constitutional category of democratic states whereas the standards for guaranteeing these rights have been determined in the highest international acts of the United Nations. Promotion of equality and compliance with human rights initially originated in social developments in antiquity period. The Greek philosophy represented by world class philosophers Plato and Aristotle, created the foundation for complying with these rights which still serve as principles in the modern times and democratic developments. In later stages of social developments, despite the progress, compliance with human rights in the slavery era but even in the medieval times was faced with many challenges. Meanwhile, the development of the modern world, as an enlightening historic moment, it is the French Revolution, which was of course preceded by important documents in the history of development and advancement of human rights such as: Magna Carta Libertatum and the US Constitution. The reason for addressing this topic consists in the fact that these fundamental rights and freedoms are parts of constitutions of many countries including Kosovo, which are proclaimed and protected by different acts and norms, however they continue to be infringed either by individuals or institutions. Thus, with the aim of promotion of human rights and legal basis related to them in the Republic of Kosovo, this paper will elaborate development of human rights and the legal infrastructure for protection and compliance of human rights in a chronological manner by providing conclusions on the promotion of human rights in the Republic of Kosovo.

  3. Menneskerettighedernes Æstetik /The Aesthetics of Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The idea of this thematic issue on "The Aesthetics of Human Rigths" of the journal "Academic Quarter" is to focus on the staging of human rights in popular culture and fine arts and in different media and genres.......The idea of this thematic issue on "The Aesthetics of Human Rigths" of the journal "Academic Quarter" is to focus on the staging of human rights in popular culture and fine arts and in different media and genres....

  4. Coronial law and practice: a human rights perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freckelton, Ian; McGregor, Simon

    2014-03-01

    Coronial law and practice inevitably impact upon the human rights of those affected by deaths. It is important that such rights be incorporated in how death investigations, up to and including coronial inquests, take place. This article explores the significant impact of the jurisprudence emanating from the European Court of Human Rights, as well as the application of such law by the courts of the United Kingdom and potentially in other countries. It argues that viewing the work of coroners through the lens of human rights is a constructive approach and that, although in the coronial legislation of Australia and New Zealand, many human rights, especially those of family members, and civil liberties are explicitly protected, there remain real advantages in reflecting upon compliance with human rights by death investigation procedures and decision-making.

  5. Editorial: Technology, Policy, and the Right to Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Spronk

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available On December 10, 1948 the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted and proclaimed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Article 26 of that declaration deals with the right to education. Its three clauses are: 1. Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit. 2. Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups, and shall further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace. 3. Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that shall be given to their children.Almost 60 years have passed since this declaration. In that time, distance education has emerged as a way of extending educational opportunities to those for whom poverty, remote location, gender, disability, or dislocation has made education more of a luxury than a right, especially in the world’s poverty zones. At basic and secondary levels, open schools and classrooms are using distance education approaches to help universalize primary education and make secondary education at least a possibility for those who would otherwise become permanent school leavers (cf. Yates & Bradley, 2000, and Bradley, 2003. Perraton estimated that as many as 20 per cent of university students in developing countries were studying at a distance, compared with 12 per cent in industrialized countries (2000. Those percentages, no doubt, are considerably higher today. Nonetheless, 72 million children remain out of school, one in five adults is without basic literacy skills, and many pupils leave school without

  6. Human rights-based approach to tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresler, Carolyn; Lando, Harry; Schneider, Nick; Sehgal, Hitakshi

    2012-03-01

    The Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (FCTC) is currently the most potent tool for implementation of tobacco control laws across the globe. The FCTC is derivative from previously constructed international human rights conventions. These previous conventions have enforcement mechanisms, unlike the FCTC. However, the FCTC relies on state parties to report periodically on its implementation rather than on a continuous monitoring system. The Human Rights and Tobacco Control Network proposes that abiding by the principles of human rights delineated by international treaties, citizens across the globe can demand effective action for tobacco control. This paper explains the link between fundamental human rights and the right to tobacco control. Mechanisms are described to link the FCTC and its principles with human rights-based monitoring reports, which are provided to oversight committees for the other human rights conventions. The initial work of the Human Rights and Tobacco Control Network is summarised and considers the future directions for the human rights-based approach to tobacco control.

  7. Human rights: common meaning and differences in positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doise Willem

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Human rights are defined as normative social representations embedded in institutional juridical definitions. Research findings show that human rights can be studied as normative social representations implying a degree of common understanding across cultures together with organized differences within and between cultures. Important factors in modulating individual positioning in the realm of human rights are experiences of social conflict and injustice, beliefs about the efficiency of various social actors to have rights enforced and attitudes of liberalism or collectivism. On the other hand, an ethnocentric use of human rights is well documented and has been experimentally studied. Generally, concerns about these rights expressed by citizens of Western countries become much stronger when non-Western countries are involved, whereas violations of these rights in their own country are often not severely condemned.

  8. Human rights: common meaning and differences in positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem Doise

    Full Text Available Human rights are defined as normative social representations embedded in institutional juridical definitions. Research findings show that human rights can be studied as normative social representations implying a degree of common understanding across cultures together with organized differences within and between cultures. Important factors in modulating individual positioning in the realm of human rights are experiences of social conflict and injustice, beliefs about the efficiency of various social actors to have rights enforced and attitudes of liberalism or collectivism. On the other hand, an ethnocentric use of human rights is well documented and has been experimentally studied. Generally, concerns about these rights expressed by citizens of Western countries become much stronger when non-Western countries are involved, whereas violations of these rights in their own country are often not severely condemned.

  9. Religious Human Rights and Peace Interrelationship between Human Rights and Peace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Wellman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper assumes the author’s conceptual analysis of rights as complexes of Hohfeldian positions that confer dominion on the right-holder in face of one or more second parties and his theory of moral reasons as essentially social dual-aspect practical reasons, both explained in previously published books. It analyses the international human right to have or adopt a religion or belief of one’s choice and the international human right to manifest one’s religion or belief in worship, observance, practice and teaching as liberties of individual human beings protected by duties of non-interference and immunities from extinction holding against State Parties. It then identifies their moral grounds, the most important moral justifications for recognizing and maintaining these religious human rights in international law. It suggests that these are analogous moral religious human rights and some of the morally proper purposes of international law, including the promotion of international peace. It explains how the problematic human rights to change one’s religion or belief and to proselytize one’s religion or belief can be derived from the more basic human rights to have or adopt a religion or belief and to manifest one’s religion or belief respectively. It examines the reasons that many deny these rights and argues that, correctly interpreted, they are morally justified. Finally it reexamines the question as to whether the human rights to have or adopt a religion or belief and to manifest one’s religion or belief do more to threaten or to promote peace. It argues that although these human rights threaten peace to a limited extent, on balance they would, if universally respected, protect and enhance both internal and international peace even more. It concludes that there are two important relations between these religious human rights and peace. Both would be conducive to peace were they universally respected. And this fact is one of the

  10. Building Human Rights, Peace and Development within the United Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Guillermet Fernández

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available War and peace have perpetually alternated in history. Consequently, peace has always been seen as an endless project, even a dream, to be in brotherhood realized by everyone across the earth. Since the XVII century the elimination of war and armed conflict has been a political and humanitarian objective of all nations in the world. Both the League of Nations and the United Nations were conceived with the spirit of eliminating the risk of war through the promotion of peace, cooperation and solidarity among Nations. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the subsequent human rights instruments were drafted with a sincere aspiration of promoting the value of peace and human rights worldwide. International practice shows the close linkage between the disregard of human rights and the existence of war and armed conflict. It follows that the role of human rights in the prevention of war and armed conflict is very important. Since 2008 the Human Rights Council has been working on the ‘Promotion of the Right of Peoples to Peace.’ Pursuant resolutions 20/15 and 23/16 the Council decided firstly to establish, and secondly to extend the mandate of the Open-Ended Working Group (OEWG aimed at progressively negotiating a draft United Nations declaration on the right to peace. The OEGW welcomed in its second session (July 2014 the approach of the Chairperson-Rapporteur, which is basically based on the relationship between the right to life and human rights, peace and development.

  11. Vulnerability, irregular migrants' health-related rights and the European Court of Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Lomba, Sylvie

    2014-09-01

    The protection of irregular migrants' health-related rights brings to the fore the tensions that exist between human rights, citizenship and the sovereign state, and exposes the protection gaps in the international human rights regime. With this in mind, I consider the merits of a vulnerability analysis in international human rights law (IHRL). I posit that, detached from specific groups and reconceptualised as universal, vulnerability can be reclaimed as a foundation and tool of IHRL. I further contend that the deployment of a vulnerability analysis can alleviate the exclusionary dimension of IHRL and extend protections to irregular migrants. On this basis, I investigate the development of a vulnerability analysis in the case law of the European Court of Human Rights. I argue that, in contrast with the Court's vulnerable population approach, a vulnerability analysis can improve protection standards for irregular migrants in the field of health.

  12. The right to family unification: between migration control and human rights

    OpenAIRE

    Klaassen, Mark Arnoldus Karel

    2015-01-01

    The central question in this book is whether there is a human right to family unification. This book identifies the key elements of the right to family unification. By investigating different sources of international, European and domestic law, it assesses whether and how the different legal systems involved affect each other in shaping the right to family unification. By identifying the key elements of the right to family unification, the book can be an important source for immigration lawye...

  13. A Human Right to Identity Formation? Identity, Politics, and the Universality of Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard T. Peterson

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper will build on ideas I presented at the previous conference (in 2003 on human rights at Mofid University. In that paper, I argued that it is a mistake to view human rights as the expression of a specific culture or historical identity (e.g., that of the “West”. Instead, human rights are better understood as historically emergent universals created in the conflict and interaction of various social groups with contrasting interests, cultural understandings, and identities. The aim of preserving a specific culture, religion, or historical identity against cultural imperialism or other kinds of domination can be supported by appealing to a human right to the formation of distinctive identities. Therefore this human right can contribute to a plurality of identities within the global network of societies that is emerging today. The aim of this paper is to develop this idea of a human right to identity formation دراین مقاله مخالفت خود را با تردید در جهان‌شمولی حقوق بشر اعلام کرده‌ام. این تردید، بر این باور مبتنی است که حقوق بشر، امری تحمیلی ازسوی غرب می‌باشد. من دلایلی برای انکار این نظر که حقوق بشر تماماً غربی است ارائه کرده، به وجوهی اشاره کردم که در واقع خیزش حقوق بشر، دست کم تا حدودی، ناشی از مبارزاتی است که با سلطة قدرت‌های غربی صورت می‌گیرد. این شیوه از استدلال، نیازمند انکار این مطلب نیست که زبان حقوق بشر گاه شکل سیاست‌هایی را گرفته که تمایز فرهنگ‌های دیگر را نمی‌توانند بفهمند (تشخیص دهند و از نابرابری جهانی ثروت و قدرت غفلت کرده‌اند، یا حتی از آن به نحو تلویحی حمایت

  14. Maternal health and human rights | Ratsma | Malawi Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Malawi the maternal mortality ratio is extremely high. Since almost all maternal deaths are avoidable, maternal mortality is also an issue of human rights. This paper examines the root causes of high maternal mortality in Malawi and applies a human rights-based approach to the reduction of maternal mortality.

  15. Interdisciplinary Teaching of Theatre and Human Rights in Honors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szasz, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Since spring 2012, the author has taught a 300-level Theatre and Human Rights class in the University of New Mexico Honors College. One of the centerpieces of honors education is careful research and thorough analysis of what is taught and why it is taught. In creating the honors class Theatre and Human Rights, the author explored how she would…

  16. Young Children's Enactments of Human Rights in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quennerstedt, Ann

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores ways in which human rights become part of and affect young children's everyday practices in early childhood education and, more particularly, how very young children enact human rights in the preschool setting. The study is conducted in a Swedish preschool through observations of the everyday practices of a group of children…

  17. Human Rights and History Education: An Australian Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burridge Nina; Buchanan, John; Chodkiewicz, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The place of education for and about human rights within the school curriculum remains contested and this paper reports on the first national cross-sectoral investigation of its place in Australian curricula and more specifically in national and state History curriculum documents. Opportunities for the inclusion of human rights based studies were…

  18. Human Rights Education and the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froman, Nica

    2015-01-01

    In 2003, the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme (IBDP)--a program implemented in thousands of schools globally--introduced a human rights course (Makivirta, 2003). This curriculum is the first of its kind to hold potential widespread influence on human rights education in the formal education sector. In this study, I analyze the…

  19. Images of Struggle: Teaching Human Rights with Graphic Novels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carano, Kenneth T.; Clabough, Jeremiah

    2016-01-01

    The authors explore how graphic novels can be used in the middle and high school social studies classroom to teach human rights. The article begins with a rationale on the benefits of using graphic novels. It next focuses on four graphic novels related to human rights issues: "Maus I: A Survivor's Tale: My Father Bleeds" (Speigelman…

  20. Teaching "Islam and Human Rights" in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muedini, Fait A.

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses my approach to teaching a course on Islam and human rights. I begin by examining the attention Islam has received in the media and classroom. Then, I discuss how I structure lectures on Islam and human rights, the various readings associated with the lectures, as well as common themes discussed in class that include but are…

  1. Human Rights Education: Imaginative Possibilities for Creating Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Monisha

    2015-01-01

    Background/Context: Human rights education has proliferated in the past four decades and can be found in policy discussions, textbook reforms, and grassroots initiatives across the globe. This article specifically explores the role of creativity and imagination in human rights education (HRE) by focusing on a case study of one non-governmental…

  2. Toward a Critical-Sentimental Orientation in Human Rights Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses one of the challenges in human rights education (HRE) concerning the conceptualization of a pedagogical orientation that avoids both the pitfalls of a purely juridical address and a "cheap sentimental" approach. The paper uses as its point of departure Richard Rorty's key intervention on human rights discourse and…

  3. A Narratable Self as Addressed by Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adami, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    The paper extends the critique in earlier research of human rights as exclusive of otherness and difference by introducing the work of Adriana Cavarero (2000) on a "narratable self." Hence, the formation of human rights is thus about the relations between different narratable selves, not just Western ones. A narrative learning, drawing…

  4. Professionalizing a Global Social Movement: Universities and Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, David; Bromley, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Research on the human rights movement emphasizes direct changes in nation-states, focusing on the efficacy of treaties and the role of advocacy in mitigating immediate violations. However, more than 140 universities in 59 countries established academic chairs, research centers, and programs for human rights from 1968-2000, a development that…

  5. Human Rights Education, Postcolonial Scholarship, and Action for Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osler, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    In our global age, educational researchers and practitioners need tools that can be applied in a range of contexts and scales: local, national, and international. This article argues that human rights education (HRE) is a site of struggle in which human rights and democracy need to be constantly renewed. It contextualizes HRE within a critical,…

  6. Inclusive development as an imperative to realizing the human right ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are a plethora of governance instruments for operationalizing human rights obligations on water and sanitation at multiple levels of governance. The realization that the human right to water and sanitation depends on the discourses and approaches used in a country to implement it implies that it is not self-evident that ...

  7. Teacher Perspectives on Civic and Human Rights Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuran, Kezban

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to obtain teacher perspectives on the civic and human rights education course included in the eighth grade curriculum in Turkish schools. The study group was selected with criterion sampling from among teachers who were teaching the eighth grade civic and human rights education at elementary schools in central Hatay. Using the…

  8. The Accountability of Armed Groups under Human Rights Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortin, K.M.A.

    2015-01-01

    The starting point for this NWOI funded Ph.D. research is the observation that although UN accountability mechanisms are increasingly holding armed groups ‘accountable’ under human rights law, the legal basis for the responsibility of armed groups under human rights law remains controversial

  9. The Ebola Virus and Human Rights Concerns in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    2015-09-03

    Sep 3, 2015 ... currently not under control. According to the. World Health Organization (WHO), the outbreak .... international, regional and national laws and documents. Examples of human rights instruments at the ... human rights perspective the justification or otherwise of some of these measures. Justif Ying quarantine ...

  10. Human rights and the new sustainable mechanism of the Paris ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Looking back at the experience of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol, which bears great resemblance to the SDM, as well as to the human rights concerns raised during its implementation, the integration of human rights considerations into the SDM and its governing rules seems to be ...

  11. The Birth of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Outlines the history of the ideals and enactment of the United Nations' Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). Includes a discussion of the origins of the concept of human rights, the impact of World War II, the role of nongovernmental organizations, and the process of drafting and adopting the UDHR. (DSK)

  12. Universal Declaration of Human Rights: 40th Anniversary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Juanita, Ed.

    December 10, 1988, marks the 40th anniversary of the adoption by the United Nations of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The Declaration represents the first comprehensive, global statement on basic human rights, embracing many of the values long held by U.S. citizens; and it urges all peoples and all nations to promote respect for the…

  13. [Ethics, inequality, poverty and human rights in psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez De Nucci, Armando M

    2007-01-01

    This article aims to show the existence of important failures in the field of Human Rights and equal possibilities in health. Human rights are analyzed an developed in the field of public and social health in our country. Ethics is the main field proposed to reach solutions in the context on EPEP (Etica para la erradicación de la pobreza).

  14. Towards a Human Rights Culture in Social Work Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werkmeister Rozas, Lisa; Garran, Ann Marie

    2016-01-01

    A human rights perspective must be embedded in the institutions, organisations or agencies where social work students find themselves. This paper will focus on one particular strategy that could be helpful to the process of solidifying a commitment to human rights for our students. Using a pedagogical tool from a school of social work in the USA originally developed to combat the social injustice of racism, the example transcends the academic institution and offers a solid link in connecting human rights, social justice and social work. Using the construct of critical realism, we argue that, for social work programmes to take steps towards an explicit commitment to human rights, not only must human rights be infused throughout the curriculum, but educators must provide opportunities for making more overt the links between human rights principles, social justice and social work. By addressing behaviours, tendencies and attitudes, students then acquire not only the skills and deeper understanding, but they internalise the motivation and commitment to broaden their human rights frame. In the process of developing a more firm commitment to human rights, we must not be limited to the walls of the academy, but rather extend beyond to our field agencies, organisations and communities. PMID:27559204

  15. Human Rights and Values Education: Using the International Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Betty A.

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that, in teaching about human rights, the international standards should be the fundamental core of the content and values to be communicated. Recommends that teachers should use the Universal Declaration of Human Rights as the standard by which the actions of individuals and governments should be compared. (CFR)

  16. An Introduction to Human Rights in Southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purnama, H.R.; Sharom, Azmi; Mullen, Matthew; Asuncion, Melizel; Hayes, Michael

    2015-01-01

    When the Southeast Asian Human Rights Studies Network (SEAHRN) was formed in 2009 one of its first activities was the development of a textbook for Southeast Asia students. This was in response to its objective of improving teaching on human rights in Southeast Asian universities. Given that

  17. atraining course in health and human rights for medical students

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1997-02-02

    Feb 2, 1997 ... Despite international attention,'J' medical students at. South African training institutions have generally received little teaching on the ethical issues involved or the relationship between health and human rights. Even though leading university academics were at the forefront of challenges to human rights ...

  18. Visual graphics for human rights, social justice, democracy and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: art, democracy, human rights, social justice, the public good, visual graphics. Introduction ... human rights-related issues generally among entering visual art and design students at a South. African university .... To support the notion of 'reinserting the public good' as well as the need to improve critical thinking ...

  19. Human Rights Advocacy and National Integration in Niyi Osundare's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper adopts an interdisciplinary approach to the study of Niyi Osundare's poetry, focusing on human rights advocacy and national integration. It explores and illuminates the concepts of human rights and national integration within the framework of law, isolating the striking features of the concepts replete in Osundare's ...

  20. Language, Education and Linguistic Human Rights in Ghana1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of the familiar language of learners as medium of instruction (MoI) promotes quality education. However, sixty years after independence, Ghana is still ... Keywords: linguistic human rights, human rights, education, language policy, .... is not a treaty, it has had profound influence on the development of international.

  1. Human Rights and the Tobacco Industry : An Unsuitable Alliance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toebes, Brigit

    Like all private businesses, the tobacco industry has a responsibility to respect human rights. This means a responsibility not to harm human rights through the products that it brings on the market. For the tobacco industry, this makes a very clear case: by producing, marketing and selling a

  2. Page | 58 DEVELOPMENT OF THE HUMAN RIGHTS OF WOMEN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    There was a time when women were regarded as the slaves of men but that time has faded away. Women in most parts ... This paper is a discourse on the issue of human rights generally meant to be enjoyed by women; otherwise referred ... government in the development of human rights in a cultural milieu. Although a few ...

  3. Legal response to human rights challenges of multinational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hence, the subject matter of business and human rights is a trending issue at the international level. This paper discusses the problems posed by the private sector, specifically the multinationals, and how they violate human rights in Nigeria vis-a-vis the response by the government. The paper finds that the response is poor ...

  4. Human rights and public health working together: an approach to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human rights and public health are two main components of an effective and comprehensive approach to physical and mental well being. However, an important gap remains between theoretical approaches and pragmatic considerations. In the general framework of violence prevention, human rights and public health ...

  5. Unilateral trade sanctions as a means to combat human rights ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some developed countries have used unilateral trade sanctions against governments that have allegedly been engaged in gross violations of human rights as a tool to force such governments to comply with basic human rights standards. Even though unilateral trade sanctions might be targeted against governments that ...

  6. Page | 47 A PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN RIGHTS LAW IN NIGERIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    ORAEGBUNAM: A Philosophy of Human Rights Law in Nigeria: Focus on Intersubjectivity and Jural Relations. A PHILOSOPHY ...... suing for a tort committed against him in the process of being born40 or against his mother, but .... cuttingly criticized the said remark for negligence of non-Western human rights history. At any ...

  7. Visual graphics for human rights, social justice, democracy and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The value of human rights in a democratic South Africa is constantly threatened and often waived for nefarious reasons. We contend that the use of visual graphics among incoming university visual art students provides a mode of engagement that helps to inculcate awareness of human rights, social responsibility, and the ...

  8. Linguistic Human Rights--Are You Naive, or What?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove

    1999-01-01

    Suggests that the education of most minorities, particularly in the West, is organized in ways that counteract sound scientific evidence and violate linguistic human rights, especially in relation to the wrong choice of medium of education. Substantiates this claim with recent developments in linguistic human rights in education, with special…

  9. Human Rights and Foreign Policy: A Lesson Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiman, David

    1999-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan for grades 9 through 12 that examines the making of foreign policy based on human-rights concerns. Helps students to understand the complexities of international relations and to clarify the beliefs and values about the appropriate role of human rights when making foreign policy. Provides two handouts. (CMK)

  10. The Netherlands and the Development of International Human Rights Instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reiding, H.

    2007-01-01

    When discussing the Netherlands' international human rights policies, the first aspects to come to mind are usually those related to how it addresses and reacts to concrete human rights violations by other countries. In fact, there sometimes appears to be a tendency for public opinion to identify a

  11. Hate on the Internet. Focus on Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, Karen R.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the recent plethora of Web sites that are sponsored by racist organizations in Canada. The Canadian Human Rights Commission is exploring whether they have jurisdiction over some of these activities according to the Canadian Human Rights Act. Briefly profiles some of the groups and their activities. (MJP)

  12. The right to health of prisoners in international human rights law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lines, Rick

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the health rights of prisoners as defined in international law, and the mechanisms that have been used to ensure the rights of persons in detention to realise the highest attainable standard of health. It examines this right as articulated within United Nations and regional human rights treaties, non-binding or so-called soft law instruments from international organisations and the jurisprudence of international human rights bodies. It explores the use of economic, social and cultural rights mechanisms, and those within civil and political rights, as they engage the right to health of prisoners, and identifies the minimum legal obligations of governments in order to remain compliant with human rights norms as defined within the international case law. In addressing these issues, this article adopts a holistic approach to the definition of the highest attainable standard of health. This includes a consideration of adequate standards of general medical care, including preventative health and mental health services. It also examines the question of environmental health, and those poor conditions of detention that may exacerbate health decline, disease transmission, mental illness or death. The paper examines the approach to prison health of the United Nations human rights system and its various monitoring bodies, as well as the regional human rights systems in Europe, Africa and the Americas. Based upon this analysis, the paper draws conclusions on the current fulfilment of the right to health of prisoners on an international scale, and proposes expanded mechanisms under the UN Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment to monitor and promote the health rights of prisoners at the international and domestic levels.

  13. Globalization, human rights, and the social determinants of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Audrey R

    2009-02-01

    Globalization, a process characterized by the growing interdependence of the world's people, impacts health systems and the social determinants of health in ways that are detrimental to health equity. In a world in which there are few countervailing normative and policy approaches to the dominant neoliberal regime underpinning globalization, the human rights paradigm constitutes a widely shared foundation for challenging globalization's effects. The substantive rights enumerated in human rights instruments include the right to the highest attainable level of physical and mental health and others that are relevant to the determinants of health. The rights stipulated in these documents impose extensive legal obligations on states that have ratified these documents and confer health entitlements on their residents. Human rights norms have also inspired civil society efforts to improve access to essential medicines and medical services, particularly for HIV/AIDS. Nevertheless, many factors reduce the potential counterweight human rights might exert, including and specifically the nature of the human rights approach, weak political commitments to promoting and protecting health rights on the part of some states and their lack of institutional and economic resources to do so. Global economic markets and the relative power of global economic institutions are also shrinking national policy space. This article reviews the potential contributions and limitations of human rights to achieving greater equity in shaping the social determinants of health.

  14. Discrimination against women and the human rights of women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žunić Natalija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the concept of the human rights of women and its connection with the phenomenon and the instances of discrimination against women. Discrimination against women, its social visibility and the fight against it, within the idea of the rights and the equality of women, are a source of many theoretical debates. Academic discussions and a powerful influence of the women's movement have brought about the establishment and the exercise of the human rights of women at different levels of the public and the private spheres of society, as a substantial part of the universal regime of human rights.

  15. Mapping Progress : Human Rights and International Students in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Jakubowicz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth in international student numbers in Australia in the first decade of the  2000s was accompanied by a series of public crises. The most important of these was the outbreak in Melbourne Victoria and elsewhere of physical attacks on the students. Investigations at the time also pointed to cases of gross exploitation, an array of threats that severely compromised their human rights. This paper reviews and pursues the outcomes of a report prepared by the authors in 2010 for Universities Australia and the Human Rights Commission. The report reviewed social science research and proposed a series of priorities for human rights interventions that were part of the Human Rights Commission’s considerations.  New activity, following the innovation of having international students specifically considered by the Human Rights Commission, points to initiatives that have not fully addressed the wide range of questions at state.

  16. Human rights, ethical principles, and standards in forensic psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Tony; Gannon, Theresa; Vess, Jim

    2009-04-01

    Human rights create a protective zone around persons and allow them the opportunity to further their valued personal projects without interference from others. This article considers the relationship between human rights and the general ethical principles and standards contained in the American Psychological Association's (APA's) code of ethics as applied to the forensic domain. First, it analyzes the concept of human rights, their structure, and their justification. Second, it briefly describes the APA's most recent code of ethics and the principles and standards that compose it. Third, it concludes by explicitly examining the relationship between the present human rights model and the APA's code, demonstrating how it is able to provide an additional ethical resource for forensic practitioners in their clinical work and so deepen their ethical sensibilities and decision making. Finally, the article presents a case study and discusses the human rights issues confronting practitioners inherent in such situations.

  17. Profiles of four women. Health and human rights activists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, L; Sollom, R

    1997-01-01

    This article briefly profiles four women physicians working for health and human rights around the world. Dr. Ruchama Marton, an Israeli psychiatrist and activist for peace in the Middle East, is a founder of Physicians for Human Rights/Israel. Dr. Jane Green Schaller is a US pediatrician whose 1985 trip to South Africa initiated her human rights involvement, which includes the founding of Physicians for Human Rights. Dr. Judith van Heerden, a primary care physician in South Africa, has worked for reform of prison health care, to establish hospice care, and, most recently, for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) education for medical students. Dr. Ma Thida, the only physician not interviewed for this article, is currently held in a Burmese prison because of her work on behalf of the National League for Democracy. The profiles suggest the breadth of human rights work worldwide and are a testament to what physicians can do.

  18. Seeking a stable future: perspectives on population policy. The legal approach: women's rights as human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, R N

    1994-01-01

    As it has grappled with issues of population policy, the international community has emphasized that women's reproductive rights are human rights. Scholars have also acknowledged that the right to reproductive health care exists within the scope of international human rights treaties and conventions and that gender equality, nondiscrimination, and freedom from government interference in marriage and family life are also guaranteed. Further protections extend to counseling and health information and referral. The Programme of Action of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development continues this trend by emphasizing the importance of human rights for attaining population and development objectives, calling on governments to focus their efforts on improving the quality of life for individuals, and endorsing the notion that reproductive rights are universal human rights. Reproductive health care options are also influenced by sovereign laws that restrict availability of contraception, sterilization, or abortion. However, universal rights and unrestricted access must be complemented by other factors controlled by domestic laws to guarantee reproductive choice. Such laws cover issues like marriage age, divorce, marital property, child support, maternity benefits, day care, sex discrimination, eligibility for insurance, confidentiality, spousal consent, rape, and sexual abuse. Countries must modify restrictive national laws and promote laws protecting women's rights.

  19. Improved animal welfare, the right technology and increased business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Støier, S; Larsen, H D; Aaslyng, M D; Lykke, L

    2016-10-01

    Animal welfare is receiving increasing attention from the authorities, the public and NGOs. For this reason, the improvement of animal welfare and animal handling systems is of the utmost importance for the meat industry. Technological developments have led to more animal friendly systems that handle animals on the day of slaughter, and these developments will be even more important as consideration for animal welfare and sustainability is no longer just a trend but a licence to operate. Improvement of animal welfare also leads to a higher value of the carcasses due to higher product quality, less cut-off caused by fewer injuries, and reduced working load, which leads to increased business opportunities. Therefore, good animal welfare is good business, and the development and implementation of new technology is the way to obtain improved animal welfare. These subjects will be addressed using examples and cases from the pork and broiler production industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Human Rights, Fundamental Freedoms and Universal Values in International Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Lev S. Voronkov

    2016-01-01

    The author analyzes the evolution of human rights and fundamental freedoms in domestic political life of individual states and in international relations as well over the latest two centuries. The article traces the role of struggle for liberal political human rights and civilian freedoms in the dismantling of the feudal-absolutist regimes as well as the challenges of radical left-wing (communist) and far right-wing (national-socialistic) threats to be met by the supporters of liberal politic...

  1. Reclaiming the Radical in Universal Human Rights: Universality as Universalisation

    OpenAIRE

    McNeilly, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    The universality of human rights has been a fiercely contested issue throughout their history. This article contributes to scholarly engagements with the universality of human rights by proposing a re-engagement with this concept in a way that is compatible with the aims of radical politics. Instead of a static attribute or characteristic of rights this article proposes that universality can be thought of as, drawing from Judith Butler, an ongoing process of universalisation. Universality acc...

  2. Human rights advances in women's reproductive health in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwena, Charles G; Brookman-Amissah, Eunice; Skuster, Patty

    2015-05-01

    The African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights recently adopted General Comment No 2 to interpret provisions of Article 14 of the Protocol to the African Charter on the Rights Women. The provisions relate to women's rights to fertility control, contraception, family planning, information and education, and abortion. The present article highlights the General Comment's potential to promote women's sexual and reproductive rights in multiple ways. The General Comment's human rights value goes beyond providing states with guidance for framing their domestic laws, practices, and policies to comply with treaty obligations. General Comment No 2 is invaluable in educating all stakeholders-including healthcare providers, lawyers, policymakers, and judicial officers at the domestic level-about pertinent jurisprudence. Civil society and human rights advocates can use the General Comment to render the state accountable for failure to implement its treaty obligations. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Rights, regulation and bureaucratic impact: The impact of human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In contemplating the extent to which rights-based litigation is conducive to positive social change, attention ought to be paid to the bureaucratic impact of court judgments that vindicate rights against the State. As a case study of such impact, this article considers the effects of human rights litigation on the regulation of ...

  4. HOW UNIVERSAL ARE THE UNIVERSAL HUMAN RIGHTS TODAY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia-Alexandra BALTADOR

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to contribute to a constructive debate on human rights. The two World Wars of the last century brought about the creation of the United Nations aimed “to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person, in the equal rights of men and women and of nations large and small”. Only three years later the Universal Declaration of the Human Rights was elaborated and promoted by the UN, considered to be the foundation of international human rights law. Today, as globalization brings all closer together in a “global village”, one can see that there are many ways to perceive and guarantee human rights, in different states, but also within different states. Poverty, illiteracy, censorship, cruel treatment and even the lack of guarantee for the right to life are, unfortunately, the norm for many people of the world. Such observations bring up questions regarding the legitimacy, universality and coherence of human rights.

  5. Human rights and intellectual disabilities in an era of 'choice'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyson, R; Cromby, J

    2013-12-01

    Efforts to uphold and promote the human rights of people with intellectual disabilities (ID) are being affected by the increasing emphasis on 'choice' in the delivery of social care services. While rights presume subjects or selves to whom they apply, there is a disconnect between the subjects presumed within human rights frameworks and the variable capacities of a heterogeneous ID population. This disconnect is amplified by choice discourses which characterise current service provision based upon neoliberal ideologies. Conceptual assumptions and theoretical positions associated with human rights in relation to people with ID are critically examined. The analysis results in an argument that current conceptualisations of personhood in relation to human rights exclude people with ID. The adverse effects of this exclusion are exacerbated within services which emphasise the permissive rights associated with a neoliberal agenda of 'choice' over protective rights. In order to ensure that the human rights of people with ID are upheld, neoliberal emphases on choice need to be tempered and a more nuanced and inclusive notion of personhood in relation to universal human rights needs to be adopted. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, MENCAP & IASSID.

  6. The human right to sustainable development in solidarity with Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anya Teresa Parrilla Díaz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the issue of human development as a universal right subjected to the welfare of Nature. Nature is presented as supporter of life and supplier of the essential resources needed to achieve a complete human development. In light of the global ecological crisis, the author proposes sustainable development as the central framework for a new human development that can be fairer to Nature and to mankind. The challenge of sustainable human development consists in viewing Nature from an ethical perspective of human rights and solidarity.

  7. Multiculturalism and Human Rights: Experiences and Methodological Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    García Añón, José; Leye, Els

    2010-01-01

    Ponencia sobre experiencias y aproximación metodológica en multiculruralismo y derechos humanos. Human Rights and integration: and appraisal from Europe. Conference on Human Rigths Research Centres and Institutes. December 2-3, 2010. Institut de Drets Humans. Universitat de València.Duración: 25M

  8. Maternity care and Human Rights: what do women think?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solnes Miltenburg, Andrea; Lambermon, Fleur; Hamelink, Cees; Meguid, Tarek

    2016-07-02

    A human rights approach to maternal health is considered as a useful framework in international efforts to reduce maternal mortality. Although fundamental human rights principles are incorporated into legal and medical frameworks, human rights have to be translated into measurable actions and outcomes. So far, their substantive applications remain unclear. The aim of this study is to explore women's perspectives and experiences of maternal health services through a human rights perspective in Magu District, Tanzania. This study is a qualitative exploration of perspectives and experiences of women regarding maternity services in government health facilities. The point of departure is a Human Rights perspective. A total of 36 semi-structured interviews were held with 17 women, between the age of 31 and 63, supplemented with one focus group discussion of a selection of the interviewed women, in three rural villages and the town centre in Magu District. Data analysis was performed using a coding scheme based on four human rights principles: dignity, autonomy, equality and safety. Women's experiences of maternal health services reflect several sub-standard care factors relating to violations of multiple human rights principles. Women were aware that substandard care was present and described a range of ways how the services could be delivered that would venerate human rights principles. Prominent themes included: 'being treated well and equal', 'being respected' and 'being given the appropriate information and medical treatment'. Women in this rural Tanzanian setting are aware that their experiences of maternity care reflect violations of their basic rights and are able to voice what basic human rights principles mean to them as well as their desired applications in maternal health service provision.

  9. A tool for improving the management of social and human rights risks at project sites: The Human Rights Sphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ploeg, Lidewij; Vanclay, Frank

    2017-01-01

    This paper identifies and addresses the challenges of implementing the corporate responsibility to respect human rights in practice at project sites. To support on-ground operational staff, we offer the Human Rights Sphere (HRS), a practical tool we developed from empirical research in three

  10. A tool for improving the management of social and human rights risks at project sites : The Human Rights Sphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ploeg, Lidewij; Vanclay, Frank

    2017-01-01

    This paper identifies and addresses the challenges of implementing the corporate responsibility to respect human rights in practice at project sites. To support on-ground operational staff, we offer the Human Rights Sphere (HRS), a practical tool we developed from empirical research in three

  11. Human Rights and Their Discontents : Hannah Arendt’s Question and Human Rights Debates in Mao’s China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Wenjun

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the ideas and practice of human rights in Maoist China from 1949 to 1976 both from a philosophical and historical perspectives. It primarily focuses on the relations of human rights to citizenship, state sovereignty and political action in Mao's China on the basis of

  12. Educating Teachers about Human Rights: Building a Rights Based Culture in Australian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burridge, Nina; Chodkiewicz, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    A well-educated active citizenry is the primary aim of our education systems. An essential component of a well-educated citizenry in a civil society is its understanding of the value of human rights and what it means to live with dignity in a community, where rights and freedoms are protected. This paper uses evidence from international and…

  13. The right to family unification : between migration control and human rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, Mark Arnoldus Karel

    2015-01-01

    The central question in this book is whether there is a human right to family unification. This book identifies the key elements of the right to family unification. By investigating different sources of international, European and domestic law, it assesses whether and how the different legal systems

  14. Climate change as a business and human rights issue?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Kristian Høyer

    This paper questions whether human rights are relevant to framing corporate responsibility in regard to climate change. Expanding the holders of human rights duties to also include private actors such as business corporations is becoming widely accepted due to the success of John Ruggie’s UN...... Rights includes business corporations on a par with states as duty-carriers in regard to the issue of climate change (OHCHR 2015), expands business responsibilities beyond the Guiding Principles restriction to ‘respect’. Also, considering recent research revealing that the carbon majors (e.g. Shell, BP...... due to harms caused by climate change. Examples such as these suggest that corporations are increasingly assigned human rights duties related to climate change. Even though the issue of business and human rights is much researched (Buhmann and Wettstein 2017; Wettstein 2009, 2012, 2015; Santoro 2015...

  15. Human rights and correctional health policy: a view from Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogan, Mary

    2017-03-13

    Purpose Correctional healthcare should promote the protection of human rights. The purpose of this paper is to bring a discussion of human rights into debates on how such policy should be best organized. Design/methodology/approach The paper achieves its aim by providing an analysis of European prison law and policy in the area of prison health, through assessing decisions of the European Court of Human Rights, as well as policies created by the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture. Findings The paper describes the position of the European Court of Human Rights on the topics of access to healthcare, ill health and release from prison, mental illness in prison, and the duty to provide rehabilitative programming for those seeking to reduce their level of "risk." It also argues that human rights law can be a source of practical reform, and that legal frameworks have much to offer healthcare leaders seeking to uphold the dignity of those in their care. Originality/value This paper will provide a rare example of the engagement of human rights law with correctional health policy. It provides practical recommendations arising out of an analysis of European human rights law in the area of prisons.

  16. Democracy and human rights: a paradox for migration policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, L B

    1997-01-01

    This article seeks to 1) stimulate debate on the tension between democracy and human rights that arises from the fact that the organizational unit of modern democracy remains the state, which is incompatible with the quest for transnational human rights based on a transcendent human identity, and 2) explore this tension as it is revealed in migration policy in South Africa. The introduction of the article critiques the criticisms offered by contemporary writers as grounds for an overhaul of current migration policy. Next, the article presents an analysis of modern, state-based democracy and of the rise of international human rights, with a focus on the following trends: 1) development of the notion of citizenship resulting from a view of the state as the guarantor but not the progenitor of rights, 2) the growth of human rights traditions in industrialized democracies as judicial activism countered populist and nationalist inclinations of national legislatures, and 3) the growth of an international human rights juridical tradition. The article then highlights the issues raised within the migration policy debate in South Africa since 1994 and examines the 1997 Draft Green Paper on International Migration. It is concluded that, because South Africa fits the general pattern of a receiving state, an overly ambitious human rights approach to immigration will conflict with the exigencies of the new democracy as it builds institutional capacity.

  17. Disability rights, reproductive technology, and parenthood: unrealised opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothler, Roni

    2017-05-01

    The common attitude towards parents with disabilities is suspicious. Whereas usually, people are expected to become parents as part of a natural-social life course, disability and parenthood are conceived as contradicting terms. This is due to negative perceptions regarding the parenting capacity of people with disabilities, and lack of adequate state support for children upbringing. Disability Rights theories portray different approaches, aiming to promote equality, considering the unique life experiences of parents with disabilities. They acknowledge the discrimination that takes place whenever accommodations are denied, and they bring a universal point of view to light. Through the case of Ora Mor-Yosef, a woman with a severe physical disability who initiated the birth of a baby girl, with no genetic connection to her, the article wishes to demonstrate the potential contribution of reproductive technology, combined with legal parenthood developments, and disability studies theories, to the advancement of parenting rights and opportunities for persons with disabilities. Regrettably, Ora's case did not serve as a platform for such promotion. "Social disability obstacles", suspicion, and negative attitudes that still prevail regarding parents with disabilities, have led both the government authorities and the courts to deny Ora's attempt to accommodate reproductive technological processes and become a mother.

  18. Right of Progeny and Cairo Declaration of Human Rights in Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haleema Ashfaq

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The first main objective of Maqasid I Shari`ah is the completion of human’s necessity; in which protection of progeny (nasl is the foremostpurpose. The preservation of lineage is greatly emphasized by the Islamic Shariah and the Cairo declaration of human rights in Islam also supported the protection of lineage in Islam. All the articles of CDHRI covered the five basic human rights mentioned in Maqasid I Shariah. The research is focused on delineating the concept of protection of lineage as one of the main objective of Shariah and it is supported by evidences from Cairo Declaration of Human Rights in Islam along with Quranic verses and traditions of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W. The aspects covered in the paper range from discussion of right of progeny as well as equal rights of progeny for male and female; rights of children with the hierarchy of their rights from the stage of fetus, having proper nursing, caring, education and a healthy beginning of life. The comparative analysis based on arguments of Shariah and the CDHRI proves that it is the basic objective of Shariah to protect all fundamental rights and right of progeny has the foremost significance in it.

  19. The right of all nations to access science, new technologies and sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, Mohammad Reza; Dehshiri, Mohammad Reza

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the need for reflection on the right of developing countries to science and technology in addition to explaining the place of the scientific rights of nations in human rights as a whole. The discussion was conducted in relation to sustainable development. Through the examination of the current situation and the challenges to sustainable development, and taking into account the imbalance in the distribution of the benefits of science and new technologies, the authors advocate a comprehensive approach to promote cooperation and capacity-building in this area. They argue that linkages should be adopted between micro-levels and macro-levels of analysis by elevating rights and related issues from individuals to the national level in the field of the right to science and technology, and from the national to the international level in the field of sustainable development in order to institutionalise and ensure individual and national rights to science, technology and sustainable development. The authors also believe in a multidimensional perspective based on the balanced flourishing of the material and immaterial aspects of humankind in order to realise these rights in the context of dialogue and cultural diversity and to promote the culture of sustainable and dynamic peace based on justice in knowledge societies.

  20. AGAINST A TRAINING FOR AN EDUCATION IN HUMAN RIGHTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Marinho Pimenta

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The theme of Human Rights is now consensual even in the counter-ideologies of the contemporary world. In support of mainly on theory and cultural criticism of slovenian Slavoj Zizek and the marxist theory, from a review of the literature, this article of exploratory nature, aims demonstrate how the Human Rights are today a liberal consensus and ideological very useful for capitalist hegemony of the post-cold war. Perceives the risk of advocating the theme of Human Rights as central to emancipatory education and training for it.

  1. Einstein, social responsibility of physicists and human rights in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Li-Zhi

    2005-03-01

    Since Einstein first visited Shanghai on 1922, he was deeply and constantly concerned about the cases of injustice, suppression, and human rights abuses in China. The strong sense of social responsibility shown by Einstein is an illustrious role model for Chinese intellectual, especially physicists, who advocate the universal principle of human rights. I will briefly review this history. I will also briefly report what have been done and is doing by Chinese physicists in the long and difficult journey toward democracy and human rights of China.

  2. THE RIGHT TO SUTURES: SOCIAL EPIDEMIOLOGY, HUMAN RIGHTS, AND SOCIAL JUSTICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatapuram, Sridhar; Bell, Ruth; Marmot, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The article examines the convergences and contrasts between social epidemiology, social medicine, and human rights approaches toward advancing global health and health equity. The first section describes the goals and work of the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health. The second section discusses the role of human rights in the Commission’s work. The third section evaluates, from the perspective of social epidemiology, two rights-based approaches to advancing health and health equity as compared to a view that focuses more broadly on social justice. The concluding section identifies four areas where social epidemiologists, practitioners of social medicine, and health and human rights advocates can and must work together in order to make progress on health and health equity. PMID:21178186

  3. Identity and the Hegemony of Universal Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Evans

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Human rights are commonly portrayed as a narrative that passes through several chapters before reaching its inevitable conclusion. This narrative begins with the horror of Nazism, moves to the centrality of human rights in the UN Charter, eulogizes the Universal Declaration, celebrates the achievements of standard setting as set out in the major covenants, offers detailed analysis of methods of monitoring and, finally, speculates on the future of compliance. This narrative is sustained, firstly, by ‘naturalist’ foundationalism and, secondly, by a widely held assumptions about the move towards ‘settled norms’ in the contemporary world order. Although some pessimism is voiced over continued reports of torture, genocide, structural economic deprivation, disappearances, ethnic cleansing, political prisoners, the suppression of trade union rights, gender inequality, religious persecution, and many other violations of internationally agreed human rights, most commentators and activists tacitly adopt an optimistic stance that envisages a future rights based international order. The still prevalent naturalist account of human rights, together with a narrative that boasts ‘settled norms’, suggests that the human rights regime represents a final ‘truth’ about the essential nature of all humankind; a common identity that describes the individual in an increasingly globalized world. This paper interrogates the ‘naturalist-settled norm’ account of human rights from the perspective of power and knowledge. It begins by distinguishing between the international human rights regime and the global discourse of human rights. The former adopts a legal approach, where the neutral, value-free, unbiased and impartial nature of the law is tacitly accepted. The latter refers to human rights as social, political and economic practice, and must therefore include an account of power. From this perspective, the discourse of human rights might be said to

  4. Arguments for the Normative Validity of Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Esther Oluffa

    2016-01-01

    The paper highlights clashes between different conceptions of right, law and justice crystalizing in the French Declaration of Human and Civic Rights from 1789 and the criticisms it aroused. Hobbes’ Leviathan (1651) and Rousseau’s Social Contract (1762) are discussed as important predecessors....... The philosophical conceptions of law, justice and right stated by Hobbes and Rousseau and in the Declaration will be discussed in connection with two seminal criticisms. By excluding women from politics, Olympe de Gouge objected, the Declaration contradicted the universal understanding of human rights. Jeremy...

  5. Human Rights and Private Ordering in Virtual Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterbaan, Olivier

    This paper explores the application of human rights in (persistent) virtual world environments. The paper begins with describing a number of elements that most virtual environments share and that are relevant for the application of human rights in such a setting; and by describing in a general nature the application of human rights between private individuals. The paper then continues by discussing the application in virtual environments of two universally recognized human rights, namely freedom of expression, and freedom from discrimination. As these specific rights are discussed, a number of more general conclusions on the application of human rights in virtual environments are drawn. The first general conclusion being that, because virtual worlds are private environments, participants are subject to private ordering. The second general conclusion being that participants and non-participants alike have to accept at times that in-world expressions are to an extent private speech. The third general conclusion is that, where participants represent themselves in-world, other participants cannot assume that such in-world representation share the characteristics of the human player; and that where virtual environments contain game elements, participants and non-participants alike should not take everything that happens in the virtual environment at face value or literally, which does however not amount to having to accept a higher level of infringement on their rights for things that happen in such an environment.

  6. Multinational corporations and infectious disease: Embracing human rights management techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcito, Kendyl; Singer, Burton H; Weiss, Mitchell G; Winkler, Mirko S; Krieger, Gary R; Wielga, Mark; Utzinger, Jürg

    2014-01-01

    Global health institutions have called for governments, international organisations and health practitioners to employ a human rights-based approach to infectious diseases. The motivation for a human rights approach is clear: poverty and inequality create conditions for infectious diseases to thrive, and the diseases, in turn, interact with social-ecological systems to promulgate poverty, inequity and indignity. Governments and intergovernmental organisations should be concerned with the control and elimination of these diseases, as widespread infections delay economic growth and contribute to higher healthcare costs and slower processes for realising universal human rights. These social determinants and economic outcomes associated with infectious diseases should interest multinational companies, partly because they have bearing on corporate productivity and, increasingly, because new global norms impose on companies a responsibility to respect human rights, including the right to health. We reviewed historical and recent developments at the interface of infectious diseases, human rights and multinational corporations. Our investigation was supplemented with field-level insights at corporate capital projects that were developed in areas of high endemicity of infectious diseases, which embraced rights-based disease control strategies. Experience and literature provide a longstanding business case and an emerging social responsibility case for corporations to apply a human rights approach to health programmes at global operations. Indeed, in an increasingly globalised and interconnected world, multinational corporations have an interest, and an important role to play, in advancing rights-based control strategies for infectious diseases. There are new opportunities for governments and international health agencies to enlist corporate business actors in disease control and elimination strategies. Guidance offered by the United Nations in 2011 that is widely embraced

  7. The human right to water: the importance of domestic and productive water rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Ralph P; Van Koppen, Barbara; Van Houweling, Emily

    2014-12-01

    The United Nations (UN) Universal Declaration of Human Rights engenders important state commitments to respect, fulfill, and protect a broad range of socio-economic rights. In 2010, a milestone was reached when the UN General Assembly recognized the human right to safe and clean drinking water and sanitation. However, water plays an important role in realizing other human rights such as the right to food and livelihoods, and in realizing the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. These broader water-related rights have been recognized but have not yet been operationalized. This paper unravels these broader water-related rights in a more holistic interpretation of existing international human rights law. By focusing on an emerging approach to water services provision--known as 'domestic-plus' services--the paper argues how this approach operationalizes a comprehensive range of socio-economic rights in rural and peri-urban areas. Domestic-plus services provide water for domestic and productive uses around homesteads, which challenges the widespread practice in the public sector of planning and designing water infrastructure for a single-use. Evidence is presented to show that people in rural communities are already using their water supplies planned for domestic uses to support a wide range of productive activities. Domestic-plus services recognize and plan for these multiple-uses, while respecting the priority for clean and safe drinking water. The paper concludes that domestic-plus services operationalize the obligation to progressively fulfill a comprehensive range of indivisible socio-economic rights in rural and peri-urban areas.

  8. Human rights human efforts: an inquiry into the dialectics of idea and project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de

    1998-01-01

    Paul de Waart's latest book, entitled Human Rights Human Efforts (Mensenrechten Mensenwerk), provides an impressive account of human rights in an international law context. It gives a rich insight in backgrounds, formulations and definitions, mechanisms and procedures of the human rights project

  9. Protection of asylum seekers and illegal migrants human rights: Practice of the European Court of Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đukanović Anđela

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Protection of asylum seeker and Illegal migrants human rights, has often been difficult due to the need of states to regulate unwanted migration flows. European Court of Human Rights plays an important role in protecting the rights of these individuals, through a set of human rights. Requests for interim measures under Rule 39 of the Rules of Court also have great importance. In cases involving illegal migrants and asylum-seekers, Court was often in difficult position, given the contradictions that could arise from the protection of human rights and the legitimate aim of the Contracting States to control the entry, residence and expulsion of aliens. Recent Courts judgment in case of M. S. S. against Belgium is particularly important, because of its remarkable influence on the perception of a common asylum system in the EU, as well as the judgment in the case of Jama Hirsi and Others v. Italy.

  10. Universal System of Human Rights Protection: analysis of the reports of the Human Rights Committee in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Giovanna Añaños Bedriñana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to know the structures and the functioning of the universal system of human rights protection and to analyze the different types of violation of human rights in Latin America region, reflected in the Reports of the Human Rights Committee of the United Nations. These Reports expose the progresses and difficulties in the application of the International Convention on Civil and Political Rights by states, in further violation of human rights become visible. These are observed, in general, in the case of women, penitentiary conditions of the prisoners, fragile groups, impunity of those responsible, and so on, likewise a specific analysis is done in some countries additional questions. In summary, it is attempted to issue a series of suggestions and recommendations with the purpose to improve the application of the Covenant and to provide the basis for Peace Research, whose benefits will impact on the whole society and the citizens of these countries.

  11. Human Rights and Military Conduct: A Progress Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vickers, George

    2000-01-01

    .... Human rights concerns have been particularly salient in the Western Hemisphere, where military dictatorships overthrew civilian regimes in much of the Southern Cone and Andes in the 1960s and 1970s, and where U.S...

  12. Reconciling female genital circumcision with universal human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John-Stewart

    2017-09-18

    One of the most challenging issues in cross-cultural bioethics concerns the long-standing socio-cultural practice of female genital circumcision (FGC), which is prevalent in many African countries and the Middle East as well as in some Asian and Western countries. It is commonly assumed that FGC, in all its versions, constitutes a gross violation of the universal human rights of health, physical integrity, and individual autonomy and hence should be abolished. This article, however, suggests a mediating approach according to which one form of FGC, the removal of the clitoris foreskin, can be made compatible with the high demands of universal human rights. The argument presupposes the idea that human rights are not absolutist by nature but can be framed in a meaningful, culturally sensitive way. It proposes important limiting conditions that must be met for the practice of FGC to be considered in accordance with the human rights agenda. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Comment: The Normative Framework of the African Human Rights ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    political landscape of the continent. The protection of minorities is without doubt crucial to securing sustainable peace, economic development as well as protection and enforcement of human rights. Even though domestic mechanisms of ...

  14. An urgent issue of public health and human rights

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Carballo

    2007-01-01

    Although sexual violence permeates most societies, especially in situations of social disruption, it is an area of public health and human rights where we can collectively already do a great deal and show results quickly.

  15. Disaster risk mitigation – why human rights matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Kälin

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Existing human rights obligations already require states totake measures to mitigate the risks of natural or man-madedisasters – including those due to climate change – and thusto prevent displacement.

  16. Brazilian Human Rights Policy Strategy in the First Lula Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington Lourenço de Almeida

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the political consequences of the general strategy that guided key federal human rights programs from 2003-2006. The first part of the text discusses issues considered to be central for a consideration of the trajectory of human rights in Brazil, beginning with the authoritarian regime (1964-1985. The objective is to locate the victories and defeats that marked attempts to affirm more advanced standards of promotion and protection of human rights in Brazilian society. The second portion analyzes the promotion of this agenda in the first government of President Luís Inácio Lula da Silva. The sources used were official government documents, texts organized by specific segments of civil society and academic articles. In conclusion, it presents the main impasses of this agenda and the criticisms of the economist visions that weaken the integrated concept of human rights that guide the essay.

  17. Noncommunicable diseases and human rights: a promising synergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruskin, Sofia; Ferguson, Laura; Tarantola, Daniel; Beaglehole, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) have finally emerged onto the global health and development agenda. Despite the increasingly important role human rights play in other areas of global health, their contribution to NCD prevention and control remains nascent. The recently adopted Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of NCDs 2013-2020 is an important step forward, but the lack of concrete attention to human rights is a missed opportunity. With practical implications for policy development, priority setting, and strategic design, human rights offer a logical, robust set of norms and standards; define the legal obligations of governments; and provide accountability mechanisms that can be used to enhance current approaches to NCD prevention and control. Harnessing the power of human rights can strengthen action for NCDs at the local, national, and global levels.

  18. Brave New World of human-rights DNA collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joyce; Katsanis, Sara H

    2013-06-01

    Noncriminal DNA databases may serve a societal role in identifying victims of crime and human trafficking. However, how do we safeguard personal privacy of innocent victims and family members? Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A Human Rights Perspective on Immigration, Emigration, and Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Ranjit S.

    1984-01-01

    Presents a general discussion of migration from the perspective of human rights. Focuses on refugees; women, children, and the aged; freedom to migrate; internal migration; and refugees in Canada. (KH)

  20. THE COMMUNICATION IN THE SPEECH OF THE HUMAN RIGHTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimunda Aline Lucena Gomes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, it is analyzed how communication inscribes itself in the Human Rights' speech. For this purpose, it brings a study on international normative texts, focusing on communication approach. It will be worked extracts from the Universal Declaration of the Human Rights (1948 and from the final document of the Conference of Vienna (1993, related to the international plan of global scope; and the American Convention on Human Rights – Pact of San Jose, Costa Rica (1969, in the international plan of inter-American regional scope. The theoretical support for the analysis will be the theories of Mikhail Bakhtin on language, dialogical communication and speech. As a result, it intends to understand the communication concept for the Human Rights.